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Sample records for hla-b27 transgenic rat

  1. Lactobacillus GG prevents recurrence of colitis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats after antibiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dieleman, L. A.; Goerres, M. S.; Arends, A.; Sprengers, D.; Torrice, C.; Hoentjen, F.; Grenther, W. B.; Sartor, R. B.

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims: Bacteroides vulgatus induces colitis in gnotobiotic HLA-B27 transgenic (TG) rats while broad spectrum antibiotics prevent and treat colitis in specific pathogen free (SPF) TG rats although disease recurs after treatment ends. Lactobacilli treat human pouchitis and experimental colitis. We investigated if Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L GG) can prevent colitis in TG rats monoassociated with B vulgatus and if L GG or Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (LP 299v) can treat establishe...

  2. Chemically Defined Diet Alters the Protective Properties of Fructo-Oligosaccharides and Isomalto-Oligosaccharides in HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva, Petya; Ketabi, Ali; Valcheva, Rosica; Gänzle, Michael G.; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2014-01-01

    Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) were shown to reduce inflammation in experimental colitis, but it remains unclear whether microbiota changes mediate their colitis-modulating effects. This study assessed intestinal microbiota and intestinal inflammation after feeding chemically defined AIN-76A or rat chow diets, with or without supplementation with 8 g/kg body weight of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO). The study used HLA-B27 transgenic rats, a validated m...

  3. Spontaneous inflammatory arthritis in HLA-B27 transgenic mice lacking beta 2-microglobulin: a model of human spondyloarthropathies

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Human class I major histocompatibility complex allele HLA-B27 is associated with a group of human diseases called "spondyloarthropathies." Studies on transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and human beta 2-microglobulin have confirmed the role of HLA-B27 in disease pathogenesis. Here we report spontaneous inflammatory arthritis in HLA-B27 transgenic mice lacking beta 2-microglobulin (B27+ beta 2m-/- ). In the absence of beta 2-microglobulin, B27+ beta 2m-/- animals do not express the HLA-B27 tran...

  4. Inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides have divergent effects on colitis and commensal microbiota in HLA-B27 transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Petya T; Valcheva, Rosica S; Sun, Xu; Gänzle, Michael G; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2012-11-14

    Modulation of intestinal microbiota by non-digestible carbohydrates may reduce inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on intestinal microbiota and colitis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats, a well-validated rodent model for IBD. In this study, 4-week-old rats were fed 8 g/kg body weight inulin or FOS for 12 weeks, or not. Faeces were collected at 4 and 16 weeks of age; and caecal samples were collected at necropsy. The effects of inulin and FOS on chronic intestinal inflammation were assessed using a gross gut score, histology score and levels of mucosal IL-1?. Intestinal microbiota were characterised by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Colitis was significantly reduced in all FOS-fed rats compared to the control diet, whereas inulin decreased chronic intestinal inflammation in only half the number of animals. Quantitative analysis of caecal microbiota demonstrated that inulin increased the numbers of total bacteria and the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, FOS increased bifidobacteria, and both fructans decreased Clostridium cluster XI. In the faecal samples, both inulin and FOS decreased total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, and Clostridium clusters XI and XIVa. FOS increased Bifidobacterium spp., and mediated a decrease of gene copies of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium difficile toxin B in faeces. SCFA concentrations in the faecal and caecal samples were unaffected by the diets. In conclusion, FOS increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp., whereas both fructans reduced Clostridium cluster XI and C. difficile toxin gene expression, correlating with a reduction of chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:22243836

  5. Chemically defined diet alters the protective properties of fructo-oligosaccharides and isomalto-oligosaccharides in HLA-B27 transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Petya; Ketabi, Ali; Valcheva, Rosica; Gänzle, Michael G; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2014-01-01

    Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) were shown to reduce inflammation in experimental colitis, but it remains unclear whether microbiota changes mediate their colitis-modulating effects. This study assessed intestinal microbiota and intestinal inflammation after feeding chemically defined AIN-76A or rat chow diets, with or without supplementation with 8 g/kg body weight of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO). The study used HLA-B27 transgenic rats, a validated model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in a factorial design with 6 treatment groups. Intestinal inflammation and intestinal microbiota were analysed after 12 weeks of treatment. FOS and IMO reduced colitis in animals fed rat chow, but exhibited no anti-inflammatory effect when added to AIN-76A diets. Both NDO induced specific but divergent microbiota changes. Bifidobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were stimulated by FOS, whereas copy numbers of Clostridium cluster IV were decreased. In addition, higher concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were observed in cecal contents of rats on rat chow compared to the chemically defined diet. AIN-76A increased the relative proportions of propionate, iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate irrespective of the oligosaccharide treatment. The SCFA composition, particularly the relative concentration of iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate, was associated (P ? 0.004 and r ? 0.4) with increased colitis and IL-1 ? concentration of the cecal mucosa. This study demonstrated that the protective effects of fibres on colitis development depend on the diet. Although diets modified specific cecal microbiota, our study indicates that these changes were not associated with colitis reduction. Intestinal inflammation was positively correlated to protein fermentation and negatively correlated with carbohydrate fermentation in the large intestine. PMID:25369019

  6. HLA-B27 rats develop osteopaenia through increased bone resorption without any change in bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papet, I; El Yousfi, M; Godin, J P; Mermoud, A F; Davicco, M J; Coxam, V; Breuille, D; Obled, C

    2008-01-01

    Osteopaenia is a common complication of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the mechanisms of bone loss are still the subject of debate. The aims of this study were to investigate bone loss in HLA-B27 transgenic rats, a spontaneous model of colitis and to compare the results provided by the usual markers of bone remodelling and by direct measurement of bone protein synthesis. Systemic inflammation was evaluated in HLA-B27 rats and control rats from 18 to 27 months of age. Then bone mineral density, femoral failure load, biochemical markers of bone remodelling and protein synthesis in tibial epiphysis were measured. Bone mineral density was lower in HLA-B27 rats than in controls. Plasma osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation, and fractional protein synthesis rate in tibial epiphysis did not differ between the two groups of rats. In contrast, urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline, a marker of bone resorption, was significantly increased in HLA-B27 rats. The present results indicate that bone fragility occurs in HLA-B27 rats and mainly results from an increase in bone resorption. Systemic inflammation may be the major cause of the disruption in bone remodelling homeostasis observed in this experimental model of human IBD. PMID:18799858

  7. Increased tissue protein synthesis during spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease in HLA-B27 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yousfi, Mimoun; Breuillé, Denis; Papet, Isabelle; Blum, Stéphanie; André, Marc; Mosoni, Laurent; Denis, Philippe; Buffière, Caroline; Obled, Christiane

    2003-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are associated with an increased whole-body protein turnover. In certain drug-induced experimental models of IBD, disturbances of protein synthesis in tissues have been reported recently, but it is unclear if similar disturbances occur in other chronic intestinal diseases. Therefore we investigated changes in protein synthesis in different tissues of HLA-B27 (human leucocyte antigen B27) transgenic rats that develop spontaneously chronic inflammation, with major involvement of the colon. Protein synthesis rate in HLA-B27 rats was shown to be higher in nine different tissues compared with control (Fisher 344) rats. The absolute rate of protein synthesis was highly stimulated at the main inflammatory site (+290% in the colon). However, liver, muscle and skin appeared to be major contributors to the increased protein synthesis observed at the whole-body level. Despite the increased protein synthesis, HLA-B27 rats presented a marked atrophy of muscles, which suggests an increased proteolysis. These results contrast with metabolic disturbances described in acute inflammation and colitis induced by drugs (i.e. dextran sodium sulphate). The present study suggests that the modifications of protein metabolism are strongly influenced by the type of the inflammatory diseases and thus by the underlying mechanisms, which result in different metabolic adaptations and specific nutritional requirements. PMID:12793856

  8. HLA B27 y las espondilartropatías seronegativas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Modesto, González Cortiñas; Lourdes, Faurés Vergara; Ricardo, Rodríguez Viera; Jesús, Gómez Arbesú.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el tipaje serológico para el antígeno HLA B27 a 19 pacientes con espondilartropatías seronegativas para conocer su relación y, de ellos, 6 resultaron positivos; 94 individuos sanos conformaron el grupo control y en 4 se encontró el antígeno. Los resultados expuestos sugieren la presencia [...] de genes adicionales al B27 en los pacientes con este grupo de enfermedades. Abstract in english The serologic typing of HLA B27 antigen was perfomed in 19 patients presenting with seronegative spondyloarthropathies in order to know its relationship. Of them 6 patients were found to be positive; 94 healthy subjects were inclkuded in the control group and 4 presented with the antigen. Results re [...] ported suggest the presence of additional genes to B27 in patients presenting with this group of diseases.

  9. HLA B27 y las espondilartropatías seronegativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto González Cortiñas

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el tipaje serológico para el antígeno HLA B27 a 19 pacientes con espondilartropatías seronegativas para conocer su relación y, de ellos, 6 resultaron positivos; 94 individuos sanos conformaron el grupo control y en 4 se encontró el antígeno. Los resultados expuestos sugieren la presencia de genes adicionales al B27 en los pacientes con este grupo de enfermedades.The serologic typing of HLA B27 antigen was perfomed in 19 patients presenting with seronegative spondyloarthropathies in order to know its relationship. Of them 6 patients were found to be positive; 94 healthy subjects were inclkuded in the control group and 4 presented with the antigen. Results reported suggest the presence of additional genes to B27 in patients presenting with this group of diseases.

  10. Panuveíte em artrite indiferenciada HLA-B27 positiva Panuveitis in HLA-B27 positive undifferentiated arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Ferreira Santos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre os vários tipos de inflamação ocular associados às doenças reumatológicas, a uveíte anterior é particularmente comum nas espondiloartropatias, em especial quando associada à presença do genótipo HLA-B27. Relatou-se o caso de um paciente com artrite indiferenciada HLA-B27 positivo, complicado com panuveíte e vasculite da retina, refratária ao tratamento imunossupressor tradicional, que obteve boa resposta clínica ao uso de anti-TNF-alfa.Among the several types of ocular inflammation associated to the rheumatic diseases, anterior uveitis is particularly common in the spondyloarthropathies, especially when associated to the presence of the HLA-B27 genotype. We report the case of HLA-B27 positive patient with undifferentiated arthritis, complicated with panuveitis and retinal vasculitis, that was refractory to the traditional imunossupressive treatment, and had a good clinical response with anti-TNF-alpha therapy.

  11. Arthrite rhumatoïde juvénile et HLA-B27.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathon, G.; Pare?, C.; Me?nard, H.; Te?treault, L.; Camerlain, M.

    1980-01-01

    Forty children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis were studied to determine the frequency of the histocompatibility antigen HLA [human leukocyte antigen)-B27 in this disease and to characterize the arthropathy associated with this antigen. HLA-B27 was detected in four patients (10%). Its presence was associated in a statistically significant manner with sacroiliitis demonstrated radiologically and with a greater age at the time symptoms in the joints first appeared; this age was, on average, ...

  12. Ankylosing spondylitis and HLA-B27: restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing of an HLA-B27 allele from a patient with ankylosing spondylitis.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Two groups of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) from England and Poland were examined for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) associated with the disease. No preferential association was found between the 9.2 kb PvuII fragment in HLA-B27 positive patients with AS compared with HLA-B27 healthy subjects as had been previously reported. In the English group, however, a 14 kb PvuII fragment was more common in HLA-B27 positive subjects with AS than in normal controls. Also 4....

  13. HLA-B27 frequency in a group of patients with psoriatic arthritis / Freqüência de HLA-B27 em uma amostra de pacientes com artrite psoriática

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danilo Garcia, Ruiz; Mário Newton Leitão de, Azevedo; Omar, Lupi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O HLA-B27 está associado às espondiloartrites, grupo de doenças que engloba, entre outras, a artrite psoriásica. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a freqüência de HLA-B27 em uma amostra de pacientes brasileiros com artrite psoriásica e correlacionar sua presença ou ausência com as manifestações clín [...] icas dos mesmos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliando 44 pacientes com artrite psoriásica de um ambulatório de Reumatologia. A avaliação consistia em registro de informações demográficas e sociais, exame clínico da pele e das articulações e pesquisa de HLA-B27. Os dados gerados foram tratados por meio de estatística descritiva e comparativa em Software apropriado. Foram utilizados testes paramétricos e não-paramétricos com significância estatística de 5%. RESULTADOS: O HLA-B27 resultou negativo em 32 dos 44 pacientes estudados (72,7%). A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino, da raça branca, procedente do Rio de Janeiro, portador de psoríase em placas e com idade média de 52,9 anos. Houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre o HLA-B27 positivo e o sexo masculino (p=0,004). O HLA-B27 negativo teve tendência à correlação com artrite de mãos e punhos (p=0,07). Houve correlação inversa significativa entre os valores do HLA e do teste de Schöber (p=0,02). CONCLUSÃO: Apesar do HLA-B27 ser negativo na maioria dos pacientes estudados, esteve significativamente associado ao sexo masculino e inversamente correlacionado ao teste de Schöber. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: HLA-B27 is associated with spondyloarthritis, a group of diseases that includes psoriatic arthritis. OBJECTIVES: To describe the HLA-B27 frequency in a group of Brazilian patients with psoriatic arthritis and correlate its presence or absence with their clinical manifestations. METHODS: [...] Cross-sectional study with 44 psoriatic arthritis patients of a Rheumatology clinic. Demographic and social data were recorded, as were skin and joints clinical examination. HLA-B27 was tested. All data were processed descriptively and comparatively by appropriate software. Parametric and non parametric tests were used with 5% statistical significance. RESULTS: HLA-B27 was negative in 32 of the 44 patients (72,7%). Most of them were male, Caucasian, living in Rio de Janeiro, with plaque type psoriasis and average age of 52,9 years. There was statistical significant correlation between positive HLA-B27 and male gender (p=0,004). Negative HLA-B27 had a tendency to correlate with hands and wrists arthritis (p=0,07). There was an inverse significant correlation between HLA values and Schöber's test (p=0,02). CONCLUSION: Although HLA-B27 is negative in most of patients, it is significantly associated to male gender and inversely correlated with Schöber's test.

  14. Functional Interaction of the Ankylosing Spondylitis-associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 1 Polymorphism and HLA-B27 in Vivo*

    OpenAIRE

    Garci?a-medel, Noel; Sanz-bravo, Alejandro; Nguyen, Dung; Galocha, Begon?a; Go?mez-molina, Patricia; Marti?n-esteban, Adria?n; Alvarez-navarro, Carlos; Castro, Jose? A. Lo?pez

    2012-01-01

    The association of ERAP1 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS)1 among HLA-B27-positive individuals suggests that ERAP1 polymorphism may affect pathogenesis by altering peptide-dependent features of the HLA-B27 molecule. Comparisons of HLA-B*27:04-bound peptidomes from cells expressing different natural variants of ERAP1 revealed significant differences in the size, length, and amount of many ligands, as well as in HLA-B27 stability. Peptide analyses suggested that the mechanism of ERAP1/HLA-B27 in...

  15. An update on the genetics of HLA-B27 associated acute anterior uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Tammy M; Rosenbaum, James T.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of the association of HLA B27 with spondyloarthropathy led to more questions than answers about the role of this gene in disease susceptibility. The realization that HLA B27 was not responsible for all of the genetic effect helped to lay a foundation for further investigation into the genetics of uveitis. Over several decades, genetic findings have provided clues to advance the understanding of mechanisms of uveitis and to catalyze new research on diagnostics, animal models and ...

  16. The radiographic features of rheumatoid arthritis in HLA-B27-positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographs were reviewed in a group of nine patients with classical seropositive rheumatoid arthritis who on tissue typing were found to express the class I HLA-B27 allele. Radiographs were analyzed with regard to whether or not they demonstrated radiographic features of (1) classical rheumatoid arthritis, (2) seronegative arthritis, or (3) mixed features of rheumatoid and seronegative arthritis. Five patients (55%) displayed radiographic features consistent with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, two patients (22%) showed radiographic features of seronegative disorder (periostitis and sacroiliitis), and two patients (22%) showed a mixed picture with evidence of both rheumatoid arthritis and a seronegative disorder. Thus, the HLA-B27 allele contributed to the radiographic features in 44% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and associated HLA-B27. Thus, the wide range of findings in our population indicates that the radiographic attributes are not specific enough to constitute a unique subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  17. Genética, HLA-B27 y espondilitis anquilosante: 40 años / Genetics of ankylosing spondylitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Castro-Santos; Miguel A, Gutiérrez; Roberto, Díaz-Peña.

    1165-11-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a prototypical inflammatory disease of the locomotor system affecting axial skeleton. It is part of the general group of spondyloarthopathies (SpA). Its strong association with histocompatibility antigen HLA-B27 is known since 1973. However, HLA-B27 contribution to AS [...] genetic risk is approximately 16%. Therefore, other genes are necessarily involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genomic development and the possibility of making genome wide screening have contributed enormously to the study of the disease. In this paper, we describe the actual knowledge about AS genetic risk, which has contributed to understand the influence of HLA-B27 on the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. We also intend to foresee how these findings will result in an improvement of patients’ quality of life.

  18. HLA-B27 (antigen in retroperitoneal fibrosis in a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yazdani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare disease of undetermined aetiology. It is important to distinguish this entity from retroperitoneal fibrosis secondary to malignancy or specific inflammatory disease. There have been no prior means of excluding this condition without surgical exploration and histopathologic study of the excised tissue. A genetic predisposition is suggested for the development of idiopathic primary retroperitoneal fibrosis in patients who are HLA-B27 antigen positive. In this study we present three cases of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis in a family (2 brothers and their grandfather. The presence of HLA-B27 antigen positivity was identified in two of them.

  19. Punctate palmoplantar keratoderma associated with morbus Bechterew and HLA B 27. A family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamborg Nielsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Four patients in a family with punctate palmoplantar keratoderma (Buschke-Fischer) associated with Morbus Bechterew and HLA B 27 in 3 of the family members are reported. Without severe side effect, the proband was successfully treated with 50 mg etretinate per day for 6 weeks. PMID:2459882

  20. Interaction of HLA-B27 homodimers with KIR3DL1 and KIR3DL2, unlike HLA-B27 heterotrimers, is independent of the sequence of bound peptide.

    OpenAIRE

    Kollnberger, S.; Chan, A.; Sun, My; Chen, Ly; Wright, C.; Di Gleria, K.; Mcmichael, A.; Bowness, P.

    2007-01-01

    HLA-B27 can form beta-2 microglobulin (beta2m)-associated heterotrimers (HLA-B27) and beta2m-free homodimers (B27(2)). Here, we study the role of complexed peptide in the interaction of these forms of B27 with the killer cell immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptors KIR3DL1 and KIR3DL2 and with Ig-like transcripts LILRB1 and LILRB2. HLA-B27 tetramers complexed with three of five different naturally processed self peptides and three of seven pathogen-derived epitopes bound to KIR3DL1-expressing tran...

  1. Covalent HLA-B27/peptide complex induced by specific recognition of an aziridine mimic of arginine.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, G.A.; Valentekovich, R J; Collins, E J; Garboczi, D N; Lane, W.S.; Schreiber, S L; Wiley, D C

    1996-01-01

    The class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) glycoprotein HLA-B27 binds short peptides containing arginine at peptide position 2 (P2). The HLA-B27/peptide complex is recognized by T cells both as part of the development of the repertoire of T cells in the cellular immune system and during activation of cytotoxic T cells. Based on the three-dimensional structure of HLA-B27, we have synthesized a ligand with an aziridine-containing side chain designed to mimic arginine and to bind covalen...

  2. Interaction between ERAP1 and HLA-B27 in ankylosing spondylitis implicates peptide handling in the mechanism for HLA-B27 in disease susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David M; Spencer, Chris C A; Pointon, Jennifer J; Su, Zhan; Harvey, David; Kochan, Grazyna; Oppermann, Udo; Dilthey, Alexander; Pirinen, Matti; Stone, Millicent A; Appleton, Louise; Moutsianas, Loukas; Leslie, Stephen; Wordsworth, Tom; Kenna, Tony J; Karaderi, Tugce; Thomas, Gethin P; Ward, Michael M; Weisman, Michael H; Farrar, Claire; Bradbury, Linda A; Danoy, Patrick; Inman, Robert D; Maksymowych, Walter; Gladman, Dafna; Rahman, Proton; Morgan, Ann; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Bowness, Paul; Gaffney, Karl; Gaston, J S Hill; Smith, Malcolm; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Couto, Ana-Rita; Sorrentino, Rosa; Paladini, Fabiana; Ferreira, Manuel A; Xu, Huji; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Lei; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos; Díaz-Peña, Roberto; López-Vázquez, Antonio; Zayats, Tetyana; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Blackburn, Hannah; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Craddock, Nicholas; Deloukas, Panos; Dronov, Serge; Duncanson, Audrey; Edkins, Sarah; Freeman, Colin; Gillman, Matthew; Gray, Emma; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hammond, Naomi; Hunt, Sarah E; Jankowski, Janusz; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; Langford, Cordelia; Liddle, Jennifer; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; McCann, Owen T; McCarthy, Mark I; Palmer, Colin N A; Peltonen, Leena; Plomin, Robert; Potter, Simon C; Rautanen, Anna; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Samani, Nilesh; Sawcer, Stephen J; Strange, Amy; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Whittaker, Pamela; Widaa, Sara; Wood, Nicholas W; McVean, Gilean; Reveille, John D; Wordsworth, B Paul; Brown, Matthew A; Donnelly, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a common form of inflammatory arthritis predominantly affecting the spine and pelvis that occurs in approximately 5 out of 1,000 adults of European descent. Here we report the identification of three variants in the RUNX3, LTBRTNFRSF1A and IL12B regions convincingly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (P < 5 × 10?8 in the combined discovery and replication datasets) and a further four loci at PTGER4, TBKBP1, ANTXR2 and CARD9 that show strong association across all our datasets (P < 5 × 10?6 overall, with support in each of the three datasets studied). We also show that polymorphisms of ERAP1, which encodes an endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase involved in peptide trimming before HLA class I presentation, only affect ankylosing spondylitis risk in HLA-B27–positive individuals. These findings provide strong evidence that HLA-B27 operates in ankylosing spondylitis through a mechanism involving aberrant processing of antigenic peptides. PMID:21743469

  3. Interaction between ERAP1 and HLA-B27 in ankylosing spondylitis implicates peptide handling in the mechanism for HLA-B27 in disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David M; Spencer, Chris C A; Pointon, Jennifer J; Su, Zhan; Harvey, David; Kochan, Grazyna; Oppermann, Udo; Opperman, Udo; Dilthey, Alexander; Pirinen, Matti; Stone, Millicent A; Appleton, Louise; Moutsianas, Loukas; Moutsianis, Loukas; Leslie, Stephen; Wordsworth, Tom; Kenna, Tony J; Karaderi, Tugce; Thomas, Gethin P; Ward, Michael M; Weisman, Michael H; Farrar, Claire; Bradbury, Linda A; Danoy, Patrick; Inman, Robert D; Maksymowych, Walter; Gladman, Dafna; Rahman, Proton; Morgan, Ann; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Bowness, Paul; Gaffney, Karl; Gaston, J S Hill; Smith, Malcolm; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Couto, Ana-Rita; Sorrentino, Rosa; Paladini, Fabiana; Ferreira, Manuel A; Xu, Huji; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Lei; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos; Díaz-Peña, Roberto; López-Vázquez, Antonio; Zayats, Tetyana; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Blackburn, Hannah; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Craddock, Nicholas; Deloukas, Panos; Dronov, Serge; Duncanson, Audrey; Edkins, Sarah; Freeman, Colin; Gillman, Matthew; Gray, Emma; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hammond, Naomi; Hunt, Sarah E; Jankowski, Janusz; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; Langford, Cordelia; Liddle, Jennifer; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; McCann, Owen T; McCarthy, Mark I; Palmer, Colin N A; Peltonen, Leena; Plomin, Robert; Potter, Simon C; Rautanen, Anna; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Samani, Nilesh; Sawcer, Stephen J; Strange, Amy; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Whittaker, Pamela; Widaa, Sara; Wood, Nicholas W; McVean, Gilean; Reveille, John D; Wordsworth, B Paul; Brown, Matthew A; Donnelly, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a common form of inflammatory arthritis predominantly affecting the spine and pelvis that occurs in approximately 5 out of 1,000 adults of European descent. Here we report the identification of three variants in the RUNX3, LTBR-TNFRSF1A and IL12B regions convincingly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (P < 5 × 10(-8) in the combined discovery and replication datasets) and a further four loci at PTGER4, TBKBP1, ANTXR2 and CARD9 that show strong association across all our datasets (P < 5 × 10(-6) overall, with support in each of the three datasets studied). We also show that polymorphisms of ERAP1, which encodes an endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase involved in peptide trimming before HLA class I presentation, only affect ankylosing spondylitis risk in HLA-B27-positive individuals. These findings provide strong evidence that HLA-B27 operates in ankylosing spondylitis through a mechanism involving aberrant processing of antigenic peptides. PMID:21743469

  4. Antinuclear antibody and HLA-B27 positive uveitis: combination of two diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch-Driessen, E.H.; Lardy, NM; Rothova, A.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Anterior uveitis associated with juvenile chronic arthritis concerns two different clinical entities: firstly, antinuclear antibody (ANA) positive patients who have a chronic anterior uveitis with severe complications and often a poor visual prognosis; secondly, usually HLA-B27 positive children, predominantly boys, with unilateral recurrent anterior uveitis. Three patients are described who had a combination of clinical and laboratory features of both diseases.?METHODS—...

  5. Allicin attenuates inflammation and suppresses HLA-B27 protein expression in ankylosing spondylitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xin; Wu, Haishan; Fu, Peiliang

    2013-01-01

    Here we aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of allicin on ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and explore the mechanism(s) of action. AS mouse model was constructed by transferring the HLA-B2704 gene into Kunming mice and verified by RT-PCR and CT imaging. Verified AS mice were randomly divided into model group (n = 6) and allicin-treated groups (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, resp., n = 6, p.o., for 2 months). Wild type mice were used as control (n = 6). The levels of AS-related inflammatory factors were measured by ELISA. mRNA and protein expressions of HLA-B27 were checked by RT-PCR and western blotting. As the results, the mouse model of AS was successfully established, and high-dose allicin could markedly alleviate spine inflammatory injury possibly via reducing the secretion of the inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF- ? ) sharply in AS mice. Moreover, allicin significantly inhibited HLA-B27 protein translation but failed to suppress HLA-B27 gene transcription in AS mice, indicating a posttranscriptional mechanism of this modulation. In conclusion, allicin has potential to be used for AS treatment as an anti-inflammatory nutraceutical. PMID:24324956

  6. HLA-B27 predicts a more extended disease with increasing age at onset in boys with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntson, Lillemor; Damgård, Michael

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous condition with very few clinical and laboratory signs that can help predict the course and severity of the disease in the individual patient. The cell-surface antigen HLA-B27 is well known to be associated with spondyloarthropathies, reactive arthritis, and enthesitis. HLA-B27 plays an important role in the classification of JIA, since evidence of sacroiliitis most often evolves after years of arthritis in other joints. We investigated the associations of HLA-B27 and the clinical manifestations of JIA using a method as close to a population-based study as possible. METHODS: We studied an incidence-based cohort of 305 patients collected prospectively in 3 Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark). Clinical and serological data of the first 3 years of the disease were collected. RESULTS: HLA-B27 was found to be positive in 25.5% of the patients, and we found a higher proportion of HLA-B27-positive boys with older age at disease onset (p=0.034). Regression analysis showed a correlation of 0.7 in the HLA-B27-positive boys, pointing to a higher risk of more joint involvement with older age at disease onset. By Fisher's exact test, involvement of small joints in the lower extremities was associated with HLA-B27 in boys (p=0.011), but not in girls (p=0.687). HLA-B27 was associated with inflammatory back pain in both sexes (p=0.041 in boys, p=0.042 in girls), but with enthesitis only in boys (p<0.001 in boys, p=0.708 in girls). CONCLUSION: HLA-B27 is of increasing importance with older age at disease onset in boys with JIA, predicting more active joints within the first 3 years of disease, and also involving small joints in the lower extremity to a greater degree than in HLA-B27-negative boys. During the first 3 years of disease the occurrence of HLA-B27 is associated with inflammatory back pain in both sexes, but with enthesitis only in boys. Our data present new challenges for the ILAR classification of JIA Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10

  7. Bilateral macular thickening in mild unilateral anterior uveitis: is HLA-B27 involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wexler Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macular thickening (MT without clinically recognized macular edema has been described in anterior uveitis (AU. Although fellow-eyes of patients have been used as controls in several studies, little is known about macular thickness in these eyes. We studied the rate and extent of MT in both AU-affected and quiescent fellow-eyes of phakic AU patients with good visual acuity (VA. We also assessed macular thickness related to HLA-B27 presence and to recurrence, since these issues have been almost unexplored by previous optical coherence tomography (OCT studies. Methods Patients with AU were prospectively included and macular thickness was measured with OCT initially and on follow up. Macular thickness in patients’ affected eyes (n?=?30 as well as in their quiet fellow-eyes (n?=?28 was compared with eyes of age- and gender matched controls. Inter-ocular differences in macular thickness between AU affected eyes and their fellow-eyes were assessed in patients (n?=?28, also in a subgroup with visual acuity???0.8 (n?=?23 by one-sample Student’s?t-tests. Inter-ocular differences were also assessed related to HLA-B27 presence and related to the status of current AU episode (initial or relapse. Results Subclinical MT is present in both quiet fellow-eyes and AU-affected eyes of patients. MT was found in most cases of AU, even in phakic eyes with good VA. There was a larger increase in macular thickness in HLA-B27-positive than in HLA-B27-negative patients. No differences in macular thickness were found between patients with their first AU episode and patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusions MT probably reflects systemic immune-mediated response to the inflammatory disorder in AU, and it is possible that HLA-B27-related factors are involved in the pathogenesis of AU. These observations are in line with and extend the current understanding of the mechanisms behind MT in AU.

  8. A comparison of self-reported joint symptoms following infection with different enteric pathogens: effect of HLA-B27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiellerup, P.; Krogfelt, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We conducted a case-case comparison study to estimate the attack-rate of reactive joint pain (JPrea) following intestinal infections, and evaluated whether the susceptibility and severity of joint symptoms was associated with the tissue-type HLA-B27. METHODS: Consecutive patients with positive fecal culture for Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and E. coli were addressed by questionnaires inquiring about gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the occurrence of joint pain in a previously healthy joint within 4 weeks after onset of infection. A blood sample was requested for HLA-B27 typing. RESULTS: Of 3146 patients invited, 2105 (67%) responded to the survey questionnaire. The triggering infections were Campylobacter, 1003; Salmonella, 619; E. coli, 290; Shigella, 102; and Yersinia, 91. JPrea was reported by 294 subjects: Campylobacter, 131 (13.1%); Salmonella, 104 (16.8%); Yersinia, 21 (23.1%); Shigella, 10 (9.8%); and E. coli, 28 (9.7%). There was a significant association between severity of gastroenteritis and development of arthralgia (p = 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for JPrea in an HLA-B27-positive individual was 2.62 (95% CI 1.67-3.93) for the entire group. A significant association between JPrea and HLA-B27 was found for Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia; not, however, for Campylobacter and E. coli. HLA-B27-positive patients had a significantly increased risk for severe joint symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that JPrea after GI infection is positively correlated to severity of GI symptoms. HLA-B27 is not associated with joint pain after Campylobacter. Intestinal E. coli seems to be an arthritogenic pathogen. A significant association between HLA-B27 and severity of joint pain was observed Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3

  9. Bilateral macular thickening in mild unilateral anterior uveitis: is HLA-B27 involved?

    OpenAIRE

    Wexler Alexandra; Sand Trond; Elsås Tor B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Macular thickening (MT) without clinically recognized macular edema has been described in anterior uveitis (AU). Although fellow-eyes of patients have been used as controls in several studies, little is known about macular thickness in these eyes. We studied the rate and extent of MT in both AU-affected and quiescent fellow-eyes of phakic AU patients with good visual acuity (VA). We also assessed macular thickness related to HLA-B27 presence and to recurrence, since these ...

  10. Characterization of the Recognition Specificity of BH2, a Monoclonal Antibody Prepared against the HLA-B27 Heavy Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chun Yu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BH2, a monoclonal antibody prepared against the denatured human leukocytic antigen-B27 heavy chain (HLA-B27 HC, can immunoprecipitate the misfolded HLA-B27 HC complexed with Bip in the endoplasmic reticulum and recognize the homodimerized HLA-B27 HC that is often observed on the cell membrane of patients suffered from ankylosing spondylitis (AS. However, the recognition specificity of BH2 toward the other molecules of HLA-B type and toward the different types of HLA molecules remained uncharacterized. In this study, we carried out the HLA-typing by using the Luminex Technology to characterize the recognition specificity of BH2 and analyzed the binding domain of HLA-B27 HC by BH2. Our results indicated that BH2 preferably binds to molecules of HLA-B and -C rather than HLA-A and the binding site is located within the ?2 domain of HLA-B27 HC.

  11. Multiple sclerosis and HLA-B27 negative sacroiliitis in a Crohn?s disease patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Katsanos, N. Tzambouras, E.V. Tsianos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY A relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and MS is supported by a higher than expected coexistence of these diseases among families and individuals. A 32 year-old male with Crohn?s disease of the terminal ileum diagnosed 4 years earlier and HLA-B27 bilateral sacroiliitis diagnosed two years earlier, was admitted to our hospital because of an acute episode of blurred vision. In addition the patient complained of urine incontinence. Before this admission the patient had been elsewhere administered three doses of Remicade and 16mg of methylprednisolone p.os. During admission the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was made (MRI and IgG Index and Remicade was discontinued. The patient was started on therapy with interferon-beta for MS, oxybutynin hydrochloride (10mg/day for urine incontinence, prednizolone (10mg/day, methotrexate (10mg/week and azathioprine (100mg/day for Crohn?s disease and is now in excellent clinical status. To the best of our knowledge this is one of the very rare cases of Crohn?s disease with HLA-B27 negative sacroiliitis preceding multiple sclerosis diagnosis. Key words: Crohn?s disease, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, Remicade

  12. HLA-A*01:03, HLA-A*24:02, HLA-B*08:01, HLA-B*27:05, HLA-B*35:01, HLA-B*44:02, and HLA-C*07:01 Monochain Transgenic/H-2 Class I Null Mice : Novel Versatile Preclinical Models of Human T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucherma, Rachid; Kridane-Miledi, Hédia

    2013-01-01

    We have generated a panel of transgenic mice expressing HLA-A*01:03, -A*24:02, -B*08:01, -B*27:05, -B*35:01, -B*44:02, or -C*07:01 as chimeric monochain molecules (i.e., appropriate HLA ?1?2 H chain domains fused with a mouse ?3 domain and covalently linked to human ?2-microglobulin). Whereas surface expression of several transgenes was markedly reduced in recipient mice that coexpressed endogenous H-2 class I molecules, substantial surface expression of all human transgenes was observed in mice lacking H-2 class I molecules. In these HLA monochain transgenic/H-2 class I null mice, we observed a quantitative and qualitative restoration of the peripheral CD8(+) T cell repertoire, which exhibited a TCR diversity comparable with C57BL/6 WT mice. Potent epitope-specific, HLA-restricted, IFN-?-producing CD8(+) T cell responses were generated against known reference T cell epitopes after either peptide or DNA immunization. HLA-wise, these new transgenic strains encompass a large proportion of individuals from all major human races and ethnicities. In combination with the previously created HLA-A*02:01 and -B*07:02 transgenic mice, the novel HLA transgenic mice described in this report should be a versatile preclinical animal model that will speed up the identification and optimization of HLA-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitopes of potential interest in various autoimmune human diseases and in preclinical evaluation of T cell-based vaccines.

  13. HLA-A*01:03, HLA-A*24:02, HLA-B*08:01, HLA-B*27:05, HLA-B*35:01, HLA-B*44:02, and HLA-C*07:01 Monochain Transgenic/H-2 Class I Null Mice: Novel Versatile Preclinical Models of Human T Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherma, Rachid; Kridane-Miledi, Hédia; Bouziat, Romain; Rasmussen, Michael; Gatard, Tanja; Langa-Vives, Francina; Lemercier, Brigitte; Lim, Annick; Bérard, Marion; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Buus, Søren; Rooke, Ronald; Lemonnier, François A.

    2014-01-01

    We have generated a panel of transgenic mice expressing HLA-A*01:03, -A*24:02, -B*08:01, -B*27:05, -B*35:01, -B*44:02, or -C*07:01 as chimeric monochain molecules (i.e., appropriate HLA ?1?2 H chain domains fused with a mouse ?3 domain and covalently linked to human ?2-microglobulin). Whereas surface expression of several transgenes was markedly reduced in recipient mice that coexpressed endogenous H-2 class I molecules, substantial surface expression of all human transgenes was observed in mice lacking H-2 class I molecules. In these HLA monochain transgenic/H-2 class I null mice, we observed a quantitative and qualitative restoration of the peripheral CD8+ T cell repertoire, which exhibited a TCR diversity comparable with C57BL/6 WT mice. Potent epitope-specific, HLA-restricted, IFN-?–producing CD8+ T cell responses were generated against known reference T cell epitopes after either peptide or DNA immunization. HLA-wise, these new transgenic strains encompass a large proportion of individuals from all major human races and ethnicities. In combination with the previously created HLA-A*02:01 and -B*07:02 transgenic mice, the novel HLA transgenic mice described in this report should be a versatile preclinical animal model that will speed up the identification and optimization of HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes of potential interest in various autoimmune human diseases and in preclinical evaluation of T cell–based vaccines. PMID:23776170

  14. Novel HLA-B27-restricted epitopes from Chlamydia trachomatis generated upon endogenous processing of bacterial proteins suggest a role of molecular mimicry in reactive arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Navarro, Carlos; Cragnolini, Juan J; Dos Santos, Helena G; Barnea, Eilon; Admon, Arie; Morreale, Antonio; López de Castro, José A

    2013-09-01

    Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an HLA-B27-associated spondyloarthropathy that is triggered by diverse bacteria, including Chlamydia trachomatis, a frequent intracellular parasite. HLA-B27-restricted T-cell responses are elicited against this bacterium in ReA patients, but their pathogenetic significance, autoimmune potential, and relevant epitopes are unknown. High resolution and sensitivity mass spectrometry was used to identify HLA-B27 ligands endogenously processed and presented by HLA-B27 from three chlamydial proteins for which T-cell epitopes were predicted. Fusion protein constructs of ClpC, Na(+)-translocating NADH-quinone reductase subunit A, and DNA primase were expressed in HLA-B27(+) cells, and their HLA-B27-bound peptidomes were searched for endogenous bacterial ligands. A non-predicted peptide, distinct from the predicted T-cell epitope, was identified from ClpC. A peptide recognized by T-cells in vitro, NQRA(330-338), was detected from the reductase subunit. This is the second HLA-B27-restricted T-cell epitope from C. trachomatis with relevance in ReA demonstrated to be processed and presented in live cells. A novel peptide from the DNA primase, DNAP(211-223), was also found. This was a larger variant of a known epitope and was highly homologous to a self-derived natural ligand of HLA-B27. All three bacterial peptides showed high homology with human sequences containing the binding motif of HLA-B27. Molecular dynamics simulations further showed a striking conformational similarity between DNAP(211-223) and its homologous and much more flexible human-derived HLA-B27 ligand. The results suggest that molecular mimicry between HLA-B27-restricted bacterial and self-derived epitopes is frequent and may play a role in ReA. PMID:23867464

  15. Novel HLA-B27-restricted Epitopes from Chlamydia trachomatis Generated upon Endogenous Processing of Bacterial Proteins Suggest a Role of Molecular Mimicry in Reactive Arthritis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Navarro, Carlos; Cragnolini, Juan J.; Dos Santos, Helena G.; Barnea, Eilon; Admon, Arie; Morreale, Antonio; López de Castro, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an HLA-B27-associated spondyloarthropathy that is triggered by diverse bacteria, including Chlamydia trachomatis, a frequent intracellular parasite. HLA-B27-restricted T-cell responses are elicited against this bacterium in ReA patients, but their pathogenetic significance, autoimmune potential, and relevant epitopes are unknown. High resolution and sensitivity mass spectrometry was used to identify HLA-B27 ligands endogenously processed and presented by HLA-B27 from three chlamydial proteins for which T-cell epitopes were predicted. Fusion protein constructs of ClpC, Na+-translocating NADH-quinone reductase subunit A, and DNA primase were expressed in HLA-B27+ cells, and their HLA-B27-bound peptidomes were searched for endogenous bacterial ligands. A non-predicted peptide, distinct from the predicted T-cell epitope, was identified from ClpC. A peptide recognized by T-cells in vitro, NQRA(330–338), was detected from the reductase subunit. This is the second HLA-B27-restricted T-cell epitope from C. trachomatis with relevance in ReA demonstrated to be processed and presented in live cells. A novel peptide from the DNA primase, DNAP(211–223), was also found. This was a larger variant of a known epitope and was highly homologous to a self-derived natural ligand of HLA-B27. All three bacterial peptides showed high homology with human sequences containing the binding motif of HLA-B27. Molecular dynamics simulations further showed a striking conformational similarity between DNAP(211–223) and its homologous and much more flexible human-derived HLA-B27 ligand. The results suggest that molecular mimicry between HLA-B27-restricted bacterial and self-derived epitopes is frequent and may play a role in ReA. PMID:23867464

  16. [Serum IgG antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis in HLA-B-27 positive patients with rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breustedt, W; Giesel, A; Puhlmann, B

    1989-01-01

    Urogenital chlamydial infection should act as a trigger of peripheral and axial form of arthritis like sexually acquired reactive arthritis and Reiter's syndrome assumedly. HLA B-27 positive patients with rheumatic disorders, mainly M. Bechterew (55 out of 62 men and 18 out of 25 women) were investigated for serum-IgG-antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis (ELISA). Among HLA B-27 positive men and women urogenital disorders in their history were more common as compared with controls. There were found no differences concerning the rate of antichlamydial antibodies between patients and controls. It is supposed, that urogenital bacterial infections rather others than chlamydial infection may be connected with M. Bechterew. PMID:2792489

  17. HLA-B*27 subtypes in Northern and Northeastern Thais, Karens, and Bamars determined by a high-resolution PCR-SSP technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangchanchot, M; Puapairoj, C; Romphruk, A; Kongmaroeng, C; Leelayuwat, C; Romphruk, A V

    2009-06-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA), class I, are a group of antigens expressed on most nucleated cell surfaces. They transport endogenous peptides to the cell surface for recognition by T-cell receptors. Their functions are involved in immune responses. Many diseases are associated with HLA alleles, especially HLA-B*27 that is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). HLA-B*27 consists of 42 subtypes. Different subtypes of HLA-B*27 were reported in different ethnic groups of AS patients. In this study, a high-resolution polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer technique has been developed to define all the HLA-B*27 subtypes with a total of 29 primer mixtures. Two of the primer mixes were used to detect the HLA-B*27-specific group, and 27 primer mixes were used to identify 42 subtypes (B*2701-B*2721 and B*2723-B*2743). The HLA-B*27-group-specific primers have been tested in unrelated healthy subjects; 846 Northeastern Thais (NET), 334 Northern Thais (NT), 264 Karens, and 310 Bamars. Sixty-three NET (phenotype frequency, PF = 7.4%), 24 NT (PF = 7.1%), 5 Karens (PF = 1.8%), and 12 Bamars (PF = 3.9%) were positive for HLA-B*27. Only B*2704 was found in Karens, whereas B*2704, B*2705/37/39, B*2706, and B*2707 were found in NET and NT. In Bamars, B*2704, B*2705/37/39, B*2706, and B*2725 were found. The distribution of HLA-B*27 subtypes was compared with other studies in Asian and Caucasian populations. Significant differences of the distribution of HLA-B*27 subtypes were found in most of the populations. This study established a simple technology for HLA-B*27 subtyping and provided basic information for anthropology and further studies in disease associations. PMID:19493237

  18. Combined Effects of Ankylosing Spondylitis-associated ERAP1 Polymorphisms Outside the Catalytic and Peptide-binding Sites on the Processing of Natural HLA-B27 Ligands*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Esteban, Adrian; Gómez-Molina, Patricia; Sanz-Bravo, Alejandro; López de Castro, José A.

    2014-01-01

    ERAP1 polymorphism involving residues 528 and 575/725 is associated with ankylosing spondylitis among HLA-B27-positive individuals. We used four recombinant variants to address the combined effects of the K528R and D575N polymorphism on the processing of HLA-B27 ligands. The hydrolysis of a fluorogenic substrate, Arg-528/Asp-575 peptide-dependent. Sometimes the epitope yields were variant-specific at all times. For other peptides, concomitant generation and destruction led to similar epitope amounts with all the variants at long, but not at short, digestion times. The generation/destruction balance of two related HLA-B27 ligands was analyzed in vitro and in live cells. Their relative yields at long digestion times were comparable with those from HLA-B27-positive cells, suggesting that ERAP1 was a major determinant of the abundance of these peptides in vivo. The hydrolysis of fluorogenic and peptide substrates by an HLA-B27 ligand or a shorter peptide, respectively, was increasingly inhibited as a function of ERAP1 activity, indicating that residues 528 and 575 affect substrate inhibition of ERAP1 trimming. The significant and complex effects of co-occurring ERAP1 polymorphisms on multiple HLA-B27 ligands, and their potential to alter the immunological and pathogenetic features of HLA-B27 as a function of the ERAP1 context, explain the epistatic association of both molecules in ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:24352655

  19. The Rate of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in a Group of Korean Patients with HLA-B27-Associated Acute Anterior Uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jeong Hun; Kim, Joon Mo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate an association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and HLA-B27-positive acute anterior uveitis (AAU) in Korean patients. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed with data from 106 patients previously diagnosed with AAU without clinical evidence of spondyloarthropathy. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to H. pylori were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HLA typing was performed using polymerase chain reaction of DNA amplification. We included 72 non-uveitis patients and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls in the study. Results Of the 106 patients with AAU, 41 (38.7%) were HLA-B27-positive, and 45 (42.5%) were seropositive for H. pylori. Patients with HLA-B27-positive AAU had a significantly lower prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity compared to those with HLA-B27-negative AAU and healthy controls (24.4% vs. 53.8%, p = 0.003; 24.4% vs. 57.1%, p = 0.004, respectively). In the non-uveitis group, however, HLA-B27-positive patients exhibited similar H. pylori seropositivity prevalence to HLA-B27-negative patients and healthy controls (45.5% vs. 55.7%, p = 0.529; 45.5% vs. 57.1%, p = 0.497, respectively). In multivariate analysis, a low prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity was significantly associated with HLA-B27-positive AAU (odds ratio = 0.340, 95% confidence interval 0.135–0.855, p = 0.022). Conclusions Our results suggest an inverse association between H. pylori seropositivity and HLA-B27-positive AAU. Further investigation of this association is needed, given the low prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity observed in patients with HLA-B27-positive AAU. PMID:25894610

  20. A new HLA-B*27 allele (B*2719) identified in a Lebanese patient affected with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamouza, R; Mansour, I; Bouguacha, N; Klayme, S; Djouadi, K; Laoussadi, S; Azoury, M; Dulphy, N; Ramasawmy, R; Krishnamoorthy, R; Toubert, A; Naman, R; Charron, D

    2001-07-01

    Eighteen different HLA-B*27 alleles (B*2701-B2718) have so far been recognized by the WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System. Frequency and disease association of these alleles with spondyloarthropathies differ among ethnic groups. We describe here a novel HLA-B*27 subtype identified in a Lebanese patient suffering from ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This new variant differs from the common HLA-B*2705 DNA sequence at five different nucleotide positions. These nucleotide changes lead to three amino acid differences in the alpha2 domain; Thr to Ile at position 94, Leu to Ile at position 95 and Asn to Arg at position 97. Since this novel allele is encountered in an AS patient, the associated sequence changes are not expected to affect significantly neither the presentation of a putative arthritogenic peptide nor the conformation-dependent recognition by effector cells. PMID:11580853

  1. Natural MHC Class I Polymorphism Controls the Pathway of Peptide Dissociation from HLA-B27 Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Kathrin; Winter, Anja; Rueckert, Christine; Uchanska-ziegler, Barbara; Alexiev, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of antigen dissociation provides insight into peptide presentation modes of folded human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules, which consist of a heavy chain, ?2-microglobulin (?2m), and an antigenic peptide. Here we have monitored peptide-HLA interactions and peptide dissociation kinetics of two HLA-B27 subtypes by fluorescence depolarization techniques. A single natural amino-acid substitution distinguishes the HLA-B*2705 subtype that is associated with the autoimmune disease ankylo...

  2. Distress, Depression and Coping in HLA B27 Antigen-associated Anterior Uveitis with Focus on Gender Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Maca, Saskia M; Schiesser, Andreas W; Sobala, Anna; Gruber, Kathrin; Prause, Carolin; Pakesch, Georg; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background/aims:To evaluate depression, coping with disease and stress, and the subjective impression of distress and/or life events as triggers for recurrences in HLA-B27-associated anterior uveitis (B27-AU), with attention to gender-specific characteristics. Methods:171 patients with a history of B27-AU responded to a postal survey performed between January 2006 and April 2008 using standardized psychological questionnaires: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Freiburg...

  3. Structural analysis of an HLA-B27 functional variant, B27d detected in American blacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a new functional variant B27d has been established by comparative peptide mapping and radiochemical sequencing. This analysis complete the structural characterization of the six know histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 subtypes. The only detected amino acid change between the main HLA-B27.1 subtype and B27d is that of Try59 to His59. Position 59 has not been previously found to vary among class I HLA or H-2 antigens. Such substitution accounts for the reported isoelectric focusing pattern of this variant. HLA-B27d is the only B27 variant found to differ from other subtypes by a single amino acid replacement. The nature of the change is compatible with its origin by a point mutation from HLB-B27.1. Because B27d was found only American blacks and in no other ethnic groups, it is suggested that this variant originated as a result of a mutation of the B27.1 gene that occurred within the black population. Structural analysis of B27d was done by comparative mapping. Radiochemical sequencing was carried out with 14C-labeled and 3H-labeled amino acids

  4. Translocation of peptides through microsomal membranes is a rapid process and promotes assembly of HLA-B27 heavy chain and beta 2- microglobulin translated in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    We have translated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I heavy chains and human beta 2-microglobulin in vitro in the presence of microsomal membranes and a peptide from the nucleoprotein of influenza A. This peptide stimulates assembly of HLA-B27 heavy chain and beta 2- microglobulin about fivefold. By modifying this peptide to contain biotin at its amino terminus, we could precipitate HLA-B27 heavy chains with immobilized streptavidin, thereby directly demonstrating class I heavy ch...

  5. PECULIARITIES OF BLOOD CYTOKINE SPECTRUM IN THE PATIENTS WITH REACTIVE ARTHRITIS DUE TO ETIOLOGY, INFLAMMATION ACTIVITY AND PRESENCE OF HLA-B27 ANTIGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khukhlina O. S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the cytokine profile due to the etiology, inflammation activity, and presence of HLA-B27 antigen in the patients with reactive arthritis. The study showed a direct dependence of IL-4, IL-6 and the TNF-? on the degree of activity of ReA with chronic pyelonephritis. The presence of HLA-B27 antigen in the patients with reactive arthritis and chronic pyelonephritis accompanied by an increasing of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1?, IL-6, PNP-?, IL-1R in comparison with the HLA-B27-negative patients. The results of study demonstrated that maximum serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-? in the patients with reactive arthritis that occurred on the background of acute urogenital infection were significantly higher than in the other etiological cases of reactive arthritis.

  6. Increase of HLA-DRB1*0408 and -DQB1*0301 in HLA-B27 positive reactive arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Tuokko, J.; Reijonen, H.; ILONEN, J; Anttila, K.; Nikkari, S; Mottonen, T; Yli-Kerttula, U; Toivanen, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study HLA class II association in reactive arthritis.?METHODS—63 patients with reactive arth-ritis and 46 with rheumatoid arthritis were included in the study. HLA-DR alleles were determined by using a sequence specific PCR method. Oligonucleotide hybridisation was used for definition of DRB1*04 subtypes and DQB1 alleles. HLA-B27 was determined by standard microcytotoxity test or by PCR. HLA-B27 subtyping was made by sequencing.?RESULTS—46 (73%) of 63 patients with re...

  7. Functional modulation of expanded CD8+ synovial fluid T cells by NK cell receptor expression in HLA-B27-associated reactive arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulphy, Nicolas; Rabian, Claire; Douay, Corinne; Flinois, Odile; Laoussadi, Saddek; Kuipers, Jens; Tamouza, Ryad; Charron, Dominique; Toubert, Antoine

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether NK cell receptor (NKR) expression could modulate cytotoxicity of oligoclonal CD8+ T cells present in the synovial fluid (SF) of HLA-B27-reactive arthritis (ReA) patients, especially in a TCRBV1 population shared among different patients and cytotoxic toward HLA-B27. A CD8+ T cell line, two TCRBV1 lines and clones were isolated from the SF of an HLA-B27+ ReA patient, and tested with mAb specific for Ig-like (KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2, KIR3DL1 and ILT2) and CD94 C-type lectin NKR. Transcripts for NKG2 subunits (NKG2A-2E) associated with CD94 were also evaluated. Function was tested in a 51Cr-release cytotoxic assay. We found stable but distinct levels of CD94/NKG2 complexes at the surface of T cell lines and clones. Different NKG2 members could be associated with CD94, either inhibitory (NKG2A/B) or activating (NKG2C). The inhibitory ILT2 receptor could also be differently expressed, but other Ig-like NKR were negative. Functionally, one TCRBV1 line and clones with a high CD94/NKG2A expression did not lyse B27+ targets. Another TCRBV1 line with the same TCRBV1 rearrangement had a low expression of CD94/NKG2A, but expressed NKG2C transcripts and was cytotoxic toward HLA-B27. HLA-B27 is a ligand for ILT2 and we observed an inhibitory effect of ILT2 engagement on B*2705 targets in blockade experiments. Altogether, these data indicate a high degree of heterogeneity in the expression of NKR by intrasynovial CD8+ T cells which could modulate their cytotoxicity and play a role in the control of this HLA class I-associated autoimmune disease. PMID:11978777

  8. Raised incidence of ankylosing spondylitis among Inuit populations could be due to high HLA-B27 association and starch consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde; Ebringer, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis mainly affecting the spinal joints. It would appear that the most likely causative agent in the development of AS is an environmental factor in the genetically susceptible, HLA-B27 positive, individuals. Extensive data from several countries support the notion that Klebsiella pneumonia bacteria are the most likely culprit in the causation of AS. These microbes possess antigens which resemble HLA-B27 and spinal collagens. Increased intake of high-starch diet is directly proportional to the gut-associated bacterial load, especially in the large intestine, and among these microbial agents, Klebsiella is considered as one of the main constituting components. Therefore, a low-starch diet intake alongside the currently used medical therapeutic modalities could be beneficial in the management of patients with early AS. It is suggested that a change in the dietary habits from high protein, low-starch marine components to the Westernized high-starch diet among the Inuit peoples of Alaska and Canada could be considered as one of the main contributing factors in the increased prevalence of AS during the last few decades within this genetically unmixed native population. PMID:25385438

  9. Polymorphisms of HLA-A, -B, -Cw and DRB1 antigens in Moroccan patients with ankylosing spondylitis and a comparison of clinical features with frequencies of HLA-B*27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouraghi, I; Ouarour, A; Ghozlani, I; Collantes, E; Solana, R; El Maghraoui, A

    2015-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is very often associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA), particularly HLA-B*27. However, the strength of this association and clinical features may vary in different ethnic groups. Our study aims to assess the distribution of HLA-A, -B, -Cw and DRB1 alleles in Moroccan patients with AS and to compare the clinical features of AS and the frequencies of HLA-B27 in patients from Morocco with other series. Seventy-five patients diagnosed with AS and assessed for clinical manifestations were selected and compared to 100 healthy controls. HLA class I and II antigens were typed by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide. HLA-B27 subtypes were studied by polymerase chain reaction amplification with sequence-specific primers. HLA-B27 was found in 64% of patients. It was positively associated with younger age at disease onset, family history, and uveitis while it had a negative association with late onset. Six B*27 subtypes were identified in the AS group. HLA-B*2705 and B*2702 were the most common observed subtypes. Among other HLA genes, a significant increase in the prevalence of HLA-Cw*02 and HLA-DRB*15 was found in AS patients. HLA-B27 is involved in the predisposition of AS in the Moroccan population. HLA-B*2705 and B*2702 were the predominant subtypes supporting previous reports in Caucasian spondyloarthropathies. Other HLA genes, HLA-Cw*02 and HLA-DRB1*15, seem to confer predisposing effect to the disease. However, the lower frequency of HLA-B27 compared to the literature in our study suggests the existence of different genetic and/or environmental factors in Morocco. PMID:25626601

  10. Common intra-articular T cell expansions in patients with reactive arthritis: identical beta-chain junctional sequences and cytotoxicity toward HLA-B27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulphy, N; Peyrat, M A; Tieng, V; Douay, C; Rabian, C; Tamouza, R; Laoussadi, S; Berenbaum, F; Chabot, A; Bonneville, M; Charron, D; Toubert, A

    1999-04-01

    Spondyloarthropathies constitute a group of autoimmune diseases of special interest because of their tight association with the MHC class I molecule HLA-B27 and the bacterial triggering of some clinical forms called reactive arthritis (ReA). One current hypothesis is the presentation by HLA-B27 of a so-called arthritogenic peptide to T cells. To better focus on the relevant T cell populations within the joint, we performed an extensive beta-chain T cell repertoire analysis of synovial fluid compared with PBL in seven patients, four of whom were characterized as having ReA triggered by Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Shigella sonnei. Analysis of the size diversity of the beta-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) allowed us to evaluate the degree of T cell clonality in the samples. Oligoclonal T cell expansions were frequently observed in the joint. In one patient, CDR3 amino acid sequences of major expansions using two different BV genes were identical. One dominant T cell expansion and several CDR3 amino acid sequences were identical in two different patients. Furthermore, one sequence was identical with a sequence reported independently in a Salmonella-induced ReA patient. Together, these data indicate a surprisingly high degree of conservation in the T cell responses in recent-onset ReA triggered by different micro-organisms. A CD8+ synovial line expressing shared clonotypes was established and reacted toward several B*2705 lymphoblastoid cell lines, therefore supporting a molecular mimicry phenomenon at the T cell level in the disease mechanism. PMID:10201900

  11. Allospecific T cell epitope sharing reveals extensive conservation of the antigenic features of peptide ligands among HLA-B27 subtypes differentially associated with spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, Veronica; Martí, Mercè; López de Castro, José A

    2003-06-01

    HLA-B*2702, B*2704, and B*2705 are strongly associated with spondyloarthritis, whereas B*2706 is not. Subtypes differ among each other by a few amino acid changes and bind overlapping peptide repertoires. In this study we asked whether differential subtype association with disease is related to differentially bound peptides or to altered antigenicity of shared ligands. Alloreactive CTL raised against B*2704 were analyzed for cross-reaction with B*2705, B*2702, B*2706, and mutants mimicking subtype changes. These CTL are directed against many alloantigen-bound peptides and can be used to analyze the antigenicity of HLA-B27 ligands on different subtypes. Cross-reaction of anti-B*2704 CTL with B*2705 and B*2702 correlated with overlap of their peptidic anchor motifs, suggesting that many shared ligands have similar antigenic features on these three subtypes. Moreover, the percent of anti-B*2704 CTL cross-reacting with B*2706 was only slightly lower than the overlap between the corresponding peptide repertoires, suggesting that most shared ligands have similar antigenic features on these two subtypes. Cross-reaction with B*2705 or mutants mimicking changes between B*2704 and B*2705 was donor-dependent. In contrast, cross-reaction with B*2702 or B*2706 was less variable among individuals. Conservation of antigenic properties among subtypes has implications for allorecognition, as it suggests that shared peptides may determine cross-reaction across exposed amino acid differences in the MHC molecules and that the antigenic distinctness of closely related allotypes may differ among donors. Our results also suggest that differential association of HLA-B27 subtypes with spondyloarthritis is more likely related to differentially bound peptides than to altered antigenicity of shared ligands. PMID:12759462

  12. HLA-B27 Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confirm a suspected diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) , reactive arthritis , juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) , or sometimes anterior uveitis . ... certain autoimmune disorders , such as ankylosing spondylitis and reactive arthritis. Ankylosing spondylitis and reactive arthritis are both chronic , ...

  13. Peptide-binding motifs associated with MHC molecules common in Chinese rhesus macaques are analogous to those of human HLA supertypes and include HLA-B27-like alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mothé, Bianca R.; Southwood, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Chinese rhesus macaques are of particular interest in simian immunodeficiency virus/human immunodeficiency virus (SIV/HIV) research as these animals have prolonged kinetics of disease progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), compared to their Indian counterparts, suggesting that they may be a better model for HIV. Nevertheless, the specific mechanism(s) accounting for these kinetics remains unclear. The study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, including their MHC/peptide-binding motifs, provides valuable information for measuring cellular immune responses and deciphering outcomes of infection and vaccine efficacy. In this study, we have provided detailed characterization of six prevalent Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I alleles, yielding a combined phenotypic frequency of 29 %. The peptide-binding specificity of two of these alleles, Mamu-A2*01:02 and Mamu-B*010:01, as well as the previously characterized allele Mamu-B*003:01 (and Indian rhesus Mamu-B*003:01), was found tobe analogous to that of alleles in the HLA-B27 supertype family. Specific alleles in the HLA-B27 supertype family, including HLA-B*27:05, have been associated with long-term nonprogression to AIDS in humans. All six alleles characterized in the present study were found to have specificities analogous to HLA supertype alleles. These data contribute to the concept that Chinese rhesus macaque MHC immunogenetics is more similar to HLA than their Indian rhesus macaque counterparts and thereby warrants further studies to decipher the role of these alleles in the context of SIV infection.

  14. Offspring derived from intracytoplasmic injection of transgenic rat sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayash, Masumi; Kato, Megumi; Aoto, Toshihiro; Sekimoto, Akiyo; Ueda, Masatsugu; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Kasai, Noriyuki; Hochi, Shinichi

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to produce rat offspring by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using a Piezo-driven micromanipulator. Transgenic male rats carrying a green fluorescent protein gene (GFP: homozygous) were used as sperm donors. The epididymal spermatozoa were suspended and sonicated in m-KRB medium and were frozen in the same medium at -20 degrees C until use. When the sperm heads were aspirated into injection pipettes 7-10 microm in diameter and introduced into oocytes from the Wistar strain, no offspring resulted from the transfer of 59 eggs. In contrast, the sperm heads were hung on the tip of injection pipettes 2-4 microm in diameter and introduced into the oocytes, use of Piezo resulting in the production of 18 transgenic offspring carrying the GFP gene from 181 eggs transferred. The oocytes from the Sprague-Dawley strain also supported full-term development following ICSI with three offspring resulting from 163 transferred eggs. In an additional ICSI trial, spermatozoa from infertile transgenic rats carrying human lactalbumin with the thymidine kinase gene (LAC3: heterozygous) were used. The spermatozoa of the LAC3 transgenic rats appeared to be defective and immotile because of the expression of thymidine kinase in the testes, and no ICSI offspring resulted from 218 transferred eggs. These results suggest that ICSI is applicable in rats when Piezo-driven smaller pipettes are used to inject sperm heads together with a limited amount of the surrounding medium and that the ability of isolated sperm heads to participate in normal embryo development is maintained under the cryopreservation conditions employed. PMID:12054355

  15. HIV-1 transgenic rats develop T cell abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV-1 infection leads to impaired antigen-specific T cell proliferation, increased susceptibility of T cells to apoptosis, progressive impairment of T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, and altered maturation of HIV-1-specific memory cells. We have identified similar impairments in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Tg rats developed an absolute reduction in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells able to produce IFN-? following activation and an increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis. CD4+ and CD8+ effector/memory (CD45RC-CD62L-) pools were significantly smaller in Tg rats compared to non-Tg controls, although the converse was true for the naieve (CD45RC+CD62L+) T cell pool. Our interpretation is that the HIV transgene causes defects in the development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets, and that activation-induced apoptosis may be an essential factor in this process

  16. Transgenic LRRK2R1441G rats–a model for Parkinson disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Komal T.; Yang, Alvin; Youshin, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder, characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. While the cause of this disease is largely unknown, a rare autosomal dominant familial form of PD is caused by a genetic mutation in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene that presumably leads to a gain-of-function of LRRK2 kinase activity. Here, we explored the potential of over expression of this human gene in a new transgenic rat model to serve as an animal model for PD. Commercially available BAC transgenic rats expressing human LRRK2 with the familial PD mutation, R1441G, and their wild-type siblings were tested for deficits in motor function, sensorimotor gating, and higher cognitive function reminiscent of PD through the ages of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. At 12 months of age, rats were exposed to intraperitoneal injections of the environmental toxin Paraquat or saline. Our results indicate that LRRK2R1441G transgenic rats do not show signs of neurodegeneration and do not develop significant motor or cognitive deficits until the age of 16 months. In addition, LRRK2R1441G transgenic rats did not show increased vulnerability to sub-toxic doses of Paraquat. Gene expression studies indicate that despite genomic presence and initial expression of the transgene, its expression was greatly reduced in our aged rats. We conclude that the transgenic LRRK2R1441G rat is not a valid model for studying the pathology of PD and discuss this in relation to other transgenic rat models.

  17. A transgenic rat expressing human APP with the Swedish Alzheimer's disease mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Ronnie; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, transgenic mice have become valuable tools for studying mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). With the aim of developing an animal model better for memory and neurobehavioural testing, we have generated a transgenic rat model of AD. These animals express human amyloid precursor protein (APP) containing the Swedish AD mutation. The highest level of expression in the brain is found in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Starting after the age of 15 months, the rats show increased tau phosphorylation and extracellular Abeta staining. The Abeta is found predominantly in cerebrovascular blood vessels with very rare diffuse plaques. We believe that crossing these animals with mutant PS1 transgenic rats will result in accelerated plaque formation similar to that seen in transgenic mice.

  18. [New aspects in the pathogenesis of Bechterew disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märker-Hermann, E; Sucké, B; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1996-01-01

    The association of HLA-B27 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), first described more than 20 years ago, triggered intensive research all over the world. AS is a disease model to study the interplay between genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors in the induction of rheumatic disease. Over the past years, substantial advances have taken place in the area of the molecular and cellular immunology of the HLA-B27 molecule, HLA-B27 subtype polymorphism, peptide binding and presentation to cytotoxic T cells, and their relevance to disease. New insights into the pathogenesis of the spondylarthropathies come from the development of animal models, namely HLA-B27/human beta 2-microglobulin transgenic rats, and HLA-B27 transgenic, beta 2-microglobulin knock-out mice. The role of gram-negative bacteria and gut inflammation in the development of ankylosing spondylitis continues to be the focus of interest in many studies. In this review, recent hypotheses of the pathogenesis of AS and its relationship to HLA-B27 are discussed. PMID:8868146

  19. Transgenic rats with green, red, and blue fluorescence: powerful tools for bioimaging, cell trafficking, and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2005-04-01

    The rat represents a perfect animal for broadening medical experiments, because its physiology has been well understood in the history of experimental animals. In addition, its larger body size takes enough advantage for surgical manipulation, compared to the mouse. Many rat models mimicking human diseases, therefore, have been used in a variety of biomedical studies including physiology, pharmacology, transplantation, and immunology. In an effort to create the specifically designed rats for biomedical research and regenerative medicine, we have developed the engineered rat system on the basis of transgenic technology and succeeded in establishing various transgenic rat strains. The transgenic rats with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were generated in the two different strains (Wistar and Lewis), in which GFP is driven under the chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer (CAG promoter). Their GFP expression levels were different in each organ, but the Lewis line expressed GFP strongly and ubiquitously in most of the organs compared with that of Wistar. For red fluorescence, DsRed2 was transduced to the Wistar rats: one line specifically expresses DsRed2 in the liver under the mouse albumin promoter, another is designed for the Cre/LoxP system as the double reporter rat (the initial DsRed2 expression turns on GFP in the presence of Cre recombinase). LacZ-transgenic rats represent blue color, and LacZ is driven the CAG (DA) or ROSA26 promoter (Lewis). Our unique transgenic rats" system highlights the powerful performance for the elucidation of many cellular processes in regenerative medicine, leading to innovative medical treatments.

  20. Can organic and transgenic soy be used as a substitute for animal protein by rats?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.L., Soares; A.M.M., Lucas; G.T., Boaventura.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the protein quality of organic and transgenic soy fed to rats throughout life. Thirty female Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10): organic soy group (OSG) receiving organic soy-based diet, genetically modified soy group (GMSG) receiving transgenic soy-based diet, and a co [...] ntrol group (CG) receiving casein-based diet. All animals received water and isocaloric diet (10% protein), ad libitum for 291 days. After this, the weight of GMSG animals (290.9 ± 9.1 g) was significantly lower (P

  1. Development of transgenic rats producing human ?-amyloid precursor protein as a model for Alzheimer's disease: Transgene and endogenous APP genes are regulated tissue-specifically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that affects a large and growing number of elderly individuals. In addition to idiopathic disease, AD is also associated with autosomal dominant inheritance, which causes a familial form of AD (FAD. Some instances of FAD have been linked to mutations in the ?-amyloid protein precursor (APP. Although there are numerous mouse AD models available, few rat AD models, which have several advantages over mice, have been generated. Results Fischer 344 rats expressing human APP driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter were generated via lentiviral vector infection of Fischer 344 zygotes. We generated two separate APP-transgenic rat lines, APP21 and APP31. Serum levels of human amyloid-beta (A?40 were 298 pg/ml for hemizygous and 486 pg/ml for homozygous APP21 animals. Serum A?42 levels in APP21 homozygous rats were 135 pg/ml. Immunohistochemistry in brain showed that the human APP transgene was expressed in neurons, but not in glial cells. These findings were consistent with independent examination of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP in the brains of eGFP-transgenic rats. APP21 and APP31 rats expressed 7.5- and 3-times more APP mRNA, respectively, than did wild-type rats. Northern blots showed that the human APP transgene, driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter, is expressed significantly more in brain, kidney and lung compared to heart and liver. A similar expression pattern was also seen for the endogenous rat APP. The unexpected similarity in the tissue-specific expression patterns of endogenous rat APP and transgenic human APP mRNAs suggests regulatory elements within the cDNA sequence of APP. Conclusion This manuscript describes the generation of APP-transgenic inbred Fischer 344 rats. These are the first human AD model rat lines generated by lentiviral infection. The APP21 rat line expresses high levels of human APP and could be a useful model for AD. Tissue-specific expression in the two transgenic rat lines and in wild-type rats contradicts our current understanding of APP gene regulation. Determination of the elements that are responsible for tissue-specific expression of APP may enable new treatment options for AD.

  2. Stimulus-specific induction of an Egr-1 transgene in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, J Paul; Man, P-S; Wells, T; Carter, D A

    2002-04-16

    Regulated expression of Egr-1 (Zif268/NGFIA) in a variety of brain networks suggests a diversity of roles in neuronal plasticity. Here, we aimed to determine whether an egr-1 transgene would mediate transcriptional responses to different pharmacological and physiological stimuli in the brain of transgenic rats. Constitutive transgene expression was observed in the cortex, CA1 hippocampal area and pituitary, recapitulating expression of egr-1. Transgene induction was stimulus-specific. Metrazole induced widespread expression in the dentate gyrus, CA2 and CA3 areas, amygdala, and ventromedial nucleus. In contrast, induction following a light stimulus was restricted to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic and periventricular nuclei. Our studies have provided novel insights into the differential regulation of egr-1, and facilitated approaches to the genetic manipulation of Egr-1-regulated neuronal systems. PMID:11973468

  3. Cognitive impairment in the Tg6590 transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloskowska, Ewa; Pham, Therese M

    2010-01-01

    Recently, interest in the rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been growing. We have previously described the Tg6590 transgenic rat line expressing the amyloid precursor protein containing the Swedish AD mutation (K670M/N671L) that shows early stages of Abeta deposition, predominantly in cerebrovascular blood vessels, after 15 months of age. Here we show that by the age of 9 months, that is long before the appearance of Abeta deposits, the Tg6590 rats exhibit deficits in the Morris water maze spatial navigation task and altered spontaneous behaviour in the open-field test. The levels of soluble Abeta were elevated both in the hippocampus and cortex of transgenic animals. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no major changes in the brains of transgenic animals, although they tended to have enlarged lateral ventricles when compared to control animals. The Tg6590 transgenic rat line should prove a suitable model of early AD for advanced studies including serial cerebrospinal fluid sampling, electrophysiology, neuroimaging or complex behavioural testing.

  4. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference and associated behavioural plasticity in HIV-1 transgenic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Homji, Natasha F; Vigorito, Michael; Chang, Sulie L.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of morphine addiction in HIV-1 infected persons is higher than the healthy population. The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) which mediates the actions of morphine is shown to be up-regulated in the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat. In this study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) test to investigate if HIV-1Tg rats are more sensitive to the addictive properties of morphine compared to F344 control animals. Morphine-CPP was successfully established in the HIV-1Tg and F344 rat...

  5. Specific expression of an oxytocin-enhanced cyan fluorescent protein fusion transgene in the rat hypothalamus and posterior pituitary

    OpenAIRE

    Katoh, Akiko; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Onaka, Tatsushi; Young, W. Scott; Dayanithi, Govindan; Yamasaki, Yuka; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Otsubo, Hiroki; Suzuki, Hideaki; Murphy, David; Ueta, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    We have generated rats bearing an oxytocin (OXT)-enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (eCFP) fusion transgene designed from a murine construct previously shown to be faithfully expressed in transgenic mice. In situ hybridisation histochemistry revealed that the OXT-eCFP fusion gene was expressed in the supraoptic (SON) and the paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in these rats. The fluorescence emanating from eCFP was observed only in the SON, the PVN, the internal layer of the median eminence (ME) and ...

  6. Evidence for developmental dopaminergic alterations in the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transgenic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Katy M; Aksenov, Michael Y; Mactutus, Charles F; Booze, Rosemarie M

    2010-03-01

    Neurologic impairments associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in pediatric patients may affect quality of life, and can develop despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). Behavioral changes observed in clinical studies of HIV-infected children suggest alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Findings from our model of choice, the HIV-1 transgenic rat, reveal a significant increase in phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression and a decrease in dopamine transporter mRNA, without changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or dopamine transporter (DAT) protein or in more general markers of protein and gene expression levels in the HIV-1 transgenic rat midbrain. Thus these findings suggest selective vulnerability of the dopamine system in developing brains to HIV-1 infection. PMID:20337512

  7. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats causes oxidant stress and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Barbara A; Joshi Pratibha C; Fan Xian; Lassiter Coy; Sutliff Roy L; Jones Dean P; Koval Michael; Guidot David M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for acute and chronic airway disease even though there is no evidence that the virus can infect the lung epithelium. Although HIV-related proteins including gp120 and Tat can directly cause oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction, their effects in the lung are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of HIV-1 transgene expression in rats on alveolar epithelial barrier function. Alveolar epithelial barrier f...

  8. Evidence for developmental dopaminergic alterations in the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transgenic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Katy M.; Aksenov, Michael Y.; Mactutus, Charles F.; Booze, Rosemarie M

    2010-01-01

    Neurologic impairments associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in pediatric patients may affect quality of life, and can develop despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). Behavioral changes observed in clinical studies of HIV-infected children suggest alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Findings from our model of choice, the HIV-1 transgenic rat, reveal a significant increase in phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression and a decrease in dopamine trans...

  9. Chronic alcohol ingestion exacerbates skeletal muscle myopathy in HIV-1 transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratina Margaux A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Separately, chronic alcohol ingestion and HIV-1 infection are associated with severe skeletal muscle derangements, including atrophy and wasting, weakness, and fatigue. One prospective cohort study reported that 41% of HIV-infected patients met the criteria for alcoholism, however; few reports exist on the co-morbid effects of these two disease processes on skeletal muscle homeostasis. Thus, we analyzed the atrophic effects of chronic alcohol ingestion in HIV-1 transgenic rats and identified alterations to several catabolic and anabolic factors. Findings Relative plantaris mass, total protein content, and fiber cross-sectional area were reduced in each experimental group compared to healthy, control-fed rats. Alcohol abuse further reduced plantaris fiber area in HIV-1 transgenic rats. Consistent with previous reports, gene levels of myostatin and its receptor activin IIB were not increased in HIV-1 transgenic rat muscle. However, myostatin and activin IIB were induced in healthy and HIV-1 transgenic rats fed alcohol for 12 weeks. Catabolic signaling factors such as TGF?1, TNF?, and phospho-p38/total-p38 were increased in all groups compared to controls. There was no effect on IL-6, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1, or ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF in control-fed, transgenic rats. However, the co-morbidity of chronic alcohol abuse and HIV-1-related protein expression decreased expression of the two anabolic factors, CT-1 and CNTF. Conclusions Consistent with previous reports, alcohol abuse accentuated skeletal muscle atrophy in an animal model of HIV/AIDS. While some catabolic pathways known to drive alcoholic or HIV-1-associated myopathies were also elevated in this co-morbid model (e.g., TGF?1, consistent expression patterns were not apparent. Thus, specific alterations to signaling mechanisms such as the induction of the myostatin/activin IIB system or reductions in growth factor signaling via CT-1- and CNTF-dependent mechanisms may play larger roles in the regulation of muscle mass in alcoholic, HIV-1 models.

  10. Bioimaging of DsRed fluorescence in the transgenic rat liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arao, Yukitomo; Hakamata, Yoji; Igarashi, Yuka; Sato, Yuki; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    We developed the Alb-DsRed2 transgenic (Tg) rat designed with liver-specific expression of the red fluorescent protein, DsRed2. Herein, we report high expression of DsRed2 in neonate liver of both sexes, although they were sexually dimorphic and exhibited a male-specific pattern in adult rats. In an effort to examine the expression in each animal under development, we employed an in vivo Bio-imaging system to quantitatively estimate hepatic DsRed2 expression levels. The temporal profiles pertaining to DsRed expression were similar in male and female Tg rats until 28 days old. The levels in both sexes decreased gradually following birth, and were not detectable at 21 days. Subsequently, expression in males increased again at 35 days and was maintained at a persistently high level thereafter. On the other hand, expression in females disappeared steadily. Although hepatic DsRed expression levels in gonadectomized Tg rats was not significantly different, DsRed expression in hypophysectomized female Tg rats appeared dramatically 72 hr following operation. Hepatocytes were collected from adult Tg rats and cultured in conditioning medium. DsRed expression in female hepatocytes could be detected 72 hr following culturing. These results suggest that hepatic DsRed expression in female rats is regulated in vivo by the pituitary. This report is shows use of Alb-DsRed2 Tg rats in conjunction with a novel bio-imaging system represents a powerful experimental system.

  11. Acute hepatitis in rats expressing human hepatitis B virus transgenes.

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, H.; Fujimoto, J.; Hanada, S.; Isselbacher, K. J.

    1995-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for hepatocyte death and the events leading to viral clearance in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are not well understood. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved have been complicated by the difficulty of infecting human hepatocytes with HBV in vitro and the lack of an appropriate animal model. We report an animal model of human HBV infection by in vivo transfection. We have directly introduced a replication-competent, cloned HBV construct into rat live...

  12. Light-evoked Somatosensory Perception of Transgenic Rats That Express Channelrhodopsin-2 in Dorsal Root Ganglion Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Zhi-Gang; Ito, Shin; Honjoh, Tatsuya; OHTA, HIROYUKI; Ishizuka, Toru; Fukazawa, Yugo; Yawo, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrate somatosensory systems, each mode of touch-pressure, temperature or pain is sensed by sensory endings of different dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which conducted to the specific cortical loci as nerve impulses. Therefore, direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve endings causes an erroneous sensation to be conducted by the nerve. We have recently generated several transgenic lines of rat in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) transgene is driven by the Thy-1.2 promot...

  13. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats causes oxidant stress and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Barbara A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for acute and chronic airway disease even though there is no evidence that the virus can infect the lung epithelium. Although HIV-related proteins including gp120 and Tat can directly cause oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction, their effects in the lung are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of HIV-1 transgene expression in rats on alveolar epithelial barrier function. Alveolar epithelial barrier function was assessed by determining lung liquid clearance in vivo and alveolar epithelial monolayer permeability in vitro. Oxidant stress in the alveolar space was determined by measuring the glutathione redox couple by high performance liquid chromatography, and the expression and membrane localization of key tight junction proteins were assessed. Finally, the direct effects of the HIV-related proteins gp120 and Tat on alveolar epithelial barrier formation and tight junction protein expression were determined. Results HIV-1 transgene expression caused oxidant stress within the alveolar space and impaired epithelial barrier function even though there was no evidence of overt inflammation within the airways. The expression and membrane localization of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin were decreased in alveolar epithelial cells from HIV-1 transgenic rats. Further, treating alveolar epithelial monolayers from wild type rats in vitro with recombinant gp120 or Tat for 24 hours reproduced many of the effects on zonula occludens-1 and occludin expression and membrane localization. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-related proteins cause oxidant stress and alter the expression of critical tight junction proteins in the alveolar epithelium, resulting in barrier dysfunction.

  14. Production and sorting of transgenic, modified human parathyroid hormone in vivo in rat salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaansen, Janik; Zheng, Changyu; Perez, Paola; Baum, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    Polarized salivary epithelial cells can sort secretory proteins towards either the basolateral or apical pole. Transgenic human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) exclusively sorts apically in rat submandibular glands. To help understand this specific process we modified the hPTH cDNA sequence and delivered the cDNAs to glands in vivo using adenoviral (Ad) vectors. The Ad vectors encoded: 1) the native form of hPTH (Ad.pre-pro-hPTH1-84), 2) the native sequence, but with the pro segment deleted (Ad.pr...

  15. Effect of HIV-1-related protein expression on cardiac and skeletal muscles from transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidot David M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and the consequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has protean manifestations, including muscle wasting and cardiomyopathy, which contribute to its high morbidity. The pathogenesis of these myopathies remains partially understood, and may include nutritional deficiencies, biochemical abnormalities, inflammation, and other mechanisms due to viral infection and replication. Growing evidence has suggested that HIV-1-related proteins expressed by the host in response to viral infection, including Tat and gp120, may also be involved in the pathophysiology of AIDS, particularly in cells or tissues that are not directly infected with HIV-1. To explore the potentially independent effects of HIV-1-related proteins on heart and skeletal muscles, we used a transgenic rat model that expresses several HIV-1-related proteins (e.g., Tat, gp120, and Nef. Outcome measures included basic heart and skeletal muscle morphology, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress, and gene expressions of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF-1 and Transforming Growth Factor-?1 (TGF?1, three factors associated with muscle catabolism. Results Consistent with HIV-1 associated myopathies in humans, HIV-1 transgenic rats had increased relative heart masses, decreased relative masses of soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles, and decreased total and myosin heavy chain type-specific plantaris muscle fiber areas. In both tissues, the levels of cystine (Cyss, the oxidized form of the anti-oxidant cysteine (Cys, and Cyss:Cys ratios were significantly elevated, and cardiac tissue from HIV-1 transgenic rats had altered glutathione metabolism, all reflective of significant oxidative stress. In HIV-1 transgenic rat hearts, MuRF-1 gene expression was increased. Further, HIV-1-related protein expression also increased atrogin-1 (~14- and ~3-fold and TGF?1 (~5-fold and ~3-fold in heart and plantaris muscle tissues, respectively. Conclusion We provide compelling experimental evidence that HIV-1-related proteins can lead to significant cardiac and skeletal muscle complications independently of viral infection or replication. Our data support the concept that HIV-1-related proteins are not merely disease markers, but rather have significant biological activity that may lead to increased oxidative stress, the stimulation of redox-sensitive pathways, and altered muscle morphologies. If correct, this pathophysiological scheme suggests that the use of dietary thiol supplements could reduce skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction in HIV-1-infected individuals.

  16. Angiotensin II induced inflammation in the kidney and in the heart of double transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Hermann

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We are investigating a double transgenic rat (dTGR model, in which rats transgenic for the human angiotensinogen and renin genes are crossed. These rats develop moderately severe hypertension but die of end-organ cardiac and renal damage by week 7. The heart shows necrosis and fibrosis, whereas the kidneys resemble the hemolytic-uremic syndrome vasculopathy. Surface adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are expressed early on the endothelium, while the corresponding ligands are found on circulating leukocytes. Leukocyte infiltration in the vascular wall accompanies PAI-1, MCP-1, iNOS and Tissue Factor expression. Furthermore we show evidence that Ang II causes the upregulation of NF-kB in our model. Methods We started PDTC-treatment on four weeks old dTGR (200 mg/kg sc and age-matched SD rats.. Blood-pressure- and albuminuria- measurements were monitored during the treatement period (four weeks. The seven weeks old animals were killed, hearts and kidneys were isolated and used for immunohistochemical-and electromobility shift assay analsis. Results Chronic treatment with the antioxidant PDTC decreased blood pressure (162 ± 8 vs. 190 ± 7 mm Hg, p = 0.02. Cardiac hypertrophy index was significantly reduced (4.90 ± 0.1 vs. 5.77 ± 0.1 mg/g, p Conclusion Our data show that inhibition of NF-?B by PDTC markedly reduces inflammation, iNOS expression in the dTGR most likely leading to decreased cytotoxicity, and cell proliferation. Thus, NF-?B activation plays an important role in ANG II-induced end-organ damage.

  17. Hormone secretion in transgenic rats and electrophysiological activity in their gonadotropin releasing-hormone neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Vernon L; Hemond, Peter J; Schmidt, Deena; O'Boyle, Michael P; Hemond, Zoe; Best, Janet; O'Farrell, Laura; Suter, Kelly J

    2012-07-15

    Expression of GFP in GnRH neurons has allowed for studies of individual GnRH neurons. We have demonstrated previously the preservation of physiological function in male GnRH-GFP mice. In the present study, we confirm using biocytin-filled GFP-positive neurons in the hypothalamic slice preparation that GFP-expressing somata, axons, and dendrites in hypothalamic slices from GnRH-GFP rats are GnRH1 peptide positive. Second, we used repetitive sampling to study hormone secretion from GnRH-GFP transgenic rats in the homozygous, heterozygous, and wild-type state and between transgenic and Wistar males after ~4 yr of backcrossing. Parameters of hormone secretion were not different between the three genetic groups or between transgenic males and Wistar controls. Finally, we performed long-term recording in as many GFP-identified GnRH neurons as possible in hypothalamic slices to determine their patterns of discharge. In some cases, we obtained GnRH neuronal recordings from individual males in which blood samples had been collected the previous day. Activity in individual GnRH neurons was expressed as total quiescence, a continuous pattern of firing of either low or relatively high frequencies or an intermittent pattern of firing. In males with both intensive blood sampling (at 6-min intervals) and recordings from their GnRH neurons, we analyzed the activity of GnRH neurons with intermittent activity above 2 Hz using cluster analysis on both data sets. The average number of pulses was 3.9 ± 0.6/h. The average number of episodes of firing was 4.0 ± 0.6/h. Therefore, the GnRH pulse generator may be maintained in the sagittal hypothalamic slice preparation. PMID:22621869

  18. Modified impact of emotion on temporal discrimination in a transgenic rat model of Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlexisFaure

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is characterized by triad of motor, cognitive and emotional symptoms along with neuropathology in fronto-striatal circuit and limbic system including amygdala. Emotional alterations, which have a negative impact on patient well-being, represent some of the earliest symptoms of HD and might be related to the onset of the neurodegenerative process. In the transgenic rat model (tgHD rats, evidence suggest emotional alterations at the symptomatic stage along with neuropathology of the central nucleus of amygdala (CE. Studies in humans and animals demonstrate that emotion can modulate time perception. The impact of emotion on time perception has never been tested in HD, nor is it known if that impact could be part of the presymptomatic emotional phenotype of the pathology. The aim of this paper was to characterize the effect of emotion on temporal discrimination in presymptomatic tgHD animals. In the first experiment, we characterized the acute effect of an emotion (fear conditioned stimulus on temporal discrimination using a bisection procedure, and tested its dependency upon an intact central amygdala. The second experiment was aimed at comparing presymptomatic homozygous transgenic animals at 7-months of age and their wild-type littermates (WT in their performance on the modulation of temporal discrimination by emotion. Our principal findings show that (1 a fear cue produces a short-lived decrease of temporal precision after its termination, and (2 animals with medial CE lesion and presymptomatic tgHD animals demonstrate an alteration of this emotion-evoked temporal distortion. The results contribute to our knowledge about the presymptomatic phenotype of this HD rat model, showing susceptibility to emotion that may be related to dysfunction of the central nucleus of amygdala.

  19. Modified impact of emotion on temporal discrimination in a transgenic rat model of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Alexis; Es-Seddiqi, Mouna; Brown, Bruce L; Nguyen, Hoa P; Riess, Olaf; von Hörsten, Stephan; Le Blanc, Pascale; Desvignes, Nathalie; Bozon, Bruno; El Massioui, Nicole; Doyère, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by triad of motor, cognitive, and emotional symptoms along with neuropathology in fronto-striatal circuit and limbic system including amygdala. Emotional alterations, which have a negative impact on patient well-being, represent some of the earliest symptoms of HD and might be related to the onset of the neurodegenerative process. In the transgenic rat model (tgHD rats), evidence suggest emotional alterations at the symptomatic stage along with neuropathology of the central nucleus of amygdala (CE). Studies in humans and animals demonstrate that emotion can modulate time perception. The impact of emotion on time perception has never been tested in HD, nor is it known if that impact could be part of the presymptomatic emotional phenotype of the pathology. The aim of this paper was to characterize the effect of emotion on temporal discrimination in presymptomatic tgHD animals. In the first experiment, we characterized the acute effect of an emotion (fear) conditioned stimulus on temporal discrimination using a bisection procedure, and tested its dependency upon an intact central amygdala. The second experiment was aimed at comparing presymptomatic homozygous transgenic animals at 7-months of age and their wild-type littermates (WT) in their performance on the modulation of temporal discrimination by emotion. Our principal findings show that (1) a fear cue produces a short-lived decrease of temporal precision after its termination, and (2) animals with medial CE lesion and presymptomatic tgHD animals demonstrate an alteration of this emotion-evoked temporal distortion. The results contribute to our knowledge about the presymptomatic phenotype of this HD rat model, showing susceptibility to emotion that may be related to dysfunction of the central nucleus of amygdala. PMID:24133419

  20. Mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, J; Loli, P; Georgiadis, P; Dusinská, M; Hurbánková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Kazimírová, A; Barancoková, M; Tatrai, E; Oesterle, D; Wolff, T; Kyrtopoulos, S A

    2004-09-01

    In order to get more insight into the mechanism of asbestos-related lung cancer, the mutagenic potential of asbestos was examined in vivo in rat lung. Groups of five transgenic lambda-lacI (Big Blue) rats were intratracheally instilled with single doses of 1 or 2mg, or with four weekly doses of 2mg, per animal of the amosite asbestos. Sixteen weeks after instillation, the mutation frequency was found to be increased in lung DNA by 2-fold at doses of 2 mg (P = 0.035) and of 4 x 2 mg (P = 0.007) amosite. No significant changes were observed after 4 weeks of exposure. In separate experiments, wild-type F344 rats were treated by the same regimen as described above and markers of inflammation, genotoxicity, cell proliferation and lung tissue damage were analysed. Our results indicate a weak but persistent inflammation and cell proliferation which possibly plays a major role in the observed mutagenic effect. PMID:15288534

  1. Expression of the rat myosin light-chain 2 gene in transgenic mice: stage specificity, developmental regulation, and interrelation with the endogenous gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Shani, M.; Dekel, I; Yoffe, O

    1988-01-01

    The expression of the rat skeletal myosin light-chain 2 gene in two transgenic strains was tissue specific and stage specific. However, the temporal regulation during development of the transgene was different from that of the endogenous gene. Surprisingly, in one strain, the expression of the transgene was associated with a significant down-regulation of the endogenous gene. The possible mechanisms to account for the suppression of the endogenous gene and the potential implications of this s...

  2. Autonomic cardiac control in animal models of cardiovascular diseases II. Variability analysis in transgenic rats with alpha-tropomyosin mutations Asp175Asn and Glu180Gly

    OpenAIRE

    Wernicke, D.; Wessel, N.; Malberg, H; Plehm, R; Bauernschmitt, R; Thierfelder, L

    2007-01-01

    Animal models of cardiovascular diseases allow to investigate relevant pathogenetic mechanisms in detail. In the present study, the mutations Asp175Asn and Glu180Gly in alpha-tropomyosin (TPM1), known cause familiar hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) were studied for changes in hemodynamic parameters and spontaneous baroreflex regulation in transgenic rats in comparison to transgenic and non-transgenic controls by telemetry. Heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) wer...

  3. Aliskiren, a human renin inhibitor, ameliorates cardiac and renal damage in double-transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Bernhard; Shagdarsuren, Erdenechimeg; Wellner, Maren; Fiebeler, Anette; Dechend, Ralf; Gratze, Petra; Meiners, Silke; Feldman, David L; Webb, Randy L; Garrelds, Ingrid M; Jan Danser, A H; Luft, Friedrich C; Müller, Dominik N

    2005-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the renin inhibitor aliskiren ameliorates organ damage in rats transgenic for human renin and angiotensinogen genes (double transgenic rat [dTGR]). Six-week-old dTGR were matched by albuminuria (2 mg per day) and divided into 5 groups. Untreated dTGR were compared with aliskiren (3 and 0.3 mg/kg per day)-treated and valsartan (Val; 10 and 1 mg/kg per day)-treated rats. Treatment was from week 6 through week 9. At week 6, all groups had elevated systolic blood pressure (BP). Untreated dTGR showed increased BP (202+/-4 mm Hg), serum creatinine, and albuminuria (34+/-5.7 mg per day) at week 7. At week 9, both doses of aliskiren lowered BP (115+/-6 and 139+/-5 mm Hg) and albuminuria (0.4+/-0.1 and 1.6+/-0.6 mg per day) and normalized serum creatinine. Although high-dose Val lowered BP (148+/-4 mm Hg) and albuminuria (2.1+/-0.7 mg per day), low-dose Val reduced BP (182+/-3 mm Hg) and albuminuria (24+/-3.8 mg per day) to a lesser extent. Mortality was 100% in untreated dTGR and 26% in Val (1 mg/kg per day) treated rats, whereas in all other groups, survival was 100%. dTGR treated with low-dose Val had cardiac hypertrophy (4.4+/-0.1 mg/g), increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, and diastolic dysfunction. LV atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain mRNA, albuminuria, fibrosis, and cell infiltration were also increased. In contrast, both aliskiren doses and the high-dose Val lowered BP to a similar extent and more effectively than low-dose Val. We conclude that in dTGR, equieffective antihypertensive doses of Val or aliskiren attenuated end-organ damage. Thus, renin inhibition compares favorably to angiotensin receptor blockade in reversing organ damage in dTGR. PMID:16103264

  4. Food-anticipatory activity and liver per1-luc activity in diabetic transgenic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Alec J.; Stokkan, Karl-Arne; Yamazaki, Shin; Menaker, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The mammalian Per1 gene is an important component of the core cellular clock mechanism responsible for circadian rhythms. The rodent liver and other tissues rhythmically express Per1 in vitro but typically damp out within a few cycles. In the liver, the peak of this rhythm occurs in the late subjective night in an ad lib-fed rat, but will show a large phase advance in response to restricted availability of food during the day. The relationship between this shift in the liver clock and food-anticipatory activity (FAA), the circadian behavior entrained by daily feeding, is currently unknown. Insulin is released during feeding in mammals and could serve as an entraining signal to the liver. To test the role of insulin in the shift in liver Per1 expression and the generation of FAA, per-luciferase transgenic rats were made diabetic with a single injection of streptozotocine. Following 1 week of restricted feeding and locomotor activity monitoring, liver was collected for per-luc recording. In two separate experiments, FAA emerged and liver Per1 phase-shifted in response to daytime 8-h food restriction. The results rule out insulin as a necessary component of this system.

  5. Regulatory T cells ameliorate intrauterine growth retardation in a transgenic rat model for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyl, Lukasz; Ibrahim, Tarek; Haase, Nadine; Golic, Michaela; Rugor, Julianna; Luft, Friedrich C; Bendix, Ivo; Serdar, Meray; Wallukat, Gerd; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Müller, Dominik N; Hünig, Thomas; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Herse, Florian; LaMarca, Babette; Dechend, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystemic syndrome during pregnancy that is often associated with intrauterine growth retardation. Immunologic dysregulation, involving T cells, is implicated in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of upregulating regulatory T cells in an established transgenic rat model for preeclampsia. Application of superagonistic monoclonal antibody for CD28 has been shown to effectively upregulate regulatory T cells. In the first protocol (treatment protocol), we applied 1 mg of CD28 superagonist or control antibody on days 11 and 15 of pregnancy. In the second protocol (prevention protocol), the superagonist or control antibody was applied on days 1, 5, and 9. Superagonist increased regulatory T cells in circulation and placenta from 8.49±2.09% of CD4-positive T cells to 23.50±3.05% and from 3.85±1.45% to 23.27±7.64%, respectively. Blood pressure and albuminuria (30.6±15.1 versus 14.6±5.5 mg/d) were similar in the superagonist or control antibody-treated preeclamptic group for both protocols. Rats treated with CD28 superagonist showed increased pup weights in the prevention protocol (2.66±0.03 versus 2.37±0.05 g) and in the treatment protocol (3.04±0.04 versus 2.54±0.1 g). Intrauterine growth retardation, calculated by brain:liver weight ratio, was also decreased by the superagonist in both protocols. Further analysis of brain development revealed a 20% increase in brain volume by the superagonist. Induction of regulatory T cells in the circulation and the uteroplacental unit in an established preeclamptic rat model had no influence on maternal hypertension and proteinuria. However, it substantially improved fetal outcome by ameliorating intrauterine growth retardation. PMID:25847949

  6. Transgenic rats overexpressing the human MrgX3 gene show cataracts and an abnormal skin phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human MrgX3 gene, belonging to the mrgs/SNSRs (mass related genes/sensory neuron specific receptors) family, was overexpressed in transgenic rats using the actin promoter. Two animal lines showed cataracts with liquification/degeneration and swelling of the lens fiber cells. The transient epidermal desquamation was observed in line with higher gene expression. Histopathology of the transgenic rats showed acanthosis and focal parakeratosis. In the epidermis, there was an increase in cellular keratin 14, keratin 10, and loricrin, as well as PGP 9.5 in innervating nerve fibers. These phenotypes accompanied an increase in the number of proliferating cells. These results suggest that overexpression of the human MrgX3 gene causes a disturbance of the normal cell-differentiation process

  7. Fat-specific transgenic expression of resistin in the spontaneously hypertensive rat impairs fatty acid re-esterification.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Kazdová, L.; Cahová, M.; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Wang, J.; Qi, N.; Kurtz, T. W.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 30, ?. 7 (2006), s. 1157-1159. ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA301/03/0751; GA MZd(CZ) NB7403; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant ostatní: HHMI(US) 55005624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spontaneously hypertensive rat * transgenic resistin * fatty acid reesterification Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.055, year: 2006

  8. Adolescent HIV-1 Transgenic Rats: Evidence for Dopaminergic Alterations in Behavior and Neurochemistry Revealed by Methamphetamine Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Landhing M.; Aksenov, Michael Y.; Booze, Rosemarie M; Webb, Katy M.; Mactutus, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the mid-90s, the most severe forms of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have diminished. However, milder forms of HAND remain prevalent. Basic and clinical studies implicate alterations in the dopaminergic (DAergic) system in HIV-1 infection. We used the Fischer 344 HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1 Tg) rat, which expresses 7 of the 9 HIV-1 genes, to examine potential DAergic alterations. Animals were studied beginnin...

  9. Neuronal driven pre-plaque inflammation in a transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzel, Cecilia E; Pichet-Binette, Alexa; Pimentel, Luisa S B; Iulita, M Florencia; Allard, Simon; Ducatenzeiler, Adriana; Do Carmo, Sonia; Cuello, A Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Chronic brain inflammation is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is classically attributed to amyloid plaque deposition. However, whether the amyloid pathology can trigger early inflammatory processes before plaque deposition remains a matter of debate. To address the possibility that a pre-plaque inflammatory process occurs, we investigated the status of neuronal, astrocytic, and microglial markers in pre- and post-amyloid plaque stages in a novel transgenic rat model of an AD-like amyloid pathology (McGill-R-Thy1-APP). In this model, we found a marked upregulation of several classical inflammatory markers such as COX-2, IL-1?, TNF-?, and fractalkine (CX3CL1) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, many of these markers were highly expressed in amyloid beta-burdened neurons. Activated astrocytes and microglia were associated with these A?-burdened neurons. These findings confirm the occurrence of a proinflammatory process preceding amyloid plaque deposition and suggest that A?-burdened neurons play a crucial role in initiating inflammation in AD. PMID:24831823

  10. Sustained and promoter dependent bone morphogenetic protein expression by rat mesenchymal stem cells after BMP-2 transgene electrotransfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ferreira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with electrotransferred bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 transgene is an attractive therapeutic modality for the treatment of large bone defects: it provides both stem cells with the ability to form bone and an effective bone inducer while avoiding viral gene transfer. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of the promoter driving the human BMP-2 gene on the level and duration of BMP-2 expression after transgene electrotransfer into rat MSCs. Cytomegalovirus, elongation factor-1?, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and beta-actin promoters resulted in a BMP-2 secretion rate increase of 11-, 78-, 66- and 36-fold over respective controls, respectively. In contrast, the osteocalcin promoter had predictable weak activity in undifferentiated MSCs but induced the strongest BMP-2 secretion rates in osteoblastically-differentiated MSCs. Regardless of the promoter driving the transgene, a plateau of maximal BMP-2 secretion persisted for at least 21 d after the hBMP-2 gene electrotransfer. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of gene electrotransfer for efficient BMP-2 transgene delivery into MSCs and for a three-week sustained BMP-2 expression. It also provides the first in vitro evidence for a safe alternative to viral methods that permit efficient BMP-2 gene delivery and expression in MSCs but raise safety concerns that are critical when considering clinical applications.

  11. Age-related autocrine diabetogenic effects of transgenic resistin in spontaneously hypertensive rats: gene expression profile analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, J.; Maxová, M.; Kazdová, L.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Ch. E.; Eminaga, S.; Gorham, J.; Wang, J.; Kurtz, T. W.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 43, ?. 7 (2011), s. 372-379. ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME08006; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA500110805; GA MZd(CZ) NS9759 Grant ostatní: Fondation Leducq(FR) 06CVD03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : transgenic rat * adipose tissue * insulin resistance * autocrine effects Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.735, year: 2011

  12. Rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Sofía Rodríguez-Reyna, Cynthia Martínez-Reyes, Jesús Kazúo Yamamoto-Furusho

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature concerning rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including common immune-mediated pathways, frequency, clinical course and therapy. Musculoskeletal complications are frequent and well-recognized manifestations in IBD, and affect up to 33% of patients with IBD. The strong link between the bowel and the osteo-articular system is suggested by many clinical and experimental observations, notably in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. The autoimmune...

  13. Interaction between ERAP1 and HLA-B27 in ankylosing spondylitis implicates peptide handling in the mechanism for HLA-B27 in disease susceptibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, DM; Spencer, CCA; Pointon, JJ; Su, Z; Harvey, D.; Kochan, G; Opperman, U; Dilthey, A; Pirinen, M; Stone, MA; Appleton, L; Moutsianis, L; Leslie, S.; Wordsworth, T; Kenna, TJ

    2011-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a common form of inflammatory arthritis predominantly affecting the spine and pelvis that occurs in approximately 5 out of 1,000 adults of European descent. Here we report the identification of three variants in the RUNX3, LTBR-TNFRSF1A and IL12B regions convincingly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (P < 5 × 10(-8) in the combined discovery and replication datasets) and a further four loci at PTGER4, TBKBP1, ANTXR2 and CARD9 that show strong association across...

  14. Sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 overexpression is associated with reduced adipogenesis and ectopic fat accumulation in transgenic spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Šilhavý, Jan; Trnovská, J.; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 63, ?. 5 (2014), s. 587-590. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH12061 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat * lipid metabolism Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  15. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of gama-lacI transgenic rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Loli, P.; Hurbánková, M.; Ková?iková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Wolff, T.; Oesterle, D.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 595, - (2006), s. 167-173. ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : transgenic rats * mineral fibres * mutations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.111, year: 2006

  16. Role of HIV-1 Infection in Addictive Behavior: A Study of a HIV-1 Transgenic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulie L. Chang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research indicates that drug abuse is prevalent among individuals infected with HIV-1. Evidence from preclinical research also suggests that drugs of abuse exacerbate the progression of neuropathological changes in the HIV-1 infected brain probably through common mechanisms of neuronal injury. The effects of HIV-1 on the efficacy and abuse potential of controlled drugs such as morphine, however, has not been explored. The current study reports that the noninfectious HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1 Tg rat shows up-regulated expression of the mu opioid receptor (MOR at the transcriptional level and functional supersensitivity to morphine, a MOR agonist. Compared to nontransgenic control rats, the HIV-1 Tg rats also show greater motivation to run in a wheel, a behavior that is known to be associated with increased drug self-administration. These results suggest the potential role of HIV-1 infection in enhancing vulnerability to addiction and this possibility warrants further investigation to better understand the link between HIV-1 infection and the abuse of drugs including opioids.

  17. Increased neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers, and reduced synaptic proteins, in brain of HIV-1 transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Gaylia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment has been reported in human immune deficiency virus-1- (HIV-1- infected patients as well as in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg rats. This impairment has been linked to neuroinflammation, disturbed brain arachidonic acid (AA metabolism, and synapto-dendritic injury. We recently reported upregulated brain AA metabolism in 7- to 9-month-old HIV-1 Tg rats. We hypothesized that these HIV-1 Tg rats also would show upregulated brain inflammatory and AA cascade markers and a deficit of synaptic proteins. Methods We measured protein and mRNA levels of markers of neuroinflammation and the AA cascade, as well as pro-apoptotic factors and synaptic proteins, in brains from 7- to 9-month-old HIV-1 Tg and control rats. Results Compared with control brain, HIV-1 Tg rat brain showed immunoreactivity to glycoprotein 120 and tat HIV-1 viral proteins, and significantly higher protein and mRNA levels of (1 the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor ?, (2 the activated microglial/macrophage marker CD11b, (3 AA cascade enzymes: AA-selective Ca2+-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2-IVA, secretory sPLA2-IIA, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, membrane prostaglandin E2 synthase, 5-lipoxygenase (LOX and 15-LOX, cytochrome p450 epoxygenase, and (4 transcription factor NF-?Bp50 DNA binding activity. HIV-1 Tg rat brain also exhibited signs of cell injury, including significantly decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and drebrin, a marker of post-synaptic excitatory dendritic spines. Expression of Ca2+-independent iPLA2-VIA and COX-1 was unchanged. Conclusions HIV-1 Tg rats show elevated brain markers of neuroinflammation and AA metabolism, with a deficit in several synaptic proteins. These changes are associated with viral proteins and may contribute to cognitive impairment. The HIV-1 Tg rat may be a useful model for understanding progression and treatment of cognitive impairment in HIV-1 patients.

  18. Use of permethrin eradicated the tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) from a colony of mutagenized and transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William A; Randolph, Mildred M; Boyd, Keli L; Mandrell, Timothy D

    2005-09-01

    The tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti, was identified in a colony of mutagenized and transgenic mice at a large academic institution. O. bacoti is an obligate, blood-feeding ectoparasite with an extensive host range. Although the source of the infestation was likely feral rodents, none were found in the room housing infested mice. We hypothesize that construction on the floor above the vivarium and compromised ceiling integrity within the animal room provided for vermin entry and subsequent O. bacoti infestation. O. bacoti infestation was eliminated by environmental decontamination with synthetic pyrethroids and weekly application of 7.4% permethrin-impregnated cotton balls to mouse caging for five consecutive weeks. Visual examination of the macroenvironment, microenvironment, and colony for 38 days confirmed the efficacy of treatment. We noted no treatment-related toxicities or effects on colony production. PMID:16138779

  19. Primary T-cells from human CD4/CCR5-transgenic rats support all early steps of HIV-1 replication including integration, but display impaired viral gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Volker

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo studies on HIV-1 pathogenesis and testing of antiviral strategies have been hampered by the lack of an immunocompetent small animal model that is highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Since native rodents are non-permissive, we developed transgenic rats that selectively express the HIV-1 receptor complex, hCD4 and hCCR5, on relevant target cells. These animals display a transient low-level plasma viremia after HIV-1YU-2 infection, demonstrating HIV-1 susceptibility in vivo. However, unlike macrophages, primary CD4 T-cells from double-transgenic animals fail to support viral spread ex vivo. To identify quantitative limitations or absolute blocks in this rodent species, we quantitatively assessed the efficiency of key steps in the early phase of the viral replication cycle in a side-by-side comparison in infected cell lines and primary T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5-transgenic rats and human donors. Results Levels of virus entry, HIV-1 cDNA synthesis, nuclear import, and integration into the host genome were shown to be remarkably similar in cell lines and, where technically accessible, in primary T-cells from both species. In contrast, a profound impairment at the level of early HIV gene expression was disclosed at the single-cell level in primary rat T-cells and most other rat-derived cells. Macrophages were a notable exception, possibly reflecting the unique transcriptional milieu in this evolutionarily conserved target cell of all lentiviruses. Importantly, transient trans-complementation by ex vivo nucleofection with the Tat-interacting protein Cyclin T1 of human origin markedly elevated HIV gene expression in primary rat T-cells. Conclusion This is the first study that has quantitatively determined the efficiency of consecutive steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle in infected primary HIV target cells from a candidate transgenic small animal and compared it to human cells. Unlike cells derived from mice or rabbits, rat cells complete all of the early steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle, including provirus integration in vivo, with high efficiency. A deficiency in gene expression was disclosed at the single cell level and could be counteracted by the human pTEFb transcription complex factor Cyclin T1. Collectively, these results provide the basis for the advancement of this transgenic rat model through strategies aimed at boosting HIV-1 gene expression in primary rat CD4 T-cells, including human Cyclin T1 transgenesis.

  20. HIV-1 transgenic rat CD4+ T cells develop decreased CD28 responsiveness and suboptimal Lck tyrosine dephosphorylation following activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impaired CD4+ T cell responses, resulting in dysregulated T-helper 1 (Th1) effector and memory responses, are a common result of HIV-1 infection. These defects are often preceded by decreased expression and function of the ?/? T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex and of co-stimulatory molecules including CD28, resulting in altered T cell proliferation, cytokine secretion and cell survival. We have previously shown that HIV Tg rats have defective development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets. Here we identify abnormalities in activated HIV-1 Tg rat CD4+ T cells that include decreased pY505 dephosphorylation of Lck (required for Lck activation), decreased CD28 function, reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-xL, decreased secretion of the mitogenic lympokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and increased activation induced apoptosis. These events likely lead to defects in antigen-specific signaling and may help explain the disruption of Th1 responses and the generation of specific effector/memory subsets in transgenic CD4+ T cells

  1. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loli, P; Topinka, J; Georgiadis, P; Dusinská, M; Hurbánková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Wolff, T; Oesterle, D; Kyrtopoulos, S A

    2004-09-01

    To study the suspected mechanism of the interaction between tobacco smoking and asbestos exposure in the modulation of cancer risk, the mutagenic potential of asbestos in combination with the tobacco smoke carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was examined in vivo in the rat lung. B[a]P was administered intratracheally in one set of experiments, or by two daily intraperitoneal injections in another set of experiments, to lambdalacI transgenic rats, together with 1, 2 or 4 x 2 mg amosite in one experiment. In the first experiment, the combined action of amosite and B[a]P caused a synergistic (superadditive) increase of mutation frequency in the lung, as compared to groups treated only with asbestos or B[a]P. In the second experiment, i.p. treatment with B[a]P did not significantly alter the mutation frequency induced by amosite, neither after 4 nor after 16 weeks of exposure. The B[a]P-DNA adduct levels were unaffected by amosite co-treatment in both experiments. We assume that the synergistic increase of mutation frequency after intratracheal treatment was due to the mitogenic activities of B[a]P and of amosite. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a weak and delayed mutagenic effect of amosite in rat lung observed in another study was strongly enhanced by the concomitant action of B[a]P. The striking enhancement effect of B[a]P may provide a basis for understanding the suspected synergism of smoking on asbestos carcinogenesis. PMID:15288535

  2. Fumaric Acid Esters Can Block Pro-Inflammatory Actions of Human CRP and Ameliorate Metabolic Disturbances in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Jan; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Oliyarnyk, O.; Škop, V.; Kazdová, L.; Kurtz, T.; Pravenec, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 7 (2014), e101906. ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14325; GA MŠk(CZ) LH12061; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : fumaric acid esters * C-reactive protein * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  3. RNA Deep Sequencing Analysis Reveals That Nicotine Restores Impaired Gene Expression by Viral Proteins in the Brains of HIV-1 Transgenic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Junran; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Ju; Cui, Wenyan; Nesil, Tanseli; Vigorito, Michael; Chang, Sulie L.; Li, Ming D

    2013-01-01

    Persons infected with HIV-1 often develop neurologic disorders despite receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Although the underlying mechanism is largely undetermined, our previous RNA-seq-based study showed that the expression of many genes was altered in the central nervous system (CNS) of HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rats. Because nicotine, a natural agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, exhibits a neuroprotective effect, we presently tested the hypothesis that nicotine re...

  4. Radiographic visualisation of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis in Carriers of HLA-B27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of 11 B27-positive, seropositive patients with rheumatoid arthritis was compared with 11 matched B27-negative seropositive patients. The radiographs of all limb joints, the sacroiliac joints, and the cervical spine were read blindly. Ten patients in each group were radiographed 2-6 times during observation periods of 3-13 years; one patient in each group was only examined once. The prevailing picture of both groups was that of progressive erosive rheumatoid arthritis, although two small differences were found: Erosions of the apophyseal joints of the cervical spine and slight periosteal new bone formation of the shoulder, hip, and knee regions occurred more often in the B27-positive than in the B27-negative group. (orig.)

  5. Strong association of HLA-B27 heavy chain with beta(2)-microglobulin.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tran, T. M.; Ho?ejší, Václav; Weinrich, S.; Pla, M.; Breur, B. S.; ?apková, Jana; Flieger, Miroslav; Ivanyi, P.; Ivašková, E.

    2000-01-01

    Ro?. 61, ?. 12 (2000), s. 1197-1201. ISSN 0198-8859 R&D Projects: GA MZd NI5314; GA MZd IZ3647 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A53/98:Z5-020-9ii Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2000

  6. Allicin Attenuates Inflammation and Suppresses HLA-B27 Protein Expression in Ankylosing Spondylitis Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Gu; Haishan Wu; Peiliang Fu

    2013-01-01

    Here we aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of allicin on ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and explore the mechanism(s) of action. AS mouse model was constructed by transferring the HLA-B2704 gene into Kunming mice and verified by RT-PCR and CT imaging. Verified AS mice were randomly divided into model group (n = 6) and allicin-treated groups (50, 100, and 200?mg/kg, resp., n = 6, p.o., for 2 months). Wild type mice were used as control (n = 6). The levels of AS-related inflammatory factor...

  7. Is There an HLA-B27 Associated Peptide Responsible for Ankylosin Spondylitis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Man, Petr; Stod?lková, Eva; Ivašková, E.; Flieger, Miroslav

    Praha : Verlag, 2006, s. 96-96. [International Mass Spectrometry Conference /17./. Prague (CZ), 27.08.2006-01.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MZd 1A8631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biomarkers * fourier transform * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. Establishment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and synovium of transgenic rats expressing dual reporter genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masafumi; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2008-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for regenerative medicine because they can be harvested in a relatively less invasive manner, easily isolated, and expanded with multipotentiality. Bone marrow seems to be the most commonly used tissue as a source for MSCs at present. However, there are emerging reports to describe that MSCs exist in most mesenchymal tissues. We have recently compared in vivo chondrogenic potential in MSCs derived from various mesenchymal tissues and demonstrated that synovium-MSCs and bone marrow-MSCs possessed greater chondrogenic ability than other mesenchymal tissue-derived MSCs. This indicates that those MSCs are promising cellular sources for cartilage regeneration. As the fate of synovium-MSCs is unclear after transplantation, we herein established MSCs using double transgenic rats expressing either Luciferase/GFP or Luciferase/LacZ. The cellular fate of MSCs could be traced by an in vivo luciferase-based luminescent imaging system, and also followed histologically by green fluorescence and by X-gal staining, respectively. Thus, both synovium-MSCs and bone marrow-MSCs expressing Luciferase/GFP or Luciferase/LacZ provide powerful tools not only for cell tracking in vivo but also for histological analysis, leading to a compelling experimental model of cartilage regeneration with cell therapy.

  9. Cardiac remodeling during and after renin-angiotensin system stimulation in Cyp1a1-Ren2 transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijnen, Bart Fj; Pelkmans, Leonie Pj

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-induced cardiac remodeling and its reversibility in the presence and absence of high blood pressure (BP) in Cyp1a1-Ren2 transgenic inducible hypertensive rats (IHR). In IHR (pro)renin levels and BP can be dose-dependently titrated by oral administration of indole-3-carbinol (I3C). Young (four-weeks old) and adult (30-weeks old) IHR were fed I3C for four weeks (leading to systolic BP >200 mmHg). RAS-stimulation was stopped and animals were followed-up for a consecutive period. Cardiac function and geometry was determined echocardiographically and the hearts were excised for molecular and immunohistochemical analyses. Echocardiographic studies revealed that four weeks of RAS-stimulation incited a cardiac remodeling process characterized by increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, decreased LV volumes, and shortening of the left ventricle. Hypertrophic genes were highly upregulated, whereas in substantial activation a fibrotic response was absent. Four weeks after withdrawal of I3C, (pro)renin levels were normalized in all IHR. While in adult IHR BP returned to normal, hypertension was sustained in young IHR. Despite the latter, myocardial hypertrophy was fully regressed in both young and adult IHR. We conclude that (pro)renin-induced severe hypertension in IHR causes an age-independent fully reversible myocardial concentric hypertrophic remodeling, despite a continued elevated BP in young IHR.

  10. Transgenic rescue of defective Cd36 enhances myocardial adenylyl cyclase signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klevstig, M.; Manakov, D.; Kašparová, D.; Brabcová, I.; Papoušek, František; Žurmanová, J.; Zídek, Václav; Šilhavý, Jan; Necká?, Jan; Pravenec, Michal; Kolá?, František; Nováková, O.; Novotný, J.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 465, ?. 10 (2013), s. 1477-1486. ISSN 0031-6768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA AV ?R(CZ) IAAX01110901; GA ?R(CZ) GAP303/10/0505 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : SHR rats * Cd36 * heart * beta-Adrenergic receptors * Adenylyl cyclase * Protein kinase A Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.073, year: 2013

  11. Plasmid-based genetic modification of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells: analysis of cell survival and transgene expression after transplantation in rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tendeloo Viggo FI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSC are attractive targets for ex vivo cell and gene therapy. In this context, we investigated the feasibility of a plasmid-based strategy for genetic modification of human (hMSC with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and neurotrophin (NT3. Three genetically modified hMSC lines (EGFP, NT3, NT3-EGFP were established and used to study cell survival and transgene expression following transplantation in rat spinal cord. Results First, we demonstrate long-term survival of transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells in rat spinal cord under, but not without, appropriate immune suppression. Next, we examined the stability of EGFP or NT3 transgene expression following transplantation of hMSC-EGFP, hMSC-NT3 and hMSC-NT3-EGFP in rat spinal cord. While in vivo EGFP mRNA and protein expression by transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells was readily detectable at different time points post-transplantation, in vivo NT3 mRNA expression by hMSC-NT3 cells and in vivo EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells was, respectively, undetectable or declined rapidly between day 1 and 7 post-transplantation. Further investigation revealed that the observed in vivo decline of EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells: (i was associated with a decrease in transgenic NT3-EGFP mRNA expression as suggested following laser capture micro-dissection analysis of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell transplants at day 1 and day 7 post-transplantation, (ii did not occur when hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells were transplanted subcutaneously, and (iii was reversed upon re-establishment of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell cultures at 2 weeks post-transplantation. Finally, because we observed a slowly progressing tumour growth following transplantation of all our hMSC cell transplants, we here demonstrate that omitting immune suppressive therapy is sufficient to prevent further tumour growth and to eradicate malignant xenogeneic cell transplants. Conclusion In this study, we demonstrate that genetically modified hMSC lines can survive in healthy rat spinal cord over at least 3 weeks by using adequate immune suppression and can serve as vehicles for transgene expression. However, before genetically modified hMSC can potentially be used in a clinical setting to treat spinal cord injuries, more research on standardisation of hMSC culture and genetic modification needs to be done in order to prevent tumour formation and transgene silencing in vivo.

  12. Dynamics of testicular germ cell apoptosis in normal mice and transgenic mice overexpressing rat androgen-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrusz Peter

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number and type of testicular germ cells undergoing apoptosis in different age groups of mice (from 7 to 360 days of age was determined and compared in age-matched wild type (WT control and in a transgenic (TG mice homozygous to rat androgen binding protein (ABP using flow cytometry. Flow cytometric quantification revealed that the total number of germ cells undergoing apoptosis did not differ significantly in WT and TG mice up to Day 14. From Day 21 to Day 60, the number of germ cells undergoing apoptosis was consistently higher in TG than in WT mice. Starting from Day 90, the number of germ cells undergoing apoptosis in TG mice was lower than controls until Day 360. In 21–60 days old TG mice, spermatogonia, S-Phase cells, and primary spermatocytes are the cell types undergoing apoptosis at significantly greater numbers than those in WT mice. However, starting from day 60, the total number of spermatids undergoing apoptosis was significantly lower in TG mice than in age-matched WT controls. TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL in testicular sections from TG mice of 21 and 30 days of age confirmed the presence of increased numbers of apoptotic germ cells compared to their age matched controls. These data indicate that the continuous presence of greater than physiological concentrations of ABP in the mouse testis has a biphasic effect on the frequency of apoptosis in germ cells. The initial pre-pubertal increase in testicular germ cell apoptosis may result from direct or indirect actions of ABP and is likely to determine the subsequent life-death balance of germ cell populations in TG mice, whereas the subsequent reduction may result from maturation depletion. A wave of apoptosis during the pre-pubertal period is required for normal spermatogenesis to develop, and our data indicate that this apoptotic wave may be regulated by ABP and/or androgens.

  13. Transgenic mouse lines expressing rat AH receptor variants - A new animal model for research on AH receptor function and dioxin toxicity mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W) rats are exceptionally resistant to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity mainly because of their mutated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene. In H/W rats, altered splicing of the AHR mRNA generates two AHR proteins: deletion (DEL) and insertion (INS) variants, with the INS isoform being predominantly expressed. To gain further insight into their functional properties, cDNAs of these and rat wild-type (rWT) isoform were transferred into C57BL/6J-derived mice by microinjection. The endogenous mouse AHR was eliminated by selective crossing with Ahr-null mice. A single mouse line was obtained for each of the three constructs. The AHR mRNA levels in tissues were generally close to those of C57BL/6 mice in INS and DEL mice and somewhat higher in rWT mice; in testis, however, all 3 constructs exhibited marked overexpression. The transgenic mouse lines were phenotypically normal except for increased testis weight. Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes by TCDD occurred similarly to that in C57BL/6 mice, but there tended to be a correlation with AHR concentrations, especially in testis. In contrast to C57BL/6 mice, the transgenics did not display any major gender difference in susceptibility to the acute lethality and hepatotoxicity of TCDD; rWT mice were highly sensitive, DEL mice moderately resistant and INS mice highly resistant. Co-expression of mouse AHR and rWT resulted in augmented sensitivity to TCDD and abolished the natural reivity to TCDD and abolished the natural resistance of female C57BL/6 mice, whereas mice co-expressing mouse AHR and INS were resistant. Thus, these transgenic mouse lines provide a novel promising tool for molecular studies on dioxin toxicity and AHR function.

  14. A c-fos-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 fusion transgene is differentially expressed in rat forebrain and brainstem after chronic dehydration and rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, M; Ohkubo, J; Katoh, A; Ohno, M; Ishikura, T; Kakuma, T; Yoshimatsu, H; Murphy, D; Ueta, Y

    2013-05-01

    We have previously shown that an acute osmotic stimulation induces the expression of a c-fos and monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion transgene in osmosensitive rat brain areas, including the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN). However, the effects of chronic stimuli, such as dehydration, have not been investigated. In the present study, the expression patterns of the c-fos-mRFP1 fusion gene in the forebrain and the brainstem of male and female transgenic rats were studied in seven experimental groups: ad lib. water (euhydration), water deprivation for 12, 24 or 48 h (dehydration) and water deprivation for 46 h + ad lib. water for 2, 6 or 12 h (rehydration). The number of cells that express nuclear mRFP1 fluorescence was quantified in the hypothalamus, the circumventricular organs and the brainstem. Compared to the euhydrated state, the number of transgene expressing cells significantly increased in all forebrain areas and in the rostral ventrolateral medulla after dehydration and 2 h of rehydration. In the nucleus of the solitary tract and area postrema, the number of mRFP1 fluorescent cells was markedly increased after 2 h of rehydration. Although the number of mRFP1 fluorescent cells in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, median preoptic nucleus and subfornical organ remained significantly increased after 6 h of rehydration, reaching control levels after 12 h of rehydration, the number of mRFP1 fluorescent cells in the SON and the PVN reached control levels after 6 h of rehydration. There were no significant differences between male and female rats. These results show that the expression of the c-fos-mRFP1 fusion gene changes in the forebrain and the brainstem not only after acute osmotic stimulation, but also after chronic osmotic stimulation. Interestingly, these studies reveal the differential activation of different neuronal groups over the time course of dehydration and rehydration. PMID:23350545

  15. Human cyclin T1 expression ameliorates a T-cell-specific transcriptional limitation for HIV in transgenic rats, but is not sufficient for a spreading infection of prototypic R5 HIV-1 strains ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman Dan R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cells derived from native rodents have limits at distinct steps of HIV replication. Rat primary CD4 T-cells, but not macrophages, display a profound transcriptional deficit that is ameliorated by transient trans-complementation with the human Tat-interacting protein Cyclin T1 (hCycT1. Results Here, we generated transgenic rats that selectively express hCycT1 in CD4 T-cells and macrophages. hCycT1 expression in rat T-cells boosted early HIV gene expression to levels approaching those in infected primary human T-cells. hCycT1 expression was necessary, but not sufficient, to enhance HIV transcription in T-cells from individual transgenic animals, indicating that endogenous cellular factors are critical co-regulators of HIV gene expression in rats. T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5/hCycT1-transgenic rats did not support productive infection of prototypic wild-type R5 HIV-1 strains ex vivo, suggesting one or more significant limitation in the late phase of the replication cycle in this primary rodent cell type. Remarkably, we identify a replication-competent HIV-1 GFP reporter strain (R7/3 YU-2 Env that displays characteristics of a spreading, primarily cell-to-cell-mediated infection in primary T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5-transgenic rats. Moreover, the replication of this recombinant HIV-1 strain was significantly enhanced by hCycT1 transgenesis. The viral determinants of this so far unique replicative ability are currently unknown. Conclusion Thus, hCycT1 expression is beneficial to de novo HIV infection in a transgenic rat model, but additional genetic manipulations of the host or virus are required to achieve full permissivity.

  16. Sustained and promoter dependent bone morphogenetic protein expression by rat mesenchymal stem cells after bmp-2 transgene electrotransfer

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, E.; Potier, E.; Vaudin, P.; Oudina, K.; Bensidhoum, M.; Logeart-avramoglou, D.; Lm, Mir; Petite, H.

    2012-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with electrotransferred bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) transgene is an attractive therapeutic modality for the treatment of large bone defects: it provides both stem cells with the ability to form bone and an effective bone inducer while avoiding viral gene transfer. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of the promoter driving the human BMP-2 gene on the level and duration of BMP-2 expression after transgene e...

  17. Germ-line transmission of transgenes in Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas; Huang, Haochu; Berry, Deborah L.; Brown, Donald D.

    1999-01-01

    Adult Xenopus laevis frogs made transgenic by restriction enzyme-mediated integration were bred to test the feasibility of establishing lines of frogs that express transgenes. All of the 19 animals raised to sexual maturity generated progeny that expressed the transgene(s). The patterns and levels of expression of green fluorescent protein transgenes driven by a viral promoter, rat promoter, and four X. laevis promoters were all unaffected by passage through the germ line. These results demon...

  18. Combination of direct renin inhibition with angiotensin type 1 receptor blockade improves aldosterone but does not improve kidney injury in the transgenic Ren2 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley-Connell, Adam; Habibi, Javad; Nistala, Ravi; Hayden, Melvin R; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Sinak, Catherine; Locher, Bonnie; Ferrario, Carlos M; Sowers, James R

    2012-06-10

    Enhanced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation contributes to proteinuria and chronic kidney disease by increasing glomerular and tubulointerstitial oxidative stress, promotion of fibrosis. Renin activation is the rate limiting step in angiotensin (Ang II) and aldosterone generation, and recent work suggests direct renin inhibition improves proteinuria comparable to that seen with Ang type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) blockade. This is important as, even with contemporary use of AT(1)R blockade, the burden of kidney disease remains high. Thereby, we sought to determine if combination of direct renin inhibition with AT(1)R blockade in vivo, via greater attenuation of kidney oxidative stress, would attenuate glomerular and proximal tubule injury to a greater extent than either intervention alone. We utilized the transgenic Ren2 rat with increased tissue RAS activity and higher serum levels of aldosterone, which manifests hypertension and proteinuria. Ren2 rats were treated with renin inhibition (aliskiren), AT(1)R blockade (valsartan), the combination (aliskiren+valsartan), or vehicle for 21days. Compared to Sprague-Dawley controls, Ren2 rats displayed increased systolic pressure (SBP), circulating aldosterone, proteinuria and greater urine levels of the proximal tubule protein excretory marker beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (?-NAG). These functional and biochemical alterations were accompanied by increases in kidney tissue NADPH oxidase subunit Rac1 and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) content as well as fibronectin and collagen type III. These findings occurred in conjunction with reductions in the podocyte-specific protein podocin as well as the proximal tubule-specific megalin. Further, in transgenic animals there was increased tubulointerstitial fibrosis on light microscopy as well as ultrastructural findings of glomerular podocyte foot-process effacement and reduced tubular apical endosomal/lysosomal activity. Combination therapy led to greater reductions in SBP and serum aldosterone, but did not result in greater improvement in markers of glomerular and tubular injury (i.e. ?-NAG) compared to either intervention alone. Further, combination therapy did not improve markers of oxidative stress and podocyte and proximal tubule integrity in this transgenic model of RAAS-mediated kidney damage despite greater reductions in serum aldosterone and BP levels. PMID:22465166

  19. In vivo processing and release into the circulation of GFP fusion protein in arginine vasopressin enhanced GFP transgenic rats: response to osmotic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Keita; Oti, Takumi; Katoh, Akiko; Ueta, Yoichi; Morris, John F; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2015-07-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a neurohypophysial hormone synthesized as a part of a prepropeptide precursor containing the signal peptide, AVP hormone, AVP-associated neurophysin II and copeptin in the hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. A transgenic (Tg) rat line expressing the AVP-eGFP fusion gene has been generated. To establish the AVP-eGFP Tg rat as a unique model for an analysis of AVP dynamics in vivo, we first examined the in vivo molecular dynamics of the AVP-eGFP fusion gene, and then the release of GFP in response to physiological stimuli. Double immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that GFP was specifically localized in neurosecretory vesicles of AVP neurons in this Tg rat. After stimulation of the posterior pituitary with high potassium we demonstrated the exocytosis of AVP neurosecretory vesicles containing GFP at the ultrastructural level. Biochemical analyses indicated that the AVP-eGFP fusion gene is subjected to in vivo post-translational modifications like the native AVP gene, and is packaged into neurosecretory vesicles as a fusion protein: copeptin1-14 -GFP. Moreover, GFP release into the circulating blood appeared to be augmented after osmotic stimulation, like native AVP. Thus, here we show for the first time the in vivo molecular processing of the AVP-eGFP fusion gene and stimulated secretion after osmotic stimulation in rats. Because GFP behaved like native AVP in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis, and in particular was released into the circulation in response to a physiological stimulus, the AVP-eGFP Tg rat model appears to be a powerful tool for analyzing neuroendocrine systems at the organismal level. PMID:25846300

  20. Overexpression of HIF-1? Transgene in the Renal Medulla Attenuated Salt Sensitive Hypertension in Dahl S Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Qing; WANG, ZHENGCHAO; Xia, Min; LI, PIN-LAN; Zhang, Fan; Li, Ningjun

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1?-mediated gene activation in the renal medulla in response to high salt intake plays an important role in the control of salt sensitivity of blood pressure. High salt-induced activation of HIF-1? in the renal medulla is blunted in Dahl S rats. The present study determined whether the impairment of the renal medullary HIF-1? pathway was responsible for salt sensitive hypertension in Dahl S rats. Renal medullary HIF-1? levels were induced by either transfect...

  1. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase counteracts the development of renal dysfunction and progression of congestive heart failure in Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats with aorto-caval fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ervenka, Lud?k; Melenovský, Vojt?ch; Husková, Zuzana; Škaroupková, Petra; Nishiyama, Akira; Sadowski, Janusz

    2015-07-01

    The detailed mechanisms determining the course of congestive heart failure (CHF) in hypertensive subjects with associated renal dysfunction remain unclear. In Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR), a model of angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, CHF was induced by volume overload achieved by creation of the aorto-caval fistula (ACF). In these rats we investigated the putative pathophysiological contribution of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and compared it with the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We found that untreated ACF TGR exhibited marked intrarenal and myocardial deficiency of EETs and impairment of renal function. Chronic treatment of these rats with cis-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid (c-AUCB, 3 mg/L in drinking water), an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) which normally degrades EETs, increased intrarenal and myocardial EETs, markedly improved survival rate, and increased renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and fractional sodium excretion, without altering RAS activity. Chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEi) with trandolapril, (6 mg/L in drinking water) improved survival rate even more, and also inhibited the development of renal dysfunction; these beneficial actions were associated with significant suppression of the vasoconstrictor/sodium retaining axis and further activation of the vasodilatory/natriuretic axis of the systemic and intrarenal RAS, without modifying tissue availability of biologically active fatty acid epoxides. In conclusion, these findings strongly suggest that chronic sEH inhibition and chronic treatment with ACEi, each of them altering a different vasoactive system, delay or even prevent the onset of decompensation of CHF in ACF TGR, probably by preventing the development of renal dysfunction. PMID:25969338

  2. Germ-line transmission of transgenes in Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas; Huang, Haochu; Berry, Deborah L.; Brown, Donald D.

    1999-01-01

    Adult Xenopus laevis frogs made transgenic by restriction enzyme-mediated integration were bred to test the feasibility of establishing lines of frogs that express transgenes. All of the 19 animals raised to sexual maturity generated progeny that expressed the transgene(s). The patterns and levels of expression of green fluorescent protein transgenes driven by a viral promoter, rat promoter, and four X. laevis promoters were all unaffected by passage through the germ line. These results demonstrate the ease of establishing transgenic lines in X. laevis. PMID:10588715

  3. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of lamda-lacI transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, J; Loli, P; Hurbáková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Wolff, T; Oesterle, D; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Georgiadis, P

    2006-03-20

    In an attempt to examine the interaction of man-made mineral fibres with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), homozygous X-lacI transgenic F344 rats were intratracheally treated with rock (stone) wool RWI and glass wool MMVF 10 fibres together with B[a]P. To analyze the induction of gene mutations by fibres and B[a]P in lung, single doses of 1 and 2 mg fibres/animal or multiple doses of 2 mg fibres/animal were administered weekly on 4 consecutive weeks (total dose 8 mg/animal). B[a]P (10 mg/animal) was administered either simultaneously with fibres (for single dose treatment with fibres) or together with the last fiber treatment (for multiple dose treatment with fibres). Animals were scarified 4 weeks after the last treatment. Benzo[a]pyrene administered simultaneously with RW1 fibres exhibited a strong synergistic effect on mutagenicity, the observed mutant frequency (MF) being more than three-fold higher than the net sum of the MF induced after separate administration of both agents. Our data suggest that DNA adducts induced by simultaneous B[a]P and fiber treatment lead to a strong increase in mutatant frequencies. PMID:16375931

  4. Peptides from HLA-B27 molecules of patients with ankylosing spondylitis reveal increased glutamic acid/glutamine ratio.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stod?lková, Eva; Ivašková, E.; Sedlá?ková, M.; Pohl, J.; Votruba, Jaroslav; Man, Petr; ?apková, Jana; Ivanyi, J.; Flieger, Miroslav

    Oslo : Verlag, 2006, s. 12-12. [European Immunogenetics and Histocompatibility conference /20./. Oslo (NO), 08.06.2006-11.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA MZd 1A8631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : sped * peptide Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  5. Nogo-A-deficient transgenic rats show deficits in higher cognitive functions, decreased anxiety and altered circadian activity patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Petrasek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decreased levels of Nogo-A dependent signaling have been shown to affect behavior and cognitive functions. In Nogo-A knockout and knock-down laboratory rodents, behavioral alterations were observed, possibly corresponding with human neuropsychiatric diseases of neurodevelopmental origin, particularly schizophrenia. This study offers further insight into behavioral manifestations of Nogo-A knockdown in laboratory rats, focusing on spatial and non-spatial cognition, anxiety levels, circadian rhythmicity and activity patterns. Demonstrated is an impairment of cognitive functions and behavioral flexibility in a spatial active avoidance task, while non-spatial memory in a step-through avoidance task was spared. No signs of anhedonia, typical for schizophrenic patients, were observed in the animals. Some measures indicated lower anxiety levels in the Nogo-A deficient group. Circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity was preserved in the Nogo-A-knockout rats and their circadian period (tau did not differ from controls. However, daily activity patterns were slightly altered in the knockdown animals. We conclude that a reduction of Nogo-A levels induces changes in CNS development, manifested as subtle alterations in cognitive functions, emotionality and activity patterns.

  6. Mutations induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in cecum and proximal and distal colon of lacI transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, G R; de Boer, J G; Haesevoets, R; Holcroft, J; Kangas, J; Sojonky, K; Thorleifson, E; Thornton, A; Walsh, D F; Yang, H; Glickman, B W

    2001-09-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a food-borne mutagen and carcinogen that induces tumors of the colon and the prostate gland in male rats and of the mammary gland in female rats. In this study we describe the frequency and specificity of PhIP-induced mutations in the cecum, proximal colon and distal colon of male and female lacI transgenic rats. This is the first report of mutational data from discrete regions of the colon. After 61 days of treatment with 200 p.p.m. PhIP mixed into the diet, PhIP-induced mutant frequencies were elevated 7-fold in the cecum and 14- to 21-fold in the colon of male and female rats compared with untreated controls. PhIP-induced mutant frequencies increased significantly (overall trend, P T:A and G:C-->C:G transversions and deletions of G:C base pairs. There were no significant differences between the mutational spectra with respect to sex or position in the colon. Therefore, we surmise that following induction of mutations by PhIP in male and female colons, non-mutagenic factors, possibly hormonal, preferentially influence the formation of tumors in the colon of male rats. PMID:11507243

  7. Administration of 4-(?-L-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl Isothiocyanate Delays Disease Phenotype in SOD1(G93A) Rats: A Transgenic Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuppo, Maria; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Iori, Renato; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    4-(?-L-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin, GMG) is a compound found in Moringa oleifera seeds. Myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis at neutral pH of GMG releases the biologically active compound 4-(?-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC). The present study was designed to test the potential therapeutic effectiveness of GMG-ITC to counteract the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using SOD1tg rats, which physiologically develops SOD1(G93A) at about 16 weeks of life, and can be considered a genetic model of disease. Rats were treated once a day with GMG (10?mg/Kg) bioactivated with myrosinase (20?µL/rat) via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection for two weeks before disease onset and the treatment was prolonged for further two weeks before the sacrifice. Immune-inflammatory markers as well as apoptotic pathway were investigated to establish whether GMG-ITC could represent a new promising tool in clinical practice to prevent ALS. Achieved data display clear differences in molecular and biological profiles between treated and untreated SOD1tg rats leading to guessing that GMG-ITC can interfere with the pathophysiological mechanisms at the basis of ALS development. Therefore, GMG-ITC produced from myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of pure GMG could be a candidate for further studies aimed to assess its possible use in clinical practice for the prevention or to slow down this disease. PMID:26075221

  8. Administration of 4-(?-L-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl Isothiocyanate Delays Disease Phenotype in SOD1G93A Rats: A Transgenic Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    4-(?-L-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin, GMG) is a compound found in Moringa oleifera seeds. Myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis at neutral pH of GMG releases the biologically active compound 4-(?-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC). The present study was designed to test the potential therapeutic effectiveness of GMG-ITC to counteract the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using SOD1tg rats, which physiologically develops SOD1G93A at about 16 weeks of life, and can be considered a genetic model of disease. Rats were treated once a day with GMG (10?mg/Kg) bioactivated with myrosinase (20?µL/rat) via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection for two weeks before disease onset and the treatment was prolonged for further two weeks before the sacrifice. Immune-inflammatory markers as well as apoptotic pathway were investigated to establish whether GMG-ITC could represent a new promising tool in clinical practice to prevent ALS. Achieved data display clear differences in molecular and biological profiles between treated and untreated SOD1tg rats leading to guessing that GMG-ITC can interfere with the pathophysiological mechanisms at the basis of ALS development. Therefore, GMG-ITC produced from myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of pure GMG could be a candidate for further studies aimed to assess its possible use in clinical practice for the prevention or to slow down this disease. PMID:26075221

  9. Characterisation of a transgenic mouse expressing R122H human cationic trypsinogen

    OpenAIRE

    Mössner Joachim; Savkovic Vuk; Klöppel Günter; Gaiser Sebastian; Sack Ulrich; Selig Lena; Keim Volker; Bödeker Hans

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The R122H mutation of the cationic trypsinogen was found in patients with hereditary pancreatitis. A transgenic animal carrying this mutation could be useful as a genetic model system of pancreatitis. Methods Mice transgenic for the human R122H cationic trypsinogen were generated using the -205 fragment of the rat elastase promoter. The presence of the transgene was assayed in the DNA, in pancreatic mRNA and in zymogen granule lysates. Serum levels of amylase, lipase and c...

  10. Ectopic Germinal Centers and IgG4-Producing Plasmacytes Observed in Synovia of HLA-B27+ Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients with Advanced Hip Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiugao; Xu, Xiangjin; Wang, Yue; Zheng, Zhiyong; Lin, Guiying

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Ectopic lymphoid neogenesis and the presence of IgG4-positive plasmacytes have been confirmed in chronic inflammatory sclerosing diseases. This study aims to investigate hip synovial tissues of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients for IgG4-positive plasma cells and ectopic lymphoid tissues with germinal centers (GCs). Methods. Synovial samples were collected from 7 AS patients who received total hip replacement and were evaluated using immunohistochemistry for the presence of CD20+ B-cells, CD3+ T-cells, CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC), and CD38+ plasma cells. Furthermore, immunoglobulin G (IgG and IgG4), IgA, IgM, and complement components C3d and C4d in synovia were evaluated. Both synovial CD21+ FDCs and IgG4-producing plasmacytes were analyzed. Results. All seven patients had severe fibrosis. Massive infiltrations of lymphocytes were found in 5 out of 7 patients' synovia. Ectopic lymphoid tissues with CD21+ FDC networks and IgG4-positive plasma cells were observed coincidentally in two patients' synovia. Conclusion. The pathophysiological mechanism of AS patients' hip damage might be related to the coincidental presence of ectopic lymphoid tissue with FDCs network and IgG4-positive plasma cells identified here for the first time in AS patients' inflamed synovial tissue. PMID:25954311

  11. Metabonomics study of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice (T2A-1) meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sishuo; Xu, Wentao; Luo, YunBo; He, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Yanfang; Ran, Wenjun; Liang, Lixing; Huang, Kunlun

    2011-07-01

    Rice is one of the most important staple foods in the world. The Cry2A gene was inserted into the rice genome to help the plant combat insects. As the unintended effects of the genetically modified (GM) organisms are the most important barriers to the promotion of GM organisms, we have carried out a useful exploration to establish a new in vivo evaluation model for genetically modified foods by metabonomics methods. In this study, the rats were fed for 90 days with the GM and NON-GM rice diets. The changes in metabolites of the urine were detected using (1)H-NMR. The metabonomics were analyzed to see whether the GM rice can induce the metabolite changes in the rats' urine when compared with the NON-GM rice group. The multivariate analysis and ANOVA were used to determine the differences and the significance of differences respectively, and eventually we concluded that these differences did not have a biological significance. The conclusion of the metabonomics was comparable with that from the traditional method. As a non-invasive and dynamic monitoring method, metabonomics will be a new way of assessing the food safety of GM foods. PMID:21594293

  12. Transgenic Crops for Herbicide Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since their introduction in 1995, crops made resistant to the broad-spectrum herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate with transgenes are widely available and used in much of the world. As of 2008, over 80% of the transgenic crops grown world-wide have this transgenic trait. This technology has had m...

  13. Directed Expression of Transgenes to Alveolar Type I Cells in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderbilt, Jeff N.; Allen, Lennell; Gonzalez, Robert F.; Tigue, Zachary; Edmondson, Jess; Ansaldi, Daniel; Gillespie, Anne Marie; Dobbs, Leland G.

    2008-01-01

    Podoplanin (RTI40, aggrus, T1?, hT1?-2, E11, PA2.26, RANDAM-2, gp36, gp38, gp40, OTS8) is a type I cell marker in rat lung. We show that a bacterial artificial chromosome vector containing the rat podoplanin gene (RTIbac) delivers a pattern of transgene expression in lung that is more restricted to mouse type I cells than that of the endogenous mouse podoplanin gene. RTIbac-transgenic mice expressed rat podoplanin in type I cells; type II cells, airways, and vascular endothelium were negati...

  14. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  15. 0635,SD-Tg(Pbsn-TAg)1Obs,SV40????TRAP??? [NBRP-Rat

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NBRP Rat No: 0635 ??? : SD-Tg(Pbsn-TAg)1Obs ??: SV40????TRAP??? Rat Genome Database ... ???:TaKaRa ?Taq ???? 1. Asamoto, M., et al., Prostate ... carcinomas developing in transgenic rats with SV40 ... moto, M., et al., Effects of genetic background on prostate ... and taste bud carcinogenesis due to SV40 T antigen ... ., Age-dependent histopathological findings in the prostate ... of probasin/SV40 T antigen transgenic rats: lack o ... nt of prostatic lesions in a transgenic rat model. Prostate ... Cancer Prostatic Dis, 2007. 5. Hokaiwado, N., et a ...

  16. Transgenics, agroindustry and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Alejandro León Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food sovereignty has been implemented constitutionally in Ecuador; however, many of the actions and policies are designed to benefit the dominant model of food production, based in agroindustry, intensive monocultures, agrochemicals and transgenics. This article reflects upon the role of family farming as a generator of food sovereignty, and secondly the threat to them by agroindustry agriculture based in transgenic. The role played by food aid in the introduction of transgenic in Latin America and other regions of the world is also analyzed.

  17. A qRT-PCR RFLP Method for Monitoring Highly Conserved Transgene Expression during Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bruzzone, Carol M.; Belcher, John D.; Schuld, Nathan J.; Newman, Kristal A.; Vineyard, Julie; Nguyen, Julia; Chen, Chunsheng; Beckman, Joan D.; Steer, Clifford J.; Vercellotti, Gregory M.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of the transfer efficiency of a rat heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) transgene into mice requires differentiation of rat and mouse HO-1. However, rat and mouse HO-1 have 94% homology; antibodies and enzyme activity cannot adequately distinguish HO-1. We designed a qRT-PCR method to monitor HO-1 transcription relative to a housekeeping gene, GAPDH. The ratio of rat and mouse HO-1 mRNA could be estimated through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR products. In ...

  18. Intracerebral transplants of primary muscle cells: a potential 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, S.; Schultz, E.; Wolff, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    After the transplantation of rat primary muscle cells into the caudate or cortex of recipient rats, the muscle cells were able to persist for at least 6 months. Muscle cells transfected with expression plasmids prior to transplantation were able to express reporter genes in the brains for at least 2 months. These results suggest that muscle cells might be a useful 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain.

  19. Cloning of the goat beta-casein-encoding gene and expression in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B; DiTullio, P; Vitale, J; Hehir, K; Gordon, K

    1992-11-16

    The goat beta-casein-encoding gene (CSN2), which encodes the most abundant protein of goat milk, has been cloned and sequenced. The intron/exon organization of the 9.0-kb goat CSN2 gene is similar to that of other CSN2 genes. Expression of the goat gene was principally restricted to the mammary gland of lactating transgenic animals. A low level of expression was also observed in skeletal muscle and skin. In contrast to a rat CSN2 transgene [Lee et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (1988) 1027-1041], the goat gene was expressed to a high degree in the lactating mammary gland. Differences in the content or context of regulatory elements may account for the enhanced performance of the goat relative to the rat CSN2 gene in transgenic mice. PMID:1446822

  20. Temporal Expression of Mutant LRRK2 in Adult Rats Impairs Dopamine Reuptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Jianbin Tong, Weimin C Hong, Yong-Jian Liu, Xu-Gang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD results from progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Most PD cases are sporadic, but some have pathogenic mutation in the individual genes. Mutation of the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2 gene is associated with familial and sporadic PD, as exemplified by G2019S substitution. While constitutive expression of mutant LRRK2 in transgenic mice fails to induce neuron death, transient expression of the disease gene by viral delivery causes a substantial loss of dopaminergic neurons in mice. To further assess LRRK2 pathogenesis, we created inducible transgenic rats expressing human LRRK2 with G2019S substitution. Temporal overexpression of LRRK2G2019S in adult rats impaired dopamine reuptake by dopamine transporter (DAT and thus enhanced locomotor activity, the phenotypes that were not observed in transgenic rats constitutively expressing the gene throughout life time. Reduced DAT binding activity is an early sign of dopaminergic dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects carrying pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Our transgenic rats recapitulated the initiation process of dopaminergic dysfunction caused by pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Inducible transgenic approach uncovered phenotypes that may be obscured by developmental compensation in constitutive transgenic rats. Finding in inducible LRRK2 transgenic rats would guide developing effective strategy in transgenic studies: Inducible expression of transgene may induce greater phenotypes than constitutive gene expression, particularly in rodents with short life time.

  1. ALIMENTOS TRANSGÉNICOS / TRANSGENIC FOODS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Soledad, Reyes S.; Jaime, Rozowski N.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Gracias al gran avance de la tecnología, la ingeniería genética y la biología molecular, se han desarrollado los productos transgénicos. En sus inicios, los productos modificados genéticamente tenían como objeto obtener ventajas en las áreas de la agricultura y ganadería. Posteriormente esta técnica [...] se comenzó a aplicar en el ámbito de la producción de alimentos para el consumo humano. Se ha generado mucha controversia en relación a su utilización. Esta revisión tiene por objeto revisar la información científica disponible en relación a las aplicaciones, ventajas y potenciales riesgos para la salud humana y el medio ambiente asociados al consumo de los alimentos transgénicos Abstract in english Due to the advancements in technology, genetic engineering and molecular biology, have develop transgenic foods. Initially, genetically modified plants were produced to confer advantages in agriculture and animal husbandry. Later this technique was applied to the production of food for human consump [...] tion, generating a great deal of controversy. This review discusses the available scientific evidence in relation to the advantages and potential risks of genetically modified foods

  2. ALIMENTOS TRANSGÉNICOS TRANSGENIC FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Reyes S.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Gracias al gran avance de la tecnología, la ingeniería genética y la biología molecular, se han desarrollado los productos transgénicos. En sus inicios, los productos modificados genéticamente tenían como objeto obtener ventajas en las áreas de la agricultura y ganadería. Posteriormente esta técnica se comenzó a aplicar en el ámbito de la producción de alimentos para el consumo humano. Se ha generado mucha controversia en relación a su utilización. Esta revisión tiene por objeto revisar la información científica disponible en relación a las aplicaciones, ventajas y potenciales riesgos para la salud humana y el medio ambiente asociados al consumo de los alimentos transgénicosDue to the advancements in technology, genetic engineering and molecular biology, have develop transgenic foods. Initially, genetically modified plants were produced to confer advantages in agriculture and animal husbandry. Later this technique was applied to the production of food for human consumption, generating a great deal of controversy. This review discusses the available scientific evidence in relation to the advantages and potential risks of genetically modified foods

  3. Transgenic RNA Interference in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The discovery that small interfering RNA duplexes (siRNA) can silence gene expression in mammalian cells has revolutionized biomedical research. The most successful application of the discovery has been to study gene function in cultured human or mouse cells. However, the knockdown effect of siRNA is only transient. To achieve a more sustained gene-silencing effect, shRNA (small hairpin RNA) expressed from a vector is preferred. An additional benefit of shRNA is that RNA interference (RNAi) can now be applied in vivo through delivering shRNA-expressing vectors by transgenic technology. Transgenic RNAi not only allows the study of biological processes not present in cultured cells but also offers chronic therapeutic potentials. In this review, we will summarize the developments in the generation of transgenic RNAi mice.

  4. Transgenic agriculture and environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Dias de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid diffusion of transgenic crops, there are still few environmental impact studies capable of supplying a conclusive scientific response in regard to its technical and economic advantages and disadvantages. Prospective scenarios were elaborated to assist environmental impact assessment, using techniques derived from SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis and the DPSIR (Driving Force – human activity, Pressure, State, Impact, Response model, to evaluate the environmental indicators and the relationship between them. Control and management actions were identified, searching the integration of aspects related to the biotechnology applied to transgenic processes, biodiversity, biosafety and intellectual property. It was demonstrated that the DPSIR model is, in fact, an instrument for integrated environmental assessment and the application of the proposed methodology resulted in favorable indicators to the adoption of transgenic agriculture. The elaborated scenarios are useful to develop an Environmental Management System (EMS to agriculture.

  5. Variegated transgene expression in mouse mammary gland is determined by the transgene integration locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Dobie, K W; Lee, M; Fantes, J.A.; Graham, E; Clark, A. J.; Springbett, A; Lathe, R; McClenaghan, M

    1996-01-01

    Mice carrying an ovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) transgene secrete BLG protein into their milk. To explore transgene expression stability, we studied expression levels in three BLG transgenic mouse lines. Unexpectedly, two lines exhibited variable levels of transgene expression. Copy number within lines appeared to be stable and there was no evidence of transgene rearrangement. In the most variable line, BLG production levels were stable within individual mice in two successive lactations. Bac...

  6. Insertional mutagenesis in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, T; Peetz, A; Rüther, U

    1994-07-01

    Increasing numbers of transgenic mouse lines have resulted in several dozens of mutants created by insertional mutagenesis. The advantages of different vector systems and the problems associated with the analysis of mutations and the cloning of the affected genes are discussed in this review. PMID:7920737

  7. Toward understanding the function of amelogenin using transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaraki-O'Connor, K; Nakata, K; Young, M F

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish transgenic mouse lines as a tool to investigate the function of amelogenin during mineralization by causing ectopic production of amelogenin and studying its effect. The mouse amelogenin (mAme) was cloned from a 16-day-old whole mouse embryo cDNA library and was determined to be "full-length" mouse amelogenin (with a complete coding region) by comparison with the mouse amelogenin reported previously by Snead et al. (1985) and Lau et al. (1992). The overexpression construct contained: (1) the rat osteocalcin (OC) promoter (1.8 kb); (2) the adenovirus splicing casettes, including introgenic (Int) sequence (0.3 kb); (3) the full-length mAme cDNA (0.8 kb); and (4) the polyadenylation signal sequence from the pSG5 mammalian expression vector. Both Southern blotting and polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) analyses were performed, by means of a specific probe and a pair of oligodeoxynucleotides to OcIntmAme(A)+, respectively. The animals which showed transgene-positive in both analyses were further used to establish F1 animals. Heterozygocity was confirmed with F1 animals by PCR analysis of DNA from the F0 x FVB/N pups. Three independent transgenic F1 heterozygous lines (640t, 706t, and 708t) have now been established. The generation of F2 homozygous lines is under way. The heterozygous transgenic animals are currently being analyzed for alterations in the morphology and structure of various bone tissues. PMID:9206339

  8. Transgenic animals modelling polyamine metabolism-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhonen, Leena; Uimari, Anne; Pietilä, Marko; Hyvönen, Mervi T; Pirinen, Eija; Keinänen, Tuomo A

    2009-01-01

    Cloning of genes related to polyamine metabolism has enabled the generation of genetically modified mice and rats overproducing or devoid of proteins encoded by these genes. Our first transgenic mice overexpressing ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) were generated in 1991 and, thereafter, most genes involved in polyamine metabolism have been used for overproduction of the respective proteins, either ubiquitously or in a tissue-specific fashion in transgenic animals. Phenotypic characterization of these animals has revealed a multitude of changes, many of which could not have been predicted based on the previous knowledge of the polyamine requirements and functions. Animals that overexpress the genes encoding the inducible key enzymes of biosynthesis and catabolism, ODC and SSAT (spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase) respectively, appear to possess the most pleiotropic phenotypes. Mice overexpressing ODC have particularly been used as cancer research models. Transgenic mice and rats with enhanced polyamine catabolism have revealed an association of rapidly depleted polyamine pools and accelerated metabolic cycle with development of acute pancreatitis and a fatless phenotype respectively. The latter phenotype with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity is useful in uncovering the mechanisms that lead to the opposite phenotype in humans, Type 2 diabetes. Disruption of the ODC or AdoMetDC [AdoMet (S-adenosylmethionine) decarboxylase] gene is not compatible with mouse embryogenesis, whereas mice with a disrupted SSAT gene are viable and show no harmful phenotypic changes, except insulin resistance at a late age. Ultimately, the mice with genetically altered polyamine metabolism can be used to develop targeted means to treat human disease conditions that they relevantly model. PMID:20095974

  9. Transgene delivery via intracellular electroporetic nanoinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Aubrey M; Aten, Quentin T; Toone, Nathan C; Black, Justin L; Jensen, Brian D; Tamowski, Susan; Howell, Larry L; Burnett, Sandra H

    2013-10-01

    Development of an effective cytoplasmic delivery technique has remained an elusive goal for decades despite the success of pronuclear microinjection. Cytoplasmic injections are faster and easier than pronuclear injection and do not require the pronuclei to be visible; yet previous attempts to develop cytoplasmic injection have met with limited success. In this work we report a cytoplasmic delivery method termed intracellular electroporetic nanoinjection (IEN). IEN is unique in that it manipulates transgenes using electrical forces. The microelectromechanical system (MEMS) uses electrostatic charge to physically pick up transgenes and place them in the cytoplasm. The transgenes are then propelled through the cytoplasm and electroporated into the pronuclei using electrical pulses. Standard electroporation of whole embryos has not resulted in transgenic animals, but the MEMS device allows localized electroporation to occur within the cytoplasm for transgene delivery from the cytoplasm to the pronucleus. In this report we describe the principles which allow localized electroporation of the pronuclei including: the location of mouse pronuclei between 21 and 28 h post-hCG treatment, modeling data predicting the voltages needed for localized electroporation of pronuclei, and data on electric-field-driven movement of transgenes. We further report results of an IEN versus microinjection comparative study in which IEN produced transgenic pups with viability, transgene integration, and expression rates statistically comparable to microinjection. The ability to perform injections without visualizing or puncturing the pronuclei will widely benefit transgenic research, and will be particularly advantageous for the production of transgenic animals with embryos exhibiting reduced pronuclear visibility. PMID:23532407

  10. Transgenic parasites accelerate drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Ana; Tarleton, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic neglected diseases are in dire need of new drugs either to replace old drugs rendered ineffective because of resistance development, to cover clinical needs that had never been addressed or to tackle other associated problems of existing drugs such as high cost, difficult administration, restricted coverage or toxicity. The availability of transgenic parasites expressing reporter genes facilitates the discovery of new drugs through high throughput screenings, but also by allowing ra...

  11. Transgenic crop-mite interactions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Rostislav

    France : IOBC/WPRS, 2007 - (Weintraub, P.), s. 155-160 ISBN 92-9067-200-3. [Meeting of IOBC study group "Integrated Control of Plant-feeding Mites". Jerusalem (IL), 12.03.2007-14.03.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA6007303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : GMO * transgenic plants * mites Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  12. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  13. Transgenic trees and forestry biosafety

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sofía, Valenzuela; Claudio, Balocchi; Jaime, Rodríguez.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The benefits from the development of transgenic trees are expected from the improvement of traits as growth and form, wood quality, industrial processes, disease and insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, ecological restoration, rooting ability, etc. One of the first reported field trials with gene [...] tically modified forest trees was established in Belgium in 1988 and the characteristic evaluated was herbicide tolerance in poplars. Since then, there have been more than 200 reported trials, involving at least 15 forest species. The majority of the field trials have been carried out in the USA (64%). More than 50% of the field trials are done with Populus species and the main target traits are herbicide tolerance (31%), followed by marker genes (23%) and insect resistance (14%). Until today, there is only one report on commercial-scale production of transgenic forest trees which is Populus nigra with the Bt gene release in China in 2002 and established on commercial plantations in 2003. Operational application of GMO's in forestry depends on technical, economical, political and public aspects, but the development of adequate regulatory frameworks and public acceptance of transgenic trees will define the future of this technology in forestry.

  14. The epitope recognized by pan-HLA class I-reactive monoclonal antibody W6/32 and its relationship to unusual stability of the HLA-B27/beta2-microglobulin complex.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tran, T. M.; Ivanyi, P.; Hilgert, Ivan; Brdi?ka, Tomáš; Pla, M.; Breur, B.; Flieger, Miroslav; Ivašková, E.; Ho?ejší, Václav

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 53, - (2001), s. 440-446. ISSN 0093-7711 R&D Projects: GA MZd NI5314; GA MZd IZ3647; GA MŠk LN00A026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : HLA class I * epitope * W6/32 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.268, year: 2001

  15. Transgenic Spodoptera exigua: possibilities for their use

    OpenAIRE

    Gerritsen, L.J.M.; J. H. Visser; Jongsma, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic Spodoptera exigua are being developed by microinjection of a piggyBac vector. The vector expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the actin promoter. Forty percent of the first-instar larvae that hatched from the injected eggs were green fluorescent. However, after backcrossing none of the G1 first-instar larvae was fluorescent and a transgenic line could not be established. Several possibilities for the use of transgenic insects are discussed

  16. Improving expression of reporter transgene in stem cell by construction of different lentiviral vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For stem cell trafficking applications, it is imperative to express transgenes at desired and stable levels. In recent years, lentivirus-mediated gene transfer was shown to be an efficient method to stably introduce genetic modifications in target cells, even if these are in proliferative or nonproliferative states. Moreover, transgene expression levels can be controlled by using different promoters. The present study was designed to compare the potency of various promoters regulating expression of imaging reporter genes in embryonic H9c2 cardiomyoblasts derived from rat heart. Lentiviral vector was produced by the transient transfection of plasmids carrying required genes and those encoding for virus coating proteins into 293T cells. Harvested viral constructs were incubated with Hela and H9c2 cells, respectively. Transgene expressions were detected by several imaging modalities and evaluated by enzymatic assays. Results - We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, interter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. Here we show that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer allows efficient and stable transgene expression in embryonic cardiomyoblasts in vitro and that transgene expression levels can be varied by using different well-characterized gene promoters. In vivo trials about gene expression will probably further determine the potential of long-term trafficking stem cells using lentivirus

  17. Combining M-FISH and Quantum Dot technology for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical mapping of transgenic insertions by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH is a reliable and cost-effective technique. Chromosomal assignment is commonly achieved either by concurrent G-banding or by a multi-color FISH approach consisting of iteratively co-hybridizing the transgenic sequence of interest with one or more chromosome-specific probes at a time, until the location of the transgenic insertion is identified. Results Here we report a technical development for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions at the single cell level in mouse and rat models. This comprises a simplified 'single denaturation mixed hybridization' procedure that combines multi-color karyotyping by Multiplex FISH (M-FISH, for simultaneous and unambiguous identification of all chromosomes at once, and the use of a Quantum Dot (QD conjugate for the transgene detection. Conclusions Although the exploitation of the unique optical properties of QD nanocrystals, such as photo-stability and brightness, to improve FISH performance generally has been previously investigated, to our knowledge this is the first report of a purpose-designed molecular cytogenetic protocol in which the combined use of QDs and standard organic fluorophores is specifically tailored to assist gene transfer technology.

  18. Role of Bv8 in neutrophil-dependent angiogenesis in a transgenic model of cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaei, Farbod; Singh, Mallika; Thompson, Jennifer D.; Ferrara, Napoleone

    2008-01-01

    The secreted Bv8 protein has been recently characterized as a regulator of myeloid cell mobilization and a neutrophil-derived mediator of tumor angiogenesis in several xenografts, but its role in tumor progression in an endogenous setting was unknown. The rat insulin promoter (RIP)–T-antigen (Tag) is a well characterized transgenic mouse model of multistage pancreatic ?-cell tumorigenesis. Also, the role of neutrophils in RIP-Tag angiogenic switching, as assessed by systemic ablation using...

  19. Generation of NSE-MerCreMer Transgenic Mice with Tamoxifen Inducible Cre Activity in Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Kam, Mandy Ka Man; Lee, King Yiu; Tam, Paul Kwong Hang; Lui, Vincent Chi Hang

    2012-01-01

    To establish a genetic tool for conditional deletion or expression of gene in neurons in a temporally controlled manner, we generated a transgenic mouse (NSE-MerCreMer), which expressed a tamoxifen inducible type of Cre recombinase specifically in neurons. The tamoxifen inducible Cre recombinase (MerCreMer) is a fusion protein containing Cre recombinase with two modified estrogen receptor ligand binding domains at both ends, and is driven by the neural-specific rat neural specific enolase (NS...

  20. Determination of transgene repeat formation and promoter methylation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Fladung, M

    2000-06-01

    The integration of transgenes into a plant host genome following Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated or direct transformation may occur as a single copy or in the form of tandem repeats. The latter has been associated with promoter methylation and silencing of transgenes. Thus, the early screening of such transgenic plants is desirable for ruling out future repeat-dependent transgene instability. We developed a simple PCR-based method in which primer pairs were specifically designed so that amplifications could only be obtained if the transgene was present in the form of multiple inserts in a transgenic line. The method was established using 35S-rolC transgenic aspen lines showing morphologically visible transgenic silencing. Later, it was possible to screen independent transgenic lines showing no visible marker gene expression. Furthermore, a method was developed in which positive PCR amplification was indicative of promoter methylation. The results were consistent and reproducible across different independent transgenic lines. The methods were quick, reliable, consistent and reproducible, and can be useful for routine screening of transgene silencing in lines derived from many different systems. PMID:10868278

  1. Transposon-mediated Chromosomal Integration of Transgenes in the Parasitic Nematode Strongyloides ratti and Establishment of Stable Transgenic Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Thomas J.; Massey, Holman C.; Pearce, Edward J.; Lok, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic transformation is a potential tool for analyzing gene function and thereby identifying new drug and vaccine targets in parasitic nematodes, which adversely affect more than one billion people. We have previously developed a robust system for transgenesis in Strongyloides spp. using gonadal microinjection for gene transfer. In this system, transgenes are expressed in promoter-regulated fashion in the F1 but are silenced in subsequent generations, presumably because of their location in repetitive episomal arrays. To counteract this silencing, we explored transposon-mediated chromosomal integration of transgenes in S. ratti. To this end, we constructed a donor vector encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the Ss-act-2 promoter with flanking inverted tandem repeats specific for the piggyBac transposon. In three experiments, free-living Strongyloides ratti females were transformed with this donor vector and a helper plasmid encoding the piggyBac transposase. A mean of 7.9% of F1 larvae were GFP-positive. We inoculated rats with GFP-positive F1 infective larvae, and 0.5% of 6014 F2 individuals resulting from this host passage were GFP-positive. We cultured GFP-positive F2 individuals to produce GFP-positive F3 L3i for additional rounds of host and culture passage. Mean GFP expression frequencies in subsequent generations were 15.6% in the F3, 99.0% in the F4, 82.4% in the F5 and 98.7% in the F6. The resulting transgenic lines now have virtually uniform GFP expression among all progeny after at least 10 generations of passage. Chromosomal integration of the reporter transgenes was confirmed by Southern blotting and splinkerette PCR, which revealed the transgene flanked by S. ratti genomic sequences corresponding to five discrete integration sites. BLAST searches of flanking sequences against the S. ratti genome revealed integrations in five contigs. This result provides the basis for two powerful functional genomic tools in S. ratti: heritable transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis. PMID:22912584

  2. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TF<1) at all levels of metal treatment. Among the 4 transgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  3. Transgenic expression of human cytoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) by porcine skin for xenogeneic skin grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Hua-Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Fan, Na-Na; Zhao, Ben-Tian; Ou-Yang, Zhen; Liu, Zhao-Ming; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Dong-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Shang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Lu-Lu; Xiang, Peng-Ying; Ge, Liang-Peng; Wei, Hong; Lai, Liang-Xue

    2015-04-01

    Porcine skin is frequently used as a substitute of human skin to cover large wounds in clinic practice of wound care. In our previous work, we found that transgenic expression of human cytoxicT-lymphocyte associated antigen4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) in murine skin graft remarkably prolonged its survival in xenogeneic wounds without extensive immunosuppression in recipients, suggesting that transgenic hCTLA4Ig expression in skin graft may be an effective and safe method to prolong xenogeneic skin graft survival. In this work, using a transgene construct containing hCTLA4Ig coding sequence under the drive of human Keratine 14 (k14) promoter, hCTLA4Ig transgenic pigs were generated by somatic nuclear transfer. The derived transgenic pigs were healthy and exhibited no signs of susceptibility to infection. The hCTLA4Ig transgene was stably transmitted through germline over generations, and thereby a transgenic pig colony was established. In the derived transgenic pigs, hCTLA4Ig expression in skin was shown to be genetically stable over generations, and detected in heart, kidney and corneal as well as in skin. Transgenic hCTLA4Ig protein in pigs exhibited expected biological activity as it suppressed human lymphocyte proliferation in human mixed lymphocyte culture to extents comparable to those of commercially purchased purified hCTLA4Ig protein. In skin grafting from pigs to rats, transgenic porcine skin grafts exhibited remarkably prolonged survival compared to the wild-type skin grafts derived from the same pig strain (13.33 ± 3.64 vs. 6.25 ± 2.49 days, P xenotransplantation of other organs (heart, kidney and corneal) due to the ectopic transgenic hCTLA4Ig expression. PMID:25236862

  4. Characterisation of a transgenic mouse expressing R122H human cationic trypsinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mössner Joachim

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The R122H mutation of the cationic trypsinogen was found in patients with hereditary pancreatitis. A transgenic animal carrying this mutation could be useful as a genetic model system of pancreatitis. Methods Mice transgenic for the human R122H cationic trypsinogen were generated using the -205 fragment of the rat elastase promoter. The presence of the transgene was assayed in the DNA, in pancreatic mRNA and in zymogen granule lysates. Serum levels of amylase, lipase and cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6 were monitored and the histological appearance of the tissue was investigated. Pancreatitis was induced by 7 hourly injections of 50 ?g/kg cerulein. The procedure was repeated twice weekly for 10 consecutive weeks. The animals were sacrificed 24 (n = 8 and 48 hours (n = 8 after the first injection and at the end of the whole treatment (n = 7. Results The transgene was detected at the genomic level and in pancreatic mRNA. The corresponding protein was found in low amounts in zymogen granule lysates. R122H mice showed elevated pancreatic lipase, but there was no spontaneous development of pancreatitis within 18 months. After induction of pancreatitis, levels of lipase (after 24 hours and amylase (after 48 hours were higher in R122H mice compared to controls. Repeated treatment with cerulein resulted in a slightly more severe pancreatitis in R122H animals. Amylase, lipase, and the cytokine levels were similar to controls. Conclusion The R122H transgenic mouse failed to develop a spontaneous pancreatitis but a repeatedly provoked cerulein-induced pancreatitis led to a slightly more severe pancreatitis. The rather small difference in comparison to controls could be due to the low expression of the transgene in the mouse pancreas.

  5. The rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Kloskowska, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    As a disease model, the laboratory rat has contributed enormously to neuroscience research over the years. It has also been a popular animal model for Alzheimer's disease but its popularity has diminished during the last decade, as techniques for genetic manipulation in rats have lagged behind that of mice. In recent years, the rat has been making a comeback as an Alzheimer's disease model and the appearance of increasing numbers of transgenic rats will be a welcome and valuable complement to the existing mouse models. This review summarizes the contributions and current status of the rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Transgene Integration by Next-Generation Sequencing in Transgenic Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ran; Yin, Yinliang; Zhang, Yujun; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Hongxia; Gong, Qin; Wang, Jianwu; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2012-01-01

    As the number of transgenic livestock increases, reliable detection and molecular characterization of transgene integration sites and copy number are crucial not only for interpreting the relationship between the integration site and the specific phenotype but also for commercial and economic demands. However, the ability of conventional PCR techniques to detect incomplete and multiple integration events is limited, making it technically challenging to characterize transgenes. Next-generation...

  7. Comparison of nutritional value of transgenic peanut expressing bar and rcg3 genes with non-transgenic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transgenic peanut plants expressing bar and rcg3 genes were subjected to assessment of any change in nutritional value of the crop at various locations. The protein and fat contents of transgenic lines were compared with the non-transgenic parent varieties. Protein content in the transgenic lines was higher as compared to that in non-transgenic counterparts and differences among locations for fat and protein content were significant. No differences among fatty acids were recorded for genes, events and locations. Irrespective of small differences, all the values were in range described for this crop and transgenic lines appeared to be substantially equivalent to non-transgenic parent varieties. (author)

  8. Ethics and Transgenic Crops: a Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jonathan, Robinson.

    1999-08-15

    Full Text Available This article represents a review of some of the ethical dilemmas that have arisen as a result of the development and deployment of transgenic crop plants. The potential for transgenic crops to alleviate human hunger and the possible effects on human health are discussed. Risks and benefits to the en [...] vironment resulting from genetic engineering of crops for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses are considered, in addition to effects on biodiversity. The socio-economic impacts and distribution of benefits from transgenic technologies are reviewed. Fundamental issues of man’s relationship with nature and the environment, and theological matters are also addressed. An almost unprecedented amount of discussion has been stimulated on the merits and demerits of genetic engineering of crop plants, and has divided both the public and scientific communities. The arguments for and against transgenics are invariably based on visions of the new technology from widely different ethical perspectives.

  9. Reversing insect adaptation to transgenic insecticidal plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Carrière, Y; Tabashnik, B.E.

    2001-01-01

    The refuge-high-dose strategy for delaying insect adaptation to transgenic plants produces non-transgenic plants that enable survival of susceptible individuals. Previous theoretical work has suggested three requirements for success of the refuge-high-dose strategy: a low initial frequency of the resistance allele, extensive mating between resistant and susceptible adults and recessive inheritance of resistance. In order to understand an observed decrease in resistance frequency and improve t...

  10. Transgenic animals and their application in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Bagle Tr, Kunkulol Rr

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animals are animals that are genetically altered to have traits that mimic symptoms of specific human pathologies. They provide genetic models of various human diseases which are important in understanding disease and developing new targets. In early 1980 Gordon and co-workers described the first gene addition experiment using the microinjection technology and since then the impact of transgenic technology on basic research has been significant. Within 20 years of its inception, AT...

  11. Transgene flow: facts, speculations and possible countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence has accumulated that unintended transgene escape occurs in oilseed rape, maize, cotton and creeping bentgrass. The escaped transgenes are found in variant cultivars, in wild type plants as well as in hybrids of sexually compatible species. The fact that in some cases stacked events are present that have not been planted commercially, implies unintended recombination of transgenic traits. As the consequences of this continuous transgene escape for the ecosystem cannot be reliably predicted, I propose to use more sophisticated approaches of gene technology in future. If possible GM plants should be constructed using either site-directed mutagenesis or cisgenic strategies to avoid the problem of transgene escape. In cases where a transgenic trait is needed, efficient containment should be the standard approach. Various strategies available or in development are discussed. Such a cautious approach in developing novel types of GM crops will enhance the sustainable potential of GM crops and thus increase the public trust in green gene technology. PMID:25523171

  12. Transgenic animals and their application in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagle TR, Kunkulol RR, Baig MS, More SY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic animals are animals that are genetically altered to have traits that mimic symptoms of specific human pathologies. They provide genetic models of various human diseases which are important in understanding disease and developing new targets. In early 1980 Gordon and co-workers described the first gene addition experiment using the microinjection technology and since then the impact of transgenic technology on basic research has been significant. Within 20 years of its inception, ATryn the first drug approved by USFDA from transgenic animals was developed and it has opened door to drugs from transgenic animals. In addition, they are looked upon as potential future donors for xenotransplantation. With increasing knowledge about the genetics and improvements in the transgenetic technology numerous useful applications like biologically safe new-generation drugs based on human regulatory proteins are being developed.Various aspects of concern in the coming years are the regulatory guidelines, ethical issues and patents related to the use of transgenic animals. This modern medicine is on the threshold of a pharmacological revolution. Use of transgenic animals will provide solutions for drug research, xenotransplantation, clinical trials and will prove to be a new insight in drug development.

  13. TRANSGENIC FISH MODEL IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of experiments and the use of drugs have been performed in fish. The fish may be used as model organism in various biological experiments, including environmental toxicology. Aquatic animals are being engineered to increase aquaculture production, for medical and industrial research, and for ornamental reasons. Fish have been found to play an important role in assessing potential risks associated with exposure to toxic substances in aquatic environment. Hence, it has been thought that the development of transgenic fish can enhance the use of fish in environmental toxicology. India has developed experimental transgenics of rohu fish, zebra fish, cat fish and singhi fish. Genes, promoters and vectors of indigenous origin are now available for only two species namely rohu and singhi for engineering growth. Development of fish model carrying identical transgenes to those found in rodents is beneficial and has shown that several aspects of in vivo mutagenesis are similar between the two classes of vertebrates. Fish shows the frequencies of spontaneous mutations similar to rodents and respond to mutagen exposure consistent with known mutagenic mechanisms. The feasibility of in vivo mutation analysis using transgenic fish has been demonstrated and the potential value of transgenic fish as a comparative animal model has been illustrated. Therefore, the transgenic fish can give the significant contribution to study the environmental toxicity in animals as a whole.

  14. HLA class I associations of ankylosing spondylitis in the white population in the United Kingdom.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ma; Pile, Kd; Kennedy, Lg; Calin, A.; Darke, C.; Bell, J.; Wordsworth, Bp; Corne?lis, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the HLA class I associations of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the white population, with particular reference to HLA-B27 subtypes. METHODS: HLA-B27 and -B60 typing was performed in 284 white patients with AS. Allele frequencies of HLA-B27 and HLA-B60 from 5926 white bone marrow donors were used for comparison. HLA-B27 subtyping was performed by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) in all HLA-B27 positive AS patients, and 154 HLA-B27 positive ethnically mat...

  15. Transgenic farm animals: applications in agriculture and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Tian, X C; Dai, Y; Wang, B

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, tremendous progress has been made in the area of transgenic farm animals. While there are many important transgenic farm animal applications in agriculture, funding has been very limited and progress has been rather slow in this area. Encouragingly, the potential applications of transgenic farm animals as bioreactors for producing human therapeutic proteins and as organ donors for transplantations in humans have attracted vast funding from the private sectors. Several transgenic animal products are already in various phases of clinical trials. Estimates are, that in the near future, the worlds demands on human pharmaceutical proteins may largely be met by transgenic farm animals. While there are still major challenges ahead in the area of xenotransplantation using transgenic animal organs, transgenic tissues or cells have demonstrated promising results as a potential tool for gene therapy. Recent development on cloning, embryonic stem cells and alternative transgenic methods may further expand the transgenic applications in both agriculture and biomedicine. PMID:10875004

  16. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  17. Phycoremediation of heavy metals using transgenic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Sathish; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Falcao, Vanessa; Torres, Moacir; Colepicolo, Pio; Sayre, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Microalgae account for most of the biologically sequestered trace metals in aquatic environments. Their ability to adsorb and metabolize trace metals is associated with their large surface:volume ratios, the presence of high-affinity, metal-binding groups on their cell surfaces, and efficient metal uptake and storage systems. Microalgae may bind up to 10% of their biomass as metals. In addition to essential trace metals required for metabolism, microalgae can efficiently sequester toxic heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals often compete with essential trace metals for binding to and uptake into cells. Recently, transgenic approaches have been developed to further enhance the heavy metal specificity and binding capacity of microalgae with the objective of using these microalgae for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated wastewaters and sediments. These transgenic strategies have included the over expression of enzymes whose metabolic products ameliorate the effects of heavy metal-induced stress, and the expression of high-affinity, heavy metal binding proteins on the surface and in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. The most effective strategies have substantially reduced the toxicity of heavy metals allowing transgenic cells to grow at wild-type rates in the presence of lethal concentrations of heavy metals. In addition, the metal binding capacity of transgenic algae has been increased five-fold relative to wild-type cells. Recently, fluorescent heavy metal biosensors have been developed for expression in transgenic Chlamydomonas. These fluorescent biosensor strains can be used for the detection and quantification of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments. The use of transgenic microalgae to monitor and remediate heavy metals in aquatic environments is not without risk, however. Strategies to prevent the release of live microalgae having enhanced metal binding properties are described. PMID:18161494

  18. Gene stability in transgenic aspen (Populus). II. Molecular characterization of variable expression of transgene in wild and hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Fladung, M

    2001-09-01

    In many annual plant species, transgene inactivation occurs most often when multiple incomplete/complete copies of the transgene are present in a genome. The expression of single-copy transgene loci may also be negatively influenced by the flanking plant DNA and/or chromosomal location (position effect). To understand transgene silencing in a long-lived tree system, we analyzed several wild (Populus tremula L.) and hybrid (P. tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) aspen lines transgenic to the rolC phenotypical marker system and grown under in vitro, greenhouse and field conditions. The morphological features of the 35S-rolC gene construct were used to screen lines with altered transgene expression, which was later confirmed by Northern experiments. Molecular analyses of hybrid aspen revealed that transgene inactivation was always a consequence of transgene repeats. In wild non-hybrid aspen, however, multiple-insertion-based altered or loss of rolC expression was observed only in three out of six lines showing transgene inactivation. Sequencing analysis revealed AT-rich patches at the transgene flanking genomic regions of some of the wild aspen transgenic lines. One wild aspen line showing variable rolC expression revealed characteristic integration of the transgene into genomic regions containing a high AT content (85% or more). In the remaining two wild aspen transgenic lines unstable for rolC expression, single-copy integration and non-AT-rich or repeat-free transgene flanking regions were found. A partial suppression of rolC was observed in some plants of one of the field-grown wild aspen transgenic lines. In the other wild aspen transgenic line an additional mutant phenotype along with transgene inactivation was found. This indicates that the host genome has some control over expression of a transgene, and the possible role of AT-rich regions in defense against foreign DNA. PMID:11678277

  19. Germline transmission in transgenic Huntington's disease monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sean; Chi, Tim; Prucha, Melinda S; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Connor-Stroud, Fawn; Jean, Sherrie; Gould, Kenneth; Chan, Anthony W S

    2015-07-15

    Transgenic nonhuman primate models are an increasingly popular model for neurologic and neurodegenerative disease because their brain functions and neural anatomies closely resemble those of humans. Transgenic Huntington's disease monkeys (HD monkeys) developed clinical features similar to those seen in HD patients, making the monkeys suitable for a preclinical study of HD. However, until HD monkey colonies can be readily expanded, their use in preclinical studies will be limited. In the present study, we confirmed germline transmission of the mutant huntingtin (mHTT) transgene in both embryonic stem cells generated from three male HD monkey founders (F0) and in second-generation offspring (F1) produced via artificial insemination by using intrauterine insemination technique. A total of five offspring were produced from 15 females that were inseminated by intrauterine insemination using semen collected from the three HD founders (5 of 15, 33%). Thus far, sperm collected from the HD founder (rHD8) has led to two F1 transgenic HD monkeys with germline transmission rate at 100% (2 of 2). mHTT expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using skin fibroblasts from the F1 HD monkeys and induced pluripotent stem cells established from one of the F1 HD monkeys (rHD8-2). Here, we report the stable germline transmission and expression of the mHTT transgene in HD monkeys, which suggest possible expansion of HD monkey colonies for preclinical and biomedical research studies. PMID:25917881

  20. Combined Allogeneic Tumor Cell Vaccination and Systemic Interleukin 12 Prevents Mammary Carcinogenesis in HER-2/neu Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nanni, Patrizia; Nicoletti, Giordano; Giovanni, Carla; Landuzzi, Lorena; Di Carlo, Emma; Cavallo, Federica; Pupa, Serenella M.; Rossi, Ilaria; Colombo, Mario P.; Ricci, Cinzia; Astolfi, Annalisa; Musiani, Piero; Forni, Guido; Lollini, Pier-luigi

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic Balb/c mice expressing the transforming rat HER-2/neu oncogene develop early and multifocal mammary carcinomas. Within the first 5 months of life the tissue-specific expression of HER-2/neu causes a progression in all their 10 mammary glands from atypical hyperplasia to invasive carcinoma. It was previously observed that chronic administration of interleukin (IL)-12 increased tumor latency, but every mouse eventually succumbed to multiple carcinomas. A significant improvement in tu...

  1. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI)

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  2. Tamoxifen induces regression of estradiol-induced mammary cancer in ACI.COP-Ept2 rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhlen, Rachel L.; Willbrand, Dana M.; Besch-williford, Cynthia L.; Ma, Lixin; Shull, James D.; Sauter, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The ACI rat is a unique model of human breast cancer in that mammary cancers are induced by estrogen without carcinogens, irradiation, xenografts or transgenic manipulations. We sought to characterize mammary cancers in a congenic variant of the ACI rat, the ACI.COP-Ept2. All rats with estradiol implants developed mammary cancers in 5–7 months. Rats bearing estradiol-induced mammary cancers were treated with tamoxifen for three weeks. Tamoxifen reduced tumor mass, measured by magnetic reson...

  3. Genomic stability and long-term transgene expression in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladung, Matthias; Hoenicka, Hans; Raj Ahuja, M

    2013-12-01

    Stable expression of foreign genes over the entire life span of a plant is important for long-lived organisms such as trees. For transgenic forest trees, very little information is available on long-term transgene expression and genomic stability. Independent transgenic lines obtained directly after transformation are initially screened in respect to T-DNA integration and transgene expression. However, very little consideration has been given to long-term transgene stability in long-lived forest trees. We have investigated possible genome wide changes following T-DNA integration as well as long-term stability of transgene expression in different transgenic lines of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) that are up to 19 years old. For studies on possible genome wide changes following T-DNA integration, four different independent rolC-transgenic lines were subjected to an extensive AFLP study and compared to the non-transgenic control line. Only minor genomic changes following T-DNA integration could be detected. To study long-term transgene expression, six different independent rolC-transgenic lines produced in 1993 and since that time have been kept continuously under in vitro conditions. In addition, 18 transgenic plants belonging to eight independent rolC-transgenic lines transferred to glasshouse between 1994 and 2004 were chosen to determine the presence and expression of the rolC gene. In all transgenic lines examined, the rolC gene could successfully be amplified by PCR tests. Both, the 19 years old tissue cultures and the up to 18 years old glasshouse-grown trees revealed expression of the rolC transgene, as demonstrated by the rolC-phenotype and/or northern blot experiments confirming long-term transgene expression. PMID:23740206

  4. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  5. DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

  6. Progress in Xenotransplantation Research Employing Transgenic Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niemann

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of a fertilized oocyte has predominantly been used for the generation of transgenic livestock. This technology works reliably, but is inefficient and results in random integration and variable expression patterns in the transgenic offspring. Nevertheless, remarkable achievements have been made with this technology with regard to xenotransplantation. Transgenic pigs that express human complement regulating proteins have been tested in their ability to serve as donors in human organ transplantation (i.e. xenotransplantation. In vitro and in vivo data convincingly show that the hyperacute rejection response can be overcome in a clinically acceptable manner by successfully employing this strategy. The recent developments in nuclear transfer and its merger with the growing genomic data allow targeted and regulatable transgenesis. Systems for efficient homologous recombination in somatic cells are being developed and the first knock-out pigs, carrying a deletion in the a-galactosyltransferase gene, were recently generated. It is anticipated that poly-transgenic pigs will be available as donors for functional xenografts within a few years. Similarly, pigs may serve as donors for a variety of xenogenic cells and tissues. The availability of these technologies is essential to maintain "genetic security" and to ensure absence of unwanted side effects.

  7. Detection of membrane-bound HLA-G translated products with a specific monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Bensussan, A; Mansur, I G; Mallet, V.; Rodriguez, A. M.; Girr, M; Weiss, E H; G. BREM; Boumsell, L.; Gluckman, E; Dausset, J.

    1995-01-01

    A monomorphic anti-HLA-G monoclonal antibody (mAb) was obtained by immunization of HLA-B27/human beta 2-microglobulin double-transgenic mice with transfected murine L cells expressing both HLA-G and human beta 2-microglobulin. This mAb, designated BFL.1, specifically recognizes, by flow cytometry analysis, the immunizing HLA-G-expressing cells, whereas it does not bind to parental untransfected or to HLA-B7- and HLA-A3-transfected L cells, suggesting that it distinguishes between classical HL...

  8. Molecular Characterization of Transgene Integration by Next-Generation Sequencing in Transgenic Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Yin, Yinliang; Zhang, Yujun; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Hongxia; Gong, Qin; Wang, Jianwu; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2012-01-01

    As the number of transgenic livestock increases, reliable detection and molecular characterization of transgene integration sites and copy number are crucial not only for interpreting the relationship between the integration site and the specific phenotype but also for commercial and economic demands. However, the ability of conventional PCR techniques to detect incomplete and multiple integration events is limited, making it technically challenging to characterize transgenes. Next-generation sequencing has enabled cost-effective, routine and widespread high-throughput genomic analysis. Here, we demonstrate the use of next-generation sequencing to extensively characterize cattle harboring a 150-kb human lactoferrin transgene that was initially analyzed by chromosome walking without success. Using this approach, the sites upstream and downstream of the target gene integration site in the host genome were identified at the single nucleotide level. The sequencing result was verified by event-specific PCR for the integration sites and FISH for the chromosomal location. Sequencing depth analysis revealed that multiple copies of the incomplete target gene and the vector backbone were present in the host genome. Upon integration, complex recombination was also observed between the target gene and the vector backbone. These findings indicate that next-generation sequencing is a reliable and accurate approach for the molecular characterization of the transgene sequence, integration sites and copy number in transgenic species. PMID:23185606

  9. Influence of a nonfragile FHIT transgene on murine tumor susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkell, K A; Mancini, R; Siprashvili, Z; Barnoski, B L; Iliopoulos, D; Siracusa, L D; Zanesi, N; Croce, C M; Fong, L Y Y; Druck, T; Huebner, K

    2007-01-01

    FHIT, at a constitutively active chromosome fragile site, is often a target of chromosomal aberrations and deletion in a large fraction of human tumors. Inactivation of murine Fhit allelessignificantly increases susceptibility of mice to spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. In this study, transgenic mice, carrying a human FHIT cDNA under control of the endogenous promoter, were produced to determine the effect of Fhit expression, from a nonfragile cDNA transgene outside the fragile region, on carcinogen-induced tumor susceptibility of wildtype and Fhit heterozygous mice. Mice received sufficient oral doses of N-nitrosomethybenzylamine (NMBA) to cause forestomach tumors in >80% of nontransgenic control mice. Although the level of expression of the FHIT transgene in the recombinant mouse strains was much lower than the level of endogenous Fhit expression, the tumor burden in NMBA-treated male transgenic mice was significantly reduced, while female transgenic mice were not protected. To determine if the difference in protection could be due to differences in epigenetic changes at the transgene loci in male versus female mice, we examined expression, hypermethylation and induced re-expression of FHIT transgenes in male and female mice or cells derived from them. The transgene was methylated in male and female mice and in cell lines established from male and female transgenic kidneys, the FHIT locus was both hypermethylated and deacetylated. It is likely that the FHIT transgene is more tightly silenced in female transgenic mice, leading to a lack of protection from tumor induction. PMID:18000371

  10. Can Transgenic Maize Affect Soil Microbial Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Christian; Wouterse, Marja; Raubuch, Markus; Roelofs, Willem; Rutgers, Michiel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine if temporal variations of belowground activity reflect the influence of the Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize on soil bacteria and, hence, on a regulatory change of the microbial community (ability to metabolize sources belonging to different chemical guilds) and/or a change in numerical abundance of their cells. Litter placement is known for its strong influence on the soil decomposer communities. The effects of the addition of crop residues on respiration and catabolic activities of the bacterial community were examined in microcosm experiments. Four cultivars of Zea mays L. of two different isolines (each one including the conventional crop and its Bacillus thuringiensis cultivar) and one control of bulk soil were included in the experimental design. The growth models suggest a dichotomy between soils amended with either conventional or transgenic maize residues. The Cry1Ab protein appeared to influence the composition of the microbial community. The highly enhanced soil respiration observed during the first 72 h after the addition of Bt-maize residues can be interpreted as being related to the presence of the transgenic crop residues. This result was confirmed by agar plate counting, as the averages of the colony-forming units of soils in conventional treatments were about one-third of those treated with transgenic straw. Furthermore, the addition of Bt-maize appeared to induce increased microbial consumption of carbohydrates in BIOLOG EcoPlates. Three weeks after the addition of maize residues to the soils, no differences between the consumption rate of specific chemical guilds by bacteria in soils amended with transgenic maize and bacteria in soils amended with conventional maize were detectable. Reaped crop residues, comparable to post-harvest maize straw (a common practice in current agriculture), rapidly influence the soil bacterial cells at a functional level. Overall, these data support the existence of short Bt-induced ecological shifts in the microbial communities of croplands' soils. PMID:17009863

  11. Transgenic pig carrying green fluorescent proteasomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Edward L.; O’Gorman, Chad; Zhao, Jianguo; Samuel, Melissa; Walters, Eric; Yi, Young-Joo; Prather, Randall S.; Wells, Kevin D.; Sutovsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Among its many functions, the ubiquitin–proteasome system regulates substrate-specific proteolysis during the cell cycle, apoptosis, and fertilization and in pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and liver cirrhosis. Proteasomes are present in human and boar spermatozoa, but little is known about the interactions of proteasomal subunits with other sperm proteins or structures. We have created a transgenic boar with green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged 20S proteasomal core subunit ?-type 1 (PSMA1-GFP), hypothesizing that the PSMA1-GFP fusion protein will be incorporated into functional sperm proteasomes. Using direct epifluorescence imaging and indirect immunofluorescence detection, we have confirmed the presence of PSMA1-GFP in the sperm acrosome. Western blotting revealed a protein band corresponding to the predicted mass of PSMA1-GFP fusion protein (57 kDa) in transgenic spermatozoa. Transgenic boar fertility was confirmed by in vitro fertilization, resulting in transgenic blastocysts, and by mating, resulting in healthy transgenic offspring. Immunoprecipitation and proteomic analysis revealed that PSMA1-GFP copurifies with several acrosomal membrane-associated proteins (e.g., lactadherin/milk fat globule E8 and spermadhesin alanine-tryptophan-asparagine). The interaction of MFGE8 with PSMA1-GFP was confirmed through cross-immunoprecipitation. The identified proteasome-interacting proteins may regulate sperm proteasomal activity during fertilization or may be the substrates of proteasomal proteolysis during fertilization. Proteomic analysis also confirmed the interaction/coimmunoprecipitation of PSMA1-GFP with 13/14 proteasomal core subunits. These results demonstrate that the PSMA1-GFP was incorporated in the assembled sperm proteasomes. This mammal carrying green fluorescent proteasomes will be useful for studies of fertilization and wherever the ubiquitin–proteasome system plays a role in cellular function or pathology. PMID:23550158

  12. Anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies specific for the MOPC167 anti-phosphocholine transgene-encoded antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieckmann, D G; Martin, E; Guelde, G; Longo, D L; Kenny, J J

    1997-12-01

    Four rat x mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies (MAb) specific for the transgene-encoded antibody of the 207-4 transgenic mouse line, which carries the VH1/V kappa 24 gene segments of the IgA, phosphocholine-(PC) specific MOPC167 myeloma, were developed from a fusion of Ag8-X63.653 mouse cells with spleen cells from a rat immunized with MOPC167 and HPCM27 anti-PC antibodies. The anti-Id MAb were shown by ELISA to be specific for PC-binding proteins of VH1/V kappa 24 H and L chains of various isotypes. They did not bind VH1/V kappa 22, VH1/V kappa 8, or VH1/V kappa 1 PC-binding proteins or other IgA or IgM myeloma proteins. Analysis by flow cytometry demonstrated that these MAb bind to the transgene-encoded membrane immunoglobulin (sIgM) as expressed on > 95% of the B220 positive 207-4 spleen cells. All four MAb were able to inhibit the binding of MOPC167 to PC conjugated to bovine serum albumin. Differences in fine specificity of binding were demonstrated by differential staining of spleen cells of the 216-7 mu kappa delta Mem MOPC167 transgenic mice. In these mice endogenous H chains associate with the transgene encoded L chain to form MOPC167 crossreactive idiotopes. Two of the MAb, 28-4-3 and 28-6-20, stained significant numbers of cells, while MAb 28-5-15 did not bind to 216-7 cells. Three of the MAb, 28-5-15, 28-6-20, and 28-4-3, when conjugated to Sepharose beads, were able to induce DNA synthesis in cultures of 207-4 transgenic spleen cells. None of the MAb were able to induce an antibody response in vivo. These MAb should prove useful in staining PC-transgenic B cells for flow cytometry studies and in defining early cellular events in the activation of idiotype positive B cells by anti-Id antibodies. PMID:9455702

  13. Beta-MHC and SMLC1 transgene induction in overloaded skeletal muscle of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenman, J L; Rivera-Rivera, I; Vyas, D; Tsika, G; Gao, L; Sheriff-Carter, K; Wang, X; Kwan, L Y; Tsika, R W

    1996-04-01

    The hypertrophic responses of white fast-twitch muscle to mechanical overload has been investigated using transgenic mice. After 7 wk of overload, endogenous beta-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and slow myosin light chain 1 and 2 (SMLC1, SMLC2) protein were increased in the overloaded plantaris (OP) muscle compared with sham-operated control plantaris (CP)muscle. Concurrently, the levels of endogenous beta-MHC, SMLC1, SMLC2, and cardiac/slow troponin C (CTnC) mRNA transcripts were significantly increased in OP muscles, whereas skeletal troponin C (sTnC) mRNA transcript levels decreased. As an initial attempt to locate DNA sequence(s) that governs beta-MHC induction in response to mechanical overload, multiple independent transgenic lines harboring four different human beta-MHC transgenes (beta 1286, beta 988, beta 450, beta 141) were generated. Except for transgene beta 141, muscle-specific expression and induction (3- to 22-fold) in OP muscles were observed by measuring chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity (CAT assay). Induction of a SMLC1 transgene (3920SMLC1) in OP muscles was also observed. Collectively, these in vivo data provide evidence that 1) a mechanical overload inducible element(s) is located between nucleotides -450 and +120 of the human beta-MHC transgene, 2) 3,900 bp of 5' sequence is sufficient to confer mechanical overload induction of a SMLC1 transgene, and 3) the increased expression of slow/type I isomyosin (beta-MHC, SMLC1, SMLC2) in response to mechanical overload is regulated, in part, transcriptionally. PMID:8928739

  14. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Young-Mi, E-mail: youngmi_ham@hms.harvard.edu [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Mahoney, Sarah Jane [Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-?, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

  15. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-?, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors

  16. Safety Evaluation of Transgenic Tilapia with Accelerated Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén; Berlanga; Valenzuela; Morales; Toledo; Estrada; Puentes; Hayes; de la Fuente J

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in modern marine biotechnology have permitted the generation of new strains of economically important fish species through the transfer of growth hormone genes. These transgenic fish strains show improved growth performance and therefore constitute a better alternative for aquaculture programs. Recently, we have obtained a transgenic tilapia line with accelerated growth. However, before introducing this line into Cuban aquaculture, environmental and food safety assessment was required by national authorities. Experiments were performed to evaluate the behavior of transgenic tilapia in comparison to wild tilapia as a way to assess the environmental impact of introducing transgenic tilapia into Cuban aquaculture. Studies were also conducted to evaluate, according to the principle of substantial equivalence, the safety of consuming transgenic tilapia as food. Behavior studies showed that transgenic tilapia had a lower feeding motivation and dominance status than controls. Food safety assessment indicated that tilapia growth hormone has no biological activity when administered to nonhuman primates. Furthermore, no effects were detected in human healthy volunteers after the consumption of transgenic tilapia. These results showed, at least under the conditions found in Cuba, no environmental implications for the introduction of this transgenic tilapia line and the safety in the consumption of tiGH-transgenic tilapia as an alternative feeding source for humans. These results support the culture and consumption of these transgenic tilapia. PMID:10373604

  17. Transgenic arthropods and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique can benefit from transgenesis in three ways by creating; (1) genetically marked strains, (2) genetic sexing strains and (3) strains that induce molecular sterility in the field. Experience with the development of genetic sexing strains based on indicates that caution is required during the experimental evaluation of any potential transgenic strain. Two major scientific concerns involve the overall fitness of transgenic strains and their stability over time. The latter being very important especially when the extremely large numbers of insects that are mass reared is taken into account. Currently transformation events are random and it will probably be necessary to select suitable strains from many that are induced. The success of transformation itself in many insect species will enable many new strategies to be developed and tested. (author)

  18. Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls by transgenic tobacco.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrastilová, Z.; Macková, M.; Nováková, M.; Szekeres, M.; Macek, Tomáš

    Chania : Technical University of Crete, 2008 - (Kalogerakis, N.; Fava, F.; Banwart, S.). s. 295-295 ISBN 978-960-8475-12-0. [European Bioremediation Conference /4./. 03.09.2008-06.09.2008, Chania] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phytoremediation * PCB * transgenic plants * bphC Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  19. Using empirical data to model transgene dispersal.

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, T. R.; Belanger, F. C.; Day, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    One element of the current public debate about genetically modified crops is that gene flow from transgenic cultivars into surrounding weed populations will lead to more problematic weeds, particularly for traits such as herbicide resistance. Evolutionary biologists can inform this debate by providing accurate estimates of gene flow potential and subsequent ecological performance of resulting hybrids. We develop a model for gene flow incorporating exponential distance and directional effects ...

  20. Zebrafish transgenic Enhancer TRAP line database (ZETRAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Emelyanov Alexander; Parinov Sergey; Kondrichin Igor; Gh, Choo Benjamin; Go William; Toh Wei-chang; Korzh Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is used as a model organism to study vertebrate genetics and development. An effective enhancer trap (ET) in zebrafish using the Tol2 transposon has been demonstrated. This approach could be used to study embryogenesis of a vertebrate species in real time and with high resolution. Description The information gathered during the course of systematic investigation of many ET transgenic lines have been collected and compiled in the form of an onlin...

  1. Transgenic Inhibitors of RNA Interference in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Yu-Ting; Tam, Bergin; Linay, Fabien; Lai, Eric C

    2007-01-01

    RNA silencing functions as an adaptive antiviral defense in both plants and animals. In turn, viruses commonly encode suppressors of RNA silencing, which enable them to mount productive infection. These inhibitor proteins may be exploited as reagents with which to probe mechanisms and functions of RNA silencing pathways. In this report, we describe transgenic Drosophila strains that allow inducible expression of the viral RNA silencing inhibitors Flock House virus-B2, Nodamura virus-B2, vacci...

  2. In situ methods to localize transgenes and transcripts in interphase nuclei: a tool for transgenic plant research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic engineering of commercially important crops has become routine in many laboratories. However, the inability to predict where a transgene will integrate and to efficiently select plants with stable levels of transgenic expression remains a limitation of this technology. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is a powerful technique that can be used to visualize transgene integration sites and provide a better understanding of transgene behavior. Studies using FISH to characterize transgene integration have focused primarily on metaphase chromosomes, because the number and position of integration sites on the chromosomes are more easily determined at this stage. However gene (and transgene expression occurs mainly during interphase. In order to accurately predict the activity of a transgene, it is critical to understand its location and dynamics in the three-dimensional interphase nucleus. We and others have developed in situ methods to visualize transgenes (including single copy genes and their transcripts during interphase from different tissues and plant species. These techniques reduce the time necessary for characterization of transgene integration by eliminating the need for time-consuming segregation analysis, and extend characterization to the interphase nucleus, thus increasing the likelihood of accurate prediction of transgene activity. Furthermore, this approach is useful for studying nuclear organization and the dynamics of genes and chromatin.

  3. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020. PMID:11171275

  4. Hepatic steatosis in transgenic mice overexpressing human histone deacetylase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally thought that histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the transcriptional regulation of genes. However, little information is available concerning the specific functions of individual HDACs in disease states. In this study, two transgenic mice lines were established which harbored the human HDAC1 gene. Overexpressed HDAC1 was detected in the nuclei of transgenic liver cells, and HDAC1 enzymatic activity was significantly higher in the transgenic mice than in control littermates. The HDAC1 transgenic mice exhibited a high incidence of hepatic steatosis and nuclear pleomorphism. Molecular studies showed that HDAC1 may contribute to nuclear pleomorphism through the p53/p21 signaling pathway

  5. Benefits of Transgenic Insect Resistance in Brassica Hybrids under Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. Sagers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field trials of transgenic crops may result in unintentional transgene flow to compatible crop, native, and weedy species. Hybridization outside crop fields may create novel forms with potential negative outcomes for wild and weedy plant populations. We report here the outcome of large outdoor mesocosm studies with canola (Brassica napus, transgenic canola, a sexually compatible weed B. rapa, and their hybrids. Brassica rapa was hybridized with canola and canola carrying a transgene for herbivore resistance (Bt Cry1Ac and grown in outdoor mesocosms under varying conditions of competition and insect herbivory. Treatment effects differed significantly among genotypes. Hybrids were larger than all other genotypes, and produced more seeds than the B. rapa parent. Under conditions of heavy herbivory, plants carrying the transgenic resistance were larger and produced more seeds than non-transgenic plants. Pollen derived gene flow from transgenic canola to B. rapa varied between years (5%–22% and was not significantly impacted by herbivory. These results confirm that canola-weed hybrids benefit from transgenic resistance and are aggressive competitors with congeneric crops and ruderals. Because some crop and crop-weed hybrids may be competitively superior, escapees may alter the composition and ecological functions of plant communities near transgenic crop fields.

  6. Generation of bovine transgenics using somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stice Steven L

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to produce transgenic animals through the introduction of exogenous DNA has existed for many years. However, past methods available to generate transgenic animals, such as pronuclear microinjection or the use of embryonic stem cells, have either been inefficient or not available in all animals, bovine included. More recently somatic cell nuclear transfer has provided a method to create transgenic animals that overcomes many deficiencies present in other methods. This review summarizes the benefits of using somatic cell nuclear transfer to create bovine transgenics as well as the possible opportunities this method creates for the future.

  7. Comparative metallomics of transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans using HPLC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. In the last years, many soybean varieties have been developed, and due to these modifications, the proteins composition and profile can be affected, causing changes in the species proteome (S. Natarajan et al., Anal. Biochem., 342 (2005), 214-220.). With the proteome modifications, the metallome of this specie, defined as the total content of metals and metalloids in a cell or tissue (J. Spuznar, Analyst, 130 (2005), 442-465.), can also be affected (A. Sussulini et al., J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 22 (2007), 1501-1506.). So, the aim of this work is to amplify the information about the transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans metallome, and doing that we expect to find biomarkers that can differentiate the transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans physiologically. For that purpose a SEC column (GE Healthcare, model Superdex 200) was employed for the separation of the proteins, which were extracted using the mobile phase of the chromatographic system (90 mmol.L-1 phosphate buffer - pH 7.2). After the chromatographic separation, the eluate was passed through a DAD Series 200 detector (PerkinElmer), the fractions were collected and latter introduced into the ICP-MS (PerkinElmer, model ELANDRC-e) for the element-selective detection. The calibration of the column using purified proteins of known molecular weight allowed the calculation of the approximate masses of the eight fractions (1800-800 kDa; 800-420 kDa; 420-120 kDa; 100-23 kDa kDa; 800-420 kDa; 420-120 kDa; 100-23 kDa; 23-7 kDa; 7-2 kDa; 2-0.4 kDa and 0.4-0.2 kDa, respectively) identified in the transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans after 95 min of separation using a flow rate of 0.25 mL.min-1. A wide range of elements could be identified in all the fractions, including: Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe and Pb. Differences in the detectability of elements in the transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans were found, specially for Hg where the counts were two times higher in the transgenic soybean. Elements were found in the two samples that were not common for both of them, such as Sr identified only in fraction 2 of the non-transgenic soybean and Th in fraction 4 of the transgenic soybean. Financial support from Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo - FAPESP and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico - CNPq are highly acknowledged.

  8. Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Lorna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulatory elements that control expression of specific genes during development have been shown in many cases to contain functionally-conserved modules that can be transferred between species and direct gene expression in a comparable developmental pattern. An example of such a module has been identified at the rat myosin light chain (MLC 1/3 locus, which has been well characterised in transgenic mouse studies. This locus contains two promoters encoding two alternatively spliced isoforms of alkali myosin light chain. These promoters are differentially regulated during development through the activity of two enhancer elements. The MLC3 promoter alone has been shown to confer expression of a reporter gene in skeletal and cardiac muscle in transgenic mice and the addition of the downstream MLC enhancer increased expression levels in skeletal muscle. We asked whether this regulatory module, sufficient for striated muscle gene expression in the mouse, would drive expression in similar domains in the chicken. Results We have observed that a conserved downstream MLC enhancer is present in the chicken MLC locus. We found that the rat MLC1/3 regulatory elements were transcriptionally active in chick skeletal muscle primary cultures. We observed that a single copy lentiviral insert containing this regulatory cassette was able to drive expression of a lacZ reporter gene in the fast-fibres of skeletal muscle in chicken in three independent transgenic chicken lines in a pattern similar to the endogenous MLC locus. Reporter gene expression in cardiac muscle tissues was not observed for any of these lines. Conclusions From these results we conclude that skeletal expression from this regulatory module is conserved in a genomic context between rodents and chickens. This transgenic module will be useful in future investigations of muscle development in avian species.

  9. Characterization of a Maize Wip1 Promoter in Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxue Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Maize Wip1 gene encodes a wound-induced Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI protein which is a type of serine protease inhibitor, and its expression is induced by wounding or infection, conferring resistance against pathogens and pests. In this study, the maize Wip1 promoter was isolated and its function was analyzed. Different truncated Wip1 promoters were fused upstream of the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice plants. We found that (1 several truncated maize Wip1 promoters led to strong GUS activities in both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, whereas low GUS activity was detected in transgenic rice leaves; (2 the Wip1 promoter was not wound-induced in transgenic tobacco leaves, but was induced by wounding in transgenic rice leaves; (3 the truncated Wip1 promoter had different activity in different organs of transgenic tobacco plants; (4 the transgenic plant leaves containing different truncated Wip1 promoters had low GUS transcripts, even though high GUS protein level and GUS activities were observed; (5 there was one transcription start site of Wip1 gene in maize and two transcription start sites of GUS in Wip1::GUS transgenic lines; (6 the adjacent 35S promoter which is present in the transformation vectors enhanced the activity of the truncated Wip1 promoters in transgenic tobacco leaves, but did not influence the disability of truncated Wip1231 promoter to respond to wounding signals. We speculate that an ACAAAA hexamer, several CAA trimers and several elements similar to ACAATTAC octamer in the 5'-untranslated region might contribute to the strong GUS activity in Wip1231 transgenic lines, meanwhile, compared to the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1231 transgenic lines, the additional upstream open reading frames (uORFs in the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1737 transgenic lines might contribute to the lower level of GUS transcript and GUS activity.

  10. Rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Sofía Rodríguez-Reyna, Cynthia Martínez-Reyes, Jesús Kazúo Yamamoto-Furusho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature concerning rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, including common immune-mediated pathways, frequency, clinical course and therapy. Musculoskeletal complications are frequent and well-recognized manifestations in IBD, and affect up to 33% of patients with IBD. The strong link between the bowel and the osteo-articular system is suggested by many clinical and experimental observations, notably in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. The autoimmune pathogenic mechanisms shared by IBD and spondyloarthropathies include genetic susceptibility to abnormal antigen presentation, aberrant recognition of self, the presence of autoantibodies against specific antigens shared by the colon and other extra-colonic tissues, and increased intestinal permeability. The response against microorganisms may have an important role through molecular mimicry and other mechanisms. Rheumatic manifestations of IBD have been divided into peripheral arthritis, and axial involvement, including sacroiliitis, with or without spondylitis, similar to idiopathic ankylosing spondylitis. Other periarticular features can occur, including enthesopathy, tendonitis, clubbing, periostitis, and granulomatous lesions of joints and bones. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia secondary to IBD and iatrogenic complications can also occur. The management of the rheumatic manifestations of IBD consists of physical therapy in combination with local injection of corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; caution is in order however, because of their possible harmful effects on intestinal integrity, permeability, and even on gut inflammation. Sulfasalazine, methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclosporine and leflunomide should be used for selected indications. In some cases, tumor necrosis factor-? blocking agents should be considered as first-line therapy.

  11. Transgenic Crops and Sustainable Agriculture in the European Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The rapid adoption of transgenic crops in the United States, Argentina, and Canada stands in strong contrast to the situation in the European Union (EU), where a de facto moratorium has been in place since 1998. This article reviews recent scientific literature relevant to the problematic introduction of transgenic crops in the EU to assess if…

  12. Overview of the investigation of transgenic plums in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and PT3 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natural i...

  13. Overview on the investigations of transgenic plums in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, PT3 and PT5 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natu...

  14. EXPRESSION OF ENDOGLUCANASE E1 IN TRANSGENIC DUCKWEED LEMNA MINOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic duckweed (Lemna minor) that expresses Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase was generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Out of 15 independent transgenic lines, 1 line with the highest CMC-degrading activity was selected for further studies. The 2-week-old transgeni...

  15. Transgenic Campanula carpatica plants with reduced ethylene sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriskandarajah, Sridevy; Mibus, Heiko; Serek, Margrethe

    2007-06-01

    Fertile transgenic Campanula carpatica Jacq. plants with flowers, which had reduced sensitivity to ethylene were obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens that mediated transformation. The construct used for transformation contained the etr1-1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana under control of the flower specific fbp1-promoter from petunia. More than 100 flowering T0 lines were tested for their ethylene sensitivity using 2 microl l(-1) ethylene. The tolerance level to ethylene varied among the lines. While control plants stopped flowering within 3 days of exposure to ethylene, one of the transformed lines flowered for up to 27 days. The presence and the expression pattern of the transgene in various tissues were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR techniques. The expression of etr1-1 was significant in flowers and buds. Transgenic lines did not differ morphologically from control plants. The selected transgenic T0 lines, which were re-established from in vitro cultures showed the same degree of tolerance to exogenous ethylene, confirming the stability of the transgene in in vitro cultures. The rooting ability of the transgenic plants was not affected by the presence of etr1-1. T1 progeny were produced by crossing the transgenic line, which showed the most significant reduction in ethylene sensitivity with a control plant, and the analysis of the T1 plants showed 1:1 segregation in terms of ethylene sensitivity and the presence of the transgene. PMID:17221226

  16. Advancing environmental risk assessment for transgenic biofeedstock crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolt Jeffrey D

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transgenic modification of plants is a key enabling technology for developing sustainable biofeedstocks for biofuels production. Regulatory decisions and the wider acceptance and development of transgenic biofeedstock crops are considered from the context of science-based risk assessment. The risk assessment paradigm for transgenic biofeedstock crops is fundamentally no different from that of current generation transgenic crops, except that the focus of the assessment must consider the unique attributes of a given biofeedstock crop and its environmental release. For currently envisioned biofeedstock crops, particular emphasis in risk assessment will be given to characterization of altered metabolic profiles and their implications relative to non-target environmental effects and food safety; weediness and invasiveness when plants are modified for abiotic stress tolerance or are domesticated; and aggregate risk when plants are platforms for multi-product production. Robust risk assessments for transgenic biofeedstock crops are case-specific, initiated through problem formulation, and use tiered approaches for risk characterization.

  17. Interleukin 12-mediated prevention of spontaneous mammary adenocarcinomas in two lines of Her-2/neu transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Boggio, Katia; Nicoletti, Giordano; Di Carlo, Emma; Cavallo, Federica; Landuzzi, Lorena; Melani, Cecilia; Giovarelli, Mirella; Rossi, Ilaria; Nanni, Patrizia; Giovanni, Carla; Bouchard, Page; Wolf, Stanley; Modesti, Andrea; Musiani, Piero; Lollini, Pier Luigi

    1998-01-01

    The ability of interleukin (IL)-12 to prevent tumors when administered to individuals with a genetic risk of cancer was studied in two lines of transgenic mice expressing rat HER-2/neu oncogene in the mammary gland. Female BALB/c (H-2d) mice carrying the activated HER-2/ neu oncogene show no morphological abnormalities of the mammary gland until 3 wk of age. They then progress through atypical hyperplasia to in situ lobular carcinoma and at 33 wk of age all 10 mammary glands display invas...

  18. Transgenic crops. Processes, products and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transgenic crops are a natural extension of plant breeding technologies, offering new opportunities for increasing the productivity of agriculture and reducing the cost of food production, for increasing the appeal, nutritional content and quality of fresh and processed foods, and for reducing the environmental damage of agricultural practices. These new transgenic traits will be combined with continuing improvements in the latest varieties developed via breeding technologies, spurring investment in both. These technologies are inherently compatible with and necessary for meeting the challenges now facing the world, namely, economic growth and development, environmental protection and remediation, and human needs for food, shelter and a decent quality of life. The first products from genetically engineered crops are beginning to enter commerce. This is a critical time for issues that will shape public acceptance and for adoption of regulatory and trade policies that encourage rather than discourage investment in and use of this technology. Further investment in the tools for transforming crops and in the basic and applied sciences that will provide a pipeline of new genes is also needed. (author). 24 refs, 1 tab

  19. Illegal gene flow from transgenic creeping bentgrass: the saga continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Allison A

    2012-10-01

    Ecologists have paid close attention to environmental effects that fitness-enhancing transgenes might have following crop-to-wild gene flow (e.g. Snow et al. 2003). For some crops, gene flow also can lead to legal problems,especially when government agencies have not approved transgenic events for unrestricted environmental release.Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), a common turf grass used in golf courses, is the focus of both areas of concern. In 2002, prior to expected deregulation (still pending), The Scotts Company planted creeping bentgrass with transgenic resistance to the herbicide glyphosate,also known as RoundUp, on 162 ha in a designated control area in central Oregon (Fig. 1).Despite efforts to restrict gene flow, wind-dispersed pollen carried transgenes to florets of local A. stolonifera and A. gigantea as far as 14 km away, and to sentinel plants placed as far as 21 km away (Watrud et al. 2004).Then, in August 2003, a strong wind event moved transgenic seeds from wind rows of cut bentgrass into nearby areas. The company’s efforts to kill all transgenic survivors in the area failed: feral glyphosate-resistant populations of A. stolonifera were found by Reichman et al.(2006), and 62% of 585 bentgrass plants had the telltale CP4 EPSPS transgene in 2006 (Zapiola et al. 2008; Fig. 2).Now, in this issue, the story gets even more interesting as Zapiola & Mallory-Smith (2012) describe a transgenic,intergeneric hybrid produced on a feral, transgenic creeping bentgrass plant that received pollen from Polypogon monspeliensis (rabbitfoot grass). Their finding raises a host of new questions about the prevalence and fitness of intergeneric hybrids, as well as how to evaluate the full extent of gene flow from transgenic crops. PMID:23009646

  20. Minute Pirate Bug (Orius Insidiosus Say) populations on transgenic and non-transgenic maize using different sampling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the populations of minute pirate bug [Orius insidiosus (Say)] using visual, sticky cards, and destructive sampling techniques in transgenic and non-transgenic maize in three locations in Nebraska (Mead, Clay Center, and Concord), United States of America,...

  1. A set of highly informative rat simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP markers and genetically defined rat strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasaki Ken-ichi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Bio Resource Project for the Rat in Japan (NBRP-Rat is focusing on collecting, preserving and distributing various rat strains, including spontaneous mutant, transgenic, congenic, and recombinant inbred (RI strains. To evaluate their value as models of human diseases, we are characterizing them using 109 phenotypic parameters, such as clinical measurements, internal anatomy, metabolic parameters, and behavioral tests, as part of the Rat Phenome Project. Here, we report on a set of 357 simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP markers and 122 rat strains, which were genotyped by the marker set. Results The SSLP markers were selected according to their distribution patterns throughout the whole rat genome with an average spacing of 7.59 Mb. The average number of informative markers between all possible pairs of strains was 259 (72.5% of 357 markers, showing their high degree of polymorphism. From the genetic profile of these rat inbred strains, we constructed a rat family tree to clarify their genetic background. Conclusion These highly informative SSLP markers as well as genetically and phenotypically defined rat strains are useful for designing experiments for quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis and to choose strategies for developing new genetic resources. The data and resources are freely available at the NBRP-Rat web site 1.

  2. Mycorrhizal colonization of transgenic aspen in a field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldorf, Michael; Fladung, Matthias; Muhs, Hans J; Buscot, François

    2002-02-01

    Mycorrhizal colonization of genetically modified hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides Michx.) was investigated over 15 months in a field experiment. The aspen carried the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes under control of either the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter or the light-inducible rbcS promoter. Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) were rare in all root samples, while fully developed ectomycorrhizas (EMs) were found in all samples. No significant differences in the degree of mycorrhizal colonization between aspen lines were seen with either AMs or EMs. The EM community on the release area was dominated by four fungal species that formed more than 90% of all mycorrhizas, while eleven EM types were found occasionally. Mycorrhizal diversity did not differ between transgenic and non-transgenic trees. The structure of mycorrhizal communities was similar for most aspen lines. The sole significant difference was found in the abundance and development of one of the four common EM morphotypes, which was rare and poorly developed on roots from the transgenic aspen line Esch5:35S-rolC-#5 compared with non-transgenic controls. This effect is clone specific as the formation of this EM type was not affected by the transgene expression in the other transgenic line, Esch5:35S-rolC-#1. This is the first demonstration of a clonal effect influencing the ability of a transgenic plant to form a mycorrhizal symbiosis with a potential fungal partner. PMID:11925050

  3. Evaluating potential risks of transgenic arthropods for pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic modification using recombinant DNA methods can now be used, almost routinely, to transform pest and beneficial arthropods and such genetically engineered insects and mites could be used to improve pest management programs. Genetic manipulation with recombinant DNA techniques may generate concerns about risk, requiring additional time and resources to resolve. Risk assessments must be conducted prior to releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment for either short term experiments or permanent establishment. Potential risk issues to be resolved include whether: the inserted gene(s) (trait) is stable; the traits can be horizontally transferred to other populations or species; released arthropods will perform as expected (especially with regard to their geographic distribution, host or prey specificity; released arthropods will have unintended environmental effects; and, in the case of short term releases, the released arthropods can be recovered from field sites. If the transgenic arthropods strain(s) perform well in preliminary, short term releases and risk assessments are completed satisfactorily, permanent releases into the environment may follow. Many pest management programs, especially those involving replacement of pest populations by the transgenic population, will require permanent establishment in the environment and the use of 'drive mechanisms', have been proposed to achieve this. Because efficacy can be severely compromised by 'transgene sil be severely compromised by 'transgene silencing', plant molecular biologists are now attempting to stabilize gene expression by building in 'insulators'. Transgene silencing occurs in Drosophila and will no doubt be a factor in other transgenic arthropods. (author)

  4. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Remuge, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology—animal welfare—has not been approached through systematic assessment and statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals along various stages of post natal development. The protocol used covered reproductory performance and behaviour in GFP and wildtype sows and general health and development, social behaviour, exploratory behaviour and emotionality in GFP and wildtype littermates from birth until an age of roughly 4 months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs expressing GFP as healthy. Although the results are not surprising in the light of previous experience, they give a more solid fundament to the evaluation of GFP expression as being relatively non-invasive in pigs. The present study may furthermore serve as starting point for researchers aiming at a systematic characterization of welfare relevant effects in the line of transgenic pigs they are working with.

  5. Split-Cre Complementation Restores Combination Activity on Transgene Excision in Hair Roots of Transgenic Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Mengling; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Lijun; Ran, Lingyu; Li, Jiahui; Luo, Keming

    2014-01-01

    The Cre/loxP system is increasingly exploited for genetic manipulation of DNA in vitro and in vivo. It was previously reported that inactive ‘‘split-Cre’’ fragments could restore Cre activity in transgenic mice when overlapping co-expression was controlled by two different promoters. In this study, we analyzed recombination activities of split-Cre proteins, and found that no recombinase activity was detected in the in vitro recombination reaction in which only the N-terminal domain (N...

  6. Nephropathy in human immunodeficiency virus-1 transgenic mice is due to renal transgene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruggeman, L. A.; Dikman, S.; Meng, C.; Quaggin, S. E.; Coffman, T. M.; Klotman, P. E.

    1997-01-01

    HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a progressive glomerular and tubular disease that is increasingly common in AIDS patients and one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease in African Americans. A major unresolved issue in the pathogenesis of HIVAN is whether the kidney disease is due to renal cell infection or a "bystander" phenomenon mediated by systemically dysregulated cytokines. To address this issue, we have used two different experimental approaches and an HIV-1 transgenic ...

  7. The effect of Bt-transgene introgression on plant growth and reproduction in wild Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Bo; Darmency, Henry; Stewart, C Neal; Wei, Wei; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative plant growth and reproduction of insect-resistant and susceptible plants following the introgression of an insect-resistance Bt-transgene from Brassica napus, oilseed rape, to wild Brassica juncea. The second backcrossed generation (BC2) from a single backcross family was grown in pure and mixed stands of Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic siblings under two insect treatments. Various proportions of Bt-transgenic plants were employed in mixed stands to study the interaction between resistant and susceptible plants. In the pure stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants performed better than non-transgenic plants with or without insect treatments. In mixed stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants produced fewer seeds than their non-Bt counterparts at low proportions of Bt-transgenic BC2 plants in the absence of insects. Reproductive allocation of non-transgenic plants marginally increased with increasing proportions of Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure, which resulted in increased total biomass and seed production per stand. The results showed that the growth of non-transgenic plants was protected by Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure. The Bt-transgene might not be advantageous in mixed stands of backcrossed hybrids; thus transgene introgression would not be facilitated when herbivorous insects are not present. However, a relatively large initial population of Bt-transgenic plants might result in transgene persistence when target herbivores are present. PMID:25487040

  8. Down with DON: Strategies for precise transgene delivery and rnai-based suppression of fusarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic strategies can effectively supplement other methods for controlling Fusarium head blight (FHB). Impediments to deploying FHB-resistant transgenic barley include a long time-frame for creating and testing transgenes in barley, imprecise transgene insertions that lead to unstable gene expre...

  9. Genetic load and transgenic mitigating genes in transgenic Brassica rapa (field mustard × Brassica napus (oilseed rape hybrid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Suzanne I

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One theoretical explanation for the relatively poor performance of Brassica rapa (weed × Brassica napus (crop transgenic hybrids suggests that hybridization imparts a negative genetic load. Consequently, in hybrids genetic load could overshadow any benefits of fitness enhancing transgenes and become the limiting factor in transgenic hybrid persistence. Two types of genetic load were analyzed in this study: random/linkage-derived genetic load, and directly incorporated genetic load using a transgenic mitigation (TM strategy. In order to measure the effects of random genetic load, hybrid productivity (seed yield and biomass was correlated with crop- and weed-specific AFLP genomic markers. This portion of the study was designed to answer whether or not weed × transgenic crop hybrids possessing more crop genes were less competitive than hybrids containing fewer crop genes. The effects of directly incorporated genetic load (TM were analyzed through transgene persistence data. TM strategies are proposed to decrease transgene persistence if gene flow and subsequent transgene introgression to a wild host were to occur. Results In the absence of interspecific competition, transgenic weed × crop hybrids benefited from having more crop-specific alleles. There was a positive correlation between performance and number of B. napus crop-specific AFLP markers [seed yield vs. marker number (r = 0.54, P = 0.0003 and vegetative dry biomass vs. marker number (r = 0.44, P = 0.005]. However under interspecific competition with wheat or more weed-like conditions (i.e. representing a situation where hybrid plants emerge as volunteer weeds in subsequent cropping systems, there was a positive correlation between the number of B. rapa weed-specific AFLP markers and seed yield (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001, although no such correlation was detected for vegetative biomass. When genetic load was directly incorporated into the hybrid genome, by inserting a fitness-mitigating dwarfing gene that that is beneficial for crops but deleterious for weeds (a transgene mitigation measure, there was a dramatic decrease in the number of transgenic hybrid progeny persisting in the population. Conclusion The effects of genetic load of crop and in some situations, weed alleles might be beneficial under certain environmental conditions. However, when genetic load was directly incorporated into transgenic events, e.g., using a TM construct, the number of transgenic hybrids and persistence in weedy genomic backgrounds was significantly decreased.

  10. Transgenic fish systems and their application in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhyun; Green, Jon M; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-02-01

    The use of transgenics in fish is a relatively recent development for advancing understanding of genetic mechanisms and developmental processes, improving aquaculture, and for pharmaceutical discovery. Transgenic fish have also been applied in ecotoxicology where they have the potential to provide more advanced and integrated systems for assessing health impacts of chemicals. The zebrafish (Daniorerio) is the most popular fish for transgenic models, for reasons including their high fecundity, transparency of their embryos, rapid organogenesis and availability of extensive genetic resources. The most commonly used technique for producing transgenic zebrafish is via microinjection of transgenes into fertilized eggs. Transposon and meganuclease have become the most reliable methods for insertion of the genetic construct in the production of stable transgenic fish lines. The GAL4-UAS system, where GAL4 is placed under the control of a desired promoter and UAS is fused with a fluorescent marker, has greatly enhanced model development for studies in ecotoxicology. Transgenic fish have been developed to study for the effects of heavy metal toxicity (via heat-shock protein genes), oxidative stress (via an electrophile-responsive element), for various organic chemicals acting through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, thyroid and glucocorticoid response pathways, and estrogenicity. These models vary in their sensitivity with only very few able to detect responses for environmentally relevant exposures. Nevertheless, the potential of these systems for analyses of chemical effects in real time and across multiple targets in intact organisms is considerable. Here we illustrate the techniques used for generating transgenic zebrafish and assess progress in the development and application of transgenic fish (principally zebrafish) for studies in environmental toxicology. We further provide a viewpoint on future development opportunities. PMID:25394772

  11. WP1: transgenic opto-animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    U?arowska, E.; Czajkowski, Rafa?; Konopka, W.

    2014-11-01

    We aim to create a set of genetic tools where permanent opsin expression (ChR or NpHR) is precisely limited to the population of neurons that express immediate early gene c-fos during a specific temporal window of behavioral training. Since the c-fos gene is only expressed in neurons that form experience-dependent ensemble, this approach will result in specific labeling of a small subset of cells that create memory trace for the learned behavior. To this end we employ two alternative inducible gene expression systems: Tet Expression System and Cre/lox System. In both cases, the temporal window for opsin induction is controlled pharmacologically, by doxycycline or tamoxifen, respectively. Both systems will be used for creating lines of transgenic animals.

  12. Magnetic biomineralisation in Huntington's disease transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration levels of biogenic magnetite nanoparticles in transgenic R6/2 Huntington's disease (HD) mice have been investigated, using seven control and seven HD mice each from an 8 week-old litter and from a 12 week-old litter. Hysteresis and isothermal remnant magnetisation data were collected on a SQUID magnetometer, and analysed using a model comprising dia/paramagnetic, ferrimagnetic and superparamagnetic contributions, to extract the magnetite and ferritin concentrations present. It was found that magnetite was present in both superparamagnetic and blocked states. A larger spread and higher concentration of magnetite levels was found in the diseased mice for both the 8 week-old and 12 week-old batches, compared to the controls

  13. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene therapy ameliorates chronic hyperprolactinemia in senile rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Gustavo R.; Sosa, Yolanda E.; Bellini, Maria J.; Carri, Nestor G.; Rodriguez, Silvia S.; Bohn, Martha C.; Goya, Rodolfo G.

    2010-01-01

    Progressive dysfunction of hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons during normal aging is associated in the female rat with chronic hyperprolactinemia. We assessed the effectiveness of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene therapy to restore TIDA neuron function in senile female rats and reverse their chronic hyperprolactinemia. Young (2.5 months) and senile (29 months) rats received a bilateral intrahypothalamic injection (1010 pfu) of either an adenoviral vector expressing the gene for ?-galactosidase; (Y-?gal and S-?gal, respectively) or a vector expressing rat GDNF (Y-GDNF and S-GDNF, respectively). Transgenic GDNF levels in supernatants of GDNF adenovector-transduced N2a neuronal cell cultures were 25 ± 4 ng/ml, as determined by bioassay. In the rats, serum prolactin (PRL) was measured at regular intervals. On day 17 animals were sacrificed and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive cells counted in the arcuate-periventricular hypothalamic region. The S-GDNF but not the S-?gal rats, showed a significant reduction in body weight. The chronic hyperprolactinemia of the senile females was significantly ameliorated in the S-GDNF rats (p< 0.05) but not in the S-?gal rats. Neither age nor GDNF induced significant changes in the number of NeuN and TH neurons. We conclude that transgenic GDNF ameliorates chronic hyperprolactinemia in aging female rats, probably by restoring TIDA neuron function. PMID:20219648

  14. Differences in social interaction- vs cocaine reward in rat vs mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai K Kummer

    2014-10-01

    Considering that human addicts regularly prefer drugs of abuse to drug-free social interaction, the present findings suggest that our experimental paradigm of concurrent CPP for cocaine vs social interaction is of even greater translational power if performed in C57BL/6 mice, the genetic background for most transgenic rodent models, than in rats.

  15. Mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Loli, P.; Dušinská, M.; Hurbánková, M.; Ková?iková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Kažimírová, A.; Baran?oková, M.; Tatrai, E.; Wolff, T.; Oesterle, D.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 595, - (2006), s. 174-183. ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : transgenic rats * mineral fibres Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.111, year: 2006

  16. Multiple effects of genetic background on variegated transgene expression in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Opsahl, Margaret L; McClenaghan, Margaret; Springbett, Anthea; Reid, Sarah; Lathe, Richard; Colman, Alan; C. Bruce A. Whitelaw

    2002-01-01

    BLG/7 transgenic mice express an ovine beta-lactoglobulin transgene during lactation. Unusually, transgene expression levels in milk differ between siblings. This variable expression is due to variegated transgene expression in the mammary gland and is reminiscent of position-effect variegation. The BLG/7 line was created and maintained on a mixed CBA x C57BL/6 background. We have investigated the effect on transgene expression of backcrossing for 13 generations into these backgrounds. Variab...

  17. Transgenic approaches to a non-transgenic release of sterile male Lepidoptera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Tortricidae), in British Columbia, Canada, resulted in demands for the expansion of codling moth SIT and a related suppression strategy, radiation-induced inherited sterility (IS), in other countries. In the current SIT programme, both sterile males and females are released to control the pest population. There are compelling reasons to believe that both codling moth SIT and IS would benefit if efficient ways could be found to produce and release only males. Recently, a new scheme for genetic sexing in Lepidoptera has been proposed. The scheme is based on the construction of transgenic females carrying a dominant conditional lethal gene in the female-determining chromosome W. Following this scheme we intend to develop transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth. This requires basic knowledge of codling moth genome and appropriate molecular tools for codling moth transgenesis. We performed a detailed analysis of codling moth karyotype with a particular focus on the identification and characterization of sex chromosomes. Here we summarize our data on codling moth cytogenetics and discuss the potential of codling moth sex chromosomes for their use in developing transgenic sexing strains. The karyotype of codling moth consists of 2n=56 chromosomes, which can be classified into five groups according to their sizes: extra large (3 pairs), large (3 pairs), medium (15rge (3 pairs), large (3 pairs), medium (15 pairs), small (5 pairs), and dot-like (2 pairs). Females are heterogametic with a W-Z sex chromosome pair, males are homogametic with two Z chromosomes. The W and Z chromosomes represent the two largest elements in female chromosome complements. While the Z is composed of euchromatin and resembles to autosomes, the W consists largely of heterochromatin. For successful development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, it is required to insert a conditional dominant lethal mutation (a transgene) into the W chromosome. Theoretically, the transgene insertion is a matter of probability, which is dependent on the size of the W relative to the rest of the genome. In the codling moth, the W is one of two largest chromosomes, comprising about 4% of the female genome, which should make it a good target for transgenesis with the probability of insertion of 1 in 25 (if only females are included) or with the overall probability of 1 in 50 (since both female and male embryos are exposed). However, since the W chromosome is mainly composed of heterochromatin, silencing of the transgene expression might be a serious problem. Different ways how to overcome this problem are discussed. For further characterisation of the codling moth W chromosome we employed advanced methods of molecular cytogenetics, genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) and comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH). GISH detected the W chromosome by strong binding of the Cy3-labelled, female-derived DNA probe. With CGH, both the Cy3-labelled female-derived probe and Fluor-X labelled male-derived probe evenly bound to the W. This suggested that the W is composed predominantly of repetitive DNA sequences occurring scattered in other chromosomes but accumulated in the W. Finally, we prepared W-specific probes by laser microdissection of the W chromatin followed by DOP-PCR and PCR labelling. The probes stained the W with a high specificity in a chromosome-painting manner. DNA fragments of the microdissected W chromatin were cloned and sequenced. The W-sequence analysis revealed no homology to any DNA sequenced so far. Several cloned sequences were found to originate exclusively from the W chromosome. These unique sequences can be very useful as molecular markers of the W chromosome in codling moth transgenesis. The demonstrated ways of W chromosome identification will facilitate the development of genetic sexing strains in the codling moth

  18. Hybridization between transgenic and wild plants: environmental risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified products are widely commercialized in agricultural production. These include resistant plants to diseases, insects or herbicides, plants with capacity for longer storing times or better nutritional quality. However, there are some concerns and critics from environmental organizations on the risk associated to transgenic plants or organisms genetically modified (OGM. This review discusses the vertical gene transfer (plant/Plant within the OGM context. Although transgenic hybrids have been reported between transgenic plants and their wild relatives, the extent of the environmental risk has not been evaluated per se. The risk depends on the plant species involved, the transgenes, and the ecosystem where the plants are located. Studies on biosafety assessment must be evaluated case by case. Biotechnology and conventional methods allow to control gen flow and decrease the risk of gene transfer among species.

  19. Construction of transgenic plants with improved uptake of heavy metals.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.; Pavlíková, D.; Száková, J.; Cundy, A. S.; Kotrba, P.; Scouten, W. H.

    Chania : Technical University of Crete, 2001, s. 344-347. [European Bioremediation Conference /1./. Chania (GR), 02.07.2001-05.07.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : phytoremediation * transgenic plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  20. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts. PMID:25757330

  1. Quality of transgenic rabbit embryos with different EGFP gene constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrenek, P; Bauer, M; Makarevich, A V

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quality of rabbit transgenic embryos obtained upon microinjection of gene constructs containing different promoters and green fluorescent proteins (CMVIE-EGFP, PGK-EGFP and CMVIE-hrGFP). Developmental rate, total cell number in hatching blastocyst stage, number of apoptotic cells, diameter of embryos, transgene integration and transgenic mosaicism were investigated.The rate of rabbit embryos microinjected with the different gene constructs developed up to morula stage was significantly lower (p production and selection is the CMVIE-EGFP (ClaI) gene construct. Prior to using microinjected embryos (for embryo transfer, vitrification or ESC isolation) it is necessary to pre-select microinjected embryos with evident transgenic mosaicism. PMID:20509985

  2. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  3. Microinjection of A. aegypti Embryos to Obtain Transgenic Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinskiene, Nijole; Juhn, Jennifer; JAMES, ANTHONY A.

    2007-01-01

    In this video, Nijole Jasinskiene demonstrates the methodology employed to generate transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are vectors for dengue fever. The techniques for correctly preparing microinjection needles, dessicating embryos, and performing microinjection are demonstrated.

  4. Simplifying transgene locus structure through Cre-lox recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vibha; Ow, David W

    2015-01-01

    Transgene silencing is often associated with multicopy integrations, which occur frequently during plant transformation. Transgene expression can be restored in a number of multicopy loci by converting them to single copy. This chapter describes a plant transformation protocol based on use of the Cre-lox system, which allows conversion of a multicopy transgene locus into single copy. The strategy is based on designing a transformation vector with lox sites, developing transgenic lines, and introducing Cre activity to initiate Cre-lox recombination, which leads to the simplification of a multicopy locus to a single- or low-copy state. This method is compatible with both gene gun and Agrobacterium-mediated gene delivery and should be particularly useful for crops that are difficult to transform. PMID:25740358

  5. Transgenic mice secreting coronavirus neutralizing antibodies into the milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, I; Castilla, J; Pintado, B; Sánchez-Morgado, J M; Whitelaw, C B; Clark, A J; Enjuanes, L

    1998-05-01

    Ten lines of transgenic mice secreting transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) neutralizing recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rMAbs) into the milk were generated. The rMAb light- and heavy-chain genes were assembled by fusing the genes encoding the variable modules of the murine MAb 6A.C3, which binds an interspecies conserved coronavirus epitope essential for virus infectivity, and a constant module from a porcine myeloma with the immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype. The chimeric antibody led to dimer formation in the presence of J chain. The neutralization specific activity of the recombinant antibody produced in transiently or stably transformed cells was 50-fold higher than that of a monomeric rMAb with the IgG1 isotype and an identical binding site. This rMAb had titers of up to 10(4) by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and neutralized virus infectivity up to 10(4)-fold. Of 23 transgenic mice, 17 integrated both light and heavy chains, and at least 10 of them transmitted both genes to the progeny, leading to 100% of animals secreting functional TGEV neutralizing antibody during lactation. Selected mice produced milk with TGEV-specific antibody titers higher than 10(6) as determined by RIA, neutralized virus infectivity by 10(6)-fold, and produced up to 6 mg of antibody per ml. Antibody expression levels were transgene copy number independent and integration site dependent. Comicroinjection of the genomic beta-lactoglobulin gene with rMAb light- and heavy-chain genes led to the generation of transgenic mice carrying the three transgenes. The highest antibody titers were produced by transgenic mice that had integrated the antibody and beta-lactoglobulin genes, although the number of transgenic animals generated does not allow a definitive conclusion on the enhancing effect of beta-lactoglobulin cointegration. This approach may lead to the generation of transgenic animals providing lactogenic immunity to their progeny against enteric pathogens. PMID:9557658

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Aedes aegypti Transgenic Mosquitoes with Altered Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Zhen; Souza-neto, Jayme; Xi, Zhiyong; Kokoza, Vladimir; Shin, Sang Woon; Dimopoulos, George; Raikhel, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The mosquito immune system is involved in pathogen-elicited defense responses. The NF-?B factors REL1 and REL2 are downstream transcription activators of Toll and IMD immune pathways, respectively. We have used genome-wide microarray analyses to characterize fat-body-specific gene transcript repertoires activated by either REL1 or REL2 in two transgenic strains of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Vitellogenin gene promoter was used in each transgenic strain to ectopically express either REL1 (REL...

  7. Enhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Doty, Sharon L.; James, C. Andrew; Moore, Allison L.; Vajzovic, Azra; Singleton, Glenda L.; Ma, Caiping; Khan, Zareen; Xin, Gang; Kang, Jun Won; Park, Jin Young; Meilan, Richard; Strauss, Steven H.; Wilkerson, Jasmine; Farin, Federico; Strand, Stuart E.

    2007-01-01

    Small, volatile hydrocarbons, including trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and chloroform, are common environmental pollutants that pose serious health effects. We have developed transgenic poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) plants with greatly increased rates of metabolism and removal of these pollutants through the overexpression of cytochrome P450 2E1, a key enzyme in the metabolism of a variety of halogenated compounds. The transgenic poplar plants exh...

  8. Use of Wolbachia to drive nuclear transgenes through insect populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkins, Sp; Godfray, HC

    2004-01-01

    Wolbachia is an inherited intracellular bacterium found in many insects of medical and economic importance. The ability of many strains to spread through populations using cytoplasmic incompatibility, involving sperm modification and rescue, provides a powerful mechanism for driving beneficial transgenes through insect populations, if such transgenes could be inserted into and expressed by Wolbachia. However, manipulating Wolbachia in this way has not yet been achieved. Here, we demonstrate t...

  9. Enhancing shoot recovery from transgenic avocado somatic embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Palomo-Ríos, Elena; Vidoy, Isabel; Barceló-Muñoz, Araceli; Mercado, Jose Angel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Use of biotechnological tools in avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is hampered by difficulties in obtaining mature somatic embryos with an acceptable germination capacity. Use of semi-permeable cellulose acetate membranes on top of maturation medium has improved the quality of obtained embryos and their germination rate; however, in the case of transgenic embryos the conversion rate is still rather low. In this investigation, a protocol for recovery of transgenic plants has been developed. Mat...

  10. Time-Course Expression Profiles of Hair Cycle-Associated Genes in Male Mini Rats after Depilation of Telogen-Phase Hairs

    OpenAIRE

    Aya Umeda-Ikawa; Isao Shimokawa; Kunio Doi

    2009-01-01

    Jcl:WistarTGN(ARGHGEN)1Nts rat (Mini rat) is a growth hormone (GH)-deficient transgenic rat. The hair cycle in the dorsal skin of male Mini rats enters a long-lasting telogen phase after eights weeks of age, but depilation can induce a transient hair cycle again. In this study, a time-course profiling of genes expression was done on the dorsal skin of male Mini rats along the progression of depilation-induced hair cycle using DNA microarray analysis. As a result, 1,215 probe sets including 1,...

  11. The potential of transgenic animals for improved agricultural productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K A; Nancarrow, C D; Byrne, C R; Shanahan, C M; Murray, J D; Leish, Z; Townrow, C; Rigby, N W; Wilson, B W; Hunt, C L

    1990-09-01

    The techniques involved in the transfer of foreign DNA to domestic animals have advanced to the stage where transgenic animals that express foreign genes can be reliably produced, albeit still at low efficiency. This paper reviews the current status of some of the more important areas in agriculture where this technology is being applied. Numerous attempts have been made to modify the growth performance characteristics of domestic animals by the introduction of metallothionein/growth hormone fusion genes. A summary of our work with transgenic sheep is presented. The results demonstrate that the unregulated production of growth hormone in transgenic sheep reduces carcass fat, elevates metabolic rate and heat production, causes skeletal abnormalities and impairs survival. The introduction of new metabolic pathways to domestic animals offers an attractive approach to improved animal productivity. This paper summarises recent results of research directed towards the introduction of a cysteine biosynthetic pathway and the glyoxylate cycle to transgenic sheep. So far, the genes encoding the enzymes have been isolated and expressed both in cells in culture and in transgenic mice. The results of work currently in progress demonstrate that some modification of the fusion genes is required to enhance their expression in transgenic animals. PMID:2132707

  12. Effect of 60Co ?-rays irradiation on antioxidant enzymes activities in transgenic and non-transgenic tobacco seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of activities of antioxidant enzymes in pprI-transgenic tobacco seedlings and non-transgenic tobacco seedlings after different doses 60Co ?-rays irradiation were studied. The results showed that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in pprI-transgenic tobacco seedlings and non-transgenic tobacco seedlings were gradually increased after different doses 60Co ?-rays irradiation. The activity of SOD was to the maximum at 100 Gy treatment, but the activity of POD and CAT at 300 Gy treatment, and then these three antioxidant enzymes gradually decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis also revealed that the over-express of these antioxidant enzymes were induced after different doses 60Co ?-rays irradiation and were consistent with the variance of their enzymic activities, which enhanced the tolerance of tobacco against irradiation. (authors)

  13. Comparative study of transgenic and non-transgenic maize (Zea mays) flours commercialized in Brazil, focussing on proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Nádia; Barbosa, Herbert; Jacob, Silvana; Arruda, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Genetically modified foods are a major concern around the world due to the lack of information concerning their safety and health effects. This work evaluates differences, at the proteomic level, between two types of crop samples: transgenic (MON810 event with the Cry1Ab gene, which confers resistance to insects) and non-transgenic maize flour commercialized in Brazil. The 2-D DIGE technique revealed 99 differentially expressed spots, which were collected in 2-D PAGE gels and identified via mass spectrometry (nESI-QTOF MS/MS). The abundance of protein differences between the transgenic and non-transgenic samples could arise from genetic modification or as a result of an environmental influence pertaining to the commercial sample. The major functional category of proteins identified was related to disease/defense and, although differences were observed between samples, no toxins or allergenic proteins were found. PMID:25766830

  14. Evaluating the impacts of refuge width on source-sink dynamics between transgenic and non-transgenic cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Caprio, Michael A.; Faver, Marla K.; Glynn Hankins

    2004-01-01

    Resistance management for Bt-transgenic crops relies in part on the production of sufficient numbers of susceptible insects in non-toxic refuges. Simulation models suggested that source-sink dynamics could interact with the structure of refuges to impact the production of insects in these areas. We tested the hypothesis that altering isolation between refuges and transgenic cotton by manipulating the width of refuges embedded within cotton fields would alter the density of Heliothis virescens...

  15. Cloning of transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells; an efficient method to analyse and reduce high natural heterogeneity of transgene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer Lukas; Nocarova Eva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Phenotypic characterization of transgenic cell lines, frequently used in plant biology studies, is complicated because transgene expression in individual cells is often heterogeneous and unstable. To identify the sources and to reduce this heterogeneity, we transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cells with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and then introduced a simple cloning procedure to generate cell lines derived f...

  16. Efficient generation of marker-free transgenic rice plants using an improved transposon-mediated transgene reintegration strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Jie; Li, Jun; Zou, Xiaowei; Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Qingliang; Xia, Ran; Yang, Ruifang; Wang, Dekai; Zuo, Zhaoxue; Tu, Jumin; Tao, Yuezhi; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xie, Qi; Zhu, Zengrong; Qu, Shaohong

    2015-01-01

    Marker-free transgenic plants can be developed through transposon-mediated transgene reintegration, which allows intact transgene insertion with defined boundaries and requires only a few primary transformants. In this study, we improved the selection strategy and validated that the maize (Zea mays) Activator/Dissociation (Ds) transposable element can be routinely used to generate marker-free transgenic plants. A Ds-based gene of interest was linked to green fluorescent protein in transfer DNA (T-DNA), and a green fluorescent protein-aided counterselection against T-DNA was used together with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based positive selection for the gene of interest to screen marker-free progeny. To test the efficacy of this strategy, we cloned the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) ?-endotoxin gene into the Ds elements and transformed transposon vectors into rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PCR assays of the transposon empty donor site exhibited transposition in somatic cells in 60.5% to 100% of the rice transformants. Marker-free (T-DNA-free) transgenic rice plants derived from unlinked germinal transposition were obtained from the T1 generation of 26.1% of the primary transformants. Individual marker-free transgenic rice lines were subjected to thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR to determine Ds(Bt) reintegration positions, reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Bt expression levels, and bioassays to confirm resistance against the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis. Overall, we efficiently generated marker-free transgenic plants with optimized transgene insertion and expression. The transposon-mediated marker-free platform established in this study can be used in rice and possibly in other important crops. PMID:25371551

  17. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Composite plants, with transgenic roots on a non-transgenic shoot, can be obtained by shoot explant transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The aim of this study was to generate composite potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to be used as a model system in future studies on root-pathogen interactions and gene silencing in the roots. The proportion of transgenic roots among the roots induced was high (80-100 %) in the four potato cultivars tested (Albatros, Desirée, Sabina and Saturna). No wild-type adventitious roots were formed at mock inoculation site. All strains of A. rhizogenes tested induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots of composite potato plants expressed significantly higher amounts of ?-glucuronidase (GUS) than the roots of a GUS-transgenic potato line event. Silencing of the uidA transgene (GUS) was tested by inducing roots on the GUS-transgenic cv. Albatros event with strains of A. rhizogenes over-expressing either the uidA sense or antisense transcripts, or inverted-repeat or hairpin uidA RNA. The three last mentioned constructs caused 2.5-4.0 fold reduction in the uidA mRNA expression. In contrast, over-expression of uidA resulted in over 3-fold increase in the uidA mRNA and GUS expression, indicating that sense-mediated silencing (co-suppression) was not functional in roots. The results suggest that composite plants offer a useful experimental system for potato research, which has gained little previous attention.

  18. [Determination of nutrient elements in transgenic insect-resistant cotton tissues by three different spectroscopical methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cai-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Lan; Sun, Yu-Quan; Yang, Lei; Wang, Jie; Cui, Zhen-Bo

    2009-11-01

    In order to find out the effects of exogenous genes, such as Bt and Bt coupled with CpTI, on nutrition metabolism in transgenic plants, totally eleven types of nutrient elements in transgenic Bt (Z30) and Bt-CpTI (CCRI41 and SGK321) cotton were determined using methods of flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame atomic emission spectroscopy and spectrophotometry at flowering stage and boll-opening stage. The results showed that the chemical composition of plant nutrition in transgenic insect-resistant cotton differed in comparison with non-transgenic cotton counterparts related to varieties, tissues and stages. The content of total N in transgenic cotton changed most significantly. Especially, it increased by 21% for transgenic Bt cotton Z30 compared to non-transgenic cotton Z16. These changes in total N content were probably caused by both transgenes expression in transgenic cotton and other processes not studied in this experiment. The content of Mg, Na and Cu in transgenic cotton varied significantly only in some certain varieties or tissues. It was unobvious how the incorporation of transgenes impacted on the content of organic C, total P, total S, K, Ca, Fe and Zn in transgenic cotton. The authors speculated that there were no significant changes in utilization and accumulation of these nutrient elements between transgenic insect-resistant cotton and their non-transgenic cotton counterparts (Z16, CCRI23 and SY321, respectively). PMID:20101981

  19. Culturable endophytic filamentous fungi from leaves of transgenic imidazolinone-tolerant sugarcane and its non-transgenic isolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Rodrigo Makowiecky; Romão, Aline Silva; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2010-04-01

    The diversity of endophytic filamentous fungi from leaves of transgenic imidazolinone-tolerant sugarcane plants and its isoline was evaluated by cultivation followed by amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) of randomly selected strains. Transgenic and non-transgenic cultivars and their crop management (herbicide application or manual weed control) were used to assess the possible non-target effects of genetically modified sugarcane on the fungal endophytic community. A total of 14 ARDRA haplotypes were identified in the endophytic community of sugarcane. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing revealed a rich community represented by 12 different families from the Ascomycota phylum. Some isolates had a high sequence similarity with genera that are common endophytes in tropical climates, such as Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Guignardia, Pestalotiopsis and Xylaria. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that fluctuations in fungal population were related to both transgenic plants and herbicide application. While herbicide applications quickly induced transient changes in the fungal community, transgenic plants induced slower changes that were maintained over time. These results represent the first draft on composition of endophytic filamentous fungi associated with sugarcane plants. They are an important step in understanding the possible effects of transgenic plants and their crop management on the fungal endophytic community. PMID:20191263

  20. RNAi-mediated knockdown of IKK1 in transgenic mice using a transgenic construct containing the human H1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Maldonado, Rodolfo; Murillas, Rodolfo; Navarro, Manuel; Page, Angustias; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Ramirez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of gene expression through siRNAs is a tool increasingly used for the study of gene function in model systems, including transgenic mice. To achieve perdurable effects, the stable expression of siRNAs by an integrated transgenic construct is necessary. For transgenic siRNA expression, promoters transcribed by either RNApol II or III (such as U6 or H1 promoters) can be used. Relatively large amounts of small RNAs synthesis are achieved when using RNApol III promoters, which can be advantageous in knockdown experiments. To study the feasibility of H1 promoter-driven RNAi-expressing constructs for protein knockdown in transgenic mice, we chose IKK1 as the target gene. Our results indicate that constructs containing the H1 promoter are sensitive to the presence of prokaryotic sequences and to transgene position effects, similar to RNApol II promoters-driven constructs. We observed variable expression levels of transgenic siRNA among different tissues and animals and a reduction of up to 80% in IKK1 expression. Furthermore, IKK1 knockdown led to hair follicle alterations. In summary, we show that constructs directed by the H1 promoter can be used for knockdown of genes of interest in different organs and for the generation of animal models complementary to knockout and overexpression models. PMID:24523631

  1. Transgenic Vegetable Breeding for Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Silva Dias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are essential for well-balanced diets. About 3 billion people in the world are malnourished due to imbalanced diets. Vegetables can contribute to the prevention of malnutrition disorders. Genetic engineering enables vegetable breeders to incorporate desired transgenes into elite cultivars, thereby improving their value considerably. It further offers unique opportunities for improving nutritional quality and bringing other health benefits. Many vegetable crops have been genetically modified to improve traits such as higher nutritional status or better flavour, and to reduce bitterness or anti-nutritional factors. Transgenic vegetables can be also used for vaccine delivery. Consumers could benefit further from eating more nutritious transgenic vegetables, e.g. an increase of crop carotenoids by metabolic sink manipulation through genetic engineering appears feasible in some vegetables. Genetically engineering carrots containing increase Ca levels may boost Ca uptake, thereby reducing the incidence of Ca deficiencies such as osteoporosis. Fortified transgenic lettuce with zinc will overcome the deficiency of this micronutrient that severely impairs organ function. Folates deficiency, which is regarded as a global health problem, can also be overcomed with transgenic tomatoes with folate levels that provide a complete adult daily requirement. Transgenic lettuce with improved tocopherol and resveratrol composition may prevent coronary disease and arteriosclerosis and can contribute to cancer chemopreventative activity. Food safety and health benefits can also be enhanced through transgenic approaches, e.g. rural African resource-poor consumers will benefit eating cyanide-free cultivars of cassava. Biotechnology-derived vegetable crops will succed if clear advantages and safety are demonstrated to both growers and consumers.

  2. Containment and competition: transgenic animals in the One Health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezaun, Javier; Porter, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    The development of the One World, One Health agenda coincides in time with the appearance of a different model for the management of human-animal relations: the genetic manipulation of animal species in order to curtail their ability as carriers of human pathogens. In this paper we examine two examples of this emergent transgenic approach to disease control: the development of transgenic chickens incapable of shedding avian flu viruses, and the creation of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to dengue or malaria infection. Our analysis elaborates three distinctions between the One World, One Health agenda and its transgenic counterpoint. The first concerns the conceptualization of outbreaks and the forms of surveillance that support disease control efforts. The second addresses the nature of the interspecies interface, and the relative role of humans and animals in preventing pathogen transmission. The third axis of comparison considers the proprietary dimensions of transgenic animals and their implications for the assumed public health ethos of One Health programs. We argue that the fundamental difference between these two approaches to infectious disease control can be summarized as one between strategies of containment and strategies of competition. While One World, One Health programs seek to establish an equilibrium in the human-animal interface in order to contain the circulation of pathogens across species, transgenic strategies deliberately trigger a new ecological dynamic by introducing novel animal varieties designed to out-compete pathogen-carrying hosts and vectors. In other words, while One World, One Health policies focus on introducing measures of inter-species containment, transgenic approaches derive their prophylactic benefit from provoking new cycles of intra-species competition between GM animals and their wild-type counterparts. The coexistence of these divergent health protection strategies, we suggest, helps to elucidate enduring tensions and concerns about how humans should relate to, appraise, and intervene on animals and their habitats. PMID:24961736

  3. Rice transgene flow: its patterns, model and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shirong; Yuan, Qianhua; Pei, Xinwu; Wang, Feng; Hu, Ning; Yao, Kemin; Wang, Zhixing

    2014-12-01

    Progress has been made in a 12 year's systemic study on the rice transgene flow including (i) with experiments conducted at multiple locations and years using up to 21 pollen recipients, we have elucidated the patterns of transgene flow to different types of rice. The frequency to male sterile lines is 10(1) and 10(3) higher than that to O. rufipogon and rice cultivars. Wind speed and direction are the key meteorological factors affecting rice transgene flow. (ii) A regional applicable rice gene flow model is established and used to predict the maximum threshold distances (MTDs) of gene flow during 30 years in 993 major rice producing counties of southern China. The MTD0.1% for rice cultivars is basically ?5 m in the whole region, despite climate differs significantly at diverse locations and years. This figure is particularly valuable for the commercialization and regulation of transgenic rice. (iii) The long-term fate of transgene integrated into common wild rice was investigated. Results demonstrated that the F1 hybrids of transgenic rice/O. rufipogon gradually disappeared within 3-5 years, and the Bt or bar gene was not detectable in the mixed population, suggesting the O. rufipogon may possess a strong mechanism of exclusiveness for self-protection. (iv) The flowering time isolation and a 2-m-high cloth-screen protection were proved to be effective in reducing transgene flow. We have proposed to use a principle of classification and threshold management for different types of rice. PMID:25431202

  4. Glycinebetaine synthesizing transgenic potato plants exhibit enhanced tolerance to salt and cold stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiotic stresses are the most important contributors towards low productivity of major food crops. Various attempts have been made to enhance abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants by classical breeding and genetic transformation. Genetic transformation with glycinebetaine (GB) synthesizing enzymes' gene(s) in naturally non accumulating plants has resulted in enhanced tolerance against variety of abiotic stresses. Present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of GB synthesizing transgenic potato plants against salt and cold stresses. Transgenic potato plants were challenged against salt and cold stresses at whole plant level. Transgenic lines were characterized to determine the transgene copy number. Different parameters like integrity, chlorophyll contents, tuber yield and vegetative biomass were studied to monitor the stress tolerance of transgenic potato plants. The results were compared with Non-transgenic (NT) plants and statistically analyzed to evaluate significant differences. Multi-copy insertion of expression cassette was found in both transgenic lines. Upon salt stress, transgenic plants maintained better growth as compared to NT plants. The tuber yield of transgenic plants was significantly greater than NT plants in salt stress. Transgenic plants showed improved membrane integrity against cold stress by depicting appreciably reduced ion leakage as compared to NT plants. Moreover, transgenic plants showed significantly less chlorophyll bleaching than NT plants upon cold stress. In addition, NT plants accumulated significantly less biomass, and yielded fewer tubers as compared to transgenic plants after cold stress treatment. The study will be a committed step for field evaluation of transgenic plants with the aim of commercialization. (author)

  5. Development of transgenic watermelon resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus by using a single chimeric transgene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Chiang, Yi-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Yin; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2012-10-01

    Watermelon, an important fruit crop worldwide, is prone to attack by several viruses that often results in destructive yield loss. To develop a transgenic watermelon resistant to multiple virus infection, a single chimeric transgene comprising a silencer DNA from the partial N gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) fused to the partial coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was constructed and transformed into watermelon (cv. Feeling) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Single or multiple transgene copies randomly inserted into various locations in the genome were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Transgenic watermelon R(0) plants were individually challenged with CMV, CGMMV or WMV, or with a mixture of these three viruses for resistance evaluation. Two lines were identified to exhibit resistance to CMV, CGMMV, WMV individually, and a mixed inoculation of the three viruses. The R(1) progeny of the two resistant R(0) lines showed resistance to CMV and WMV, but not to CGMMV. Low level accumulation of transgene transcripts in resistant plants and small interfering (si) RNAs specific to CMV and WMV were readily detected in the resistant R(1) plants by northern blot analysis, indicating that the resistance was established via RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Loss of the CGMMV CP-transgene fragment in R1 progeny might be the reason for the failure to resistant CGMMV infection, as shown by the absence of a hybridization signal and no detectable siRNA specific to CGMMV in Southern and northern blot analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated that fusion of different viral CP gene fragments in transgenic watermelon contributed to multiple virus resistance via PTGS. The construct and resistant watermelon lines developed in this study could be used in a watermelon breeding program for resistance to multiple viruses. PMID:22203520

  6. Cloning of transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells; an efficient method to analyse and reduce high natural heterogeneity of transgene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Lukas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic characterization of transgenic cell lines, frequently used in plant biology studies, is complicated because transgene expression in individual cells is often heterogeneous and unstable. To identify the sources and to reduce this heterogeneity, we transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. BY-2 cells with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and then introduced a simple cloning procedure to generate cell lines derived from the individual transformed cells. Expression of the transgene was monitored by analysing GFP fluorescence in the cloned lines and also in lines obtained directly after transformation. Results The majority (~90% of suspension culture lines derived from calli that were obtained directly from transformation consisted of cells with various levels of GFP fluorescence. In contrast, nearly 50% of lines generated by cloning cells from the primary heterogeneous suspensions consisted of cells with homogenous GFP fluorescence. The rest of the lines exhibited "permanent heterogeneity" that could not be resolved by cloning. The extent of fluorescence heterogeneity often varied, even among genetically identical clones derived from the primary transformed lines. In contrast, the offspring of subsequent cloning of the cloned lines was uniform, showing GFP fluorescence intensity and heterogeneity that corresponded to the original clone. Conclusion The results demonstrate that, besides genetic heterogeneity detected in some lines, the primary lines often contained a mixture of epigenetically different cells that could be separated by cloning. This indicates that a single integration event frequently results in various heritable expression patterns, which are probably accidental and become stabilized in the offspring of the primary transformed cells early after the integration event. Because heterogeneity in transgene expression has proven to be a serious problem, it is highly advisable to use transgenes tagged with a visual marker for BY-2 transformation. The cloning procedure can be used not only for efficient reduction of expression heterogeneity of such transgenes, but also as a useful tool for studies of transgene expression and other purposes.

  7. Handmade cloned transgenic piglets expressing the nematode fat-1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yidi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Production of transgenic animals via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide, but this application is somewhat limited by its relatively low efficiency. In this study, we used handmade cloning (HMC) established previously to produce transgenic pigs that express the functional nematode fat-1 gene. Codon-optimized mfat-1 was inserted into eukaryotic expression vectors, which were transferred into primary swine donor cells. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select donor clones capable of converting n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts derived from the clones that lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio to approximately 1:1 were transferred surgically into the uteri of recipients for transgenic piglets. By HMC, 37% (n=558) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage after 7 days of culture in vitro, with an average cell number of 81±36 (n=14). Three recipients became pregnant after 408 day-6 blastocysts were transferred into four naturally cycling females, and a total of 14 live offspring were produced. The nematode mfat-1 effectively lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in muscle and major organs of the transgenic pig. Our results will help to establish a reliable procedure and an efficient option in the production of transgenic animals.

  8. Transgenic resistance to Citrus tristeza virus in grapefruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres, Vicente J; Lee, Richard F; Moore, Gloria A

    2008-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) transgenic plants transformed with a variety of constructs derived from the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome were tested for their resistance to the virus. Most transgenic lines were susceptible (27 lines), a few were partially resistant (6 lines) and only one line, transformed with the 3' end of CTV was resistant. Transgene expression levels and siRNA accumulation were determined to identify whether the resistance observed was RNA-mediated. The responses were varied. At least one resistant plant from a partially resistant line showed no steady-state transgene mRNA, siRNA accumulation and no viral RNA, implicating posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) as the mechanism of resistance. The most resistant line showed no transgene mRNA accumulation and promoter methylation of cytosines in all contexts, the hallmark of RNA-directed DNA methylation and transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). The variety of responses, even among clonally propagated plants, is unexplained but is not unique to citrus. The genetics of CTV, host response or other factors may be responsible for this variability. PMID:17882423

  9. Reversible methylation and silencing of homologous transgenes in tobacco plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homology dependent gene silencing in transgenic plants occurs frequently when multiple copies of a transgene or a transgene with homology to an endogenous plant gene are present in a plant nucleus. The multiple copies can be arranged in cis on the same DNA molecule, or they can be present on different DNA molecules, either in allelic or non-allelic locations (trans inactivation). Although the phenomenon of silencing is well established, the mechanism by which it occurs are not completely understood. At present, different silencing systems can be distinguished by three major features: (1) the region of homology involved in the interaction (promoter or protein coding region); (2) the level at which silencing occurs (transcriptional or post-transcriptional); and (3) the degree of meiotic heritability of the silenced/methylated states after segregation of two interacting homologous loci in progeny. Interactions that lead to the silencing and methylation of partially homologous transgenes in tobacco have been studied. The transgenes share homology only in promoter regions; both the nopaline synthase promoter and the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus have been used to drive the expression of various selectable and biochemical marker genes. The properties of these silencing systems are discussed, with particular reference to the features mentioned above. (author). 13 refs

  10. Transgênicos sem maniqueísmo / Transgenics without manichaeism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio, Valle.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Vivemos em uma época marcada pela hegemonia da ciência e da tecnologia, carregada de questões à espera de respostas, para que o futuro da humanidade seja alcançado de forma segura e sustentável. O desenvolvimento de processos agroindustriais - especificamente, a produção de alimentos - com tecnologi [...] a de DNA recombinante tem trazido perspectivas de bons lucros apenas para os grandes conglomerados da biotecnologia e para produtores rurais com alto grau de desenvolvimento tecnológico. Discordamos de uma moratória para a tecnologia do DNA recombinante. Além disso, afirmações de ausência de risco podem levar a conclusões precipitadas, pois pouquíssimos testes foram realizados até hoje. É premente que se estabeleça uma política nacional de biossegurança, que envolva a sociedade civil organizada e todos os órgãos de governo (federal e estaduais) responsáveis pela fiscalização, e que se implantem um programa de biovigilância e um código de ética de manipulações genéticas. Abstract in english We live in an era characterized by the hegemony of science and technology, an era fraught with questions awaiting answers which would enable a safe and sustainable future for humankind. The development of agro-industrial processes - food products in particular - through recombinant DNA technology ha [...] s enhanced the profit prospects of the few big biotechnology companies and of large-scale farmers who have access to the latest technological developments. We thus oppose a moratorium on recombinant DNA technology. Moreover, hasty statements about risk-free transgenics may be misleading in the absence of extensive safety tests. There is a pressing need for the establishment of a biosafety policy in this country involving the organized civil society and every government agency responsible for monitoring such matters. There is also the need to put in place a bio-surveillance and a code of ethics regarding genetic manipulation.

  11. Transgênicos sem maniqueísmo Transgenics without manichaeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Valle

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Vivemos em uma época marcada pela hegemonia da ciência e da tecnologia, carregada de questões à espera de respostas, para que o futuro da humanidade seja alcançado de forma segura e sustentável. O desenvolvimento de processos agroindustriais - especificamente, a produção de alimentos - com tecnologia de DNA recombinante tem trazido perspectivas de bons lucros apenas para os grandes conglomerados da biotecnologia e para produtores rurais com alto grau de desenvolvimento tecnológico. Discordamos de uma moratória para a tecnologia do DNA recombinante. Além disso, afirmações de ausência de risco podem levar a conclusões precipitadas, pois pouquíssimos testes foram realizados até hoje. É premente que se estabeleça uma política nacional de biossegurança, que envolva a sociedade civil organizada e todos os órgãos de governo (federal e estaduais responsáveis pela fiscalização, e que se implantem um programa de biovigilância e um código de ética de manipulações genéticas.We live in an era characterized by the hegemony of science and technology, an era fraught with questions awaiting answers which would enable a safe and sustainable future for humankind. The development of agro-industrial processes - food products in particular - through recombinant DNA technology has enhanced the profit prospects of the few big biotechnology companies and of large-scale farmers who have access to the latest technological developments. We thus oppose a moratorium on recombinant DNA technology. Moreover, hasty statements about risk-free transgenics may be misleading in the absence of extensive safety tests. There is a pressing need for the establishment of a biosafety policy in this country involving the organized civil society and every government agency responsible for monitoring such matters. There is also the need to put in place a bio-surveillance and a code of ethics regarding genetic manipulation.

  12. Hormonal and dietary modulation of mammary carcinogenesis in mouse mammary tumor virus-c-erbB-2 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, XiaoHe; Edgerton, Susan M; Kosanke, Stanley D; Mason, Terza L; Alvarez, Kathy M; Liu, Naxin; Chatterton, Robert T; Liu, Bolin; Wang, Qi; Kim, Aeree; Murthy, Satya; Thor, Ann D

    2003-05-15

    Exogenous and dietary estrogens have been associated with modification of breast cancer risk. Mammary cancer model systems can be used to explore interactions between specific transgenes, and hormonal and dietary factors. Transgenic mice bearing the rat wild-type erbB-2 gene were used to study the effects of short-term hormonal exposure [17beta-estradiol (E2) or tamoxifen] or a soy meal diet on mammary carcinogenesis. In mice fed a casein diet, mammary tumors developed at an earlier age after short-term E2 exposure during the early reproductive period. The median mammary tumor latency was shortest (29 weeks) for the high-dose estrogen as compared with the lowest dose of E2 treated or placebo control mice (33 and 37 weeks, respectively). The timing of short-term E2 exposure was also important, with the most significant changes observed in mice exposed to E2 between 8 and 18 weeks of age. E2 exposure was associated with the subsequent development of more aggressive tumors as determined by histologic grade, multifocal tumor development, stromal invasion, and pulmonary metastasis. In contrast, short-term tamoxifen-exposed mice generally failed to develop mammary tumors by 60 weeks of age. Mice fed a soy meal diet developed mammary tumors at a later age than casein-fed animals treated with E2 or placebo, whereas no differences were observed by diet for the tamoxifen-treated mice. Mammary tumor prevention was >80% in tamoxifen-treated mice on either diet. Novel histologic tumor types were identified, suggesting greater phenotypic diversity than described previously. Benign mammary gland morphogenesis was also significantly altered by short-term hormonal exposure or dietary factors, consistent with the modification of mammary tumor risk in specific treatment groups. Estrogenic modulation of the mammary tumor phenotype in wild-type erbB-2 transgenic mice was observed. Histologic tumor types and clinical aggressivity not reported previously in this transgenic model were noted, suggesting greater biologic heterogeneity than reported previously. In addition, dietary phytoestrogens modified mammary development and tumor latency, suggesting a need for greater stringency in dietary assignment for transgenic mouse models of mammary neoplasia. PMID:12750262

  13. Akt induces enhanced myocardial contractility and cell size in vivo in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condorelli, Gianluigi; Drusco, Alessandra; Stassi, Giorgio; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Roncarati, Roberta; Iaccarino, Guido; Russo, Matteo A.; Gu, Yusu; Dalton, Nancy; Chung, Clarence; Latronico, Michael V. G.; Napoli, Claudio; Sadoshima, Junichi; Croce, Carlo M.; Ross, John

    2002-01-01

    The serine-threonine kinase Akt seems to be central in mediating stimuli from different classes of receptors. In fact, both IGF-1 and IL6-like cytokines induce hypertrophic and antiapoptotic signals in cardiomyocytes through PI3K-dependent Akt activation. More recently, it was shown that Akt is involved also in the hypertrophic and antiapoptotic effects of ?-adrenergic stimulation. Thus, to determine the effects of Akt on cardiac function in vivo, we generated a model of cardiac-specific Akt overexpression in mice. Transgenic mice were generated by using the E40K, constitutively active mutant of Akt linked to the rat ?-myosin heavy chain promoter. The effects of cardiac-selective Akt overexpression were studied by echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, histological and biochemical techniques. We found that Akt overexpression produced cardiac hypertrophy at the molecular and histological levels, with a significant increase in cardiomyocyte cell size and concentric LV hypertrophy. Akt-transgenic mice also showed a remarkable increase in cardiac contractility compared with wild-type controls as demonstrated by the analysis of left ventricular (dP/dtmax) in an invasive hemodynamic study, although with graded dobutamine infusion, the maximum response was not different from that in controls. Diastolic function, evaluated by left ventricular dP/dtmin, was not affected at rest but was impaired during graded dobutamine infusion. Isoproterenol-induced cAMP levels, ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) density, and ?-AR affinity were not altered compared with control mice. Moreover, studies on signaling pathway activation from myocardial extracts demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase3-? is phosphorylated, whereas p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases is not, indicating that Akt induces hypertrophy in vivo by activating the glycogen synthase kinase3-?/GATA 4 pathway. In summary, our results not only demonstrate that Akt regulates cardiomyocyte cell size in vivo, but, importantly, show that Akt modulates cardiac contractility in vivo without directly affecting ?-AR signaling capacity. PMID:12237475

  14. Establishment of a novel, eco-friendly transgenic pig model using porcine pancreatic amylase promoter-driven fungal cellulase transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Yang, C C; Hsu, C C; Hsu, J T; Wu, S C; Lin, C J; Cheng, W T K

    2015-02-01

    Competition between humans and livestock for cereal and legume grains makes it challenging to provide economical feeds to livestock animals. Recent increases in corn and soybean prices have had a significant impact on the cost of feed for pig producers. The utilization of byproducts and alternative ingredients in pig diets has the potential to reduce feed costs. Moreover, unlike ruminants, pigs have limited ability to utilize diets with high fiber content because they lack endogenous enzymes capable of breaking down nonstarch polysaccharides into simple sugars. Here, we investigated the feasibility of a transgenic strategy in which expression of the fungal cellulase transgene was driven by the porcine pancreatic amylase promoter in pigs. A 2,488 bp 5'-flanking region of the porcine pancreatic amylase gene was cloned by the genomic walking technique, and its structural features were characterized. Using GFP as a reporter, we found that this region contained promoter activity and had the potential to control heterologous gene expression. Transgenic pigs were generated by pronuclear microinjection. Founders and offspring were identified by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Cellulase mRNA and protein showed tissue-specific expression in the pancreas of F1 generation pigs. Cellulolytic enzyme activity was also identified in the pancreas of transgenic pigs. These results demonstrated the establishment of a tissue-specific promoter of the porcine pancreatic amylase gene. Transgenic pigs expressing exogenous cellulase may represent a way to increase the intake of low-cost, fiber-rich feeds. PMID:25063310

  15. Fitness cost and competitive ability of transgenic herbicide-tolerant rice expressing a protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Gi Kim; Young Jin Chun; Dae In Kim; Kee Woong Park; Soon-Chun Jeong; Sangkyu Park; Kyoungwhan Back

    2013-01-01

    The expression of transgenic traits in genetically modified crops is sometimes associated with decreases in crop performanceor fitness. These decreases in performance or fitness of transgenic plants in unfavourable conditions may providevaluable information about the ecological consequences of transgene escape. In a glasshouse trial, we tested the costassociated with resistance to herbicides by comparing the growth, yield, and competitive ability of transgenic rice withits parental non-transg...

  16. ELITE TRANSGENIC LINES OF BASMATI-370 REVEALED HIGH LEVEL OF LODGING RESISTANCE UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood-ur-Rahman; Noor Muhammad; Ahmad Ali Shahid, Tayyab Husnain

    2012-01-01

    Lodging decreases crop yield, photosynthesis and grain quality. Three transgenic lines of Basmati-370 containing two Bt genes (cry1Ac & cry2A) were evaluated in the field along with non-transgenic parent as control. The experiment was repeated for consecutive two years. Transgenic rice revealed tremendous morphological variations associated with lodging such as short stature, more number of nodes, less internodal length, etc. The transgenic plants were 33% short in stature while average numbe...

  17. Growth hormone transgenic salmon pay for growth potential with increased predation mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Sundström, L. Fredrik; Lõhmus, Mare; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Devlin, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in gene technology have been applied to create fast-growing transgenic fish, which are of great commercial interest owing to their potential to shorten production cycles and increase food production. However, there is growing concern and speculation over the impact that escaped growth hormone (GH)-transgenic fish may have on the natural environment. To predict these risks it is crucial to obtain empirical data on the relative fitness of transgenic and non-transgenic fish under...

  18. Glyphosate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus) to nontransgenic B. napus and B. rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londo, Jason P; Bollman, Michael A; Sagers, Cynthia L; Lee, E Henry; Watrud, Lidia S

    2011-08-01

    Transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, but the escape of transgenes is an environmental concern. In this study we tested the hypothesis that glyphosate drift and herbivory selective pressures can change the rate of transgene flow between the crop Brassica napus (canola), and weedy species and contribute to the potential for increased transgene escape risk and persistence outside of cultivation. • We constructed plant communities containing single transgenic B. napus genotypes expressing glyphosate herbicide resistance (CP4 EPSPS), lepidopteran insect resistance (Cry1Ac), or both traits ('stacked'), plus nontransgenic B. napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra. Two different selective pressures, a sublethal glyphosate dose and lepidopteran herbivores (Plutella xylostella), were applied and rates of transgene flow and transgenic seed production were measured. • Selective treatments differed in the degree in which they affected gene flow and production of transgenic hybrid seed. Most notably, glyphosate-drift increased the incidence of transgenic seeds on nontransgenic B. napus by altering flowering phenology and reproductive function. • The findings of this study indicate that transgenic traits may be transmitted to wild populations and may increase in frequency in weedy populations through the direct and indirect effects of selection pressures on gene flow. PMID:21443650

  19. A modified cell surface marker gene for transgenic animal studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Kieffer, L; Kavathas, P B

    1998-01-01

    We developed a marker gene encoding a human cell surface molecule called CD8 for use in transgenic animal studies. The CD8 cDNA contains three mutations: one in the extracellular domain which prevents interaction with its ligand MHC class I and the other two in the cytoplasmic domain which inhibit its signalling function. The cDNA was linked to a fragment of the human growth hormone gene and in transgenic animal studies, expression was observed in the appropriate cell types using a CD2 enhanc...

  20. Detecting adventitious transgenic events in a maize center of diversity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Fernando Rimachi, Gamarra; Jorge Alcántara, Delgado; Yeny Aquino, Villasante; Rodomiro, Ortiz.

    2011-07-15

    Full Text Available Background: The genetic diversity of maize in Peru includes several landraces (within race clusters) and modern open pollinated and hybrid cultivars that are grown by farmers across various regions, thereby making this country a secondary center of diversity for this crop. A main topic of controvers [...] y in recent years refers to the unintended presence of transgenic events in locally grown cultivars at main centers of crop diversity. Peru does not yet have biosafety regulations to control or permit the growing of genetically modified crops. Hence, the aim of this research was to undertake a survey in the valley of Barranca, where there were recent claims of authorized transgenic maize grown in farmers fields as well as in samples taken from feed storage and grain or seed trade centers. Results: A total of 162 maize samples (134 from fields, 15 from local markets, eight from the collecting centers of poultry companies, from the local trading center and four samples from seed markets) were included for a qualitative detection by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) and nopaline synthase terminator (Tnos) sequences, as well as for six transgenic events, namely BT11, NK603, T25, 176, TC1507 and MON810. The 134 maize samples from farmers fields were negative for Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin insecticidal protein and enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) using lateral flow strips. The PCR analysis did not detect any of the six transgenic events in samples from farmers fields, local markets, seed trading shops and the local collecting center. There were four transgenic events (T25, NK603, MON810 and TC1507) in grain samples from the barns of poultry companies. Conclusions: This research could not detect, at the 95% probability level, transgenes in farmers' fields in the valley of Barranca. The four transgenic events in grain samples from barns of poultry companies were not surprising because Peru imports maize, mainly for animal feed, from Argentina and the United States that are known for growing transgenic maize.

  1. Crossing the divide: gene flow produces intergeneric hybrid in feral transgenic creeping bentgrass population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapiola, María L; Mallory-Smith, Carol A

    2012-10-01

    Gene flow is the most frequently expressed public concern related to the deregulation of transgenic events (Snow 2002; Ellstrand 2003). However, assessing the potential for transgene escape is complex because it depends on the opportunities for unintended gene flow, and establishment and persistence of the transgene in the environment (Warwick et al. 2008). Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), a turfgrass species widely used on golf courses, has been genetically engineered to be resistant to glyphosate, a nonselective herbicide. Outcrossing species, such as creeping bentgrass (CB), which have several compatible species, have greater chances for gene escape and spontaneous hybridization (i.e. natural, unassisted sexual reproduction between taxa in the field), which challenges transgene containment. Several authors have emphasized the need for evidence of spontaneous hybridization to infer the potential for gene flow (Armstrong et al. 2005). Here we report that a transgenic intergeneric hybrid has been produced as result of spontaneous hybridization of a feral-regulated transgenic pollen receptor (CB) and a nontransgenic pollen donor (rabbitfoot grass, RF, Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.). We identified an off-type transgenic seedling and confirmed it to be CB × RF intergeneric hybrid. This first report of a transgenic intergeneric hybrid produced in situ with a regulated transgenic event demonstrates the importance of considering all possible avenues for transgene spread at the landscape level before planting a regulated transgenic crop in the field. Spontaneous hybridization adds a level of complexity to transgene monitoring, containment, mitigation and remediation programmes. PMID:22625177

  2. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Transgenic Rice cv. Rojolele Expressing Lactoferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Rachmawati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, human lactoferrin gene have introduced into Javanica rice cv. Rojolele by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Lactoferrin (LF is an 80 kDa iron-binding glycoprotein that has been proposed to have many biological roles such as protection against microbial and virus infection. This study aims to analyze the integration and level of lactoferrin gene expression of transgenic rice cv. Rojolele. The study also aims to examine the genetic character of transgenic rice expressing recombinant lactoferrin. Stability expression of recombinant lactoferrin transgenic rice seeds over generations were analyzed by ELISA, while the integration stability of recombinant hLF gene in transgenic plants performed by PCR. The mitotic time, cell cycle and chromosome characterization of transgenic and non-transgenic rice cv. Rojolele were determined. Chromosome characterization of the trangenic and non transgenic rice cv. Rojolele was investigated to determine the genetic variation. All of the above efforts were aimed to evaluate the genetically engineered rice containing recombinant lactoferrin as a nutraceutical food. The results showed that the expression was stable through three consecutive generations. The expression of the hLF gene increased during grain-filling period. The active time of mitotic cells of transgenic rice rojolele was longer than the cells of non-transgenic rice. In addition, the cycle cell of transgenic and non-transgenic rojolele contained prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and interphase. The result showed that all of the transgenic lines had diploid (2n chromosome number = 24.

  3. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio introduced in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio, found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the existing fluorescent protein GFP from the Genbank, this could help identify quickly if they are new genes or variants thereof as these novel fluorescent proteins may be introduced in aquatic GMO in the future. Thus, developing and improving biosecurity measures through its timely detection at the molecular genetic level.

  4. Transgenic Overexpression of Ephrin B1 in Bone Cells Promotes Bone Formation and an Anabolic Response to Mechanical Loading in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Shaohong; Kesavan, Chandrasekhar; Mohan, Subburaman; Qin, Xuezhong; Alarcon, Catrina M.; Wergedal, Jon; Xing, Weirong

    2013-01-01

    To test if ephrin B1 overexpression enhances bone mass, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing ephrin B1 under the control of a 3.6 kb rat collagen 1A1 promoter (Col3.6-Tgefnb1). Col3.6-Tgefnb1 mice express 6-, 12- and 14-fold greater levels of full-length ephrin B1 protein in bone marrow stromal cells, calvarial osteoblasts, and osteoclasts, respectively. The long bones of both genders of Col3.6-Tgefnb1 mice have increased trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickn...

  5. Do escaped transgenes persist in nature? The case of an herbicide resistance transgene in a weedy Brassica rapa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, S I; Légère, A; Simard, M-J; James, T

    2008-03-01

    The existence of transgenic hybrids resulting from transgene escape from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild or weedy relatives is well documented but the fate of the transgene over time in recipient wild species populations is still relatively unknown. This is the first report of the persistence and apparent introgression, i.e. stable incorporation of genes from one differentiated gene pool into another, of an herbicide resistance transgene from Brassica napus into the gene pool of its weedy relative, Brassica rapa, monitored under natural commercial field conditions. Hybridization between glyphosate-resistant [herbicide resistance (HR)]B. napus and B. rapa was first observed at two Québec sites, Ste Agathe and St Henri, in 2001. B. rapa populations at these two locations were monitored in 2002, 2003 and 2005 for the presence of hybrids and transgene persistence. Hybrid numbers decreased over the 3-year period, from 85 out of approximately 200 plants surveyed in 2002 to only five out of 200 plants in 2005 (St Henri site). Most hybrids had the HR trait, reduced male fertility, intermediate genome structure, and presence of both species-specific amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Both F(1) and backcross hybrid generations were detected. One introgressed individual, i.e. with the HR trait and diploid ploidy level of B. rapa, was observed in 2005. The latter had reduced pollen viability but produced approximately 480 seeds. Forty-eight of the 50 progeny grown from this plant were diploid with high pollen viability and 22 had the transgene (1:1 segregation). These observations confirm the persistence of the HR trait over time. Persistence occurred over a 6-year period, in the absence of herbicide selection pressure (with the exception of possible exposure to glyphosate in 2002), and in spite of the fitness cost associated with hybridization. PMID:17971090

  6. The microtubule-associated protein astrin transgenesis rescues spermatogenesis and renal function in hypogonadic (hgn/hgn) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, K; Yasuda, H; Tochigi, Y; Suzuki, H

    2013-03-01

    Male hypogonadic (hgn/hgn) rats show male sterility, reduced female fertility, progressive renal insufficiency and body growth retardation. These defects are associated with loss-of-function mutation of astrin and appear to be related to organ hypoplasia resulting from abnormal cell proliferation and increased cell death during embryonic and early postnatal development. As targeted disruption of mouse spag5 (astrin ortholog) has been reported to show no phenotype, we performed rescue experiments based on the introduction of rat astrin cDNA transgene into hgn/hgn rats to determine whether astrin is actually necessary for the establishment of normal male fertility and renal function. Astrin transgenic (Tg) rats were mated with hgn/+ rats of the HGN strain, and Tg-hgn/+ rats were then crossed to obtain Tg-hgn/hgn. Tg-hgn/hgn males showed recovery of body growth, fertility and renal function. Testis size was smaller in these transgenic animals than normal controls, but showed an increase by 16.5-fold compared with hgn/hgn males. Spermatogenesis occurred in Tg-hgn/hgn testes, and their accessory reproductive organs were of approximately normal size. hgn/hgn males show hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Increased testosterone and decreased LH levels in Tg-hgn/hgn serum indicated the recovery of Leydig cells' function. Tg-hgn/hgn males showed normal reproductive behaviour, and their mating with Tg-hgn/hgn females produced pups in normal litter size. Their renal sizes and glomerular numbers showed complete recovery, and renal function assayed by biochemical parameters was normal. These results indicated that the transgene is functional in the testis and kidney development as well as body growth. In conclusion, astrin is necessary for the establishment of normal size (cell number) and function of the testis and kidney in rats. PMID:23413142

  7. Vldlr overexpression causes hyperactivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Keiko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reelin regulates neuronal positioning in cortical brain structures and neuronal migration via binding to the lipoprotein receptors Vldlr and Lrp8. Reeler mutant mice display severe brain morphological defects and behavioral abnormalities. Several reports have implicated reelin signaling in the etiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Moreover, it has been reported that VLDLR mRNA levels are increased in the post-mortem brain of autistic patients. Methods We generated transgenic (Tg rats overexpressing Vldlr, and examined their histological and behavioral features. Results Spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly increased in Tg rats, without detectable changes in brain histology. Additionally, Tg rats tended to show performance deficits in the radial maze task, suggesting that their spatial working memory was slightly impaired. Thus, Vldlr levels may be involved in determining locomotor activity and memory function. Conclusions Unlike reeler mice, patients with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders do not show striking neuroanatomical aberrations. Therefore, it is notable, from a clinical point of view, that we observed behavioral phenotypes in Vldlr-Tg rats in the absence of neuroanatomical abnormalities.

  8. Transgenic Herbicide-resistant Crops and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic glufosinate- and glyphosate-resistant crops are currently commercialized, and bromoxynil-resistant crops have been removed from the market for economic reasons. Glyphosate-resistant cotton and soybean have become dominant in those countries where they can be grown. Potential effects of gl...

  9. Transgenic plants: from first successes to future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Angenon, Geert; De Block, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue was held between the Guest Editors of the Special Issue on "Plant Transgenesis" of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. and Marc De Block. He was one of the first scientists worldwide to obtain transgenic plants transformed with the chimeric selectable marker genes encoding neomycin phosphotransferase and bialaphos that confer resistance against the antibiotic kanamycin and the herbicide Basta®/glufosinate, respectively at the Department of Genetics of Ghent University and, later on, at the spin-off company, Plant Genetic Systems. Today, these two genes are still the most frequently utilized markers in transgene technology. Marc De Block chose to work on the improvement of crops in an industrial environment to help realize the production of superior seeds or products. He was part of the team that developed the male sterility/restorer system in canola (Brassica napus var. napus) that led to the first hybrid lines to be commercialized as successful products of transgene technology. In more than 30 years of research, he developed transformation procedures for numerous crops, designed histochemical, biochemical and physiological assays to monitor plant performance, and made original and innovative contributions to plant biology. Presently, he considers transgenic research part of the toolbox for plant improvement and essential for basic plant research. PMID:24166429

  10. Environmental Impacts of Transgenic Herbicide-Resistant Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic glufosinate- and glyphosate-resistant crops are currently commercialized, and bromoxynil-resistant crops have been removed from the market for economic reasons. Glyphosate-resistant cotton and soybean have become dominant in those countries where they can be grown. Potential effects of gl...

  11. Efficient expression of transgenes in adult zebrafish by electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S Hari

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of transgenes in muscle by injection of naked DNA is widely practiced. Application of electrical pulses at the site of injection was demonstrated to improve transgene expression in muscle tissue. Zebrafish is a precious model to investigate developmental biology in vertebrates. In this study we investigated the effect of electroporation on expression of transgenes in 3–6 month old adult zebrafish. Results Electroporation parameters such as number of pulses, voltage and amount of plasmid DNA were optimized and it was found that 6 pulses of 40 V·cm-1 at 15 ?g of plasmid DNA per fish increased the luciferase expression 10-fold compared to controls. Similar enhancement in transgene expression was also observed in Indian carp (Labeo rohita. To establish the utility of adult zebrafish as a system for transient transfections, the strength of the promoters was compared in A2 cells and adult zebrafish after electroporation. The relative strengths of the promoters were found to be similar in cell lines and in adult zebrafish. GFP fluorescence in tissues after electroporation was also studied by fluorescence microscopy. Conclusion Electroporation after DNA injection enhances gene expression 10-fold in adult zebrafish. Electroporation parameters for optimum transfection of adult zebrafish with tweezer type electrode were presented. Enhanced reporter gene expression upon electroporation allowed comparison of strengths of the promoters in vivo in zebrafish.

  12. Transgenic cotton age effects on lepidopteran larvae mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaves from plants containing various transgenic traits (Non-Bt, Bollgard, Bollgard II, and WideStrike)were assayed for bioactivity in the laboratory against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), beet armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner). About 5...

  13. Host status of three transgenic plum lines to Mesocriconema xenoplax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrodianin anti-fungal protein (GAFP) increases tolerance against Phytophthora root rot and root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in transgenic plum lines. However, nothing is known about the potential of GAFP lectin to confer resistance to the ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax. Three t...

  14. Body composition of transgenic pigs expressing the myostatin pro domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous results have shown that male mice expressing a myostatin pro domain construct (MLC-Pro) have increased body weight, more total body lean mass, and lower percentage of total body fat. Founder transgenic (TG) pigs were generated by standard pronuclear microinjection techniques using the sam...

  15. Early Parkinson's disease symptoms in ?-synuclein transgenic monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuyu; Guo, Xiangyu; Chen, Yongchang; Wang, Chuan-En; Gao, Jinquan; Yang, Weili; Kang, Yu; Si, Wei; Wang, Hong; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Li, Shihua; Ji, Weizhi; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-04-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease that can be caused by genetic mutations in ?-synuclein (?-syn) or duplication of wild-type ?-syn; PD is characterized by the deposition of ?-syn aggregates, indicating a gain of toxicity from accumulation of ?-syn. Although the major neuropathologic feature of PD is the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra, non-motor symptoms including anxiety, cognitive defect and sleep disorder precede the onset of motor impairment, and many clinical symptoms of PD are not caused by degeneration of DA neurons. Non-human primate models of PD are important for revealing the early pathology in PD and identifying effective treatments. We established transgenic PD rhesus monkeys that express mutant ?-syn (A53T). Six transgenic A53T monkeys were produced via lentiviral vector expressing A53T in fertilized monkey eggs and subsequent embryo transfer to surrogates. Transgenic A53T is expressed in the monkey brain and causes age-dependent non-motor symptoms, including cognitive defects and anxiety phenotype, without detectable sleeping disorders. The transgenic ?-syn monkeys demonstrate the specific early symptoms caused by mutant ?-syn and provide insight into treatment of early PD. PMID:25552648

  16. Transgenic maize plants expressing a fungal phytase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rumei; Xue, Guangxing; Chen, Ping; Yao, Bin; Yang, Wenzhu; Ma, Qianli; Fan, Yunliu; Zhao, Zuoyu; Tarczynski, Mitchell C; Shi, Jinrui

    2008-08-01

    Maize seeds are the major ingredient of commercial pig and poultry feed. Phosphorus in maize seeds exists predominantly in the form of phytate. Phytate phosphorus is not available to monogastric animals and phosphate supplementation is required for optimal animal growth. Undigested phytate in animal manure is considered a major source of phosphorus pollution to the environment from agricultural production. Microbial phytase produced by fermentation as a feed additive is widely used to manage the nutritional and environmental problems caused by phytate, but the approach is associated with production costs for the enzyme and requirement of special cares in feed processing and diet formulation. An alternative approach would be to produce plant seeds that contain high phytase activities. We have over-expressed Aspergillus niger phyA2 gene in maize seeds using a construct driven by the maize embryo-specific globulin-1 promoter. Low-copy-number transgenic lines with simple integration patterns were identified. Western-blot analysis showed that the maize-expressed phytase protein was smaller than that expressed in yeast, apparently due to different glycosylation. Phytase activity in transgenic maize seeds reached approximately 2,200 units per kg seed, about a 50-fold increase compared to non-transgenic maize seeds. The phytase expression was stable across four generations. The transgenic seeds germinated normally. Our results show that the phytase expression lines can be used for development of new maize hybrids to improve phosphorus availability and reduce the impact of animal production on the environment. PMID:17932782

  17. Transgenic RNAi in mouse oocytes: The first decade.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Radek; Svoboda, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 134, 1-2 (2012), s. 64-68. ISSN 0378-4320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : RNAi * oocyte * transgene * silencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2012

  18. Tilapia chromosomal growth hormone gene expression accelerates growth in transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reynold, Morales; María Teresa, Herrera; Amílcar, Arenal; Asterio, Cruz; Oscar, Hernández; Rafael, Pimentel; Isabel, Guillén; Rebeca, Martínez; Mario P, Estrada.

    2001-08-15

    Full Text Available Gene transfer is economically important and model fish species has produced a great impact in modern biology and biotechnology. Transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) were generated through the co-injection of a GFP-expressing plasmid and an "all fish" transgene composed by the carp beta-actin promoter [...] and the chromosomal tilapia (Oreochromis hornorum) growth hormone gene. The GFP expression was a good indicator of stable transformation and allowed for high efficiency selection of transgenic fish. Transgenic F1 zebrafish grew 20% faster than full sibling non-transgenic controls.

  19. Options for development of transgenic pigs with enhanced performance traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Traditional breeding practices have yielded a slow but steady genetic improvement of domestic animals. Unfortunately, these practices often do not enable the separation of desirable production traits from undesirable traits, and furthermore, do not enable the transfer of advantageous genetic traits from one species to another. Transgenic methodologies surmount these barriers, and transgenic pigs have been developed that have a variety of novel enhanced performance traits, the capability to serve as factories for the production of pharmaceuticals, and soon may provide a reliable supply of organs for xenotransplantation. This presentation will focus primarily on the expression of novel performance traits, since they have the potential to provide the greatest benefit to farmers in countries with a less well developed agricultural infrastructure. The first hurdle in the development of animals with novel production characteristics is the availability of reliable methods for the production of transgenic animals. This requires the combination of a suitable transgenic technique and an appropriate genetic construct. Classic pronuclear microinjection, the original method for producing transgenic animals may soon be surpassed by the more convenient sperm-mediated transgenesis, use of a retroviral vector system, or by techniques involving nuclear transfer. Despite the complexity involved in generating transgenic animals, a variety of interesting performance enhancing gety of interesting performance enhancing genes have been introduced into pigs. These include porcine growth hormone and IGF1 to enhance growth characteristics and carcass quality, ?-lactalbumin to enhance the growth of nursing piglets, plant oleate desaturase (http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99991841) to increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in tissues, and phytase to enhance plant phosphorus utilization. No information is available on the performance or meat quality characteristics of pigs expressing the desaturase gene, however, expression of growth hormone, ?- lactalbumin and phytase genes in pigs has been shown to be efficacious. As an example, phytase in transgenic pigs enable practically complete utilization of the phosphorus in cereal grain as compared to less than half by non-transgenic pigs. This new trait would be particularly beneficial in a production environment without extensive infrastructure characteristic of modern intensive Western-style agriculture. In addition to bypassing the need for expensive supplemental phosphorus, it also could help avoid environmental problems associated with intensive agriculture. In addition to genes already tested that enhance performance characteristics of pigs, other genes of interest include those coding for plant cell wall hydrolases, genes coding for disease resistance, and yet others that could improve protein utilization. Expression of a novel gene in a pig is only the first step in bringing a new line of transgenic pigs into the pork production system. Once a transgenic pig has been documented to perform according to expectation, and several generations have passed to ensure that the novel gene is stably inherited and expression maintained, governmental regulatory requirements must be satisfied to ensure that the pig has no deleterious effect on the environment, and that the meat is safe for human consumption. The food safety standards may vary among countries, but those established by the FAO (http://www.fao.org/es/ESN/food/riskbiotechpapersen.stm) are usually taken as the primary requirement and country specific requirement overlaid. Meeting these standards dictates that, at least initially, only traits with great utility will be funded at a sufficiently high level to afford the essential testing to meet national and international safety requirements. (author)

  20. Accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs is not sufficient for RNAi-mediated protection against Citrus tristeza virus in transgenic Mexican lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmelo; Cervera, Magdalena; Fagoaga, Carmen; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

    2010-01-01

    Mexican lime plants transformed with the 3'-terminal 549 nucleotides of the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome in sense, antisense and intron-hairpin formats were analysed for transgene-derived transcript and short interfering RNA (siRNA) accumulation, and for CTV resistance. Propagations from all sense, antisense and empty-vector transgenic lines were susceptible to CTV, except for a single sense-line plant with a complex transgene integration pattern that showed transgene-derived siRNAs in association with low levels of the transgene-derived transcript. In contrast, nine of 30 intron-hairpin lines showed CTV resistance, with 9%-56% of bud-propagated plants, depending on the line, remaining uninfected on graft inoculation, and the others being susceptible. Although resistance was always associated with the presence of transgene-derived siRNAs, their level in different sense and intron-hairpin transformants was variable irrespective of the response to CTV infection. In intron-hairpin lines with single transgene integration, CTV resistance was correlated with low accumulation of the transgene-derived transcript rather than with high accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs. PMID:20078774

  1. The Comparative Effects of Genetically Modified Maize and Conventional Maize on Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kýlýçgün

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available       Aim: Genetically modified crops have a potential to solve many of the world’s  nutrition problems. On the other hand, the impact of these novel crops on environmental, animal and human health should be tested and their risk assessment is required. In this study, the aim of this study was to investigate the positive or possible negative effects of genetically modified maize on offspring rats which were between the start of dry food feeding and the time interval until they reached puberty. Material and Method: Thirty Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were fed with transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize and conventional maize during 40 days. After the experimental period, the length, height and weight of organs and serum chemistry and hematology values were measured. Results: The length, height and weight of liver, spleen, lung and kidneys in Bacillus thuringiensis maize group of rats were different from those in control and conventional groups. When mean values of serum chemistry and hematology parameters, which were glucose, urea, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chlorine were examined, some obvious differences were found between the rats fed with transgenic maize and its conventional counterpart and control groups. Discussion: The results of this study showed that Bacillus  thuringiensis maize may not only have an effect on the length, height and weight of organs of the maturing term of rats but also lead to alterations in serum chemistry and hematology values.

  2. A novel doxycycline-inducible system for the transgenic analysis of mammary gland biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Edward J; Belka, George K; Wertheim, Gerald B W; Wang, James; Hartman, Jennifer L; Boxer, Robert B; Chodosh, Lewis A

    2002-03-01

    Normal developmental events such as puberty, pregnancy, and parity influence the susceptibility of the mammary gland to tumorigenesis in both humans and rodent model systems. Unfortunately, constitutive transgenic mouse models that rely on mammary-specific promoters to control transgene expression have limited utility for studying the effect of developmental events on breast cancer risk since the hormonal signals governing these events also markedly influence transgene expression levels. A novel transgenic mouse system is described that uses the MMTV-LTR to drive expression of the reverse tetracycline-dependent transactivator rtTA. Transgenic mice expressing rtTA in the mammary epithelium were crossed with reporter lines bearing tet operator-controlled transgenes. We tested the ability to spatially, temporally, and quantitatively control reporter gene expression after administration of doxycycline to bitransgenic mice. Transgene expression using this system can be rapidly induced and deinduced, is highly mammary specific, can be reproducibly titrated over a wide range of expression levels, and is essentially undetectable in the uninduced state. Homogeneous transgene expression throughout the mammary epithelium can be achieved. This system permits transgene expression to be restricted to any desired stage of postnatal mammary gland development. We have developed a mammary-specific, doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse model for studying the effect of mammary gland development on transgene-mediated phenotypes. Unlike other mammary-specific, transgenic systems that have been described, this system combines spatially homogeneous transgene expression in the mammary epithelium during puberty, pregnancy, lactation, and involution with the use of an orally administered, inexpensive, and widely available inducing agent. This system offers new opportunities for the transgenic analysis of mammary gland biology in vivo. PMID:11874978

  3. Transmission of Prions from Mule Deer and Elk with Chronic Wasting Disease to Transgenic Mice Expressing Cervid PrP

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Shawn R.; Mason, Gary L.; Seward, Tanya; Green, Mike; Eliason, Gwyneth A. J.; Mathiason, Candace; Miller, Michael W; Williams, Elizabeth S.; Hoover, Ed; Telling, Glenn C.

    2004-01-01

    We generated mice expressing cervid prion protein to produce a transgenic system simulating chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk. While normal mice were resistant to CWD, these transgenic mice uniformly developed signs of neurological dysfunction ?230 days following intracerebral inoculation with four CWD isolates. Inoculated transgenic mice homozygous for the transgene array developed disease after ?160 days. The brains of sick transgenic mice exhibited widespread spongiform deg...

  4. Temporal and spatial patterns of transgene expression in aging adult mice provide insights about the origins, organization, and differentiation of the intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, S M; Roth, K A; Birkenmeier, E H; Gordon, J I

    1991-01-01

    We have used liver fatty acid-binding protein/human growth hormone (L-FABP/hGH) fusion genes to explore the temporal and spatial differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells in 1- to 12-month-old transgenic mice. The intact, endogenous L-FABP gene (Fabpl) was not expressed in the colon at any time. Young adult transgenic mice containing nucleotides -596 to +21 of the rat L-FABP gene linked to the hGH gene (minus its 5' nontranscribed domain) demonstrated inappropriate expression of hGH in enterocytes and many enteroendocrine cells of most proximal and mid-colonic crypts (glands). Rare patches of hGH-negative crypts were present. With increasing age, a wave of "extinction" of L-FABP (-596 to +21)/hGH expression occurred, first in the distal colon and then in successively more proximal regions, leaving by 10 months of age only rare hGH-positive multicrypt patches. At no time during this progressive silencing of transgene expression were crypts observed that contained a mixture of hGH-positive and -negative cells at a particular cell stratum. Young (5-7 weeks) mice containing a L-FABP (-4000 to +21)/hGH transgene also demonstrated inappropriate expression of the transgene in most proximal colonic crypts. However, the additional 3.3 kilobases of upstream sequence resulted in much more rapid extinction of reporter expression, leaving by 5 months of age only scattered single crypts with detectable levels of hGH. This age-related extinction of L-FABP/hGH expression did not involve enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells in the (proximal) small intestine. These results indicate that cis-acting elements outside of nucleotides -4000 to +21 are necessary to fully modulate suppression of colonic L-FABP expression. They also define fundamental changes in colonic epithelial cell populations during adult life. Our data suggest that (i) a single stem cell gives rise to all cells that populate a given colonic crypt, (ii) stem cells represented in several adjacent crypts may be derived from a common progenitor, and (iii) such a progenitor cell may repopulate colonic crypts with stem cells during adult life. Since each colonic crypt contains the amplified descendants of its stem cell, transgenes may be powerful tools for characterizing the spatial and biological features of gut stem cells and their progenitors during life. Images PMID:1992454

  5. Transgenic expression of pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor-1 rescues SPINK3-deficient mice and restores a normal pancreatic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romac, Joelle M-J; Ohmuraya, Masaki; Bittner, Cathy; Majeed, M Faraz; Vigna, Steven R; Que, Jianwen; Fee, Brian E; Wartmann, Thomas; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Liddle, Rodger A

    2010-04-01

    Endogenous trypsin inhibitors are synthesized, stored, and secreted by pancreatic acinar cells. It is believed that they play a protective role in the pancreas by inhibiting trypsin within the cell should trypsinogen become prematurely activated. Rodent trypsin inhibitors are highly homologous to human serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 1 (SPINK1). The mouse has one pancreatic trypsin inhibitor known as SPINK3, and the rat has two trypsin inhibitors commonly known as pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors I and II (PSTI-I and -II). Rat PSTI-I is a 61-amino acid protein that shares 65% sequence identity with mouse SPINK3. It was recently demonstrated that mice with genetic deletion of the Spink3 gene (Spink3(-/-)) do not survive beyond 15 days and lack normal pancreata because of pancreatic autophagy. We have shown that targeted transgenic expression of the rat Psti1 gene to acinar cells in mice [TgN(Psti1)] protects mice against caerulein-induced pancreatitis. To determine whether the autophagic phenotype and lethality in Spink3(-/-) mice were due to lack of pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, we conducted breeding studies with Spink3(+/-) heterozygous mice and TgN(Psti1) mice. We observed that, whereas Spink3(+/+), Spink3(+/-), and Spink3(-/-)/TgN(Psti1) mice had similar survival rates, no Spink3(-/-) mice survived longer than 1 wk. The level of expression of SPINK3 protein in acini was reduced in heterozygote mice compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, endogenous trypsin inhibitor capacity was reduced in the pancreas of heterozygote mice compared with wild-type or knockout mice rescued with the rat Psti1 gene. Surprisingly, the lesser amount of SPINK3 present in the pancreata of heterozygote mice did not predispose animals to increased susceptibility to caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. We propose that a threshold level of expression is sufficient to protect against pancreatitis. PMID:20110462

  6. [Enhancement of artemisinin biosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. by overexpressed HDR and ADS genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Xiong; Long, Shi-Ping; Zeng, Li-Xia; Xiang, Li-En; Lin, Zhi; Chen, Min; Liao, Zhi-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Artemisnin is a novel sesquiterpene lactone with an internal peroxide bridge structure, which is extracted from traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao). Recommended by World Health Organization, artemisinin is the first-line drug in the treatment of encephalic and chloroquine-resistant malaria. In the present study, transgenic A. annua plants were developed by overexpressing the key enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin. Based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods, transgenic plants of A. annua with overexpression of both HDR and ADS were obtained through hygromycin screening. The genomic PCR analysis confirmed six transgenic lines in which both HDR and ADS were integrated into genome. The gene expression analysis given by real-time quantitative PCR showed that all the transgenic lines had higher expression levels of HDR and ADS than the non-transgenic control (except ah3 in which the expression level of ADS showed no significant difference compared with control); and the HPLC analysis of artemisinin demonstrated that transgenic A. annua plants produced artemisinin at significantly higher level than non-transgenic plants. Especially, the highest content of artemisinin was found in transgenic line ah70, in which the artemisinin content was 3.48 times compared with that in non-transgenic lines. In summary, overexpression of HDR and ADS facilitated artemisinin biosynthesis and this method could be applied to develop transgenic plants of A. annua with higher yield of artemisinin. PMID:25518337

  7. Case Study: Polycystic Livers in a Transgenic Mouse Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Artwohl, James E.; Ward, Christopher J.; Diekwisch, Thomas G. H.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2014-04-01

    Three mice (2 male, 1 female; age, 5 to 16 mo) from a mouse line transgenic for keratin 14 (K14)-driven LacZ expression and on an outbred Crl:CD1(ICR) background, were identified as having distended abdomens and livers that were diffusely enlarged by numerous cysts (diameter, 0.1 to 2.0 cm). Histopathology revealed hepatic cysts lined by biliary type epithelium and mild chronic inflammation, and confirmed the absence of parasites. Among 21 related mice, 5 additional affected mice were identified via laparotomy. Breeding of these 5 mice (after 5 mo of age) did not result in any offspring; the K14 mice with olycystic livers failed to reproduce. Affected male mice had degenerative testicular lesions, and their sperm was immotile. Nonpolycystic K14 control male mice bred well, had no testicular lesions, and had appropriate sperm motility. Genetic analysis did not identify an association of this phenotype with the transgene or insertion site.

  8. Generation of transgenic medaka using modified bacterial artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shuhei; Saito, Daisuke; Tanaka, Minoru

    2008-08-01

    The availability of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) offers a good genomic platform for a targeted integration of an exogenous gene by a homologous recombination system in Escherichia coli. In combination with microinjection technology, this system allows for the analysis of various aspects of biological phenomena occurring in vivo using Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Here we describe a streamlined procedure for selecting BAC clones based on the medaka University of Tokyo genome browser (UTGB), followed by rapid modification with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or DsRed fragments for transgenic analysis in medaka. Experimental procedures for BAC DNA preparation, microinjection of medaka embryos and screening of resulting transgenic medaka carrying EGFP/DsRed modified BAC clones are also described. PMID:18422685

  9. Transgenic approaches for development of disease resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important food and cash crop worldwide. Diseases and pests pose the most serious constraint to banana cultivation. Among the diseases, Fusarium wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) are the most important economically. We have explored different transgenic approaches for development of efficient resistance in banana against these two diseases. For countering Fusarium wilt, we have over expressed Petunia floral defensins using a strong constitutive promoter in transgenic banana plants. We have also tested a host induced gene silencing strategy targeting two vital fungal genes to obtain Fusarium resistant banana plants. For development of BBTV resistant banana plants also, we have used a host-induced gene silencing approach utilizing the full and partial coding sequence of the viral replication initiation protein. Successful bioassays performed in controlled greenhouse conditions have shown the efficacy of using these strategies to develop disease resistant banana plants. (author)

  10. Altered Hypothalamic Protein Expression in a Rat Model of Huntington's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cong, Wei-na; Cai, Huan; Wang, Rui; Caitlin M. Daimon; Maudsley, Stuart; Raber, Kerstin; Canneva, Fabio; von Hörsten, Stephan; Martin, Bronwen

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by progressive motor impairment and cognitive alterations. Changes in energy metabolism, neuroendocrine function, body weight, euglycemia, appetite function, and circadian rhythm can also occur. It is likely that the locus of these alterations is the hypothalamus. We used the HD transgenic (tg) rat model bearing 51 CAG repeats, which exhibits similar HD symptomology as HD patients to investigate hypothalamic fun...

  11. Early Deficits in Glycolysis Are Specific to Striatal Neurons from a Rat Model of Huntington Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gouarne?, Caroline; Tardif, Gwenae?lle; Tracz, Jennifer; Latyszenok, Virginie; Michaud, Magali; Clemens, Laura Emily; Yu-taeger, Libo; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    In Huntington disease (HD), there is increasing evidence for a link between mutant huntingtin expression, mitochondrial dysfunction, energetic deficits and neurodegeneration but the precise nature, causes and order of these events remain to be determined. In this work, our objective was to evaluate mitochondrial respiratory function in intact, non-permeabilized, neurons derived from a transgenic rat model for HD compared to their wild type littermates by measuring oxygen consumption rates and...

  12. A genetically clamped renin transgene for the induction of hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Kathleen M. I.; James, Leighton R.; Kim, Hyung-suk; Morham, Scott G.; Lopez, Maria Luisa S. Sequeira; Gomez, R. Ariel; Reudelhuber, Timothy L.; Smithies, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    Experimental analysis of the effects of individual components of complex mammalian systems is frequently impeded by compensatory adjustments that animals make to achieve homeostasis. We here introduce a genetic procedure for eliminating this type of impediment, by using as an example the development and testing of a transgene for “genetically clamping” the expression of renin, the major homeostatically responding component of the renin–angiotensin system, one of the most important regul...

  13. Phytoremediation of small organic contaminants using transgenic plants

    OpenAIRE

    James, C Andrew; Strand, Stuart E.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of transgenic plants in the phytoremediation of small organic contaminants has been investigated. Two principal strategies have been pursued (1) the manipulation of phase I metabolic activity to enhance in planta degradation rates, or to impart novel metabolic activity, and (2) the enhanced secretion of reactive enzymes from roots leading to accelerated ex planta degradation of organic contaminants. A pair of dehalogenase genes from Xanthobacter autotrophicus was expressed in tob...

  14. Hypothyroidism in transgenic mice expressing IFN-? in the thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Caturegli, P; Hejazi, M.; Suzuki, K.; Dohan, O.; Carrasco, N; Kohn, L D; Rose, N R

    2000-01-01

    IFN-? has been implicated with contradictory results in the pathogenetic process of autoimmune (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis, the most common cause of hypothyroidism in adults. To test whether the local production of IFN-? can lead to thyroid dysfunction, we have generated transgenic mice that express constitutively IFN-? in the thyroid follicular cells. This expression resulted in severe hypothyroidism, with growth retardation and disruption of the thyroid architecture. The hypothyroidism der...

  15. Electrochemical determination of metallothionein in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    K?ížková, S.; Diopan, V.; Baloun, J.; Šupálková, V.; Shestisvka, V.; Kotrba, P.; Macková, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Havel, L.; Adam, V.; Zehnálek, J.; Kizek, R.

    Praha : VŠCHT Praha, 2007 - (Macková, M.; Macek, T.; Demnerová, K.; Pazlar, V.). s. 15 ISBN 978-80-7080-025-6. [Symposium on Biosorption and Bioremediation /4./. 26.08.2007-30.08.2007, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030; GA ?R(CZ) GA522/07/0692 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : metallothionein * heavy metals * transgenic plant * tobacco Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  16. Competitive performance of transgenic wheat resistant to powdery mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinina, O; Zeller, S L; B. Schmid

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants offer an ideal model system to study the influence of single genes that confer constitutive resistance to pathogens on the ecological behaviour of plants. We used phytometers to study competitive interactions between GM lines of spring wheat Triticum aestivum carrying such genes and control lines. We hypothesized that competitive performance of GM lines would be reduced due to enhanced transgene expression under pathogen levels typically encountered in the fie...

  17. Risks and concerns regarding transgenic food and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Acosta

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic technology in agriculture has recently been in the center of an intense debate between two radically opposite points of view. Some non-government organizations (NGO) consider this technology as dangerous for human health, environment and economics of developing countries. On the contrary, the scientific community has been publicly supportive of this technology, suggesting that education is the key to gaining the public acceptance. Although genetically modified (GM) plants for f...

  18. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.

    2004-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise is no longer widely used for malting, but is amenable to transformation and is therefore a valuable experimental cultivar. Its characteristics include high salt tolerance, however it is also susceptible to several fungal pathogens. Proteome analysis was used to describe the water-soluble protein fraction of Golden Promise seeds in comparison with the modern malting cultivar Barke. Using 2D-gel electrophoresis to visualise several hundred proteins in the pH ranges 4-7 and 6-11, 16 protein spots were found to differ between the two cultivars. Eleven of these were identified by mass spectrometric peptide mass mapping, including an abundant chitinase implicated in defence against fungal pathogens and a small heat-shock protein. To enable a comparison with transgenic seed protein patterns, differences in spot patterns between field and greenhouse-grown seeds were analysed. Four spots were observed to be increased in intensity in the proteome of greenhouse-grown seeds, three of which may be related to nitrogen availability during grain filling and total protein content of the seeds, since they also increased in field grown seeds supplied with extra nitrogen. Finally, the fate of transgene products in barley seeds was followed. Spots containing two green fluorescent protein constructs and the herbicide resistance marker phosphinothricin acetyltransferase were observed in 2D-gel patterns of transgenic seeds and identified by mass spectrometry. Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase was observed in three spots differing in pI suggesting that post-translational modification of the transgene product had occurred.

  19. Characterization of Kiss1 neurons using transgenic mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Cravo, Roberta M; Margatho, Lisandra O.; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Donato, José; Atkin, Stan; Bookout, Angie L.; Rovinsky, Sherry; Frazão, Renata; LEE, CHARLOTTE E.; Gautron, Laurent; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; ELIAS, CAROL F.

    2010-01-01

    Humans and mice with loss-of-function mutations of the genes encoding kisspeptins (Kiss1) or kisspeptin receptors (Kiss1r) are infertile due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Within the hypothalamus, Kiss1 mRNA is expressed in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (Arc). In order to better study the different populations of kisspeptin cells we generated Kiss1-Cre transgenic mice. We obtained one line with Cre activity specifically within Kiss1 neurons (line ...

  20. High-level hepatitis B virus replication in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Guidotti, L. G.; Matzke, B.; Schaller, H.; Chisari, F. V.

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice whose hepatocytes replicate the virus at levels comparable to that in the infected livers of patients with chronic hepatitis have been produced, without any evidence of cytopathology. High-level viral gene expression was obtained in the liver and kidney tissues in three independent lineages. These animals were produced with a terminally redundant viral DNA construct (HBV 1.3) that starts just upstream of HBV enhancer I, extends completely around the cir...

  1. DNA-Delivery Methods to Produce Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Darbani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, diverse methods for plant transformation have been described including biological, chemical and physical based methods. Transformation is performed to introduce novel traits, study basic biological processes, or produce recombinant proteins of interest. We review Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as well as non-biological based approaches for the production of transgenic plants. This review presents the methods of gene transfer into plants, applications, advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  2. Towards Transgenic Primates: What can we learn from mouse genetics?

    OpenAIRE

    KUANG, Hui; WANG, Phillip L.; Tsien, Joe Z

    2009-01-01

    Considering the great physiological and behavioral similarities with humans, monkeys represent the ideal models not only for the study of complex cognitive behavior but also for the preclinical research and development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases. Various powerful genetic technologies initially developed for making mouse models are being explored for generating transgenic primate models. We review the latest genetic engineering technologies and discuss the potentials and...

  3. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can be obtained by introgression of natural sources of resistance from wild relatives or by expressing viral sequences in transgenic tomato plants. We report high levels of resistance to TSWV obtained...

  4. Transgenic Models of Alzheimer's Disease: Learning from Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Spires, Tara L.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: As the scope of the problem of Alzheimer's disease (AD) grows due to an aging population, research into the devastating condition has taken on added urgency. Rare inherited forms of AD provide insight into the molecular pathways leading to degeneration and have made possible the development of transgenic animal models. Several of these models are based on the overexpression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilins, or tau to cause production and accumulation of amyloid-? into...

  5. L1 integration in a transgenic mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Babushok, Daria V.; Ostertag, Eric M.; Courtney, Christine E.; Choi, Janice M.; Kazazian, Haig H.

    2006-01-01

    To study integration of the human LINE-1 retrotransposon (L1) in vivo, we developed a transgenic mouse model of L1 retrotransposition that displays de novo somatic L1 insertions at a high frequency, occasionally several insertions per mouse. We mapped 3? integration sites of 51 insertions by Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced PCR (TAIL–PCR). Analysis of integration locations revealed a broad genomic distribution with a modest preference for intergenic regions. We characterized the complete str...

  6. Probing Pineal-specific Gene Expression with Transgenic Zebrafish†

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Daisuke; Dowling, John E.; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains lightsensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. The zebrafish exorhodopsin gene encodes a pineal-specific photoreceptive protein, whose promoter region harbors a cis-acting element, pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), directing pineal-specific gene expression. For in vivo genetic studies on PIPE-binding proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg...

  7. Optical modulation of transgene expression in retinal pigment epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, D.; Lavinsky, D.; Chalberg, T.; Mandel, Y.; Huie, P.; Dalal, R.; Marmor, M.

    2013-03-01

    Over a million people in US alone are visually impaired due to the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The current treatment is monthly intravitreal injections of a protein which inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, thereby slowing progression of the disease. The immense financial and logistical burden of millions of intravitreal injections signifies an urgent need to develop more long-lasting and cost-effective treatments for this and other retinal diseases. Viral transfection of ocular cells allows creation of a "biofactory" that secretes therapeutic proteins. This technique has been proven successful in non-human primates, and is now being evaluated in clinical trials for wet AMD. However, there is a critical need to down-regulate gene expression in the case of total resolution of retinal condition, or if patient has adverse reaction to the trans-gene products. The site for genetic therapy of AMD and many other retinal diseases is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We developed and tested in pigmented rabbits, an optical method to down-regulate transgene expression in RPE following vector delivery, without retinal damage. Microsecond exposures produced by a rapidly scanning laser vaporize melanosomes and destroy a predetermined fraction of the RPE cells selectively. RPE continuity is restored within days by migration and proliferation of adjacent RPE, but since the transgene is not integrated into the nucleus it is not replicated. Thus, the decrease in transgene expression can be precisely determined by the laser pattern density and further reduced by repeated treatment without affecting retinal structure and function.

  8. Transgenic rabbit that expresses a functional human lipoprotein (a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouy, Didier (Thiais, FR); Duverger, Nicolas (Paris, FR); Emmanuel, Florence (Aubervilliers, FR); Denefle, Patrice (Saint Maur, FR); Houdebine, Louis-Marie (Buc, FR); Viglietta, Celine (Versailles, FR); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA); Hughes, Steven D. (Oakland, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A transgenic rabbit which has in its genomic DNA sequences that encode apolipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein B polypeptides which are capable of combining to produce lipoprotein (a), a process for creating such a rabbit, and the use of the rabbit to identify compounds which are effective in the treatment of human diseases which are associated with, induced and/or exacerbated by Lp(a) expression.

  9. Microbial fructan production in transgenic potato plants and tubers.

    OpenAIRE

    Pilon-Smits, E.A.H.; Ebskamp, M.J.M.; Jeuken, M.J.W.; Meer, I.M. van der; Visser, R.G.F.; Weisbeek, P.J.; Smeekens, S. C. M.

    1996-01-01

    Fructans (fructose polymers) derived from plants usually have a very low degree of polymerisation (DP) and this limits the technical application of this versatile carbohydrate polymer. Previously we showed that the expression of bacterial fructosyltransferase genes in transgenic plants results in the accumulation of high molecular weight fructans with a DP of over 25,000. Here we report on our progress in accumulating such high DP fructans in potato plants and tubers. In these plants growth, ...

  10. Galactose-extended glycans of antibodies produced by transgenic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, H; Bardor, M.; Molthoff, J.W.; Gomord, V.; Elbers, I.; Stevens, L. H.; Jordi, W.; Lommen, A (Arjen); Faye, L.; Lerouge, P.; BOSCH, D

    2001-01-01

    Plant-specific N-glycosylation can represent an important limitation for the use of recombinant glycoproteins of mammalian origin produced by transgenic plants. Comparison of plant and mammalian N-glycan biosynthesis indicates that ?1,4-galactosyltransferase is the most important enzyme that is missing for conversion of typical plant N-glycans into mammalian-like N-glycans. Here, the stable expression of human ?1,4-galactosyltransferase in tobacco plants is describ...

  11. Mouse transgenes in human cells detect specific base substitutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a system of transgenic human cell lines that detects and identifies specific point mutations at defined positions within a gene. The target transgenome is a mouse adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) gene rendered nonfunctional by introduction of a substitution at either of two bases that comprise a splice acceptor site. Reversion at a mutated site results in the expression of wild-type mouse APRT and consequent growth of APRT+ transgenic cell colonies. Site-specific reversion to wild-type sequence is confirmed by regeneration of a previously destroyed diagnostic Pst I site. Two independent cell clones, each with mutant transgenomes bearing an A ? G transition, exhibited an up to 7,500-fold, dose-dependent induction of reversion following treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate. Treatment of these clones with 2-aminopurine resulted in no induction of revertants. In contrast, another transgenic cell clone, bearing a G ? A transition, reverted as a consequence of 2-aminopurine, but not ethyl methanesulfonate, treatment. These data confirm for human cells the proposed mechanisms of action of these mutagens and provide evidence for the utility of their site-specific reversion method for mutagenesis studies

  12. Using inositol as a biocompatible ligand for efficient transgene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Bellis, Susan L; Fan, Yiwen; Wu, Yunkun

    2015-01-01

    Transgene transfection techniques using cationic polymers such as polyethylenimines (PEIs) and PEI derivatives as gene vectors have shown efficacy, although they also have shortcomings. PEIs have decent DNA-binding capability and good cell internalization performance, but they cannot deliver gene payloads very efficiently to cell nuclei. In this study, three hyperbranched polyglycerol-polyethylenimine (PG6-PEI) polymers conjugated with myo-inositol (INO) molecules were developed. The three resulting PG6-PEI-INO polymers have an increased number of INO ligands per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 1 had only 14 carboxymethyl INO (CMINO) units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 2 had approximately 130 CMINO units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 3 had as high as 415 CMINO units approximately. Mixing PG6-PEI-INO polymers with DNA produced compact nanocomposites. We then performed localization studies using fluorescent microscopy. As the number of conjugated inositol ligands increased in PG6-PEI-INO polymers, there was a corresponding increase in accumulation of the polymers within 293T cell nuclei. Transfection performed with spherical 293T cells yielded 82% of EGFP-positive cells when using PG6-PEI-INO 3 as the vehicle. Studies further revealed that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) can inhibit the transgene efficiency of PG6-PEI-INO polymers, as compared with PEI and PG6-PEI that were not conjugated with inositol. Our work unveiled the possibility of using inositol as an effective ligand for transgene expression. PMID:25926732

  13. Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Wendt, Toni

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns of the general public about transgenic crops relates to the mixing of genetic materials between species that cannot hybridize by natural means. To meet this concern, the two transformation concepts cisgenesis and intragenesis were developed as alternatives to transgenesis. Both concepts imply that plants must only be transformed with genetic material derived from the species itself or from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. Intragenesis differs from cisgenesis by allowing use of new gene combinations created by in vitro rearrangements of functional genetic elements. Several surveys show higher public acceptance of intragenic/cisgenic crops compared to transgenic crops. Thus, although the intragenic and cisgenic concepts were introduced internationally only 9 and 7 years ago, several different traits in a variety of crops have currently been modified according to these concepts. Five of these crops are now in field trials and two have pending applications for deregulation. Currently, intragenic/cisgenic plants are regulated as transgenic plants worldwide. However, as the gene pool exploited by intragenesis and cisgenesis are identical to the gene pool available for conventional breeding, less comprehensive regulatory measures are expected. The regulation of intragenic/cisgenic crops is presently under evaluation in the EU and in the US regulators are considering if a subgroup of these crops should be exempted from regulation. It is accordingly possible that the intragenic/cisgenic route will be of major significance for future plant breeding.

  14. Lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphoma in KSHV K1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkova, Zuzana; Wang, Shu; Sehgal, Lalit; Patel, Keyur Pravinchandra; Prakash, Om; Samaniego, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Growing evidence supports the involvement of human herpervirus 8, Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), in the pathology of primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma, but the exact mechanism of KSHV contribution to the oncogenic process remains elusive. We studied transgenic mice expressing the ORF K1 of KSHV, whose position in the KSHV genome corresponds to known lymphoproliferative genes of other herpesviruses. K1 protein was previously shown to contain a constitutively active ITAM domain, involved in activation of Akt and pro-survival signaling, and to inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis by interfering with binding of FasL. All this pointed to a possible role of K1 in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated cancers. K1 transgenic mice (80-90%) developed lymphoid hyperplasia and splenomegaly at 8 and 10 months of age, 25% had confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma, and 50% developed abdominal and/or hepatic tumors by 18 months of age. Histological examination showed loss of splenic architecture and increased cellularity. Lymph nodes showed disrupted architecture with effaced follicles and other pathological changes, including signs of angiofollicular lymphoid hyperplasia. One of the livers showed signs of angiosarcoma. In summary, our histology results revealed pathological changes in K1 transgenic mice similar to lymphoma, Castleman's disease, and angiosarcoma, suggesting that K1 may contribute to the development of KSHV-associated cancers. PMID:25301266

  15. Generation of transgenic zebra finches with replication-deficient lentiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velho, Tarciso A F; Lois, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Zebra finches have been a rich experimental system for studying neurobiological questions of relevance to human health for decades. In particular, finches are the leading nonhuman model organisms for investigating the biological basis of vocal learning, a critical behavioral substrate for speech acquisition. In addition, zebra finches are an ideal system for the study of brain asymmetry, hormonal control of brain development, physiological function of sleep, sex differences in the brain, behavioral-induced gene expression, and adult neurogenesis, among other questions. Despite their importance for neurobiology, the usefulness of finches as an experimental system has been restricted by a lack of genetic manipulation methods. To overcome this barrier, our laboratory has developed methods for generating transgenic birds, including zebra finches. The successful implementation of this transgenic technology by multiple research laboratories has the potential to dramatically accelerate the progress of our understanding of the genetic basis of complex biological processes such as vocal learning. Moreover, the ability to genetically manipulate zebra finches could also be used to generate novel genetic models for human disorders that cannot be studied elsewhere or that can be more easily studied in this small bird. Here, we describe a protocol to generate transgenic zebra finches using recombinant lentiviruses. PMID:25342068

  16. Drought tolerance through overexpression of monoubiquitin in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qifang; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Qiang; Xing, Shichao; Li, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2008-11-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is present in all eukaryotic species examined. It is a multifunctional protein and one of its main known functions is to tag proteins for selective degradation by the 26S proteasome. In this study, Ta-Ub2, a cDNA sequence containing a single Ub repeat and a 3' non-coding region of a polyubiquitin gene, was isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A PBI sense vector with Ta-Ub2 was constructed and transformed into tobacco plants. Ub expression in wheat leaves, monitored by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, responded to drought stress. In transgenic tobacco, determined by protein gel blot analysis, we found higher amounts of Ub-protein conjugates than in control (tobacco carrying a PBI GUS vector without Ta-Ub2) and wild-type (WT) lines. However, free Ub levels did not significantly differ in the 3 genotypes. Seeds from transgenic, Ub-overexpressing tobacco germinated faster and seedlings grew more vigorously than control and WT samples, both under drought and non-drought conditions. Furthermore, CO(2) assimilation of transgenic plants was significantly higher under drought stress. Our results indicate that Ub may be involved in the response of plants to drought stress and that overexpression of monoubiquitin might be an effective strategy for enhancing drought tolerance. PMID:18280007

  17. Elucidation of Factors Effecting Enzymatic Saccharification using Transgenic Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Douyong

    Three groups of transgenic wood samples were used as starting materials to elucidate the recalcitrance of enzymatic saccharification with/without pretreatments. The first group of transgenic wood samples is low lignin P. trichocarpa. The second group is low xylan P. trichocarpa. The third one is 12 hybrid poplars which have different levels of S/V ratio and lignin content. Four pretreatments were carried out in this research including dilute sulfuric acid, green liquor, auto hydrolysis and ozone delignification. The behavior among pretreatments as a function of removal of lignin appears to be different. Lignin is the major factor of recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic material to ethanol conversion process. Xylan also plays key role in this process. In addition, the crude milled wood lignin was isolated from these three groups of transgenic samples. Lignin carbohydrate complexes was characterized by 1H-13C HMQC and 13C NMR. Thus the effect of LCCs on enzymatic saccharification was elucidated. High S/V ratio propels the lignin removal during pretreatments however; high S/V ratio retards the enzymatic saccharification on the lignocellulosic material without pretreatments. The level of LCCs linkages accounts for additional recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic material to ethanol conversion process. The amount of LCCs linkages is affected by xylan content, lignin content and S/V ratio.

  18. Transgene Silencing in Wheat Transformed with the WSMV-CP Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Li

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum was co-transformed with the bar gene and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Coat Protein gene (WSMV-CP by the biolistic method. Transgenic wheat carrying the WSMV-CP showed non-uniform segregation patterns due to transgene loss or silencing. Loss of transgene expression was observed at the T1, T2 or T3 generations. Among these silenced lines, transgenic line 566B was chosen for detailed studies. Results indicated that all 566B T1 plants containing the WSMV-CP expressed WSMV coat protein and all showed strong resistance to WSMV. While the WSMV-CP was carried through to the T2 and T3 generations, all transgenic plants in these generations showed transgene silencing. Expression of WSMV-CP could be restored, at least temporarily, in most of these silenced plants by treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC.

  19. Analysis of water soluble proteins and peptides from Bt transgenic and non-transgenic maize varieties by capillary electrophoresis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sázelová, Petra; Kaši?ka, Václav; Ibanez, E.; Cifuentes, A.

    Praha : Institut of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry ASCR, 2009. s. 58-58. ISBN 978-80-86241-30-2. [Biologically Active Peptides /11./. 22.04.2009-24.04.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * Bt transgenic maize * water soluble proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  20. Extraction and separation of water soluble proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis-transgenic and non-transgenic maize species by CZE.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sázelová, Petra; Kaši?ka, Václav; Ibanez, E.; Cifuentes, A.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 32, ?. 21 (2009), s. 3801-3808. ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/09/0675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis-transgenic maize * CZE-UV profiling * Maize proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2009

  1. Transgenic plants expressing HC-Pro show enhanced virus sensitivity while silencing of the transgene results in resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Mlotshwa, S.; Verver, J.; Sithole-niang, I.; Prins, M.; Kammen, A.; Wellink, J.

    2002-01-01

    Nicotiana benthamiana plants were engineered to express sequences of the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (CABMV). The sensitivity of the transgenic plants to infection with parental and heterologous viruses was studied. The lines expressing HC-Pro showed enhanced symptoms after infection with the parental CABMV isolate and also after infection with a heterologous potyvirus, Potato virus Y (PVY) and a comovirus, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). On the oth...

  2. Chitinase activities, scab resistance, mycorrhization rates and biomass of own-rooted and grafted transgenic apple

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Schäfer; Magda-Viola Hanke; Henryk Flachowsky; Stephan König; Andreas Peil; Michael Kaldorf; Andrea Polle; François Buscot

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of constitutively expressed Trichoderma atroviride genes encoding exochitinase nag70 or endochitinase ech42 in transgenic lines of the apple cultivar Pinova on the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We compared the exo- and endochitinase activities of leaves and roots from non-transgenic Pinova and the transgenic lines T386 and T389. Local and systemic effects were examined using own-rooted trees and trees grafted onto rootstock M9. Scab susc...

  3. Cyclic hair-loss and regrowth in transgenic mice overexpressing an intermediate filament gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, B. C.; Rogers, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    We have produced transgenic mice containing up to 250 copies of a sheep wool intermediate filament keratin gene to study the effect of its expression on hair structure and development. Several transgenic lines expressed the gene and in the one containing 250 transgenes, a pattern of hair-loss and regrowth was stably established. Successive waves of hair growth follow periods of denuding like the natural progression of hairs in the mouse hair cycle. By in situ hybridization we have shown that ...

  4. Absence of detectable transgenes in local landraces of maize in Oaxaca, Mexico (2003–2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-garci?a, S.; Ezcurra, E.; Schoel, B.; Acevedo, F.; Sobero?n, J.; Snow, A. A.

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, transgenes were detected in local maize varieties (landraces) in the mountains of Oaxaca, Mexico [Quist, D. & Chapela, I. H. (2001) Nature 414, 541–543]. This region is part of the Mesoamerican center of origin for maize (Zea mays L.), and the genetic diversity that is maintained in open-pollinated landraces is recognized as an important genetic resource of great cultural value. The presence of transgenes in landraces was significant because transgenic maize has never been approved...

  5. Hypotension and reduced nitric oxide-elicited vasorelaxation in transgenic mice overexpressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohashi, Y.; Kawashima, S.; Hirata, K. I.; Yamashita, T.; Ishida, T.; Inoue, N.; Sakoda, T.; Kurihara, H.; Yazaki, Y.; Yokoyama, M.

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), constitutively produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure and vascular tone. We generated transgenic mice overexpressing bovine eNOS in the vascular wall using murine preproendothelin-1 promoter. In transgenic lineages with three to eight transgene copies, bovine eNOS-specific mRNA, protein expression in the particulate fractions, and calcium-dependent NOS activity were confirmed by RNase protection assay, im...

  6. Overexpression of beta 2-microglobulin in transgenic mouse islet beta cells results in defective insulin secretion.

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, J.; Malcolm, L.; Culvenor, J.; Bartholomeusz, R. K.; Holmberg, K.; Miller, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    Overexpression of heavy chains of the class I major histocompatibility complex in islet beta cells of transgenic mice is known to induce nonimmune diabetes. We have now overexpressed the secretory protein beta 2-microglobulin in beta cells. Transgenic mice of one lineage had normal islets. Mice of another lineage did not become overtly diabetic but showed significant depletion of beta-cell insulin. When mice were made homozygous for the transgene locus, they developed diabetes. Introduction o...

  7. Secretion-recapture process of apolipoprotein E in hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimano, H.; Namba, Y.; Ohsuga, J; Kawamura, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Shimada, M.; Gotoda, T.; Harada, K; Yazaki, Y.; Yamada, N

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the role of apoE in hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants, we studied chylomicron metabolism in transgenic mice overexpressing apoE in the liver. Plasma clearance of injected 125I-labeled human chylomicrons was fivefold faster in transgenic mice than in controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that apoE was specifically localized at the basolateral surface of hepatocytes from fasted transgenic mice. After injection of a large amount of chylomicrons, the density of the cell ...

  8. A Double Built-In Containment Strategy for Production of Recombinant Proteins in Transgenic Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xianwen; Wang, Dongfang; Zhao, Sinan; Shen, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    Using transgenic rice as a bioreactor for mass production of pharmaceutical proteins could potentially reduce the cost of production significantly. However, a major concern over the bioreactor transgenic rice is the risk of its unintended spreading into environment and into food or feed supplies. Here we report a mitigating method to prevent unwanted transgenic rice spreading by a double built-in containment strategy, which sets a selectively termination method and a visual tag technology in ...

  9. Assessing fitness costs for transgenic Aedes aegypti expressing the GFP marker and transposase genes

    OpenAIRE

    Irvin, Nic; Hoddle, Mark S.; O'Brochta, David A; Carey,Bryan; Atkinson, Peter W

    2004-01-01

    The development of transgenic mosquitoes that are refractory to the transmission of human diseases such as malaria, dengue, and yellow fever has received much interest due to the ability to transform a number of vector mosquito species with transposable elements. Transgenic strains of mosquitoes have been generated with molecular techniques that exhibit a reduced capacity to transmit pathogens. These advancements have led to questions regarding the fitness of transgenic mosquitoes and the abi...

  10. Genetic approaches for studying transgene inheritance and genetic recombination in three successive generations of transformed tobacco

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kalthoum, Tizaoui; Mohamed Elyes, Kchouk.

    Full Text Available Transgene integration into plant genomes is a complex process accompanied by molecular rearrangements. Classic methods that are normally used to study transgenic population genetics are generally inadequate for assessing such integration. Two major characteristics of transgenic populations are that [...] a transgenic genome may harbor many copies of the transgene and that molecular rearrangements can create an unstable transgenic locus. In this work, we examined the segregation of T1, T2 and T3 transgenic tobacco progenies. Since transfer DNA (T-DNA) contains the NptII selectable marker gene that confers resistance to kanamycin, we used this characteristic in developing a method to estimate the number of functional inserts integrated into the genome. This approach was based on calculation of the theoretical segregation ratios in successive generations. Mendelian ratios of 3:1, 15:1 and 63:1 were confirmed for five transformation events whereas six transformation events yielded non-segregating progenies, a finding that raised questions about causal factors. A second approach based on a maximum likelihood method was performed to estimate recombination frequencies between linked inserts. Recombination estimates varied among transformation events and over generations. Some transgenic loci were unstable and evolved continuously to segregate independently in the T3 generation. Recombination and amplification of the transgene and filler DNA yielded additional transformed genotypes.

  11. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. ? hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. ? hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  12. Development of potato transgenic plants and molecular and genetic analyses of their integration stability and transgene expression efficiency using vegetative and sexual propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrobacterium mediated transformation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the stability of integration, expression and inheritance of transgenes were investigated. Over 400 kanamycin resistant transgenic plants with the nptII, gus, tt (insect toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis, variety kurstaki) and tg (fusion of tt and gus under the 35S promoter) foreign genes were obtained from eight potato genotypes by co-cultivation of the leaf discs with A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 (pBI 121), A. tumefaciens 3850 (pGV 941tg) and A. rchizogenes A4 (pGV 941tt). Southern blot analysis showed that more than 80% of the regenerating plants had one or several copies of the foreign genes. Selection for kanamycin resistance and Southern blot analysis revealed the stability of inheritance of transgenes by vegetative propagation of the plants via cloning and through tubers. However, 0.3% of the plants lost the nptII gene during the cloning process. About 500 self-pollinated seeds of four independently obtained transgenic clones were harvested. Analysis of the phenotypic segregation of the transgenic progeny on selective medium with kanamycin (50 mg/L) was made and compared with the controls. Inheritance and expression of the nptII transgene in the progeny of all four transgenic clones were shown, although the character of segregation appeared to differ in the various clones

  13. Evaluation of the safety and nutritional equivalence of a genetically modified cottonseed meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryzga, M D; Yano, B L; Andrus, A K; Mattsson, J L

    2007-10-01

    Meal prepared from Cry1F/Cry1Ac transgenic/genetically modified cottonseed (WIDESTRIKE Insect Protection, hereafter referred to as WIDESTRIKE) was compared to cottonseed meal prepared from four conventionally bred lines of cotton (three commercial non-transgenic line controls (PHY72, PHY78 and 98M-2983), and a near isoline non-transgenic control (PSC355) in a 90-day dietary study to evaluate safety and nutritional equivalence. Diets were formulated with 10% WIDESTRIKE cottonseed meal equivalent to 7,235 mg/kg/day for males and 7,935 mg/kg/day for females. Animals were evaluated by cage-side and hand-held detailed clinical observations, body weight, and feed consumption. Functional tests, motor activity and ophthalmic examinations were conducted pre-exposure and prior to study termination. Standard hematology, clinical chemistry, prothrombin time and urinalysis parameters were evaluated. All rats had a complete necropsy and selected organs were weighed. Histopathologic examinations were performed on all rats fed the diets containing the near isoline non-transgenic control or WIDESTRIKE. Following 90 days of feeding, no adverse effects were observed during the conduct of clinical observations or in any of the parameters measured in this study. This study demonstrated that rodent diets prepared with 10% cottonseed meal from WIDESTRIKE cottonseeds do not produce any untoward effects and are nutritionally equivalent to cottonseed meals prepared from other, non-transgenic cottonseeds. PMID:17574718

  14. Effect of Sirolimus on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Transgenic Hypertensive Rat.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohmová, R.; Honsová, E.; Heemann, U.; Mandys, Václav; Lodererová, A.; Matl, I.; Viklický, O.

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 34, - (2002), s. 3051-3052. ISSN 0041-1345 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : sirolimus Subject RIV: FE - Other Internal Medicine Disciplines Impact factor: 0.478, year: 2002

  15. Transgenic and recombinant resistin impair skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Kazdová, L.; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Jansa, Petr; Wang, J.; Qi, N.; Kurtz, T. W.

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 278, ?. 46 (2003), s. 45209-45215. ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ?R GA301/01/0278; GA ?R GA301/03/0751 Grant ostatní: HHMI(US) 55000331 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : resistin * insulin resistance * muscle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.482, year: 2003

  16. Optogenetic Patterning of Whisker-Barrel Cortical System in Transgenic Rat Expressing Channelrhodopsin-2

    OpenAIRE

    Honjoh, Tatsuya; Ji, Zhi-gang; Yokoyama, Yukinobu; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Shibuya, Yuma; Matsuzaka, Yoshiya; Kawashima, Ryuta; Mushiake, Hajime; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    The rodent whisker-barrel system has been an ideal model for studying somatosensory representations in the cortex. However, it remains a challenge to experimentally stimulate whiskers with a given pattern under spatiotemporal precision. Recently the optogenetic manipulation of neuronal activity has made possible the analysis of the neuronal network with precise spatiotemporal resolution. Here we identified the selective expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), an algal light-driven cation cha...

  17. NEURON-GLIA INTERACTIONS IN PERIPHERAL VASOPRESSIN AND OXYTOCIN SYSTEMS UNVEILED IN TRANSGENIC RATS.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dayanithi, Govindan; Forostyak, Oksana; Forostyak, Serhiy; Arboleda Toro, David; Viero, C.; Strunin, Dmytro; Folková, Dagmar; Syková, Eva; Shibuya, I.; Ueta, Y.; Toescu, E.C.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 59, Supplement 1 (2011), S103-S103. ISSN 0894-1491. [European meeting on Glial Cells in Health and Disease /10./. 13.09.2011-17.09.2011, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : neuropeptides * nociception * lactation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. HIV-1–Transgene Expression in Rats Decreases Alveolar Macrophage Zinc Levels and Phagocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Pratibha C; Raynor, Robert; Fan, Xian; Guidot, David M

    2008-01-01

    HIV-1 infection impairs alveolar macrophage immune function and renders patients susceptible to pneumonia by poorly understood mechanisms. Alveolar macrophage maturation and function depends on granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which is produced and secreted by the alveolar epithelium. Macrophages respond to GM-CSF through the GM-CSF receptor (GM-CSFR), which has a binding subunit (GM-CSFR?) and a signaling subunit (GM-CSFR?). In this study, we measured GM-CSFR ex...

  19. Mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Loli, P.; Georgiadis, P.; Dušinská, M.; Hurbánková, M.; Ková?iková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Kažimírová, A.; Baran?oková, M.; Tatrai, E.; Oesterle, D.; Wolff, T.; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 553, 1-2 (2004), s. 67-78. ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : asbestos * mutations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2004

  20. Field performance of transgenic sugarcane expressing isomaltulose synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Morgan, Terrance C; Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing a vacuole-targeted isomaltulose (IM) synthase in seven recipient genotypes (elite cultivars) were evaluated over 3?years at a field site typical of commercial cane growing conditions in the Burdekin district of Australia. IM concentration typically increased with internode maturity and comprised up to 217?mm (33% of total sugars) in whole-cane juice. There was generally a comparable decrease in sucrose concentration, with no overall decrease in total sugars. Sugarcane is vegetatively propagated from stem cuttings known as setts. Culture-derived plants were slower to establish and generally gave shorter and thinner stalks at harvest than those grown from field-sourced setts in the initial field generations. However, after several cycles of field propagation, selections were obtained with cane yields similar to the recipient genotypes. There was no apparent adverse effect of IM accumulation on vigour assessed by stalk height and diameter or other visual indicators including germination of setts and establishment of stools. There was some inconsistency in IM levels in juice, between samplings of the vegetatively propagated transgenic lines. Until the causes are resolved, it is prudent to selectively propagate from stalks with higher IM levels in the initial vegetative field generations. Pol/Brix ratio allowed rapid identification of lines with high IM levels, using common sugar industry instruments. Sucrose isomerase activity was low in these transgenic lines, and the results indicate strong potential to develop sugarcane for commercial-scale production of IM if higher activity can be engineered in appropriate developmental patterns. PMID:21895946

  1. Detection of metallothionein level at transgenic plants of tobacco.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diopan, V.; Baloun, J.; Šupálková, V.; K?ížková, S.; Shestisvka, V.; Kotrba, P.; Macková, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Havel, L.; Adam, V.; Zehnálek, J.; Kizek, R.

    Nitra : Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology SAV, 2007 - (Libiaková, G.; Gajdošová, A.). s. 119 ISBN 978-80-89088-51-5. [Plant biotechnology: Impact on high Qualityn Plant Production. International Symposium in the Series Recent Advances in Plant Biotechnology /7./. 10.06.2007-16.06.2007, Stará Lesná] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030; GA ?R(CZ) GA522/07/0692 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : transgenic plants * tobacco Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  2. Electrochemical determination of metallothionein in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    K?ížková, S.; Diopan, V.; Baloun, J.; Šupálková, V.; Shestisvka, V.; Kotrba, P.; Macková, Martina; Macek, Tomáš; Havel, L.; Adam, V.; Zehnálek, J.; Kizek, R.

    Praha : VŠCHT, 2007 - (Macková, M.; Macek, T.; Demnerová, K.; Pazlar, V.; Nováková, M.), s. 21-23 ISBN 978-80-7080-026-3. [Symposium on Biosorption and Bioremediation /4./. Praha (CZ), 26.08.2007-30.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Grant ostatní: GA?R(CZ) GA522/07/0692 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : metallothionein * heavy metals * transgenic plants * GM-tobacco Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  3. Introducing Human APOE into A? Transgenic Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Leon M.; Youmans, Katherine L.; Jungbauer, Lisa; Yu, Chunjiang; Ladu, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apoE/amyloid-? (A?) transgenic (Tg) mouse models are critical to understanding apoE-isoform effects on Alzheimer's disease risk. Compared to wild type, apoE?/? mice exhibit neuronal deficits, similar to apoE4-Tg compared to apoE3-Tg mice, providing a model for A?-independent apoE effects on neurodegeneration. To determine the effects of apoE on A?-induced neuropathology, apoE?/? mice were crossed with A?-Tg mice, resulting in a significant delay in pla...

  4. Interleukin-12 inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanaugh, V. J.; Guidotti, L. G.; Chisari, F. V.

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine produced by antigen-presenting cells that has the ability to induce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion by T and natural killer cells and to generate normal Th1 responses. These properties suggest that IL-12 may play an important role in the immune response to many viruses, including hepatitis B virus (HBV). Recently, we have shown that HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes inhibit HBV replication in the livers of transgenic mice by a noncy...

  5. FLUORESCENT TRANSGENIC FISH IN PERU: BIOSAFETY AND RISK ANALYSIS PENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotto, Carlos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Transgenesis involves processes of molecular genetic manipulation of DNAwhich seeks to "introduce genes" of interest from one organism into the genetic material of another to obtain goods or services. The resulting organism is called a Genetically Modified Organism or GMO. It shows the first case of transgenic fluorescent fish as a real example of GMOs existing in Peru. Reproduction and hybridization in confined environments, provide new approaches to biosecurity decision-makers about this new technological contribution to the task of Peru.

  6. Transgenic Mice Convert Carbohydrates to Essential Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Victor J.; wang, Bin; LI, XIANGYONG; WU, Lin; Jing X. Kang

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic mice (named “Omega mice”) were engineered to carry both optimized fat-1 and fat-2 genes from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and are capable of producing essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids from saturated fats or carbohydrates. When maintained on a high-saturated fat diet lacking essential fatty acids or a high-carbohydrate, no-fat diet, the Omega mice exhibit high tissue levels of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, with a ratio of ?1?1. This study thus presents an in...

  7. EXPRESSION OF CHITINASE GENE IN TRANSGENIC RAPE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ruili

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypocotyl and cotyledon of Brassica napus L. H165 and Brassica juncea DB3 were transformed with chitinase gene and herbicide-resistance gene by co-culture with Agrobacterium tumefacients LBA4404, and rape plants were obtained which could grow on the medium containing herbicide. The PCR result showed that exotic genes were integrated in the genome of the rape. Further study was performed to determine the impact of temperature on the transgenic rate and the differentiation of explants.

  8. Fluorescence Lifetime of Actin in the FHC Transgenic Heart1

    OpenAIRE

    Mettikolla, P.; Luchowski, R.; Gryczynski, I.; Gryczynski, Z.; Szczesna-cordary, D.; Borejdo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical studies have revealed that the D166V mutation in the ventricular myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) can cause a malignant phenotype of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). It has been proposed that RLC induced FHC in the heart originates at the level of the myosin cross-bridge due to alterations in the rates of cross-bridge cycling. In this report we examine whether the environment of an active cross-bridge in cardiac myofibrils from transgenic (Tg) mice is altered by the D16...

  9. Functional Coexpression of HSV-1 Thymidine Kinase and Green Fluorescent Protein: Implications for Noninvasive Imaging of Transgene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Jacobs

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Current gene therapy technology is limited by the paucity of methodology for determining the location and magnitude of therapeutic transgene expression in vivo. We describe and validate a paradigm for monitoring therapeutic transgene expression by noninvasive imaging of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1-tk marker gene expression. To test proportional coexpression of therapeutic and marker genes, a model fusion gene comprising green fluorescent protein (gfp and HSV-1-tk genes was generated (tkgfp gene and assessed for the functional coexpression of the gene product, TKGFP fusion protein, in rat 9L gliosarcoma, RG2 glioma, and W256 carcinoma cells. Analysis of the TKGFP protein demonstrated that it can serve as a therapeutic gene by rendering tkgfp transduced cells sensitive to ganciclovir or as a screening marker useful for identifying transduced cells by fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. TK and GFP activities in the TKGFP fusion protein were similar to corresponding wild-type proteins and accumulation of the HSV-1-tk-specific radiolabeled substrate, 2?-fluoro-2?-deoxy-1?-D-arabino-furanosyl-5-iodo-uracil (FIAU, in stability transduced clones correlated with gfp-fluorescence intensity over a wide range of expression levels. The tkgfp fusion gene itself may be useful in developing novel cancer gene therapy approaches. Valuable information about the efficiency of gene transfer and expression could be obtained by non-invasive imaging of tkgfp expression with FIAU and clinical imaging devices (gamma camera, positron-emission tomography [PET], single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], and/or direct visualization of gfp expression in situ by fluorescence microscopy or endoscopy.

  10. TT2014 meeting report on the 12th Transgenic Technology meeting in Edinburgh: new era of transgenic technologies with programmable nucleases in the foreground.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beck, Inken; Sedlá?ek, Radislav

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 24, ?. 1 (2015), s. 179-183. ISSN 0962-8819 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Transgenic * Nuclease * Gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2013

  11. Glyphosate drift promotes changes in fitness and transgene flow in canola (Brassica napus) and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. With the advent of transgenic crops, genetically modified, herbicide resistant B. napus has become a model system for examining the risks of escape of transgenes from cultivation and for evaluating potential ecological consequences of novel genes in wild species. 2. We exam...

  12. Virtual Transgenics: Using a Molecular Biology Simulation to Impact Student Academic Achievement and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Lazarus, Melanie M.; Murray, Nancy G.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Sessions, Nathalie; Zsigmond, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic mouse model is useful for studying the causes and potential cures for human genetic diseases. Exposing high school biology students to laboratory experience in developing transgenic animal models is logistically prohibitive. Computer-based simulation, however, offers this potential in addition to advantages of fidelity and reach.…

  13. Utilization of next generation sequencing for analyzing transgenic insertions in plum

    Science.gov (United States)

    When utilizing transgenic plants, it is useful to know how many copies of the genes were inserted and the locations of these insertions in the genome. This information can provide important insights for the interpretation of transgene expression and the resulting phenotype. Traditionally, these qu...

  14. ELITE TRANSGENIC LINES OF BASMATI-370 REVEALED HIGH LEVEL OF LODGING RESISTANCE UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood-ur-Rahman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lodging decreases crop yield, photosynthesis and grain quality. Three transgenic lines of Basmati-370 containing two Bt genes (cry1Ac & cry2A were evaluated in the field along with non-transgenic parent as control. The experiment was repeated for consecutive two years. Transgenic rice revealed tremendous morphological variations associated with lodging such as short stature, more number of nodes, less internodal length, etc. The transgenic plants were 33% short in stature while average number of nodes was 3.4 as compared to 4.2 in control. Internodal length in transgenic plants ranged 6.41-8.61cm while in control it was found 14.0cm. These altered characteristics of plants made them resistant to lodging by conferring stiffness to the stem. The elite transgenic lines were 88% more resistant to lodging during the first year while they revealed 78.5% resistance in the second year. The transgenic lines were statistically different from the control during both of the years. Thus, it can be concluded that the elite transgenic lines of Basmati-370 are resistance to lodging as compared to its untransformed counterpart.

  15. ENGINEERING RESISTANCE AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS BY NATIVE, CHIMERIC AND SYNTHETIC TRANSGENES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transgenic Rainbow papaya is hemizygous for the coat protein gene of a papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate from Hawaii. Rainbow shows excellent resistance to PRSV isolates in Hawaii, but is susceptible to PRSV isolates from many parts of the world. In order to obtain transgenic papaya which m...

  16. Marketing Strategic Benefit-risk Analysis: Transgenic Poultry Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the causes of marketing strategic benefit-risk of transgenic poultry food supply chain in china, we analyze the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of transgenic poultry food participants. This study discusses the ways and strategies of transgenic poultry food supply chain from the following aspects: a, the food's safety concerning producers, marketing participants and consumers’ risk behaviour at three stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. b, all these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption or catastrophic economic consequences for all stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. c, the identification, analysis, determination and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in transgenic poultry food market may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well informed and effective corporate marketing strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. We hope these can accelerate the construction of marketing strategic benefit-risk trade-offs of transgenic poultry food supply chain, promote sustained and rapid growth of transgenic poultry food industry in china.

  17. Construction of a novel expression cassette for increasing transgene expression in vivo in endothelial cells of large blood vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Dronadula, Nagadhara; Du, Liang; Flynn, Rowan; Buckler, Joshua; Kho, Jordan; Jiang, Zhilong; Tanaka, Shinji; Dichek, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The success of gene therapy hinges on achievement of adequate transgene expression. To ensure high transgene expression, many gene-therapy vectors include highly active virus-derived transcriptional elements. Other vectors include tissue-specific eukaryotic transcriptional elements, intended to limit transgene expression to specific cell types, avoid toxicity, and prevent immune responses. Unfortunately, tissue specificity is often accompanied by lower transgene expression. Here we use eukary...

  18. Effects of BRCA1 Transgene Expression on Murine Mammary Gland Development and Mutagen-Induced Mammary Neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Arichika Hoshino, Cindy J. Yee

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the role of BRCA1 in mammary gland development and tumor suppression, a transgenic mouse model of BRCA1 overexpression was developed. Using the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter/enhancer, transgenic mice expressing human BRCA1 or select mutant controls were generated. Transgenic animals examined during adolescence were shown to express the human transgene in their mammary glands. The mammary glands of 13-week-old virgin homozygous MMTV-BRCA1 mice presented the morpholo...

  19. Using quantitative real-time PCR to detect chimeras in transgenic tobacco and apricot and to monitor their dissociation

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos Lorenzo; Faize Lydia; Faize Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The routine generation of transgenic plants involves analysis of transgene integration into the host genome by means of Southern blotting. However, this technique cannot distinguish between uniformly transformed tissues and the presence of a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic cells in the same tissue. On the other hand, the use of reporter genes often fails to accurately detect chimerical tissues because their expression can be affected by several factors, including ...

  20. Transgenic Quail as a Model for Research in the Avian Nervous System – A Comparative Study of the Auditory Brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Seidl, Armin H.; Sanchez, Jason Tait; Schecterson, Leslayann; Tabor, Kathryn M.; Wang, Yuan; Kashima, Daniel T.; Poynter, Greg; Huss, David; Fraser, Scott E.; Lansford, Rusty; Rubel, Edwin W.

    2013-01-01

    Research performed on transgenic animals has led to numerous advances in biological research. However, using traditional retroviral methods to generate transgenic avian research models has proven problematic. As a result, experiments aimed at genetic manipulations on birds remained difficult for this popular research tool. Recently, lentiviral methods have enabled production of transgenic birds, including a transgenic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) line showing neuronal-specifici...

  1. Separation of tryptic digests of water soluble proteins from Bt transgenic and non-transgenic maize species by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sázelová, Petra; Kaši?ka, Václav; Ibanez, E.; Cifuentes, A.

    Sevilla : CSIC, 2009. s. 134-134. [Latin American Symposium on Biotechnology, Biomedical, Biopharmaceutical and Industrial Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis and Microchip Technology /15./. 02.10.2009-06.10.2009, Sevilla] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/09/0675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : tryptic peptides * transgenic/non-transgenic maize species * capillary zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  2. EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase transgenic mice develop glomerulopathies reminiscent of aglomerular vascular shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Anne-Catherine; Munarini, Nadia; Djonov, Valentin; Bruneau, Salomé; Zuercher, Gisela; Loercher, Saemi; Rohrbach, Valeria; Ziemiecki, Andrew

    2003-04-01

    We have established transgenic mice over-expressing the EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase in the kidney. The EphB4 protein was localised to the developing tubular system of both control and transgenic newborn mice. In transgenic adults, transgene expression persisted in the proximal tubules and the Bowman's capsules, structures, which were not stained in control kidneys. The glomeruli of control animals consisted of regular, round vascular baskets with clearly discernable afferent and efferent arterioles. In contrast, approximately 40% of the transgenic glomeruli had an irregular shrivelled appearance and many exhibited fused, horse shoe-like afferent and efferent arterioles bypassing the glomerulus. These abnormal glomerular structures are very reminiscent of aglomerular vascular shunts, a human degenerative glomerulopathy of unknown aetiology. PMID:12676328

  3. Lentiviral-Mediated Transgene Expression Can Potentiate Intestinal Mesenchymal-Epithelial Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dismuke Adria D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesenchymal-epithelial signaling is essential for the development of many organs and is often disrupted in disease. In this study, we demonstrate the use of lentiviral-mediated transgene delivery as an effective approach for ectopic transgene expression and an alternative to generation of transgenic animals. One benefit to this approach is that it can be used independently or in conjunction with established transgenic or knockout animals for studying modulation of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. To display the power of this approach, we explored ectopic expression of a Wnt ligand in the mouse intestinal mesenchyme and demonstrate its functional influence on the adjacent epithelium. Our findings highlight the efficient use of lentiviral-mediated transgene expression for modulating mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in vivo.

  4. Monitoring the threat of unintentional transgene flow into maize gene banks and breeding materials

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Monica, Mezzalama; Jonathan H, Crouch; Rodomiro, Ortiz.

    2010-03-15

    Full Text Available The use of transgenic crops is steadily increasing around the world, led by soybean (based on total area) and maize (in terms of total number of countries). Transgenic maize is grown in at least 17 countries across four continents: Africa, America, Asia and Europe. The comprehensive global spread of [...] transgenic maize has significant implications for organizations involved in germplasm conservation and genetic enhancement; particularly as some countries require a GMO-free declaration when receiving shipments of maize germplasm. This article describes the protocol used by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) for monitoring unintentional transgene flow in maize genebank and breeding plots. The protocol is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers for detecting specific recombinant DNA sequences in bulked samples collected from sentinel plots. To date, no unintentional transgene flow has been detected in CIMMYT fields of maize genebank accessions or breeding materials.

  5. A simple and reliable method for the screening of transgenic tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas-Astua Juliana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though much improvement has been made in plant transformation methods, the screening of transgenic plants is often a laborious work. Most approaches for detecting the transgene in transformed plants are still timeconsuming, and can be quite expensive. The objective of this study was to search for a simpler method to screen for transgenic plants. The infiltration of kanamycin (100 mg/mL into tobacco leaves resulted in conspicuous chlorotic spots on the non-transgenic plant leaves, while no spots were seen on the leaves of transformed plants. This reaction occurred regardless of age of the tested plants, and the method has proven to be simple, fast, non-destructive, relatively cheap, and reliable. These results were comparable to those obtained by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of the transgene using specific primers.

  6. Lentiviral-Mediated Transgene Expression Can Potentiate Intestinal Mesenchymal-Epithelial Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Aimee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesenchymal-epithelial signaling is essential for the development of many organs and is often disrupted in disease. In this study, we demonstrate the use of lentiviral-mediated transgene delivery as an effective approach for ectopic transgene expression and an alternative to generation of transgenic animals. One benefit to this approach is that it can be used independently or in conjunction with established transgenic or knockout animals for studying modulation of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. To display the power of this approach, we explored ectopic expression of a Wnt ligand in the mouse intestinal mesenchyme and demonstrate its functional influence on the adjacent epithelium. Our findings highlight the efficient use of lentiviral-mediated transgene expression for modulating mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in vivo.

  7. Temporal and spatial patterning of transgene expression by near-infrared irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Saavedra, Francisco M; Cebrian, Virginia; Gomez, Leyre; Lopez, Daniel; Arruebo, Manuel; Wilson, Christopher G; Franceschi, Renny T; Voellmy, Richard; Santamaria, Jesus; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2014-09-01

    We investigated whether near-infrared (NIR) light could be employed for patterning transgene expression in plasmonic cell constructs. Hollow gold nanoparticles with a plasmon surface band absorption peaking at ?750 nm, a wavelength within the so called "tissue optical window", were used as fillers in fibrin-based hydrogels. These composites, which efficiently transduce NIR photon energy into heat, were loaded with genetically-modified cells that harbor a heat-activated and ligand-dependent gene switch for regulating transgene expression. NIR laser irradiation in the presence of ligand triggered 3-dimensional patterns of transgene expression faithfully matching the illuminated areas of plasmonic cell constructs. This non-invasive technology was proven useful for remotely controlling in vivo the spatiotemporal bioavailability of transgenic vascular endothelial growth factor. The combination of spatial control by means of NIR irradiation along with safe and timed transgene induction presents a high application potential for engineering tissues in regenerative medicine scenarios. PMID:24957294

  8. Analysis of water soluble proteins and peptides from Bt transgenic and non-transgenic maize varieties by capillary electrophoresis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sázelová, Petra; Kaši?ka, Václav; Ibanez, E.; Cifuentes, A.

    Praha : Institut of organic Chemistry and Biochemistry ASCR, 2009 - (Slaninová, J.), s. 110-112 ISBN 978-80-86241-31-9. - (Collection Symposium Series. 11). [Biologically Active Peptides. Conference /11./. Praha (CZ), 22.04.2009-24.04.2009] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/09/0675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : capillary affinity electrophoresis * Bt-transgenic maize * water-soluble proteins/peptides Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  9. A dominant-negative mutation within AtMYB90 blocks flower pigment production in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During de novo shoot induction in cultured transgenic tobacco callus a spontaneous mutation within the coding region of a AtMYB90 transgene produced a plant line in which the original transgene-induced over-pigmented phenotype (dark red/purple from anthocyanin overproduction in most tissues) was los...

  10. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

  11. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

  12. The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

    1993-12-01

    The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  13. Recombination-mediated genetic engineering of large genomic DNA transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejsmont, Radoslaw Kamil; Ahlfeld, Peter; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Stewart, A Francis; Tomancak, Pavel; Sarov, Mihail

    2011-01-01

    Faithful gene activity reporters are a useful tool for evo-devo studies enabling selective introduction of specific loci between species and assaying the activity of large gene regulatory sequences. The use of large genomic constructs such as BACs and fosmids provides an efficient platform for exploration of gene function under endogenous regulatory control. Despite their large size they can be easily engineered using in vivo homologous recombination in Escherichia coli (recombineering). We have previously demonstrated that the efficiency and fidelity of recombineering are sufficient to allow high-throughput transgene engineering in liquid culture, and have successfully applied this approach in several model systems. Here, we present a detailed protocol for recombineering of BAC/fosmid transgenes for expression of fluorescent or affinity tagged proteins in Drosophila under endogenous in vivo regulatory control. The tag coding sequence is seamlessly recombineered into the genomic region contained in the BAC/fosmid clone, which is then integrated into the fly genome using ?C31 recombination. This protocol can be easily adapted to other recombineering projects. PMID:22065454

  14. Phage integrases for the construction and manipulation of transgenic mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sclimenti Christopher R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phage integrases catalyze site-specific, unidirectional recombination between two short att recognition sites. Recombination results in integration when the att sites are present on two different DNA molecules and deletion or inversion when the att sites are on the same molecule. Here we demonstrate the ability of the ?C31 integrase to integrate DNA into endogenous sequences in the mouse genome following microinjection of donor plasmid and integrase mRNA into mouse single-cell embryos. Transgenic early embryos and a mid-gestation mouse are reported. We also demonstrate the ability of the ?C31, R4, and TP901-1 phage integrases to recombine two introduced att sites on the same chromosome in human cells, resulting in deletion of the intervening material. We compare the frequencies of mammalian chromosomal deletion catalyzed by these three integrases in different chromosomal locations. The results reviewed here introduce these bacteriophage integrases as tools for site-specific modification of the genome for the creation and manipulation of transgenic mammals.

  15. Neuronal and glial properties of a murine transgenic retinoblastoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, T; Virtanen, I; Marcus, D M; O'Brien, J M; Carpenter, J L; Brauner, E; Tarkkanen, A; Albert, D M

    1991-05-01

    Antigenic properties of a murine transgenic model for hereditary retinoblastoma, induced by a chimeric gene coding for Simian virus 40 large T antigen, an oncogene that inactivates the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product, were studied by immunohistochemistry. All transgenic mice develop bilateral intraocular retinal tumors in the inner nuclear layer with Homer Wright-like rosettes, and one quarter develop midbrain tumors resembling trilateral retinoblastoma. Cell lines TE-1 and TM-1 were established from intraocular and metastatic tumors, respectively. Intraocular tumors reacted with antibodies to neuron-specific enolase and synaptophysin, while vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic, and S-100 proteins were detected only in reactive glia derived from adjacent retina. The midbrain tumors showed weak reactivity to synaptophysin, and they blended with reactive astrocytes positive for glial markers. The tumors were negative for cytokeratins. Finally both derived cell lines expressed synaptophysin and individual neurofilament triplet proteins in immunofluorescence and Western blotting, supporting their essentially neuronal nature. The antigenic profile resembles human retinoblastoma, but differences in morphology and antigen distribution suggest a more close relationship to neurons of the inner nuclear layer than to photoreceptor cells. PMID:1708946

  16. MR Microimaging of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurological condition affecting industrialized nations and will rapidly become a healthcare crisis as the population ages. Currently, the post-mortem histological observation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles is the only definitive diagnosis available for AD. A pre-mortem biological or physiological marker specific for AD used in conjunction with current neurological and memory testing could add a great deal of confidence to the diagnosis of AD and potentially allow therapeutic intervention much earlier in the disease process. Our group has developed MRI techniques to detect individual amyloid plaques in AD transgenic mouse brain in vivo. We are also developing contrast-enhancing agents to increase the specificity of detection of amyloid plaques. Such in vivo imaging of amyloid plaques will also allow the evaluation of anti-amyloid therapies being developed by the pharmaceutical industry in pre-clinical trials of AD transgenic mice. This short review briefly discusses our progress in these areas. (orig.)

  17. Measuring gene flow in the cultivation of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-Hong; Pan, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Teng-Long; Wang, Qing-Lian; Anderson, Todd A

    2005-09-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton NewCott 33B and transgenic tfd A cotton TFD were chosen to evaluate pollen dispersal frequency and distance of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Huanghe Valley Cotton-producing Zone, China. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of biosafety procedures used to reduce pollen movement. A field test plot of transgenic cotton (6 x 6 m) was planted in the middle of a nontransgenic field measuring 210 x 210 m. The results indicated that the pollen of Bt cotton or tfd A cotton could be dispersed into the environment. Out-crossing was highest within the central test plot where progeny from nontransgenic plants, immediately adjacent to transgenic plants, had resistant plant progeny at frequencies up to 10.48%. Dispersal frequency decreased significantly and exponentially as dispersal distance increased. The flow frequency and distance of tfd A and Bt genes were similar, but the pollen-mediated gene flow of tfd A cotton was higher and further to the transgenic block than that of Bt cotton (chi2 = 11.712, 1 degree of freedom, p tfd A gene, out-crossing ranged from 10.13% at 1 m to 0.04% at 50 m from the transgenic plants. For the Bt gene, out-crossing ranged from 8.16% at 1 m to 0.08% at 20 m from the transgenic plants. These data were fit to a power curve model: y = 10.1321x-1.4133 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and y = 8.0031x-1.483 with a correlation coefficient of 0.998, respectively. In this experiment, the farthest distance of pollen dispersal from transgenic cotton was 50 m. These results indicate that a 60-m buffer zone would serve to limit dispersal of transgenic pollen from small-scale field tests. PMID:16118411

  18. Overexpression of aspen sucrose synthase gene promotes growth and development of transgenic Arabidopsis plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyu Xu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In plants, sucrose synthase (SUS enzymes catalyze conversion of sucrose into fructose and UDP-glucose in the presence of UDP. To investigate the impact of overexpression of heterologous SUS on the growth and development of Arabidopsis, we transformed Arabidopsis plants with an overexpression vector containing an aspen SUS gene (PtrSUS1. The genomic PCR confirmed the successful integration of PtrSUS1 transgene in the Arabidopsis genome. PtrSUS1 expression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was confirmed by RT-PCR. The SUS activity was dramatically increased in all transgenic lines examined. The three selected transgenic PtrSUS1 lines exhibited faster growth and flowered about 10 days earlier compared to untransformed controls, and also possessed 133%, 139%, and 143% SUS activity compared to controls. Both fresh weights and dry biomass yields of the whole plants from these three selected transgenic lines were significantly increased to 125% of the controls. Transgenic PtrSUS1 lines also had a higher tolerance to higher concentration of sucrose which was reflective of the increased SUS activity in transgenic versus wild-type plants. The growth differences between wild-type and transgenic plants, either in root and hypocotyl length or in fresh and dry weight of whole plant, became more pronounced on the media containing higher sucrose concentrations. Taken together, these results showed that the early flowering, faster growth and increased tolerance to higher sucrose in transgenic lines were caused by the genome integration and constitutive expression of the aspen PtrSUS1 gene in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  19. Characterization of mercury bioremediation by transgenic bacteria expressing metallothionein and polyphosphate kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Ruiz Gloriene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of transgenic bacteria has been proposed as a suitable alternative for mercury remediation. Ideally, mercury would be sequestered by metal-scavenging agents inside transgenic bacteria for subsequent retrieval. So far, this approach has produced limited protection and accumulation. We report here the development of a transgenic system that effectively expresses metallothionein (mt-1 and polyphosphate kinase (ppk genes in bacteria in order to provide high mercury resistance and accumulation. Results In this study, bacterial transformation with transcriptional and translational enhanced vectors designed for the expression of metallothionein and polyphosphate kinase provided high transgene transcript levels independent of the gene being expressed. Expression of polyphosphate kinase and metallothionein in transgenic bacteria provided high resistance to mercury, up to 80 ?M and 120 ?M, respectively. Here we show for the first time that metallothionein can be efficiently expressed in bacteria without being fused to a carrier protein to enhance mercury bioremediation. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry analyzes revealed that the mt-1 transgenic bacteria accumulated up to 100.2 ± 17.6 ?M of mercury from media containing 120 ?M Hg. The extent of mercury remediation was such that the contaminated media remediated by the mt-1 transgenic bacteria supported the growth of untransformed bacteria. Cell aggregation, precipitation and color changes were visually observed in mt-1 and ppk transgenic bacteria when these cells were grown in high mercury concentrations. Conclusion The transgenic bacterial system described in this study presents a viable technology for mercury bioremediation from liquid matrices because it provides high mercury resistance and accumulation while inhibiting elemental mercury volatilization. This is the first report that shows that metallothionein expression provides mercury resistance and accumulation in recombinant bacteria. The high accumulation of mercury in the transgenic cells could present the possibility of retrieving the accumulated mercury for further industrial applications.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of the mammary gland from GH transgenic goats during involution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Bao, Ze Kun; Zhang, Qiang; Hu, Wei Wei; Yu, Qing Hua; Yang, Qian

    2015-07-10

    Mammary glands are organs for milk production in female mammals. Growth hormone (GH) is known to affect the growth and development of the mammary gland, as well as to increase milk production in dairy goats. This study performed a comprehensive expression profiling of genes expressed in the mammary gland of early involution GH transgenic (n=4) and non-transgenic goats (n=4) by RNA sequencing. RNA was extracted from mammary gland tissues collected at day 3 of involution. Gene expression analysis was conducted by Illumina RNA sequencing and sequence reads were assembled and analyzed using TopHat. FPKM (fragments per kilobase of exon per million) values were analyzed for differentially expressed genes using the Cufflinks package. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes was categorized using agriGO, while KEGG pathway analysis was performed with the online KEGG automatic annotation server. Our results revealed that 75% of NCBI goat annotated genes were expressed during early involution. A total of 18,323 genes were expressed during early involution in GH transgenic goats, compared with 18,196 expressed genes during early involution of non-transgenic goats. In these expressed genes, the majority (17,589) were ubiquitously expressed in GH transgenic and non-transgenic goats. However, there were 745 differentially expressed genes, 421 of which were upregulated and 324 were downregulated in GH transgenic goats. GO and KEGG pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in mammary gland physiology, including cell adhesion molecules, ECM-receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, and fat metabolism. Our results demonstrated that the GH receptor was strongly affected in GH transgenic goats, which may activate the IGF-1/Stat3 signaling pathway. Overall, our study provided a global view of the transcriptome during involution of GH transgenic and non-transgenic goats, which increases our understanding of the biology of involution in the goat. PMID:25865296

  1. Characterization of recombinant human lactoferrin secreted in milk of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijens, J H; van Berkel, P H; Geerts, M E; Hartevelt, P P; de Boer, H A; van Veen, H A; Pieper, F R

    1997-03-28

    Human lactoferrin (hLF) is an iron-binding protein involved in host defense against infection and severe inflammation. Transgenic mice were produced harboring either hLF cDNA or genomic hLF sequences fused to regulatory elements of the bovine alphaS1 casein gene. Recombinant hLF expressed in the milk of transgenic mice (transgenic hLF) was compared with natural (human milk-derived) hLF. Immunological identity of the two forms was shown by double antibody immunoassays and the absence of an anti-hLF antibody response in transgenic mice on hyperimmunization with natural hLF. Mono S cation-exchange chromatography and N-terminal protein sequencing of transgenic and natural hLF revealed identical cationicity and N-terminal sequences. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and absorbance measurements of purified transgenic hLF showed this protein was 90% saturated with iron, whereas natural hLF is only 3% saturated. The pH-mediated release of iron from transgenic hLF was not different from that of iron-saturated natural hLF. Unsaturated transgenic hLF could be completely resaturated upon addition of iron. Slight differences in mobility between transgenic and natural hLF on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were abolished by enzymatic deglycosylation. Binding of transgenic and natural hLF to a range of ligands, including bacterial lipopolysaccharide, heparin, single-stranded DNA, Cibacron blue FG 3A, and lectins, was not different. Based on these observations, we anticipate that (unsaturated) rhLF and natural hLF will exert similar, if not identical, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. PMID:9079716

  2. An analysis of pharmaceutical experience with decades of rat carcinogenicity testing: support for a proposal to modify current regulatory guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistare, Frank D; Morton, Daniel; Alden, Carl; Christensen, Joel; Keller, Douglas; Jonghe, Sandra De; Storer, Richard D; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Kraynak, Andrew; Trela, Bruce; Bienvenu, Jean-Guy; Bjurström, Sivert; Bosmans, Vanessa; Brewster, David; Colman, Karyn; Dominick, Mark; Evans, John; Hailey, James R; Kinter, Lewis; Liu, Matt; Mahrt, Charles; Marien, Dirk; Myer, James; Perry, Richard; Potenta, Daniel; Roth, Arthur; Sherratt, Philip; Singer, Thomas; Slim, Rabih; Soper, Keith; Fransson-Steen, Ronny; Stoltz, James; Turner, Oliver; Turnquist, Susan; van Heerden, Marjolein; Woicke, Jochen; DeGeorge, Joseph J

    2011-06-01

    Data collected from 182 marketed and nonmarketed pharmaceuticals demonstrate that there is little value gained in conducting a rat two-year carcinogenicity study for compounds that lack: (1) histopathologic risk factors for rat neoplasia in chronic toxicology studies, (2) evidence of hormonal perturbation, and (3) positive genetic toxicology results. Using a single positive result among these three criteria as a test for outcome in the two-year study, fifty-two of sixty-six rat tumorigens were correctly identified, yielding 79% test sensitivity. When all three criteria were negative, sixty-two of seventy-six pharmaceuticals (82%) were correctly predicted to be rat noncarcinogens. The fourteen rat false negatives had two-year study findings of questionable human relevance. Applying these criteria to eighty-six additional chemicals identified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as likely human carcinogens and to drugs withdrawn from the market for carcinogenicity concerns confirmed their sensitivity for predicting rat carcinogenicity outcome. These analyses support a proposal to refine regulatory criteria for conducting a two-year rat study to be based on assessment of histopathologic findings from a rat six-month study, evidence of hormonal perturbation, genetic toxicology results, and the findings of a six-month transgenic mouse carcinogenicity study. This proposed decision paradigm has the potential to eliminate over 40% of rat two-year testing on new pharmaceuticals without compromise to patient safety. PMID:21666103

  3. Delivery of herpesvirus and adenovirus to nude rat intracerebral tumors after osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilaver, G; Muldoon, L. L.; Kroll, R. A.; Pagel, M. A.; Breakefield, X.O.; Davidson, B. L.; Neuwelt, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The delivery of viral vectors to the brain for treatment of intracerebral tumors is most commonly accomplished by stereotaxic inoculation directly into the tumor. However, the small volume of distribution by inoculation may limit the efficacy of viral therapy of large or disseminated tumors. We have investigated mechanisms to increase vector delivery to intracerebral xenografts of human LX-1 small-cell lung carcinoma tumors in the nude rat. The distribution of Escherichia coli lacZ transgene ...

  4. Liver tumor formation by a mutant retinoblastoma protein in the transgenic mice is caused by an upregulation of c-Myc target genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Hikosaka, Keisuke; Sultana, Nishat; Sharkar, Mohammad Tofael Kabir [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Noritake, Hidenao [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Kimura, Wataru; Wu, Yi-Xin [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshimasa [Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Uezato, Tadayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Miura, Naoyuki, E-mail: nmiura@hama-med.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fifty percent of the mutant Rb transgenic mice produced liver tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the tumor, Foxm1, Skp2, Bmi1 and AP-1 mRNAs were up-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No increase in expression of the Myc-target genes was observed in the non-tumorous liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor formation depends on up-regulation of the Myc-target genes. -- Abstract: The retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. In order to adapt itself to these biological functions, Rb is subjected to modification cycle, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. To directly determine the effect of phosphorylation-resistant Rb on liver development and function, we generated transgenic mice expressing phosphorylation-resistant human mutant Rb (mt-Rb) under the control of the rat hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 gene promoter/enhancer. Expression of mt-Rb in the liver resulted in macroscopic neoplastic nodules (adenomas) with {approx}50% incidence within 15 months old. Interestingly, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that c-Myc was up-regulated in the liver of mt-Rb transgenic mice irrespective of having tumor tissues or no tumor. In tumor tissues, several c-Myc target genes, Foxm1, c-Jun, c-Fos, Bmi1 and Skp2, were also up-regulated dramatically. We determined whether mt-Rb activated the Myc promoter in the HTP9 cells and demonstrated that mt-Rb acted as an inhibitor of wild-type Rb-induced repression on the Myc promoter. Our results suggest that continued upregulation of c-Myc target genes promotes the liver tumor formation after about 1 year of age.

  5. Liver tumor formation by a mutant retinoblastoma protein in the transgenic mice is caused by an upregulation of c-Myc target genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Fifty percent of the mutant Rb transgenic mice produced liver tumors. ? In the tumor, Foxm1, Skp2, Bmi1 and AP-1 mRNAs were up-regulated. ? No increase in expression of the Myc-target genes was observed in the non-tumorous liver. ? Tumor formation depends on up-regulation of the Myc-target genes. -- Abstract: The retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. In order to adapt itself to these biological functions, Rb is subjected to modification cycle, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. To directly determine the effect of phosphorylation-resistant Rb on liver development and function, we generated transgenic mice expressing phosphorylation-resistant human mutant Rb (mt-Rb) under the control of the rat hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 gene promoter/enhancer. Expression of mt-Rb in the liver resulted in macroscopic neoplastic nodules (adenomas) with ?50% incidence within 15 months old. Interestingly, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that c-Myc was up-regulated in the liver of mt-Rb transgenic mice irrespective of having tumor tissues or no tumor. In tumor tissues, several c-Myc target genes, Foxm1, c-Jun, c-Fos, Bmi1 and Skp2, were also up-regulated dramatically. We determined whether mt-Rb activated the Myc promoter in the HTP9 cells and demonstrated that mt-Rb acted as an inhibitor of wild-type Rb-induced repression on the Myc promoter. Our results suggest that continued upregulation of c-Myc target genes promotes the liver tumor formation after about 1 year of age.

  6. Patogenia de las espondiloartropatías seronegativas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Modesto, González Cortiñas.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la función que desempeña el antígeno leucocitario humano (HLA-B27) en la patogénesis de las espondiloartropatias seronegativas. Se describió detalladamente la zona de unión de péptidos de la molécula conocida como «bolsón 45». Como hipótesis actuales en el surgimiento de la enfermedad se [...] discutieron la mímica molecular entre bacterias artritogénicas y HLA-B27, la positividad del HLA-B27 y la persistencia de las infecciones enterobacteriales, HLA-B27 factores modificantes y el modelo del péptido artritogénico. Se explicó la función de la célula T CDB+ en el desencadenamiento de la enfermedad y su control por los linfocitos T CD4+. Abstract in english The function of HLA-B27 in the pathogenesis of seronegative spondyloarthropathies was studied. The zone of union of the peptides of the molecule known as «big pocket 45» was described in detail. The molecular mimicry between arthritogenic bacteria and HLA-B27, the positivity of HLA-B27 and the persi [...] stance of enterobacterial infections, the HLA-B27 modifying factors, and the model of arthritogenic peptide were discussed as present hypotheses connected with the appearance of the disease. The function of the CDB-positive T-cell in the outbreak of the disease, as well as its control by the CD4-positive T-lymphocytes was explained.

  7. Patogenia de las espondiloartropatías seronegativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto González Cortiñas

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la función que desempeña el antígeno leucocitario humano (HLA-B27 en la patogénesis de las espondiloartropatias seronegativas. Se describió detalladamente la zona de unión de péptidos de la molécula conocida como «bolsón 45». Como hipótesis actuales en el surgimiento de la enfermedad se discutieron la mímica molecular entre bacterias artritogénicas y HLA-B27, la positividad del HLA-B27 y la persistencia de las infecciones enterobacteriales, HLA-B27 factores modificantes y el modelo del péptido artritogénico. Se explicó la función de la célula T CDB+ en el desencadenamiento de la enfermedad y su control por los linfocitos T CD4+.The function of HLA-B27 in the pathogenesis of seronegative spondyloarthropathies was studied. The zone of union of the peptides of the molecule known as «big pocket 45» was described in detail. The molecular mimicry between arthritogenic bacteria and HLA-B27, the positivity of HLA-B27 and the persistance of enterobacterial infections, the HLA-B27 modifying factors, and the model of arthritogenic peptide were discussed as present hypotheses connected with the appearance of the disease. The function of the CDB-positive T-cell in the outbreak of the disease, as well as its control by the CD4-positive T-lymphocytes was explained.

  8. Development of re-arrangeable gene transfer systems to create balancer chromosomes and increase transgene stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Transposon-based vectors provide the most suitable gene transfer systems for insect germ line transformation and therefore for the molecular improvement of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). However, the long time stability of genome integrated transposon constructs depends on the absence of transposon activity that could remobilize the transposon-integrated transgene. To achieve transgene stability, transposon vectors are usually non-autonomous and chosen so that no endogenous or related transposon activities are present. Nevertheless, the non-autonomous transposon-integrated transgene might become unstable when by horizontal gene transfer an active transposon of its own type enters the species. Due to the large numbers of progeny and the high mobility, transgenic insects present great environmental concerns. Therefore, it will be important that transgene constructs are as stably integrated as possible, so that the vector used for gene transfer cannot become unstable and unintentionally escape or even integrate into the genome of another organism. In this respect, we have developed transposon vectors whose terminal inverted repeats can be rearranged after integration, which prevents mobilization of the integrated transgene even in the presence of the corresponding transposase. Such re-arrangeable gene transfer systems should help to avoid the instability of integrated transgenes and thus increase the stability of transgenic strains. Moreover, the thereby transgenic strains. Moreover, the thereby induced chromosomal rearrangements serve as partial balancer chromosomes to stably inherit a combination of transgene insertions during genetic crosses, which will facilitate the establishment and keeping of transgenic insect strain. In order to develop re-arrangable gene transfer systems we made use of the yeast-derived FLP recombinase and its recombination target sites (FRTs), which have been shown functional in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. We have started to create transposon vectors based on the transposable elements piggyBac and Hermes that carry FRT sites. The vectors contain fluorescent protein-based transformation markers, whereby the FRTs are placed in the 5'UTR region and thus separate the transcriptional promoters from the coding region of the fluorescent marker. As original transformation markers, we have used the eye-specific yellowish-green fluorescent marker 3xP3-EYFP, the eye-specific cyan-fluorescent marker 3xP3-ECFP and the constitutive red fluorescent marker PUb-DsRed1. These vectors have been used to generate transgenic Drosophila melanogaster strains. In the different strains the genomic localization and orientation of the integrated transgenes has been determined by inverse PCR and comparison to the Drosophila full genome sequence. Suitable piggyBac and Hermes integrations have been recombined to establish strains that contain both types of transgenes on the same chromosome. In these strains, we induced the FRT-based recombination by expression of the FLP recombinase and isolated recombination events due to the change of fluorescent marker expression. After recombination, DsRed has become eye-specifically, and ECFP (or EYFP, respectively) has become constitutively expressed. The FRT-mediated recombination generates localised inversions, which we have tested for local balancing effects that make stable co-inheritance of two transgene constructs possible at the same time. Moreover, the rearrangement destroys the regular alignment of both the piggyBac as well as the Hermes terminal inverted repeats. When combining pBac(3xP3-FRT-ECFPaf) with pBac(PUb-FRT-DsRedaf), the rearranged situation consists of piggyBac constructs with two right (R) or two left (L) ends, respectively. To test if such a rearrangement will immobilise the transgene insertions we compared the mobilisation rates of the original integrated transgenes and the rearranged transgenes, which confirm that the rearranged situation is immobile. Currently, we are also finishing tests on generating deficiencies and duplications ba

  9. Gene flow from transgenic rice to red rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busconi, M; Baldi, G; Lorenzoni, C; Fogher, C

    2013-04-17

    In this study, we simulate a transgenic rice crop highly infested with red rice to examine transgene transfer from a transgenic line (A2504) resistant to glufosinate ammonium to cohabitant red rice. The red rice was sown along with the transgenic line at the highest density found in naturally infested crops in the region. Agricultural practices similar to those used to control red rice infestation in northern Italy rice fields were used to reproduce the local rice production system. During the first 2 years, the field was treated with herbicide at the appropriate time; in the first year the dosage of herbicide was three times the recommended amount. In this first year, detectable red rice plants that escaped herbicide treatment were manually removed. Nevertheless, two herbicide-resistant hybrid plants (named 101 and 104) were identified in the experimental field during the second year of cultivation. Phenotypic and molecular characterisation suggests the hybrid nature of these two plants, deriving from crossing events involving A2504, respectively, with red rice (plant 101) and the buffer cultivar Gladio (plant 104). The progeny of two subsequent generations of the two plants were examined and the presence of the transgene detected, indicating stable transfer of the transgene across generations. In conclusion, despite control methods, red rice progeny tolerant to the herbicide can be expected following use of transgenic rice and, consequently, difficulties in controlling this weed with chemicals will emerge in a relatively short time. PMID:23590388

  10. T-Cell Mediated Immune Responses Induced in ret Transgenic Mouse Model of Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Schadendorf

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor response of human malignant melanoma to currently available treatments requires a development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Their evaluation should be based on animal models that resemble human melanoma with respect to genetics, histopathology and clinical features. Here we used a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous skin melanoma, in which the ret transgene is expressed in melanocytes under the control of metallothionein-I promoter. After a short latency, around 25% mice develop macroscopic skin melanoma metastasizing to lymph nodes, bone marrow, lungs and brain, whereas other transgenic mice showed only metastatic lesions without visible skin tumors. We found that tumor lesions expressed melanoma associated antigens (MAA tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP-1, TRP-2 and gp100, which could be applied as targets for the immunotherapy. Upon peptide vaccination, ret transgenic mice without macroscopic melanomas were able to generate T cell responses not only against a strong model antigen ovalbumin but also against typical MAA TRP-2. Although mice bearing macroscopic primary tumors could also display an antigen-specific T cell reactivity, it was significantly down-regulated as compared to tumor-free transgenic mice or non-transgenic littermates. We suggest that ret transgenic mice could be used as a pre-clinical model for the evaluation of novel strategies of melanoma immunotherapy.

  11. Comparison of the physiological characteristics of transgenic insect-resistant cotton and conventional lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Ding, Changfeng; Wang, Xingxiang; Liu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of transgenic insect-resistant cotton into agricultural ecosystems has raised concerns regarding its ecological effects. Many studies have been conducted to compare the differences in characteristics between transgenic cotton and conventional counterparts. However, few studies have focused on the different responses of transgenic cotton to stress conditions, especially to the challenges of pathogens. The aim of this work is to determine the extent of variation in physiological characteristics between transgenic insect-resistant cotton and the conventional counterpart infected by cotton soil-borne pathogens. The results showed that the difference in genetic backgrounds is the main factor responsible for the effects on biochemical characteristics of transgenic cotton when incubating with cotton Fusarium oxysporum. However, genetic modification had a significantly greater influence on the stomatal structure of transgenic cotton than the effects of cotton genotypes. Our results highlight that the differences in genetic background and/or genetic modifications may introduce variations in physiological characteristics and should be considered to explore the potential unexpected ecological effects of transgenic cotton. PMID:25737015

  12. Effective generation of transgenic pigs and mice by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Ping Yao

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic animals have become valuable tools for both research and applied purposes. The current method of gene transfer, microinjection, which is widely used in transgenic mouse production, has only had limited success in producing transgenic animals of larger or higher species. Here, we report a linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer method (LB-SMGT that greatly improves the production efficiency of large transgenic animals. Results The linker protein, a monoclonal antibody (mAb C, is reactive to a surface antigen on sperm of all tested species including pig, mouse, chicken, cow, goat, sheep, and human. mAb C is a basic protein that binds to DNA through ionic interaction allowing exogenous DNA to be linked specifically to sperm. After fertilization of the egg, the DNA is shown to be successfully integrated into the genome of viable pig and mouse offspring with germ-line transfer to the F1 generation at a highly efficient rate: 37.5% of pigs and 33% of mice. The integration is demonstrated again by FISH analysis and F2 transmission in pigs. Furthermore, expression of the transgene is demonstrated in 61% (35/57 of transgenic pigs (F0 generation. Conclusions Our data suggests that LB-SMGT could be used to generate transgenic animals efficiently in many different species.

  13. Recombineering strategies for developing next generation BAC transgenic tools for optogenetics and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T Ting

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of diverse BAC transgenic rodent lines has enabled rapid progress for precise molecular targeting of genetically-defined cell types in the mammalian central nervous system. These transgenic tools have played a central role in the optogenetic revolution in neuroscience. Indeed, an overwhelming proportion of studies in this field have made use of BAC transgenic cre driver lines to achieve targeted expression of optogenetic probes in the brain. In addition, several BAC transgenic mouse lines have been established for direct cell-type specific expression of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2. While the benefits of these new tools largely outweigh any accompanying challenges, many available BAC transgenic lines may suffer from confounds due in part to increased gene dosage of one or more ‘extra’ genes contained within the large BAC DNA sequences. Here we discuss this under-appreciated issue and propose strategies for developing the next generation of BAC transgenic lines that are devoid of extra genes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that these strategies are simple, reproducible, and do not disrupt the intended cell-type specific transgene expression patterns for several distinct BAC clones. These strategies may be widely implemented for improved BAC transgenesis across diverse disciplines.

  14. Transgenic Acacia sinuata from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengadesan, G; Amutha, S; Muruganantham, M; Anand, R Prem; Ganapathi, A

    2006-11-01

    Transgenic herbicide tolerant Acacia sinuata plants were produced by transformation with the bar gene conferring phosphinothricin resistance. Precultured hypocotyl explants were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 in the presence of 100 microM acetosyringone and shoots regenerated on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962, Physiol Plant 15:473-497) medium with 13.3 microM benzylaminopurine, 2.6 microM indole-3-acetic acid, 1 g l(-1) activated charcoal, 1.5 mg l(-1) phosphinothricin, and 300 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. Phosphinothricin at 1.5 mg l(-1) was used for the selection. Shoots surviving selection on medium with phosphinothricin expressed GUS. Following Southern hybridization, eight independent shoots regenerated of 500 cocultivated explants were demonstrated to be transgenic, which represented transformation frequency of 1.6%. The transgenics carried one to four copies of the transgene. Transgenic shoots were propagated as microcuttings in MS medium with 6.6 microM 6-benzylaminopurine and 1.5 mg l(-1) phosphinothricin. Shoots elongated and rooted in MS medium with gibberellic acid and indole-3-butyric acid, respectively both supplemented with 1.5 mg l(-1) phosphinothricin. Micropropagation of transgenic plants by microcuttings proved to be a simple means to bulk up the material. Several transgenic plants were found to be resistant to leaf painting with the herbicide Basta. PMID:16807750

  15. Time-Course Expression Profiles of Hair Cycle-Associated Genes in Male Mini Rats after Depilation of Telogen-Phase Hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Umeda-Ikawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Jcl:WistarTGN(ARGHGEN1Nts rat (Mini rat is a growth hormone (GH-deficient transgenic rat. The hair cycle in the dorsal skin of male Mini rats enters a long-lasting telogen phase after eights weeks of age, but depilation can induce a transient hair cycle again. In this study, a time-course profiling of genes expression was done on the dorsal skin of male Mini rats along the progression of depilation-induced hair cycle using DNA microarray analysis. As a result, 1,215 probe sets including 1,171 hair cycle-related ones showed more than 3-fold changes in expression compared with that in before-depilation telogen phase. The present data will contribute to elucidating the mechanisms of hair cycle regulation and should lead to the identification of novel molecular targets for hair growth and/or depilation agents.

  16. Transgenic Gladiolus plants transformed with the bean yellow mosaic virus coat-protein gene in either sense or antisense orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Kathryn; Gera, Abed; Cohen, Jacob; Hammond, John; Blowers, Alan; Smith, Franzine; Van Eck, Joyce

    2005-02-01

    Transgenic Gladiolus plants transformed with the bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) coat-protein (CP) gene in either sense or antisense (AS) orientation were developed using biolistics. Four of the plants were confirmed to carry the CP gene in the sense orientation of the gene and seven plants in the AS orientation. Two of the CP plant lines and all of the AS lines showed DNA rearrangements of the transgene in addition to an intact copy of the transgene. The copy number ranged from one to nine. Of the 11 lines, eight had only one to four copies of the transgene. Transcription of the transgene occurred for three of the CP lines and five of the AS lines as determined by Northern hybridization. All 11 plant lines were challenged with BYMV using controlled aphid transmission. One month following aphid transmission, the transgenic plants were examined by immunoelectron microscopy for presence of the virus. Several transgenic plant lines containing either antiviral transgene showed a lower incidence of infection (percentage of plants infected as detected by immunoelectron microscopy) than the non-transformed plants. Most of the CP- and AS-transgenic plants that did not contain BYMV 1 month after challenge were found to contain BYMV the next season. It appeared that BYMV infection was delayed in the CP- and AS-transgenic lines but that the transgenes did not prevent eventual infection of BYMV. This is the first report of developing a floral bulb crop with antiviral genes to BYMV. PMID:15480682

  17. Transgene excision in pollen using a codon optimized serine resolvase CinH-RS2 site-specific recombination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hong S; Abercrombie, Laura L; Eda, Shigetoshi; Blanvillain, Robert; Thomson, James G; Ow, David W; Stewart, C N

    2011-04-01

    Transgene escape, a major environmental and regulatory concern in transgenic crop cultivation, could be alleviated by removing transgenes from pollen, the most frequent vector for transgene flow. A transgene excision vector containing a codon optimized serine resolvase CinH recombinase (CinH) and its recognition sites RS2 were constructed and transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). CinH recombinase recognized 119 bp of nucleic acid sequences, RS2, in pollen and excised the transgene flanked by the RS2 sites. In this system, the pollen-specific LAT52 promoter from tomato was employed to control the expression of CinH recombinase. Loss of expression of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene under the control of the LAT59 promoter from tomato was used as an indicator of transgene excision. Efficiency of transgene excision from pollen was determined by flow cytometry (FCM)-based pollen screening. While a transgenic event in the absence of CinH recombinase contained about 70% of GFP-synthesizing pollen, three single-copy transgene events contained less than 1% of GFP-synthesizing pollen based on 30,000 pollen grains analyzed per event. This suggests that CinH-RS2 recombination system could be effectively utilized for transgene biocontainment. PMID:21359553

  18. Expression of spearmint limonene synthase in transgenic spike lavender results in an altered monoterpene composition in developing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Ros, Roc; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2008-01-01

    We generated transgenic spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) plants constitutively expressing the limonene synthase (LS) gene from spearmint (Mentha spicata), encoding the LS enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of limonene from geranyl diphosphate. Overexpression of the LS transgene did not consistently affect monoterpene profile in pooled leaves or flowers from transgenic T(0) plants. Analyses from cohorts of leaves sampled at different developmental stages showed that essential oil accumulation in transgenic and control plants was higher in developing than in mature leaves. Furthermore, developing leaves of transgenic plants contained increased limonene contents (more than 450% increase compared to controls) that correlated with the highest transcript accumulation of the LS gene. The levels of other monoterpene pathway components were also significantly altered. T(0) transgenic plants were grown for 2 years, self-pollinated, and the T(1) seeds obtained. The increased limonene phenotype was maintained in the progenies that inherited the LS transgene. PMID:18514005

  19. Both core and F proteins of hepatitis C virus could enhance cell proliferation in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wen-Ta [Graduate Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Li, Hui-Chun [Department of Biochemistry, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shen-Kao; Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Yang, Chee-Hing; Chen, Hung-Ling [Graduate Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lo, Shih-Yen, E-mail: losylo@mail.tcu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China)

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •HCV core and F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice. •?-Catenin signaling pathway was activated by core protein in the transgenic mice. •?-Catenin signaling pathway was activated by myc-F protein in the transgenic mice. •Expression of SMA protein was enhanced by core but not myc-F protein. -- Abstract: The role of the protein encoded by the alternative open reading frame (ARF/F/core+1) of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome in viral pathogenesis remains unknown. The different forms of ARF/F/core+1 protein were labile in cultured cells, a myc-tag fused at the N-terminus of the F protein made it more stable. To determine the role of core and F proteins in HCV pathogenesis, transgenic mice with either protein expression under the control of Albumin promoter were generated. Expression of core protein and F protein with myc tag (myc-F) could be detected by Western blotting analysis in the livers of these mice. The ratio of liver to body weight is increased for both core and myc-F transgenic mice compared to that of wild type mice. Indeed, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein, a proliferation marker, was up-regulated in the transgenic mice with core or myc-F protein. Further analyses by microarray and Western blotting suggested that ?-catenin signaling pathway was activated by either core or myc-F protein in the transgenic mice. These transgenic mice were further treated with either Diethynitrosamine (a tumor initiator) or Phenobarbital (a tumor promoter). Phenobarbital but not Diethynitrosamine treatment could increase the liver/body weight ratio of these mice. However, no tumor formation was observed in these mice. In conclusion, HCV core and myc-F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice possibly through ?-catenin signaling pathway.

  20. Destiny of a transgene escape from Brassica napus into Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M.; Kato, M.; Kakihara, F.

    2002-07-01

    Transgenic Brassica napus can be easily crossed with wild Brassica rapa. The spread of the transgene to wild species has aroused the general concern about its effect on ecological and agricultural systems. This paper was designated, by means of population genetics, to study the fate of a transgene escape from B. napus to B. rapa. Three models were proposed to survey the change in gene frequency during successive backcross processes by considering selection pressures against aneuploids, against herbicide-susceptible individuals, and by considering A-C intergenomic recombination and the effect of genetic drift. The transmission rate of an A-chromosome gene through an individual to the next generation was 50%, irrespective of the chromosome number; while that of a C-chromosome transgene varied from 8.7% to 39.9%, depending on the chromosome number of the individual used in the backcross. Without spraying herbicide, the frequency of an A-chromosome gene was 50% in the BC(1) generation, and decreased by 50% with the advance of each backcross generation; that of a C-chromosome gene was around 39.9% in BC(1), 7.7% in BC(2), 1.2% in BC(3) and 0.1% in the BC(4) generation. Under the selection pressure against herbicide-susceptible individuals, the frequency of a transgene reached a stable value of about 5.5% within six generations of successive backcrossings. The effect of genetic drift and intergenomic exchange on gene transmission rate was discussed. It is suggested that the transgene integrated on a C-chromosome (or better on a cytoplasm genome) is safer than that on an A-chromosome. The transgenic cultivars should be cultivated rotationally by year(s) with other non-transgenic varieties in order to reduce the transfer of the transgene to wild B. rapa species. PMID:12582564

  1. Chitinase activities, scab resistance, mycorrhization rates and biomass of own-rooted and grafted transgenic apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Schäfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of constitutively expressed Trichoderma atroviride genes encoding exochitinase nag70 or endochitinase ech42 in transgenic lines of the apple cultivar Pinova on the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. We compared the exo- and endochitinase activities of leaves and roots from non-transgenic Pinova and the transgenic lines T386 and T389. Local and systemic effects were examined using own-rooted trees and trees grafted onto rootstock M9. Scab susceptibility was also assessed in own-rooted and grafted trees. AMF root colonization was assessed microscopically in the roots of apple trees cultivated in pots with artificial substrate and inoculated with the AMF Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae. Own-rooted transgenic lines had significantly higher chitinase activities in their leaves and roots compared to non-transgenic Pinova. Both of the own-rooted transgenic lines showed significantly fewer symptoms of scab infection as well as significantly lower root colonization by AMF. Biomass production was significantly reduced in both own-rooted transgenic lines. Rootstock M9 influenced chitinase activities in the leaves of grafted scions. When grafted onto M9, the leaf chitinase activities of non-transgenic Pinova (M9/Pinova and transgenic lines (M9/T386 and M9/T389 were not as different as when grown on their own roots. M9/T386 and M9/T389 were only temporarily less infected by scab than M9/Pinova. M9/T386 and M9/T389 did not differ significantly from M9/Pinova in their root chitinase activities, AMF root colonization and biomass.

  2. Chitinase activities, scab resistance, mycorrhization rates and biomass of own-rooted and grafted transgenic apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Tina; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Flachowsky, Henryk; König, Stephan; Peil, Andreas; Kaldorf, Michael; Polle, Andrea; Buscot, François

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of constitutively expressed Trichoderma atroviride genes encoding exochitinase nag70 or endochitinase ech42 in transgenic lines of the apple cultivar Pinova on the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We compared the exo- and endochitinase activities of leaves and roots from non-transgenic Pinova and the transgenic lines T386 and T389. Local and systemic effects were examined using own-rooted trees and trees grafted onto rootstock M9. Scab susceptibility was also assessed in own-rooted and grafted trees. AMF root colonization was assessed microscopically in the roots of apple trees cultivated in pots with artificial substrate and inoculated with the AMF Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae. Own-rooted transgenic lines had significantly higher chitinase activities in their leaves and roots compared to non-transgenic Pinova. Both of the own-rooted transgenic lines showed significantly fewer symptoms of scab infection as well as significantly lower root colonization by AMF. Biomass production was significantly reduced in both own-rooted transgenic lines. Rootstock M9 influenced chitinase activities in the leaves of grafted scions. When grafted onto M9, the leaf chitinase activities of non-transgenic Pinova (M9/Pinova) and transgenic lines (M9/T386 and M9/T389) were not as different as when grown on their own roots. M9/T386 and M9/T389 were only temporarily less infected by scab than M9/Pinova. M9/T386 and M9/T389 did not differ significantly from M9/Pinova in their root chitinase activities, AMF root colonization and biomass. PMID:22888297

  3. Generation of single-copy transgenic mouse embryos directly from ES cells by tetraploid embryo complementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Roong

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic mice have been used extensively to analyze gene function. Unfortunately, traditional transgenic procedures have only limited use in analyzing alleles that cause lethality because lines of founder mice cannot be established. This is frustrating given that such alleles often reveal crucial aspects of gene function. For this reason techniques that facilitate the generation of embryos expressing such alleles would be of enormous benefit. Although the transient generation of transgenic embryos has allowed limited analysis of lethal alleles, it is expensive, time consuming and technically challenging. Moreover a fundamental limitation with this approach is that each embryo generated is unique and transgene expression is highly variable due to the integration of different transgene copy numbers at random genomic sites. Results Here we describe an alternative method that allows the generation of clonal mouse embryos harboring a single-copy transgene at a defined genomic location. This was facilitated through the production of Hprt negative embryonic stem cells that allow the derivation of embryos by tetraploid embryo complementation. We show that targeting transgenes to the hprt locus in these ES cells by homologous recombination can be efficiently selected by growth in HAT medium. Moreover, embryos derived solely from targeted ES cells containing a single copy LacZ transgene under the control of the ?-myosin heavy chain promoter exhibited the expected cardiac specific expression pattern. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that tetraploid embryo complementation by F3 hprt negative ES cells facilitates the generation of transgenic mouse embryos containing a single copy gene at a defined genomic locus. This approach is simple, extremely efficient and bypasses any requirement to generate chimeric mice. Moreover embryos generated by this procedure are clonal in that they are all derived from a single ES cell lines. This facilitates the comparative analysis of lethal alleles and thereby advances our ability to analyze gene function in mammals.

  4. Both core and F proteins of hepatitis C virus could enhance cell proliferation in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •HCV core and F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice. •?-Catenin signaling pathway was activated by core protein in the transgenic mice. •?-Catenin signaling pathway was activated by myc-F protein in the transgenic mice. •Expression of SMA protein was enhanced by core but not myc-F protein. -- Abstract: The role of the protein encoded by the alternative open reading frame (ARF/F/core+1) of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome in viral pathogenesis remains unknown. The different forms of ARF/F/core+1 protein were labile in cultured cells, a myc-tag fused at the N-terminus of the F protein made it more stable. To determine the role of core and F proteins in HCV pathogenesis, transgenic mice with either protein expression under the control of Albumin promoter were generated. Expression of core protein and F protein with myc tag (myc-F) could be detected by Western blotting analysis in the livers of these mice. The ratio of liver to body weight is increased for both core and myc-F transgenic mice compared to that of wild type mice. Indeed, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein, a proliferation marker, was up-regulated in the transgenic mice with core or myc-F protein. Further analyses by microarray and Western blotting suggested that ?-catenin signaling pathway was activated by either core or myc-F protein in the transgenic mice. These transgenic mice were further treated with either Diethynitrosamine (a tumor initiator) or Phenobarbital (a tumor promoter). Phenobarbital but not Diethynitrosamine treatment could increase the liver/body weight ratio of these mice. However, no tumor formation was observed in these mice. In conclusion, HCV core and myc-F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice possibly through ?-catenin signaling pathway

  5. Chitinase activities, scab resistance, mycorrhization rates and biomass of own-rooted and grafted transgenic apple

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tina, Schäfer; Magda-Viola, Hanke; Henryk, Flachowsky; Stephan, König; Andreas, Peil; Michael, Kaldorf; Andrea, Polle; François, Buscot.

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of constitutively expressed Trichoderma atroviride genes encoding exochitinase nag70 or endochitinase ech42 in transgenic lines of the apple cultivar Pinova on the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We compared the exo- and endochitinase activities [...] of leaves and roots from non-transgenic Pinova and the transgenic lines T386 and T389. Local and systemic effects were examined using own-rooted trees and trees grafted onto rootstock M9. Scab susceptibility was also assessed in own-rooted and grafted trees. AMF root colonization was assessed microscopically in the roots of apple trees cultivated in pots with artificial substrate and inoculated with the AMF Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae. Own-rooted transgenic lines had significantly higher chitinase activities in their leaves and roots compared to non-transgenic Pinova. Both of the own-rooted transgenic lines showed significantly fewer symptoms of scab infection as well as significantly lower root colonization by AMF. Biomass production was significantly reduced in both own-rooted transgenic lines. Rootstock M9 influenced chitinase activities in the leaves of grafted scions. When grafted onto M9, the leaf chitinase activities of non-transgenic Pinova (M9/Pinova) and transgenic lines (M9/T386 and M9/T389) were not as different as when grown on their own roots. M9/T386 and M9/T389 were only temporarily less infected by scab than M9/Pinova. M9/T386 and M9/T389 did not differ significantly from M9/Pinova in their root chitinase activities, AMF root colonization and biomass.

  6. Use of Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for Determining Copy Numbers of Transgenes in Lesquerella fendleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Q. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In transgenic plants, the number of transgene copies could greatly influence the level of expression and genetic stability of the target gene, thus it is important to develop an efficient method for accurate estimation of transgene copies. The quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR technique is becoming more efficient nowadays to determine copy numbers of transgenes in transgenic plants, being used here, for the first time in quantifying copy numbers of transgenes in Lesquerella fendleri. Approach: The system utilized a known one copy gene, LfKCS4/5, from L. fendleri as an endogenous calibrator and the threshold Crossing point (Ct measured by Applied Biosystem 7500 system to calculate the copy numbers of transgenes in primary transgenic lines (T0 generation. Results: The qPCR condition was optimized and each primer set had a PCR efficiency of 0.99 or 1.01. Our data demonstrated unambiguous 2-fold discrimination of the copy number of ?-glucuronidase gene (gusA and hygromycine phosphotransferase II (hptII genes in 12 T0 lines. Most of the lines contained one or two copies of each gene. Eight out of 12 samples (66.7% showed more copies of gusA gene than that of hptII gene, suggesting rearrangements of the Transferred (T-DNA. Possible modifications of the T-DNA cassette in L. fendleri are discussed based on main models of T-DNA integration in the plant genome. Conclusion: The qPCR described in this study is an efficient method and it is particularly useful in identification and selection of transgenic plants with desirable copy numbers at early stage.

  7. Cloned transgenic swine via in vitro production and cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfeng; Lai, Liangxue; Wax, David; Hao, Yanhong; Murphy, Clifton N; Rieke, August; Samuel, Melissa; Linville, Mike L; Korte, Scott W; Evans, Rhobert W; Turk, James R; Kang, Jing X; Witt, William T; Dai, Yifan; Prather, Randall S

    2006-08-01

    It has been notoriously difficult to successfully cryopreserve swine embryos, a task that has been even more difficult for in vitro-produced embryos. The first reproducible method of cryopreserving in vivo-produced swine embryos was after centrifugation and removal of the lipids. Here we report the adaptation of a similar process that permits the cryopreservation of in vitro-produced somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) swine embryos. These embryos develop to the blastocyst stage and survive cryopreservation. Transfer of 163 cryopreserved SCNT embryos to two surrogates produced 10 piglets. Application of this technique may permit national and international movement of cloned transgenic swine embryos, storage until a suitable surrogate is available, or the long-term frozen storage of valuable genetics. PMID:16672718

  8. Tissue-specific targeting of cytokine unresponsiveness in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dighe, A S; Campbell, D; Hsieh, C S; Clarke, S; Greaves, D R; Gordon, S; Murphy, K M; Schreiber, R D

    1995-11-01

    The ubiquitous cellular distribution of certain cytokine receptors has hampered attempts to define the physiologically important cell-specific functions of cytokines in vivo. Herein, we report the generation of transgenic mice that express a dominant-negative IFN gamma receptor alpha chain mutant under the control of either the human lysozyme promoter or the murine lck proximal promoter, which display tissue-specific unresponsiveness in the macrophage or T cell compartments, respectively, to the pleiotropic cytokine, IFN gamma. We utilize these mice to identify previously undefined cellular targets of IFN gamma action in the development of a murine antimicrobial response and the mixed lymphocyte reaction. Moreover, we identify the macrophage as a critical responsive cell in manifesting the effects of IFN gamma in regulating CD4+ T helper subset development. These studies thus represent a novel approach to studying the cell-specific actions of an endogenously produced pleiotropic cytokine in vivo. PMID:7584155

  9. Transgenic mouse - Methods and protocols, 2nd edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Marten H. Hofner (from the Dept. of Pathology of the Groningen University and Jan M. van Deursen (from the Mayo College of Medicine at Rochester, MN, USA provided us with the valuable second edition of Transgenic mouse: in fact, eventhough we are in the –omics era and already equipped with the state-of-the-art techniques in whatsoever field, still we need to have gene(s functional analysis data to understand common and complex deseases. Transgenesis is still an irreplaceable method and protocols to well perform it are more than welcome. Here, how to get genetic modified mice (the quintessential model of so many human deseases considering how much of the human genes are conserved in the mouse and the great block of genic synteny existing between the two genomes is analysed in deep and presented in clearly detailed step by step protocols....

  10. Mammary gland tumor formation in transgenic mice overexpressing stromelysin-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1995-06-01

    An intact basement membrane (BM) is essential for the proper function, differentiation and morphology of many epithelial cells. The disruption or loss of this BM occurs during normal development as well as in the disease state. To examine the importance of BM during mammary gland development in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that inappropriately express autoactivating isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. The mammary glands from these mice are both functionally and morphologically altered throughout development. We have now documented a dramatic incidence of breast tumors in several independent lines of these mice. These data suggest that overexpression of stromelysin-1 and disruption of the BM may be a key step in the multi-step process of breast cancer.

  11. Long-term maintenance of a transgenic Catharanthus roseus hairy root line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Christie A M; Gibson, Susan I; Shanks, Jacqueline V; San, Ka-Yiu

    2007-01-01

    Stably transformed transgenic hairy root cultures have the potential to be a valuable production platform for a variety of secondary metabolites. This study reports that a transgenic hairy root culture of Catharanthus roseus has been stably maintained for over 4.5 years. This culture carries a transgene that expresses the green fluorescent protein under the control of the glucocorticoid-inducible promoter. Genomic PCR confirmed the presence of the GFP insert within the hairy roots, and induction with dexamethasone caused a significant (p < 0.02) increase in GFP levels. PMID:17900137

  12. Mutagenicity testing with transgenic mice. Pt.I: Comparison with the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test

    OpenAIRE

    Wahnschaffe, U.; Bitsch, A.; Kielhorn, J.; Mangelsdorf, I.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a larger literature study on transgenic animals in mutagenicity testing, test results from the transgenic mutagenicity assays (lacI model; commercially available as the Big Blue(R) mouse, and the lacZ model; commercially available as the Mutatrade markMouse), were compared with the results on the same substances in the more traditional mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. 39 substances were found which had been tested in the micronucleus assay and in the above transgenic mouse syst...

  13. Apparent Behavioral Benefits of Tau Overexpression in P301L Tau Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Dave; Munireddy, Sanjay; Alamed, Jennifer; Deleon, Jason; Diamond, David M.; Bickford, Paula; Hutton, Michael; Lewis, Jada; Mcgowan, Eileen; Gordon, Marcia N.

    2008-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing human tau containing the P301L tau mutation (JNPL3; tau mice) develop motor neuron loss, paralysis and death between 7 and 12 months. Surprisingly, at 5 and 7 months of age, tau transgenic mice were superior to other genotypes in the rotarod task, and had near perfect scores on the balance beam and coat hanger tests. One tau transgenic mouse was performing at a superior level in the rotarod one day prior to developing paralysis. Cognitive function was also normal in...

  14. Pathway Pathology : Histological Differences Between ErbB/Ras and Wnt Pathway Transgenic Mammary Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, Andrea; Miyoshi, Keiko; Landesman-bollag, Esther; Xu, Xin; Seldin, David C.; Moser, Amy R.; Macleod, Carol L.; Shyamala, G.; Gillgrass, Amy E.; Cardiff, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    To study phenotype-genotype correlations, ErbB/Ras pathway tumors (transgenic for ErbB2, c-Neu, mutants of c-Neu, polyomavirus middle T antigene (PyV-mT), Ras, and bi-transgenic for ErbB2/Neu with ErbB3 and with progesterone receptor) from four different institutions were histopathologically compared with Wnt pathway tumors [transgenes Wnt1, Wnt10b, dominant-negative glycogen synthase kinase 3-?, ?-Catenin, and spontaneous mutants of adenomatous polyposis coli gene (Apc)]. ErbB/Ras pathway ...

  15. E2F1 Has Both Oncogenic and Tumor-Suppressive Properties in a Transgenic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Angela M.; Schneider-broussard, Robin; Gimenez-conti, Irma B.; Russell, Jamie L.; Conti, Claudio J.; Johnson, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Using a transgenic mouse model expressing the E2F1 gene under the control of a keratin 5 (K5) promoter, we previously demonstrated that increased E2F1 activity can promote tumorigenesis by cooperating with either a v-Ha-ras transgene to induce benign skin papillomas or p53 deficiency to induce spontaneous skin carcinomas. We now report that as K5 E2F1 transgenic mice age, they are predisposed to develop spontaneous tumors in a variety of K5-expressing tissues, including the skin, vagina, fore...

  16. Transgenic inhibitors identify two roles for protein kinase A in Drosophila development.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiger, J A; Eklund, J L; Younger, S H; O'Kane, C J

    1999-01-01

    We have initiated an analysis of protein kinase A (PKA) in Drosophila using transgenic techniques to modulate PKA activity in specific tissues during development. We have constructed GAL4/UAS-regulated transgenes in active and mutant forms that encode PKAc, the catalytic subunit of PKA, and PKI(1-31), a competitive inhibitor of PKAc. We present evidence that the wild-type transgenes are active and summarize the phenotypes produced by a number of GAL4 enhancer-detector strains. We compare the ...

  17. Tumorigenic potential of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG in vivo investigated using a transgenic mouse model, and effects of cross breeding with p53 (+/? transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Miranda Y

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG is an oncogene that is overexpressed in variety of tumors and exhibits characteristics of a transforming gene. Previous transgenic mouse models to access the tumorigenic potential in the pituitary and ovary have resulted in dysplasia without formation of visible tumors, possibly due to the insufficient expression of PTTG. PTTG expression level is critical for ovarian tumorigenesis in a xenograft model. Therefore, the tumorigenic function of PTTG in vivo remains unclear. We generated a transgenic mouse that overexpresses PTTG driven by the CMV promoter to determine whether PTTG functions as a transforming oncogene that is capable of initiating tumorigenesis. Methods Transgenic animals were generated by microinjection of PTTG transgene into the male pronucleus of FVB 0.5 day old embryos. Expression levels of PTTG in tissues of transgenic animals were analyzed using an immunohistochemical analysis. H&E staining and immunohistostaining were performed to examine the type of tumor in transgenic and PTTG transgenic/p53+/- animals. Results PTTG transgenic offspring (TgPTTG were monitored for tumor development at various ages. H&E analysis was performed to identify the presence of cancer and hyperplastic conditions verified with the proliferation marker PCNA and the microvessel marker CD31. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine transgene expression, revealing localization to the epithelium of the fallopian tube, with more generalized expression in the liver, lung, kidney, and spleen. At eight months of age, 2 out of 15 TgPTTG developed ovarian cancer, 2 out of 15 developed benign tumors, 2 out of 15 developed cervical dysplasia, and 3 out of 15 developed adenomyosis of the uterus. At ten months of age, 2 out of 10 TgPTTG developed adenocarcinoma of the ovary, 1 out of 10 developed a papillary serous adenocarcinoma, and 2 out of 10 presented with atypia of ovarian epithelial cells. Tumorigenesis is a multi-step process, often requiring multiple oncogenes and/or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Therefore, to understand the contribution of p53 to PTTG induced tumorigenesis, we crossbred TgPTTG to p53+/? mice and maintained those 8 to 10 months. TgPTTG/p53+/? animals developed sarcomas faster than p53+/? alone as well as different tumor types in addition to cervical carcinomas in situ in 10 out of 17 females. Conclusions We conclude that while PTTG is a functional transforming oncogene, it requires an additional partner to effectively promote tumorigenesis through the loss of p53 include or between function or modulation.

  18. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  19. Comparative evaluation of gene delivery devices in primary cultures of rat hepatic stellate cells and rat myofibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunz Dagmar

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepatic stellate cell is the primary cell type responsible for the excessive formation and deposition of connective tissue elements during the development of hepatic fibrosis in chronically injured liver. Culturing quiescent hepatic stellate cells on plastic causes spontaneous activation leading to a myofibroblastic phenotype similar to that seen in vivo. This provides a simple model system for studying activation and transdifferentiation of these cells. The introduction of exogenous DNA into these cells is discussed controversially mainly due to the lack of systematic analysis. Therefore, we examined comparatively five nonviral, lipid-mediated gene transfer methods and adenoviral based infection, as potential tools for efficient delivery of DNA to rat hepatic stellate cells and their transdifferentiated counterpart, i.e. myofibroblasts. Transfection conditions were determined using enhanced green fluorescent protein as a reporter expressed under the transcriptional control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early gene 1 promoter/enhancer. Results With the use of chemically enhanced transfection methods, the highest relative efficiency was obtained with FuGENE™6 gene mediated DNA transfer. Quantitative evaluation of representative transfection experiments by flow cytometry revealed that approximately 6% of the rat hepatic stellate cells were transfected. None of the transfection methods tested was able to mediate gene delivery to rat myofibroblasts. To analyze if rat hepatic stellate cells and myofibroblasts are susceptible to adenoviral infection, we have inserted the transgenic expression cassette into a recombinant adenoviral type 5 genome as replacement for the E1 region. Viral particles of this replication-deficient Ad5-based reporter are able to infect 100% of rat hepatic stellate cells and myofibroblasts, respectively. Conclusions Our results indicate that FuGENE™6-based methods may be optimized sufficiently to offer a feasible approach for gene transfer into rat hepatic stellate cells. The data further demonstrate that adenoviral mediated transfer is a promising approach for gene delivery to these hepatic cells.

  20. Three-Dimensional, Transgenic Cell Models to Quantify Space Genotoxic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, S. R.; Sognier, M. A.; Wu, H.; Pingerelli, P. L.; Glickman, B. W.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The space environment contains radiation and chemical agents known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic to humans. Additionally, microgravity is a complicating factor that may modify or synergize induced genotoxic effects. Most in vitro models fail to use human cells (making risk extrapolation to humans more difficult), overlook the dynamic effect of tissue intercellular interactions on genotoxic damage, and lack the sensitivity required to measure low-dose effects. Currently a need exists for a model test system that simulates cellular interactions present in tissue, and can be used to quantify genotoxic damage induced by low levels of radiation and chemicals, and extrapolate assessed risk to humans. A state-of-the-art, three-dimensional, multicellular tissue equivalent cell culture model will be presented. It consists of mammalian cells genetically engineered to contain multiple copies of defined target genes for genotoxic assessment,. NASA-designed bioreactors were used to coculture mammalian cells into spheroids, The cells used were human mammary epithelial cells (H184135) and Stratagene's (Austin, Texas) Big Blue(TM) Rat 2 lambda fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were genetically engineered to contain -a high-density target gene for mutagenesis (60 copies of lacl/LacZ per cell). Tissue equivalent spheroids were routinely produced by inoculation of 2 to 7 X 10(exp 5) fibroblasts with Cytodex 3 beads (150 micrometers in diameter). at a 20:1 cell:bead ratio, into 50-ml HARV bioreactors (Synthecon, Inc.). Fibroblasts were cultured for 5 days, an equivalent number of epithelial cells added, and the fibroblast/epithelial cell coculture continued for 21 days. Three-dimensional spheroids with diameters ranging from 400 to 600 micrometers were obtained. Histological and immunohistochemical Characterization revealed i) both cell types present in the spheroids, with fibroblasts located primarily in the center, surrounded by epithelial cells; ii) synthesis of extracellular matrix; and iii,, mitotic cells located throughout the spheroids. Spheroidal integrity and cell viability were retained for the 30-day test period after removal of spheroids from the bioreactor. Potential utility of this three-dimensional, transgenic model for genotoxicity was initially assessed by exposure of spheroids to 0-2 Gy neon at dose rates of 0.3 to 1.5 Gy/min (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan). Quantification of mutation at the lacl gene revealed a linear dose response for mutation induction. Limited sequencing analysis of mutant clones revealed higher frequencies of deletions and multiple base sequence changes with increasing dose. These results suggest that our three-dimensional, transgenic model is applicable to a wide variety of studies involving the quantification, identification, and characterization of genotoxicity incurred in space and on Earth. This model uniquely allows investigation of the interaction of relevant factors, namely cell-to-cell interactions and the mechanistic interaction of microgravity with radiation insults and DNA repair. Using this three-dimensional model will allow us to obtain dual genotoxic information (i.e., mutation rate plus chromosome aberration data) from the same system so that one endpoint can be used to reference the other, thereby increasing the fidelity of the data set. Moreover, the tissue-equivalent nature of the three-dimensional model provides high confidence for relevance of risk assessment, i.e., the establishment of quality factors directly applicable to the microgravity environment.

  1. Expression of human erythropoietin gene in the mammary gland of a transgenic mouse.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuš, Tomáš; Malý, Petr; Poplštein, M.; Landa, Vladimír; Trefil, P.; Lidický, J.

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 47, ?. 6 (2001), s. 187-195. ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : erythropoietin, mammary gland, transgenic mouse Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  2. Comparison between volatile emissions from transgenic apples and from two representative classically bred apple cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Ute; Rott, Anja S; Gessler, Cesare; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    While most risk assessments contrast a transgenic resistant to its isogenic line, an additional comparison between the transgenic line and a classically bred cultivar with the same resistance gene would be highly desirable. Our approach was to compare headspace volatiles of transgenic scab resistant apple plants with two representative cultivars (the isogenic 'Gala' and the scab resistance gene-containing 'Florina'). As modifications in volatile profiles have been shown to alter plant relationships with non-target insects, we analysed headspace volatiles from apple plants subjected to different infection types by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Marked differences were found between healthy and leafminer (Phyllonorycter blancardella) infested genotypes, where emissions between the transgenic scab resistant line and the two cultivars differed quantitatively in four terpenes and an aromatic compound. However, these modified odour emissions were in the range of variability of the emissions recorded for the two standard cultivars that proved to be crucial references. PMID:19543801

  3. Quorum-sensing-based toolbox for regulatable transgene and siRNA expression in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Wilfried; Malphettes, Laetitia; Rinderknecht, Matthias; Schoenmakers, Ronald G; Spielmann, Manuela; Keller, Bettina; van de Wetering, Petra; Weber, Cornelia C; Fussenegger, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Technologies for regulated expression of multiple transgenes in mammalian cells have gathered momentum for bioengineering, gene therapy, drug discovery, and gene-function analyses. Capitalizing on recently developed mammalian transgene modalities (QuoRex) derived from Streptomyces coelicolor, we have designed a flexible and highly compatible expression vector set that enables desired transgene/siRNA control in response to the nontoxic butyrolactone SCB1. The construction-kit-like expression portfolio includes (i) multicistronic (pTRIDENT), (ii) autoregulated, (iii) bidirectional (pBiRex), (iv) oncoretro- and lentiviral transduction, and (v) RNA polymerase II-based siRNA transcription-fine-tuning vectors for straightforward implementation of QuoRex-controlled (trans)gene modulation in mammalian cells. PMID:15903256

  4. Transgenic expression of Lactoferrin imparts resistance to a soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var Xanthi) and Arabidopsis (A. thaliana) plants expressing an antimicrobial bovine lactoferrin (BLF) gene were developed and evaluated for resistance against an economically important fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of damping off diseases....

  5. Expression of bkt and bch genes from Haematococcus pluvialis in transgenic Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, KaiJing; Wang, ChaoGang; Xiao, Ming; Chen, Jun; Li, JianCheng; Hu, ZhangLi

    2014-10-01

    ?-carotene ketolase and ?-carotene hydroxylase encoded by bkt and bch, respectively, are key enzymes required for astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcu pluvialis 34-1n. Two expression vectors containing cDNA sequences of bkt and bch were constructed and co-transformed into cell-wall-deficient Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-849. Transgenic algae were screened on TAP agar plates containing 10 ?g mL(-1) Zeomycin. PCR-Southern analysis showed that bkt and bch were integrated into the genomes of C. reinhardtii. Transcripts of bkt and bch were further confirmed by RT-PCR-Southern analysis. Compared with the wild type, transgenic algae produced 29.04% and 30.27% more carotenoids and xanthophylls, respectively. Moreover, the transgenic algae could accumulate 34% more astaxanthin than wild type. These results indicate that foreign bkt and bch genes were successfully translated into ?-carotene ketolase and ?-carotene hydroxylase, which were responsible for catalyzing the biosynthesis of astaxanthin in transgenic algae. PMID:25209726

  6. Evaluation of a Transgenic Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis with Noninvasive Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Enriquez-Algeciras, Mabel; DING, DI; Chou, Tsung-Han; Wang, Jianhua; Padgett, Kyle R.; Porciatti, Vittorio; BHATTACHARYA, SANJOY K.

    2011-01-01

    A transgenic mice model of multiple sclerosis (ND4 mice) shows progressive visual loss as determined by pattern electroretinogram (PERG). Noninvasive evaluation (PERG, MRI, and OCT) of brain and optic nerve of ND4 mice has been described.

  7. The guidelines project of the IOBC global WG and risk assessment of transgenic arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines project 'Development of International Scientific Biosafety Testing Guidelines for Transgenic Plants' is an international initiative of public sector scientists organized within a global Working Group on 'Transgenic Organisms in Integrated Pest Management and Biological Control' under the umbrella of the International Organization of Biological Control (IOBC). The project aims to: - develop comprehensive, transparent scientific guidelines for pre-release biosafety testing of transgenic plants, which could serve as an international standard; - extend the guidelines for possible use in post-release monitoring; - facilitate the development of the scientific capacity in developing and developed countries to implement the guidelines. - test the application the guidelines in real policy contexts to assist in the evaluation of particular transgenic crops. - publish the guidelines and periodically revise them in response to new developments thereby providing for their up-to-date, long-time use. (author)

  8. Morphogenetic and chemical stability of long-term maintained Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Sharma, Abhishek; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants (transgenic Dhawal [DT] and transgenic Nirmal [NT]) obtained from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizognenes-mediated transformations, respectively, have been maintained in vitro for 5 years. Plants were studied at regular intervals for various parameters such as plant height, leaf size, multiplication rate, alkaloid profile and presence of marker genes. DT plant gradually lost the GUS gene expression and it was not detected in the fifth year while NT plant demonstrated the presence of genes rolA, rolB and rolC even in the fifth year, indicating the more stable nature of Ri transgene. Vindoline content in the DT was two times more than in non-transformed control plants. Alkaloid and tryptophan profiles were almost constant during the 5 years. The cluster analysis revealed that the DT plant is more close to the control Nirmal plant followed by NT plant. PMID:25102992

  9. ?-Lipoic acid prevents lipotoxic cardiomyopathy in acyl CoA-synthase transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-Lipoic acid (?-LA) mimics the hypothalamic actions of leptin on food intake, energy expenditure, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To determine if, like leptin, ?-LA protects against cardiac lipotoxicity, ?-LA was fed to transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of the acyl CoA synthase (ACS) gene. Untreated ACS-transgenic mice died prematurely with increased triacylglycerol content and dilated cardiomyopathy, impaired systolic function and myofiber disorganization, apoptosis, and interstitial fibrosis on microscopy. In ?-LA-treated ACS-transgenic mice heart size, echocardiogram and TG content were normal. Plasma TG fell 50%, hepatic-activated phospho-AMPK rose 6-fold, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c declined 50%, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? cofactor-1? mRNA rose 4-fold. Since food restriction did not prevent lipotoxicity, we conclude that ?-LA treatment, like hyperleptinemia, protects the heart of ACS-transgenic mice from lipotoxicity

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and regeneration of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfi, K; Batschauer, A

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for the regeneration of fertile transgenic white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is presented. The protocol is based on infection of stem explants of 7-9 day old plants with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a disarmed binary vector with chimeric genes encoding neomycin phosphotransferase and ?-glucuronidase. Shoots are regenerated from callus-forming explants within 3-4 weeks. Under selection, 10% of the explants with transgenic embryonic callus develop into fertile transgenic plants. Rooting shoots transferred to soil yield seeds within 14-16 weeks following transformation. Integration and expression of the T-DNA encoded marker genes was confirmed by histochemical ? glucuronidase assays and Southern-DNA hybridization using primary transformants and S1-progeny. The analysis showed stable integration and Mendelian inheritance of trans-genes in transformed Sinapis lines. PMID:24193637

  11. Quaternization enhances the transgene expression efficacy of aminoglycoside-derived polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miryala, Bhavani; Feng, Yunpeng; Omer, Ala; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Rege, Kaushal

    2015-07-15

    The objective of the present study was to synthesize and investigate the transgene expression efficacy of quaternized derivatives of aminoglycoside polymers in different cancer cell lines. A series of glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) derivatives of aminoglycoside polymers (GTMAC-AM polymers), containing varying degrees of quaternization (13-45%), were synthesized. The structures and properties of GTMAC-AM polymers were investigated using FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Physicochemical factors that influence transgene expression efficacy including DNA binding, hydrodynamic size, zeta potential and cytotoxicity, were determined. Formation of polymer-plasmid DNA complexes was also visualized using atomic force microscopy. GTMAC-AM polymers demonstrated higher transgene expression efficacies compared to their parent polymers, 25kDa poly(ethyleneimine), as well as Lipofectamine-3000. Our results indicate that quaternization enhances the transgene expression efficacy and reduces the cytotoxicity of aminoglycoside-derived polymers, making it an attractive strategy for nucleic acid delivery with these new materials. PMID:25888800

  12. Transgenic American elm shows reduced Dutch elm disease symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Liang, Haiying; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2007-07-01

    The American elm (Ulmus americana L.) was once one of the most common urban trees in eastern North America until Dutch-elm disease (DED), caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, eliminated most of the mature trees. To enhance DED resistance, Agrobacterium was used to transform American elm with a transgene encoding the synthetic antimicrobial peptide ESF39A, driven by a vascular promoter from American chestnut. Four unique, single-copy transgenic lines were produced and regenerated into whole plants. These lines showed less wilting and significantly less sapwood staining than non-transformed controls after O. novo-ulmi inoculation. Preliminary observations indicated that mycorrhizal colonization was not significantly different between transgenic and wild-type trees. Although the trees tested were too young to ensure stable resistance was achieved, these results indicate that transgenes encoding antimicrobial peptides reduce DED symptoms and therefore hold promise for enhancing pathogen resistance in American elm. PMID:17310333

  13. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin ?E subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activins, TGF-? superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin ? subunit genes, ?C and ?E, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin ?E subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells

  14. Using transgenic reporters to visualise bone and cartilage signalling during development in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChrissyLHammond

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP was first used as a marker of protein expression in vivo 18 years ago, heralding the beginning of what became known as the Green Revolution. Since then, there has been an explosion in the number of transgenic lines in existence, and these transgenic tools are now being applied to skeletal research. Advances in transgenesis are also leading to increasing use of new model organisms for studying skeletogenesis. Such new models include the small teleosts zebrafish and medaka, which due to their optical translucency offer imaging possibilities in the live animals. In this review, we will introduce a number of recent advances in genetic engineering and transgenesis and the new genetic tools that are currently being developed. We will provide examples of how zebrafish and medaka transgenic lines are helping us to understand the behaviour of skeletal cells in vivo. Finally, we will discuss future prospects for the application of transgenic technology to skeletal research.

  15. Transgenic Crops and Crop Varietal Diversity: The Case of Maize in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DANIELA SOLERI, DAVID A. CLEVELAND, and FLAVIO ARAG���N CUEVAS (; )

    2006-06-01

    This peer- reviewed article from BioScience investigates transgenic crops using maize in Mexico. Transgenic crop varieties are a rapidly expanding and controversial technology. Their effects on biological and cultural diversity are a key issue in an often polarized debate. Here we provide answers to questions about one important example, that of transgenic maize in Mexico. In situ maize diversity in Mexico is present in traditional varieties in farmers' fields, and in wild and weedy relatives of maize. It is likely that transgenes are present in farmers' local maize varieties, but it is unknown whether they have introgressed. Socioeconomic changes, including migration, trade liberalization, and reduced support for Mexican farmers, may also affect maize diversity. Diversity may increase, decrease, or remain the same, but whether this is viewed as good or bad will depend on subjective values.

  16. An efficient transgenic system by TA cloning vectors and RNAi for C. elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nematode, transgenic analyses have been performed by microinjection of DNA from various sources into the syncytium gonad. To expedite these transgenic analyses, we solved two potential problems in this work. First, we constructed an efficient TA-cloning vector system which is useful for any promoter. By amplifying the genomic DNA fragments which contain regulatory sequences with or without the coding region, we could easily construct plasmids expressing fluorescent protein fusion without considering restriction sites. We could dissect motor neurons with three colors in a single animal. Second, we used feeding RNAi to isolate transgenic strains which express lag-2::venus fusion gene. We found that the fusion protein is toxic when ectopically expressed in embryos but is functional to rescue a loss of function mutant in the lag-2 gene. Thus, the transgenic system described here should be useful to examine the protein function in the nematode

  17. Novel genetic linkage of rat Sp6 mutation to Amelogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto Taro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is an inherited disorder characterized by abnormal formation of tooth enamel. Although several genes responsible for AI have been reported, not all causative genes for human AI have been identified to date. AMI rat has been reported as an autosomal recessive mutant with hypoplastic AI isolated from a colony of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat strain, but the causative gene has not yet been clarified. Through a genetic screen, we identified the causative gene of autosomal recessive AI in AMI and analyzed its role in amelogenesis. Methods cDNA sequencing of possible AI-candidate genes so far identified using total RNA of day 6 AMI rat molars identified a novel responsible mutation in specificity protein 6 (Sp6. Genetic linkage analysis was performed between Sp6 and AI phenotype in AMI. To understand a role of SP6 in AI, we generated the transgenic rats harboring Sp6 transgene in AMI (Ami/Ami?+?Tg. Histological analyses were performed using the thin sections of control rats, AMI, and Ami/Ami?+?Tg incisors in maxillae, respectively. Results We found the novel genetic linkage between a 2-bp insertional mutation of Sp6 gene and the AI phenotype in AMI rats. The position of mutation was located in the coding region of Sp6, which caused frameshift mutation and disruption of the third zinc finger domain of SP6 with 11 cryptic amino acid residues and a stop codon. Transfection studies showed that the mutant protein can be translated and localized in the nucleus in the same manner as the wild-type SP6 protein. When we introduced the CMV promoter-driven wild-type Sp6 transgene into AMI rats, the SP6 protein was ectopically expressed in the maturation stage of ameloblasts associated with the extended maturation stage and the shortened reduced stage without any other phenotypical changes. Conclusion We propose the addition of Sp6 mutation as a new molecular diagnostic criterion for the autosomal recessive AI patients. Our findings expand the spectrum of genetic causes of autosomal recessive AI and sheds light on the molecular diagnosis for the classification of AI. Furthermore, tight regulation of the temporospatial expression of SP6 may have critical roles in completing amelogenesis.

  18. Evolution of somatic mutations in mammary tumors in transgenic mice is influenced by the inherited genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MMTV-Wnt1 transgenic mice develop mammary hyperplasia early in development, followed by the appearance of solitary mammary tumors with a high proportion of cells expressing early lineage markers and many myoepithelial cells. The occurrence of tumors is accelerated in experiments that activate FGF proto-oncogenes or remove the tumor suppressor genes Pten or P53, implying that secondary oncogenic events are required for progression from mammary hyperplasia to carcinoma. It is not known, however, which oncogenic pathways contribute to Wnt1-induced tumorigenesis – further experimental manipulation of these mice is needed. Secondary events also appear to be required for mammary tumorigenesis in MMTV-Neu transgenic mice because the transgene in the tumors usually contains an acquired mutation that activates the Neu protein-tyrosine kinase. Methods cDNA or DNA from the mammary glands and mammary tumors from MMTV-Wnt1, MMTV-Wnt1/p53-/-, MMTV-Neu transgenic mice, and newly generated MMTV-Wnt1/MMTV-Neu bitransgenic mice, was sequenced to seek activating mutations in H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras genes, or in the MMTV-Neu transgene. In addition, tumors from bitransgenic animals were examined to determine the cellular phenotype. Results We found activating mutations at codons 12, 13, and 61 of H-Ras in just over half of the mammary tumors in MMTV-Wnt1 transgenic mice, and we confirmed the high frequency of activating mutations of Neu in tumors in MMTV-Neu transgenic mice. Tumors appeared earlier in bitransgenic MMTV-Wnt1/MMTV-Neu mice, but no Ras or MMTV-Neu mutations were found in these tumors, which were phenotypically similar to those arising in MMTV-Wnt1 mice. In addition, no Ras mutations were found in the mammary tumors that arise in MMTV-Wnt1 transgenic mice lacking an intact P53 gene. Conclusions Tumorigenic properties of cells undergoing functionally significant secondary mutations in H-Ras or the MMTV-Neu transgene allow selection of those cells in MMTV-Wnt1 and MMTV-Neu transgenic mice, respectively. Alternative sources of oncogenic potential, such as a second transgenic oncogene or deficiency of a tumor suppressor gene, can obviate the selective power of those secondary mutations. These observations are consistent with the notion that somatic evolution of mouse mammary tumors is influenced by the specific nature of the inherited cancer-promoting genotype.

  19. Production of transgenic canine embryos using interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, So Gun; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Koo, Ok Jae; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2012-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has emerged as an important tool for producing transgenic animals and deriving transgenic embryonic stem cells. The process of SCNT involves fusion of in vitro matured oocytes with somatic cells to make embryos that are transgenic when the nuclear donor somatic cells carry 'foreign' DNA and are clones when all the donor cells are genetically identical. However, in canines, it is difficult to obtain enough mature oocytes for successful SCNT due to the very low efficiency of in vitro oocyte maturation in this species that hinders canine transgenic cloning. One solution is to use oocytes from a different species or even a different genus, such as bovine oocytes, that can be matured easily in vitro. Accordingly, the aim of this study was: (1) to establish a canine fetal fibroblast line transfected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene; and (2) to investigate in vitro embryonic development of canine cloned embryos derived from transgenic and non-transgenic cell lines using bovine in vitro matured oocytes. Canine fetal fibroblasts were transfected with constructs containing the GFP and puromycin resistance genes using FuGENE 6®. Viability levels of these cells were determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. Interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) embryos from normal or transfected cells were produced and cultured in vitro. The MTT measurement of GFP-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.25) was not significantly different from non-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.35). There was no difference between transgenic iSCNT versus non-transgenic iSCNT embryos in terms of fusion rates (73.1% and 75.7%, respectively), cleavage rates (69.7% vs. 73.8%) and development to the 8-16-cell stage (40.1% vs. 42.7%). Embryos derived from the transfected cells completely expressed GFP at the 2-cell, 4-cell, and 8-16-cell stages without mosaicism. In summary, our results demonstrated that, following successful isolation of canine transgenic cells, iSCNT embryos developed to early pre-implantation stages in vitro, showing stable GFP expression. These canine-bovine iSCNT embryos can be used for further in vitro analysis of canine transgenic cells and will contribute to the production of various transgenic dogs for use as specific human disease models. PMID:21303585

  20. Next-generation transgenic mice for optogenetic analysis of neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NicholasChow

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we characterize several new lines of transgenic mice useful for optogenetic analysis of brain circuit function. These mice express optogenetic probes, such as enhanced halorhodopsin or several different versions of channelrhodopsins, behind various neuron-specific promoters. These mice permit photoinhibition or photostimulation both in vitro and in vivo. Our results also reveal the important influence of fluorescent tags on optogenetic probe expression and function in transgenic mice.

  1. A link between DNA methylation and epigenetic silencing in transgenic Volvox carteri

    OpenAIRE

    Babinger, Patrick; Kobl, Iris; Mages, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Ru?diger

    2001-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of foreign genes introduced into plants poses an unsolved problem for transgenic technology. Here we have used the simple multicellular green alga Volvox carteri as a model to analyse the relation of DNA methylation to transgenic silencing. Volvox DNA contains on average 1.1% 5-methylcytosine and 0.3% N6-methyladenine, as revealed by electrospray mass spectrometry and phosphoimaging of chromatographically separated 32P-labelled nucleotides. In two ...

  2. Bioremediation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by bacterial nitroreductase expressing transgenic aspen

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dillewijn, Pieter; Couselo, José L.; Corredoira, Elena; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Wittich, Rolf-Michael; Ballester, Antonio; Ramos, Juan L.

    2008-01-01

    Trees belonging to the genus Populus are often used for phytoremediation due to their deep root formation, fast growth and high transpiration rates. Here, we study the capacity of transgenic hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides var. Etropole) which expresses the bacterial nitroreductase gene, pnrA, to tolerate and take-up greater amounts of the toxic and recalcitrant explosive, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from contaminated waters and soil. Transgenic aspen tolerate up to 57 mg TNT/L in...

  3. Targeted Toxin-Based Selectable Drug-Free Enrichment of Mammalian Cells with High Transgene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Watanabe; Takayuki Sakurai; Shingo Nakamura; Masato Ohtsuka; Issei Saitoh; Eri Akasaka; Masahiro Sato

    2013-01-01

    Almost all transfection protocols for mammalian cells use a drug resistance gene for the selection of transfected cells. However, it always requires the characterization of each isolated clone regarding transgene expression, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In the current study, we developed a novel method to selectively isolate clones with high transgene expression without drug selection. Porcine embryonic fibroblasts were transfected with pCEIEnd, an expression vector that simul...

  4. Transgene products in honeydew: estimating risks for non-target insects

    OpenAIRE

    Hogervorst, Petronella Alida Maria; Rahier, Martine

    2006-01-01

    Insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops could harm organisms other than the pests targeted by the toxin. These so-called non-target organisms include parasitoids and predators that are important for natural pest regulation, which could be exposed to the expressed insecticidal proteins through feeding on transgenic plant tissue or through feeding on target or non-target herbivores containing the transgene product. In this thesis, honeydew excreted by phloem-feeding insects is addresse...

  5. Regulation of Transgene Expression in Tumor Cells by Exploiting Endogenous Intracellular Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Jeong-Hun; Katayama Yoshiki; Niidome Takuro; Toita Riki; Tsuchiya Akira; Asai Daisuke; Nakashima Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Recently, we have proposed a novel strategy for a cell-specific gene therapy system based on responses to intracellular signals. In this system, an intracellular signal that is specifically and abnormally activated in the diseased cells is used for the activation of transgene expression. In this study, we used protein kinase C (PKC)? as a trigger to activate transgene expression. We prepared a PKC?-responsive polymer conjugate [PPC(S)] and a negative control conjugate [PPC(...

  6. Dynamic DNA Methylation and Histone Modifications Contribute to Lentiviral Transgene Silencing in Murine Embryonic Carcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jin; Yang, Qing; Chang, Lung-ji

    2005-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are subjected to a dynamic genome regulation during development. Here we report that the ectopic lentiviral transgenes are quickly silenced in murine embryonic carcinoma P19 cells. The silencing was correlated with CpG hypermethylation in the transgene promoter. Using high-resolution sodium bisulfite genome sequencing, we detected distinct DNA methylation kinetics in different proviral regions. DNase I sensitivity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed condense...

  7. Transgene expression in plants : Position-induced spatial and temporal variations of luciferase expression

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, W.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis we have examined the spatial and temporal aspects of gene expression and the position induced differences in transgene expression between individual transformants. For this purpose we imaged luciferase ( luc ) gene expression driven by three different promoters that are active throughout a leaf tissue of transgenic petunia plants. The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, a modified CaMV 35S promoter (m35S) and an Arabidopsis thaliana lipid transfer protein (LTP) were s...

  8. Collagenase expression in transgenic mouse skin causes hyperkeratosis and acanthosis and increases susceptibility to tumorigenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    D Armiento, J.; Dicolandrea, T.; Dalal, S. S.; Okada, Y.; Huang, M. T.; Conney, A. H.; Chada, K.

    1995-01-01

    In a series of transgenic mice, the human tissue collagenase gene was expressed in the suprabasal layer of the skin epidermis. Visually, the mice had dry and scaly skin which upon histological analysis revealed acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and epidermal hyperplasia. At the ultrastructural level, intercellular granular materials were absent in the transgenic skin epidermis but contact was maintained through the intact desmosomes. Despite a diversity of underlying etiologies, similar morphologic...

  9. Immunocytochemical Localization of Metallothionein and its Relation to Doxorubicin Toxicity in Transgenic Mouse Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhanxiang; Kang, Y. James

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies using a cardiac-specific metallothionein-overexpressing transgenic mouse model have demonstrated that metallothionein protects the heart from doxorubicin toxicity. The present study was undertaken to determine cellular and subcellular distribution of metallothionein and located the antioxidant action of this protein in the transgenic heart. Using light microscopic immunoperoxidase method, it was identified that the overexpressed metallothionein is localized exclusively in car...

  10. The myth of natural barriers. Is transgene introgression by genetically modified crops an environmental risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Camino, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops under open field conditions are a complex and controversial issue. Ecologists are discussing about the possibility that a transgene belonging to GM plants could spread to native populations through a process known as introgression the stable incorporation of a gene in the host genome able to generate a differentiated population. The ecological consequences of a transgene introgression in plants or bacteria are not yet well understood, but could be significant. ...

  11. Transgenic hCFTR expression fails to correct ?-ENaC mouse lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, B R; O'Neal, W K; Ostrowski, L E; Kreda, S M; Button, B; Boucher, R C

    2012-01-15

    The relationships between airway epithelial Cl(-) secretion-Na(+) absorption balance, airway surface liquid (ASL) homeostasis, and lung disease were investigated in selected transgenic mice. 1) To determine if transgenic overexpression of wild-type (WT) human CFTR (hCFTR) accelerated Cl(-) secretion and regulated Na(+) absorption in murine airways, we utilized a Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP)-specific promoter to generate mice expressing airway-specific hCFTR. Ussing chamber studies revealed significantly (?2.5-fold) elevated basal Cl(-) secretory currents in CCSP-hCFTR transgenic mouse airways. Endogenous murine airway Na(+) absorption was not regulated by hCFTR, and these mice exhibited no lung disease. 2) We tested whether hCFTR, transgenically expressed on a transgenic mouse background overexpressing the ?-subunit of the epithelial Na(+) channel (?-ENaC), restored ion transport balance and ASL volume homeostasis and ameliorated lung disease. Both transgenes were active in CCSP-hCFTR/?-ENaC transgenic mouse airways, which exhibited an elevated basal Cl(-) secretion and Na(+) hyperabsorption. However, the airway disease characteristic of ?-ENaC mice persisted. Confocal studies of ASL volume homeostasis in cultured tracheal cells revealed ASL autoregulation to a height of ?6 ?m in WT and CCSP-hCFTR cultures, whereas ASL was reduced to ENaC and CCSP-hCFTR/?-ENaC cultures. We conclude that 1) hCFTR overexpression increases basal Cl(-) secretion but does not regulate Na(+) transport in WT mice and 2) transgenic hCFTR produces increased Cl(-) secretion, but not regulation of Na(+) channels, in ?-ENaC mouse airways and does not ameliorate ?-ENaC mouse lung disease. PMID:22003093

  12. Evidence for Early Cytotoxic Aggregates in Transgenic Mice for Human Transthyretin Leu55Pro

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Fernandes, Rui; Palha, Joana Almeida; Taboada, Ana; Vieira, Paulo; Saraiva, Maria João

    2002-01-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a lethal autosomal dominant disorder characterized by systemic extracellular deposition of transthyretin (TTR) amyloid fibrils. Several groups have generated transgenic mice carrying human TTR Val30Met, the most common mutation in FAP. To study amyloidogenicity and cytotoxicity of different TTRs, we produced transgenic mice expressing human TTR Leu55Pro, one of the most aggressive FAP-related mutations. TTR deposition and presence of amyloid fibril...

  13. The human lysozyme promoter directs reporter gene expression to activated myelomonocytic cells in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, S.; Greaves, DR; Chung, LP; Tree, P; Gordon, S.

    1996-01-01

    The 5' region of the human lysozyme gene from -3500 to +25 was fused to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene and three transgenic founder mice were obtained. All three transgenic lines showed the same pattern of CAT enzyme expression in adult mouse tissues that was consistent with the targeting of elicited, activated macrophages in tissues and developing and elicited granulocytes. In normal mice high CAT enzyme activity was found in the spleen, lung, and thymus, tissues ric...

  14. RNAi-mediated transgenic tospovirus resistance broken by intraspecies NSs complementation

    OpenAIRE

    Hassani-Mehraban, A.; Brenkman, A.B.; Broek, N.F.J.; Goldbach, R.W.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Extension of an inverted repeat transgene cassette, containing partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences from four different tomato-infecting Tospovirus spp. with a partial N gene sequence from the tomato strain of Tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV-t), renders transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants additionally resistant to this strain but not to the soybean strain of this Tospovirus sp. (TYRV-s), both strains exhibiting 14.4% nucleotide sequence divergence in their N genes. Surprisingly, coinoc...

  15. In vitro flowering and viable seed setting of transgenic lettuce cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Franklin; Oliveira, Ana Lucia; Dias, Alberto Carlos Pires

    2011-01-01

    Production of transgenic lettuce seeds via in vitro ?owering and fruit setting is reported here. Six days old cotyledons were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harbouring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying the reporter gene a-glucuronidase intron (GUS-INT) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII). Transgenic calluses and shoot buds were induced on MS medium augmented with 0.1 mg l benzyladenine (BA), 0.1 mg l 1 a-naphtaleneac...

  16. Quantitative retrotransposon anchored PCR confirms transduction efficiency of transgenes in adult Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    RINALDI, GABRIEL; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Brindley, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative retrotransposon anchored PCR (qRAP) that utilizes endogenous retrotransposons as a chromosomal anchor was developed to investigate integration of transgenes in Schistosoma mansoni. The qRAP technique, which builds on earlier techniques, (i) Alu-PCR which has been used to quantify lentiviral (HIV-1) proviral insertions in human chromosomes and (ii) a non-quantitative retrotransposon anchored PCR known to detect the presence of transgenes in the S. mansoni genome, was tested here...

  17. Commercial implications and IPR related to the use of transgenic arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently created a company (Insecta, Ltd.) for the express purpose of fully exploiting both the traditional Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the potential benefits of using transgenic arthropods to control agricultural and medical pest insects or, more generally, animal and human diseases. This short paper briefly considers some of the general issues surrounding the commercial exploitation of transgenic arthropods both through the improvement of the SIT and for other, more innovative, approaches to disease and pest control. (author)

  18. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) precore protein inhibits HBV replication in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Guidotti, L. G.; Matzke, B.; Pasquinelli, C.; Shoenberger, J. M.; Rogler, C. E.; Chisari, F. V.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we examined the ability of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) precore, envelope, and X gene products to modulate HBV replication in the livers of transgenic mice that replicate the virus. Hepatic HBV replication was not affected by overexpression of the envelope or X gene products when these animals were crossed with transgenic mice that express the corresponding viral genes in the hepatocyte. Overexpression of the precore protein, however, eliminated nucleocapsid particles from the c...

  19. The beta 1 integrin distal promoter is developmentally regulated in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    TARONE, Guido; ALTRUDA, Fiorella; BALZAC, Fiorella; Silengo, Lorenzo; Hirsch, Emilio

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic mice harbouring 5' flanking sequences of the human beta 1 integrin gene linked to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene have been generated to examine spatial and temporal distribution of the promoter activity during development. Our previous data showed that this regulatory region is composed by two promoters, called distal and proximal, located closely on the human genome. To determine the role of each promoter region during development we generated transgenic mice using these two seque...

  20. Pathogenesis of Dilated Cardiomyopathy : Molecular, Structural, and Population Analyses in Tropomodulin-Overexpressing Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sussman, Mark A.; Welch, Sara; Gude, Natalie; Khoury, Philip R; Daniels, Steven R.; Kirkpatrick, Darryl; Walsh, Richard A.; Price, Robert L.; Lim, Hae W.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    1999-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by decreased contractile function and loss of myofibril organization. Previously unexplored structural and molecular events that precede and initiate dilation can now be studied in tropomodulin-overexpressing transgenic (TOT) mice exhibiting progressive dilated cardiomyopathy. Onset of dilation did not correspond to a change in transgene expression levels, which were more than threefold above normal at birth and remained elevated throughout postnatal li...

  1. A non-destructive screenable marker, OsFAST, for identifying transgenic rice seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Takashi L.; Ogawa, Yoichi; Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-nishimura, Ikuko

    2011-01-01

    The production of transgenic plants has contributed greatly to plant research. Previously, an improved method for screening transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seeds using the FAST (Fluorescence-Accumulating-Seed Technology) method and FAST marker was reported. Arabidopsis seeds containing the FAST marker may be visually screened using a fluorescence stereomicroscope or blue LED handy-type instrument. Although the FAST method was originally designed for Arabidopsis screens, this study endeavors t...

  2. Expression of Epitope Vaccine CTB-UA against Helicobacter Pylori in Transgenic Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaokang Li; Xinyang Li; Xuanquan Wang; Le Guo; Yingying Xing; Tao Xi

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a key reason for Stomach diseases, and how to eradicate Helicobacter pylori has been studied for several decades. Oral vaccines produced by transgenic plants would change the traditional means of production and inoculation of Helicobacter pylori vaccines and reduce the vaccination cost significantly. In this research for the first time we used the transgenic tomato system to express Helicobacter pylori epitope vaccine CTB-UA, a recombinant peptide which could protect BA...

  3. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagozdzon Agnieszka M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study. Results A new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10?weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10?weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal. Conclusions We have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  4. Laparoscopy vs. laparotomy for embryo transfer to produce transgenic goats (Capra hircus)

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sang Tae; Jang, Sung Keun; Yang, Hong Suk; Lee, Ok Keun; Shim, Yhong Hee; Choi, Won Il; Lee, Doo Soo; Lee, Gwan Sun; Cho, Jong Ki; Lee, Young Won

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to produce transgenic Korean native goat (Capra hircus) by laparoscopic embryo transfer (ET) to overcome the limitations of ET performed by laparotomy. Transgenic embryos were produced by DNA pronuclear microinjection of in vivo zygotes. The recipient goats were synchronized for estrus by using an introvaginal progesterone devices as a controlled internal drug-releasing insert (CIDR) for 13 days and injection of 400 IU PMSG 48 h before removal of the insert. Embryos w...

  5. Functional imaging of interleukin 1 beta expression in inflammatory process using bioluminescence imaging in transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Zhihui; Sun Ruilin; Fei Zhaoliang; Ren Jianke; Li Limei; Sheng Zhejin; Wang Long; Sun Xia; Yu Jun; Wang Zhugang; Fei Jian

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) plays an important role in a number of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. To understand the role of IL-1? in disease processes and develop an in vivo screening system for anti-inflammatory drugs, a transgenic mouse line was generated which incorporated the transgene firefly luciferase gene driven by a 4.5-kb fragment of the human IL-1? gene promoter. Luciferase gene expression was monitored in live mice under anesthesia using bioluminesc...

  6. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zagozdzon, Agnieszka M

    2012-05-30

    AbstractBackgroundNumerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study.ResultsA new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice) expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10?weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10?weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal.ConclusionsWe have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and\\/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  7. Two amyloid precursor protein transgenic mouse models with Alzheimer?disease-like?pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Sturchler-pierrat, Christine; Abramowski, Dorothee; Duke, Mairead; Wiederhold, Karl-heinz; Mistl, Claudia; Rothacher, Sabin; Ledermann, Birgit; Bu?rki, Kurt; Frey, Peter; Paganetti, Paolo A.; Waridel, Caroline; Calhoun, Michael E.; Jucker, Mathias; Probst, Alphonse; Staufenbiel, Matthias

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene cause early-onset familial Alzheimer disease (AD) by affecting the formation of the amyloid ? (A?) peptide, the major constituent of AD plaques. We expressed human APP751 containing these mutations in the brains of transgenic mice. Two transgenic mouse lines develop pathological features reminiscent of AD. The degree of pathology depends on expression levels and specific mutations. A 2-fold overexpression of human APP with the Swedish do...

  8. Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zicong; Zeng, Fang; Mitchell, Alva; Kim, Yong Soo; Wu, Zhenfang; Yang, Jinzeng

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11) is a key regulatory protein in skeletal development. BMP11 propeptide has been shown to antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To explore the role of BMP11 propeptide in skeletal formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with skeleton-specific overexpression of BMP11 propeptide cDNA. The mice showed a transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic vertebra in our previous report. Presently, further characterizations of the transgenic m...

  9. Generation of Rab-based transgenic lines for in vivo studies of endosome biology in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Brian S.; Winter, Mark; Cohen, Andrew R.; Link, Brian A

    2011-01-01

    The Rab family of small GTPases function as molecular switches regulating membrane and protein trafficking. Individual Rab isoforms define and are required for specific endosomal compartments. To facilitate in vivo investigation of specific Rab proteins, and endosome biology in general, we have generated transgenic zebrafish lines to mark and manipulate Rab proteins. We also developed software to track and quantify endosome dynamics within time-lapse movies. The established transgenic lines u...

  10. BAC TransgeneOmics: a high-throughput method for exploration of protein function in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Poser, I.; Sarov, M.; Hutchins, Jr; He?riche?, Jk; Toyoda, Y.; Pozniakovsky, A.; Weigl, D.; Nitzsche, A.; Hegemann, B.; Bird, Aw; Pelletier, L.; Kittler, R.; Hua, S.; Naumann, R.; Augsburg, M.

    2008-01-01

    The interpretation of genome sequences requires reliable and standardized methods to assess protein function at high throughput. Here we describe a fast and reliable pipeline to study protein function in mammalian cells based on protein tagging in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The large size of the BAC transgenes ensures the presence of most, if not all, regulatory elements and results in expression that closely matches that of the endogenous gene. We show that BAC transgenes can b...

  11. Hyperplastic gastric tumors induced by activated macrophages in COX-2/mPGES-1 transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Hiroko; Oshima, Masanobu; Inaba, Kayo; Taketo, Makoto M.

    2004-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme for prostanoid biosynthesis, plays a key role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Among various prostanoids, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) appears to be most responsible for cancer development. To investigate the role of PGE2 in gastric tumorigenesis, we constructed transgenic mice simultaneously expressing COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES)-1 in the gastric epithelial cells. The transgenic mice developed metaplasia, hyperplasia ...

  12. Conserved regulation of Math5 and Math1 revealed by Math5-GFP transgenes

    OpenAIRE

    Hufnagel, Robert B.; Riesenberg, Amy N.; Saul, Sara M.; Brown, Nadean L.

    2007-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell genesis requires the proneural bHLH transcription factor Math5 (Atoh7), but little is known about the regulatory elements that control its expression. Here, we investigate Math5 gene regulation using transgenic mice. These mice express GFP in the prenatal retina, live-labeling RGC axon migration and innervation of the brain. Unexpectedly, these Math5-GFP transgenes are also found in Math1 expression domains throughout the nervous system, intriguing since Math5 and Math1 ...

  13. Transgenic malaria-resistant mosquitoes have a fitness advantage when feeding on Plasmodium-infected blood

    OpenAIRE

    Marrelli, Mauro T.; Li, Chaoyang; Rasgon, Jason L.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of genes that impair Plasmodium development into mosquito populations is a strategy being considered for malaria control. The effect of the transgene on mosquito fitness is a crucial parameter influencing the success of this approach. We have previously shown that anopheline mosquitoes expressing the SM1 peptide in the midgut lumen are impaired for transmission of Plasmodium berghei. Moreover, the transgenic mosquitoes had no noticeable fitness load compared with nontransgeni...

  14. Assessment of Two Transgenic Tobacco Plant Varieties for the HBsAg-Specific Plantibody Production

    OpenAIRE

    Yordanka Masforrol; Otto Mendoza; Yenisleydis Avila; Elio Espinosa; David Gavilan; Julio Sanchez; Lisette Lopez; Margarita Somoza; Tatiana Gonzalez; Yoslaine Ruiz; Alejandro Fuentes; Sigifredo Padilla; Leonardo Gomez; Cristina Garcia; Maylin La, O.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic plants are an attractive alternative to produce antibodies for the manufacturing of biologics. The main subject of this study was to assess two non-commercial transgenic tobacco plant varieties (BHmN and Habana 92) cultivated in zeolite and confined conditions for the production of a hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)-specific plantibody (PHB-01). The plantibody molecule biochemical characterization and the assessment of the immunopurification capacity of the antigen r...

  15. Transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene confer resistance to Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Ji, Xiangzhuo; Yang, Jiangwei; Liang, Lina; Si, Huaijun; Wu, Jiahe; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a fatal pest, which is a quarantine pest in China. The CPB has now invaded the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and is constantly spreading eastward in China. In this study, we developed transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the cry3A gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of the transgenic plants under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, while they expressed only in leaves and stems under the control of potato leaf and stem-specific promoter ST-LS1. The mortality of the larvae was higher (28% and 36%) on the transgenic plant line 35S1 on the 3rd and 4th days, and on ST3 (48%) on the 5th day after inoculation with instar larvae. Insect biomass accumulation on the foliage of the transgenic plant lines 35S1, 35S2 and ST3 was significantly lower (0.42%, 0.43% and 0.42%). Foliage consumption was lowest on transgenic lines 35S8 and ST2 among all plant foliage (7.47mg/larvae/day and 12.46mg/larvae/day). The different transgenic plant foliages had varied inhibition to larval growth. The survivors on the transgenic lines obviously were smaller than their original size and extremely weak. The transgenic potato plants with CPB resistance could be used to develop germplasms or varieties for controlling CPB damage and halting its spread in China. PMID:26025753

  16. Cytosolic localization in transgenic plants of the rolC peptide from Agrobacterium rhizogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, J J; Parets-Soler, A; Schmülling, T; Spena, A

    1991-09-01

    The rolC gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes codes for a peptide with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 20 kDa. Immunolocalization of the rolC peptide, in leaves of transgenic plants which are genetic mosaics for the expression of the rolC gene, is restricted to the phenotypically altered sectors. Subcellular fractionation of homogenates from 35S-rolC transgenic leaves shows the cytosolic localization of the rolC peptide. PMID:1884008

  17. Overexpression of aspen sucrose synthase gene promotes growth and development of transgenic Arabidopsis plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fuyu Xu; Chandrashekhar P. Joshi

    2010-01-01

    In plants, sucrose synthase (SUS) enzymes catalyze conversion of sucrose into fructose and UDP-glucose in the presence of UDP. To investigate the impact of overexpression of heterologous SUS on the growth and development of Arabidopsis, we transformed Arabidopsis plants with an overexpression vector containing an aspen SUS gene (PtrSUS1). The genomic PCR confirmed the successful integration of PtrSUS1 transgene in the Arabidopsis genome. PtrSUS1 expression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was...

  18. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin Ima M; Schlegel Kim; Gruissem Wilhelm; Vanderschuren Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces an...

  19. Screening of transgenic proteins expressed in transgenic food crops for the presence of short amino acid sequences identical to potential, IgE – binding linear epitopes of allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijnenburg Ad ACM

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified food crops are evaluated for their potential allergenic properties prior to marketing, among others by identification of short identical amino acid sequences that occur both in the transgenic protein and allergenic proteins. A strategy is proposed, in which the positive outcomes of the sequence comparison with a minimal length of six amino acids are further screened for the presence of potential linear IgE-epitopes. This double track approach involves the use of literature data on IgE-epitopes and an antigenicity prediction algorithm. Results Thirty-three transgenic proteins have been screened for identities of at least six contiguous amino acids shared with allergenic proteins. Twenty-two transgenic proteins showed positive results of six- or seven-contiguous amino acids length. Only a limited number of identical stretches shared by transgenic proteins (papaya ringspot virus coat protein, acetolactate synthase GH50, and glyphosate oxidoreductase and allergenic proteins could be identified as (part of potential linear epitopes. Conclusion Many transgenic proteins have identical stretches of six or seven amino acids in common with allergenic proteins. Most identical stretches are likely to be false positives. As shown in this study, identical stretches can be further screened for relevance by comparison with linear IgE-binding epitopes described in literature. In the absence of literature data on epitopes, antigenicity prediction by computer aids to select potential antibody binding sites that will need verification of IgE binding by sera binding tests. Finally, the positive outcomes of this approach warrant further clinical testing for potential allergenicity.

  20. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the SAFOTEST project the immunmodulating effect of Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and PHA-E lectin from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin) was examined in 28- and 90-day feeding studies in Wistar rats. PHA-E lectin was chosen as positive control. Rats were fed control rice, transgenic rice expressing Cry1Ab protein or PHA-E lectin, or transgenic rice spiked with the purified recombinant protein. Total immunoglobulin levels, mitogen-induced cell proliferation, T-dependent antibody response to sheep red blood cells and the antigen-specific antibody response in serum were examined at the end of the studies. A dose-dependent increase in mesenteric lymph node weight and total immunoglobulin A was seen when feeding PHA-E transgenic rice alone or spiked with 0.1% purified PHA-E lectin for 90 days indicating a local effect of PHA-E in the intestine. No adverse effects of Cry1Ab protein were found. An anti-PHA-E and anti-Cry1Ab antibody response was induced both after inhalation (control groups) and after inhalation/ingestion (groups fed recombinant protein alone or together with transgenic rice). In conclusion, only PHA-E lectin was found to have an immunomodulating effect when feeding rats for 90 days with approximately 70 mg PHA-E/kg bodyweight per day. As both PHA-E lectin and Cry1Ab protein were capable of inducing an antigen-specific antibody response it is important to make careful considerations when designing future animal ssiderations when designing future animal studies to avoid intake of proteins from the other groups by inhalation as well as to examine the sensitization and elicitation potential of 'foreign' proteins before introduction to the world market