WorldWideScience

Sample records for hla-b27 transgenic rat

  1. Characterization of psoriasiform and alopecic skin lesions in HLA-B27 transgenic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagisawa, H.; Richardson, J. A.; Taurog, J. D.; Hammer, R E

    1995-01-01

    We have previously reported a multisystem inflammatory disease in transgenic rat lines with high expression of HLA-B*2705 and human beta 2 microglobulin. Skin disease in these rats includes two predominant lesions: 1) marked psoriasiform dermatitis of the tail and digits; and 2) progressive alopecia of face, neck, trunk, and extremities. Here we present the results of a systematic survey of these lesions. Tail and digit skin showed psoriasiform hyperplasia of the epidermis associated with par...

  2. HLA-B27 subtypes among the Chukotka native groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative frequency of the known HLA-B27 subtypes in HLA-B27 positive Chukotka natives, which have higher frequencies of HLA-B27 (to 40%) and spondylarthropathies (to 2%) than the Russian Caucasian population. Using oligotyping of the polymerase-chain reaction amplified second and third exons of the HLA-B27 gene in 86 DNA samples from HLA-B27 positive individuals were successfully typed. All had HLA-B*2705, including 4 patients with Reiter's syndrome and 5 with ankylosing spondyloarthritis, except one Eskimo who had HLA-B*2702. None had HLA-B*2704, a frequent subtype in Orientals. With respect to HLA-B27 subtypes the indigenous populations from the eastern part of the Chukotka Peninsula are genetically more closely related to Caucasians than to Orientals. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. HLA-B27 subtypes among the Chukotka native groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, M.Y.; Alexeeva, L.I.; Erdesz, S.; Benevolenskaya, L.I. [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Revmatizma; Reveille, J.D.; Arnett, F.C. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Health Science Center

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative frequency of the known HLA-B27 subtypes in HLA-B27 positive Chukotka natives, which have higher frequencies of HLA-B27 (to 40%) and spondylarthropathies (to 2%) than the Russian Caucasian population. Using oligotyping of the polymerase-chain reaction amplified second and third exons of the HLA-B27 gene in 86 DNA samples from HLA-B27 positive individuals were successfully typed. All had HLA-B*2705, including 4 patients with Reiter`s syndrome and 5 with ankylosing spondyloarthritis, except one Eskimo who had HLA-B*2702. None had HLA-B*2704, a frequent subtype in Orientals. With respect to HLA-B27 subtypes the indigenous populations from the eastern part of the Chukotka Peninsula are genetically more closely related to Caucasians than to Orientals. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. [HL-A B27 associated rheumatic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truog, P; Steiger, U; Loewi, G; Neuhaus, K

    1975-12-13

    Report on a HL-A B27 positive female patient with the typical cardiac lesion occasionally found inankylosing spondylitis, peripheral arthritis, and acute anterior uveitis but without clinical or radiological evidence of spine or sacroiliac joint involvement. The concept of "HL-A B27 associated disease", including ankylosing spondylitis as well as Reiter's disease or other forms of seronegative rheumatic diseases, is suggested. PMID:1240658

  5. Panuveíte em artrite indiferenciada HLA-B27 positiva Panuveitis in HLA-B27 positive undifferentiated arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Ferreira Santos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre os vários tipos de inflamação ocular associados às doenças reumatológicas, a uveíte anterior é particularmente comum nas espondiloartropatias, em especial quando associada à presença do genótipo HLA-B27. Relatou-se o caso de um paciente com artrite indiferenciada HLA-B27 positivo, complicado com panuveíte e vasculite da retina, refratária ao tratamento imunossupressor tradicional, que obteve boa resposta clínica ao uso de anti-TNF-alfa.Among the several types of ocular inflammation associated to the rheumatic diseases, anterior uveitis is particularly common in the spondyloarthropathies, especially when associated to the presence of the HLA-B27 genotype. We report the case of HLA-B27 positive patient with undifferentiated arthritis, complicated with panuveitis and retinal vasculitis, that was refractory to the traditional imunossupressive treatment, and had a good clinical response with anti-TNF-alpha therapy.

  6. HLA B27 allele types in homogeneous groups of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Guseinova Dinara; Lazareva Arina; Sochnevs Arturs; Zavadska Dace; Eglite Jelena; Stanevicha Valda; Shantere Ruta; Gardovska Dace

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous condition and therapeutic strategies vary in different JIA types. The routinely accepted practice to start with Sulphasalazine (SS) as the first line treatment in patients with HLA B27 positive JIA proves to be ineffective in a large proportion of children. Objective to investigate HLA B27 positive JIA patients clinical characteristics, determined HLA B27 allele types and their connection with antirheumatic treatment in homogenou...

  7. HLA-B27 frequency in a group of patients with psoriatic arthritis Freqüência de HLA-B27 em uma amostra de pacientes com artrite psoriática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HLA-B27 is associated with spondyloarthritis, a group of diseases that includes psoriatic arthritis. OBJECTIVES: To describe the HLA-B27 frequency in a group of Brazilian patients with psoriatic arthritis and correlate its presence or absence with their clinical manifestations. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 44 psoriatic arthritis patients of a Rheumatology clinic. Demographic and social data were recorded, as were skin and joints clinical examination. HLA-B27 was tested. All data were processed descriptively and comparatively by appropriate software. Parametric and non parametric tests were used with 5% statistical significance. RESULTS: HLA-B27 was negative in 32 of the 44 patients (72,7%. Most of them were male, Caucasian, living in Rio de Janeiro, with plaque type psoriasis and average age of 52,9 years. There was statistical significant correlation between positive HLA-B27 and male gender (p=0,004. Negative HLA-B27 had a tendency to correlate with hands and wrists arthritis (p=0,07. There was an inverse significant correlation between HLA values and Schöber's test (p=0,02. CONCLUSION: Although HLA-B27 is negative in most of patients, it is significantly associated to male gender and inversely correlated with Schöber's test.FUNDAMENTOS: O HLA-B27 está associado às espondiloartrites, grupo de doenças que engloba, entre outras, a artrite psoriásica. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a freqüência de HLA-B27 em uma amostra de pacientes brasileiros com artrite psoriásica e correlacionar sua presença ou ausência com as manifestações clínicas dos mesmos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliando 44 pacientes com artrite psoriásica de um ambulatório de Reumatologia. A avaliação consistia em registro de informações demográficas e sociais, exame clínico da pele e das articulações e pesquisa de HLA-B27. Os dados gerados foram tratados por meio de estatística descritiva e comparativa em Software apropriado. Foram utilizados testes paramétricos e não-paramétricos com significância estatística de 5%. RESULTADOS: O HLA-B27 resultou negativo em 32 dos 44 pacientes estudados (72,7%. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino, da raça branca, procedente do Rio de Janeiro, portador de psoríase em placas e com idade média de 52,9 anos. Houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre o HLA-B27 positivo e o sexo masculino (p=0,004. O HLA-B27 negativo teve tendência à correlação com artrite de mãos e punhos (p=0,07. Houve correlação inversa significativa entre os valores do HLA e do teste de Schöber (p=0,02. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar do HLA-B27 ser negativo na maioria dos pacientes estudados, esteve significativamente associado ao sexo masculino e inversamente correlacionado ao teste de Schöber.

  8. HLA-B27 frequency in a group of patients with psoriatic arthritis / Freqüência de HLA-B27 em uma amostra de pacientes com artrite psoriática

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danilo Garcia, Ruiz; Mário Newton Leitão de, Azevedo; Omar, Lupi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O HLA-B27 está associado às espondiloartrites, grupo de doenças que engloba, entre outras, a artrite psoriásica. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a freqüência de HLA-B27 em uma amostra de pacientes brasileiros com artrite psoriásica e correlacionar sua presença ou ausência com as manifestações clín [...] icas dos mesmos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliando 44 pacientes com artrite psoriásica de um ambulatório de Reumatologia. A avaliação consistia em registro de informações demográficas e sociais, exame clínico da pele e das articulações e pesquisa de HLA-B27. Os dados gerados foram tratados por meio de estatística descritiva e comparativa em Software apropriado. Foram utilizados testes paramétricos e não-paramétricos com significância estatística de 5%. RESULTADOS: O HLA-B27 resultou negativo em 32 dos 44 pacientes estudados (72,7%). A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino, da raça branca, procedente do Rio de Janeiro, portador de psoríase em placas e com idade média de 52,9 anos. Houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre o HLA-B27 positivo e o sexo masculino (p=0,004). O HLA-B27 negativo teve tendência à correlação com artrite de mãos e punhos (p=0,07). Houve correlação inversa significativa entre os valores do HLA e do teste de Schöber (p=0,02). CONCLUSÃO: Apesar do HLA-B27 ser negativo na maioria dos pacientes estudados, esteve significativamente associado ao sexo masculino e inversamente correlacionado ao teste de Schöber. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: HLA-B27 is associated with spondyloarthritis, a group of diseases that includes psoriatic arthritis. OBJECTIVES: To describe the HLA-B27 frequency in a group of Brazilian patients with psoriatic arthritis and correlate its presence or absence with their clinical manifestations. METHODS: [...] Cross-sectional study with 44 psoriatic arthritis patients of a Rheumatology clinic. Demographic and social data were recorded, as were skin and joints clinical examination. HLA-B27 was tested. All data were processed descriptively and comparatively by appropriate software. Parametric and non parametric tests were used with 5% statistical significance. RESULTS: HLA-B27 was negative in 32 of the 44 patients (72,7%). Most of them were male, Caucasian, living in Rio de Janeiro, with plaque type psoriasis and average age of 52,9 years. There was statistical significant correlation between positive HLA-B27 and male gender (p=0,004). Negative HLA-B27 had a tendency to correlate with hands and wrists arthritis (p=0,07). There was an inverse significant correlation between HLA values and Schöber's test (p=0,02). CONCLUSION: Although HLA-B27 is negative in most of patients, it is significantly associated to male gender and inversely correlated with Schöber's test.

  9. HLA B27 allele types in homogeneous groups of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseinova Dinara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a heterogeneous condition and therapeutic strategies vary in different JIA types. The routinely accepted practice to start with Sulphasalazine (SS as the first line treatment in patients with HLA B27 positive JIA proves to be ineffective in a large proportion of children. Objective to investigate HLA B27 positive JIA patients clinical characteristics, determined HLA B27 allele types and their connection with antirheumatic treatment in homogenous patient groups. Materials and methods 56 patients diagnosed with JIA and observed over the period 2006 to 2009 included in the study. HLAB27 allele types were determined using PCR method. Results In HLA B27 positive JIA patients mean disease onset was 12.34 ± 3.3 years. Most common (44% JIA type was enthesitis related arthritis. Positive response to the treatment with SS was found in 32% of patients, Methotrexate (MTX - in 43%, combined treatment - SS with MTX was effective in 12.5%. 12.5% of patients required combination MTX with Enbrel. Eight HLA B27 allele types were found in JIA patients in Latvia: *2702, *2703, *2704, *2705, *2710, *2715, *2717, *2728. The most common was *2705 - in 55% of cases. Among all the patients enthesitis related arthritis most commonly occurred in patients with HLAB*2705 allele (OR = 2.01, p Conclusions There are 8 different HLA B27 alleles in JIA patients in Latvia and the most common is *2705, but in order to assert them to be disease associated alleles, more extensive studies are needed, including control group of HLA B27 positive healthy individuals. Standard treatment approach with SS proves to be unsatisfactory in the majority of JIA patients. To improve children's quality of life achieving rapid disease control, the first line treatment in HLA B27 positive patients should be MTX. In order to start with the most appropriate drug it is necessary to determine HLAB 27 type at the onset of disease.

  10. The radiographic features of rheumatoid arthritis in HLA-B27-positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographs were reviewed in a group of nine patients with classical seropositive rheumatoid arthritis who on tissue typing were found to express the class I HLA-B27 allele. Radiographs were analyzed with regard to whether or not they demonstrated radiographic features of (1) classical rheumatoid arthritis, (2) seronegative arthritis, or (3) mixed features of rheumatoid and seronegative arthritis. Five patients (55%) displayed radiographic features consistent with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, two patients (22%) showed radiographic features of seronegative disorder (periostitis and sacroiliitis), and two patients (22%) showed a mixed picture with evidence of both rheumatoid arthritis and a seronegative disorder. Thus, the HLA-B27 allele contributed to the radiographic features in 44% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and associated HLA-B27. Thus, the wide range of findings in our population indicates that the radiographic attributes are not specific enough to constitute a unique subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  11. Genética, HLA-B27 y espondilitis anquilosante: 40 años / Genetics of ankylosing spondylitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Castro-Santos; Miguel A, Gutiérrez; Roberto, Díaz-Peña.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a prototypical inflammatory disease of the locomotor system affecting axial skeleton. It is part of the general group of spondyloarthopathies (SpA). Its strong association with histocompatibility antigen HLA-B27 is known since 1973. However, HLA-B27 contribution to AS [...] genetic risk is approximately 16%. Therefore, other genes are necessarily involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genomic development and the possibility of making genome wide screening have contributed enormously to the study of the disease. In this paper, we describe the actual knowledge about AS genetic risk, which has contributed to understand the influence of HLA-B27 on the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. We also intend to foresee how these findings will result in an improvement of patients’ quality of life.

  12. A Homogeneous HLA-B*27 Genotyping Assay Using Dried Reagent Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Minna Kiviniemi; Jorma Ilonen; Timo Lövgren

    2009-01-01

    The presence of HLA-B*27 allele with patients suspected with ankylosing spondylitis can be used in the diagnostic process. We have developed an assay for typing for the HLA-B*27 in whole blood dried on sample collection cards using pre-dried reagent wells and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence based PCR approach. Essentially only the sample needs to be added to the dry ready-to-use reaction well in order to start the homogenous amplification assay. The method was validated with 229 sample...

  13. A homogeneous HLA-B*27 genotyping assay using dried reagent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Minna; Ilonen, Jorma; Lövgren, Timo

    2009-01-01

    The presence of HLA-B*27 allele with patients suspected with ankylosing spondylitis can be used in the diagnostic process. We have developed an assay for typing for the HLA-B*27 in whole blood dried on sample collection cards using pre-dried reagent wells and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence based PCR approach. Essentially only the sample needs to be added to the dry ready-to-use reaction well in order to start the homogenous amplification assay. The method was validated with 229 samples also typed with an existing DELFIA-based method and results of both assays were 100% concordant. The dried reagents were shown to be stable at least up to eight weeks at room temperature without any decline in their performance. PMID:19893203

  14. HLA-B27 and its subtypes in Syrian patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Harfouch; Salwa A. Al-Cheikh

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess HLA-B*27 and its subtypes associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Syrian patients. METHODS A polymerase chain reaction with specific sequence primer method were used to study the HLA-B* locus polymorphism in 50 Syrian patients fulfilling the modified New York criteria for classification of ankylosing spondylitis and 217 unrelated healthy Syrian controls. Patients were recruited from the Outpatients Department, Alassad University Hospital, Damascus, Syria b...

  15. HLA-B27 testing in ankylosing spondylitis: an analysis of the pretesting assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, M; Zendel, I

    1989-05-01

    Typing for histocompatibility antigen HLA-B27 has been suggested as a useful diagnostic test for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in certain clinical situations. The appropriate use of any diagnostic test requires the clinician to estimate the likelihood of disease before the test is performed. One clinical situation in which B27 testing has been suggested to be useful is in the investigation of a patient with low back pain suggestive of AS but with normal sacroiliac radiographs. We analyze here the sequence of steps taken by the clinican in estimating the likelihood of AS. The assumptions that must be made to render B27 typing useful are calculated. PMID:2526875

  16. HLA-B27 and psoriatic disease: a modern view of an old relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiro, Rubén; Morante, Isla; Cabezas, Iván; Acasuso, Belén

    2016-02-01

    Psoriasis and PsA are the main phenotypes of psoriatic disease. Both conditions are highly polygenic diseases in which stochastic and environmental factors are crucial in the pathogenic process. Although the MHC region is a highly dense genetic area, most of the genetic basis of psoriatic disease within it resides in the HLA region. For decades, HLA-C*06 has been accepted as the main descriptor of the two main phenotypes of skin psoriasis. There is now compelling evidence to suggest that HLA-C*06 is only a genetic biomarker for skin involvement and not for joint involvement in psoriatic disease. The role of HLA-B*27 in the genetic aetiology of PsA has been recognized since the 1970s. Recent population case-control studies with adequate patient groups and replication cohorts, as well as confirmation studies in family pedigrees through the use of modern molecular typing methods, have reinforced the aetiological role of this allele in PsA. These studies have offered a new vision of the role of this allele in disease expression. This review contextualizes the latest findings on the role of HLA-B27 in psoriatic disease, emphasizing those aspects of particular interest for clinical practice. PMID:26289052

  17. HLA-A*01:03, HLA-A*24:02, HLA-B*08:01, HLA-B*27:05, HLA-B*35:01, HLA-B*44:02, and HLA-C*07:01 Monochain Transgenic/H-2 Class I Null Mice: Novel Versatile Preclinical Models of Human T Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherma, Rachid; Kridane-Miledi, Hédia; Bouziat, Romain; Rasmussen, Michael; Gatard, Tanja; Langa-Vives, Francina; Lemercier, Brigitte; Lim, Annick; Bérard, Marion; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Buus, Søren; Rooke, Ronald; Lemonnier, François A.

    2014-01-01

    We have generated a panel of transgenic mice expressing HLA-A*01:03, -A*24:02, -B*08:01, -B*27:05, -B*35:01, -B*44:02, or -C*07:01 as chimeric monochain molecules (i.e., appropriate HLA ?1?2 H chain domains fused with a mouse ?3 domain and covalently linked to human ?2-microglobulin). Whereas surface expression of several transgenes was markedly reduced in recipient mice that coexpressed endogenous H-2 class I molecules, substantial surface expression of all human transgenes was observed in mice lacking H-2 class I molecules. In these HLA monochain transgenic/H-2 class I null mice, we observed a quantitative and qualitative restoration of the peripheral CD8+ T cell repertoire, which exhibited a TCR diversity comparable with C57BL/6 WT mice. Potent epitope-specific, HLA-restricted, IFN-?–producing CD8+ T cell responses were generated against known reference T cell epitopes after either peptide or DNA immunization. HLA-wise, these new transgenic strains encompass a large proportion of individuals from all major human races and ethnicities. In combination with the previously created HLA-A*02:01 and -B*07:02 transgenic mice, the novel HLA transgenic mice described in this report should be a versatile preclinical animal model that will speed up the identification and optimization of HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes of potential interest in various autoimmune human diseases and in preclinical evaluation of T cell–based vaccines. PMID:23776170

  18. HLA-B*27:05-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes in Indian HIV type 1C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramurthi, Jagadish Chandrabose; Ramanathan, V D; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    HLA-B*27:05 is one of the widely reported alleles associated with resistance to HIV, while HLA-A24, HLA-B7, HLA-B*07:02, HLA-B*35:01, HLA-B*53:01, and HLA-B40 are reported to be associated with susceptibility to HIV. Using a bioinformatics approach we attempted to predict potential HLA-B*27:05-specific HIV-1C epitopes that do not bind to susceptibility-associated HLA alleles based on our hypothesis that such epitopes have a greater probability of eliciting a protective immune response in the host. A consensus sequence was built for all proteins of Indian clade C virus. Epitopes specific to HLA-B*27:05 were predicted from the consensus sequence using two different bioinformatics methods to enhance the accuracy of the prediction. Epitopes that were also predicted to bind to any of the susceptibility-associated HLA alleles were excluded from the list. The short-listed epitopes were modeled using MODPROPEP to refine the prediction. Fourteen peptides were identified as epitopes by both sequence-based methods and were found to interact strongly with HLA-B*27:05 by molecular modeling studies. Five of the 14 epitopes were previously reported as immunogenic by other researchers, while the remaining nine are novel. The 14 epitopes have been repeatedly identified by three different methods indicating their potential as useful candidates for an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:22924625

  19. HLA-A*01:03, HLA-A*24:02, HLA-B*08:01, HLA-B*27:05, HLA-B*35:01, HLA-B*44:02, and HLA-C*07:01 Monochain Transgenic/H-2 Class I Null Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucherma, Rachid; Kridane-Miledi, Hédia; Bouziat, Romain; Rasmussen, Michael; Gatard, Tanja; Langa-Vives, Francina; Lemercier, Brigitte; Lim, Annick; Bérard, Marion; Benmohamed, Lbachir; Buus, Søren; Rooke, Ronald; Lemonnier, François A

    2013-01-01

    We have generated a panel of transgenic mice expressing HLA-A*01:03, -A*24:02, -B*08:01, -B*27:05, -B*35:01, -B*44:02, or -C*07:01 as chimeric monochain molecules (i.e., appropriate HLA ?1?2 H chain domains fused with a mouse ?3 domain and covalently linked to human ?2-microglobulin). Whereas sur...... a versatile preclinical animal model that will speed up the identification and optimization of HLA-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitopes of potential interest in various autoimmune human diseases and in preclinical evaluation of T cell-based vaccines....... a quantitative and qualitative restoration of the peripheral CD8(+) T cell repertoire, which exhibited a TCR diversity comparable with C57BL/6 WT mice. Potent epitope-specific, HLA-restricted, IFN-?-producing CD8(+) T cell responses were generated against known reference T cell epitopes after either...

  20. Characterization of a Proteasome and TAP-independent Presentation of Intracellular Epitopes by HLA-B27 Molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Magnacca, A.

    2012-07-17

    Nascent HLA-class I molecules are stabilized by proteasome-derived peptides in the ER and the new complexes proceed to the cell surface through the post-ER vesicles. It has been shown, however, that less stable complexes can exchange peptides in the Trans Golgi Network (TGN). HLA-B27 are the most studied HLA-class I molecules due to their association with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). Chimeric proteins driven by TAT of HIV have been exploited by us to deliver viral epitopes, whose cross-presentation by the HLA-B27 molecules was proteasome and TAP-independent and not restricted to Antigen-Presenting Cells (APC). Here, using these chimeric proteins as epitope suppliers, we compared with each other and with the HLA-A2 molecules, the two HLA-B*2705 and B*2709 alleles differing at residue 116 (D116H) and differentially associated with AS. We found that the antigen presentation by the two HLA-B27 molecules was proteasome-, TAP-, and APC-independent whereas the presentation by the HLA-A2 molecules required proteasome, TAP and professional APC. Assuming that such difference could be due to the unpaired, highly reactive Cys-67 distinguishing the HLA-B27 molecules, C67S mutants in HLA-B*2705 and B*2709 and V67C mutant in HLA-A*0201 were also analyzed. The results showed that this mutation did not influence the HLA-A2-restricted antigen presentation while it drastically affected the HLA-B27-restricted presentation with, however, remarkable differences between B*2705 and B*2709. The data, together with the occurrence on the cell surface of unfolded molecules in the case of C67S-B*2705 mutant but not in that of C67S-B*2709 mutant, indicates that Cys-67 has a more critical role in stabilizing the B*2705 rather than the B*2709 complexes.

  1. Analysis of HLA-B15 and HLA-B27 in spondyloarthritis with peripheral and axial clinical patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono, John; Santos, Ana Maria; Peña, Paola; Calvo, Enrique; Espinosa, Luis R; Reveille, John D; Vargas-Alarcon, Gilberto; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Valle-Oñate, Rafael; Avila, Mabel; Romero, Consuelo; Medina, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 and HLA-B15 are associated with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Recent Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria emphasise a distinction between SpA with axial and peripheral patterns. We analysed whether HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 alleles could associate with these patterns. Methods We studied 100 healthy individuals and 178 patients with SpA according to European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria. Patients were then classified according to ASAS criteria, the axial spondyloarthritis pattern (axSpA) being defined by ascertained sacroiliitis and the peripheral pattern (pSpA) by enthesitis and/or arthritis in extremities. A combined ax/p pattern was also considered. Results Only HLA-B27 and HLA-B15 alleles were associated with SpA. ASAS criteria for axSpA were met in 152 patients (12 with isolated axSpA and 140 with a combined ax/p patterns). When the ASAS peripheral criteria were applied, 161 patients met these criteria (13 with isolated pSpA and 148 with a combined ax/p pattern). HLA-B27 was found in 83% of patients with axSpA and 43% of ax/pSpA patients according to axASAS. HLA-B27 occurred in 7% controls but not in any patient with isolated pSpA. HLA-B15 was encountered in 31% of patients with isolated pSpA and 20% of ax/pSpA patients according to pASAS criteria. Moreover, 2 healthy controls, but none of our patients with isolated axSpA were positive for HLA-B15. Conclusions Our data suggest that the presence of HLA-B15 favours the development of isolated/combined peripheral rather than isolated axSpA, while HLA-B27 promotes an isolated/combined axial disease and excludes a peripheral pattern. HLA-B15 should be considered in addition to HLA-B27 when diagnosing patients with SpA according to ASAS criteria. PMID:26560062

  2. Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Inactive HLA-B27-Associated-Spectrum Anterior Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Lisette; Los, Leonoor I

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) in patients with HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis (AU). The study was conducted in 2012 at the ophthalmology department of the University Medical Center of Groningen. We included AU patients who were HLA-B27 positive and/or were diagnosed by a rheumatologist with an HLA-B27 associated systemic disease. Sixty-one of 123 (50%) adult patients participated. All patients filled-out the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), social support lists and an additional questionnaire for gathering general information. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics. Analyses were conducted on various patient and ocular characteristics. We compared our NEI VFQ-25 scores with those previously found in the literature. Our main outcome measures were VR-QOL scores and their associations with various general patient and ocular characteristics. We found that the NEI VFQ-25 mean overall composite score was 88.9±8.8, which is relatively high, but lower than that found in a normal working population. The mean general health score was 47.4±20.8, which is lower than in patients with other ocular diseases. Patients with a systemic disease scored significantly lower on general health and VR-QOL, compared to patients without a systemic disease. Patients with a depression (6/59 (10%)) frequently had ankylosing spondylitis (5/6 patients) and they scored significantly worse on VR-QOL. We concluded that patients with HLA-B27 associated AU have a relatively high VR-QOL. However, the presence of a systemic disease is associated with lower VR-QOL and general health scores. In addition, depression is associated with a lower VR-QOL. PMID:26808922

  3. A comparison of self-reported joint symptoms following infection with different enteric pathogens: effect of HLA-B27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiellerup, P.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Locht, H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We conducted a case-case comparison study to estimate the attack-rate of reactive joint pain (JPrea) following intestinal infections, and evaluated whether the susceptibility and severity of joint symptoms was associated with the tissue-type HLA-B27. METHODS: Consecutive patients with positive fecal culture for Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and E. coli were addressed by questionnaires inquiring about gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the occurrence of joint pain in a...

  4. Autoantibodies to the HLA-B27 sequence cross-react with the hypothetical peptide from the arthritis-associated Shigella plasmid.

    OpenAIRE

    TSUCHIYA, N.; Husby, G.; Williams, R C; Stieglitz, H; Lipsky, P E; Inman, R D

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported elevated serum antibody levels to a peptide representing the HLA-B27 polymorphic region (B27 peptide) in HLA-B27(+) ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. A plasmid (pHS-2) isolated from arthritogenic Shigella flexneri strains had been shown to encode an amino acid sequence homologous to HLA-B27. Rabbit antibody to this sequence (pHS-2 peptide) strongly cross-reacted with B27 peptide and, to a much lesser extent, with Klebsiella nitrogenase peptide. Serum antibody levels...

  5. Effect of HLA-B*27 and its subtypes on clinical manifestations and severity of ankylosing spondylitis in Iranian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Fallahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the role of HLA-B*27 and it's subtypes in determining severity and clinical manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis (AS.A total of 163 AS patients were assessed for clinical manifestations and severity using structured questionnaires. HLA-B*27 screening and B*27 sub-typing were performed by PCR.One hundred twenty two patients (74.8% were B*27 positive. The male to female ratio, peripheral arthritis, steroid use, intense dorsal kyphosis and decrease of cervical slope had a significantly higher frequency in B*27 positive patients compared to B*27 negative ones (p=0.01, 0.001, 0.01, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively. However, the age of diagnosis was significantly lower in B*27 positive patients (p=0.005. Trend in uveitis and some severity markers including: BASMI and ASQoL were toward higher values in B*27 positive group with no significant difference. After controlling confounding variables, significant relationship was found only between B*27 and BASMI (p=0.01. B*27 subtypes in patients were included B*2705: 48.4%, B*2702: 42.6%, B*2704: 5.7% and B*2707: 3.3%. No significant differences were seen for severity markers and clinical manifestations between subtypes; although trend toward lower values of severity markers, less intense dorsal kyphosis and less decrease of cervical slope were observed in B*2704 and B*2707 versus other polymorphisms.Clinical features and severity of AS is influenced by HLA-B*27. Trend toward higher severity markers in B*2705 and B*2702 versus other polymorphisms might be subject of interest for evaluation in other ethnicities with concentration to other novel susceptibility genes co-inherited in each B*27 subtype.

  6. Multiple sclerosis and HLA-B27 negative sacroiliitis in a Crohn’s disease patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Katsanos, N. Tzambouras, E.V. Tsianos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY A relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and MS is supported by a higher than expected coexistence of these diseases among families and individuals. A 32 year-old male with Crohn’s disease of the terminal ileum diagnosed 4 years earlier and HLA-B27 bilateral sacroiliitis diagnosed two years earlier, was admitted to our hospital because of an acute episode of blurred vision. In addition the patient complained of urine incontinence. Before this admission the patient had been elsewhere administered three doses of Remicade and 16mg of methylprednisolone p.os. During admission the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was made (MRI and IgG Index and Remicade was discontinued. The patient was started on therapy with interferon-beta for MS, oxybutynin hydrochloride (10mg/day for urine incontinence, prednizolone (10mg/day, methotrexate (10mg/week and azathioprine (100mg/day for Crohn’s disease and is now in excellent clinical status. To the best of our knowledge this is one of the very rare cases of Crohn’s disease with HLA-B27 negative sacroiliitis preceding multiple sclerosis diagnosis. Key words: Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, Remicade

  7. Expression profile of IL-1 family cytokines in aqueous humor and sera of patients with HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis and idiopathic anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Binbin; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ling; Gordon, Lynn; Chen, Ling

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytokine expression profile of specific IL-1 family members in the aqueous humor and sera of patients with HLA-B27 associated acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and idiopathic AAU. Following informed consent, a total of 13 patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU, 12 patients with idiopathic AAU and 9 controls were recruited to this study from May 2013 to July 2014. Each individual received a complete ophthalmologic examination. Aqueous humor and sera samples were collected and 11 inflammation-related cytokines of the IL-1 family (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-1 receptor antagonist [IL-1Ra], IL-18, IL-36 receptor antagonist [IL-36Ra], IL-33, IL-36?, IL-36?, IL-36?, IL-37, IL-38) were quantitatively measured and analyzed for statistical significance between groups. The degree of inflammation, anterior chamber cell or flare, correlated with expression of IL-1?, IL-1Ra, and IL-18. The highest levels of IL-1?, IL-1Ra, IL-18, and IL-36Ra were seen in the aqueous of patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU and this was statically significant when compared to the controls, but not to idiopathic AAU. Expression of IL-18 was statistically higher in the aqueous of patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU in comparison to either idiopathic AAU or controls, but this may reflect greater inflammation in this patient group. In the sera only IL-1? was statistically higher in the HLA-B27 associated AAU in comparison to the control. Cytokine analysis reveals elevation of multiple IL-1 family members in the aqueous humor of patients with AAU as compared to controls. The specific signature of inflammation may potentially be useful in developing new future therapies for AAU. PMID:26116905

  8. Prevalence of HLA-B27 in Moroccan healthy subjects and patients with ankylosing spondylitis and mapping construction of several factors influencing AS diagnosis by using multiple correspondence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akassou, Amal; Yacoubi, Hanae; Jamil, Afaf; Dakka, Nadia; Amzazi, Saaïd; Sadki, Khalid; Niamane, Redouane; Elhassani, Selma; Bakri, Youssef

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of human leukocyte antigen HLA-B27 in Moroccan healthy controls and in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and to analyze the correlation between HLA-B27 and AS in Moroccan patients. The prevalence of HLA-B27 was determined by evaluating the number of HLA-B27-positive samples in 128 healthy subjects and in 53 patients diagnosed with AS according to the ESSG and AMOR criteria. HLA-B27 was determined by the polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers. Multivariate analysis of our data (HLA-B27, age, sex, and family history) for AS and healthy controls was performed by multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). The frequency of HLA-B27 was significantly greater in AS patients (45.3 %) than in healthy controls (4.7 %) [p < 0.0001, OR 16.8, and CI 95 % (5.83-51.03)]. In addition, HLA-B27 was more common in male patients than in female ones (p < 0.05). 100 % of the AS patients reported a family history of AS, whereas only 20 % of the healthy controls reported a family history of AS. The graphical interpretation of MCA showed a significant relation between the presence of HLA-B27 and AS. This study strengthens the link between HLA-B27 and AS and represents a very valuable informative diagnostic tool, especially in regard to male patients who have a family history of AS. PMID:26248534

  9. Sulfasalazine Treatment Suppresses the Formation of HLA-B27 Heavy Chain Homodimer in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Lu, Ming-Chi; Huang, Kuang-Yung; Huang, Hsien-Lu; Liu, Su-Qin; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocytic antigen-B27 heavy chain (HLA-B27 HC) has the tendency to fold slowly, in turn gradually forming a homodimer, (B27-HC)? via a disulfide linkage to activate killer cells and T-helper 17 cells and inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to trigger the IL-23/IL-17 axis for pro-inflammatory reactions. All these consequences lead to the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Sulfasalazine (SSA) is a common medication used for treatment of patients with AS. However, the effects of SSA treatment on (B27-HC)? formation and on suppression of IL-23/IL-17 axis of AS patients remain to be determined. In the current study, we examine the (B27-HC)? of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), the mean grade of sarcoiliitis and lumbar spine Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index (BASRI) scores of 23 AS patients. The results indicated that AS patients without (B27-HC)? on PBMC showed the lower levels of mean grade of sarcoiliitis and the lumbar spine BASRI scores. In addition, after treatment with SSA for four months, the levels of (B27-HC)? on PBMCs were significantly reduced. Cytokines mRNA levels, including TNF?, IL-17A, IL-17F and IFN?, were also significantly down-regulated in PBMCs. However, SSA treatment did not affect the levels of IL-23 and IL-23R mRNAs. PMID:26729099

  10. Genetic Polymorphisms of Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 Associated with the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and C-Reactive Protein in HLA-B27 Positive Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Wong, Ruey-Hong; Huang, Chun-Huang; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Wu, Shyh-Jong; Juan, Yung-Shun; Chang, Wei-chiao

    2012-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, spine and peripheral joints. The development of ankylosing spondylitis is still unclear. Genetics factors such as human leukocyte antigen HLA-B27 and ERAP1 have been widely reported to associate to AS susceptibility. In this study, we enrolled 361 AS patients and selected four tagging single nucleotides polymorphisms (tSNPs) at STIM1 gene. The correlation between STIM1 genetic polymorphisms and AS activity index (...

  11. The LMP2 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to acute anterior uveitis in HLA-B27 positive juvenile and adult Mexican subjects with ankylosing spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Maksymowych, W; Jhangri, G.; Gorodezky, C.; M. Luong; Wong, C; Burgos-Vargas, R.; Morenot, M.; J. Sanchez-Corona; Ramos-Remus, C; Russell, A.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION—An association between polymorphism of the HLA linked LMP2 locus and the development of acute anterior uveitis (AAU) has previously been described in B27 positive white subjects with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This study evaluated LMP2 alleles in two HLA-B27 positive Mexican populations of patients with spondyloarthropathy known to have a different clinical spectrum of disease from white people.?PATIENTS AND METHODS—The study populations consisted of 90 AS patients from Guadala...

  12. HLA-B27 Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antigen B27 Related tests: ESR ; C-Reactive Protein ; Rheumatoid Factor ; HLA Testing At a Glance Test Sample The ... This group of tests may include an RF (rheumatoid factor) with either an ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) or ...

  13. Azathioprine-induced severe pancytopenia due to a homozygous two-point mutation of the thiopurine methyltransferase gene in a patient with juvenile HLA-B27-associated spondylarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, G; Schütz, E; Haas, J P; Oellerich, M

    1997-10-01

    Severe pancytopenia due to azathioprine (AZA) toxicity in patients with autoimmune diseases is not uncommon. We describe a 14-year-old girl with HLA-B27+ spondylarthritis who was treated with AZA 3 mg/kg/day and who suddenly developed severe pancytopenia in the seventh week of treatment. Analysis of the catabolic pathway of AZA revealed a homozygous deficiency of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) on the basis of a combined 2-point mutation at nucleotide positions 460 and 719 in the gene for TPMT, causing a toxic level of the metabolic active 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) (2,394 pmoles/8 x 10(8) red blood cells). The patient was transfusion dependent and finally recovered 8 weeks after the development of the pancytopenia. At that time, 6-TGN had already returned to normal therapeutic levels. Family studies revealed another homozygous deficiency in the mother, while the other family members were heterozygous. PMID:9336428

  14. Can latent synergism of intestinal pathogens be responsible for inflammaging process causing Reiter's syndrome in a young patient HLA-B27 infected by atypical pathogens? A holistic view and clinical biochemical reinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Boccio, M; Lobefalo, L; Pennelli, A; Toniato, E; Martinotti, S; Tenaglia, R; Neri, G; Del Boccio, G; Gallenga, P E

    2012-01-01

    A case of a genetically HLA-B27 patient fully investigated by molecular analyses, following a holistic vision and an anamnestic assessment of multi-site ecosystems is repeated. VDRL, Lupus anti-coagulant (LAC) and Widal-Wright (WWR), resulted positive. The antibodies (IgG/IgA anti-Ct) against chronic Chlamydia trachomatis inflammation were positive. In the context of all the enzymatic activities in reference range, the AMS and the ALP enzymatic activities showed an increasing trend and a time course augment depending respectively. Cultures, parasitological, digestibility tests and molecular analyses were then performed to investigate the different human ecosystems. Parasitological research and digestibility test were performed, resulting a latent chronic bowel inflammation, including certain enteroinvasive pathogens, such as, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia and Campylobacter (Enteric Pathogens Group, EPG) and Escherichia Coli pathogens (Escherichia Coli Pathogens Group, ECPG). The Salmonella typhi-DNA resulted positive, while 90% of the total microbic charge (TMC) was represented by C. freundi in culture analyses. Interpreting the VDRL positive test as early triggering of autoimmune disease, a few acute phase proteins as a pauci-symptomatic chronic phlogistic process, the amylase and alkaline phosphatase alterations as tissue markers of early intestinal inflammation, the Widal's reaction positivity together with the precocious clinical and faecal manifestations, this study suggests the prime triggering role of these atypical pathogens to cause a chronic low grade autoimmune response against the tissue/organ susceptible target, causing inflammaging phenomenon in young patient with chronic latent infection by Salmonella typhi, leading to Reiter's syndrome, in HLA-B27 positive patient. PMID:23241124

  15. Generation of Transgenic Rats Using Lentiviral Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Holger M; Fischer, Henrike J

    2016-01-01

    Transgenesis is a valuable tool with which to study different aspects of gene function in the context of the intact organism. During the last two decades a tremendous number of transgenic animals have been generated, and the continuous improvement of technology and the development of new systems have fostered their widespread application in biomedical research. Generally, transgenic animals are generated by introducing foreign DNA into fertilized oocytes, which can be achieved either by injecting recombinant DNA into the pronucleus or by transferring lentiviral particles into the perivitelline space. While mice remain the favored species in many laboratories, there are a number of applications where the use of rats is advantageous. One such research area is multiple sclerosis. Here, several experimental models are available that are closely mimicking the human disease, and it is possible to induce neuroinflammation by transferring pathogenic T cells which can then be studied by flow cytometry and 2-photon live imaging. Unlike for mice, the development of transgenic rats has encountered some hurdles in the past, e.g., due to a complicated reproductive biology and the frailty of the fertilized oocytes in vitro. In this chapter we provide a protocol describing how we manipulate single cell embryos in our lab in order to efficiently generate transgenic rats in a variety of different strains using lentiviral gene transfer. PMID:25063498

  16. Prodiabetogenic effects of transgenic resistin in old spontaneously hypertensive rats,.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Kazdová, L.; Kurtz, T. W.

    Elsevier. Ro?. 7, ?. 3 (2006), s. 463-463. ISSN 1567-5688. [International Symposium on Atherosclerosis /14./. 18.06.2006-22.06.2006, Rome] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : resistin * spontaneously hypertensive rat * transgenic Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  17. A transgenic rat with ubiquitous expression of firefly luciferase gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamata, Yoji; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    In vivo imaging strategies provide cellular and molecular events in real time that helps us to understand biological processes in living animals. The development of molecular tags such as green fluorescent proteins and luciferase from the firefly Photinus pyralis has lead to a revolution in the visualization of complex biochemical processes. We developed a novel inbred transgenic rat strain containing firefly luciferase based on the transgenic (Tg) technique in rats. This Tg rat expressed the luciferase gene ubiquitously under control of the ROSA26 promoter. Cellular immune responsiveness against the luciferase protein was evaluated using conventional skin grafting and resulted in the long-term acceptance of Tg rat skin on wild-type rats. Strikingly, organ transplant with heart and small bowel demonstrated organ viability and graft survival, suggesting that cells from luciferase-Tg are transplantable to track their fate. Taking advantage of the less immunogenic luciferase, we also tested the role of hepatocyte-infusion in a liver injury model, and bone marrow-derived cells in a skin defect model. Employed in conjunction with modern advances in optical imaging, this luciferase-Tg rat system provides an innovative animal tool and a new means of facilitating biomedical research such as in the case of regeneration medicine.

  18. PP005. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension in transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkholt Andersen, Louise; Herse, Florian; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Dechend, Ralf; Müller, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats overexpressing the human renin and angiotensinogen genes, group 1 (n=18) received vitamin D depleted chow; group 2 (n=15) standard chow and intraperitoneal paricalcitol at 800ng/kg thrice weekly; and group 3 (n=15)...

  19. HIV-1 transgenic rats develop T cell abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV-1 infection leads to impaired antigen-specific T cell proliferation, increased susceptibility of T cells to apoptosis, progressive impairment of T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, and altered maturation of HIV-1-specific memory cells. We have identified similar impairments in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Tg rats developed an absolute reduction in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells able to produce IFN-? following activation and an increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis. CD4+ and CD8+ effector/memory (CD45RC-CD62L-) pools were significantly smaller in Tg rats compared to non-Tg controls, although the converse was true for the naieve (CD45RC+CD62L+) T cell pool. Our interpretation is that the HIV transgene causes defects in the development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets, and that activation-induced apoptosis may be an essential factor in this process

  20. Developing tTA Transgenic Rats for Inducible and Reversible Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Jianbin Tong, Xu-Gang Xia

    2009-01-01

    To develop transgenic lines for conditional expression of desired genes in rats, we generated several lines of the transgenic rats carrying the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) gene. Using a vigorous, ubiquitous promoter to drive the tTA transgene, we obtained widespread expression of tTA in various tissues. Expression of tTA was sufficient to strongly activate its reporter gene, but was below the toxicity threshold. We examined the dynamics of Doxycycline (Dox)-regulated gene exp...

  1. Impulsivity trait in the early symptomatic BACHD transgenic rat model of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Doyère, Valérie; Bossi, Simon; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; El Massioui, Nicole

    2016-02-15

    Impulsivity trait was characterized in 3-5 months old BACHD rats, a transgenic model of Huntington disease, using (1) the delay discounting task to assess cognitive/choice impulsivity, and (2) the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate of Responding task to evaluate motor/action impulsivity. Transgenic animals showed a high level of choice impulsivity and, to a lesser extent, action impulsivity. Our results provide the first evidence that the transgenic BACHD rat (TG5 line) displays impulsivity disorder as early as 3 months old, as described in early symptomatic HD patients, thus adding to the face validity of the rat model. PMID:26592164

  2. PP005. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension in transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrkholt Andersen, Louise; Herse, Florian

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats overexpressing the human renin and angiotensinogen genes, group 1 (n=18) received vitamin D depleted chow; group 2 (n=15) standard chow and intraperitoneal paricalcitol at 800ng/kg thrice weekly; and group 3 (n=15) standard chow and vehicle injections. Blood pressure (tail cuff) and 24-h albuminuria were determined once weekly. After three weeks, animals were sacrificed. Heart tissue was examined for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The vitamin D depleted group had higher blood pressure at week 1 (mean difference 23.4mmHg, 95% CI 9.1-37.7) and tended to have higher blood pressure in weeks 2 and 3 (mean difference 14.3mmHg 95% CI -0.02-28.7 and 15.2mmHg 95% CI -1.5-33). The depletion group had higher heart-to-body weight ratio, and a trend towards higher ANP and BNP levels. The group receiving paricalcitol did not perform better. No differences were found between groups in mortality or proteinuria. CONCLUSION: Short-term vitamin D depletion aggravated hypertension and end-organ damage in a rat model of angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Short-term interventions with high-dose vitamin D analogues had no protective effect.

  3. Regulatory regions of rat insulin I gene necessary for expression in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Dandoy-Dron, F; Monthioux, E; Jami, J; Bucchini, D

    1991-01-01

    Ten transgenic mouse lines harboring the -346/-103 fragment of the rat insulin I enhancer linked to a heterologous promoter and a reporter gene (Eins-Ptk-CAT construct) were produced. Expression of the hybrid transgene was essentially observed in pancreas and to a lesser extent in brain. These results indicate that the rat insulin I promoter is dispensable for pancreatic expression. This insulin gene sequence is the shortest fragment described as conferring tissue-specific expression in trans...

  4. Safety assessment of transgenic potatoes with soybean glycinin by feeding studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, W; Momma, K; Yoon, H J; Ozawa, S; Ohkawa, Y; Ishige, T; Kito, M; Utsumi, S; Murata, K

    1999-11-01

    Feeding studies of transgenic potatoes with native and designed soybean glycinins in rats were done for four weeks. The designed glycinin has four additional methioninyl residues in the middle of the glycinin molecule. Rats were divided into four groups fed (I) only a commercial diet, (II) the diet plus non-transgenic potatoes, (III) the diet plus transgenic potatoes with native glycinin, and (IV) the diet plus transgenic potatoes with designed glycinin. Rats were fed 2,000 mg/kg-weight potatoes every day by oral administration. During the period tested, rats in each group (groups II, III, and IV) grew well without marked differences in appearance, food intake, body weight, or in cumulative body weight gain. No significant differences were also found in blood count, blood composition, and in internal organ weights among the rats after feeding potatoes (groups II, III, and IV) for four weeks. Necropsy at the end of experiment indicated neither pathologic symptoms in all rats tested nor histopathological abnormalities in liver and kidney. Judging from these results, the transgenic potatoes with glycinins are confirmed to have nearly the same nutritional and biochemical characteristics as non-transgenic one. PMID:10635558

  5. Transgenic LRRK2R1441G rats–a model for Parkinson disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal T. Shaikh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease (PD is the most common movement disorder, characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. While the cause of this disease is largely unknown, a rare autosomal dominant familial form of PD is caused by a genetic mutation in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene that presumably leads to a gain-of-function of LRRK2 kinase activity. Here, we explored the potential of over expression of this human gene in a new transgenic rat model to serve as an animal model for PD. Commercially available BAC transgenic rats expressing human LRRK2 with the familial PD mutation, R1441G, and their wild-type siblings were tested for deficits in motor function, sensorimotor gating, and higher cognitive function reminiscent of PD through the ages of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. At 12 months of age, rats were exposed to intraperitoneal injections of the environmental toxin Paraquat or saline. Our results indicate that LRRK2R1441G transgenic rats do not show signs of neurodegeneration and do not develop significant motor or cognitive deficits until the age of 16 months. In addition, LRRK2R1441G transgenic rats did not show increased vulnerability to sub-toxic doses of Paraquat. Gene expression studies indicate that despite genomic presence and initial expression of the transgene, its expression was greatly reduced in our aged rats. We conclude that the transgenic LRRK2R1441G rat is not a valid model for studying the pathology of PD and discuss this in relation to other transgenic rat models.

  6. A transgenic rat expressing human APP with the Swedish Alzheimer's disease mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Ronnie; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, transgenic mice have become valuable tools for studying mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). With the aim of developing an animal model better for memory and neurobehavioural testing, we have generated a transgenic rat model of AD. These animals express human amyloid precursor protein (APP) containing the Swedish AD mutation. The highest level of expression in the brain is found in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Starting after the age of 15 months, the rats show increased tau phosphorylation and extracellular Abeta staining. The Abeta is found predominantly in cerebrovascular blood vessels with very rare diffuse plaques. We believe that crossing these animals with mutant PS1 transgenic rats will result in accelerated plaque formation similar to that seen in transgenic mice.

  7. Cognitive impairment in the Tg6590 transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloskowska, Ewa; Pham, Therese M; Nilsson, Tatjana; Zhu, Shunwei; Oberg, Johanna; Codita, Alina; Pedersen, Lars A; Pedersen, Jan T; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Winblad, Bengt; Folkesson, Ronnie; Benedikz, Eirikur

    Recently, interest in the rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been growing. We have previously described the Tg6590 transgenic rat line expressing the amyloid precursor protein containing the Swedish AD mutation (K670M/N671L) that shows early stages of Abeta deposition, predomi...

  8. Polyethylenimine-mediated expression of transgenes in the acinar cells of rats salivary glands in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Sramkova, Monika; Parente, Laura; Wigand, Timothy; Aye, Myo-Pale'; Shitara, Akiko; Weigert, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Non viral-mediated transfection of plasmid DNA provides a fast and reliable way to express various transgenes in selected cell populations in live animals. Here, we show an improvement of a previously published method that is based on injecting plasmid DNA into the ductal system of the salivary glands in live rats. Specifically, using complexes between plasmid DNA and polyethyleneimine (PEI) we show that the expression of the transgenes is directed selectively to the salivary acinar cells. PE...

  9. Generation and characterization of a Tet-On (rtTA-M2 transgenic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhwani Meena

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tetracycline-inducible gene regulation system is a powerful tool that allows temporal and dose-dependent regulation of target transgene expression in vitro and in vivo. Several tetracycline-inducible transgenic mouse models have been described with ubiquitous or tissue-specific expression of tetracycline-transactivator (tTA, reverse tetracycline-transactivator (rtTA or Tet repressor (TetR. Here we describe a Tet-On transgenic rat that ubiquitously expresses rtTA-M2 driven by the murine ROSA 26 promoter. Results The homozygous rat line (ROSA-rtTA-M2 generated by lentiviral vector injection, has a single integration site and was derived from the offspring of a genetic mosaic founder with multiple transgene integrations. The rtTA-M2 transgene integrated into an intron of a putative gene on chromosome 2 and does not appear to affect the tissue-specificity or expression of that gene. Fibroblasts from the ROSA-rtTA-M2 rats were transduced with a TetO7/CMV-EGFP lentivirus and exhibited doxycycline dose-dependent expression of the EGFP reporter transgene, in vitro. In addition, doxycycline-inducible EGFP expression was observed, in vivo, when the TetO7/CMV-EGFP lentivirus was injected into testis, kidney and muscle tissues of ROSA-rtTA-M2 rats. Conclusions This conditional expression rat model may have application for transgenic overexpression or knockdown studies of gene function in development, disease and gene therapy.

  10. Developing tTA Transgenic Rats for Inducible and Reversible Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Min Yang, Carlisle P Landel, Pedro Yuxing Xia, Yong-Jian Liu, Xu Gang Xia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop transgenic lines for conditional expression of desired genes in rats, we generated several lines of the transgenic rats carrying the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA gene. Using a vigorous, ubiquitous promoter to drive the tTA transgene, we obtained widespread expression of tTA in various tissues. Expression of tTA was sufficient to strongly activate its reporter gene, but was below the toxicity threshold. We examined the dynamics of Doxycycline (Dox-regulated gene expression in transgenic rats. In the two transmittable lines, tTA-mediated activation of the reporter gene was fully subject to regulation by Dox. Dox dose-dependently suppressed tTA-activated gene expression. The washout time for the effects of Dox was dose-dependent. We tested a complex regime of Dox administration to determine the optimal effectiveness and washout duration. Dox was administered at a high dose (500 ?g/ml in drinking water for two days to reach the effective concentration, and then was given at a low dose (20 ?g/ml to maintain effectiveness. This regimen of Dox administration can achieve a quick switch between ON and OFF statuses of tTA-activated gene expression. In addition, administration of Dox to pregnant rats fully suppressed postnatal tTA-activated gene expression in their offspring. Sufficient levels of Dox are present in mother's milk to produce maximal efficacy in nursing neonates. Administration of Dox to pregnant or nursing rats can provide a continual suppression of tTA-dependent gene expression during embryonic and postnatal development. The tTA transgenic rat allows for inducible and reversible gene expression in the rat; this important tool will be valuable in the development of genetic rat models of human diseases.

  11. Can organic and transgenic soy be used as a substitute for animal protein by rats?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.L., Soares; A.M.M., Lucas; G.T., Boaventura.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the protein quality of organic and transgenic soy fed to rats throughout life. Thirty female Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10): organic soy group (OSG) receiving organic soy-based diet, genetically modified soy group (GMSG) receiving transgenic soy-based diet, and a co [...] ntrol group (CG) receiving casein-based diet. All animals received water and isocaloric diet (10% protein), ad libitum for 291 days. After this, the weight of GMSG animals (290.9 ± 9.1 g) was significantly lower (P

  12. Development of transgenic rats producing human ?-amyloid precursor protein as a model for Alzheimer's disease: Transgene and endogenous APP genes are regulated tissue-specifically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that affects a large and growing number of elderly individuals. In addition to idiopathic disease, AD is also associated with autosomal dominant inheritance, which causes a familial form of AD (FAD. Some instances of FAD have been linked to mutations in the ?-amyloid protein precursor (APP. Although there are numerous mouse AD models available, few rat AD models, which have several advantages over mice, have been generated. Results Fischer 344 rats expressing human APP driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter were generated via lentiviral vector infection of Fischer 344 zygotes. We generated two separate APP-transgenic rat lines, APP21 and APP31. Serum levels of human amyloid-beta (A?40 were 298 pg/ml for hemizygous and 486 pg/ml for homozygous APP21 animals. Serum A?42 levels in APP21 homozygous rats were 135 pg/ml. Immunohistochemistry in brain showed that the human APP transgene was expressed in neurons, but not in glial cells. These findings were consistent with independent examination of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP in the brains of eGFP-transgenic rats. APP21 and APP31 rats expressed 7.5- and 3-times more APP mRNA, respectively, than did wild-type rats. Northern blots showed that the human APP transgene, driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter, is expressed significantly more in brain, kidney and lung compared to heart and liver. A similar expression pattern was also seen for the endogenous rat APP. The unexpected similarity in the tissue-specific expression patterns of endogenous rat APP and transgenic human APP mRNAs suggests regulatory elements within the cDNA sequence of APP. Conclusion This manuscript describes the generation of APP-transgenic inbred Fischer 344 rats. These are the first human AD model rat lines generated by lentiviral infection. The APP21 rat line expresses high levels of human APP and could be a useful model for AD. Tissue-specific expression in the two transgenic rat lines and in wild-type rats contradicts our current understanding of APP gene regulation. Determination of the elements that are responsible for tissue-specific expression of APP may enable new treatment options for AD.

  13. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents retinal degeneration in transgenic P23H rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Sánchez, Laura; Lax Zapata, Pedro; Pinilla Lozano, Isabel; Martín Nieto, José; Cuenca Navarro, Nicolás

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the preventive effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) on photoreceptor degeneration, synaptic connectivity and functional activity of the retina in the transgenic P23H rat, an animal model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods. P23H line-3 rats were injected with TUDCA once a week from postnatal day (P)21 to P120, in parallel with vehicle-administered controls. At P120, functional activity of the retina was evaluated by electroretinographic (ERG) r...

  14. Free Access to Running Wheels Abolishes Hyperphagia in Human Growth Hormone Transgenic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    KOMATSUDA, Mugiko; YAMANOUCHI, Keitaro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and increased food intake and decreased physical activity are considered as two major factors causing obesity. Previous studies show that voluntary exercise in a running wheel decreases not only body weight but also food intake of rats. We previously produced human growth hormone transgenic (TG) rats, which are characterized by severe hyperphagia and obesity. To gain more insight into the effects on physical activity to food consumption and ob...

  15. A new transgenic rat model of of hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Qi, N.; Wang, J.; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal; Kurtz, T. W.

    Elsevier. Ro?. 6, ?. 1 (2005), s. 46-46. ISSN 1567-5688. [Congress of the European Atherosclerosis Society /75./. 23.04.2005-26.04.2005, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : SREBP1A transgenic * rat * metabolic syndrome Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  16. Cognitive impairment in the Tg6590 transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloskowska, Ewa; Pham, Therese M

    2010-01-01

    Recently, interest in the rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been growing. We have previously described the Tg6590 transgenic rat line expressing the amyloid precursor protein containing the Swedish AD mutation (K670M/N671L) that shows early stages of Abeta deposition, predominantly in cerebrovascular blood vessels, after 15 months of age. Here we show that by the age of 9 months, that is long before the appearance of Abeta deposits, the Tg6590 rats exhibit deficits in the Morris water maze spatial navigation task and altered spontaneous behaviour in the open-field test. The levels of soluble Abeta were elevated both in the hippocampus and cortex of transgenic animals. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no major changes in the brains of transgenic animals, although they tended to have enlarged lateral ventricles when compared to control animals. The Tg6590 transgenic rat line should prove a suitable model of early AD for advanced studies including serial cerebrospinal fluid sampling, electrophysiology, neuroimaging or complex behavioural testing.

  17. Cognitive impairment in the Tg6590 transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloskowska, Ewa; Pham, Therese M; Nilsson, Tatjana; Zhu, Shunwei; Oberg, Johanna; Codita, Alina; Pedersen, Lars A; Pedersen, Jan T; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Winblad, Bengt; Folkesson, Ronnie; Benedikz, Eirikur

    2010-01-01

    Recently, interest in the rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been growing. We have previously described the Tg6590 transgenic rat line expressing the amyloid precursor protein containing the Swedish AD mutation (K670M/N671L) that shows early stages of Abeta deposition, predominantly in cerebrovascular blood vessels, after 15 months of age. Here we show that by the age of 9 months, that is long before the appearance of Abeta deposits, the Tg6590 rats exhibit deficits in the Mo...

  18. Developmental expression of Fos-lacZ in the brains of postnatal transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasof, G M; Smeyne, R J; Curran, T; Morgan, J I

    1996-05-31

    Previously, we reported the production and characterization of fos-lacZ transgenic mice [41] and rats [19] that can be used to monitor both constitutive and evoked expression of c-fos in vivo. When we compared the sites of spontaneous fos-lacZ expression in the brains of developing transgenic fos-lacZ mice and rats, the patterns were almost identical. However, throughout the first postnatal month, the rat striatum contained a large number of Fos-lacZ-positive cells whereas only a few positive cells were seen in the mouse. By adulthood, the number of Fos-lacZ-positive cells in the rat striatum had declined dramatically to the low basal values seen in mice. To establish whether this species difference was evident in the adult striatum, rats and mice were treated with metamphetamine. This indirect D1 agonist, triggered a pronounced induction of fos-lacZ in the rat striatum while only a modest response was observed in the mouse. These data imply: (1) there are differences in dopamine-dependent stimulus-transcription coupling between the two species. (2) Maturation of dopaminergic signalling pathways may underlie the spontaneous immediate-early gene response in the developing rat striatum. PMID:8804706

  19. Neuronal and astrocytic metabolism in a transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Linn Hege; Witter , Menno P.; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Regional hypometabolism of glucose in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the specific alterations of neuronal and astrocytic metabolism involved in homeostasis of glutamate and GABA in AD. Here, we investigated the effects of amyloid ? (A?) pathology on neuronal and astrocytic metabolism and glial-neuronal interactions in amino acid neurotransmitter homeostasis in the transgenic McGill-R-Thy1-APP rat model of AD compared with healthy controls a...

  20. Temporal Sensitivity Changes with Extended Training in a Bisection Task in a Transgenic Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Bruce L.; Sophie Höhn; Stephan von Hörsten; Valerie Doyere

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated temporal perception in a Huntington disease transgenic rat model using a temporal bisection procedure. After initial discrimination training in which animals learned to press one lever after a 2-s tone duration, and the other lever after a 8-s tone duration for food reward, the bisection procedure was implemented in which intermediate durations with no available reinforcement were interspersed with trials with the anchor durations. Bisection tests were repeated ...

  1. A transgenic rat that develops Alzheimer's disease-like amyloid pathology, deficits in synaptic plasticity and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Orozco, Ian J; Planel, Emmanuel; Wen, Yi; Bretteville, Alexis; Krishnamurthy, Pavan; Wang, Lili; Herman, Mathieu; Figueroa, Helen; Yu, W Haung; Arancio, Ottavio; Duff, Karen

    2008-07-01

    In the last decade, multiple lines of transgenic APP overexpressing mice have been created that recapitulate certain aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of the previously reported transgenic APP overexpressing rat models developed AD-like beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits, or age-related learning and memory deficits. In the present study, we have characterized a transgenic rat model overexpressing transgenes with three, familial AD mutations (two in APP and one in PS1) that were developed by Flood et al. [Flood, D.G., et al., Abeta deposition in a transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Society for Neuroscience 2003, Washington, DC, 2003]. From the age of 9 months, these rats develop Abeta deposits in both diffuse and compact forms, with the latter being closely associated with activated microglia and reactive astrocytes. Impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) was revealed by electrophysiological recordings performed on hippocampal slices from rats at 7 months of age, which is 2 months before the appearance of amyloid plaques. The deficit in LTP was accompanied by impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, which became more pronounced in transgenic rats of 13 months of age. For Tg rats of both ages, there was a trend for cognitive impairment to correlate with total Abeta42 levels in the hippocampus. The rat model therefore recapitulates AD-like amyloid pathology and cognitive impairment. The advantage of the rat model over the available mouse models is that rats provide better opportunities for advanced studies, such as serial CSF sampling, electrophysiology, neuroimaging, cell-based transplant manipulations, and complex behavioral testing. PMID:18504134

  2. Bioimaging of DsRed fluorescence in the transgenic rat liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arao, Yukitomo; Hakamata, Yoji; Igarashi, Yuka; Sato, Yuki; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    We developed the Alb-DsRed2 transgenic (Tg) rat designed with liver-specific expression of the red fluorescent protein, DsRed2. Herein, we report high expression of DsRed2 in neonate liver of both sexes, although they were sexually dimorphic and exhibited a male-specific pattern in adult rats. In an effort to examine the expression in each animal under development, we employed an in vivo Bio-imaging system to quantitatively estimate hepatic DsRed2 expression levels. The temporal profiles pertaining to DsRed expression were similar in male and female Tg rats until 28 days old. The levels in both sexes decreased gradually following birth, and were not detectable at 21 days. Subsequently, expression in males increased again at 35 days and was maintained at a persistently high level thereafter. On the other hand, expression in females disappeared steadily. Although hepatic DsRed expression levels in gonadectomized Tg rats was not significantly different, DsRed expression in hypophysectomized female Tg rats appeared dramatically 72 hr following operation. Hepatocytes were collected from adult Tg rats and cultured in conditioning medium. DsRed expression in female hepatocytes could be detected 72 hr following culturing. These results suggest that hepatic DsRed expression in female rats is regulated in vivo by the pituitary. This report is shows use of Alb-DsRed2 Tg rats in conjunction with a novel bio-imaging system represents a powerful experimental system.

  3. Generation of a Homozygous Transgenic Rat Strain Stably Expressing a Calcium Sensor Protein for Direct Examination of Calcium Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Kornélia Szebényi; András Füredi; Orsolya Kolacsek; Enik? Pergel; Zsuzsanna B?sze; Balázs Bender; Péter Vajdovich; József Tóvári; László Homolya; Gergely Szakács; László Héja; Ágnes Enyedi; Balázs Sarkadi; Ágota Apáti; Orbán, Tamás I.

    2015-01-01

    In drug discovery, prediction of selectivity and toxicity require the evaluation of cellular calcium homeostasis. The rat is a preferred laboratory animal for pharmacology and toxicology studies, while currently no calcium indicator protein expressing rat model is available. We established a transgenic rat strain stably expressing the GCaMP2 fluorescent calcium sensor by a transposon-based methodology. Zygotes were co-injected with mRNA of transposase and a CAG-GCaMP2 expressing construct, an...

  4. Light-evoked Somatosensory Perception of Transgenic Rats That Express Channelrhodopsin-2 in Dorsal Root Ganglion Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Zhi-Gang; Ito, Shin; Honjoh, Tatsuya; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Toru; Yugo FUKAZAWA; Yawo, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrate somatosensory systems, each mode of touch-pressure, temperature or pain is sensed by sensory endings of different dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which conducted to the specific cortical loci as nerve impulses. Therefore, direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve endings causes an erroneous sensation to be conducted by the nerve. We have recently generated several transgenic lines of rat in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) transgene is driven by the Thy-1.2 promot...

  5. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats causes oxidant stress and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Barbara A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for acute and chronic airway disease even though there is no evidence that the virus can infect the lung epithelium. Although HIV-related proteins including gp120 and Tat can directly cause oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction, their effects in the lung are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of HIV-1 transgene expression in rats on alveolar epithelial barrier function. Alveolar epithelial barrier function was assessed by determining lung liquid clearance in vivo and alveolar epithelial monolayer permeability in vitro. Oxidant stress in the alveolar space was determined by measuring the glutathione redox couple by high performance liquid chromatography, and the expression and membrane localization of key tight junction proteins were assessed. Finally, the direct effects of the HIV-related proteins gp120 and Tat on alveolar epithelial barrier formation and tight junction protein expression were determined. Results HIV-1 transgene expression caused oxidant stress within the alveolar space and impaired epithelial barrier function even though there was no evidence of overt inflammation within the airways. The expression and membrane localization of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin were decreased in alveolar epithelial cells from HIV-1 transgenic rats. Further, treating alveolar epithelial monolayers from wild type rats in vitro with recombinant gp120 or Tat for 24 hours reproduced many of the effects on zonula occludens-1 and occludin expression and membrane localization. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-related proteins cause oxidant stress and alter the expression of critical tight junction proteins in the alveolar epithelium, resulting in barrier dysfunction.

  6. Production and sorting of transgenic, modified human parathyroid hormone in vivo in rat salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaansen, Janik; ZHENG, CHANGYU; Perez, Paola; Baum, Bruce J

    2009-01-01

    Polarized salivary epithelial cells can sort secretory proteins towards either the basolateral or apical pole. Transgenic human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) exclusively sorts apically in rat submandibular glands. To help understand this specific process we modified the hPTH cDNA sequence and delivered the cDNAs to glands in vivo using adenoviral (Ad) vectors. The Ad vectors encoded: 1) the native form of hPTH (Ad.pre-pro-hPTH1-84), 2) the native sequence, but with the pro segment deleted (Ad.pr...

  7. Vascular oxidative stress and nitric oxide depletion in HIV-1 transgenic rats are reversed by glutathione restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Erik R; Kleinhenz, Dean J; Liang, Bill; Dikalov, Sergey; Guidot, David M; Hart, C Michael; Jones, Dean P; Sutliff, Roy L

    2008-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have a higher incidence of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease than uninfected individuals. Recent reports have demonstrated that viral proteins upregulate reactive oxygen species, which may contribute to elevated cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 patients. In this study we employed an HIV-1 transgenic rat model to investigate the physiological effects of viral protein expression on the vasculature. Markers of oxidative stress in wild-type and HIV-1 transgenic rats were measured using electron spin resonance, fluorescence microscopy, and various molecular techniques. Relaxation studies were completed on isolated aortic rings, and mRNA and protein were collected to measure changes in expression of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide sources. HIV-1 transgenic rats displayed significantly less NO-hemoglobin, serum nitrite, serum S-nitrosothiols, aortic tissue NO, and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation than wild-type rats. NO reduction was not attributed to differences in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) protein expression, eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation, or tetrahydrobiopterin availability. Aortas from HIV-1 transgenic rats had higher levels of superoxide and 3-nitrotyrosine but did not differ in expression of superoxide-generating sources NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. However, transgenic aortas displayed decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Administering the glutathione precursor procysteine decreased superoxide, restored aortic NO levels and NO-hemoglobin, and improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in HIV-1 transgenic rats. These results show that HIV-1 protein expression decreases NO and causes endothelial dysfunction. Diminished antioxidant capacity increases vascular superoxide levels, which reduce NO bioavailability and promote peroxynitrite generation. Restoring glutathione levels reverses HIV-1 protein-mediated effects on superoxide, NO, and vasorelaxation. PMID:18456725

  8. Angiotensin II induced inflammation in the kidney and in the heart of double transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Hermann

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We are investigating a double transgenic rat (dTGR model, in which rats transgenic for the human angiotensinogen and renin genes are crossed. These rats develop moderately severe hypertension but die of end-organ cardiac and renal damage by week 7. The heart shows necrosis and fibrosis, whereas the kidneys resemble the hemolytic-uremic syndrome vasculopathy. Surface adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are expressed early on the endothelium, while the corresponding ligands are found on circulating leukocytes. Leukocyte infiltration in the vascular wall accompanies PAI-1, MCP-1, iNOS and Tissue Factor expression. Furthermore we show evidence that Ang II causes the upregulation of NF-kB in our model. Methods We started PDTC-treatment on four weeks old dTGR (200 mg/kg sc and age-matched SD rats.. Blood-pressure- and albuminuria- measurements were monitored during the treatement period (four weeks. The seven weeks old animals were killed, hearts and kidneys were isolated and used for immunohistochemical-and electromobility shift assay analsis. Results Chronic treatment with the antioxidant PDTC decreased blood pressure (162 ± 8 vs. 190 ± 7 mm Hg, p = 0.02. Cardiac hypertrophy index was significantly reduced (4.90 ± 0.1 vs. 5.77 ± 0.1 mg/g, p Conclusion Our data show that inhibition of NF-κB by PDTC markedly reduces inflammation, iNOS expression in the dTGR most likely leading to decreased cytotoxicity, and cell proliferation. Thus, NF-κB activation plays an important role in ANG II-induced end-organ damage.

  9. A progressive dopaminergic phenotype associated with neurotoxic conversion of ?-synuclein in BAC-transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuber, Silke; Harmuth, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of soluble ?-synuclein into insoluble and fibrillar inclusions is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. Accumulating evidence points towards a relationship between its generation at nerve terminals and structural synaptic pathology. Little is known about the pathogenic impact of ?-synuclein conversion and deposition at nigrostriatal dopaminergic synapses in transgenic mice, mainly owing to expression limitations of the ?-synuclein construct. Here, we explore whether both the rat as a model and expression of the bacterial artificial chromosome construct consisting of human full-length wild-type ?-synuclein could exert dopaminergic neuropathological effects. We found that the human promoter induced a pan-neuronal expression, matching the rodent ?-synuclein expression pattern, however, with prominent C-terminally truncated fragments. Ageing promoted conversion of both full-length and C-terminally truncated ?-synuclein species into insolube and proteinase K-resistant fibres, with strongest accumulation in the striatum, resembling biochemical changes seen in human Parkinson's disease. Transgenic rats develop early changes in novelty-seeking, avoidance and smell before the progressive motor deficit. Importantly, the observed pathological changes were associated with severe loss of the dopaminergic integrity, thus resembling more closely the human pathology.

  10. Modified impact of emotion on temporal discrimination in a transgenic rat model of Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Faure

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is characterized by triad of motor, cognitive and emotional symptoms along with neuropathology in fronto-striatal circuit and limbic system including amygdala. Emotional alterations, which have a negative impact on patient well-being, represent some of the earliest symptoms of HD and might be related to the onset of the neurodegenerative process. In the transgenic rat model (tgHD rats, evidence suggest emotional alterations at the symptomatic stage along with neuropathology of the central nucleus of amygdala (CE. Studies in humans and animals demonstrate that emotion can modulate time perception. The impact of emotion on time perception has never been tested in HD, nor is it known if that impact could be part of the presymptomatic emotional phenotype of the pathology. The aim of this paper was to characterize the effect of emotion on temporal discrimination in presymptomatic tgHD animals. In the first experiment, we characterized the acute effect of an emotion (fear conditioned stimulus on temporal discrimination using a bisection procedure, and tested its dependency upon an intact central amygdala. The second experiment was aimed at comparing presymptomatic homozygous transgenic animals at 7-months of age and their wild-type littermates (WT in their performance on the modulation of temporal discrimination by emotion. Our principal findings show that (1 a fear cue produces a short-lived decrease of temporal precision after its termination, and (2 animals with medial CE lesion and presymptomatic tgHD animals demonstrate an alteration of this emotion-evoked temporal distortion. The results contribute to our knowledge about the presymptomatic phenotype of this HD rat model, showing susceptibility to emotion that may be related to dysfunction of the central nucleus of amygdala.

  11. Modified impact of emotion on temporal discrimination in a transgenic rat model of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Alexis; Es-Seddiqi, Mouna; Brown, Bruce L; Nguyen, Hoa P; Riess, Olaf; von Hörsten, Stephan; Le Blanc, Pascale; Desvignes, Nathalie; Bozon, Bruno; El Massioui, Nicole; Doyère, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by triad of motor, cognitive, and emotional symptoms along with neuropathology in fronto-striatal circuit and limbic system including amygdala. Emotional alterations, which have a negative impact on patient well-being, represent some of the earliest symptoms of HD and might be related to the onset of the neurodegenerative process. In the transgenic rat model (tgHD rats), evidence suggest emotional alterations at the symptomatic stage along with neuropathology of the central nucleus of amygdala (CE). Studies in humans and animals demonstrate that emotion can modulate time perception. The impact of emotion on time perception has never been tested in HD, nor is it known if that impact could be part of the presymptomatic emotional phenotype of the pathology. The aim of this paper was to characterize the effect of emotion on temporal discrimination in presymptomatic tgHD animals. In the first experiment, we characterized the acute effect of an emotion (fear) conditioned stimulus on temporal discrimination using a bisection procedure, and tested its dependency upon an intact central amygdala. The second experiment was aimed at comparing presymptomatic homozygous transgenic animals at 7-months of age and their wild-type littermates (WT) in their performance on the modulation of temporal discrimination by emotion. Our principal findings show that (1) a fear cue produces a short-lived decrease of temporal precision after its termination, and (2) animals with medial CE lesion and presymptomatic tgHD animals demonstrate an alteration of this emotion-evoked temporal distortion. The results contribute to our knowledge about the presymptomatic phenotype of this HD rat model, showing susceptibility to emotion that may be related to dysfunction of the central nucleus of amygdala. PMID:24133419

  12. A Phox2b BAC Transgenic Rat Line Useful for Understanding Respiratory Rhythm Generator Neural Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Keiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Sato, Shigeru; Igarashi, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Arata, Satoru; Southard-Smith, E Michelle; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Onimaru, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The key role of the respiratory neural center is respiratory rhythm generation to maintain homeostasis through the control of arterial blood pCO2/pH and pO2 levels. The neuronal network responsible for respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal rat resides in the ventral side of the medulla and is composed of two groups; the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) and the pre-Bötzinger complex group (preBötC). The pFRG partially overlaps in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), which was originally identified in adult cats and rats. Part of the pre-inspiratory (Pre-I) neurons in the RTN/pFRG serves as central chemoreceptor neurons and the CO2 sensitive Pre-I neurons express homeobox gene Phox2b. Phox2b encodes a transcription factor and is essential for the development of the sensory-motor visceral circuits. Mutations in human PHOX2B cause congenital hypoventilation syndrome, which is characterized by blunted ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Here we describe the generation of a novel transgenic (Tg) rat harboring fluorescently labeled Pre-I neurons in the RTN/pFRG. In addition, the Tg rat showed fluorescent signals in autonomic enteric neurons and carotid bodies. Because the Tg rat expresses inducible Cre recombinase in PHOX2B-positive cells during development, it is a potentially powerful tool for dissecting the entire picture of the respiratory neural network during development and for identifying the CO2/O2 sensor molecules in the adult central and peripheral nervous systems. PMID:26147470

  13. Stress sensitivity is increased in transgenic rats with low brain angiotensinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Helge; Kröger, Juliane; Jöhren, Olaf; Szymczak, Silke; Bader, Michael; Dominiak, Peter; Raasch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    AT(1) blockers attenuate hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in hypertension independently of their potency to lower blood pressure. A reduced pituitary sensitivity to CRH and a downregulation of hypothalamic CRH expression have been suggested to influence HPA axis activity during chronic AT(1) blockade. This study was aimed at confirming the role of central angiotensin II in regulating HPA reactivity by using the transgenic rat TGR(ASrAOGEN), a model featuring low levels of brain angiotensinogen. Different stress tests were performed to determine HPA reactivity in TGR(ASrAOGEN) and appropriate controls. In TGR(ASrAOGEN), blood pressure was diminished compared to controls. The corticosterone response to a CRH or ACTH challenge and a forced swim test was more distinct in TGR(ASrAOGEN) than it was in controls and occurred independently of a concurrent enhancement in ACTH. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we found increased mRNA levels of melanocortin 2 (Mc2r) and AT(2) receptors (Agtr2) in the adrenals of TGR(ASrAOGEN), whereas mRNA levels of Crh, Pomc, and AT(1) receptors (Agtr1) remained unchanged in hypothalami and pituitary glands. Since stress responses were increased rather than attenuated in TGR(ASrAOGEN), we conclude that the reduced HPA reactivity during AT(1) blockade could not be mimicked in a specific transgenic rat model featuring a centrally inactivated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The ACTH independency of the enhanced corticosterone release during CRH test and the enhanced corticosterone response to ACTH rather indicates an adrenal mechanism. The upregulation of adrenal MC2 and AT(2) receptors seems to be involved in the stimulated facilitation of adrenal corticosterone release for effectuating the stimulated stress responses. PMID:19808775

  14. Food-anticipatory activity and liver per1-luc activity in diabetic transgenic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Alec J.; Stokkan, Karl-Arne; Yamazaki, Shin; Menaker, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The mammalian Per1 gene is an important component of the core cellular clock mechanism responsible for circadian rhythms. The rodent liver and other tissues rhythmically express Per1 in vitro but typically damp out within a few cycles. In the liver, the peak of this rhythm occurs in the late subjective night in an ad lib-fed rat, but will show a large phase advance in response to restricted availability of food during the day. The relationship between this shift in the liver clock and food-anticipatory activity (FAA), the circadian behavior entrained by daily feeding, is currently unknown. Insulin is released during feeding in mammals and could serve as an entraining signal to the liver. To test the role of insulin in the shift in liver Per1 expression and the generation of FAA, per-luciferase transgenic rats were made diabetic with a single injection of streptozotocine. Following 1 week of restricted feeding and locomotor activity monitoring, liver was collected for per-luc recording. In two separate experiments, FAA emerged and liver Per1 phase-shifted in response to daytime 8-h food restriction. The results rule out insulin as a necessary component of this system.

  15. The hypertensive Ren-2 transgenic rat TGR (mREN2)27 in hypertension research. Characteristics and functional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langheinrich, M; Lee, M A; Böhm, M; Pinto, Y M; Ganten, D; Paul, M

    1996-05-01

    Primary human hypertension is a polygenic disorder. It is the prevalent cause of cardiovascular disease leading to cardiac failure, stroke, chronic renal failure and, ultimately to death. Several genes are involved in cardiovascular control mechanisms and their genetics are complex. Experimental models which are well defined are needed to clarify the role of individual genes. The generation of the hypertensive transgenic rat line TGR (mREN2)27 bearing the murine Ren-2 gene cloned from the DBA/2J mouse strain provides a monogenic model of hypertension in which the genetic basis (the additional renin gene) is known. These rats develop severe hypertension, which reaches 200 mm Hg and higher at 8 weeks of age in the heterozygous animal. Homozygous rats develop even higher blood pressures than heterozygous animals, which is paralleled by a higher mortality rate in homozygous rats. Animals develop pathomorphologic alterations which are characteristic for systemic hypertension. The transgenic rats are characterized by unchanged or even suppressed concentrations of active renin, angiotensin I (ANG I), ANG II, and angiotensinogen compared to transgene-negative littermates. In contrast, plasma levels of inactive renin (prorenin) are much higher in TGR (mREN)27 rats than in control animals. In the kidneys, renin is suppressed, probably mediated through negative feedback inhibition, in other tissues, especially in the adrenal gland, murine Ren-2 mRNA is expressed at very high levels. The cascade of pathophysiologic events which finally lead to hypertension is not fully understood in this rat model. Treatment with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists such as losartan is extremely efficient, which could mean that hypertension in this model is mediated through ANG II. Since the the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the kidneys is suppressed, other ANG II generating sites must be considered. This favors the concept of extrarenal RASs in this model. PMID:8735183

  16. A Transgenic Rat for Investigating the Anatomy and Function of Corticotrophin Releasing Factor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomrenze, Matthew B.; Millan, E. Zayra; Hopf, F. Woodward; Keiflin, Ronald; Maiya, Rajani; Blasio, Angelo; Dadgar, Jahan; Kharazia, Viktor; De Guglielmo, Giordano; Crawford, Elena; Janak, Patricia H.; George, Olivier; Rice, Kenner C.; Messing, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is a 41 amino acid neuropeptide that coordinates adaptive responses to stress. CRF projections from neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) to the brainstem are of particular interest for their role in motivated behavior. To directly examine the anatomy and function of CRF neurons, we generated a BAC transgenic Crh-Cre rat in which bacterial Cre recombinase is expressed from the Crh promoter. Using Cre-dependent reporters, we found that Cre expressing neurons in these rats are immunoreactive for CRF and are clustered in the lateral CeA (CeL) and the oval nucleus of the BNST. We detected major projections from CeA CRF neurons to parabrachial nuclei and the locus coeruleus, dorsal and ventral BNST, and more minor projections to lateral portions of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and lateral hypothalamus. Optogenetic stimulation of CeA CRF neurons evoked GABA-ergic responses in 11% of non-CRF neurons in the medial CeA (CeM) and 44% of non-CRF neurons in the CeL. Chemogenetic stimulation of CeA CRF neurons induced Fos in a similar proportion of non-CRF CeM neurons but a smaller proportion of non-CRF CeL neurons. The CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 reduced this Fos induction by two-thirds in these regions. These results indicate that CeL CRF neurons provide both local inhibitory GABA and excitatory CRF signals to other CeA neurons, and demonstrate the value of the Crh-Cre rat as a tool for studying circuit function and physiology of CRF neurons. PMID:26733798

  17. Genotoxic effects of bitumen fumes in Big Blue transgenic rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottin, Marie Claire; Gate, Laurent; Rihn, Bertrand; Micillino, Jean Claude; Nathalie, Monhoven; Martin, Aurélie; Nunge, Hervé; Morel, Georges; Wrobel, Richard; Ayi-Fanou, Lucie; Champmartin, Catherine; Keith, Gérard; Binet, Stéphane

    2006-04-11

    Road paving workers are exposed to bitumen fumes (CAS No. 8052-42-4), a complex mixture of volatile compounds and particles containing carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, epidemiological and experimental animal studies failed to draw unambiguous conclusions concerning their toxicity. In order to gain better insights on their genotoxic potential, we used an experimental design able to generate bitumen fumes at road paving temperature (temperature: 170 degrees C, total particulate matter: 100mg/m3) and perform a nose-only exposure of Big Blue transgenic rodents 6h/day for five consecutive days. The mutagenic properties of bitumen fumes were determined by analyzing the mutation frequency and spectrum of the neutral reporter gene cII inserted into the rodent genome. We previously observed in mouse lung, that bitumen fumes did not induce an increase of cII mutants, a modification of the mutation spectrum, nor the formation of DNA adducts. Since DNA adducts were found in the lungs of rats exposed to asphalt fumes in similar conditions, we decided to carry out an analogous experiment with Big Blue rats. A DNA adduct was detected 3 and 30 days after the end of treatment suggesting that these genetic alterations were quite steady. Thirty days after exposure, the cII mutant frequency was similar in control and exposed rats. In addition, a slight but not significant modification of the mutation spectrum associated with an increase of G:C to T:A and A:T to C:G transversions was noticeable in the treated animals. Then, these data failed to demonstrate a pulmonary mutagenic potential for bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature in our experimental conditions despite the presence of a DNA adduct. These results may provide information concerning the pulmonary mechanism of action of this aerosol and may contribute to the occupational health hazard assessment. PMID:16457858

  18. Rosuvastatin ameliorates inflammation, renal fat accumulation, and kidney injury in transgenic spontaneously hypertensive rats expressing human C-reactive protein.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Jan; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Mlejnek, Petr; Oliyarnyk, O.; Malínská, H.; Kazdová, L.; Mancini, M.; Pravenec, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 64, ?. 3 (2015), s. 295-301. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11049; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT14325; GA ?R(CZ) GB14-36804G Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rosuvastatin * kidney damage * CRP * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  19. Fat-specific transgenic expression of resistin in the spontaneously hypertensive rat impairs fatty acid re-esterification.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Kazdová, L.; Cahová, M.; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Wang, J.; Qi, N.; Kurtz, T. W.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 30, ?. 7 (2006), s. 1157-1159. ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA301/03/0751; GA MZd(CZ) NB7403; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant ostatní: HHMI(US) 55005624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spontaneously hypertensive rat * transgenic resistin * fatty acid reesterification Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.055, year: 2006

  20. Vascular oxidative stress and nitric oxide depletion in HIV-1 transgenic rats are reversed by glutathione restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Kline, Erik R.; Kleinhenz, Dean J.; Liang, Bill; Dikalov, Sergey; Guidot, David M.; Hart, C. Michael; Jones, Dean P.; Sutliff, Roy L.

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have a higher incidence of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease than uninfected individuals. Recent reports have demonstrated that viral proteins upregulate reactive oxygen species, which may contribute to elevated cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 patients. In this study we employed an HIV-1 transgenic rat model to investigate the physiological effects of viral protein expression on the vasculature. Markers of o...

  1. Strong association of HLA-B27 heavy chain with beta(2)-microglobulin.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tran, T. M.; Ho?ejší, Václav; Weinrich, S.; Pla, M.; Breur, B. S.; ?apková, Jana; Flieger, Miroslav; Ivanyi, P.; Ivašková, E.

    2000-01-01

    Ro?. 61, ?. 12 (2000), s. 1197-1201. ISSN 0198-8859 R&D Projects: GA MZd NI5314; GA MZd IZ3647 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A53/98:Z5-020-9ii Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2000

  2. [HLA-B27 histocompatibility antigen in seronegative arthritis and idiopathic lumbar pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagredo, J P; Eguren, T T; Valverde, V R

    1980-06-01

    The authors studied the distribution of 23 histocompatibility antigens of the loci A + B in 114 patients: 26 cases of serum negative rheumatoid arthritis, and 66 variants of serum negative arthritis and 22 cases of idiopathic lumbar pain. The distribution of antigens was compared with 71 individuals in good health. The groups of serum negative rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic lumbar pain did not show significant differences compared with a control population. In the group of "variants" the frequency of B27 was increased (p < 0.001, p corrected < 0.02) especially in those who presented spinal involvement. In psoriatic spondylitis, there was no association between B27 and the spinal involvement (p < 0.01, corrected p < 0.23). PMID:7455599

  3. Is There an HLA-B27 Associated Peptide Responsible for Ankylosin Spondylitis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Man, Petr; Stod?lková, Eva; Ivašková, E.; Flieger, Miroslav

    Praha : Verlag, 2006, s. 96-96. [International Mass Spectrometry Conference /17./. Prague (CZ), 27.08.2006-01.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MZd 1A8631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biomarkers * fourier transform * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  4. Temporal sensitivity changes with extended training in a bisection task in a transgenic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L Brown

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated temporal perception in a Huntington Disease transgenic rat model using a temporal bisection procedure. After initial discrimination training in which animals learned to press one lever after a 2-s tone duration, and the other lever after a 8-s tone duration for food reward, the bisection procedure was implemented in which intermediate durations with no available reinforcement were interspersed with trials with the anchor durations. Bisection tests were repeated in a longitudinal design from 4 to 8 months of age. The results showed that response latencies evolved from a monotonic step-function to an inverted U-shaped function with repeated testing, a precursor of nonresponding on trials with intermediate durations. We inferred that temporal sensitivity and incentive motivation combined to control the transformation of the bisection task from a two-choice task at the outset of testing to a three-choice task with repeated testing. Changes in the structure of the task and/or continued training were accompanied by improvement in temporal sensitivity. In sum, the present data highlight the possible joint roles of temporal and non-temporal factors in the temporal bisection task, and suggested that non-temporal factors may compensate for deficits in temporal processing.

  5. Reduced impact of emotion on choice behavior in presymptomatic BACHD rats, a transgenic rodent model for Huntington Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjeroud, Najia; Yagüe, Sara; Yu-Taeger, Libo; Bozon, Bruno; Leblanc-Veyrac, Pascale; Riess, Olaf; Allain, Philippe; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Doyère, Valérie; El Massioui, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    Executive dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms are hallmarks of Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder genetically characterized by expanded CAG repeats in the HTT gene. Using the BACHD rat model of HD (97 CAG-CAA repeats), the present research seeks to characterize the progressive emergence of decision-making impairments in a rat version of the Iowa Gambling Task (RGT) and the impact of emotional modulation, whether positive or negative, on choice behavior. The choice efficiency shown both by WT rats (independent of their age) and the youngest BACHD rats (2 and 8months old) evidenced that they are able to integrate outcomes of past decisions to determine expected reward values for each option. However, 18months old BACHD rats made fewer choices during the RGT session and were less efficient in choosing advantageous options than younger animals. Presenting either chocolate pellets or electrical footshocks half-way through a second RGT session reduced exploratory activity (inefficient nose-poking) and choices with a weaker effect on BACHD animals than on WT. Choice efficiency was left intact in transgenic rats. Our results bring new knowledge on executive impairments and impact of emotional state on decision-making at different stages of the disease, increasing the face-validity of the BACHD rat model. PMID:26463506

  6. Sustained and promoter dependent bone morphogenetic protein expression by rat mesenchymal stem cells after BMP-2 transgene electrotransfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ferreira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with electrotransferred bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 transgene is an attractive therapeutic modality for the treatment of large bone defects: it provides both stem cells with the ability to form bone and an effective bone inducer while avoiding viral gene transfer. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of the promoter driving the human BMP-2 gene on the level and duration of BMP-2 expression after transgene electrotransfer into rat MSCs. Cytomegalovirus, elongation factor-1?, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and beta-actin promoters resulted in a BMP-2 secretion rate increase of 11-, 78-, 66- and 36-fold over respective controls, respectively. In contrast, the osteocalcin promoter had predictable weak activity in undifferentiated MSCs but induced the strongest BMP-2 secretion rates in osteoblastically-differentiated MSCs. Regardless of the promoter driving the transgene, a plateau of maximal BMP-2 secretion persisted for at least 21 d after the hBMP-2 gene electrotransfer. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of gene electrotransfer for efficient BMP-2 transgene delivery into MSCs and for a three-week sustained BMP-2 expression. It also provides the first in vitro evidence for a safe alternative to viral methods that permit efficient BMP-2 gene delivery and expression in MSCs but raise safety concerns that are critical when considering clinical applications.

  7. Declarative and Procedural Memory Dependent Behavioural Function in a Transgenic Rat Model of Huntington’s Disease: A Novel Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kirch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s Disease (HD is a debilitating disease impacting on the individual’s motor, affective and cognitive function and there are no cures or effective therapies today. The predominant pathological signature of the Huntington’s disease is the early and progressive loss of GABAergic medium spiny projection neurones from within the striatum. However, anatomical and metabolic changes in other regions have been described in asymptomatic, pre-clinical stages of the disease. Deficits in the fronto-striatal loop result in impairment in new learning and cognitive rigidity. These detriments can be offset by compensatory increases in hippocampal based memory systems. We chose to use a transgenic rat model of HD to examine memory capacity and whether this higher order function declines in any way comparable to the changes in declarative and procedural memory observed in HD patients. 40 transgenic rats (tgHD obtained from three pooled litters, comprised of all genotypes, were used in this study. Behavioural tests were conducted at 6-8 months and again at 12-14 months of age. Each behavioural battery of tests consisted of motoric (rotorod, grip strength and cognitive (elevated plus maze, Morris water maze, double-H maze elements. Additionally, 13 of the tgHD rats were examined by PET at 7 and 14 months of age. A dopamine D2-receptor radioligand was employed to examine anatomical and functional data. Overall, transgenic animals demonstrated poorer performance in motoric behavioural tests, as compared to wildtype litter mates. Little or no differences were observed during the first testing session, whereas slight to modest deficiencies were found when the animals were tested at 12-14 months, consistent with reported observations. In contrast, transgenic animals displayed inferior results in cognitive tests already at 6-8 months, which were more pronounced in the second testing session. Transgenic animals were able to learn the tasks, yet showed poor retention over time. They were able to relearn the tasks, albeit at a slower rate than wildtypes. This was most exacerbated in homozygote females. This population also spent larger amounts of time outside of the closed arms in the elevated plus maze, displaying a disturbed sense of anxiety. This likely contributed to the learning / memory deficits observed. PET examination revealed minimal changes (~2-3 % groups homozygotes and wildtype animals at both time points tested. However, one individual showed marked receptor loss (~50 % at 14 months. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis is underway, which will be used to correlate cellular pathology with the behavioural findings. The significance of these results in relation to disease progression will be discussed.

  8. Prostate and mammary adenocarcinoma in transgenic mice carrying a rat C3(1) simian virus 40 large tumor antigen fusion gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Maroulakou, I G; Anver, M; Garrett, L.; Green, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    A transgenic mouse model for prostate and mammary cancer has been developed in mice containing a recombinant gene expressing the simian virus 40 early-region transforming sequences under the regulatory control of the rat prostatic steroid binding protein [C3(1)] gene. Male transgenic mice develop prostatic hyperplasia in early life that progresses to adenoma or adenocarcinoma in most animals surviving to longer than 7 months of age. Prostate cancer metastases to lung have been observed. Femal...

  9. Cardiac remodeling during and after renin-angiotensin system stimulation in Cyp1a1-Ren2 transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijnen, Bart Fj; Pelkmans, Leonie Pj; Danser, Ah Jan; Garrelds, Ingrid M; Mullins, John J; De Mey, Jo Gr; Struijker-Boudier, Harry Aj; Janssen, Ben Ja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-induced cardiac remodeling and its reversibility in the presence and absence of high blood pressure (BP) in Cyp1a1-Ren2 transgenic inducible hypertensive rats (IHR). In IHR (pro)renin levels and BP can be dose-dependently titrated by oral administration of indole-3-carbinol (I3C). Young (four-weeks old) and adult (30-weeks old) IHR were fed I3C for four weeks (leading to systolic BP >200 mmHg). RAS-stimulation was stopped and animals were fo...

  10. Age-related autocrine diabetogenic effects of transgenic resistin in spontaneously hypertensive rats: gene expression profile analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, J.; Maxová, M.; Kazdová, L.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Ch. E.; Eminaga, S.; Gorham, J.; Wang, J.; Kurtz, T. W.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 43, ?. 7 (2011), s. 372-379. ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME08006; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA500110805; GA MZd(CZ) NS9759 Grant ostatní: Fondation Leducq(FR) 06CVD03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : transgenic rat * adipose tissue * insulin resistance * autocrine effects Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.735, year: 2011

  11. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-ying Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BT799 is a genetically modified (GM maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58 at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  12. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of gama-lacI transgenic rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Loli, P.; Hurbánková, M.; Ková?iková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Wolff, T.; Oesterle, D.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 595, - (2006), s. 167-173. ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : transgenic rats * mineral fibres * mutations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.111, year: 2006

  13. Sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 overexpression is associated with reduced adipogenesis and ectopic fat accumulation in transgenic spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Šilhavý, Jan; Trnovská, J.; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 63, ?. 5 (2014), s. 587-590. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH12061 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat * lipid metabolism Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  14. A progressive dopaminergic phenotype associated with neurotoxic conversion of  -synuclein in BAC-transgenic rats

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of soluble ?-synuclein into insoluble and fibrillar inclusions is a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease and other synucleinopathies. Accumulating evidence points towards a relationship between its generation at nerve terminals and structural synaptic pathology. Little is known about the pathogenic impact of ?-synuclein conversion and deposition at nigrostriatal dopaminergic synapses in transgenic mice, mainly owing to expression limitations of the ?-synuclein construct. ...

  15. Increased neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers, and reduced synaptic proteins, in brain of HIV-1 transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Gaylia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment has been reported in human immune deficiency virus-1- (HIV-1- infected patients as well as in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg rats. This impairment has been linked to neuroinflammation, disturbed brain arachidonic acid (AA metabolism, and synapto-dendritic injury. We recently reported upregulated brain AA metabolism in 7- to 9-month-old HIV-1 Tg rats. We hypothesized that these HIV-1 Tg rats also would show upregulated brain inflammatory and AA cascade markers and a deficit of synaptic proteins. Methods We measured protein and mRNA levels of markers of neuroinflammation and the AA cascade, as well as pro-apoptotic factors and synaptic proteins, in brains from 7- to 9-month-old HIV-1 Tg and control rats. Results Compared with control brain, HIV-1 Tg rat brain showed immunoreactivity to glycoprotein 120 and tat HIV-1 viral proteins, and significantly higher protein and mRNA levels of (1 the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor ?, (2 the activated microglial/macrophage marker CD11b, (3 AA cascade enzymes: AA-selective Ca2+-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2-IVA, secretory sPLA2-IIA, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, membrane prostaglandin E2 synthase, 5-lipoxygenase (LOX and 15-LOX, cytochrome p450 epoxygenase, and (4 transcription factor NF-?Bp50 DNA binding activity. HIV-1 Tg rat brain also exhibited signs of cell injury, including significantly decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and drebrin, a marker of post-synaptic excitatory dendritic spines. Expression of Ca2+-independent iPLA2-VIA and COX-1 was unchanged. Conclusions HIV-1 Tg rats show elevated brain markers of neuroinflammation and AA metabolism, with a deficit in several synaptic proteins. These changes are associated with viral proteins and may contribute to cognitive impairment. The HIV-1 Tg rat may be a useful model for understanding progression and treatment of cognitive impairment in HIV-1 patients.

  16. Feasibility study for functional test battery of SOD transgenic rat (H46R) and evaluation of edaravone, a free radical scavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masashi; Warita, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Hideki; Suzuki, Naoki; Yuki, Satoshi; Itoyama, Yasuto

    2011-03-25

    We evaluated a battery of functional tests for investigating the effects of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, in SOD1 transgenic (H46R) rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Edaravone (1.5 or 3.0mg/kg/h) or saline was administered intravenously to rats by continuous infusion (1h per day) for 2days, followed by a 2-day holiday. Lifetime and duration of illness were evaluated, and motor function was assessed using the hind-foot reflex test, landing foot-splay test, rota rod test and inclined plate test at a predetermined time point at which half of the control animals had died. Statistical comparison of motor functions of edaravone-treated and control SOD1 transgenic rats at an objectively determined time point was confirmed to be feasible. Edaravone-treated male rats showed significantly better performance in the landing foot-splay test. The present model seems suitable for evaluating motor function of H46R SOD1 transgenic rats, and be useful for examining the therapeutic potential of edaravone to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:21276427

  17. Primary T-cells from human CD4/CCR5-transgenic rats support all early steps of HIV-1 replication including integration, but display impaired viral gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Volker

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo studies on HIV-1 pathogenesis and testing of antiviral strategies have been hampered by the lack of an immunocompetent small animal model that is highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Since native rodents are non-permissive, we developed transgenic rats that selectively express the HIV-1 receptor complex, hCD4 and hCCR5, on relevant target cells. These animals display a transient low-level plasma viremia after HIV-1YU-2 infection, demonstrating HIV-1 susceptibility in vivo. However, unlike macrophages, primary CD4 T-cells from double-transgenic animals fail to support viral spread ex vivo. To identify quantitative limitations or absolute blocks in this rodent species, we quantitatively assessed the efficiency of key steps in the early phase of the viral replication cycle in a side-by-side comparison in infected cell lines and primary T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5-transgenic rats and human donors. Results Levels of virus entry, HIV-1 cDNA synthesis, nuclear import, and integration into the host genome were shown to be remarkably similar in cell lines and, where technically accessible, in primary T-cells from both species. In contrast, a profound impairment at the level of early HIV gene expression was disclosed at the single-cell level in primary rat T-cells and most other rat-derived cells. Macrophages were a notable exception, possibly reflecting the unique transcriptional milieu in this evolutionarily conserved target cell of all lentiviruses. Importantly, transient trans-complementation by ex vivo nucleofection with the Tat-interacting protein Cyclin T1 of human origin markedly elevated HIV gene expression in primary rat T-cells. Conclusion This is the first study that has quantitatively determined the efficiency of consecutive steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle in infected primary HIV target cells from a candidate transgenic small animal and compared it to human cells. Unlike cells derived from mice or rabbits, rat cells complete all of the early steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle, including provirus integration in vivo, with high efficiency. A deficiency in gene expression was disclosed at the single cell level and could be counteracted by the human pTEFb transcription complex factor Cyclin T1. Collectively, these results provide the basis for the advancement of this transgenic rat model through strategies aimed at boosting HIV-1 gene expression in primary rat CD4 T-cells, including human Cyclin T1 transgenesis.

  18. Suppressed glycolytic metabolism in the prostate of transgenic rats overexpressing calcium-binding protein regucalcin underpins reduced cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Cátia V; Marques, Ricardo; Cardoso, Henrique J; Maia, Cláudio J; Socorro, Sílvia

    2016-04-01

    Regucalcin (RGN) is a calcium-binding protein underexpressed in human prostate cancer cases, and it has been associated with the suppression of cell proliferation and the regulation of several metabolic pathways. On the other hand, it is known that the metabolic reprogramming with augmented glycolytic metabolism and enhanced proliferative capability is a characteristic of prostate cancer cells. The present study investigated the influence of RGN on the glycolytic metabolism of rat prostate by comparing transgenic adult animals overexpressing RGN (Tg-RGN) with their wild-type counterparts. Glucose consumption was significantly decreased in the prostate of Tg-RGN animals relatively to wild-type, and accompanied by the diminished expression of glucose transporter 3 and glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase. Also, prostates of Tg-RGN animals displayed lower lactate levels, which resulted from the diminished expression/activity of lactate dehydrogenase. The expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 4 responsible for the export of lactate to the extracellular space was also diminished with RGN overexpression. These results showed the effect of RGN in inhibiting the glycolytic metabolism in rat prostate, which was underpinned by a reduced cell proliferation index. The present findings also suggest that the loss of RGN may predispose to a hyper glycolytic profile and fostered proliferation of prostate cells. PMID:26553531

  19. HIV-1 transgenic rat CD4+ T cells develop decreased CD28 responsiveness and suboptimal Lck tyrosine dephosphorylation following activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impaired CD4+ T cell responses, resulting in dysregulated T-helper 1 (Th1) effector and memory responses, are a common result of HIV-1 infection. These defects are often preceded by decreased expression and function of the ?/? T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex and of co-stimulatory molecules including CD28, resulting in altered T cell proliferation, cytokine secretion and cell survival. We have previously shown that HIV Tg rats have defective development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets. Here we identify abnormalities in activated HIV-1 Tg rat CD4+ T cells that include decreased pY505 dephosphorylation of Lck (required for Lck activation), decreased CD28 function, reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-xL, decreased secretion of the mitogenic lympokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and increased activation induced apoptosis. These events likely lead to defects in antigen-specific signaling and may help explain the disruption of Th1 responses and the generation of specific effector/memory subsets in transgenic CD4+ T cells

  20. Severely impaired hippocampal neurogenesis associates with an early serotonergic deficit in a BAC ?-synuclein transgenic rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Zacharias; Ben Abdallah, Nada; Vogelgsang, Jonathan; Tischer, Lucas; Deusser, Janina; Amato, Davide; Anderson, Scott; Müller, Christian P; Riess, Olaf; Masliah, Eliezer; Nuber, Silke; Winkler, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem disorder, involving several monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems resulting in a broad range of motor and non-motor symptoms. Pathological hallmarks of PD are the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the accumulation of alpha-synuclein, however also being present in the serotonergic raphe nuclei early in the disease course. The dysfunction of the serotonergic system projecting to the hippocampus may contribute to early non-motor symptoms such as anxiety and depression. The adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), a unique niche of the forebrain continuously generating new neurons, may particularly present enhanced susceptibility towards accumulating alpha-synuclein levels. The underlying molecular mechanisms in the context of neuronal maturation and survival of new-born neurons are yet not well understood. To characterize the effects of overexpression of human full-length alpha-synuclein on hippocampal cellular and synaptic plasticity, we used a recently generated BAC alpha-synuclein transgenic rat model showing important features of PD such as widespread and progressive alpha-synuclein aggregation pathology, dopamine loss and age-dependent motor decline. At the age of four months, thus prior to the occurrence of the motor phenotype, we observed a profoundly impaired dendritogenesis of neuroblasts in the hippocampal DG resulting in severely reduced survival of adult new-born neurons. Diminished neurogenesis concurred with a serotonergic deficit in the hippocampus as defined by reduced levels of serotonin (5-HT) 1B receptor, decreased 5-HT neurotransmitter levels, and a loss of serotonergic nerve terminals innervating the DG/CA3 subfield, while the number of serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei remained unchanged. Moreover, alpha-synuclein overexpression reduced proteins involved in vesicle release, in particular synapsin-1 and Rab3 interacting molecule (RIM3), in conjunction with an altered ultrastructural architecture of hippocampal synapses. Importantly, BAC alpha-synuclein rats showed an early anxiety-like phenotype consisting of reduced exploratory behavior and feeding. Taken together, these findings imply that accumulating alpha-synuclein severely affects hippocampal neurogenesis paralleled by impaired 5-HT neurotransmission prior to the onset of aggregation pathology and overt motor deficits in this transgenic rat model of PD. PMID:26523794

  1. Gene Delivery by Subconjunctival Injection of Adenovirus in Rats: A Study of Local Distribution, Transgene Duration and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia Hui; Tsai, Pei-Jhen; Tsai, Han-En; Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Dusting, Gregory J.; Tai, Ming-Hong; Bee, Youn-Shen

    2015-01-01

    Subconjunctival injection is a minimally invasive route for gene delivery to ocular tissues, but has traditionally been limited to use in the cornea. The accurate ocular distribution of virus has not, however, been previously investigated. Adenovirus is an attractive gene vector as it can deliver large genes and allow for short-term gene expression, but how safe it is when delivered via subconjunctival injection remains to be established. We have characterized the bio-distribution and safety of subconjunctivally administered adenovirus in Brown Norway rats. The bio-distribution and transgene duration of adenovirus carrying luciferase gene (Ad-Luci) at various time intervals were evaluated via bioluminescence imaging after subconjunctival injection. Adenovirus carrying a reporter gene, ?-galactosidase (Ad-LacZ) or hrGFP (Ad-hrGFP) was administered subconjunctivally and the viral distribution in various ocular tissues was assessed by histological analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Hepatic damage was assessed by biochemical and immunohistological analysis with TUNEL stain. Systemic immunogenicity was assessed by measuring serum level of TNF-? via ELISA, 2 hours and 14 days after administration of adenovirus. Retinal function was examined by electroretinography. Subconjunctival injection of Ad-Luci induced luciferase expression in the injected eyes within 24 hours, for at least 64 days. Histological analysis showed adenovirus distributed across anterior and posterior ocular tissues. qPCR demonstrated different amounts of adenovirus in different ocular tissues, with the highest amounts closest to the injection site Unlike the intravenous route, subconjunctivally delivered adenovirus did not elicit any detectable hepatic injury or systemic immunogenicity. Retinal function was unaffected by adenovirus irrespective of administration route. In conclusion, an adenoviral vector administered subconjunctivally can infiltrate into different ocular tissues and lead to short-term ocular transgene expression, without causing hepatic injury and immune activation. Therefore, subconjunctivally administered adenovirus may be a promising gene delivery approach for managing anterior and posterior segment eye diseases requiring short-term therapy. PMID:26642208

  2. Circadian dysfunction in P23H rhodopsin transgenic rats: effects of exogenous melatonin

    OpenAIRE

    Lax Zapata, Pedro; Baño Otalora, Beatriz; Esquiva Sobrino, Gema; Rol de Lama, María de los Ángeles; Madrid Pérez, Juan Antonio; Cuenca Navarro, Nicolás

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of retinal degeneration on the circadian patterns of P23H rats, as well as on the effect of exogenous melatonin administration. To this end, the body temperature of P23H and Sprague–Dawley rats was continuously monitored and their retinas examined at different stages of degeneration, by means of histological labeling and electroretinogram recordings. Melatonin (2 mg/kg BW/day) was supplied ad libitum throughout the experiment to a subset of animals. The body ...

  3. Fumaric Acid Esters Can Block Pro-Inflammatory Actions of Human CRP and Ameliorate Metabolic Disturbances in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Jan; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Oliyarnyk, O.; Škop, V.; Kazdová, L.; Kurtz, T.; Pravenec, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 7 (2014), e101906. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14325; GA MŠk(CZ) LH12061; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : fumaric acid esters * C-reactive protein * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  4. Medial prefrontal cortex neuronal activation and synaptic alterations after stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking: a study using c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cifani, Carlo; Koya, Eisuke; Navarre, Brittany M.; Calu, Donna J.; Baumann, Michael H; Marchant, Nathan J; LIU, QING-RONG; Khuc, Thi; PICKEL, JAMES; Lupica, Carl R.; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T

    2012-01-01

    Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress and there is evidence for a role of ovarian hormones in stress responses and feeding. We studied the role of these hormones in stress-induced reinstatement of food seeking and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activation in c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats, which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in strongly activated neurons. Food-restricted ovariectomized or sham-operated c-fos-GFP rats were trained...

  5. Transgenic rats reveal functional conservation of regulatory controls between the Fugu isotocin and rat oxytocin?genes

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, Byrappa; Si-Hoe, San Ling; Murphy, David; Brenner, Sydney

    1997-01-01

    We have asked whether comparative genome analysis and rat transgenesis can be used to identify functional regulatory domains in the gene locus encoding the hypothalamic neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin. Isotocin (IT) and vasotocin (VT) are the teleost homologues of these genes. A contiguous stretch of 46 kb spanning the Fugu IT-VT locus has been sequenced, and nine putative genes were found. Unlike the OT and vasopressin genes, which are closely linked in the mammalian genome in a ...

  6. NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species production in brain and kidney of adult male hypertensive Ren-2 transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokurková, M; Rauchová, H; ?ezá?ová, L; Van??ková, I; Zicha, J

    2015-12-29

    Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play an important role in brain control of blood pressure (BP). One of the important mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension is the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. The aim of our present study was to investigate NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide (O(2)(-)) production and to search for the signs of lipid peroxidation in hypothalamus and medulla oblongata as well as in renal medulla and cortex of hypertensive male rats transgenic for the murine Ren-2 renin gene (Ren-2 TGR) and their age-matched normotensive controls - Hannover Sprague Dawley rats (HanSD). We found no difference in the activity of NADPH oxidase measured as a lucigenin-mediated O(2)(-) production in the hypothalamus and medulla oblongata. However, we observed significantly elevated NADPH oxidase in both renal cortex and medulla of Ren-2 TGR compared with HanSD. Losartan (LOS) treatment (10 mg/kg body weight/day) for 2 months (Ren-2 TGR+LOS) did not change NADPH oxidase-dependent O(2)(-) production in the kidney. We detected significantly elevated indirect markers of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in Ren-2 TGR, while they were significantly decreased in Ren-2 TGR+LOS. In conclusion, the present study shows increased NADPH oxidase activities in renal cortex and medulla with significantly increased TBARS in renal cortex. No significant changes of NADPH oxidase and markers of lipid peroxidation were detected in the studied brain regions. PMID:26713567

  7. Transgenic rescue of defective Cd36 enhances myocardial adenylyl cyclase signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klevstig, M.; Manakov, D.; Kašparová, D.; Brabcová, I.; Papoušek, František; Žurmanová, J.; Zídek, Václav; Šilhavý, Jan; Necká?, Jan; Pravenec, Michal; Kolá?, František; Nováková, O.; Novotný, J.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 465, ?. 10 (2013), s. 1477-1486. ISSN 0031-6768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA AV ?R(CZ) IAAX01110901; GA ?R(CZ) GAP303/10/0505 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : SHR rats * Cd36 * heart * beta-Adrenergic receptors * Adenylyl cyclase * Protein kinase A Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.073, year: 2013

  8. Dual-Reporter ?-Cell-Specific Male Transgenic Rats for the Analysis of ?-Cell Functional Mass and Enrichment by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislain, Julien; Fontés, Ghislaine; Tremblay, Caroline; Kebede, Melkam A; Poitout, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Mouse ?-cell-specific reporter lines have played a key role in diabetes research. Although the rat provides several advantages, its use has lagged behind the mouse due to the relative paucity of genetic models. In this report we describe the generation and characterization of transgenic rats expressing a Renilla luciferase (RLuc)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusion under control of a 9-kb genomic fragment from the rat ins2 gene (RIP7-RLuc-YFP). Analysis of RLuc luminescence and YFP fluorescence revealed that reporter expression is restricted to ?-cells in the adult rat. Physiological characteristics including body weight, fat and lean mass, fasting and fed glucose levels, glucose and insulin tolerance, and ?-cell mass were similar between two RIP7-RLuc-YFP lines and wild-type littermates. Glucose-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets was indistinguishable from controls in one of the lines, whereas surprisingly, insulin secretion was defective in the second line. Consequently, subsequent studies were limited to the former line. We asked whether transgene activity was responsive to glucose as shown previously for the ins2 gene. Exposing islets ex vivo to high glucose (16.7 mM) or in vivo infusion of glucose for 24 hours increased luciferase activity in islets, whereas the fraction of YFP-positive ?-cells after glucose infusion was unchanged. Finally, we showed that fluorescence-activated cell sorting of YFP-positive islet cells can be used to enrich for ?-cells. Overall, this transgenic line will enable for the first time the application of both fluorescence and bioluminescence/luminescence-based approaches for the study of rat ?-cells. PMID:26671180

  9. Cardiac remodeling during and after renin-angiotensin system stimulation in Cyp1a1-Ren2 transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijnen, Bart Fj; Pelkmans, Leonie Pj

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-induced cardiac remodeling and its reversibility in the presence and absence of high blood pressure (BP) in Cyp1a1-Ren2 transgenic inducible hypertensive rats (IHR). In IHR (pro)renin levels and BP can be dose-dependently titrated by oral administration of indole-3-carbinol (I3C). Young (four-weeks old) and adult (30-weeks old) IHR were fed I3C for four weeks (leading to systolic BP >200 mmHg). RAS-stimulation was stopped and animals were followed-up for a consecutive period. Cardiac function and geometry was determined echocardiographically and the hearts were excised for molecular and immunohistochemical analyses. Echocardiographic studies revealed that four weeks of RAS-stimulation incited a cardiac remodeling process characterized by increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, decreased LV volumes, and shortening of the left ventricle. Hypertrophic genes were highly upregulated, whereas in substantial activation a fibrotic response was absent. Four weeks after withdrawal of I3C, (pro)renin levels were normalized in all IHR. While in adult IHR BP returned to normal, hypertension was sustained in young IHR. Despite the latter, myocardial hypertrophy was fully regressed in both young and adult IHR. We conclude that (pro)renin-induced severe hypertension in IHR causes an age-independent fully reversible myocardial concentric hypertrophic remodeling, despite a continued elevated BP in young IHR.

  10. Multi-Shell Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI) at 7 Tesla in TgF344-AD Transgenic Alzheimer Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jacobs, Russell E.; Weitz, Tara M.; Town, Terrence C.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is widely used to study microstructural characteristics of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-angular resolution imaging (HARDI) are frequently used in radiology and neuroscience research but can be limited in describing the signal behavior in composite nerve fiber structures. Here, we developed and assessed the benefit of a comprehensive diffusion encoding scheme, known as hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI), composed of 300 DWI volumes acquired at 7-Tesla with diffusion weightings at b = 1000, 3000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 s/mm2 and applied it in transgenic Alzheimer rats (line TgF344-AD) that model the full clinico-pathological spectrum of the human disease. We studied and visualized the effects of the multiple concentric “shells” when computing three distinct anisotropy maps–fractional anisotropy (FA), generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and normalized quantitative anisotropy (NQA). We tested the added value of the multi-shell q-space sampling scheme, when reconstructing neural pathways using mathematical frameworks from DTI and q-ball imaging (QBI). We show a range of properties of HYDI, including lower apparent anisotropy when using high b-value shells in DTI-based reconstructions, and increases in apparent anisotropy in QBI-based reconstructions. Regardless of the reconstruction scheme, HYDI improves FA-, GFA- and NQA-aided tractography. HYDI may be valuable in human connectome projects and clinical research, as well as magnetic resonance research in experimental animals. PMID:26683657

  11. A Phox2b BAC Transgenic Rat Line Useful for Understanding Respiratory Rhythm Generator Neural Circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Keiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Sato, Shigeru; Igarashi, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Arata, Satoru; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Onimaru, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The key role of the respiratory neural center is respiratory rhythm generation to maintain homeostasis through the control of arterial blood pCO2/pH and pO2 levels. The neuronal network responsible for respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal rat resides in the ventral side of the medulla and is composed of two groups; the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) and the pre-Bötzinger complex group (preBötC). The pFRG partially overlaps in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), which was originally id...

  12. Plasmid-based genetic modification of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells: analysis of cell survival and transgene expression after transplantation in rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tendeloo Viggo FI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSC are attractive targets for ex vivo cell and gene therapy. In this context, we investigated the feasibility of a plasmid-based strategy for genetic modification of human (hMSC with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and neurotrophin (NT3. Three genetically modified hMSC lines (EGFP, NT3, NT3-EGFP were established and used to study cell survival and transgene expression following transplantation in rat spinal cord. Results First, we demonstrate long-term survival of transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells in rat spinal cord under, but not without, appropriate immune suppression. Next, we examined the stability of EGFP or NT3 transgene expression following transplantation of hMSC-EGFP, hMSC-NT3 and hMSC-NT3-EGFP in rat spinal cord. While in vivo EGFP mRNA and protein expression by transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells was readily detectable at different time points post-transplantation, in vivo NT3 mRNA expression by hMSC-NT3 cells and in vivo EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells was, respectively, undetectable or declined rapidly between day 1 and 7 post-transplantation. Further investigation revealed that the observed in vivo decline of EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells: (i was associated with a decrease in transgenic NT3-EGFP mRNA expression as suggested following laser capture micro-dissection analysis of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell transplants at day 1 and day 7 post-transplantation, (ii did not occur when hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells were transplanted subcutaneously, and (iii was reversed upon re-establishment of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell cultures at 2 weeks post-transplantation. Finally, because we observed a slowly progressing tumour growth following transplantation of all our hMSC cell transplants, we here demonstrate that omitting immune suppressive therapy is sufficient to prevent further tumour growth and to eradicate malignant xenogeneic cell transplants. Conclusion In this study, we demonstrate that genetically modified hMSC lines can survive in healthy rat spinal cord over at least 3 weeks by using adequate immune suppression and can serve as vehicles for transgene expression. However, before genetically modified hMSC can potentially be used in a clinical setting to treat spinal cord injuries, more research on standardisation of hMSC culture and genetic modification needs to be done in order to prevent tumour formation and transgene silencing in vivo.

  13. Peptides from HLA-B27 molecules of patients with ankylosing spondylitis reveal increased glutamic acid/glutamine ratio.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stod?lková, Eva; Ivašková, E.; Sedlá?ková, M.; Pohl, J.; Votruba, Jaroslav; Man, Petr; ?apková, Jana; Ivanyi, J.; Flieger, Miroslav

    Oslo : Verlag, 2006, s. 12-12. [European Immunogenetics and Histocompatibility conference /20./. Oslo (NO), 08.06.2006-11.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA MZd 1A8631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : sped * peptide Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. Transgenic mouse lines expressing rat AH receptor variants - A new animal model for research on AH receptor function and dioxin toxicity mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W) rats are exceptionally resistant to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity mainly because of their mutated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene. In H/W rats, altered splicing of the AHR mRNA generates two AHR proteins: deletion (DEL) and insertion (INS) variants, with the INS isoform being predominantly expressed. To gain further insight into their functional properties, cDNAs of these and rat wild-type (rWT) isoform were transferred into C57BL/6J-derived mice by microinjection. The endogenous mouse AHR was eliminated by selective crossing with Ahr-null mice. A single mouse line was obtained for each of the three constructs. The AHR mRNA levels in tissues were generally close to those of C57BL/6 mice in INS and DEL mice and somewhat higher in rWT mice; in testis, however, all 3 constructs exhibited marked overexpression. The transgenic mouse lines were phenotypically normal except for increased testis weight. Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes by TCDD occurred similarly to that in C57BL/6 mice, but there tended to be a correlation with AHR concentrations, especially in testis. In contrast to C57BL/6 mice, the transgenics did not display any major gender difference in susceptibility to the acute lethality and hepatotoxicity of TCDD; rWT mice were highly sensitive, DEL mice moderately resistant and INS mice highly resistant. Co-expression of mouse AHR and rWT resulted in augmented sensitivity to TCDD and abolished the natural resistance of female C57BL/6 mice, whereas mice co-expressing mouse AHR and INS were resistant. Thus, these transgenic mouse lines provide a novel promising tool for molecular studies on dioxin toxicity and AHR function.

  15. Increased Sensitivity to Cocaine Self-Administration in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats is Associated with Changes in Striatal Dopamine Transporter Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Scot; Sexton, Tammy; Pattison, Lindsey P; Childers, Steven R; Hemby, Scott E

    2015-09-01

    Cocaine abuse in HIV patients accelerates the progression and severity of neuropathology, motor impairment and cognitive dysfunction compared to non-drug using HIV patients. Cocaine and HIV interact with the dopamine transporter (DAT); however, the effect of their interaction on DAT binding remains understudied. The present study compared the dose-response functions for intravenous self-administration of cocaine and heroin between male HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1 Tg) and Fischer 344 rats. The cocaine and heroin dose-response functions exhibit an inverted U-shape for both HIV-1 Tg and F344 rats. For cocaine, the number of infusions for each dose on the ascending limb was greater for HIV-1 Tg versus F344 rats. No significant changes in the heroin dose-response function were observed in HIV-1 Tg animals. Following the conclusion of self-administration experiments, DAT binding was assessed in striatal membranes. Saturation binding of the cocaine analog [(125)I] 3?-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2?-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([(125)I]RTI-55) in rat striatal membranes resulted in binding curves that were best fit to a two-site binding model, allowing for calculation of dissociation constant (Kd) and binding density (Bmax) values that correspond to high- and low-affinity DAT binding sites. Control HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited a significantly greater affinity (i.e., decrease in Kd value) in the low-affinity DAT binding site compared to control F344 rats. Furthermore, cocaine self-administration in HIV-1 Tg rats increased low-affinity Kd (i.e., decreased affinity) compared to levels observed in control F344 rats. Cocaine also increased low-affinity Bmax in HIV-1 Tg rats as compared to controls, indicating an increase in the number of low-affinity DAT binding sites. F344 rats did not exhibit any change in high- or low-affinity Kd or Bmax values following cocaine or heroin self-administration. The increase in DAT affinity in cocaine HIV-1 Tg rats is consistent with the leftward shift of the ascending limb of the cocaine dose-response curve observed in HIV-1 Tg vs. F344 rats, and has major implications for the function of cocaine binding to DAT in HIV patients. The absence of HIV-related changes in heroin intake are likely due to less dopaminergic involvement in the mediation of heroin reward, further emphasizing the preferential influence of HIV on dopamine-related behaviors. PMID:25749646

  16. Fluorescent Visualisation of Oxytocin in the Hypothalamo-neurohypophysial/-spinal Pathways After Chronic Inflammation in Oxytocin-Monomeric Red Fluorescent Protein 1 Transgenic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, T; Kawasaki, M; Hashimoto, H; Ishikura, T; Yoshimura, M; Ohkubo, J-I; Maruyama, T; Motojima, Y; Sabanai, K; Mori, T; Ohnishi, H; Sakai, A; Ueta, Y

    2015-07-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a well-known neurohypophysial hormone that is synthesised in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the hypothalamus. The projection of magnocellular neurosecretory cells, which synthesise OXT and arginine vasopressin in the PVN and SON, to the posterior pituitary plays an essential role in mammalian labour and lactation through its peripheral action. However, previous studies have shown that parvocellular OXTergic cells in the PVN, which project to the medulla and spinal cord, are involved in various physiological functions (e.g. sensory modulation and autonomic). In the present study, we examined OXT expression in the PVN, SON and spinal cord after chronic inflammation from adjuvant arthritis (AA). We used transgenic rats that express OXT and the monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion gene to visualise both the magnocellular and parvocellular OXTergic pathways. OXT-mRFP1 fluorescence intensity was significantly increased in the PVN, SON, dorsal horn of the spinal cord and posterior pituitary in AA rats. The levels of OXT-mRFP1 mRNA were significantly increased in the PVN and SON of AA rats. These results suggested that OXT was up-regulated in both hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and parvocellular cells by chronic inflammation, and also that OXT in the PVN-spinal pathway may be involved in sensory modulation. OXT-mRFP1 transgenic rats are a very useful model for visualising the OXTergic pathways from vesicles in a single cell to terminals in in vitro preparations. PMID:25943916

  17. Human cyclin T1 expression ameliorates a T-cell-specific transcriptional limitation for HIV in transgenic rats, but is not sufficient for a spreading infection of prototypic R5 HIV-1 strains ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman Dan R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cells derived from native rodents have limits at distinct steps of HIV replication. Rat primary CD4 T-cells, but not macrophages, display a profound transcriptional deficit that is ameliorated by transient trans-complementation with the human Tat-interacting protein Cyclin T1 (hCycT1. Results Here, we generated transgenic rats that selectively express hCycT1 in CD4 T-cells and macrophages. hCycT1 expression in rat T-cells boosted early HIV gene expression to levels approaching those in infected primary human T-cells. hCycT1 expression was necessary, but not sufficient, to enhance HIV transcription in T-cells from individual transgenic animals, indicating that endogenous cellular factors are critical co-regulators of HIV gene expression in rats. T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5/hCycT1-transgenic rats did not support productive infection of prototypic wild-type R5 HIV-1 strains ex vivo, suggesting one or more significant limitation in the late phase of the replication cycle in this primary rodent cell type. Remarkably, we identify a replication-competent HIV-1 GFP reporter strain (R7/3 YU-2 Env that displays characteristics of a spreading, primarily cell-to-cell-mediated infection in primary T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5-transgenic rats. Moreover, the replication of this recombinant HIV-1 strain was significantly enhanced by hCycT1 transgenesis. The viral determinants of this so far unique replicative ability are currently unknown. Conclusion Thus, hCycT1 expression is beneficial to de novo HIV infection in a transgenic rat model, but additional genetic manipulations of the host or virus are required to achieve full permissivity.

  18. Adeno-associated viral vector serotypes 1 and 5 targeted to the neonatal rat and pig striatum induce widespread transgene expression in the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Stott, Simon R W

    2010-01-01

    Viral vector-mediated gene transfer has emerged as a powerful means to target transgene expression in the central nervous system. Here we characterized the efficacy of serotypes 1 and 5 recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) after stereotaxic delivery to the neonatal rat and minipig striatum. The efficiency of GFP expression and the phenotype of GFP-positive cells were assessed within the forebrain at different time points up to 12 months after surgery. Both rAAV1-GFP and rAAV5-GFP delivery resulted in transduction of the striatum as well as striatal input and output areas, including large parts of the cortex. In both species, rAAV5 resulted in a more widespread transgene expression compared to rAAV1. In neonatal rats, rAAV5 also transduced several other areas such as the olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, and septum. Phenotypic analysis of the GFP-positive cells, performed using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, showed that most of the GFP-positive cells by either serotype were NeuN-positive neuronal profiles. The rAAV5 vector further displayed the ability to transduce non-neuronal cell types in both rats and pigs, albeit at a low frequency. Our results show that striatal delivery of rAAV5 vectors in the neonatal brain represents a useful tool to express genes of interest both in the basal ganglia and the neocortex. Furthermore, we apply, for the first time, viral vector-mediated gene transfer to the pig brain providing the opportunity to study effects of genetic manipulation in this non-primate large animal species. Finally, we generated an atlas of the Göttingen minipig brain for guiding future studies in this large animal species.

  19. Human cyclin T1 expression ameliorates a T-cell-specific transcriptional limitation for HIV in transgenic rats, but is not sufficient for a spreading infection of prototypic R5 HIV-1 strains ex vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Littman Dan R; Saifuddin Mohammed; KewalRamani Vineet N; Allespach Ina; Ganter Kerstin; Goffinet Christine; Michel Nico; Greene Warner C; Goldsmith Mark A; Keppler Oliver T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cells derived from native rodents have limits at distinct steps of HIV replication. Rat primary CD4 T-cells, but not macrophages, display a profound transcriptional deficit that is ameliorated by transient trans-complementation with the human Tat-interacting protein Cyclin T1 (hCycT1). Results Here, we generated transgenic rats that selectively express hCycT1 in CD4 T-cells and macrophages. hCycT1 expression in rat T-cells boosted early HIV gene expression to levels approa...

  20. Astrocytes and Müller cells changes during retinal degeneration in a transgenic rat model of retinitis pigmentosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pinilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Retinitis pigmentosa includes a group of progressive retinal degenerative diseases that affect the structure and function of photoreceptors. Secondarily to the loss of photoreceptors, there is a reduction in retinal vascularization, which seems to influence the cellular degenerative process. Retinal macroglial cells, astrocytes and Müller cells provide support for retinal neurons and are fundamental for maintaining normal retinal function. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of macroglial changes during retinal degeneration in P23H rats. Methods: Homozygous P23H line-3 rats aged from P18 to 18 months were used to study the evolution of the disease, and SD rats were used as controls. Immunolabeling with antibodies against GFAP, vimentin, and transducin were used to visualize macroglial cells and cone photoreceptors. Results: In P23H rats, increased GFAP labeling in Müller cells was observed as an early indicator of retinal gliosis. At 4 and 12 months of age, the apical processes of Müller cells in P23H rats clustered in firework-like structures, which were associated with ring-like shaped areas of cone degeneration in the outer nuclear layer. These structures were not observed at 16 months of age. The number of astrocytes was higher in P23H rats than in the SD matched controls at 4 and 12 months of age, supporting the idea of astrocyte proliferation. As the disease progressed, astrocytes exhibited a deteriorated morphology and marked hypertrophy. The increase in the complexity of the astrocytic processes correlated with greater connexin 43 expression and higher density of connexin 43 immunoreactive puncta within the ganglion cell layer of P23H versus SD rat retinas. Conclusions: In the P23H rat model of retinitis pigmentosa, the loss of photoreceptors triggers major changes in the number and morphology of glial cells affecting the inner retina.

  1. Transgenic tea

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Amita; Saini, U.; Ahuja, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    Like most of the important crop plants of the world, transgenic technology has also been extended to tea. Both biolistic and Agrobacterium mediated transformation methods have been employed to transform explants like leaves and somatic embryos. While gusand nptil genes were used to optimize parameters and develop protocols for transgenic production, plants expressing stress tolerance genes (osmotin) have also been produced. These methods have opened a whole new era for developing tea plants a...

  2. Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis and ameliorates Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling in transgenic rats harboring human renin and angiotensinogen genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biala, Agnieszka; Tauriainen, Eveliina; Siltanen, Antti; Shi, Jin; Merasto, Saara; Louhelainen, Marjut; Martonen, Essi; Finckenberg, Piet; Muller, Dominik N; Mervaala, Eero

    2010-06-01

    There is compelling evidence to indicate an important role for increased local renin-angiotensin system activity in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that activates SIRT1, a novel cardioprotective and longevity factor having NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase activity. We tested the hypothesis whether resveratrol could prevent from angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiovascular damage. Four-week-old double transgenic rats harboring human renin and human angiotensinogen genes (dTGR) were treated for 4 weeks either with SIRT1 activator resveratrol or SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Untreated dTGR and their normotensive Sprague-Dawley control rats (SD) received vehicle. Untreated dTGR developed severe hypertension as well as cardiac hypertrophy, and showed pronounced cardiovascular mortality compared with normotensive SD rats. Resveratrol slightly but significantly decreased blood pressure, ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy and prevented completely Ang II-induced mortality, whereas nicotinamide increased blood pressure without significantly influencing cardiac hypertrophy or survival. Resveratrol decreased cardiac ANP mRNA expression and induced cardiac mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC-1alpha), mitochondrial transcription factor (Tfam), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 (cox4). Resveratrol dose-dependently increased SIRT1 activity in vitro. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of SIRT1 activator resveratrol on Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling are mediated by blood pressure-dependent pathways and are linked to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:20429690

  3. Regressive and reactive changes in the connectivity patterns of rod and cone pathways of P23H transgenic rat retina

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca Navarro, Nicolás; Pinilla Lozano, Isabel; Sauvé, Yves; Lu, B; Wang, Shaomei; Lund, Raymond D.

    2004-01-01

    We have used the P23H line 1 homozygous albino rat to study how progressive photoreceptor degeneration affects rod and cone relay pathways. We examined P23H retinas at different stages of degeneration by confocal microscopy of immunostained sections and electroretinogram (ERG) recordings. By 21 days of age in the P23H rat retina, there is already substantial loss of rods and reduction in rod bipolar dendrites along with reduction of metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) and rod-assoc...

  4. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  5. Nogo-A-deficient transgenic rats show deficits in higher cognitive functions, decreased anxiety and altered circadian activity patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Petrasek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decreased levels of Nogo-A dependent signaling have been shown to affect behavior and cognitive functions. In Nogo-A knockout and knock-down laboratory rodents, behavioral alterations were observed, possibly corresponding with human neuropsychiatric diseases of neurodevelopmental origin, particularly schizophrenia. This study offers further insight into behavioral manifestations of Nogo-A knockdown in laboratory rats, focusing on spatial and non-spatial cognition, anxiety levels, circadian rhythmicity and activity patterns. Demonstrated is an impairment of cognitive functions and behavioral flexibility in a spatial active avoidance task, while non-spatial memory in a step-through avoidance task was spared. No signs of anhedonia, typical for schizophrenic patients, were observed in the animals. Some measures indicated lower anxiety levels in the Nogo-A deficient group. Circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity was preserved in the Nogo-A-knockout rats and their circadian period (tau did not differ from controls. However, daily activity patterns were slightly altered in the knockdown animals. We conclude that a reduction of Nogo-A levels induces changes in CNS development, manifested as subtle alterations in cognitive functions, emotionality and activity patterns.

  6. Effects of neutrophils peptide-1 transgenic Chlorella ellipsoidea on the gut microbiota of male Sprague-Dawley rats, as revealed by high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingzhang; Bao, Qi; Chen, Siyuan; Cui, Xingtian; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Luo, Yunbo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun

    2016-03-01

    Rabbit neutrophils peptide-1 (NP-1) is a type of defensin that possesses a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Chlorella ellipsoidea is a new eukaryotic expression system for exogenously producing NP-1. The NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea can be directly added into feed as antimicrobial agent without any purification procedure for the NP-1 peptide. However, the effects of C. ellipsoidea and NP-1 on the host gut microbiota should be explored before application. In this study, diets containing different concentrations (1.25, 2.5, and 5 %) of C. ellipsoidea and NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea were administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with the chow diet control group, none of the experimental groups showed any significant differences in their growth indices, and no histopathological damage was observed. The phylotypes of gut microbiota in the control group, the 5 % C. ellipsoidea diet group and the 5 % NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea diet group were determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that both 5 % experimental groups had shifted community memberships of gut microbiota. In particular, the 5 % NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea diet exhibited an increased abundance of most Gram-positive bacterial taxa and a reduced abundance of most Gram-negative bacterial taxa, and it promoted the growth of some lactic acid bacterial genera. Lactic acid bacteria, especially the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, have been widely reported to be benefic effects on the host. Thus NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea is promising feed additive and gut regulator, as it have the potential to increase the abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in gut microbiota of animal. PMID:26873554

  7. Peptides eluted from HLA-B27 of human splenocytes and blood cells reveal a similar but partially different profile compared to in vitro grown cell lines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stod?lková, Eva; Man, Petr; Pohl, J.; Nguyen, V. D.; Vaingátová, Silvie; Ivašková, E.; Pla, M.; ?apková, Jana; Sedlá?ková, M.; Ivanyi, P.; Flieger, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 94, - (2004), s. 261-265. ISSN 0165-2478 R&D Projects: GA MZd NI7327 Keywords : hla-b*2705 * peptide profile * lc-ms/ms analysis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.136, year: 2004

  8. HLA-B27 and gender independently determine the likelihood of a positive MRI of the sacroiliac joints in patients with early inflammatory back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Onna, M; Jurik, A G; van der Heijde, D; van Tubergen, A; Heuft-Dorenbosch, L; Landewé, R

    2011-01-01

    To describe how inflammation on MRI of the sacroiliac joints in patients with recent-onset inflammatory back pain (IBP) evolves over time, and to study determinants of activity on MRI of the sacroiliac joint.

  9. Neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a short review that introduces recent advances of neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies. The anatomical complexity of the nervous system remains a subject of tremendous fascination among neuroscientists. In order to tackle this extraordinary complexity, powerful transgenic technologies a...

  10. Administration of 4-(?-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate delays disease phenotype in SOD1(G93A) rats: a transgenic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuppo, Maria; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Iori, Renato; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    4-(?-L-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin, GMG) is a compound found in Moringa oleifera seeds. Myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis at neutral pH of GMG releases the biologically active compound 4-(?-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC). The present study was designed to test the potential therapeutic effectiveness of GMG-ITC to counteract the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using SOD1tg rats, which physiologically develops SOD1(G93A) at about 16 weeks of life, and can be considered a genetic model of disease. Rats were treated once a day with GMG (10?mg/Kg) bioactivated with myrosinase (20?µL/rat) via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection for two weeks before disease onset and the treatment was prolonged for further two weeks before the sacrifice. Immune-inflammatory markers as well as apoptotic pathway were investigated to establish whether GMG-ITC could represent a new promising tool in clinical practice to prevent ALS. Achieved data display clear differences in molecular and biological profiles between treated and untreated SOD1tg rats leading to guessing that GMG-ITC can interfere with the pathophysiological mechanisms at the basis of ALS development. Therefore, GMG-ITC produced from myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of pure GMG could be a candidate for further studies aimed to assess its possible use in clinical practice for the prevention or to slow down this disease. PMID:26075221

  11. Administration of 4-(?-L-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl Isothiocyanate Delays Disease Phenotype in SOD1G93A Rats: A Transgenic Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    4-(?-L-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin, GMG) is a compound found in Moringa oleifera seeds. Myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis at neutral pH of GMG releases the biologically active compound 4-(?-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC). The present study was designed to test the potential therapeutic effectiveness of GMG-ITC to counteract the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using SOD1tg rats, which physiologically develops SOD1G93A at about 16 weeks of life, and can be considered a genetic model of disease. Rats were treated once a day with GMG (10?mg/Kg) bioactivated with myrosinase (20?µL/rat) via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection for two weeks before disease onset and the treatment was prolonged for further two weeks before the sacrifice. Immune-inflammatory markers as well as apoptotic pathway were investigated to establish whether GMG-ITC could represent a new promising tool in clinical practice to prevent ALS. Achieved data display clear differences in molecular and biological profiles between treated and untreated SOD1tg rats leading to guessing that GMG-ITC can interfere with the pathophysiological mechanisms at the basis of ALS development. Therefore, GMG-ITC produced from myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of pure GMG could be a candidate for further studies aimed to assess its possible use in clinical practice for the prevention or to slow down this disease. PMID:26075221

  12. Epithelial cell differentiation in normal and transgenic mouse intestinal isografts

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Transgenes consisting of segments of the rat liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene's 5' non-transcribed domain linked to the human growth hormone (hGH) gene (minus its regulatory elements) have provided useful tools for analyzing the mechanisms that regulate cellular and spatial differentiation of the continuously renewing gut epithelium. We have removed the jejunum from normal and transgenic fetal mice before or coincident with, cytodifferentiation of its epithelium. These segments ...

  13. Analysis of gene expression changes in relation to toxicity and tumorigenesis in the livers of Big Blue transgenic rats fed comfrey (Symphytum officinale)

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Nan; Guo Lei; Zhang Lu; Shi Leming; Sun Yongming; Fung Chris; Moland Carrie L; Dial Stacey L; Fuscoe James C; Chen Tao

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Comfrey is consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea, and has been used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, is hepatotoxic in livestock and humans and carcinogenic in experimental animals. Our previous study suggested that comfrey induces liver tumors by a genotoxic mechanism and that the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant are responsible for mutation induction and tumor initiation in rat liver. Results In this study, we identified comfrey...

  14. Phytoremediation with transgenic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuke, A.D.; Rennenberg, H. [Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie, Professur fuer Baumphysiologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    In the present paper actual trends in the use of transgenic trees for phytoremediation of contaminated soils are reviewed. In this context a current field trial in which transgenic poplars with enhanced GSH synthesis and hence elevated capacity for phytochelatin production are compared with wildtype plants for the removal of heavy metals at different levels of contamination and under different climatic conditions. The studies are carried out with grey poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba), wildtype plants and plants overexpressing the gene for {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gshI) from E. coli in the cytosol. The expression of this gene in poplar leads to two- to four-fold enhanced GSH concentrations in the leaves. In greenhouse experiments under controlled conditions these transgenic poplars showed a high potential for uptake and detoxification of heavy metals and pesticides. This capacity is evaluated in field experiments. Further aims of the project are to elucidate (a) the stability of the transgene under field conditions and (b) the possibility of horizontal gene transfer to microorganisms in the rhizosphere. The results will help to assess the biosafety risk of the use of transgenic poplar for phytoremediation of soils. (orig.)

  15. Transgenic animal models for the functional analysis of vasoactive peptides

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Bader.

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of vasoactive peptide systems is an essential determinant of blood pressure regulation in mammals. While the endothelin and the renin-angiotensin systems raise blood pressure by inducing vasoconstriction and sodium retention, the kallikrein-kinin and the natriuretic-peptide systems red [...] uce arterial pressure by eliciting vasodilatation and natriuresis. Transgenic technology has proven to be very useful for the functional analysis of vasoactive peptide systems. As an outstanding example, transgenic rats overexpressing the mouse Ren-2 renin gene in several tissues become extremely hypertensive. Several other transgenic rat and mouse strains with genetic modifications of components of the renin-angiotensin system have been developed in the past decade. Moreover, in recent years gene-targeting technology was employed to produce mouse strains lacking these proteins. The established animal models as well as the main insights gained by their analysis are summarized in this review.

  16. Transgenic animal models for the functional analysis of vasoactive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bader

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of vasoactive peptide systems is an essential determinant of blood pressure regulation in mammals. While the endothelin and the renin-angiotensin systems raise blood pressure by inducing vasoconstriction and sodium retention, the kallikrein-kinin and the natriuretic-peptide systems reduce arterial pressure by eliciting vasodilatation and natriuresis. Transgenic technology has proven to be very useful for the functional analysis of vasoactive peptide systems. As an outstanding example, transgenic rats overexpressing the mouse Ren-2 renin gene in several tissues become extremely hypertensive. Several other transgenic rat and mouse strains with genetic modifications of components of the renin-angiotensin system have been developed in the past decade. Moreover, in recent years gene-targeting technology was employed to produce mouse strains lacking these proteins. The established animal models as well as the main insights gained by their analysis are summarized in this review.

  17. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of recombinant DNA technology has enabled scientists to isolate single genes, analyze and modify their nucleotide structure(s), make copies of these isolated genes, and insert copies of these genes into the genome of plants and animals. The transgenic technology of adding genes to li...

  18. Calcium electrotransfer for termination of transgene expression in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Spanggaard, Iben

    2011-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer is expanding in clinical use, thus we have searched for an emergency procedure to stop transgene expression in case of serious adverse events. Calcium is cytotoxic at high intracellular levels, so we tested effects of calcium electrotransfer on transgene expression in muscle. A clinical grade calcium solution (20 ?l, 168 mM) was injected into transfected mouse or rat tibialis cranialis muscle. Ca(2+) uptake was quantified using calcium 45 ((45)Ca), and voltage and time between injection and pulsation were varied. Extinction of transgene expression was investigated by using both in vivo imaging of infrared fluorescent "Katushka" and erythropoietin evaluated by ELISA and hemoglobin. Histology was performed. Electrotransfer of Katushka and erythropoietin yielded significant expression. Maximal calcium uptake occurred after injection of Ca(2+) before electropulsing using eight high voltage pulses of 1000 V/cm. Using these parameters, in vivo imaging showed that transgene expression significantly decreased 4 hr after Ca(2+) electrotransfer and was eliminated within 24 hr. Similarly, serum erythropoietin was reduced by 46% at 4 hr and to control levels at 2 days. Histological analyses showed muscle damage and subsequent regeneration. Electrotransfer of isotonic CaCl(2) terminates transgenic protein expression in muscles and may be used for contingency elimination of transgene expression.

  19. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  20. Peptide-binding motifs associated with MHC molecules common in Chinese rhesus macaques are analogous to those of human HLA supertypes and include HLA-B27-like alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mothé, Bianca R.; Southwood, Scott; Sidney, John; English, A. Michelle; Wriston, Amanda; Hoof, Ilka; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Sette, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    they may be a better model for HIV. Nevertheless, the specific mechanism(s) accounting for these kinetics remains unclear. The study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, including their MHC/peptide-binding motifs, provides valuable information for measuring cellular immune responses and...... deciphering outcomes of infection and vaccine efficacy. In this study, we have provided detailed characterization of six prevalent Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I alleles, yielding a combined phenotypic frequency of 29 %. The peptide-binding specificity of two of these alleles, Mamu-A2*01:02 and Mamu-B*010...... AIDS in humans. All six alleles characterized in the present study were found to have specificities analogous to HLA supertype alleles. These data contribute to the concept that Chinese rhesus macaque MHC immunogenetics is more similar to HLA than their Indian rhesus macaque counterparts and thereby...

  1. Calcium electrotransfer for termination of transgene expression in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Spanggaard, Iben; Olsen, Caroline Holkman; Gehl, Julie; Gissel, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    in vivo imaging of infrared fluorescent "Katushka" and erythropoietin evaluated by ELISA and hemoglobin. Histology was performed. Electrotransfer of Katushka and erythropoietin yielded significant expression. Maximal calcium uptake occurred after injection of Ca(2+) before electropulsing using eight......Gene electrotransfer is expanding in clinical use, thus we have searched for an emergency procedure to stop transgene expression in case of serious adverse events. Calcium is cytotoxic at high intracellular levels, so we tested effects of calcium electrotransfer on transgene expression in muscle. A...... clinical grade calcium solution (20 ?l, 168 mM) was injected into transfected mouse or rat tibialis cranialis muscle. Ca(2+) uptake was quantified using calcium 45 ((45)Ca), and voltage and time between injection and pulsation were varied. Extinction of transgene expression was investigated by using both...

  2. Calcium electrotransfer for termination of transgene expression in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Spanggaard, Iben; Olsen, Caroline Holkman; Gehl, Julie; Gissel, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    in vivo imaging of infrared fluorescent "Katushka" and erythropoietin evaluated by ELISA and hemoglobin. Histology was performed. Electrotransfer of Katushka and erythropoietin yielded significant expression. Maximal calcium uptake occurred after injection of Ca(2+) before electropulsing using eight......Gene electrotransfer is expanding in clinical use, thus we have searched for an emergency procedure to stop transgene expression in case of serious adverse events. Calcium is cytotoxic at high intracellular levels, so we tested effects of calcium electrotransfer on transgene expression in muscle. A...... clinical grade calcium solution (20 µl, 168 mM) was injected into transfected mouse or rat tibialis cranialis muscle. Ca(2+) uptake was quantified using calcium 45 ((45)Ca), and voltage and time between injection and pulsation were varied. Extinction of transgene expression was investigated by using both...

  3. Targeted overexpression of androgen receptor with a liver-specific promoter in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    B Chatterjee; Song, C. S.; Jung, M H; Chen, S.; Walter, C. A.; Herbert, D. C.; Weaker, F J; Mancini, M A; Roy, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The rodent liver displays marked age- and sex-dependent changes in androgen sensitivity due to the sexually dimorphic and temporally programmed expression of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We have altered this normal phenotype by constitutive overexpression of the rat AR transgene in the mouse liver by targeting it via the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (hPAH) gene promoter. These transgenic animals in their heterozygous state produce an approximately 30-fold higher level of the AR in the ...

  4. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR ?? lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR ?? CD4- CD8- double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The ?? DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the ?? cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the ?? lineage. Tg.Tlaa-3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of ?? T cells. We isolated T3b-TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3b-TL is driven by the promoter of H-2Kb. With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8+TCR?? cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3b-TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL+ lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3b-TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  5. Regeneration of transgenic tamarillo plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R G; Gardner, R C

    1993-04-01

    Media were developed to regenerate shoots from leaf pieces of tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendtner). Shoots were derived via organogenesis and could be easily rooted and transferred to the growth chamber. Transgenic tamarillo plants were produced using the binary vector pKIWI110 in the avirulent Agrobacterium strain LBA4404. All transgenic plants were kanamycin resistant and some plants expressed the ? D-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene and were chlorsulfuron resistant. Molecular evidence for transformation was obtained using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and Southern hybridization. Inheritance of the transgenic phenotypes was demonstrated in seedling progeny. PMID:24197262

  6. Transgenics, agroindustry and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Alejandro León Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food sovereignty has been implemented constitutionally in Ecuador; however, many of the actions and policies are designed to benefit the dominant model of food production, based in agroindustry, intensive monocultures, agrochemicals and transgenics. This article reflects upon the role of family farming as a generator of food sovereignty, and secondly the threat to them by agroindustry agriculture based in transgenic. The role played by food aid in the introduction of transgenic in Latin America and other regions of the world is also analyzed.

  7. ALIMENTOS TRANSGÉNICOS / TRANSGENIC FOODS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Soledad, Reyes S.; Jaime, Rozowski N.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Gracias al gran avance de la tecnología, la ingeniería genética y la biología molecular, se han desarrollado los productos transgénicos. En sus inicios, los productos modificados genéticamente tenían como objeto obtener ventajas en las áreas de la agricultura y ganadería. Posteriormente esta técnica [...] se comenzó a aplicar en el ámbito de la producción de alimentos para el consumo humano. Se ha generado mucha controversia en relación a su utilización. Esta revisión tiene por objeto revisar la información científica disponible en relación a las aplicaciones, ventajas y potenciales riesgos para la salud humana y el medio ambiente asociados al consumo de los alimentos transgénicos Abstract in english Due to the advancements in technology, genetic engineering and molecular biology, have develop transgenic foods. Initially, genetically modified plants were produced to confer advantages in agriculture and animal husbandry. Later this technique was applied to the production of food for human consump [...] tion, generating a great deal of controversy. This review discusses the available scientific evidence in relation to the advantages and potential risks of genetically modified foods

  8. ALIMENTOS TRANSGÉNICOS TRANSGENIC FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Reyes S.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Gracias al gran avance de la tecnología, la ingeniería genética y la biología molecular, se han desarrollado los productos transgénicos. En sus inicios, los productos modificados genéticamente tenían como objeto obtener ventajas en las áreas de la agricultura y ganadería. Posteriormente esta técnica se comenzó a aplicar en el ámbito de la producción de alimentos para el consumo humano. Se ha generado mucha controversia en relación a su utilización. Esta revisión tiene por objeto revisar la información científica disponible en relación a las aplicaciones, ventajas y potenciales riesgos para la salud humana y el medio ambiente asociados al consumo de los alimentos transgénicosDue to the advancements in technology, genetic engineering and molecular biology, have develop transgenic foods. Initially, genetically modified plants were produced to confer advantages in agriculture and animal husbandry. Later this technique was applied to the production of food for human consumption, generating a great deal of controversy. This review discusses the available scientific evidence in relation to the advantages and potential risks of genetically modified foods

  9. A qRT-PCR RFLP Method for Monitoring Highly Conserved Transgene Expression during Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bruzzone, Carol M.; Belcher, John D; Schuld, Nathan J.; Newman, Kristal A; Vineyard, Julie; Nguyen, Julia; Chen, Chunsheng; Beckman, Joan D; Steer, Clifford J; Vercellotti, Gregory M

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of the transfer efficiency of a rat heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) transgene into mice requires differentiation of rat and mouse HO-1. However, rat and mouse HO-1 have 94% homology; antibodies and enzyme activity cannot adequately distinguish HO-1. We designed a qRT-PCR method to monitor HO-1 transcription relative to a housekeeping gene, GAPDH. The ratio of rat and mouse HO-1 mRNA could be estimated through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR products. In ...

  10. Wading pools and fading memories – place navigation in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    HeikkiTanila

    2012-01-01

    The Morris swim navigation task (‘water maze’) has been a primary research tools to assess hippocampal delpendent spatial learning and memory is rodents for three decades. Originally developed for rats, its application to mouse studies has been a tedious process, but nowadays there are more studies performed with the Morris swim task in mice than in rats. The task has proved to be particularly useful in demonstrating age-related memory impairment in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s dise...

  11. Transgenic agriculture and environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Dias de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid diffusion of transgenic crops, there are still few environmental impact studies capable of supplying a conclusive scientific response in regard to its technical and economic advantages and disadvantages. Prospective scenarios were elaborated to assist environmental impact assessment, using techniques derived from SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis and the DPSIR (Driving Force – human activity, Pressure, State, Impact, Response model, to evaluate the environmental indicators and the relationship between them. Control and management actions were identified, searching the integration of aspects related to the biotechnology applied to transgenic processes, biodiversity, biosafety and intellectual property. It was demonstrated that the DPSIR model is, in fact, an instrument for integrated environmental assessment and the application of the proposed methodology resulted in favorable indicators to the adoption of transgenic agriculture. The elaborated scenarios are useful to develop an Environmental Management System (EMS to agriculture.

  12. How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  13. Progress on researches of transgenic alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the progress on the researches of transgenic alfalfa in the past two decades had been reviewed in the aspects of regeneration system, transformation, improvement of the important traits and so on. Moreover, such problems as variation of transgene expression and safety of transgenic plant had also been discussed and propose had been given for the future research work. (authors)

  14. Temporal Expression of Mutant LRRK2 in Adult Rats Impairs Dopamine Reuptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Jianbin Tong, Weimin C Hong, Yong-Jian Liu, Xu-Gang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD results from progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Most PD cases are sporadic, but some have pathogenic mutation in the individual genes. Mutation of the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2 gene is associated with familial and sporadic PD, as exemplified by G2019S substitution. While constitutive expression of mutant LRRK2 in transgenic mice fails to induce neuron death, transient expression of the disease gene by viral delivery causes a substantial loss of dopaminergic neurons in mice. To further assess LRRK2 pathogenesis, we created inducible transgenic rats expressing human LRRK2 with G2019S substitution. Temporal overexpression of LRRK2G2019S in adult rats impaired dopamine reuptake by dopamine transporter (DAT and thus enhanced locomotor activity, the phenotypes that were not observed in transgenic rats constitutively expressing the gene throughout life time. Reduced DAT binding activity is an early sign of dopaminergic dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects carrying pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Our transgenic rats recapitulated the initiation process of dopaminergic dysfunction caused by pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Inducible transgenic approach uncovered phenotypes that may be obscured by developmental compensation in constitutive transgenic rats. Finding in inducible LRRK2 transgenic rats would guide developing effective strategy in transgenic studies: Inducible expression of transgene may induce greater phenotypes than constitutive gene expression, particularly in rodents with short life time.

  15. Generating Transgenic Mouse Models for Studying Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Josephine M; Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of current animal models for studying celiac disease, with a focus on generating HLA transgenic mouse models. Human Leukocyte Antigen class II molecules have been a particular target for transgenic mice due to their tight association with celiac disease, and a number of murine models have been developed which had the endogenous MHC class II genes replaced with insertions of disease susceptible HLA class II alleles DQ2 or DQ8. Additionally, transgenic mice that overexpress interleukin-15 (IL-15), a key player in the inflammatory cascade that leads to celiac disease, have also been generated to model a state of chronic inflammation. To explore the contribution of specific bacteria in gluten-sensitive enteropathy, the nude mouse and rat models have been studied in germ-free facilities. These reductionist mouse models allow us to address single factors thought to have crucial roles in celiac disease. No single model has incorporated all of the multiple factors that make up celiac disease. Rather, these mouse models can allow the functional interrogation of specific components of the many stages of, and contributions to, the pathogenic mechanisms that will lead to gluten-dependent enteropathy. Overall, the tools for animal studies in celiac disease are many and varied, and provide ample space for further creativity as well as to characterize the complete and complex pathogenesis of celiac disease. PMID:26498609

  16. Transgenic parasites accelerate drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Ana; Tarleton, Rick L

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic neglected diseases are in dire need of new drugs either to replace old drugs rendered ineffective because of resistance development, to cover clinical needs that had never been addressed or to tackle other associated problems of existing drugs such as high cost, difficult administration, restricted coverage or toxicity. The availability of transgenic parasites expressing reporter genes facilitates the discovery of new drugs through high throughput screenings, but also by allowing ra...

  17. Transgenic crop-mite interactions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Rostislav

    France : IOBC/WPRS, 2007 - (Weintraub, P.), s. 155-160 ISBN 92-9067-200-3. [Meeting of IOBC study group "Integrated Control of Plant-feeding Mites". Jerusalem (IL), 12.03.2007-14.03.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA6007303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : GMO * transgenic plants * mites Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  18. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  19. Transgenic trees and forestry biosafety

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sofía, Valenzuela; Claudio, Balocchi; Jaime, Rodríguez.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The benefits from the development of transgenic trees are expected from the improvement of traits as growth and form, wood quality, industrial processes, disease and insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, ecological restoration, rooting ability, etc. One of the first reported field trials with gene [...] tically modified forest trees was established in Belgium in 1988 and the characteristic evaluated was herbicide tolerance in poplars. Since then, there have been more than 200 reported trials, involving at least 15 forest species. The majority of the field trials have been carried out in the USA (64%). More than 50% of the field trials are done with Populus species and the main target traits are herbicide tolerance (31%), followed by marker genes (23%) and insect resistance (14%). Until today, there is only one report on commercial-scale production of transgenic forest trees which is Populus nigra with the Bt gene release in China in 2002 and established on commercial plantations in 2003. Operational application of GMO's in forestry depends on technical, economical, political and public aspects, but the development of adequate regulatory frameworks and public acceptance of transgenic trees will define the future of this technology in forestry.

  20. Transgenic mouse offspring generated by ROSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pedro; Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín; Laguna, Ricardo; Fernández-Gonzalez, Raúl; Sanjuanbenito, Belén Pintado; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2016-02-20

    The production of transgenic animals is an important tool for experimental and applied biology. Over the years, many approaches for the production of transgenic animals have been tried, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, transfection of male germ cells, somatic cell nuclear transfer and the use of lentiviral vectors. In the present study, we developed a new transgene delivery approach, and we report for the first time the production of transgenic animals by co-injection of DNA and round spermatid nuclei into non-fertilized mouse oocytes (ROSI). The transgene used was a construct containing the human CMV immediate early promoter and the enhanced GFP gene. With this procedure, 12% of the live offspring we obtained carried the transgene. This efficiency of transgenic production by ROSI was similar to the efficiency by pronuclear injection or intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei (ICSI). However, ICSI required fewer embryos to produce the same number of transgenic animals. The expression of Egfp mRNA and fluorescence of EGFP were found in the majority of the organs examined in 4 transgenic lines generated by ROSI. Tissue morphology and transgene expression were not distinguishable between transgenic animals produced by ROSI or pronuclear injection. Furthermore, our results are of particular interest because they indicate that the transgene incorporation mediated by intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei is not an exclusive property of mature sperm cell nuclei with compact chromatin but it can be accomplished with immature sperm cell nuclei with decondensed chromatin as well. The present study also provides alternative procedures for transgene delivery into embryos or reconstituted oocytes. PMID:26498042

  1. Will transgenic plants adversely affect the environment?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassili V Velkov; Alexander B Medvinsky; Mikhail S Sokolov; Anatoly I Marchenko

    2005-09-01

    Transgenic insecticidal plants based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins, on proteinase inhibitors and on lectins, and transgenic herbicide tolerant plants are widely used in modern agriculture. The results of the studies on likelihood and non-likelihood of adverse effects of transgenic plants on the environment including: (i) effects on nontarget species; (ii) invasiveness; (iii) potential for transgenes to ‘escape’ into the environment by horizontal gene transfer; and (iv) adverse effects on soil biota are reviewed. In general, it seems that large-scale implementation of transgenic insecticidal and herbicide tolerant plants do not display considerable negative effects on the environments and, moreover, at least some transgenic plants can improve the corresponding environments and human health because their production considerably reduces the load of chemical insecticides and herbicides.

  2. Determining gene flow in transgenic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Gene flow is one of the major concerns associated with the release of transgenic plants into the environment. Unrestricted gene flow can results in super weeds, reduction in species fitness and genetic diversity, and contamination of traditional plants and foods. Thus, it is important and also necessary to evaluate the extent of gene flow in the field for transgenic plants already released or being considered for a release. Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic crops for commercialization, which are widely cultivated around the world. In this chapter, we use transgenic insect resistant cotton and herbicide-tolerant cotton as two examples to present a field practice method for determining transgene flow in cotton. The procedure includes three major sections: (1) field design, (2) seed collection, and (3) field and lab bioassay. PMID:23143499

  3. Transgenic Spodoptera exigua: possibilities for their use

    OpenAIRE

    Gerritsen, L.J.M.; Visser, J.H.; Jongsma, M A

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic Spodoptera exigua are being developed by microinjection of a piggyBac vector. The vector expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the actin promoter. Forty percent of the first-instar larvae that hatched from the injected eggs were green fluorescent. However, after backcrossing none of the G1 first-instar larvae was fluorescent and a transgenic line could not be established. Several possibilities for the use of transgenic insects are discussed

  4. A Built-In Strategy for Containment of Transgenic Plants: Creation of Selectively Terminable Transgenic Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chaoyang; FANG, JUN; XU, XIAOLI; Zhao, Te; Cheng, Jiaan; Tu, Juming; Ye, Gongyin; Shen, Zhicheng

    2008-01-01

    Plant transgenic technology has been widely utilized for engineering crops for trait improvements and for production of high value proteins such as pharmaceuticals. However, the unintended spreading of commercial transgenic crops by pollination and seed dispersal is a major concern for environmental and food safety. Simple and reliable containment strategies for transgenes are highly desirable. Here we report a novel method for creating selectively terminable transgenic rice. In this method, ...

  5. The rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Kloskowska, Ewa; Winblad, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    As a disease model, the laboratory rat has contributed enormously to neuroscience research over the years. It has also been a popular animal model for Alzheimer's disease but its popularity has diminished during the last decade, as techniques for genetic manipulation in rats have lagged behind that of mice. In recent years, the rat has been making a comeback as an Alzheimer's disease model and the appearance of increasing numbers of transgenic rats will be a welcome and valuable complement to th...

  6. Role of a 461-bp G-rich repetitive element in H19 transgene imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, M P; Pieracci, F M; Cranston, M J; Taksel, E; Thorvaldsen, J L; Bartolomei, M S

    1999-04-01

    The molecular mechanism leading to the imprinted expression of genes is poorly understood. While no conserved cis-acting elements have been identified within the known loci, many imprinted genes are located near directly repetitive sequence elements, suggesting that such repeats might play a role in imprinted gene expression. The maternally expressed mouse H19 gene is located approximately 1.5 kb downstream from a 461-bp G-rich repetitive element. We have used a transgenic model to investigate whether this element is essential for H19 imprinting. Previous results demonstrated that a transgene, which contains 14 kb of H19 sequence, exhibits parent-of-origin specific expression and methylation analogous to the endogenous H19 imprinting pattern. Here, we have generated transgenes lacking the G-rich repeat. One transgene, containing a deletion of the G-rich repetitive element but which includes an additional 1.7 kb of 5' H19 sequence, is imprinted similarly to the endogenous H19 gene. To determine whether the G-rich repeat is conserved in other imprinted mammalian H19 homologues, additional 5' flanking sequences were cloned from the rat and human. This element is conserved in the rat but not in human DNA. These results suggest that the 461-bp G-rich repetitive element is not essential for H19 imprinting. PMID:10079367

  7. Improving expression of reporter transgene in stem cell by construction of different lentiviral vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For stem cell trafficking applications, it is imperative to express transgenes at desired and stable levels. In recent years, lentivirus-mediated gene transfer was shown to be an efficient method to stably introduce genetic modifications in target cells, even if these are in proliferative or nonproliferative states. Moreover, transgene expression levels can be controlled by using different promoters. The present study was designed to compare the potency of various promoters regulating expression of imaging reporter genes in embryonic H9c2 cardiomyoblasts derived from rat heart. Lentiviral vector was produced by the transient transfection of plasmids carrying required genes and those encoding for virus coating proteins into 293T cells. Harvested viral constructs were incubated with Hela and H9c2 cells, respectively. Transgene expressions were detected by several imaging modalities and evaluated by enzymatic assays. Results - We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. Here we show that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer allows efficient and stable transgene expression in embryonic cardiomyoblasts in vitro and that transgene expression levels can be varied by using different well-characterized gene promoters. In vivo trials about gene expression will probably further determine the potential of long-term trafficking stem cells using lentivirus

  8. Transgenic Papaya: Development, Release, Impact, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the technology for developing virus-resistant transgenic plants through the use of the coat protein of a virus was unveiled twenty years ago, it is surprising to note that only a three virus-resistant plants (squash, potato, and papaya) have been commercialized in the U.S. The transgenic p...

  9. Lactase gene promoter fragments mediate differential spatial and temporal expression patterns in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Maravelias, Charalambos; Sibley, Eric

    2006-04-01

    Lactase gene expression is spatiotemporally regulated during mammalian gut development. We hypothesize that distinct DNA control regions specify appropriate spatial and temporal patterning of lactase gene expression. In order to define regions of the lactase promoter involved in mediating intestine-specific and spatiotemporal restricted expression, transgenic mice harboring 100 bp, 1.3- and 2.0- kb fragments of the 5' flanking region of the rat lactase gene cloned upstream of a luciferase reporter were characterized. The 100-bp lactase promoter-reporter transgenic mouse line expressed maximal luciferase activity in the intestine with a posterior shift in spatial restriction and ectopic expression in the stomach and lung. The temporal pattern of expression mediated by the 1.3-kb promoter?reporter transgene increases with postnatal maturation in contrast with the postnatal decline mediated by the 2.0-kb promoter-reporter transgene and the endogenous lactase gene. The differential transgene expression patterns mediated by the lactase promoter fragments suggests that intestine-specific spatial and temporal control elements reside in distinct regions of the DNA sequences upstream of the lactase gene transcription start-site. PMID:16629594

  10. Combining M-FISH and Quantum Dot technology for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical mapping of transgenic insertions by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH is a reliable and cost-effective technique. Chromosomal assignment is commonly achieved either by concurrent G-banding or by a multi-color FISH approach consisting of iteratively co-hybridizing the transgenic sequence of interest with one or more chromosome-specific probes at a time, until the location of the transgenic insertion is identified. Results Here we report a technical development for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions at the single cell level in mouse and rat models. This comprises a simplified 'single denaturation mixed hybridization' procedure that combines multi-color karyotyping by Multiplex FISH (M-FISH, for simultaneous and unambiguous identification of all chromosomes at once, and the use of a Quantum Dot (QD conjugate for the transgene detection. Conclusions Although the exploitation of the unique optical properties of QD nanocrystals, such as photo-stability and brightness, to improve FISH performance generally has been previously investigated, to our knowledge this is the first report of a purpose-designed molecular cytogenetic protocol in which the combined use of QDs and standard organic fluorophores is specifically tailored to assist gene transfer technology.

  11. Transgenic mouse model for skin malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M; Takahashi, M; Akhand, A A; Liu, W; Dai, Y; Shimizu, S; Iwamoto, T; Suzuki, H; Nakashima, I

    1998-10-01

    We report here on a novel metallothionein-I (MT)/ret transgenic mouse line in which skin melanosis, benign melanocytic tumor and malignant melanoma metastasizing to distant organs develop stepwise. The process of tumor development and its malignant transformation in this line may resemble that of the human giant congenital melanocytic nevus that is present at birth and that frequently gives rise to malignant melanoma during aging. We observed an increase in the expression level and activity of the ret transgene during the disease progression. That increase in transgene expression accompanied an activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and c-Jun as well as matrix metalloproteinases. These results suggest that progressive dysregulation of the expression level of the ret transgene might play a crucial role in the malignant transformation of melanocytic tumors developed in the MT/ret transgenic mouse line. PMID:9778055

  12. Dynamics of cell proliferation and cell death during the emergence of primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the immature central nervous system in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, K. M.; Lee, V. M.; Trojanowski, J. Q.

    1995-01-01

    Cell proliferation and cell death play critical roles in embryonic development, postnatal tissue maintenance, and tumor formation. To understand the interplay between cell proliferation and death in tumor formation, we studied these two processes in nascent primitive neuroectodermal tumors that arose postnatally from neuroepithelial cells ventral to the median eminence of transgenic mice (designated rTH-Tag mice) carrying a Simian virus 40 large T antigen transgene driven by a rat tyrosine hy...

  13. Disease-associated polymorphisms in ERAP1 do not alter endoplasmic reticulum stress in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, T J; Lau, M C; Keith, P; Ciccia, F; Costello, M-E; Bradbury, L; Low, P-L; Agrawal, N; Triolo, G; Alessandro, R; Robinson, P C; Thomas, G P; Brown, M A

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) contributes to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) remains unclear. Genetic studies demonstrate that association with and interaction between polymorphisms of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) and HLA-B27 influence the risk of AS. It has been hypothesised that ERAP1-mediated HLA-B27 misfolding increases endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, driving an interleukin (IL) 23-dependent, pro-inflammatory immune response. We tested the hypothesis that AS-risk ERAP1 variants increase ER-stress and concomitant pro-inflammatory cytokine production in HLA-B27(+) but not HLA-B27(-) AS patients or controls. Forty-nine AS cases and 22 healthy controls were grouped according to HLA-B27 status and AS-associated ERAP1 rs30187 genotypes: HLA-B27(+)ERAP1(risk), HLA-B27(+)ERAP1(protective), HLA-B27(-)ERAP1(risk) and HLA-B27(-)ERAP1(protective). Expression levels of ER-stress markers GRP78 (8?kDa glucose-regulated protein), CHOP (C/EBP-homologous protein) and inflammatory cytokines were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cell and ileal biopsies. We found no differences in ER-stress gene expression between HLA-B27(+) and HLA-B27(-) cases or healthy controls, or between cases or controls stratified by carriage of ERAP1 risk or protective alleles in the presence or absence of HLA-B27. No differences were observed between expression of IL17A or TNF (tumour necrosis factor) in HLA-B27(+)ERAP1(risk), HLA-B27(+)ERAP1(protective) and HLA-B27(-)ERAP1(protective) cases. These data demonstrate that aberrant ERAP1 activity and HLA-B27 carriage does not alter ER-stress levels in AS, suggesting that ERAP1 and HLA-B27 may influence disease susceptibility through other mechanisms. PMID:25354578

  14. Generation of transgenic Hydra by embryo microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Celina E; Lin, Haifan; Steele, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    As a member of the phylum Cnidaria, the sister group to all bilaterians, Hydra can shed light on fundamental biological processes shared among multicellular animals. Hydra is used as a model for the study of regeneration, pattern formation, and stem cells. However, research efforts have been hampered by lack of a reliable method for gene perturbations to study molecular function. The development of transgenic methods has revitalized the study of Hydra biology(1). Transgenic Hydra allow for the tracking of live cells, sorting to yield pure cell populations for biochemical analysis, manipulation of gene function by knockdown and over-expression, and analysis of promoter function. Plasmid DNA injected into early stage embryos randomly integrates into the genome early in development. This results in hatchlings that express transgenes in patches of tissue in one or more of the three lineages (ectodermal epithelial, endodermal epithelial, or interstitial). The success rate of obtaining a hatchling with transgenic tissue is between 10% and 20%. Asexual propagation of the transgenic hatchling is used to establish a uniformly transgenic line in a particular lineage. Generating transgenic Hydra is surprisingly simple and robust, and here we describe a protocol that can be easily implemented at low cost. PMID:25285460

  15. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  16. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Richard D. (Madison, WI); Walker, Joseph M. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  17. Proteomic analysis of known and candidate rice allergens between non-transgenic and transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Rie; Nakamura, Rika; Komatsu, Akira; Oshima, Masahiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2011-04-01

    Salt-soluble proteins extracted from non-transgenic and transgenic rice were evaluated for the presence of known and potential allergens by proteomic techniques. The salt-soluble proteins were extracted, separated by 1D and 2D electrophoresis, and analyzed by Western blotting. 1D immunoblot analysis with patients' sera revealed few qualitative differences between the IgE-binding proteins of the non-transgenic and transgenic rice. 1D immunoblot with antigen-specific-animal sera revealed no qualitative or quantitative differences in two known allergens, RAG2 and glyoxalase I, between non-transgenic and transgenic rice. Multiple spots containing known and novel IgE-binding proteins were detected among the salt-soluble proteins of non-transgenic rice by 2D immunoblotting. Two globulin-like proteins, a 52 kDa protein and a 63 kDa protein, were identified as novel IgE-binding proteins that are candidates for rice allergens. These globulin-like proteins were homologous to Cupin superfamily allergens. Quantitative analysis of 19, 52, and 63 kDa globulins with protein-specific-animal sera showed no significant differences in the expression of these proteins between the transgenic rice and non-transgenic rice. These results indicate that none of the known or novel endogenous IgE-binding proteins detected in this study appear to be altered by genetic modification. PMID:21300107

  18. AN APPROACH TO TRANSGENIC CROP MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing by aerial or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pesticidal crop distribution in the landscape. Genetically engineered crops containing bacterial gene(s) that express an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are regulated...

  19. [Effects of transgenic crops on soil ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwu; Feng, Yuanjiao; Luo, Shiming

    2002-04-01

    The effects of transgenic crops on the soil ecosystem were reviewed. The activity of Cry I Ab gene and proteinase inhibitor gene in the soil was summarized. The differences of soil microbes' components, soil enzyme activities, and soil fauna between genetic crops and isogenic strain crops were analyzed. According to current progress, the potential impacts of transgenic plant on soil microorganisms depend on the characteristics of the gene transferred into the crops and the soil properties. The change of soil ecosystem affected by many factors, and among them, the complex and stability of the ecosystem are the most important. The ecological effects of transgenic crops on the soil ecosystem need to be evaluated more fully before they are planted over extensive areas. Much effort should be devoted to the development of molecular techniques method to assess the effects of transgenic crops on soil ecosystem. PMID:12222061

  20. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  1. Transgenic Mouse Technology: Principles and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, T Rajendra; Larson, Melissa; Wang, Huizhen; McDermott, Jeff; Bronshteyn, Illya

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of foreign DNA into the mouse germ line is considered a major technical advancement in the fields of developmental biology and genetics. This technology now referred to as transgenic mouse technology has revolutionized virtually all fields of biology and provided new genetic approaches to model many human diseases in a whole animal context. Several hundreds of transgenic lines with expression of foreign genes specifically targeted to desired organelles/cells/tissues have been cha...

  2. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  3. Comparison of nutritional value of transgenic peanut expressing bar and rcg3 genes with non-transgenic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transgenic peanut plants expressing bar and rcg3 genes were subjected to assessment of any change in nutritional value of the crop at various locations. The protein and fat contents of transgenic lines were compared with the non-transgenic parent varieties. Protein content in the transgenic lines was higher as compared to that in non-transgenic counterparts and differences among locations for fat and protein content were significant. No differences among fatty acids were recorded for genes, events and locations. Irrespective of small differences, all the values were in range described for this crop and transgenic lines appeared to be substantially equivalent to non-transgenic parent varieties. (author)

  4. Transgenic animals and their application in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagle TR, Kunkulol RR, Baig MS, More SY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic animals are animals that are genetically altered to have traits that mimic symptoms of specific human pathologies. They provide genetic models of various human diseases which are important in understanding disease and developing new targets. In early 1980 Gordon and co-workers described the first gene addition experiment using the microinjection technology and since then the impact of transgenic technology on basic research has been significant. Within 20 years of its inception, ATryn the first drug approved by USFDA from transgenic animals was developed and it has opened door to drugs from transgenic animals. In addition, they are looked upon as potential future donors for xenotransplantation. With increasing knowledge about the genetics and improvements in the transgenetic technology numerous useful applications like biologically safe new-generation drugs based on human regulatory proteins are being developed.Various aspects of concern in the coming years are the regulatory guidelines, ethical issues and patents related to the use of transgenic animals. This modern medicine is on the threshold of a pharmacological revolution. Use of transgenic animals will provide solutions for drug research, xenotransplantation, clinical trials and will prove to be a new insight in drug development.

  5. TRANSGENIC FISH MODEL IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of experiments and the use of drugs have been performed in fish. The fish may be used as model organism in various biological experiments, including environmental toxicology. Aquatic animals are being engineered to increase aquaculture production, for medical and industrial research, and for ornamental reasons. Fish have been found to play an important role in assessing potential risks associated with exposure to toxic substances in aquatic environment. Hence, it has been thought that the development of transgenic fish can enhance the use of fish in environmental toxicology. India has developed experimental transgenics of rohu fish, zebra fish, cat fish and singhi fish. Genes, promoters and vectors of indigenous origin are now available for only two species namely rohu and singhi for engineering growth. Development of fish model carrying identical transgenes to those found in rodents is beneficial and has shown that several aspects of in vivo mutagenesis are similar between the two classes of vertebrates. Fish shows the frequencies of spontaneous mutations similar to rodents and respond to mutagen exposure consistent with known mutagenic mechanisms. The feasibility of in vivo mutation analysis using transgenic fish has been demonstrated and the potential value of transgenic fish as a comparative animal model has been illustrated. Therefore, the transgenic fish can give the significant contribution to study the environmental toxicity in animals as a whole.

  6. Selenoprotein-Transgenic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazuan Ni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se deficiency is associated with the occurrence of many diseases. However, excessive Se supplementation, especially with inorganic Se, can result in toxicity. Selenoproteins are the major forms of Se in vivo to exert its biological function. Expression of those selenoproteins, especially with the application of a newly developed system, is thus very important for studying the mechanism of Se in nutrition. The use of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii as a biological vector to express an heterogeneous protein is still at the initial stages of development. In order to investigate the possibility of using this system to express selenoproteins, human 15-KDa selenoprotein (Sep15, a small but widely distributed selenoprotein in mammals, was chosen for the expression platform test. Apart from the wild-type human Sep15 gene fragment, two Sep15 recombinants were constructed containing Sep15 open reading frame (ORF and the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS element from either human Sep15 or C. reinhardtii selenoprotein W1, a highly expressed selenoprotein in this alga. Those Sep15-containing plasmids were transformed into C. reinhardtii CC-849 cells. Results showed that Sep15 fragments were successfully inserted into the nuclear genome and expressed Sep15 protein in the cells. The transgenic and wild-type algae demonstrated similar growth curves in low Se culture medium. To our knowledge, this is the first report on expressing human selenoprotein in green alga.

  7. Phycoremediation of heavy metals using transgenic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Sathish; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Falcao, Vanessa; Torres, Moacir; Colepicolo, Pio; Sayre, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Microalgae account for most of the biologically sequestered trace metals in aquatic environments. Their ability to adsorb and metabolize trace metals is associated with their large surface:volume ratios, the presence of high-affinity, metal-binding groups on their cell surfaces, and efficient metal uptake and storage systems. Microalgae may bind up to 10% of their biomass as metals. In addition to essential trace metals required for metabolism, microalgae can efficiently sequester toxic heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals often compete with essential trace metals for binding to and uptake into cells. Recently, transgenic approaches have been developed to further enhance the heavy metal specificity and binding capacity of microalgae with the objective of using these microalgae for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated wastewaters and sediments. These transgenic strategies have included the over expression of enzymes whose metabolic products ameliorate the effects of heavy metal-induced stress, and the expression of high-affinity, heavy metal binding proteins on the surface and in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. The most effective strategies have substantially reduced the toxicity of heavy metals allowing transgenic cells to grow at wild-type rates in the presence of lethal concentrations of heavy metals. In addition, the metal binding capacity of transgenic algae has been increased five-fold relative to wild-type cells. Recently, fluorescent heavy metal biosensors have been developed for expression in transgenic Chlamydomonas. These fluorescent biosensor strains can be used for the detection and quantification of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments. The use of transgenic microalgae to monitor and remediate heavy metals in aquatic environments is not without risk, however. Strategies to prevent the release of live microalgae having enhanced metal binding properties are described. PMID:18161494

  8. The rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Kloskowska, Ewa; Winblad, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    As a disease model, the laboratory rat has contributed enormously to neuroscience research over the years. It has also been a popular animal model for Alzheimer's disease but its popularity has diminished during the last decade, as techniques for genetic manipulation in rats have lagged behind that...... of mice. In recent years, the rat has been making a comeback as an Alzheimer's disease model and the appearance of increasing numbers of transgenic rats will be a welcome and valuable complement to the existing mouse models. This review summarizes the contributions and current status of the rat as an...... animal model of Alzheimer's disease....

  9. The hypocholesterolemic activity of transgenic rice seed accumulating lactostatin, a bioactive peptide derived from bovine milk ?-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Tamakoshi, Chiharu; Ohno, Tomoki; Hirose, Sakiko; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Satoshi; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2011-04-27

    Lactostatin is a novel pentapeptide (IIAEK) derived from bovine milk ?-lactoglobulin with greater hypocholesterolemic activity than ?-sitosterol, the drug commonly used to treat hypercholesterolemia. We developed transgenic rice expressing lactostatin as a fusion protein with seed storage protein (SSP) glutelins under the control of three different endosperm-specific promoters. Lactostatin accumulated in transgenic rice seed at approximately 1.6 mg/g seeds (dry seeds) without any apparent influence on seed traits such as endogenous SSP expression levels or alterations in the intracellular structures of endosperm cells. Short-term (three day) oral administration of the glutelin fraction containing lactostatin (namely three times of 300 mg/kg body weight/day) extracted from transgenic rice seeds resulted in hypocholesterolemic activity in rats; namely, the serum low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was significantly reduced accompanied by a significant increase in beneficial serum high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. PMID:21410288

  10. The ecological risks of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Manuela

    2003-01-01

    Biotechnologies have been utilized "ante litteram" for thousands of years to produce food and drink and genetic engineering techniques have been widely applied to produce many compounds for human use, from insulin to other medicines. The debate on genetically modified (GM) organisms broke out all over the world only when GM crops were released into the field. Plant ecologists, microbiologists and population geneticists carried out experiments aimed at evaluating the environmental impact of GM crops. The most significant findings concern: the spread of transgenes through GM pollen diffusion and its environmental impact after hybridisation with closely related wild species or subspecies; horizontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to soil microbes; the impact of insecticide proteins released into the soil by transformed plants on non-target microbial soil communities. Recent developments in genetic engineering produced a technology, dubbed "Terminator", which protects patented genes introduced in transgenic plants by killing the seeds in the second generation. This genetic construct, which interferes so heavily with fundamental life processes, is considered dangerous and should be ex-ante evaluated taking into account the data on "unexpected events", as here discussed, instead of relying on the "safe until proven otherwise" claim. Awareness that scientists, biotechnologists and genetic engineers cannot answer the fundamental question "how likely is that transgenes will be transferred from cultivated plants into the natural environment?" should foster long-term studies on the ecological risks and benefits of transgenic crops. PMID:14595899

  11. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony C. Bonning

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera, which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

  12. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene; Poulsen, Morten; Wilcks, Andrea; Kroghsbo, Stine; Miller, Andreas; Frenzel, Thomas; Danier, Jürgen; Rychlik, Michael; Emami, Kaveh; Gatehouse, Angharad; Shu, Qingyao; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Altosaar, Illimar; Knudsen, Ib

    2007-01-01

    An animal model for safety assessment of genetically modified foods was tested as part of the SAFOTEST project. In a 90-day feeding study on Wistar rats, the transgenic KMD1 rice expressing Cry1Ab protein was compared to its non-transgenic parental wild type, Xiushui 11. The KMD1 rice contained 1...

  13. Transgenic cultures: from the economic viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mosquera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of transgenic seeds for agricultural purposes poses modification to their production, due to the potential for reaching desired characteristics such as greater yield, this being fundamental in an economic environment characterised by open market conditions. However, acceptance of products resulting from genetic engineering is far from becoming a simple process; discussion relating to the predominance of private sector interests, the monopoly of knowledge and the safety of such seeds/food is currently in the spotlight. This article presents the main points of debate regarding adoption of transgenic cultures, contributing to discussion about this topic for Colombia.

  14. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI)

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  15. Genomic stability and long-term transgene expression in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladung, Matthias; Hoenicka, Hans; Raj Ahuja, M

    2013-12-01

    Stable expression of foreign genes over the entire life span of a plant is important for long-lived organisms such as trees. For transgenic forest trees, very little information is available on long-term transgene expression and genomic stability. Independent transgenic lines obtained directly after transformation are initially screened in respect to T-DNA integration and transgene expression. However, very little consideration has been given to long-term transgene stability in long-lived forest trees. We have investigated possible genome wide changes following T-DNA integration as well as long-term stability of transgene expression in different transgenic lines of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) that are up to 19 years old. For studies on possible genome wide changes following T-DNA integration, four different independent rolC-transgenic lines were subjected to an extensive AFLP study and compared to the non-transgenic control line. Only minor genomic changes following T-DNA integration could be detected. To study long-term transgene expression, six different independent rolC-transgenic lines produced in 1993 and since that time have been kept continuously under in vitro conditions. In addition, 18 transgenic plants belonging to eight independent rolC-transgenic lines transferred to glasshouse between 1994 and 2004 were chosen to determine the presence and expression of the rolC gene. In all transgenic lines examined, the rolC gene could successfully be amplified by PCR tests. Both, the 19 years old tissue cultures and the up to 18 years old glasshouse-grown trees revealed expression of the rolC transgene, as demonstrated by the rolC-phenotype and/or northern blot experiments confirming long-term transgene expression. PMID:23740206

  16. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winther, K.D.; Secher, Jan Ole Bertelsen; Callesen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not ...

  17. Production of Homozygous Transgenic Rainbow Trout with Enhanced Disease Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Pinwen Peter; Chen, Maria J.; Lin, Chun-Mean; Khoo, Jenny; Larson, Jon; Holt, Rich; Leong, Jo-Ann; Thorgarrd, Gary; Chen, Thomas T

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory showed that transgenic medaka expressing cecropin B transgenes exhibited resistant characteristic to fish bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Vibrio anguillarum. To confirm whether antimicrobial peptide gene will also exhibit anti-bacterial and anti-viral characteristics in aquaculture important fish species, we produced transgenic rainbow trout expressing cecropin P1 or a synthetic cecropin B analog, CF-17, transgene by sperm-mediated...

  18. Production of homozygous transgenic rainbow trout with enhanced disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Pinwen Peter; Chen, Maria J; Lin, Chun-Mean; Khoo, Jenny; Larson, Jon; Holt, Rich; Leong, Jo-Ann; Thorgarrd, Gary; Chen, Thomas T

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory showed that transgenic medaka expressing cecropin B transgenes exhibited resistant characteristic to fish bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Vibrio anguillarum. To confirm whether antimicrobial peptide gene will also exhibit anti-bacterial and anti-viral characteristics in aquaculture important fish species, we produced transgenic rainbow trout expressing cecropin P1 or a synthetic cecropin B analog, CF-17, transgene by sperm-mediated gene transfer method. About 30 % of fish recovered from electroporation were shown to carry the transgene as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification assay. Positive P₁ transgenic fish were crossed to non-transgenic fish to establish F₁ transgenic founder families, and subsequently generating F₂, and F₃ progeny. Expression of cecropin P1 and CF-17 transgenes was detected in transgenic fish by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis. The distribution of body sizes among F₁ transgenic fish were not significantly different from those of non-transgenic fish. Results of challenge studies revealed that many families of F₂ and F₃ transgenic fish exhibited resistance to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). All-male homozygous cecropin P1 transgenic families were produced by androgenesis from sperm of F₃ heterozygous transgenic fish in one generation. The resistant characteristic to A. salmonicida was confirmed in progeny derived from the outcross of all-male fish to non-transgenic females. Results of our current studies confirmed the possibility of producing disease-resistant homozygous rainbow trout strains by transgenesis of cecropin P1 or CF-17 gene and followed by androgenesis. PMID:24085608

  19. Production of Transgenic Pigs Mediated by Pseudotyped Lentivirus and Sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongliang; Xi, Qianyun; Ding, Jinghua; Cai, Weiguang; Meng, Fanmin; Zhou, Junyun; Li, Hongyi; Jiang, Qingyan; Shu, Gang; Wang, Songbo; Zhu, Xiaotong; Ping GAO; Wu, Zhenfang

    2012-01-01

    Sperm-mediated gene transfer can be a very efficient method to produce transgenic pigs, however, the results from different laboratories had not been widely repeated. Genomic integration of transgene by injection of pseudotyped lentivirus to the perivitelline space has been proved to be a reliable route to generate transgenic animals. To test whether transgene in the lentivirus can be delivered by sperm, we studied incubation of pseudotyped lentiviruses and sperm before insemination. After in...

  20. Rosuvastatin Can Block Pro-Inflammatory Actions of Transgenic Human C-Reactive Protein Without Reducing its Circulating Levels.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Jan; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Mlejnek, Petr; Škop, V.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Kazdová, L.; Mancini, M.; Saar, K.; Schulz, H.; Hübner, N.; Kurtz, T. W.; Pravenec, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 32, ?. 2 (2014), s. 59-65. ISSN 1755-5914 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA ?R(CZ) GA13-04420S; GA MZd(CZ) NT14325; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067 Grant ostatní: MH CZ - DRO(CZ) IN0002301 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : C-reactive protein * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat * rosuvastatin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.362, year: 2014

  1. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade improves diastolic function independent of blood pressure reduction in a transgenic model of RAAS overexpression

    OpenAIRE

    Habibi, Javad; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Ma, Lixin; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Rainey, William E.; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Sowers, James R.

    2011-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that aldosterone can promote diastolic dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis independent of blood pressure effects, perhaps through increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Accordingly, this investigation was designed to ascertain if mineralocorticoid receptor blockade improves diastolic dysfunction independently of changes in blood pressure through actions on myocardial oxidative stress and fibrosis. We used young transgenic (mRen2)27 [TG(mRen2)27] rats with increas...

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF ESCAPED TRANSGENIC CREEPING BENTGRASS IN OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    When transgenic plants are cultivated near wild species that are sexually compatible with the crop, gene flow between the crop and wild plants is possible. A resultant concern is that transgene flow and transgene introgression within wild populations could have unintended ecologi...

  3. Progress in Xenotransplantation Research Employing Transgenic Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niemann

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of a fertilized oocyte has predominantly been used for the generation of transgenic livestock. This technology works reliably, but is inefficient and results in random integration and variable expression patterns in the transgenic offspring. Nevertheless, remarkable achievements have been made with this technology with regard to xenotransplantation. Transgenic pigs that express human complement regulating proteins have been tested in their ability to serve as donors in human organ transplantation (i.e. xenotransplantation. In vitro and in vivo data convincingly show that the hyperacute rejection response can be overcome in a clinically acceptable manner by successfully employing this strategy. The recent developments in nuclear transfer and its merger with the growing genomic data allow targeted and regulatable transgenesis. Systems for efficient homologous recombination in somatic cells are being developed and the first knock-out pigs, carrying a deletion in the a-galactosyltransferase gene, were recently generated. It is anticipated that poly-transgenic pigs will be available as donors for functional xenografts within a few years. Similarly, pigs may serve as donors for a variety of xenogenic cells and tissues. The availability of these technologies is essential to maintain "genetic security" and to ensure absence of unwanted side effects.

  4. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeck, Mark; Reynaerts, Arlette; Höfte, Herman; Jansens, Stefan; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Dean, Caroline; Zabeau, Marc; Montagu, Marc Van; Leemans, Jan

    1987-07-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins which are specifically toxic to a variety of insect species. Modified genes have been derived from bt2, a toxin gene cloned from one Bacillus strain. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes synthesize insecticidal proteins which protect them from feeding damage by larvae of the tobacco hornworm.

  5. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  6. Metal resistance sequences and transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard Brian (Athens, GA); Summers, Anne O. (Athens, GA); Rugh, Clayton L. (Athens, GA)

    1999-10-12

    The present invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding a metal ion resistance protein, which are expressible in plant cells. The metal resistance protein provides for the enzymatic reduction of metal ions including but not limited to divalent Cu, divalent mercury, trivalent gold, divalent cadmium, lead ions and monovalent silver ions. Transgenic plants which express these coding sequences exhibit increased resistance to metal ions in the environment as compared with plants which have not been so genetically modified. Transgenic plants with improved resistance to organometals including alkylmercury compounds, among others, are provided by the further inclusion of plant-expressible organometal lyase coding sequences, as specifically exemplified by the plant-expressible merB coding sequence. Furthermore, these transgenic plants which have been genetically modified to express the metal resistance coding sequences of the present invention can participate in the bioremediation of metal contamination via the enzymatic reduction of metal ions. Transgenic plants resistant to organometals can further mediate remediation of organic metal compounds, for example, alkylmetal compounds including but not limited to methyl mercury, methyl lead compounds, methyl cadmium and methyl arsenic compounds, in the environment by causing the freeing of mercuric or other metal ions and the reduction of the ionic mercury or other metal ions to the less toxic elemental mercury or other metals.

  7. Comparative metallomics of transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans using HPLC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. In the last years, many soybean varieties have been developed, and due to these modifications, the proteins composition and profile can be affected, causing changes in the species proteome (S. Natarajan et al., Anal. Biochem., 342 (2005), 214-220.). With the proteome modifications, the metallome of this specie, defined as the total content of metals and metalloids in a cell or tissue (J. Spuznar, Analyst, 130 (2005), 442-465.), can also be affected (A. Sussulini et al., J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 22 (2007), 1501-1506.). So, the aim of this work is to amplify the information about the transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans metallome, and doing that we expect to find biomarkers that can differentiate the transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans physiologically. For that purpose a SEC column (GE Healthcare, model Superdex 200) was employed for the separation of the proteins, which were extracted using the mobile phase of the chromatographic system (90 mmol.L-1 phosphate buffer - pH 7.2). After the chromatographic separation, the eluate was passed through a DAD Series 200 detector (PerkinElmer), the fractions were collected and latter introduced into the ICP-MS (PerkinElmer, model ELANDRC-e) for the element-selective detection. The calibration of the column using purified proteins of known molecular weight allowed the calculation of the approximate masses of the eight fractions (1800-800 kDa; 800-420 kDa; 420-120 kDa; 100-23 kDa; 23-7 kDa; 7-2 kDa; 2-0.4 kDa and 0.4-0.2 kDa, respectively) identified in the transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans after 95 min of separation using a flow rate of 0.25 mL.min-1. A wide range of elements could be identified in all the fractions, including: Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe and Pb. Differences in the detectability of elements in the transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans were found, specially for Hg where the counts were two times higher in the transgenic soybean. Elements were found in the two samples that were not common for both of them, such as Sr identified only in fraction 2 of the non-transgenic soybean and Th in fraction 4 of the transgenic soybean. Financial support from Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo - FAPESP and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico - CNPq are highly acknowledged.

  8. Effect of transgene number of spontaneous and radiation-induced micronuclei in lacl transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacl transgenic mice are widely used for the measurement of mutations in specific target issues. The lacl transgene is present in mice as 40 tandem repeats; this sequence is homozygous (contained in both copies of chromosome 5) in C57Bl/6 mice, and is hemizygous in B6C3F1 mice. Previous reports have indicated that tandem repeats can produce chromosome instability, fragile sites, and other effects. To determine whether the presence of the transgene effects micronucleus induction we compared the response of nontransgenic (NTR) to hemizygous (HEMI) transgenic B6C3F1 mice and to hemizygous and homozygous (HOMO) transgenic C57Bl/6 mice. Five mice/group were irradiated with 500 cGy from a 137Cs source. Bone marrow was harvested 24 hr after treatment and 2000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were analyzed per animal. The presence or absence of the lacl transgene had no effect in unirradiated mice on the percent of micronucleated PCE (MN) or on the ratio of PCE to total red blood cells for either strain: B6C3F1 mice had MN frequencies of 0.26% and 0.20% for NTR and HEMI mice, respectively; C57Bl/6 mice had MN frequencies of 0.34%, 0.32%, and 0.38% for NTR, HEMI, and HOMO mice, respectively. Radiation-induced micronucleus frequencies were significantly higher in HEMI lacl B6C3F1 mice (2.85%) than in NTR litter mates (1.59%); the converse was true in C57Bl/6 mice: NTR were 2.45%, HEMI were 1.25%, HOMO were 1.65%. These data suggest that the lacl transgene does not cause chromosome instability as measured by spontaneous micronucleus levels. However, the response of these transgenic mice to a variety of clastogenic agents needs to be investigated before they are integrated into standard in vivo assays for chromosome damage

  9. Making BAC transgene constructs with lambda-red recombineering system for transgenic animals or cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Scott; Lyman, Suzanne; Hsu, Jen-Kang; Cheng, JrGang

    2015-01-01

    The genomic DNA libraries based on Bacteria Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) are the foundation of whole genomic mapping, sequencing, and annotation for many species like mice and humans. With their large insert size, BACs harbor the gene-of-interest and nearby transcriptional regulatory elements necessary to direct the expression of the gene-of-interest in a temporal and cell-type specific manner. When replacing a gene-of-interest with a transgene in vivo, the transgene can be expressed with the same patterns and machinery as that of the endogenous gene. This chapter describes in detail a method of using lambda-red recombineering to make BAC transgene constructs with the integration of a transgene into a designated location within a BAC. As the final BAC construct will be used for transfection in cell lines or making transgenic animals, specific considerations with BAC transgenes such as genotyping, BAC coverage and integrity as well as quality of BAC DNA will be addressed. Not only does this approach provide a practical and effective way to modify large DNA constructs, the same recombineering principles can apply to smaller high copy plasmids as well as to chromosome engineering. PMID:25239742

  10. Genetic background modifies neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation driven by misfolded human tau protein in rat model of tauopathy: implication for immunomodulatory approach to Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacech Branislav

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous epidemiological studies demonstrate that genetic background modifies the onset and the progression of Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. The efficacious influence of genetic background on the disease pathway of amyloid beta has been meticulously described in rodent models. Since the impact of genetic modifiers on the neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory cascade induced by misfolded tau protein is yet to be elucidated, we have addressed the issue by using transgenic lines expressing the same human truncated tau protein in either spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR or Wistar-Kyoto (WKY genetic background. Methods Brains of WKY and SHR transgenic rats in the terminal stage of phenotype and their age-matched non-transgenic littermates were examined by means of immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology. Basic measures of tau-induced neurodegeneration (load of neurofibrillary tangles and neuroinflammation (number of Iba1-positive microglia, their activated morphology, and numbers of microglia immunoreactive for MHCII and astrocytes immunoreactive for GFAP were quantified with an optical fractionator in brain areas affected by neurofibrillary pathology (pons, medulla oblongata. The stereological data were evaluated using two-way ANOVA and Student's t-test. Results Tau neurodegeneration (neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, axonopathy and neuroinflammation (microgliosis, astrocytosis appeared in both WKY and SHR transgenic rats. Although identical levels of transgene expression in both lines were present, terminally-staged WKY transgenic rats displayed significantly lower final NFT loads than their SHR transgenic counterparts. Interestingly, microglial responses showed a striking difference between transgenic lines. Only 1.6% of microglia in SHR transgenic rats expressed MHCII in spite of having a robust phagocytic phenotype, whereas in WKY transgenic rats, 23.2% of microglia expressed MHCII despite displaying a considerably lower extent of transformation into phagocytic phenotype. Conclusions These results show that the immune response represents a pivotal and genetically variable modifying factor that is able to influence vulnerability to neurodegeneration. Therefore, targeted immunomodulation could represent a prospective therapeutic approach to Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Green Tea Polyphenols Control Dysregulated Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Transgenic Mice by Hijacking the ADP Activation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Bennett, Michael J.; Stanley, Charles A.; Smith, Thomas J. (CH-PA); (UPENN); (Danforth)

    2012-05-09

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic {beta}-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  12. Green tea polyphenols control dysregulated glutamate dehydrogenase in transgenic mice by hijacking the ADP activation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M; Bennett, Michael J; Stanley, Charles A; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-09-30

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic ?-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo. PMID:21813650

  13. Wading pools and fading memories – place navigation in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Tanila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Morris swim navigation task (‘water maze’ has been a primary research tools to assess hippocampal delpendent spatial learning and memory is rodents for three decades. Originally developed for rats, its application to mouse studies has been a tedious process, but nowadays there are more studies performed with the Morris swim task in mice than in rats. The task has proved to be particularly useful in demonstrating age-related memory impairment in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. This review focuses on task details that are most relevant for its application to mouse studies in general and characteristic patterns of impaired performance in Alzheimer model mice as compared with rodents sustaining hippocampal lesions.

  14. Temporal and spatial patterns of transgene expression in aging adult mice provide insights about the origins, organization, and differentiation of the intestinal epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, S. M.; Roth, K A; Birkenmeier, E. H.; Gordon, J. I.

    1991-01-01

    We have used liver fatty acid-binding protein/human growth hormone (L-FABP/hGH) fusion genes to explore the temporal and spatial differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells in 1- to 12-month-old transgenic mice. The intact, endogenous L-FABP gene (Fabpl) was not expressed in the colon at any time. Young adult transgenic mice containing nucleotides -596 to +21 of the rat L-FABP gene linked to the hGH gene (minus its 5' nontranscribed domain) demonstrated inappropriate expression of hGH in e...

  15. Transgenic animal methodologies and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J W; Harold, G; Leila, Y

    1993-09-01

    In the past 10 years the capacity has been acquired to genetically transform mammals via insertion of genes into developmentally totipotent embryonic cells. This profound advance has impacted significantly on our understanding of basic mechanisms of gene regulation, and has enabled practitioner's of this "transgenic technology" to establish important paradigms for the genetic engineering of experimental animals and livestock. The two most powerful forms of genetic engineering to emerge from this research include the targeted expression of foreign genes, or transgenes, and the ability to target specific endogenous mouse genes for mutagenesis. In this presentation I will outline the general principles underlying this technology, and provide examples of its use in research on cancer and aging that are ongoing in our laboratory. PMID:8297811

  16. [Application of transgenic animal in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhan Feng; Liu, Wen Ling

    2007-12-18

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an autosomal-dominant disease. Disease-causing mutations have been found in genes encoding structural components of the thick and thin filament systems of cardiac myocyte; it has therefore been named as a disease of sarcomere. Many approaches have been used to characterize the pathogenesis of the disease. Transgenic animal models have been created to gain further insight into the pathogenesis of this disease. Most of these models has been made in mice; however, recently a transgenic rabbit model has been created. In addition, there are several natural-occurring forms of HCM in animals. The discovery of responsible genes and the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis through the use of animal models promise improved and early diagnosis and the potential for mechanism-based therapeutics. PMID:18087565

  17. Transgenic arthropods and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique can benefit from transgenesis in three ways by creating; (1) genetically marked strains, (2) genetic sexing strains and (3) strains that induce molecular sterility in the field. Experience with the development of genetic sexing strains based on indicates that caution is required during the experimental evaluation of any potential transgenic strain. Two major scientific concerns involve the overall fitness of transgenic strains and their stability over time. The latter being very important especially when the extremely large numbers of insects that are mass reared is taken into account. Currently transformation events are random and it will probably be necessary to select suitable strains from many that are induced. The success of transformation itself in many insect species will enable many new strategies to be developed and tested. (author)

  18. A multidisciplinary approach involving comparative 'OMICS' of transgenic and non-transgenic soybeam seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Soybean culture has an expressive impact in the economy of many countries, being the commercialization of its by-products, which presents many benefits in terms of health and nutritional aspects, and which also includes a fuel alternative (biodiesel), the main factor for the large soybean production. Part of this impact is due to the transgenic modification of soybean, conferring enhanced characteristics to the culture, such as tolerance to fungicides (Y. Kim et al., J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 16 (2006), 25-31.). Due to the insertion of hexogen genes, some proteome modification is possible (S. Natarajan et al., Anal. Biochem., 342 (2005), 214-220), and recently some metallome modification was reported by our research group (A. Sussulini et al., J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 22 (2007), 1501-1506). Then, the aim of this work is to enlarge the results in terms of 'omics' when considering transgenic and non-transgenic soybean seeds. For this task, the identification of more than 140 soybean proteins using MALDI-QTOF-MS after 2D-PAGE protein separation (369±46 and 376±42 protein spots in the 4-7 pI range for transgenic and non-transgenic soybean seeds, respectively), the analysis of the protein expression using image program, the analysis of some enzymes (SOD, GR, APX, CAT) involved in the ROS production, the mapping of 80 protein spots using SR-XRF, and the metal identification of more than 30 spots using ICP-MS was carried out. In terms of metal distribution when considering some proteins, the results displayed a great ability of proteins bind different metal ions. High iron (sucrose binding protein homolog S-64 - 57,922 kDa), chromium (protein not identified), lead (seed maturation protein PM 41 - 15,103 kDa), copper and tin (trypsin inhibitor (kunitz), chain A - 20,417 kDa) contents were achieved in the non-transgenic soybean, while high magnesium (actin - 50,281 kDa), barium (protein not identified) and ruthenium (protein not identified) contents were achieved in the transgenic soybean. The results put in evidence the possibility to find a biomarker candidate for differentiating transgenic and non-transgenic organisms. Financial support from Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo - FAPESP, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico - CNPq, Fianciadora de Estudos e Projetos - FINEP, and Proteome Network of the Sao Paulo state - Brazilian National Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation are highly acknowledged.

  19. Regulation of transgene expression in genetic immunization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.S., Harms; S.C., Oliveira; G.A., Splitter.

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of mammalian gene expression vectors has become increasingly important for genetic immunization and gene therapy as well as basic research. Essential for the success of these vectors in genetic immunization is the proper choice of a promoter linked to the antigen of interest. Many genetic im [...] munization vectors use promoter elements from pathogenic viruses including SV40 and CMV. Lymphokines produced by the immune response to proteins expressed by these vectors could inhibit further transcription initiation by viral promoters. Our objective was to determine the effect of IFN-g on transgene expression driven by viral SV40 or CMV promoter/enhancer and the mammalian promoter/enhancer for the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) gene. We transfected the luciferase gene driven by these three promoters into 14 cell lines of many tissues and several species. Luciferase assays of transfected cells untreated or treated with IFN-g indicated that although the viral promoters could drive luciferase production in all cell lines tested to higher or lower levels than the MHC I promoter, treatment with IFN-g inhibited transgene expression in most of the cell lines and amplification of the MHC I promoter-driven transgene expression in all cell lines. These data indicate that the SV40 and CMV promoter/enhancers may not be a suitable choice for gene delivery especially for genetic immunization or cancer cytokine gene therapy. The MHC I promoter/enhancer, on the other hand, may be an ideal transgene promoter for applications involving the immune system.

  20. Transgenic Crops: Environmental Impacts and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Khattak, Asif Khan

    2005-01-01

    In order to have a proper regulation or an amendment enacted for a particular technology or its derived products (transgenic crops in this case), it is essential for policymakers, in my view, to have a proper understanding of contemporary scientific study pertaining to that technology or research area. Similarly, based on this perception, a review of scientific empirical data is deemed to be important to understand why the precautionary principle has been implemented in the regulatory process...

  1. Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls by transgenic tobacco.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrastilová, Z.; Macková, M.; Nováková, M.; Szekeres, M.; Macek, Tomáš

    Chania : Technical University of Crete, 2008 - (Kalogerakis, N.; Fava, F.; Banwart, S.). s. 295-295 ISBN 978-960-8475-12-0. [European Bioremediation Conference /4./. 03.09.2008-06.09.2008, Chania] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phytoremediation * PCB * transgenic plants * bphC Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  2. Caudal dysgenesis in islet-1 transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Yunhua Li; Yueh, Yir Gloria; Yaworsky, Paul J; Salbaum, J. Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Maternal diabetes during pregnancy is responsible for the occurrence of diabetic embryopathy, a spectrum of birth defects that includes heart abnormalities, neural tube defects, and caudal dysgenesis syndromes. Here, we report that mice transgenic for the homeodomain transcription factor Isl-1 develop profound caudal growth defects that resemble human sacral/caudal agenesis. Isl-1 is normally expressed in the pancreas and is required for pancreas development and endocrine cell differentiation...

  3. Transgenic cereals: current status and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Dunwell, Jim M

    2014-01-01

    This review summarises the history of transgenic (GM) cereals, principally maize, and then focuses on the scientific literature published in the last two years. It describes the production of GM cereals with modified traits, divided into input traits and output traits. The first category includes herbicide tolerance and insect resistance, and resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses; the second includes altered grains for starch, protein or nutrient quality, the use of cereals for the produc...

  4. Transgenic pig carrying green fluorescent proteasomes

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Edward L.; O’Gorman, Chad; Zhao, Jianguo; SAMUEL, MELISSA; WALTERS, ERIC; Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Miriam; Prather, Randall S; Wells, Kevin D; Sutovsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Among its many functions, the ubiquitin–proteasome system regulates substrate-specific proteolysis during the cell cycle, apoptosis, and fertilization and in pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and liver cirrhosis. Proteasomes are present in human and boar spermatozoa, but little is known about the interactions of proteasomal subunits with other sperm proteins or structures. We have created a transgenic boar with green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged 20S proteasomal core subunit...

  5. Transgenic nonhuman primates for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models that represent human diseases constitute an important tool in understanding the pathogenesis of the diseases, and in developing effective therapies. Neurodegenerative diseases are complex disorders involving neuropathologic and psychiatric alterations. Although transgenic and knock-in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and Huntington's disease (HD have been created, limited representation in clinical aspects has been recognized and the rodent models lack true neurodegeneration. Chemical induction of HD and PD in nonhuman primates (NHP has been reported, however, the role of intrinsic genetic factors in the development of the diseases is indeterminable. Nonhuman primates closely parallel humans with regard to genetic, neuroanatomic, and cognitive/behavioral characteristics. Accordingly, the development of NHP models for neurodegenerative diseases holds greater promise for success in the discovery of diagnoses, treatments, and cures than approaches using other animal species. Therefore, a transgenic NHP carrying a mutant gene similar to that of patients will help to clarify our understanding of disease onset and progression. Additionally, monitoring disease onset and development in the transgenic NHP by high resolution brain imaging technology such as MRI, and behavioral and cognitive testing can all be carried out simultaneously in the NHP but not in other animal models. Moreover, because of the similarity in motor repertoire between NHPs and humans, it will also be possible to compare the neurologic syndrome observed in the NHP model to that in patients. Understanding the correlation between genetic defects and physiologic changes (e.g. oxidative damage will lead to a better understanding of disease progression and the development of patient treatments, medications and preventive approaches for high risk individuals. The impact of the transgenic NHP model in understanding the role which genetic disorders play in the development of efficacious interventions and medications is foreseeable.

  6. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020. PMID:11171275

  7. A 700-bp fragment of the human antithrombin III promoter is sufficient to confer high, tissue-specific expression on human apolipoprotein A-II in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremp, G L; Duchange, N; Branellec, D; Cereghini, S; Tailleux, A; Berthou, L; Fievet, C; Touchet, N; Schombert, B; Fruchart, J C

    1995-04-24

    The human antithrombin III-encoding gene (hAT-III) promoter (phAT-III) was used to generate transgenic mice producing a human hepatic apolipoprotein, apolipoprotein A-II (hApoA-II). Integration of the transgene into the mouse genome resulted in the efficient production of hApoA-II in plasma, reaching up to 0.40 g/l in two transgenic lines. The human ApoA-II mRNA was detected at high levels, both in the liver and in the kidney of transgenic mice. The rat AT-III gene shows the same expression pattern. In contrast, as previously described, the same promoter permitted the expression of the SV40 large T antigen only in the liver of transgenic mice. In view of the extra-hepatic distribution of the ApoA-II mRNA, a preliminary characterization of the hAT-III proximal promoter (phAT-III), driving the expression of the transgene, was realized. Using DNase I footprinting analysis with liver nuclear extracts, four protected regions (I-IV) were identified in the first 175 bp of the 5' region of hAT-III. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays performed with liver and kidney nuclear extracts indicate that region III (nucleotides (nt) -67 to -90) interacts with the liver-enriched HNF4 nuclear factor. Furthermore, our data suggest that region I (nt -123 to -138) interacts with the liver-enriched HNF3 transcription factor family, both in liver and kidney. Taken together, these results demonstrate that phAT-III is a useful tool to create transgenic mice producing high plasma levels of a human apolipoprotein due to expression of the transgene in liver and kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7758957

  8. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-?, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors

  9. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Young-Mi, E-mail: youngmi_ham@hms.harvard.edu [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Mahoney, Sarah Jane [Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

  10. Production of recombinant proteins in milk of transgenic and non-transgenic goats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raylene Ramos, Moura; Luciana Magalhães, Melo; Vicente José de Figueirêdo, Freitas.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Among all the transgenic mammalians produced so far, goats have represented an excellent model of transgenesis when considering the factors such as the market demand for protein, volume of milk produced per lactation and reproductive rate. Various recombinant proteins have been obtained from the tra [...] nsgenic and non-transgenic goats, and among these, human antithrombin, produced by the transgenic goats, was the first recombinant protein of animal origin to be released as a drug for the clinical use in humans. This review reports the aspects inherent to the production of recombinant proteins in the goats, from the production of the animal bioreactors up to the expression of these proteins in their milk.

  11. Activation of Thiazide-Sensitive Co-Transport by Angiotensin II in the cyp1a1-Ren2 Hypertensive Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ashek, Ali; Menzies, Robert I; Mullins, Linda J.; Bellamy, Christopher O.C.; Harmar, Anthony J; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Flatman, Peter W.; Mullins, John J.; Matthew A. Bailey

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic rats with inducible expression of the mouse Ren2 gene were used to elucidate mechanisms leading to the development of hypertension and renal injury. Ren2 transgene activation was induced by administration of a naturally occurring aryl hydrocarbon, indole-3-carbinol (100 mg/kg/day by gastric gavage). Blood pressure and renal parameters were recorded in both conscious and anesthetized (butabarbital sodium; 120 mg/kg IP) rats at selected time-points during the development of hypertens...

  12. Establishment of conditionally immortalized epithelial cell lines from the intestinal tissue of adult normal and transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Robert H; Robinson, Pamela S

    2009-03-01

    It has proved to be impossible to culture epithelial cells from the gastrointestinal tract of adult animals. Researchers have had to use either cell lines derived from newborn rat small intestine or colon carcinoma cell lines that have retained some of the properties of the gastrointestinal mucosa. We have described a method for establishing conditionally immortalized cell lines from the stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, and liver from tissue obtained from a transgenic mouse strain carrying a temperature-sensitive mutant of the SV40 large T gene (the "Immortomouse"). This immortalizing gene has proved to be useful for establishing cell lines from a number of transgenic mice following crossbreeding of the Immortomouse with the transgenic mouse of interest. These cell lines are being used in numerous studies. In this review we describe the methods for developing such lines and list the range of cell lines that have been developed from colon, small intestine, stomach, liver, and pancreas of a number of transgenic mice. PMID:19109407

  13. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Remuge, Liliana; Carlisle, Ailsa; Lillico, Simon; Sandøe, Peter; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Olsson, I. Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology—animal welfare—has not been approached through systematic assessment and...... statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals...... months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs...

  14. Generation of bovine transgenics using somatic cell nuclear transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Stice Steven L; Hodges Craig A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The ability to produce transgenic animals through the introduction of exogenous DNA has existed for many years. However, past methods available to generate transgenic animals, such as pronuclear microinjection or the use of embryonic stem cells, have either been inefficient or not available in all animals, bovine included. More recently somatic cell nuclear transfer has provided a method to create transgenic animals that overcomes many deficiencies present in other methods. This revi...

  15. Single-copy insertion of transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer-Jensen, Christian; Davis, M Wayne; Hopkins, Christopher E; Newman, Blake J; Thummel, Jason M; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2008-01-01

    At present, transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans are generated by injecting DNA into the germline. The DNA assembles into a semistable extrachromosomal array composed of many copies of injected DNA. These transgenes are typically overexpressed in somatic cells and silenced in the germline. We have developed a method that inserts a single copy of a transgene into a defined site. Mobilization of a Mos1 transposon generates a double-strand break in noncoding DNA. The break is repaired by copying DN...

  16. Efficient expression of transgenes in adult zebrafish by electroporation

    OpenAIRE

    Rao S Hari; Rambabu K Murali; Rao N Madhusudhana

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Expression of transgenes in muscle by injection of naked DNA is widely practiced. Application of electrical pulses at the site of injection was demonstrated to improve transgene expression in muscle tissue. Zebrafish is a precious model to investigate developmental biology in vertebrates. In this study we investigated the effect of electroporation on expression of transgenes in 3–6 month old adult zebrafish. Results Electroporation parameters such as number of pulses, volt...

  17. Transgene-mediated cosuppression in the C. elegans germ line

    OpenAIRE

    Dernburg, Abby F.; Zalevsky, Jonathan; Colaiácovo, Mónica P.; Villeneuve, Anne M.

    2000-01-01

    Functional silencing of chromosomal loci can be induced by transgenes (cosuppression) or by introduction of double-stranded RNA (RNAi). Here, we demonstrate the generality of and define rules for a transgene-mediated cosuppression phenomenon in the Caenorhabditis elegans germ line. Functional repression is not a consequence of persistent physical association between transgenes and endogenous genes or of mutations in affected genes. The cosuppression mechanism likely involves an RNA mediator t...

  18. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, M.; Loon, J.J.A. Van; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commercially available insect-resistant transgenic crops show clear benefits for agriculture and there are many exciting new developments such as transgenic plants that enhance biological control. Effectiv...

  19. Generation of bovine transgenics using somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stice Steven L

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to produce transgenic animals through the introduction of exogenous DNA has existed for many years. However, past methods available to generate transgenic animals, such as pronuclear microinjection or the use of embryonic stem cells, have either been inefficient or not available in all animals, bovine included. More recently somatic cell nuclear transfer has provided a method to create transgenic animals that overcomes many deficiencies present in other methods. This review summarizes the benefits of using somatic cell nuclear transfer to create bovine transgenics as well as the possible opportunities this method creates for the future.

  20. Hepatic steatosis in transgenic mice overexpressing human histone deacetylase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally thought that histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the transcriptional regulation of genes. However, little information is available concerning the specific functions of individual HDACs in disease states. In this study, two transgenic mice lines were established which harbored the human HDAC1 gene. Overexpressed HDAC1 was detected in the nuclei of transgenic liver cells, and HDAC1 enzymatic activity was significantly higher in the transgenic mice than in control littermates. The HDAC1 transgenic mice exhibited a high incidence of hepatic steatosis and nuclear pleomorphism. Molecular studies showed that HDAC1 may contribute to nuclear pleomorphism through the p53/p21 signaling pathway

  1. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.; Noguera, O.R.; Knudsen, Søren; Larsen, J.; Brinch-Pedersen, H.; Holm, P.B.; Olsen, O.; Svensson, Birte

    2004-01-01

    . Eleven of these were identified by mass spectrometric peptide mass mapping, including an abundant chitinase implicated in defence against fungal pathogens and a small heat-shock protein. To enable a comparison with transgenic seed protein patterns, differences in spot patterns between field and...... with extra nitrogen. Finally, the fate of transgene products in barley seeds was followed. Spots containing two green fluorescent protein constructs and the herbicide resistance marker phosphinothricin acetyltransferase were observed in 2D-gel patterns of transgenic seeds and identified by mass...... spectrometry. Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase was observed in three spots differing in pI suggesting that post-translational modification of the transgene product had occurred....

  2. Antifungal activity of a virally encoded gene in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M; Kräuter, R; Schachermayr, G; Potrykus, I; Sautter, C

    2000-04-01

    The cDNA encoding the antifungal protein KP4 from Ustilago maydis-infecting virus was inserted behind the ubiquitin promoter of maize and genetically transferred to wheat varieties particularly susceptible to stinking smut (Tilletia tritici) disease. The transgene was integrated and inherited over several generations. Of seven transgenic lines, three showed antifungal activity against U. maydis. The antifungal activity correlated with the presence of the KP4 transgene. KP4-transgenic, soil-grown wheat plants exhibit increased endogenous resistance against stinking smut. PMID:10748529

  3. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Hühns, Maja; Broer, Inge; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2014-01-01

    Composite plants, with transgenic roots on a non-transgenic shoot, can be obtained by shoot explant transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The aim of this study was to generate composite potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to be used as a model system in future studies on root...... composite potato plants expressed significantly higher amounts of β-glucuronidase (GUS) than the roots of a GUS-transgenic potato line event. Silencing of the uidA transgene (GUS) was tested by inducing roots on the GUS-transgenic cv. Albatros event with strains of A. rhizogenes over-expressing either the......-pathogen interactions and gene silencing in the roots. The proportion of transgenic roots among the roots induced was high (80-100 %) in the four potato cultivars tested (Albatros, Desirée, Sabina and Saturna). No wild-type adventitious roots were formed at mock inoculation site. All strains of A. rhizogenes tested...

  4. Rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Sofía Rodríguez-Reyna, Cynthia Martínez-Reyes, Jesús Kazúo Yamamoto-Furusho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature concerning rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, including common immune-mediated pathways, frequency, clinical course and therapy. Musculoskeletal complications are frequent and well-recognized manifestations in IBD, and affect up to 33% of patients with IBD. The strong link between the bowel and the osteo-articular system is suggested by many clinical and experimental observations, notably in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. The autoimmune pathogenic mechanisms shared by IBD and spondyloarthropathies include genetic susceptibility to abnormal antigen presentation, aberrant recognition of self, the presence of autoantibodies against specific antigens shared by the colon and other extra-colonic tissues, and increased intestinal permeability. The response against microorganisms may have an important role through molecular mimicry and other mechanisms. Rheumatic manifestations of IBD have been divided into peripheral arthritis, and axial involvement, including sacroiliitis, with or without spondylitis, similar to idiopathic ankylosing spondylitis. Other periarticular features can occur, including enthesopathy, tendonitis, clubbing, periostitis, and granulomatous lesions of joints and bones. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia secondary to IBD and iatrogenic complications can also occur. The management of the rheumatic manifestations of IBD consists of physical therapy in combination with local injection of corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; caution is in order however, because of their possible harmful effects on intestinal integrity, permeability, and even on gut inflammation. Sulfasalazine, methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclosporine and leflunomide should be used for selected indications. In some cases, tumor necrosis factor-α blocking agents should be considered as first-line therapy.

  5. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Hühns, Maja; Broer, Inge; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2014-01-01

    Composite plants, with transgenic roots on a non-transgenic shoot, can be obtained by shoot explant transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The aim of this study was to generate composite potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to be used as a model system in future studies on root-pathogen interactions and gene silencing in the roots. The proportion of transgenic roots among the roots induced was high (80-100 %) in the four potato cultivars tested (Albatros, Desirée, Sabina and Saturna). No wil...

  6. Effect of the cauliflower Or transgene on carotenoid accumulation and chromoplast formation in transgenic potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants have facilitated our understanding of the functional roles of genes and the metabolic processes affected in plants. Recently, we isolated the Or gene from an orange cauliflower mutant and showed that the Or gene could serve as a novel genetic tool to enrich carotenoid content in tr...

  7. Characterization of a maize Wip1 promoter in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengxue; Lian, Yun; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yunjun; Wang, Guoying

    2013-01-01

    The Maize Wip1 gene encodes a wound-induced Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) protein which is a type of serine protease inhibitor, and its expression is induced by wounding or infection, conferring resistance against pathogens and pests. In this study, the maize Wip1 promoter was isolated and its function was analyzed. Different truncated Wip1 promoters were fused upstream of the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice plants. We found that (1) several truncated maize Wip1 promoters led to strong GUS activities in both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, whereas low GUS activity was detected in transgenic rice leaves; (2) the Wip1 promoter was not wound-induced in transgenic tobacco leaves, but was induced by wounding in transgenic rice leaves; (3) the truncated Wip1 promoter had different activity in different organs of transgenic tobacco plants; (4) the transgenic plant leaves containing different truncated Wip1 promoters had low GUS transcripts, even though high GUS protein level and GUS activities were observed; (5) there was one transcription start site of Wip1 gene in maize and two transcription start sites of GUS in Wip1::GUS transgenic lines; (6) the adjacent 35S promoter which is present in the transformation vectors enhanced the activity of the truncated Wip1 promoters in transgenic tobacco leaves, but did not influence the disability of truncated Wip1231 promoter to respond to wounding signals. We speculate that an ACAAAA hexamer, several CAA trimers and several elements similar to ACAATTAC octamer in the 5'-untranslated region might contribute to the strong GUS activity in Wip1231 transgenic lines, meanwhile, compared to the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1231 transgenic lines, the additional upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1737 transgenic lines might contribute to the lower level of GUS transcript and GUS activity. PMID:24322445

  8. Characterization of a Maize Wip1 Promoter in Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxue Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Maize Wip1 gene encodes a wound-induced Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI protein which is a type of serine protease inhibitor, and its expression is induced by wounding or infection, conferring resistance against pathogens and pests. In this study, the maize Wip1 promoter was isolated and its function was analyzed. Different truncated Wip1 promoters were fused upstream of the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice plants. We found that (1 several truncated maize Wip1 promoters led to strong GUS activities in both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, whereas low GUS activity was detected in transgenic rice leaves; (2 the Wip1 promoter was not wound-induced in transgenic tobacco leaves, but was induced by wounding in transgenic rice leaves; (3 the truncated Wip1 promoter had different activity in different organs of transgenic tobacco plants; (4 the transgenic plant leaves containing different truncated Wip1 promoters had low GUS transcripts, even though high GUS protein level and GUS activities were observed; (5 there was one transcription start site of Wip1 gene in maize and two transcription start sites of GUS in Wip1::GUS transgenic lines; (6 the adjacent 35S promoter which is present in the transformation vectors enhanced the activity of the truncated Wip1 promoters in transgenic tobacco leaves, but did not influence the disability of truncated Wip1231 promoter to respond to wounding signals. We speculate that an ACAAAA hexamer, several CAA trimers and several elements similar to ACAATTAC octamer in the 5'-untranslated region might contribute to the strong GUS activity in Wip1231 transgenic lines, meanwhile, compared to the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1231 transgenic lines, the additional upstream open reading frames (uORFs in the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1737 transgenic lines might contribute to the lower level of GUS transcript and GUS activity.

  9. Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Lorna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulatory elements that control expression of specific genes during development have been shown in many cases to contain functionally-conserved modules that can be transferred between species and direct gene expression in a comparable developmental pattern. An example of such a module has been identified at the rat myosin light chain (MLC 1/3 locus, which has been well characterised in transgenic mouse studies. This locus contains two promoters encoding two alternatively spliced isoforms of alkali myosin light chain. These promoters are differentially regulated during development through the activity of two enhancer elements. The MLC3 promoter alone has been shown to confer expression of a reporter gene in skeletal and cardiac muscle in transgenic mice and the addition of the downstream MLC enhancer increased expression levels in skeletal muscle. We asked whether this regulatory module, sufficient for striated muscle gene expression in the mouse, would drive expression in similar domains in the chicken. Results We have observed that a conserved downstream MLC enhancer is present in the chicken MLC locus. We found that the rat MLC1/3 regulatory elements were transcriptionally active in chick skeletal muscle primary cultures. We observed that a single copy lentiviral insert containing this regulatory cassette was able to drive expression of a lacZ reporter gene in the fast-fibres of skeletal muscle in chicken in three independent transgenic chicken lines in a pattern similar to the endogenous MLC locus. Reporter gene expression in cardiac muscle tissues was not observed for any of these lines. Conclusions From these results we conclude that skeletal expression from this regulatory module is conserved in a genomic context between rodents and chickens. This transgenic module will be useful in future investigations of muscle development in avian species.

  10. Transgenic DNA integrated into the oat genome is frequently interspersed by host DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlowski, Wojciech P; Somers, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Integration of transgenic DNA into the plant genome was investigated in 13 transgenic oat (Avena sativa L.) lines produced using microprojectile bombardment with one or two cotransformed plasmids. In all transformation events, the transgenic DNA integrated into the plant genome consisted of intact transgene copies that were accompanied by multiple, rearranged, and/or truncated transgene fragments. All fragments of transgenic DNA cosegregated, indicating that they were integrated at single gen...

  11. [Biofuels, food security and transgenic crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Orlando; Chaparro-Giraldo, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Soaring global food prices are threatening to push more poor people back below the poverty line; this will probably become aggravated by the serious challenge that increasing population and climate changes are posing for food security. There is growing evidence that human activities involving fossil fuel consumption and land use are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and consequently changing the climate worldwide. The finite nature of fossil fuel reserves is causing concern about energy security and there is a growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources such as biofuels. There is growing concern regarding the fact that biofuels are currently produced from food crops, thereby leading to an undesirable competition for their use as food and feed. Nevertheless, biofuels can be produced from other feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose from perennial grasses, forestry and vegetable waste. Biofuel energy content should not be exceeded by that of the fossil fuel invested in its production to ensure that it is energetically sustainable; however, biofuels must also be economically competitive and environmentally acceptable. Climate change and biofuels are challenging FAO efforts aimed at eradicating hunger worldwide by the next decade. Given that current crops used in biofuel production have not been domesticated for this purpose, transgenic technology can offer an enormous contribution towards improving biofuel crops' environmental and economic performance. The present paper critically presents some relevant relationships between biofuels, food security and transgenic plant technology. PMID:19722000

  12. Hydrogen fuel production by transgenic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios; Seibert, Michael; Ghirardi, Maria L

    2007-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the state-of-art in the field of green algal H2-production and examines physiological and genetic engineering approaches by which to improve the hydrogen metabolism characteristics of these microalgae. Included in this chapter are emerging topics pertaining to the application of sulfur-nutrient deprivation to attenuate O2-evolution and to promote H2-production, as well as the genetic engineering of sulfate uptake through manipulation of a newly reported sulfate permease in the chloroplast of the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Application of the green algal hydrogenase assembly genes is examined in efforts to confer H2-production capacity to other commercially significant unicellular green algae. Engineering a solution to the O2 sensitivity of the green algal hydrogenase is discussed as an alternative approach to sulfur nutrient deprivation, along with starch accumulation in microalgae for enhanced H2-production. Lastly, current efforts aiming to optimize light utilization in transgenic microalgae for enhanced H2-production under mass culture conditions are presented. It is evident that application of genetic engineering technologies and the use of transgenic green algae will improve prospects for commercial exploitation of these photosynthetic micro-organisms in the generation of H2, a clean and renewable fuel. PMID:18161495

  13. Transgenic crops. Processes, products and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transgenic crops are a natural extension of plant breeding technologies, offering new opportunities for increasing the productivity of agriculture and reducing the cost of food production, for increasing the appeal, nutritional content and quality of fresh and processed foods, and for reducing the environmental damage of agricultural practices. These new transgenic traits will be combined with continuing improvements in the latest varieties developed via breeding technologies, spurring investment in both. These technologies are inherently compatible with and necessary for meeting the challenges now facing the world, namely, economic growth and development, environmental protection and remediation, and human needs for food, shelter and a decent quality of life. The first products from genetically engineered crops are beginning to enter commerce. This is a critical time for issues that will shape public acceptance and for adoption of regulatory and trade policies that encourage rather than discourage investment in and use of this technology. Further investment in the tools for transforming crops and in the basic and applied sciences that will provide a pipeline of new genes is also needed. (author). 24 refs, 1 tab

  14. Transgenic Crops and Sustainable Agriculture in the European Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The rapid adoption of transgenic crops in the United States, Argentina, and Canada stands in strong contrast to the situation in the European Union (EU), where a de facto moratorium has been in place since 1998. This article reviews recent scientific literature relevant to the problematic introduction of transgenic crops in the EU to assess if…

  15. EXPRESSION OF ENDOGLUCANASE E1 IN TRANSGENIC DUCKWEED LEMNA MINOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic duckweed (Lemna minor) that expresses Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase was generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Out of 15 independent transgenic lines, 1 line with the highest CMC-degrading activity was selected for further studies. The 2-week-old transgeni...

  16. Gene flow in genetically altered crops helps progress transgenic turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous useful traits are being imparted into transgenic and non-transgenic plants. Gene flow as indicated in a recent publication from the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST 2007) is the successful transfer of genetic information between different individuals, populations, and g...

  17. Transgenic Resistance to Citrus tristeza virus in Grapefruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) transgenic plants transformed with a variety of constructs derived from the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome were tested for their resistance to the virus. Most transgenic lines were susceptible (27 lines), a few were partially resistant (6 lines) and only one line, tr...

  18. Overview of the investigation of transgenic plums in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and PT3 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natural i...

  19. Overview on the investigations of transgenic plums in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, PT3 and PT5 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natu...

  20. Characterization of immunoglobulin heavy chain knockout rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménoret, Séverine; Iscache, Anne-L; Tesson, Laurent; Rémy, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Osborn, Michel J; Cost, Gregory J; Brüggemann, Marianne; Buelow, Roland; Anegon, Ignacio

    2010-10-01

    The rat is a species frequently used in immunological studies but, until now, there were no models with introduced gene-specific mutations. In a recent study, we described for the first time the generation of novel rat lines with targeted mutations using zinc-finger nucleases. In this study, we compare immune development in two Ig heavy-chain KO lines; one with truncated C? and a new line with removed JH segments. Rats homozygous for IgM mutation generate truncated C? mRNA with a de novo stop codon and no C? mRNA. JH-deletion rats showed undetectable mRNA for all H-chain transcripts. No serum IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE were detected in these rat lines. In both lines, lymphoid B-cell numbers were reduced >95% versus WT animals. In rats homozygous for IgM mutation, no Ab-mediated hyperacute allograft rejection was encountered. Similarities in B-cell differentiation seen in Ig KO rats and ES cell-derived Ig KO mice are discussed. These Ig and B-cell-deficient rats obtained using zinc-finger nucleases-technology should be useful as biomedical research models and a powerful platform for transgenic animals expressing a human Ab repertoire. PMID:21038471

  1. MRI of Transgene Expression: Correlation to Therapeutic Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotsugu Ichikawa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can provide highresolution 3D maps of structural and functional information, yet its use of mapping in vivo gene expression has only recently been explored. A potential application for this technology is to noninvasively image transgene expression. The current study explores the latter using a nonregulatable internalizing engineered transferrin receptor (ETR whose expression can be probed for with a superparamagnetic Tf-CLIO probe. Using an HSV-based amplicon vector system for transgene delivery, we demonstrate that: 1 ETR is a sensitive MR marker gene; 2 several transgenes can be efficiently expressed from a single amplicon; 3 expression of each transgene results in functional gene product; and 4 ETR gene expression correlates with expression of therapeutic genes when the latter are contained within the same amplicon. These data, taken together, suggest that MRI of ETR expression can serve as a surrogate for measuring therapeutic transgene expression.

  2. Advancing environmental risk assessment for transgenic biofeedstock crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolt Jeffrey D

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transgenic modification of plants is a key enabling technology for developing sustainable biofeedstocks for biofuels production. Regulatory decisions and the wider acceptance and development of transgenic biofeedstock crops are considered from the context of science-based risk assessment. The risk assessment paradigm for transgenic biofeedstock crops is fundamentally no different from that of current generation transgenic crops, except that the focus of the assessment must consider the unique attributes of a given biofeedstock crop and its environmental release. For currently envisioned biofeedstock crops, particular emphasis in risk assessment will be given to characterization of altered metabolic profiles and their implications relative to non-target environmental effects and food safety; weediness and invasiveness when plants are modified for abiotic stress tolerance or are domesticated; and aggregate risk when plants are platforms for multi-product production. Robust risk assessments for transgenic biofeedstock crops are case-specific, initiated through problem formulation, and use tiered approaches for risk characterization.

  3. Effect of the Citrus Lycopene ?-Cyclase Transgene on Carotenoid Metabolism in Transgenic Tomato Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Fei; Zhou, Wenjing; Zhang, Jiancheng; Xu, Qiang (Casey); Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene ?-cyclase (LYCB) is the key enzyme for the synthesis of ?-carotene, a valuable component of the human diet. In this study, tomato constitutively express Lycb-1 was engineered. The ?-carotene level of transformant increased 4.1 fold, and the total carotenoid content increased by 30% in the fruits. In the transgenic line, the downstream ?-branch metabolic fluxes were repressed during the three developmental stages while ?-carotene content increased in the ripe stage. Microarray analysi...

  4. Nephropathy in human immunodeficiency virus-1 transgenic mice is due to renal transgene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruggeman, L.A.; Dikman, S; C. Meng; Quaggin, S E; Coffman, T.M.; Klotman, P E

    1997-01-01

    HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a progressive glomerular and tubular disease that is increasingly common in AIDS patients and one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease in African Americans. A major unresolved issue in the pathogenesis of HIVAN is whether the kidney disease is due to renal cell infection or a "bystander" phenomenon mediated by systemically dysregulated cytokines. To address this issue, we have used two different experimental approaches and an HIV-1 transgenic ...

  5. WP1: transgenic opto-animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    U?arowska, E.; Czajkowski, Rafa?; Konopka, W.

    2014-11-01

    We aim to create a set of genetic tools where permanent opsin expression (ChR or NpHR) is precisely limited to the population of neurons that express immediate early gene c-fos during a specific temporal window of behavioral training. Since the c-fos gene is only expressed in neurons that form experience-dependent ensemble, this approach will result in specific labeling of a small subset of cells that create memory trace for the learned behavior. To this end we employ two alternative inducible gene expression systems: Tet Expression System and Cre/lox System. In both cases, the temporal window for opsin induction is controlled pharmacologically, by doxycycline or tamoxifen, respectively. Both systems will be used for creating lines of transgenic animals.

  6. Magnetic biomineralisation in Huntington's disease transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration levels of biogenic magnetite nanoparticles in transgenic R6/2 Huntington's disease (HD) mice have been investigated, using seven control and seven HD mice each from an 8 week-old litter and from a 12 week-old litter. Hysteresis and isothermal remnant magnetisation data were collected on a SQUID magnetometer, and analysed using a model comprising dia/paramagnetic, ferrimagnetic and superparamagnetic contributions, to extract the magnetite and ferritin concentrations present. It was found that magnetite was present in both superparamagnetic and blocked states. A larger spread and higher concentration of magnetite levels was found in the diseased mice for both the 8 week-old and 12 week-old batches, compared to the controls

  7. Magnetic biomineralisation in Huntington's disease transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhum, W.; Hautot, D.; Dobson, J.; Pankhurst, Q. A.

    2005-01-01

    The concentration levels of biogenic magnetite nanoparticles in transgenic R6/2 Huntington's disease (HD) mice have been investigated, using seven control and seven HD mice each from an 8 week-old litter and from a 12 week-old litter. Hysteresis and isothermal remnant magnetisation data were collected on a SQUID magnetometer, and analysed using a model comprising dia/paramagnetic, ferrimagnetic and superparamagnetic contributions, to extract the magnetite and ferritin concentrations present. It was found that magnetite was present in both superparamagnetic and blocked states. A larger spread and higher concentration of magnetite levels was found in the diseased mice for both the 8 week-old and 12 week-old batches, compared to the controls.

  8. Ectopic growth of hippocampal mossy fibers in a mutated GAP-43 transgenic mouse with impaired spatial memory retention

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew R Holahan; Honegger, Kyle S.; Routtenberg, Aryeh

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, it was shown that transgenic mice, designated G-NonP, forget the location of a water maze hidden platform when tested 7 days after the last training day (Holahan and Routtenberg, 2008). The memory loss in G-NonP mice might be related to altered hippocampal architecture suggested by the fact that in the rat, 7 days after water maze training, there is discernible mossy fiber (MF) growth (Holahan et al., 2006; Rekart et al., 2007). In the present report, we studied the distr...

  9. Transgenic Studies with a Keratin Promoter-Driven Growth Hormone Transgene: Prospects for Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zinkel, Sandra; Polonsky, Kenneth; Fuchs, Elaine

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocytes are potentially appealing vehicles for the delivery of secreted gene products because they can be transferred to human skin by the relatively simple procedure of grafting. Adult human keratinocytes can be efficiently propagated in culture with sufficient proliferative capacity to produce enough epidermis to cover the body surface of an average adult. However, the feasibility of delivering secreted proteins through skin grafting rests upon (i) the strength of the promoter in keratinocytes and (ii) the efficiency of protein transport through the basement membrane of the stratified epithelium and into the bloodstream. In this paper, we use transgenic technology to demonstrate that the activity of the human keratin 14 promoter remains high in adult skin and that keratinocyte-derived human growth hormone (hGH) can be produced, secreted, and transported to the bloodstream of mice with efficiency that is sufficient to exceed by an order of magnitude the circulating hGH concentration in growing children. Transgenic skin grafts from these adults continue to produce and secrete hGH stably, at ? 1/10 physiological levels in the bloodstream of nontransgenic recipient mice. These studies underscore the utility of the keratin 14 promoter for expressing foreign transgenes in keratinocytes and demonstrate that keratinocytes can be used as effective vehicles for transporting factors to the bloodstream and for eliciting metabolic changes. These findings have important implications for considering the keratinocyte as a possible vehicle for gene therapy.

  10. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Remuge, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology—animal welfare—has not been approached through systematic assessment and statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals along various stages of post natal development. The protocol used covered reproductory performance and behaviour in GFP and wildtype sows and general health and development, social behaviour, exploratory behaviour and emotionality in GFP and wildtype littermates from birth until an age of roughly 4 months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs expressing GFP as healthy. Although the results are not surprising in the light of previous experience, they give a more solid fundament to the evaluation of GFP expression as being relatively non-invasive in pigs. The present study may furthermore serve as starting point for researchers aiming at a systematic characterization of welfare relevant effects in the line of transgenic pigs they are working with.

  11. Design and Management of Field Trials of Transgenic Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedő, Zoltán; Rakszegi, Mariann; Láng, László

    The development of gene transformation systems has allowed the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. The design and the management of field trials vary according to the purpose for which transgenic cereals are developed. Breeders study the phenotypic and genotypic stability of transgenic plants, monitor the increase in homozygosity of transgenic genotypes under field conditions, and develop backcross generations to transfer the introduced genes into secondary transgenic cereal genotypes. For practical purposes, they may also multiply seed of the transgenic lines to produce sufficient amounts of grain for the detailed analysis of trait(s) of interest, to determine the field performance of transgenic lines, and to compare them with the non-transformed parental genotypes. Prior to variety registration, the Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) tests and Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) experiments are carried out in field trials. Field testing includes specific requirements for transgenic cereals to assess potential environmental risks. The capacity of the pollen to survive, establish and disseminate in the field test environment, the potential for gene transfer, the effects of products expressed by the introduced sequences and phenotypic and genotypic instability that might cause deleterious effects must all be specifically monitored, as required by EU Directives 2003/701/EC (1) on the release of genetically modified higher plants in the environment.

  12. Genetic load and transgenic mitigating genes in transgenic Brassica rapa (field mustard × Brassica napus (oilseed rape hybrid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Suzanne I

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One theoretical explanation for the relatively poor performance of Brassica rapa (weed × Brassica napus (crop transgenic hybrids suggests that hybridization imparts a negative genetic load. Consequently, in hybrids genetic load could overshadow any benefits of fitness enhancing transgenes and become the limiting factor in transgenic hybrid persistence. Two types of genetic load were analyzed in this study: random/linkage-derived genetic load, and directly incorporated genetic load using a transgenic mitigation (TM strategy. In order to measure the effects of random genetic load, hybrid productivity (seed yield and biomass was correlated with crop- and weed-specific AFLP genomic markers. This portion of the study was designed to answer whether or not weed × transgenic crop hybrids possessing more crop genes were less competitive than hybrids containing fewer crop genes. The effects of directly incorporated genetic load (TM were analyzed through transgene persistence data. TM strategies are proposed to decrease transgene persistence if gene flow and subsequent transgene introgression to a wild host were to occur. Results In the absence of interspecific competition, transgenic weed × crop hybrids benefited from having more crop-specific alleles. There was a positive correlation between performance and number of B. napus crop-specific AFLP markers [seed yield vs. marker number (r = 0.54, P = 0.0003 and vegetative dry biomass vs. marker number (r = 0.44, P = 0.005]. However under interspecific competition with wheat or more weed-like conditions (i.e. representing a situation where hybrid plants emerge as volunteer weeds in subsequent cropping systems, there was a positive correlation between the number of B. rapa weed-specific AFLP markers and seed yield (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001, although no such correlation was detected for vegetative biomass. When genetic load was directly incorporated into the hybrid genome, by inserting a fitness-mitigating dwarfing gene that that is beneficial for crops but deleterious for weeds (a transgene mitigation measure, there was a dramatic decrease in the number of transgenic hybrid progeny persisting in the population. Conclusion The effects of genetic load of crop and in some situations, weed alleles might be beneficial under certain environmental conditions. However, when genetic load was directly incorporated into transgenic events, e.g., using a TM construct, the number of transgenic hybrids and persistence in weedy genomic backgrounds was significantly decreased.

  13. Areas of concern for the evaluation of transgenic arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areas of concern for the release of transgenic insects relate to risks associated with: (1) the host insect involved, (2) the vector used for gene transfer, (3) genes of interest within the vector including markers, and (4) the expected persistence of the transgenic strain in the environment. The transgenic insect must be considered in terms of whether it is a pest or beneficial insect and risks relevant to its use as a non-transgenic insect. The vector used for gene transfer must be considered in terms of its mobility properties in the host insect and its potential for intra-genomic and inter-genomic movement, potentially mediated by a cross-mobilizing system. Intra-genomic movement may influence the expected expression and activity of gene of interest within the transgene, possibly having unanticipated effects on the host and, thus, program effectiveness. Inter-genomic movement is of considerable importance since risks must be evaluated in terms of the effects of the vector system and genes of interest on a multitude of potential host organisms. Risk assessment for transgene stability requires methods for transformant identification and a full genetic analysis of the transformed genome so changes in transgene presence or movement can be rapidly and reliably determined. Genes of interest within the transgene must be evaluated in terms of their affect on the host insect, and the potential influence of their gene products on the environment and other organisms should the transgene be transmitted to another host. These factors must be considered individually, their interaction with one another, and also in the context of transformant strain persistence in the field. (author)

  14. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye-Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Yang, Jaeseok; Cho, Bumrae; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Park, Sol Ji; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Hwajung; Lee, Eun Mi; Ro, Han; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Su Jin; Won, Jae-Kyung; O'Connell, Philip J; Kim, Hyunil; Surh, Charles D; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs). Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-? and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-? and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-? or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation. PMID:23071605

  15. BAC Transgenic Expression Efficiency: Bicistronic vs. ATG-Fusion Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tao; Yasumoto, Hiroaki; Tsai, Robert Y.L.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based transgene can be expressed bicistronically with the target gene or fused to its translation start codon. To compare the transgene expression efficiencies of these two methods, mice were created that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the genomic locus of nucleostemin using the bicistronic (NSiGFP) or the ATG-fusion approach (NSmGFP). Three lines with 1, 2, and 4 copies of the NSiGFP transgene, and two lines with one copy of the NSmGFP tr...

  16. Transgenic Rice Expressing Amyloid ?-peptide for Oral Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Yoshida, Eiichi Kimura, Setsuo Koike, Jun Nojima, Eugene Futai, Noboru Sasagawa, Yuichiro Watanabe, Shoichi Ishiura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various vaccine therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD have been investigated. Here we report transgenic rice expressing amyloid ?-peptide (A?. The A?42 gene fused with a green fluorescent protein gene was introduced into rice using the Agrobacterium method. When transgenic brown rice expressing A? was orally administered to mice, serum anti-A? antibody titers were elevated. The same results were observed when mice were fed boiled, transgenic brown rice. The results indicate that an edible vaccine against AD using rice may be feasible. A vaccine derived from rice would be far cheaper than existing medical vaccines.

  17. Transgene-mediated cosuppression in the C. elegans germ line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernburg, Abby F.; Zalevsky, Jonathan; Colaiácovo, Mónica P.; Villeneuve, Anne M.

    2000-01-01

    Functional silencing of chromosomal loci can be induced by transgenes (cosuppression) or by introduction of double-stranded RNA (RNAi). Here, we demonstrate the generality of and define rules for a transgene-mediated cosuppression phenomenon in the Caenorhabditis elegans germ line. Functional repression is not a consequence of persistent physical association between transgenes and endogenous genes or of mutations in affected genes. The cosuppression mechanism likely involves an RNA mediator that defines its target specificity, reminiscent of RNAi. Cosuppression is strongly abrogated in rde-2 and mut-7 mutants, but is not blocked in an rde-1 mutant, indicating that cosuppression and RNAi have overlapping but distinct genetic requirements. PMID:10887151

  18. Transgenic approaches to a non-transgenic release of sterile male Lepidoptera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Tortricidae), in British Columbia, Canada, resulted in demands for the expansion of codling moth SIT and a related suppression strategy, radiation-induced inherited sterility (IS), in other countries. In the current SIT programme, both sterile males and females are released to control the pest population. There are compelling reasons to believe that both codling moth SIT and IS would benefit if efficient ways could be found to produce and release only males. Recently, a new scheme for genetic sexing in Lepidoptera has been proposed. The scheme is based on the construction of transgenic females carrying a dominant conditional lethal gene in the female-determining chromosome W. Following this scheme we intend to develop transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth. This requires basic knowledge of codling moth genome and appropriate molecular tools for codling moth transgenesis. We performed a detailed analysis of codling moth karyotype with a particular focus on the identification and characterization of sex chromosomes. Here we summarize our data on codling moth cytogenetics and discuss the potential of codling moth sex chromosomes for their use in developing transgenic sexing strains. The karyotype of codling moth consists of 2n=56 chromosomes, which can be classified into five groups according to their sizes: extra large (3 pairs), large (3 pairs), medium (15 pairs), small (5 pairs), and dot-like (2 pairs). Females are heterogametic with a W-Z sex chromosome pair, males are homogametic with two Z chromosomes. The W and Z chromosomes represent the two largest elements in female chromosome complements. While the Z is composed of euchromatin and resembles to autosomes, the W consists largely of heterochromatin. For successful development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, it is required to insert a conditional dominant lethal mutation (a transgene) into the W chromosome. Theoretically, the transgene insertion is a matter of probability, which is dependent on the size of the W relative to the rest of the genome. In the codling moth, the W is one of two largest chromosomes, comprising about 4% of the female genome, which should make it a good target for transgenesis with the probability of insertion of 1 in 25 (if only females are included) or with the overall probability of 1 in 50 (since both female and male embryos are exposed). However, since the W chromosome is mainly composed of heterochromatin, silencing of the transgene expression might be a serious problem. Different ways how to overcome this problem are discussed. For further characterisation of the codling moth W chromosome we employed advanced methods of molecular cytogenetics, genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) and comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH). GISH detected the W chromosome by strong binding of the Cy3-labelled, female-derived DNA probe. With CGH, both the Cy3-labelled female-derived probe and Fluor-X labelled male-derived probe evenly bound to the W. This suggested that the W is composed predominantly of repetitive DNA sequences occurring scattered in other chromosomes but accumulated in the W. Finally, we prepared W-specific probes by laser microdissection of the W chromatin followed by DOP-PCR and PCR labelling. The probes stained the W with a high specificity in a chromosome-painting manner. DNA fragments of the microdissected W chromatin were cloned and sequenced. The W-sequence analysis revealed no homology to any DNA sequenced so far. Several cloned sequences were found to originate exclusively from the W chromosome. These unique sequences can be very useful as molecular markers of the W chromosome in codling moth transgenesis. The demonstrated ways of W chromosome identification will facilitate the development of genetic sexing strains in the codling moth

  19. The effect of Bt-transgene introgression on plant growth and reproduction in wild Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Bo; Darmency, Henry; Stewart, C Neal; Wei, Wei; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative plant growth and reproduction of insect-resistant and susceptible plants following the introgression of an insect-resistance Bt-transgene from Brassica napus, oilseed rape, to wild Brassica juncea. The second backcrossed generation (BC2) from a single backcross family was grown in pure and mixed stands of Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic siblings under two insect treatments. Various proportions of Bt-transgenic plants were employed in mixed stands to study the interaction between resistant and susceptible plants. In the pure stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants performed better than non-transgenic plants with or without insect treatments. In mixed stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants produced fewer seeds than their non-Bt counterparts at low proportions of Bt-transgenic BC2 plants in the absence of insects. Reproductive allocation of non-transgenic plants marginally increased with increasing proportions of Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure, which resulted in increased total biomass and seed production per stand. The results showed that the growth of non-transgenic plants was protected by Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure. The Bt-transgene might not be advantageous in mixed stands of backcrossed hybrids; thus transgene introgression would not be facilitated when herbivorous insects are not present. However, a relatively large initial population of Bt-transgenic plants might result in transgene persistence when target herbivores are present. PMID:25487040

  20. Differential protection by human glutathione S-transferase P1 against cytotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, or their dihydrodiol metabolites, in bi-transgenic cell lines that co-express rat versus human cytochrome P4501A1.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabler, Sandra L.; Seidel, Albrecht; Jacob, Juergen; Doehmer, Johannes; Morrow, Charles S.; Townsend, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are activated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes, and a subset of the reactive metabolites generated is detoxified via conjugation with glutathione (GSH) by specific glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). We have used V79MZ cells stably transfected with either human or rat cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), alone or in combination with human GSTP1 (hGSTP1), to examine the dynamics of activation versus detoxification of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (D...

  1. Microinjection of A. aegypti Embryos to Obtain Transgenic Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinskiene, Nijole; Juhn, Jennifer; JAMES, ANTHONY A.

    2007-01-01

    In this video, Nijole Jasinskiene demonstrates the methodology employed to generate transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are vectors for dengue fever. The techniques for correctly preparing microinjection needles, dessicating embryos, and performing microinjection are demonstrated.

  2. Microinjection of A. aegypti embryos to obtain transgenic mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinskiene, Nijole; Juhn, Jennifer; James, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    In this video, Nijole Jasinskiene demonstrates the methodology employed to generate transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are vectors for dengue fever. The techniques for correctly preparing microinjection needles, desiccating embryos, and performing microinjection are demonstrated. PMID:18979017

  3. OPTIMAL BAND SELECTION OF HYPERSPECTRAL DATA FOR TRANSGENIC CORN IDENTIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance development by insect pests to the insecticidal proteins expressed in transgenic crops would increase reliance on broad spectrum chemical insecticides subsequently reducing environmental quality and increasing worker exposure to toxic chemicals. An important component ...

  4. Field and pulping performances of transgenic trees with altered lignification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilate, Gilles; Guiney, Emma; Holt, Karen; Petit-Conil, Michel; Lapierre, Catherine; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Pollet, Brigitte; Mila, Isabelle; Webster, Elizabeth A; Marstorp, Håkan G; Hopkins, David W; Jouanin, Lise; Boerjan, Wout; Schuch, Wolfgang; Cornu, Daniel; Halpin, Claire

    2002-06-01

    The agronomic and pulping performance of transgenic trees with altered lignin has been evaluated in duplicated, long-term field trials. Poplars expressing cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) or caffeate/5-hydroxy-ferulate O-methyltransferase (COMT) antisense transgenes were grown for four years at two sites, in France and England. The trees remained healthy throughout the trial. Growth indicators and interactions with insects were normal. No changes in soil microbial communities were detected beneath the transgenic trees. The expected modifications to lignin were maintained in the transgenics over four years, at both sites. Kraft pulping of tree trunks showed that the reduced-CAD lines had improved characteristics, allowing easier delignification, using smaller amounts of chemicals, while yielding more high-quality pulp. This work highlights the potential of engineering wood quality for more environmentally benign papermaking without interfering with tree growth or fitness. PMID:12042866

  5. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  6. Hybridization between transgenic and wild plants: environmental risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified products are widely commercialized in agricultural production. These include resistant plants to diseases, insects or herbicides, plants with capacity for longer storing times or better nutritional quality. However, there are some concerns and critics from environmental organizations on the risk associated to transgenic plants or organisms genetically modified (OGM. This review discusses the vertical gene transfer (plant/Plant within the OGM context. Although transgenic hybrids have been reported between transgenic plants and their wild relatives, the extent of the environmental risk has not been evaluated per se. The risk depends on the plant species involved, the transgenes, and the ecosystem where the plants are located. Studies on biosafety assessment must be evaluated case by case. Biotechnology and conventional methods allow to control gen flow and decrease the risk of gene transfer among species.

  7. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5' flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3' flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and increased serum erythropoietin levels. Transgenic homozygotes show a greater degree of polycythemia than do heterozygotes as well as striking extramedullary erythropoiesis. Human erythropoietin RNA was found not only in fetal liver, adult liver, and kidney but also in all other transgenic tissues analyzed. Anemia induced increased human erythropoietin RNA levels in liver but not kidney. These transgenic mice represent a unique model of polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin levels

  8. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenza, G.L.; Traystman, M.D.; Gearhart, J.D.; Antonarakis, S.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5{prime} flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3{prime} flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and increased serum erythropoietin levels. Transgenic homozygotes show a greater degree of polycythemia than do heterozygotes as well as striking extramedullary erythropoiesis. Human erythropoietin RNA was found not only in fetal liver, adult liver, and kidney but also in all other transgenic tissues analyzed. Anemia induced increased human erythropoietin RNA levels in liver but not kidney. These transgenic mice represent a unique model of polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin levels.

  9. Pronuclear Microinjection and Oviduct Transfer Procedures for Transgenic Mouse Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyu; Xie, Wen; Gui, Changyun; Du, Yubin

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse technology is a powerful method for studying gene function and creating animal models of human diseases. Currently, the most widely used method for generating transgenic mice is the pronuclear microinjection method. In this method, a transgenic DNA construct is physically microinjected into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg. The injected embryos are subsequently transferred into the oviducts of pseudopregnant surrogate mothers. A portion of the mice born to these surrogate mothers will harbor the injected foreign gene in their genomes. These procedures are technically challenging for most biomedical researchers. Inappropriate experimental procedures or suboptimal equipment setup can substantially reduce the efficiency of transgenic mouse production. In this chapter, we describe in detail our microinjection setup as well as our standard microinjection and oviduct transfer procedures. PMID:23912989

  10. Microinjection of A. aegypti Embryos to Obtain Transgenic Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinskiene, Nijole; Juhn, Jennifer; James, Anthony A.

    2007-01-01

    In this video, Nijole Jasinskiene demonstrates the methodology employed to generate transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are vectors for dengue fever. The techniques for correctly preparing microinjection needles, dessicating embryos, and performing microinjection are demonstrated. PMID:18979017

  11. Effects of Transgenic Rice on Life History Traits of Daphnia magna in Life Table Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Sungjin; Dongwoo Yang; Chang-Gi Kim; Sangkyu Park

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the impacts of transgenic rice on freshwater organisms, we conducted two life tableexperiments using Daphnia magna for fifteen and twenty days, respectively. We examined life history traits suchas population growth rates (r), reproductive rates (R0), generation times, and survivorship. In the first experiment,we used non-drought-stressed transgenic and non-transgenic rice harvested in 2005. In the second study, weused non-transgenic and transgenic rice harvested in 2006 followi...

  12. Evaluation of tyrosinase minigene co-injection as a marker for genetic manipulations in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Methot, D; Reudelhuber, T. L.; Silversides, D W

    1995-01-01

    The utility of tyrosinase minigene co-injection was evaluated as a visual marker for the generation and breeding of transgenic mice. In an evaluation of 39 transgenic founder animals and 44 transgenic lines five phenotypic patterns of pigmentation were consistently observed, including albino, dark, light, mottled and himalayan. In these studies co-injection of the tyrosinase minigene along with the transgene of interest (TOI) resulted in genomic integration of the two transgenes in 95% of the...

  13. Postischemic cardiac recovery in heme oxygenase-1 transgenic ischemic/reperfused mouse myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Bela; Varga, Balazs; Czompa, Attila; Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Zsuga, Judit; Kemeny-Beke, Adam; Antal, Miklos; Szendrei, Levente; Tosaki, Arpad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) transgenic mice (Tg) were created using a rat HO-1 genomic transgene. Transgene expression was detected by RT-PCR and Western blots in the left ventricle (LV), right ventricle (RV) and septum (S) in mouse hearts, and its function was demonstrated by the elevated HO enzyme activity. Tg and non-transgenic (NTg) mouse hearts were isolated and subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. Significant post-ischemic recovery in coronary flow (CF), aortic flow (AF), aortic pressure (AOP) and first derivative of AOP (AOPdp/dt) were detected in the HO-1 Tg group compared to the NTg values. In HO-1 Tg hearts treated with 50 ?mol/kg of tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPPIX), an HO enzyme inhibitor, abolished the post-ischemic cardiac recovery. HO-1 related carbon monoxide (CO) production was detected in NTg, HO-1 Tg and HO-1 Tg + SnPPIX treated groups, and a substantial increase in CO production was observed in the HO-1 Tg hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. Moreover, in ischemia/reperfusion-induced tissue Na+ and Ca2+ gains were reduced in HO-1 Tg group in comparison with the NTg and HO-1 Tg + SnPPIX treated groups; furthermore K+ loss was reduced in the HO-1 Tg group. The infarct size was markedly reduced from its NTg control value of 37 ± 4% to 20 ± 6% (P < 0.05) in the HO-1 Tg group, and was increased to 47 ± 5% (P < 0.05) in the HO-1 knockout (KO) hearts. Parallel to the infarct size reduction, the incidence of total and sustained ventricular fibrillation were also reduced from their NTg control values of 92% and 83% to 25% (P < 0.05) and 8% (P < 0.05) in the HO-1 Tg group, and were increased to 100% and 100% in HO-1 KO?/? hearts. Immunohistochemical staining of HO-1 was intensified in HO-1 Tg compared to the NTg myocardium. Thus, the HO-1 Tg mouse model suggests a valuable therapeutic approach in the treatment of ischemic myocardium. PMID:20716121

  14. Enhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Doty, Sharon L.; James, C. Andrew; Moore, Allison L.; Vajzovic, Azra; Singleton, Glenda L.; Ma, Caiping; Khan, Zareen; XIN, GANG; Kang, Jun Won; Park, Jin Young; Meilan, Richard; Steven H. Strauss; Wilkerson, Jasmine; Farin, Federico; Strand, Stuart E.

    2007-01-01

    Small, volatile hydrocarbons, including trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and chloroform, are common environmental pollutants that pose serious health effects. We have developed transgenic poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) plants with greatly increased rates of metabolism and removal of these pollutants through the overexpression of cytochrome P450 2E1, a key enzyme in the metabolism of a variety of halogenated compounds. The transgenic poplar plants exhi...

  15. Generation and Characterization of Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Transgenic Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Yeom, Hye-Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Yang, Jaeseok; Cho, Bumrae; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Park, Sol Ji; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Hwajung; Lee, Eun Mi; Ro, Han; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Su Jin; Won, Jae-Kyung; O'Connell, Philip J.; Kim, Hyunil

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neon...

  16. Handmade cloned transgenic piglets expressing the nematode fat-1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yidi; Dou, Hongwei; Yin, Jingdong; Chen, Yu; Pang, Xinzhi; Vajta, Gabor; Bolund, Lars; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Production of transgenic animals via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide, but this application is somewhat limited by its relatively low efficiency. In this study, we used handmade cloning (HMC) established previously to produce transgenic pigs that express the functional nematode fat-1 gene. Codon-optimized mfat-1 was inserted into eukaryotic expression vectors, which were transferred into primary swine donor cells. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), gas ch...

  17. Hybridization between transgenic and wild plants: environmental risk

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified products are widely commercialized in agricultural production. These include resistant plants to diseases, insects or herbicides, plants with capacity for longer storing times or better nutritional quality. However, there are some concerns and critics from environmental organizations on the risk associated to transgenic plants or organisms genetically modified (OGM). This review discusses the vertical gene transfer (plant/Plant) within the OGM context. Although transgenic...

  18. Dihydrofolate Reductase and Thymidylate Synthase Transgenes Resistant to Methotrexate Interact to Permit Novel Transgene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, David; Mathews, Amber; Alpert, Amir; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2015-09-18

    Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-folate that inhibits de novo purine and thymidine nucleotide synthesis. MTX induces death in rapidly replicating cells and is used in the treatment of multiple cancers. MTX inhibits thymidine synthesis by targeting dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS). The use of MTX to treat cancer also causes bone marrow suppression and inhibits the immune system. This has led to the development of an MTX-resistant DHFR, DHFR L22F, F31S (DHFR(FS)), to rescue healthy cells. 5-Fluorouracil-resistant TYMS T51S, G52S (TYMS(SS)) is resistant to MTX and improves MTX resistance of DHFR(FS) in primary T cells. Here we find that a known mechanism of MTX-induced increase in DHFR expression persists with DHFR(FS) and cis-expressed transgenes. We also find that TYMS(SS) expression of cis-expressed transgenes is similarly decreased in an MTX-inducible manner. MTX-inducible changes in DHFR(FS) and TYMS(SS) expression changes are lost when both genes are expressed together. In fact, expression of the DHFR(FS) and TYMS(SS) cis-expressed transgenes becomes correlated. These findings provide the basis for an unrecognized post-transcriptional mechanism that functionally links expression of DHFR and TYMS. These findings were made in genetically modified primary human T cells and have a clear potential for use in clinical applications where gene expression needs to be regulated by drug or maintained at a specific expression level. We demonstrate a potential application of this system in the controlled expression of systemically toxic cytokine IL-12. PMID:26242737

  19. A versatile transgenic allele for mouse overexpression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatshad, Hamid; Biggs, Daniel; Diaz, Rebeca; Hortin, Nicole; Preece, Christopher; Davies, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    For the analysis of gene function in vivo, gene overexpression in the mouse provides an alternative to loss-of-function knock-out approaches and can help reveal phenotypes where compensatory mechanisms are at play. Furthermore, when multiple lines overexpressing a gene-of-interest at varying levels are studied, the consequences of differences in gene dosage can be explored. Despite these advantages, inherent shortcomings in the methodologies used for the generation of gain-of-function transgenic mouse models have limited their application to functional gene analysis, and the necessity for multiple lines comes at a significant animal and financial cost. The targeting of transgenic overexpression constructs at single copy into neutral genomic loci is the preferred method for the generation of such models, which avoids the unpredictable outcomes associated with conventional random integration. However, despite the increased reliability that targeted transgenic methodologies provide, only one expression level results, as defined by the promoter used. Here, we report a new versatile overexpression allele, the promoter-switch allele, which couples PhiC31 integrase-targeted transgenesis with Flp recombinase promoter switching and Cre recombinase activation. These recombination switches allow the conversion of different overexpression alleles, combining the advantages of transgenic targeting with tunable transgene expression. With this approach, phenotype severity can be correlated with transgene expression in a single mouse model, providing a cost-effective solution amenable to systematic gain-of-function studies. PMID:26369329

  20. Evaluating potential risks of transgenic arthropods for pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic modification using recombinant DNA methods can now be used, almost routinely, to transform pest and beneficial arthropods and such genetically engineered insects and mites could be used to improve pest management programs. Genetic manipulation with recombinant DNA techniques may generate concerns about risk, requiring additional time and resources to resolve. Risk assessments must be conducted prior to releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment for either short term experiments or permanent establishment. Potential risk issues to be resolved include whether: the inserted gene(s) (trait) is stable; the traits can be horizontally transferred to other populations or species; released arthropods will perform as expected (especially with regard to their geographic distribution, host or prey specificity; released arthropods will have unintended environmental effects; and, in the case of short term releases, the released arthropods can be recovered from field sites. If the transgenic arthropods strain(s) perform well in preliminary, short term releases and risk assessments are completed satisfactorily, permanent releases into the environment may follow. Many pest management programs, especially those involving replacement of pest populations by the transgenic population, will require permanent establishment in the environment and the use of 'drive mechanisms', have been proposed to achieve this. Because efficacy can be severely compromised by 'transgene silencing', plant molecular biologists are now attempting to stabilize gene expression by building in 'insulators'. Transgene silencing occurs in Drosophila and will no doubt be a factor in other transgenic arthropods. (author)

  1. Generation of Stable Transgenic C. elegans Using Microinjection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Laura A.; Knight, Adam L.; Caldwell, Guy A.; Caldwell, Kim A.

    2008-01-01

    Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans can be readily created via microinjection of a DNA plasmid solution into the gonad 1. The plasmid DNA rearranges to form extrachromosomal concatamers that are stably inherited, though not with the same efficiency as actual chromosomes 2. A gene of interest is co-injected with an obvious phenotypic marker, such as rol-6 or GFP, to allow selection of transgenic animals under a dissecting microscope. The exogenous gene may be expressed from its native promoter for cellular localization studies. Alternatively, the transgene can be driven by a different tissue-specific promoter to assess the role of the gene product in that particular cell or tissue. This technique efficiently drives gene expression in all tissues of C. elegans except for the germline or early embryo 3. Creation of transgenic animals is widely utilized for a range of experimental paradigms. This video demonstrates the microinjection procedure to generate transgenic worms. Furthermore, selection and maintenance of stable transgenic C. elegans lines is described. PMID:19066505

  2. Production of transgenic pigs mediated by pseudotyped lentivirus and sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongliang; Xi, Qianyun; Ding, Jinghua; Cai, Weiguang; Meng, Fanmin; Zhou, Junyun; Li, Hongyi; Jiang, Qingyan; Shu, Gang; Wang, Songbo; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Wu, Zhenfang

    2012-01-01

    Sperm-mediated gene transfer can be a very efficient method to produce transgenic pigs, however, the results from different laboratories had not been widely repeated. Genomic integration of transgene by injection of pseudotyped lentivirus to the perivitelline space has been proved to be a reliable route to generate transgenic animals. To test whether transgene in the lentivirus can be delivered by sperm, we studied incubation of pseudotyped lentiviruses and sperm before insemination. After incubation with pig spermatozoa, 62±3 lentiviral particles were detected per 100 sperm cells using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The association of lentivirus with sperm was further confirmed by electron microscopy. The sperm incubated with lentiviral particles were artificially inseminated into pigs. Of the 59 piglets born from inseminated 5 sows, 6 piglets (10.17%) carried the transgene based on the PCR identification. Foreign gene and EGFP was successfully detected in ear tissue biopsies from two PCR-positive pigs, revealed via in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Offspring of one PCR-positive boar with normal sows showed PCR-positive. Two PCR-positive founders and offsprings of PCR-positive boar were further identified by Southern-blot analysis, out of which the two founders and two offsprings were positive in Southern blotting, strongly indicating integration of foreign gene into genome. The results indicate that incubation of sperm with pseudotyped lentiviruses can incorporated with sperm-mediated gene transfer to produce transgenic pigs with improved efficiency. PMID:22536374

  3. Evaluating cerebellar functions using optogenetic transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, John P.; Turecek, Josef; Turner, Eric E.

    2013-03-01

    We employed a transgenic mouse having conditional expression of ChR2(H134R) in neurons of the inferior olive to facilitate understanding of the role of electrical coupling and oscillation in central nervous system function. Two-photon excitation of ChR2-expressing neurons using 64 laser beams restricted to single inferior olive cell bodies depolarized neurons and evoked voltage deflections in neighboring neurons demonstrating electrical coupling. Broader illumination of neuronal ensembles using blue light induced an optical clamp of endogenous electrical rhythms in the inferior olive of acutely-prepared brain slices, which when applied in vivo directly modulated the local field potential activity and induced tremor. The experiments demonstrate novel methods to optically manipulate electrically coupled potentials and rhythmogenesis within a neuronal ensemble. From a functional perspective, the experiments shed light on the cellular and circuitry mechanisms of essential tremor, a prevalent neurological condition, by indicating time- and frequencydependence of tremor upon varying rhythms of inferior olive stimulation. The experiments indicate analog control of a brain rhythm that may be used to enhance our understanding of the functional consequences of central rhythmogenesis.

  4. Effect of 60Co ?-rays irradiation on antioxidant enzymes activities in transgenic and non-transgenic tobacco seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of activities of antioxidant enzymes in pprI-transgenic tobacco seedlings and non-transgenic tobacco seedlings after different doses 60Co ?-rays irradiation were studied. The results showed that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in pprI-transgenic tobacco seedlings and non-transgenic tobacco seedlings were gradually increased after different doses 60Co ?-rays irradiation. The activity of SOD was to the maximum at 100 Gy treatment, but the activity of POD and CAT at 300 Gy treatment, and then these three antioxidant enzymes gradually decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis also revealed that the over-express of these antioxidant enzymes were induced after different doses 60Co ?-rays irradiation and were consistent with the variance of their enzymic activities, which enhanced the tolerance of tobacco against irradiation. (authors)

  5. Comparative study of transgenic and non-transgenic maize (Zea mays) flours commercialized in Brazil, focussing on proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Nádia; Barbosa, Herbert; Jacob, Silvana; Arruda, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Genetically modified foods are a major concern around the world due to the lack of information concerning their safety and health effects. This work evaluates differences, at the proteomic level, between two types of crop samples: transgenic (MON810 event with the Cry1Ab gene, which confers resistance to insects) and non-transgenic maize flour commercialized in Brazil. The 2-D DIGE technique revealed 99 differentially expressed spots, which were collected in 2-D PAGE gels and identified via mass spectrometry (nESI-QTOF MS/MS). The abundance of protein differences between the transgenic and non-transgenic samples could arise from genetic modification or as a result of an environmental influence pertaining to the commercial sample. The major functional category of proteins identified was related to disease/defense and, although differences were observed between samples, no toxins or allergenic proteins were found. PMID:25766830

  6. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Composite plants, with transgenic roots on a non-transgenic shoot, can be obtained by shoot explant transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The aim of this study was to generate composite potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to be used as a model system in future studies on root-pathogen interactions and gene silencing in the roots. The proportion of transgenic roots among the roots induced was high (80-100 %) in the four potato cultivars tested (Albatros, Desirée, Sabina and Saturna). No wild-type adventitious roots were formed at mock inoculation site. All strains of A. rhizogenes tested induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots of composite potato plants expressed significantly higher amounts of ?-glucuronidase (GUS) than the roots of a GUS-transgenic potato line event. Silencing of the uidA transgene (GUS) was tested by inducing roots on the GUS-transgenic cv. Albatros event with strains of A. rhizogenes over-expressing either the uidA sense or antisense transcripts, or inverted-repeat or hairpin uidA RNA. The three last mentioned constructs caused 2.5-4.0 fold reduction in the uidA mRNA expression. In contrast, over-expression of uidA resulted in over 3-fold increase in the uidA mRNA and GUS expression, indicating that sense-mediated silencing (co-suppression) was not functional in roots. The results suggest that composite plants offer a useful experimental system for potato research, which has gained little previous attention.

  7. The Murine Stem Cell Virus Promoter Drives Correlated Transgene Expression in the Leukocytes and Cerebellar Purkinje Cells of Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Oue, Miho; Handa, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Suzue, Kazutomo; Murakami, Hirokazu; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    The murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter exhibits activity in mouse hematopoietic cells and embryonic stem cells. We generated transgenic mice that expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the MSCV promoter. We obtained 12 transgenic founder mice through 2 independent experiments and found that the bodies of 9 of the founder neonates emitted different levels of GFP fluorescence. Flow cytometric analysis of circulating leukocytes revealed that the frequency of ...

  8. Functional changes in the uterine artery precede the hypertensive phenotype in a transgenic model of hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgar, Victor M; Yamaleyeva, Liliya M; Varagic, Jasmina; McGee, Carolynne; Bader, Michael; Dechend, Ralf; Brosnihan, K Bridget

    2015-11-01

    The pregnant female human angiotensinogen (hAGN) transgenic rat mated with the male human renin (hREN) transgenic rat is a model of preeclampsia (TgA) with increased blood pressure, proteinuria, and placenta alterations of edema and necrosis at late gestation. We studied vascular responses and the role of COX-derived prostanoids in the uterine artery (UA) at early gestation in this model. TgA UA showed lower stretch response, similar smooth muscle ?-actin content, and lower collagen content compared with Sprague-Dawley (SD) UA. Vasodilation to acetylcholine was similar in SD and TgA UA (64 ± 8 vs. 75 ± 6% of relaxation, P > 0.05), with an acetylcholine-induced contraction in TgA UA that was abolished by preincubation with indomethacin (78 ± 6 vs. 83 ± 11%, P > 0.05). No differences in the contraction to phenylephrine were observed (159 ± 11 vs. 134 ± 12 %KMAX, P > 0.05), although in TgA UA this response was greatly affected by preincubation with indomethacin (179 ± 16 vs. 134 ± 9 %KMAX, P 0.05). Plasma thromboxane levels were similar between groups. In summary, TgA UA displays functional alterations at early gestation before the preeclamptic phenotype is established. Inhibition of COX enzymes normalizes some of the functional defects in the TgA UA. An increased role for COX-derived prostanoids in this model of preeclampsia may contribute to the development of a hypertensive pregnancy. PMID:26394667

  9. A Comparison of Neuroinflammation to Implanted Microelectrodes in Rat and Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Ravikumar, Madhumitha; Burke, Alan A.; Meador, William D.; Householder, Kyle T.; Buck, Amy C.; Sunil, Smrithi; Stewart, Wade G.; Anna, Jake P.; Tomaszewski, William H.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Rat models have emerged as a common tool to study neuroinflammation to intracortical microelectrodes. While a number of studies have attempted to understand the factors resulting in neuroinflammation using rat models, a complete understanding of key mechanistic pathways remains elusive. Transgenic mouse models, however, could facilitate a deeper understanding of mechanistic pathways due to an ease of genetic alteration. Therefore, the goal of the present study is to compare neuroinflammation ...

  10. Efficient gene targeting by homology-directed repair in rat zygotes using TALE nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Remy, Séverine; Tesson, Laurent; Menoret, Séverine; Usal, Claire; De Cian, Anne; Thepenier, Virginie; Thinard, Reynald; Baron, Daniel; Charpentier, Marine; Renaud, Jean-Baptiste; Buelow, Roland; Cost, Gregory J; Giovannangeli, Carine; Fraichard, Alexandre; Concordet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The generation of genetically modified animals is important for both research and commercial purposes. The rat is an important model organism that until recently lacked efficient genetic engineering tools. Sequence-specific nucleases, such as ZFNs, TALE nucleases, and CRISPR/Cas9 have allowed the creation of rat knockout models. Genetic engineering by homology-directed repair (HDR) is utilized to create animals expressing transgenes in a controlled way and to introduce precise genetic modific...

  11. Hearing impairment in the P23H-1 retinal degeneration rat model

    OpenAIRE

    ElenaCaminos; JorgeV.Sotoca

    2014-01-01

    The transgenic P23H line 1 (P23H-1) rat expresses a variant of rhodopsin with a mutation that leads to loss of visual function. This rat strain is an experimental model usually employed to study photoreceptor degeneration. Although the mutated protein should not interfere with other sensory functions, observing severe loss of auditory reflexes in response to natural sounds led us to study auditory brain response (ABR) recording. Animals were separated into different hearing levels following t...

  12. RNAi-mediated knockdown of IKK1 in transgenic mice using a transgenic construct containing the human H1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Maldonado, Rodolfo; Murillas, Rodolfo; Navarro, Manuel; Page, Angustias; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Ramirez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of gene expression through siRNAs is a tool increasingly used for the study of gene function in model systems, including transgenic mice. To achieve perdurable effects, the stable expression of siRNAs by an integrated transgenic construct is necessary. For transgenic siRNA expression, promoters transcribed by either RNApol II or III (such as U6 or H1 promoters) can be used. Relatively large amounts of small RNAs synthesis are achieved when using RNApol III promoters, which can be advantageous in knockdown experiments. To study the feasibility of H1 promoter-driven RNAi-expressing constructs for protein knockdown in transgenic mice, we chose IKK1 as the target gene. Our results indicate that constructs containing the H1 promoter are sensitive to the presence of prokaryotic sequences and to transgene position effects, similar to RNApol II promoters-driven constructs. We observed variable expression levels of transgenic siRNA among different tissues and animals and a reduction of up to 80% in IKK1 expression. Furthermore, IKK1 knockdown led to hair follicle alterations. In summary, we show that constructs directed by the H1 promoter can be used for knockdown of genes of interest in different organs and for the generation of animal models complementary to knockout and overexpression models. PMID:24523631

  13. Survival of Skin Graft between Transgenic Cloned Dogs and Non-Transgenic Cloned Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Jung; Lim, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Byung Il; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2014-01-01

    Whereas it has been assumed that genetically modified tissues or cells derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) should be accepted by a host of the same species, their immune compatibility has not been extensively explored. To identify acceptance of SCNT-derived cells or tissues, skin grafts were performed between cloned dogs that were identical except for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and foreign gene. We showed here that differences in mtDNA haplotypes and genetic modification did not elicit immune responses in these dogs: 1) skin tissues from genetically-modified cloned dogs were successfully transplanted into genetically-modified cloned dogs with different mtDNA haplotype under three successive grafts over 63 days; and 2) non-transgenic cloned tissues were accepted into transgenic cloned syngeneic recipients with different mtDNA haplotypes and vice versa under two successive grafts over 63 days. In addition, expression of the inserted gene was maintained, being functional without eliciting graft rejection. In conclusion, these results show that transplanting genetically-modified tissues into normal, syngeneic or genetically-modified recipient dogs with different mtDNA haplotypes do not elicit skin graft rejection or affect expression of the inserted gene. Therefore, therapeutically valuable tissue derived from SCNT with genetic modification might be used safely in clinical applications for patients with diseased tissues. PMID:25372489

  14. Myosin 3A transgene expression produces abnormal actin filament bundles in transgenic Xenopus laevis rod photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin-Jones, Jennifer; Parker, Ed; Wu, Mike; Dosé, Andréa; Burnside, Beth

    2004-11-15

    Myo3A, a class III myosin, localizes to the distal (plus) ends of inner segment actin filament bundles that form the core of microvillus-like calycal processes encircling the base of the photoreceptor outer segment. To investigate Myo3A localization and function, we expressed green fluorescent protein-tagged bass Myo3A and related constructs in transgenic Xenopus rods using a modified opsin promoter. Tagged intact Myo3A localized to rod calycal processes, as previously reported for native bass Myo3A. Transgenic rods developed abnormally large calycal processes and subsequently degenerated. Modified Myo3A expression constructs demonstrated that calycal process localization required an active motor domain and the tail domain. Expressed tail domain alone localized to actin bundles along the entire inner segment length, rather than to the distal end. This tail domain localization required the conserved C-terminal domain (3THDII) previously shown to possess an actin-binding motif. Our findings suggest that Myo3A plays a role in the morphogenesis and maintenance of calycal processes of vertebrate photoreceptors. PMID:15522885

  15. Survival of skin graft between transgenic cloned dogs and non-transgenic cloned dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Jung; Lim, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Byung Il; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2014-01-01

    Whereas it has been assumed that genetically modified tissues or cells derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) should be accepted by a host of the same species, their immune compatibility has not been extensively explored. To identify acceptance of SCNT-derived cells or tissues, skin grafts were performed between cloned dogs that were identical except for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and foreign gene. We showed here that differences in mtDNA haplotypes and genetic modification did not elicit immune responses in these dogs: 1) skin tissues from genetically-modified cloned dogs were successfully transplanted into genetically-modified cloned dogs with different mtDNA haplotype under three successive grafts over 63 days; and 2) non-transgenic cloned tissues were accepted into transgenic cloned syngeneic recipients with different mtDNA haplotypes and vice versa under two successive grafts over 63 days. In addition, expression of the inserted gene was maintained, being functional without eliciting graft rejection. In conclusion, these results show that transplanting genetically-modified tissues into normal, syngeneic or genetically-modified recipient dogs with different mtDNA haplotypes do not elicit skin graft rejection or affect expression of the inserted gene. Therefore, therapeutically valuable tissue derived from SCNT with genetic modification might be used safely in clinical applications for patients with diseased tissues. PMID:25372489

  16. Transgenic and conventional Brazilian soybeans don't cause or prevent preneoplastic colon lesions or oxidative stress in a 90-day in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Sbruzzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study presents the results of a 90-day safety assessment of rats fed with four varieties of soybeans, BRS 245 RR and BRS Valiosa RR (transgenic, BRS 133 and MG BR46 Conquista (non-transgenic. METHODS: Diets were prepared by incorporating toasted soybean flour to a commercial diet at 1%, 10% or 20% weight In the in vivo experimental the rats' body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, number of aberrant crypt foci, oxidative stress biomarkers, urea and creatinine levels were analyzed and compared between experimental groups, as well as histopathological observations (digestive tract, liver, kidneys. RESULTS: The results indicate that glyphosate-tolerant soy varieties neither induce nor prevent aberrant crypt foci induction, nor do their conventional counterparts. Similarly, none of the four soybean varieties tested induced changes in the digestive tract, liver or kidney. Serum biochemical parameters were also unchanged. CONCLUSION: The consumption of both, conventional and transgenic soybeans, were insufficient to ameliorate dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress.

  17. Stability of transgene expression, field performance and recombination breeding of transformed barley lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, H.; Jensen, L.G.; Wong, O.T.; Kohl, E.; Ullrich, S.E.; Cochran, J.; Kannangara, C.G.; Wettstein, D. von

    2001-01-01

    in homozygous transgenic T-3 plants, and these remained constant over a 3-year period. In micro-malting experiments, the heat-stable enzyme reached levels of up to 1.4 mug.mg(-1) protein and survived kiln drying at levels of 70-100%. In the field trials of 1997 and 1998 the transgenic lines had a...... transformants were observed in some F-4 lines homozygous for the morphological phenotypes and for the transgene. In the case of a homozygous nutans line, the transgenic plants had a higher 1000-grain weight than those lacking the transgene. Like mutants providing useful output traits, transgenic plants will......Stable inheritance of the transgene, consistent expression and competitive agronomic properties of transgenic crops are important parameters for successful use of the latter. These properties have been analyzed with 18 homozygous transgenic barley lines of the cultivar Golden Promise. The lines...

  18. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Poulsen, Morten; Schrøder, Malene; Kvist, Peter H.; Taylor, Mark; Gatehouse, Angharad; Shu, Qinqyao; Knudsen, L. B.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the SAFOTEST project the immunmodulating effect of Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and PHA-E lectin from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin) was examined in 28- and 90-day feeding studies in Wistar rats. PHA-E lectin was chosen as positive control. Rats were fed control rice, transgenic rice expressing Cry I Ab protein or PHA-E lectin, or transgenic rice spiked with the purified recombinant protein. Total immunoglobulin levels, mitogen-induced cell proli...

  19. Transgênicos sem maniqueísmo / Transgenics without manichaeism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio, Valle.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Vivemos em uma época marcada pela hegemonia da ciência e da tecnologia, carregada de questões à espera de respostas, para que o futuro da humanidade seja alcançado de forma segura e sustentável. O desenvolvimento de processos agroindustriais - especificamente, a produção de alimentos - com tecnologi [...] a de DNA recombinante tem trazido perspectivas de bons lucros apenas para os grandes conglomerados da biotecnologia e para produtores rurais com alto grau de desenvolvimento tecnológico. Discordamos de uma moratória para a tecnologia do DNA recombinante. Além disso, afirmações de ausência de risco podem levar a conclusões precipitadas, pois pouquíssimos testes foram realizados até hoje. É premente que se estabeleça uma política nacional de biossegurança, que envolva a sociedade civil organizada e todos os órgãos de governo (federal e estaduais) responsáveis pela fiscalização, e que se implantem um programa de biovigilância e um código de ética de manipulações genéticas. Abstract in english We live in an era characterized by the hegemony of science and technology, an era fraught with questions awaiting answers which would enable a safe and sustainable future for humankind. The development of agro-industrial processes - food products in particular - through recombinant DNA technology ha [...] s enhanced the profit prospects of the few big biotechnology companies and of large-scale farmers who have access to the latest technological developments. We thus oppose a moratorium on recombinant DNA technology. Moreover, hasty statements about risk-free transgenics may be misleading in the absence of extensive safety tests. There is a pressing need for the establishment of a biosafety policy in this country involving the organized civil society and every government agency responsible for monitoring such matters. There is also the need to put in place a bio-surveillance and a code of ethics regarding genetic manipulation.

  20. Differences in social interaction- vs cocaine reward in rat vs mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai K Kummer

    2014-10-01

    Considering that human addicts regularly prefer drugs of abuse to drug-free social interaction, the present findings suggest that our experimental paradigm of concurrent CPP for cocaine vs social interaction is of even greater translational power if performed in C57BL/6 mice, the genetic background for most transgenic rodent models, than in rats.

  1. Mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Loli, P.; Dušinská, M.; Hurbánková, M.; Ková?iková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Kažimírová, A.; Baran?oková, M.; Tatrai, E.; Wolff, T.; Oesterle, D.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 595, - (2006), s. 174-183. ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : transgenic rats * mineral fibres Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.111, year: 2006

  2. Transgenic expression of dentin phosphoprotein inhibits skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Liu, P; Wang, S; Liu, C; Jani, P; Lu, Y; Qin, C

    2016-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is proteolytically processed into an NH2-terminal fragment called dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and a COOH-terminal fragment known as dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). These two fragments are believed to perform distinct roles in formation of bone and dentin. To investigate the functions of DPP in skeletal development, we generated transgenic mice to overexpress hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged DPP under the control of a 3.6 kb type I collagen (Col1a1) promoter (designated as Col1a1-HA-DPP). The Col1a1-HA-DPP transgenic mice were significantly smaller by weight, had smaller skeletons and shorter long bones than their wild type littermates, as demonstrated by X-ray radiography. They displayed reduced trabecular bone formation and narrower zones of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the long bones. Histological analyses showed that the transgenic mice had reduced cell proliferation in the proliferating zone, but lacked obvious defects in the chondrocyte differentiation. In addition, the transgenic mice with a high level of transgene expression developed spontaneous long bone fractures. In conclusion, overexpressing DPP inhibited skeletal development, suggesting that the balanced actions between the NH2- and COOH-terminal fragments of DSPP may be required for normal skeletal development. PMID:26972716

  3. CCK Response Deficiency in Synphilin-1 Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wanli W.; Smith, Megan; Yang, Dejun; Choi, Pique P.; Moghadam, Alexander; Li, Tianxia; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have identified a novel role for the cytoplasmic protein, synphilin-1(SP1), in the controls of food intake and body weight in both mice and Drosophila. Ubiquitous overexpression of human SP1 in brain neurons in transgenic mice results in hyperphagia expressed as an increase in meal size. However, the mechanisms underlying this action of SP1 remain to be determined. Here we investigate a potential role for altered gut feedback signaling in the effects of SP1 on food intake. We examined responses to peripheral administration of cholecytokinin (CCK), amylin, and the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, exendin-4. Intraperitoneal administration of CCK at doses ranging from 1–10 nmol/kg significantly reduced glucose intake in wild type (WT) mice, but failed to affect intake in SP1 transgenic mice. Moreover, there was a significant attenuation of CCK-induced c-Fos expression in the dorsal vagal complex in SP1 transgenic mice. In contrast, WT and SP1 transgenic mice were similarly responsive to both amylin and exendin-4 treatment. These studies demonstrate that SP1 results in a CCK response deficiency that may contribute to the increased meal size and overall hyperphagia in synphillin-1 transgenic mice. PMID:26569394

  4. Quality of transgenic laboratory strains of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Margaret L; Scholl, Philip J

    2005-12-01

    Genetically modified, mass reared insects present novel possibilities for the future of insect control. One concern about manipulation of insects is a possible loss of strain quality due to the introduction of a foreign gene of any sort into the insect genome. Eight transgenic strains of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were compared with the wild-type parental laboratory strain in laboratory culture. Measurements of average fertility, fecundity, larval productivity, and longevity were analyzed. Two transgenic strains had significantly lower larval productivity than controls, one of which was explained by a homozygous lethal insertion of the transgene. Another strain produced significantly fewer eggs than controls. Overall strain characteristics, including measurements from egg, larva, pupa, and adult stages, were compared. Transgenic colonies did not consistently show significantly lower individual or aggregate strain quality characteristics than the control parental colony; hence, the presence of the transgene used to produce the strains tested did not incur a discrete cost to the colonies of laboratory-reared C. hominivorax. PMID:16539163

  5. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in transgenic purple tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Rhodes, Davina; Shen, Yanting; Song, Weixing; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Most tomatoes produce little anthocyanins, but the transgenic purple tomato biosynthesizes a high level of anthocyanins due to expression of two transcription factors (Del and Ros1). This study was to identify and quantify anthocyanins in this transgenic tomato line. Seven anthocyanins, including two new anthocyanins [malvidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and malvidin-3-(feruloyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside], were identified by LC-MS/MS. Petunidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and delphinidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanins, making up 86% of the total anthocyanins. Compared to undetectable anthocyanins in the wild type, the contents of anthocyanins in the whole fruit, peel, and flesh of the Del/Ros1-transgenic tomato were 5.2±0.5, 5.1±0.5, and 5.8±0.3g/kg dry matter, respectively. Anthocyanins were undetectable in the seeds of both wide-type and transgenic tomato lines. Such novel and high levels of anthocyanins obtained in this transgenic tomato may provide unique functional products with potential health benefits. PMID:26920283

  6. [Improving the nutritional value of plant foods through transgenic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Mei; Mao, Xue; Wang, Shu-Jian; Li, Run-Zhi

    2004-07-01

    The most nutrients required in the human diet come from plants. The nutritional quality of plant products affects the human healthy. The advance of molecular cloning and transgenic technology has provided a new way to enhance the nutritional value of plant material. Transgenic modification of plant nutritional value has progressed greatly in the following aspects: improving the quality, composition and levels of protein, starch and fatty acid in different crops; increasing the levels of antioxidants (e.g. carotenoids and flavonoids); breeding the new type of plants with medical value for human. To date, many transgenic plants with nutritional enhancement have been developed. These transgenic plant products could be directly used as human diet or as valued materials in developing the "functional food" with especial nutritional quality and healthy effects after they are approved by a series of evaluations on their safety and nutritional efficiency for human being. We designed new zinc finger transcription factors (ZFP-TFs) that can specifically down-regulate the expression of the endogenous soybean FAD2-1 gene which catalyzes oleic acid to linoleic acid. Seed-specific expression of these ZFP-TFs in transgenic soybean somatic embryos repressed FAD2-1 transcription and increased significantly the levels of oleic acid, indicating that the engineered ZFP-TFs are capable of regulating fatty acid metabolism and modulating the expression of endogenous genes in plants. PMID:15968973

  7. Handmade cloned transgenic piglets expressing the nematode fat-1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yidi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Production of transgenic animals via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide, but this application is somewhat limited by its relatively low efficiency. In this study, we used handmade cloning (HMC) established previously to produce transgenic pigs that express the functional nematode fat-1 gene. Codon-optimized mfat-1 was inserted into eukaryotic expression vectors, which were transferred into primary swine donor cells. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select donor clones capable of converting n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts derived from the clones that lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio to approximately 1:1 were transferred surgically into the uteri of recipients for transgenic piglets. By HMC, 37% (n=558) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage after 7 days of culture in vitro, with an average cell number of 81±36 (n=14). Three recipients became pregnant after 408 day-6 blastocysts were transferred into four naturally cycling females, and a total of 14 live offspring were produced. The nematode mfat-1 effectively lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in muscle and major organs of the transgenic pig. Our results will help to establish a reliable procedure and an efficient option in the production of transgenic animals.

  8. Oat Phytochrome Is Biologically Active in Transgenic Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, M. T.; Quail, P. H.

    1989-08-01

    To determine the functional homology between phytochromes from evolutionarily divergent species, we used the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter to express a monocot (oat) phytochrome cDNA in a dicot plant (tomato). Immunoblot analysis shows that more than 50% of the transgenic tomato plants synthesize the full-length oat phytochrome polypeptide. Moreover, leaves of light-grown transgenic plants contain appreciably less oat phytochrome than leaves from dark-adapted plants, and etiolated R1 transgenic seedlings have higher levels of spectrally active phytochrome than wild-type tomato seedlings in direct proportion to the level of immunochemically detectable oat polypeptide present. These data suggest that the heterologous oat polypeptide carries a functional chromophore, allowing reversible photoconversion between the two forms of the molecule, and that the far-red absorbing form (Pfr) is recognized and selectively degraded by the Pfr-specific degradative machinery in the dicot cell. The overexpression of oat phytochrome has pleiotropic, phenotypic consequences at all major phases of the life cycle. Adult transgenic tomato plants expressing high levels of the oat protein tend to be dwarfed, with dark green foliage and fruits. R1 transgenic seedlings have short hypocotyls with elevated anthocyanin contents. We conclude that a monocot phytochrome can be synthesized and correctly processed to a biologically active form in a dicot cell, and that the transduction pathway components that interact with the photoreceptor are evolutionarily conserved. PMID:12359910

  9. Glycinebetaine synthesizing transgenic potato plants exhibit enhanced tolerance to salt and cold stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiotic stresses are the most important contributors towards low productivity of major food crops. Various attempts have been made to enhance abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants by classical breeding and genetic transformation. Genetic transformation with glycinebetaine (GB) synthesizing enzymes' gene(s) in naturally non accumulating plants has resulted in enhanced tolerance against variety of abiotic stresses. Present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of GB synthesizing transgenic potato plants against salt and cold stresses. Transgenic potato plants were challenged against salt and cold stresses at whole plant level. Transgenic lines were characterized to determine the transgene copy number. Different parameters like integrity, chlorophyll contents, tuber yield and vegetative biomass were studied to monitor the stress tolerance of transgenic potato plants. The results were compared with Non-transgenic (NT) plants and statistically analyzed to evaluate significant differences. Multi-copy insertion of expression cassette was found in both transgenic lines. Upon salt stress, transgenic plants maintained better growth as compared to NT plants. The tuber yield of transgenic plants was significantly greater than NT plants in salt stress. Transgenic plants showed improved membrane integrity against cold stress by depicting appreciably reduced ion leakage as compared to NT plants. Moreover, transgenic plants showed significantly less chlorophyll bleaching than NT plants upon cold stress. In addition, NT plants accumulated significantly less biomass, and yielded fewer tubers as compared to transgenic plants after cold stress treatment. The study will be a committed step for field evaluation of transgenic plants with the aim of commercialization. (author)

  10. Development and application of transgenic technologies in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel; Chavarriaga, Paul; Raemakers, Krit; Siritunga, Dimuth; Zhang, Peng

    2004-11-01

    The capacity to integrate transgenes into the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is now established and being utilized to generate plants expressing traits of agronomic interest. The tissue culture and gene transfer systems currently employed to produce these transgenic cassava have improved significantly over the past 5 years and are assessed and compared in this review. Programs are underway to develop cassava with enhanced resistance to viral diseases and insects pests, improved nutritional content, modified and increased starch metabolism and reduced cyanogenic content of processed roots. Each of these is described individually for the underlying biology the molecular strategies being employed and progress achieved towards the desired product. Important advances have occurred, with transgenic plants from several laboratories being prepared for field trails. PMID:15630627

  11. Identification of transgenic foods using NIR spectroscopy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahi, A.; Farahmand, H.; Prieto, N.; Cozzolino, D.

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of chemometric methods in the quantitative and qualitative analysis of feeds, foods, medicine and so on has been accompanied with the great evolution in the progress and in the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hence, recently the application of NIR spectroscopy has extended on the context of genetics and transgenic products. The aim of this review was to investigate the application of NIR spectroscopy to identificate transgenic products and to compare it with the traditional methods. The results of copious researches showed that the application of NIRS technology was successful to distinguish transgenic foods and it has advantages such as fast, avoiding time-consuming, non-destructive and low cost in relation to the antecedent methods such as PCR and ELISA.

  12. Engineered resistance to Plasmodium falciparum development in transgenic Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Alison T; Li, Fengwu; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Chen, Xiaoguang; Nirmala, Xavier; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Vinetz, Joseph M; James, Anthony A

    2011-04-01

    Transposon-mediated transformation was used to produce Anopheles stephensi that express single-chain antibodies (scFvs) designed to target the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The scFvs, m1C3, m4B7, and m2A10, are derived from mouse monoclonal antibodies that inhibit either ookinete invasion of the midgut or sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. The scFvs that target the parasite surface, m4B7 and m2A10, were fused to an Anopheles gambiae antimicrobial peptide, Cecropin A. Previously-characterized Anopheles cis-acting DNA regulatory elements were included in the transgenes to coordinate scFv production with parasite development. Gene amplification and immunoblot analyses showed promoter-specific increases in transgene expression in blood-fed females. Transgenic mosquito lines expressing each of the scFv genes had significantly lower infection levels than controls when challenged with P. falciparum. PMID:21533066

  13. [Use of transgenic animals in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpire, Véronique; Balls, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic animals present unique possibilities for medical, agricultural and fundamental research, and as a means of producing valuable pharmaceutical and nutrient products. Their use has increased dramatically in recent years and is set to increase further in the near future. It has been claimed that transgenic animals might allow reduction and refinement in animal use, via more-precise gene targeting in breeding programmes. However, these objectives are threatened by transgenic procedures which may promote greater animal use, more-varied applications, and the greater likelihood of animal suffering. Current legislation on animal experimentation, for example, Directive 86/609/EU, was passed and implemented before the full implications of transgenesis were recognised. For this reason, ECVAM organised a workshop which was held in Southwell, Nottinghamshire, UK, on 7-11 April 1997. The aim of this workshop was to reach a consensus on a set of guidelines designed to assist regulatory authorities in their decision-making process. The conclusions of the workshop are subdivided into general considerations, proposals to use transgenic animals, production and use of transgenic animals, specific considerations relating to animals used as basic research/disease models, animals used in testing for toxicity and carcinogenicity, and transgenic farm animals. 14 recommendations have been derived from these conclusions and should make an important contribution to ensuring that the interests and welfare of animals are given due respect. They demonstrate a willingness by scientists to respond to public concerns and they should facilitate a consistent, harmonised and equitable regulatory approach within the EU. PMID:11208264

  14. Amino acids regulate transgene expression in MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Marta; Guetg, Adriano; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Arps, Lisa; Ruckstuhl, Lisa; Camargo, Simone M R; Verrey, François

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression and cell growth rely on the intracellular concentration of amino acids, which in metazoans depends on extracellular amino acid availability and transmembrane transport. To investigate the impact of extracellular amino acid concentrations on the expression of a concentrative amino acid transporter, we overexpressed the main kidney proximal tubule luminal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1-collectrin (SLC6A19-TMEM27) in MDCK cell epithelia. Exogenously expressed proteins co-localized at the luminal membrane and mediated neutral amino acid uptake. However, the transgenes were lost over few cell culture passages. In contrast, the expression of a control transgene remained stable. To test whether this loss was due to inappropriately high amino acid uptake, freshly transduced MDCK cell lines were cultivated either with physiological amounts of amino acids or with the high concentration found in standard cell culture media. Expression of exogenous transporters was unaffected by physiological amino acid concentration in the media. Interestingly, mycoplasma infection resulted in a significant increase in transgene expression and correlated with the rapid metabolism of L-arginine. However, L-arginine metabolites were shown to play no role in transgene expression. In contrast, activation of the GCN2 pathway revealed by an increase in eIF2? phosphorylation may trigger transgene derepression. Taken together, high extracellular amino acid concentration provided by cell culture media appears to inhibit the constitutive expression of concentrative amino acid transporters whereas L-arginine depletion by mycoplasma induces the expression of transgenes possibly via stimulation of the GCN2 pathway. PMID:24797296

  15. Establishment and detection of HBV transgenic mice with YMDD mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-qin YOU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the hepatitis B virus(HBV transgenic mice with YMDD mutation,and provide an animal model for research of HBV prevention and therapeutic approach.Methods 1.3 copies HBV genome containing YMDD mutation associated with lamivudine resistance was injected into the zygote of FVB/N female mice by microinjection.Integration and passage of exogenous gene in transgenic mice was confirmed by PCR.The expression of HBsAg in liver and kidney tissues in transgenic mice was identified by ELISA and immunohistochemistry.Results A total of 3401 zygotes were injected and 269 F0 pups were born.PCR analysis indicated that 33 out of 269 pups were positive,and the integrating rate of exogenous gene was 12.3% in F0.Fluorescent quantitative PCR showed that HBV DNA was weakly positive in serum samples in 9 transgenic mice,less than 103copies/ml.The expression of HBsAg in transgenic mice was observed in liver and kidney tissues by immunohistochemistry,and it was higher in kidney than in liver.The target gene was detected by PCR in 27.6% of 47 F1 offsprings.The expression of HBsAg could be observed in liver and kidney tissues in F1,which was similar to that in F0.Conclusion 1.3 copies HBV transgenic mice model containing YMDD mutation associated with lamivudine resistance is successfully produced by microinjection,and HBsAg expression can be transmitted through germline cells.

  16. Nontarget DNA sequences reduce the transgene length necessary for RNA-mediated tospovirus resistance in transgenic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Sheng-Zhi; Jan, Fuh-Jyh; Gonsalves, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    RNA-mediated virus resistance has recently been shown to be the result of post-transcriptional transgene silencing in transgenic plants. This study was undertaken to characterize the effect of transgene length and nontarget DNA sequences on RNA-mediated tospovirus resistance in transgenic plants. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants were generated to express different regions of the nucleocapsid (N) protein of tomato spotted wilt (TSWV) tospovirus. Transgenic plants expressing half-gene se...

  17. Neutralizing antibodies against rotavirus produced in transgenically labelled purple tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez, Paloma; Presa, Silvia; Espí, Joaquín; Pineda, Benito; Antón, María T.; MORENO, VICENTE; Buesa, Javier; Granell, Antonio; Orzaez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Edible fruits are inexpensive biofactories for human health-promoting molecules that can be ingested as crude extracts or partially purified formulations. We show here the production of a model human antibody for passive protection against the enteric pathogen rotavirus in transgenically labelled tomato fruits. Transgenic tomato plants expressing a recombinant human immunoglobulin A (hIgA_2A1) selected against the VP8* peptide of rotavirus SA11 strain were obtained. The amount of hIgA_2A1 pro...

  18. Detecting adventitious transgenic events in a maize center of diversity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Fernando Rimachi, Gamarra; Jorge Alcántara, Delgado; Yeny Aquino, Villasante; Rodomiro, Ortiz.

    2011-07-15

    Full Text Available Background: The genetic diversity of maize in Peru includes several landraces (within race clusters) and modern open pollinated and hybrid cultivars that are grown by farmers across various regions, thereby making this country a secondary center of diversity for this crop. A main topic of controvers [...] y in recent years refers to the unintended presence of transgenic events in locally grown cultivars at main centers of crop diversity. Peru does not yet have biosafety regulations to control or permit the growing of genetically modified crops. Hence, the aim of this research was to undertake a survey in the valley of Barranca, where there were recent claims of authorized transgenic maize grown in farmers fields as well as in samples taken from feed storage and grain or seed trade centers. Results: A total of 162 maize samples (134 from fields, 15 from local markets, eight from the collecting centers of poultry companies, from the local trading center and four samples from seed markets) were included for a qualitative detection by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) and nopaline synthase terminator (Tnos) sequences, as well as for six transgenic events, namely BT11, NK603, T25, 176, TC1507 and MON810. The 134 maize samples from farmers fields were negative for Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin insecticidal protein and enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) using lateral flow strips. The PCR analysis did not detect any of the six transgenic events in samples from farmers fields, local markets, seed trading shops and the local collecting center. There were four transgenic events (T25, NK603, MON810 and TC1507) in grain samples from the barns of poultry companies. Conclusions: This research could not detect, at the 95% probability level, transgenes in farmers' fields in the valley of Barranca. The four transgenic events in grain samples from barns of poultry companies were not surprising because Peru imports maize, mainly for animal feed, from Argentina and the United States that are known for growing transgenic maize.

  19. A recombinase-mediated transcriptional induction system in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, T; Schnorr, K M; Mundy, J

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and tested a Cre-loxP recombination-mediated vector system termed pCrox for use in transgenic plants. In this system, treatment of Arabidopsis under inducing conditions mediates an excision event that removes an intervening piece of DNA between a promoter and the gene to be expressed......-mediated GUS activation. Induction was shown to be possible at essentially any stage of plant growth. This single vector system circumvents the need for genetic crosses required by other, dual recombinase vector systems. The pCrox system may prove particularly useful in instances where transgene over...

  20. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio introduced in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio, found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the existing fluorescent protein GFP from the Genbank, this could help identify quickly if they are new genes or variants thereof as these novel fluorescent proteins may be introduced in aquatic GMO in the future. Thus, developing and improving biosecurity measures through its timely detection at the molecular genetic level.

  1. Glyphosate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus) to nontransgenic B. napus and B. rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londo, Jason P; Bollman, Michael A; Sagers, Cynthia L; Lee, E Henry; Watrud, Lidia S

    2011-08-01

    • Transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, but the escape of transgenes is an environmental concern. In this study we tested the hypothesis that glyphosate drift and herbivory selective pressures can change the rate of transgene flow between the crop Brassica napus (canola), and weedy species and contribute to the potential for increased transgene escape risk and persistence outside of cultivation. • We constructed plant communities containing single transgenic B. napus genotypes expressing glyphosate herbicide resistance (CP4 EPSPS), lepidopteran insect resistance (Cry1Ac), or both traits ('stacked'), plus nontransgenic B. napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra. Two different selective pressures, a sublethal glyphosate dose and lepidopteran herbivores (Plutella xylostella), were applied and rates of transgene flow and transgenic seed production were measured. • Selective treatments differed in the degree in which they affected gene flow and production of transgenic hybrid seed. Most notably, glyphosate-drift increased the incidence of transgenic seeds on nontransgenic B. napus by altering flowering phenology and reproductive function. • The findings of this study indicate that transgenic traits may be transmitted to wild populations and may increase in frequency in weedy populations through the direct and indirect effects of selection pressures on gene flow. PMID:21443650

  2. Preservation and Faithful Expression of Transgene via Artificial Seeds in Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wenting; Liang, Zongsuo; Wang, Xinhua; Sibbald, Susan; Hunter, David; Tian, Lining

    2013-01-01

    Proper preservation of transgenes and transgenic materials is important for wider use of transgenic technology in plants. Here, we report stable preservation and faithful expression of a transgene via artificial seed technology in alfalfa. DNA constructs containing the uid reporter gene coding for ?-glucuronidase (GUS) driven by a 35S promoter or a tCUP promoter were introduced into alfalfa via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Somatic embryos were subsequently induced from trans...

  3. Male mating strategy and the introgression of a growth hormone transgene

    OpenAIRE

    Valosaari, Kata-Riina; Aikio, Sami; Kaitala, Veijo

    2008-01-01

    Escaped transgenic organisms (GMO's) may threaten the populations of their wild relatives if able to hybridize with each other. The introgression of a growth enhancement transgene into a wild Atlantic salmon population may be affected by the transgene's effects not only on fitness parameters, but also on mating behaviour. Large anadromous GMO males are most preferred in mating, but a transgene can also give the large sneakers a reproductive advantage over the smaller wild individuals. With a ...

  4. Expression and purification of recombinant human serum albumin from selectively terminable transgenic rice*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Feng-zhen; Shen, Zhi-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely utilized for medical purposes and biochemical research. Transgenic rice has proved to be an attractive bioreactor for mass production of recombinant HSA (rHSA). However, transgene spread is a major environmental and food safety concern for transgenic rice expressing proteins of medical value. This study aimed to develop a selectively terminable transgenic rice line expressing HSA in rice seeds, and a simple process for recovery and purification of rHSA for ...

  5. Marketing Strategic Benefit-risk Analysis: Transgenic Poultry Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Liu; Dazheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the causes of marketing strategic benefit-risk of transgenic poultry food supply chain in china, we analyze the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of transgenic poultry food participants. This study discusses the ways and strategies of transgenic poultry food supply chain from the following aspects: a), the food's safety concerning producers, marketing participants and consumers’ risk behaviour at three stages of the transgenic ...

  6. Using Metabolomics To Estimate Unintended Effects in Transgenic Crop Plants: Problems, Promises, and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekenga, Owen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transgenic crops are widespread in some countries and sectors of the agro-economy, but are also highly contentious. Proponents of transgenic crop improvement often cite the “substantial equivalence” of transgenic crops to the their nontransgenic parents and sibling varieties. Opponents of transgenic crop improvement dismiss the substantial equivalence standard as being without statistical basis and emphasize the possible unintended effects to food quality and composition due to genetic transf...

  7. Post-mortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winther, Kjeld Dahl; Secher, Jan O; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not ...

  8. Salinity Response of Transgenic Potato Genotypes Expressing the Oxalate Oxidase Gene

    OpenAIRE

    TURHAN, Hakan

    2005-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo responses of transgenic and non-transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes to salinity were investigated. A gene responsible for the production of oxalate oxidase enzyme, whose expression has been associated with plant stress tolerance, was used. Transgenic potato plants expressing the oxalate oxidase enzyme were produced using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic nature of the plants was verified by their antibiotic (kanamycin) resistance and the...

  9. ELITE TRANSGENIC LINES OF BASMATI-370 REVEALED HIGH LEVEL OF LODGING RESISTANCE UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood-ur-Rahman; Noor Muhammad; Ahmad Ali Shahid, Tayyab Husnain

    2012-01-01

    Lodging decreases crop yield, photosynthesis and grain quality. Three transgenic lines of Basmati-370 containing two Bt genes (cry1Ac & cry2A) were evaluated in the field along with non-transgenic parent as control. The experiment was repeated for consecutive two years. Transgenic rice revealed tremendous morphological variations associated with lodging such as short stature, more number of nodes, less internodal length, etc. The transgenic plants were 33% short in stature while average numbe...

  10. Fitness cost and competitive ability of transgenic herbicide-tolerant rice expressing a protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Gi Kim; Young Jin Chun; Dae In Kim; Kee Woong Park; Soon-Chun Jeong; Sangkyu Park; Kyoungwhan Back

    2013-01-01

    The expression of transgenic traits in genetically modified crops is sometimes associated with decreases in crop performanceor fitness. These decreases in performance or fitness of transgenic plants in unfavourable conditions may providevaluable information about the ecological consequences of transgene escape. In a glasshouse trial, we tested the costassociated with resistance to herbicides by comparing the growth, yield, and competitive ability of transgenic rice withits parental non-transg...

  11. Effective generation of transgenic pigs and mice by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shih Ping Yao; Ho Pei-Yu; Huang Hsiao-I; Bolen James; Brown Lucy; Hsiao Chin-Ton; Lo Hsin-Lung; Lai Chao-Kuen; Chen Chi-Dar; Wu Ming-Che; Liu Yi-Hsin; Jiang MeiSheng; Qian Jin; Chang Keejong; Yao Chen-Wen

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Transgenic animals have become valuable tools for both research and applied purposes. The current method of gene transfer, microinjection, which is widely used in transgenic mouse production, has only had limited success in producing transgenic animals of larger or higher species. Here, we report a linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer method (LB-SMGT) that greatly improves the production efficiency of large transgenic animals. Results The linker protein, a monoclonal ...

  12. In utero recombinant adeno-associated virus gene transfer in mice, rats, and primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrero Luis

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene transfer into the amniotic fluid using recombinant adenovirus vectors was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer of transgenes into the lungs and intestines. Adenovirus mediated in utero gene therapy, however, resulted in expression of the transgene for less than 30 days. Recombinant adenovirus associated viruses (rAAV have the advantage of maintaining the viral genome in daughter cells thus providing for long-term expression of transgenes. Methods Recombinant AAV2 carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP was introduced into the amniotic sac of fetal rodents and nonhuman primates. Transgene maintenance and expression was monitor. Results Gene transfer resulted in rapid uptake and long-term gene expression in mice, rats, and non-human primates. Expression and secretion of the reporter gene, GFP, was readily demonstrated within 72 hours post-therapy. In long-term studies in rats and nonhuman primates, maintenance of GFP DNA, protein expression, and reporter gene secretion was documented for over one year. Conclusions Because only multipotential stem cells are present at the time of therapy, these data demonstrated that in utero gene transfer with AAV2 into stem cells resulted in long-term systemic expression of active transgene roducts. Thus, in utero gene transfer via the amniotic fluid may be useful in treatment of gene disorders.

  13. Salicylate and catechol levels are maintained in nahG transgenic poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic profiling was used to investigate the molecular phenotypes of transgenic Populus tremula x P. alba bybrids expressing the nahG transgene, a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol. Despite the efficacy of this transgenic approach to reducing...

  14. Transgenic Crops to Address Third World Hunger? A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Industry and mainstream research and policy institutions often suggest that transgenic crop varieties can raise the productivity of poor third world farmers, feed the hungry, and reduce poverty. These claims are critically evaluated by examining global-hunger data, the constraints that affect the productivity of small farmers in the third world,…

  15. APPLICATION OF SPECTRAL IMAGING TO TRANSGENIC CORN MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic crops containing pesticidal traits are regulated by EPA under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. The EPA has declared crops engineered to contain a bacterial gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to be in the public good, due to their potential to...

  16. Transgenic cotton age effects on lepidopteran larvae mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaves from plants containing various transgenic traits (Non-Bt, Bollgard, Bollgard II, and WideStrike)were assayed for bioactivity in the laboratory against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), beet armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner). About 5...

  17. TRANSGENE ESCAPE MONITORING, POPULATION GENETICS, AND THE LAW

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been little discussion about how to apply population genetics methods to monitor the spread of transgenes that are detected outside the agricultural populations where they are deployed. Population geneticists have developed tools for analyzing the genetic makeup of indi...

  18. RESOLUTION OF COMPLEX INTEGRATION PATTERNS TO OBTAIN SINGLE COPY TRANSGENES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present invention provides methods for producing a transgenic cell having a stably integrated, single copy of an exogenous polynucleotide sequence. The method, which resolves repeated insertions of the introduced polynucleotide sequence into a single copy, involves introducing into a genetic loc...

  19. Transgenic Crops in Argentina: The Ecological and Social Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengue, Walter A.

    2005-01-01

    There is no doubt that soybean is the most important crop for Argentina, with a planted surface that rose 11,000,000 hectares and a production of around 35,000,000 metric tons. During the 1990s, there was a significant agriculture transformation in the country, motorize by the adoption of transgenic crops (soy-bean, maize, and cotton) under the…

  20. NEW PIGGYBAC VECTORS FOR FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS AND TRANSGENIC INSECT RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research focuses on creating transgenic fruit fly strains for improved biological control and functional genomics analysis. This has involved the development of the piggyBac transposon-based transformation system that is now used in four orders of insects. For biocontrol based on conditional l...

  1. PiggyBac Transgene Insertion Site GIZA Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified New World screwworms were analyzed by inverse PCR and several sequences of genomic DNA flanking the transposon insertion sites were obtained. One transgenic strain, designated GIZA, exhibited the properties of a lethal genetic mutation. Classic genetic crosses of these insects r...

  2. Transgenic maize plants expressing a fungal phytase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rumei; Xue, Guangxing; Chen, Ping; Yao, Bin; Yang, Wenzhu; Ma, Qianli; Fan, Yunliu; Zhao, Zuoyu; Tarczynski, Mitchell C; Shi, Jinrui

    2008-08-01

    Maize seeds are the major ingredient of commercial pig and poultry feed. Phosphorus in maize seeds exists predominantly in the form of phytate. Phytate phosphorus is not available to monogastric animals and phosphate supplementation is required for optimal animal growth. Undigested phytate in animal manure is considered a major source of phosphorus pollution to the environment from agricultural production. Microbial phytase produced by fermentation as a feed additive is widely used to manage the nutritional and environmental problems caused by phytate, but the approach is associated with production costs for the enzyme and requirement of special cares in feed processing and diet formulation. An alternative approach would be to produce plant seeds that contain high phytase activities. We have over-expressed Aspergillus niger phyA2 gene in maize seeds using a construct driven by the maize embryo-specific globulin-1 promoter. Low-copy-number transgenic lines with simple integration patterns were identified. Western-blot analysis showed that the maize-expressed phytase protein was smaller than that expressed in yeast, apparently due to different glycosylation. Phytase activity in transgenic maize seeds reached approximately 2,200 units per kg seed, about a 50-fold increase compared to non-transgenic maize seeds. The phytase expression was stable across four generations. The transgenic seeds germinated normally. Our results show that the phytase expression lines can be used for development of new maize hybrids to improve phosphorus availability and reduce the impact of animal production on the environment. PMID:17932782

  3. Transgenic RNAi in mouse oocytes: The first decade.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Radek; Svoboda, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 134, 1-2 (2012), s. 64-68. ISSN 0378-4320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : RNAi * oocyte * transgene * silencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2012

  4. Efficient expression of transgenes in adult zebrafish by electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S Hari

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of transgenes in muscle by injection of naked DNA is widely practiced. Application of electrical pulses at the site of injection was demonstrated to improve transgene expression in muscle tissue. Zebrafish is a precious model to investigate developmental biology in vertebrates. In this study we investigated the effect of electroporation on expression of transgenes in 3–6 month old adult zebrafish. Results Electroporation parameters such as number of pulses, voltage and amount of plasmid DNA were optimized and it was found that 6 pulses of 40 V·cm-1 at 15 ?g of plasmid DNA per fish increased the luciferase expression 10-fold compared to controls. Similar enhancement in transgene expression was also observed in Indian carp (Labeo rohita. To establish the utility of adult zebrafish as a system for transient transfections, the strength of the promoters was compared in A2 cells and adult zebrafish after electroporation. The relative strengths of the promoters were found to be similar in cell lines and in adult zebrafish. GFP fluorescence in tissues after electroporation was also studied by fluorescence microscopy. Conclusion Electroporation after DNA injection enhances gene expression 10-fold in adult zebrafish. Electroporation parameters for optimum transfection of adult zebrafish with tweezer type electrode were presented. Enhanced reporter gene expression upon electroporation allowed comparison of strengths of the promoters in vivo in zebrafish.

  5. DISEASE RESISTANT TRANSGENIC COTTON TO PREVENT PREHARVEST AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing transgenic cottons that are resistant to the saprophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus, which produces carcinogenic aflatoxin on lipid-rich cottonseed. Several independently transformed lines of cotton expressing antifungal genes coding for either the chloroperoxidase (CPO-P) or the s...

  6. SERPINB3 is associated with longer survival in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Gianmarco; Ruvoletto, Mariagrazia; Ceolotto, Giulio; Quarta, Santina; Calabrese, Fiorella; Turato, Cristian; Tono, Natascia; Crescenzi, Marika; Biasiolo, Alessandra; Cattelan, Arianna; Merkel, Carlo; Avogaro, Angelo; Gatta, Angelo; Pontisso, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    The physiological roles of the protease inhibitor SERPINB3 (SB3) are still largely unknown. The study was addressed to assess the biological effects of this serpin in vivo using a SB3 transgenic mouse model. Two colonies of mice (123 transgenic for SB3 and 148 C57BL/6J controls) have been studied. Transgenic (TG) mice showed longer survival than controls and the difference was more remarkable in males than in females (18.5% vs 12.7% life span increase). In TG mice decreased IL-6 in serum and lower p66shc in the liver were observed. In addition, TG males showed higher expression of mTOR in the liver. Liver histology showed age-dependent increase of steatosis and decrease of glycogen storage in both groups and none of the animals developed neoplastic lesions. In conclusion, the gain in life span observed in SB3-transgenic mice could be determined by multiple mechanisms, including the decrease of circulating IL-6 and the modulation of ageing genes in the liver. PMID:24162160

  7. BIODIVERSITY (COMMUNICATIONS ARISING): MAIZE TRANSGENE RESULTS IN MEXICO ARE ARTEFACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist and Chapela's conclusion that the transgenes they claim to have detected in native maize in Oaxaca, Mexico, are predominantly reassorted and inserted into a "diversity of genomic contexts" seems to be based on an artefact arising from the inverse polymerase chain reaction (i-PCR) they used to ...

  8. Development of transgenic chickens expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we demonstrated the successful production of transgenic chickens expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene. Replication-defective recombinant retroviruses produced from vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped retrovirus vector system were injected beneath the blastoderm of non-incubated chicken embryos (stage X). From 129 injected eggs, 13 chicks hatched after 21 days of incubation. All hatched chicks were found to express vector-encoded EGFP gene, which was under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter and boosted post-transcriptionally by woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element sequence. Green fluorescent signals, indicative of the EGFP gene expression, were detected in various body parts, including head, limb, eye, toe, and several internal organs. Genomic incorporation of the transgene was also proven by Southern blot assay. Our results show the exceptional versatile effectiveness of the EGFP gene as a marker in the gene expression-related studies which therefore would be very helpful in establishing a useful transgenic chicken model system for studies on embryo development and for efficient production of transgenic chickens as bioreactors

  9. [Features of development and reproduction of transgenic flax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemesh, V A; Samatadze, T E; Guzenko, E V; Zhelezniakova, E V; Amosova, A V; Zelenin, A V; Muravenko, O V

    2014-01-01

    Primary transformants carrying a genetic construct with the chimeric gfp-tua6 gene were obtained using biolistic transformation of hypocotyl explants of flax variety Vasilek. Viable modified plants were used as a basis for the production of inbred lines with confirmed inheritance of introduced genetic construct in three generations. The characteristics of phenological growth stages, plant height, number of bolls and meiosis were studied for transgenic plants. A comparison of transformed lines based on reproduction years revealed a significant decrease of seed production in one line. Meiotic analysis of this line at metaphase I and anaphase I stages was conducted. The percentage of cells with impaired meiosis was highest in transgenic plants of the line with the lowest seed production. Thus, the nonspecific incorporation of genetic construct into the flax genome using biolistic transformation impairs meiosis to a different extent and it is the main reason for unequal reproducibility of transgenic flax. The production of stably reproducing transgenic lines requires systematic analysis of meiosis. PMID:25739298

  10. TRANSGENIC PLANTS EXPRESSING BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DELTA-ENDOTOXINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial varieties of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants have been developed in many countries to control target pests. Initially, the expression of native Bt genes in plants was low due to mRNA instability, improper splicing, and post-translation modifications. Subsequently, modificati...

  11. Enhancer-promoter interference and its prevention in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptional enhancer elements have been shown to override the specificity of nearby promoters in a position- and orientation-independent manner. This is problematic when multiple enhancers/promoters co-exist within a single transgenic construct as it has the potential to cause the mis-expressio...

  12. Agricultural Biotechnology (Production of Foreign Compounds in Transgenic Plants)

    OpenAIRE

    Pueyo, José J.; Hiatt, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Expression of bacterial genes, mammalian genes, or other plant genes is becoming routine for several plant species. Most transgenic plants are generated for basic research purposes, such as the evaluation of tissue-specific expression of genes, processing and secretion signals, and enhancer elements.

  13. Transgenic perennial biofuel feedstocks and strategies for bioconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of transgenic tools for the improvement of plant feedstocks will be required to realize the full economic and environmental benefits of cellulosic and other biofuels, particularly from perennial plants. Traits that are targets for improvement of biofuels crops include he...

  14. Glyoxalase-1 overexpression reduces endothelial dysfunction and attenuates early renal impairment in a rat model of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Olaf; Niessen, Petra M G; Miyata, Toshio; Østergaard, Jakob A; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Sieber, Jonas; Mundel, Peter H; Brownlee, Michael; Janssen, Ben J A; De Mey, Jo G R; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In diabetes, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and the AGE precursor methylglyoxal (MGO) are associated with endothelial dysfunction and the development of microvascular complications. In this study we used a rat model of diabetes, in which rats transgenically overexpressed the MGO-detoxifying enzyme glyoxalase-I (GLO-I), to determine the impact of intracellular glycation on vascular function and the development of early renal changes in diabetes. METHODS: Wild-type and Glo...

  15. Glyoxalase-1 overexpression reduces endothelial dysfunction and attenuates early renal impairment in a rat model of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Olaf; Niessen, Petra M G

    2014-01-01

    In diabetes, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and the AGE precursor methylglyoxal (MGO) are associated with endothelial dysfunction and the development of microvascular complications. In this study we used a rat model of diabetes, in which rats transgenically overexpressed the MGO-detoxifying enzyme glyoxalase-I (GLO-I), to determine the impact of intracellular glycation on vascular function and the development of early renal changes in diabetes.

  16. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winther, K.D.

    2015-01-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig embryos than in those with LW embryos (26% and 24% vs. 6%). Piglets (n = 815) were born from 128 sows with 6.5 ± 0.4 full-born piglets per litter. The overall rate of stillborn piglets was 21% of all born with the number of stillborn piglets ranging from one to nine in a litter. The mortality of the surviving piglets during the first month was 48%. Thus, altogether 58% of the full-born piglets died before weaning. In 87 of the 128 litters (68%), one to 12 of the piglets showed major or minor malformations. Malformations were found in 232 piglets (29.5% of all born). A single malformation was registered in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17%). There was a gender difference in the transgenic minipigs because male piglets had a higher rate of malformations (49.1%) than females (29.7%). The most common defects in the cloned piglets were in the digestive (12.2%), circulatory (9.4%), reproductive (11.3%), and musculoskeletal (9.1%) systems. Malformations of the musculoskeletal system were most frequent in Göttingen (16.3% vs. approximately 5.5% in the two other breeds), whereas abnormal cardiopulmonary systems were most frequent in Yucatan piglets (26.9% vs. 2.1% in LW and 5.3% in Göttingen). In conclusion, these results show that pig cloning results in a considerable loss of piglets and that many of these can be related to various malformations that all are also seen in noncloned piglets. Because approximately half of the cloned piglets still survive, even with eventual unknown minor malformations, use of pigs as models for human diseases is still realistic. However, continued efforts are needed to further reduce the level of malformations.

  17. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Winther, K D; Secher, J O; Callesen, H

    2015-10-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig embryos than in those with LW embryos (26% and 24% vs. 6%). Piglets (n = 815) were born from 128 sows with 6.5 ± 0.4 full-born piglets per litter. The overall rate of stillborn piglets was 21% of all born with the number of stillborn piglets ranging from one to nine in a litter. The mortality of the surviving piglets during the first month was 48%. Thus, altogether 58% of the full-born piglets died before weaning. In 87 of the 128 litters (68%), one to 12 of the piglets showed major or minor malformations. Malformations were found in 232 piglets (29.5% of all born). A single malformation was registered in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17%). There was a gender difference in the transgenic minipigs because male piglets had a higher rate of malformations (49.1%) than females (29.7%). The most common defects in the cloned piglets were in the digestive (12.2%), circulatory (9.4%), reproductive (11.3%), and musculoskeletal (9.1%) systems. Malformations of the musculoskeletal system were most frequent in Göttingen (16.3% vs. approximately 5.5% in the two other breeds), whereas abnormal cardiopulmonary systems were most frequent in Yucatan piglets (26.9% vs. 2.1% in LW and 5.3% in Göttingen). In conclusion, these results show that pig cloning results in a considerable loss of piglets and that many of these can be related to various malformations that all are also seen in noncloned piglets. Because approximately half of the cloned piglets still survive, even with eventual unknown minor malformations, use of pigs as models for human diseases is still realistic. However, continued efforts are needed to further reduce the level of malformations. PMID:26166169

  18. Options for development of transgenic pigs with enhanced performance traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Traditional breeding practices have yielded a slow but steady genetic improvement of domestic animals. Unfortunately, these practices often do not enable the separation of desirable production traits from undesirable traits, and furthermore, do not enable the transfer of advantageous genetic traits from one species to another. Transgenic methodologies surmount these barriers, and transgenic pigs have been developed that have a variety of novel enhanced performance traits, the capability to serve as factories for the production of pharmaceuticals, and soon may provide a reliable supply of organs for xenotransplantation. This presentation will focus primarily on the expression of novel performance traits, since they have the potential to provide the greatest benefit to farmers in countries with a less well developed agricultural infrastructure. The first hurdle in the development of animals with novel production characteristics is the availability of reliable methods for the production of transgenic animals. This requires the combination of a suitable transgenic technique and an appropriate genetic construct. Classic pronuclear microinjection, the original method for producing transgenic animals may soon be surpassed by the more convenient sperm-mediated transgenesis, use of a retroviral vector system, or by techniques involving nuclear transfer. Despite the complexity involved in generating transgenic animals, a variety of interesting performance enhancing genes have been introduced into pigs. These include porcine growth hormone and IGF1 to enhance growth characteristics and carcass quality, α-lactalbumin to enhance the growth of nursing piglets, plant oleate desaturase (http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99991841) to increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in tissues, and phytase to enhance plant phosphorus utilization. No information is available on the performance or meat quality characteristics of pigs expressing the desaturase gene, however, expression of growth hormone, α- lactalbumin and phytase genes in pigs has been shown to be efficacious. As an example, phytase in transgenic pigs enable practically complete utilization of the phosphorus in cereal grain as compared to less than half by non-transgenic pigs. This new trait would be particularly beneficial in a production environment without extensive infrastructure characteristic of modern intensive Western-style agriculture. In addition to bypassing the need for expensive supplemental phosphorus, it also could help avoid environmental problems associated with intensive agriculture. In addition to genes already tested that enhance performance characteristics of pigs, other genes of interest include those coding for plant cell wall hydrolases, genes coding for disease resistance, and yet others that could improve protein utilization. Expression of a novel gene in a pig is only the first step in bringing a new line of transgenic pigs into the pork production system. Once a transgenic pig has been documented to perform according to expectation, and several generations have passed to ensure that the novel gene is stably inherited and expression maintained, governmental regulatory requirements must be satisfied to ensure that the pig has no deleterious effect on the environment, and that the meat is safe for human consumption. The food safety standards may vary among countries, but those established by the FAO (http://www.fao.org/es/ESN/food/risk_biotech_papers_en.stm) are usually taken as the primary requirement and country specific requirement overlaid. Meeting these standards dictates that, at least initially, only traits with great utility will be funded at a sufficiently high level to afford the essential testing to meet national and international safety requirements. (author)

  19. Functional screening of an asthma QTL in YAC transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symula, Derek J.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Ueda, Yukihiko; Denefle, Patrice; Stevens, Mary E.; Wang, Zhi-En; Locksley, Richard; Rubin, Edward M.

    1999-07-02

    While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. To screen for genes contributing to an asthma QTL mapped to human chromosome 5q33, the authors characterized a panel of large-insert 5q31 transgenics based on studies demonstrating that altering gene dosage frequently affects quantitative phenotypes normally influenced by that gene. This panel of human YAC transgenics, propagating a one megabase interva2048 chromosome 5q31 containing 23 genes, was screened for quantitative changes in several asthma-associated phenotypes. Multiple independent transgenic lines with altered IgE response to antigen treatment shared a 180 kb region containing 5 genes, including human interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 13 (IL13), which induce IgE class switching in B cells5. Further analysis of these mice and mice transgenic for only murine Il4 and Il13 demonstrated that moderate changes in murine Il4 and Il13 expression affect asthma-associated phenotypes in vivo. This functional screen of large-insert transgenics enabled them to sift through multiple genes in the 5q3 asthma QTL without prior consideration of assumed individual gene function and identify genes that influence the QTL phenotype in vivo.

  20. Tilapia chromosomal growth hormone gene expression accelerates growth in transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reynold, Morales; María Teresa, Herrera; Amílcar, Arenal; Asterio, Cruz; Oscar, Hernández; Rafael, Pimentel; Isabel, Guillén; Rebeca, Martínez; Mario P, Estrada.

    2001-08-15

    Full Text Available Gene transfer is economically important and model fish species has produced a great impact in modern biology and biotechnology. Transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) were generated through the co-injection of a GFP-expressing plasmid and an "all fish" transgene composed by the carp beta-actin promoter [...] and the chromosomal tilapia (Oreochromis hornorum) growth hormone gene. The GFP expression was a good indicator of stable transformation and allowed for high efficiency selection of transgenic fish. Transgenic F1 zebrafish grew 20% faster than full sibling non-transgenic controls.

  1. Accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs is not sufficient for RNAi-mediated protection against Citrus tristeza virus in transgenic Mexican lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmelo; Cervera, Magdalena; Fagoaga, Carmen; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

    2010-01-01

    Mexican lime plants transformed with the 3'-terminal 549 nucleotides of the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome in sense, antisense and intron-hairpin formats were analysed for transgene-derived transcript and short interfering RNA (siRNA) accumulation, and for CTV resistance. Propagations from all sense, antisense and empty-vector transgenic lines were susceptible to CTV, except for a single sense-line plant with a complex transgene integration pattern that showed transgene-derived siRNAs in association with low levels of the transgene-derived transcript. In contrast, nine of 30 intron-hairpin lines showed CTV resistance, with 9%-56% of bud-propagated plants, depending on the line, remaining uninfected on graft inoculation, and the others being susceptible. Although resistance was always associated with the presence of transgene-derived siRNAs, their level in different sense and intron-hairpin transformants was variable irrespective of the response to CTV infection. In intron-hairpin lines with single transgene integration, CTV resistance was correlated with low accumulation of the transgene-derived transcript rather than with high accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs. PMID:20078774

  2. The Effects of Fe2O3 Nanoparticles on Physiology and Insecticide Activity in Non-Transgenic and Bt-Transgenic Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nhan, Le; Ma, Chuanxin; Rui, Yukui; Cao, Weidong; Deng, Yingqing; Liu, Liming; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    As the demands for nanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP) applications in agriculture increase, the ecological risk has drawn more attention because of the unpredictable results of interactions between NPs and transgenic crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs on Bt-transgenic cotton in comparison with conventional cotton for 10 days. Each treatment was conducted in triplicate, and each experiment was repeated three times. Results demonstrated that Fe2O3 NPs inhibited the plant height and root length of Bt-transgenic cotton and promoted root hairs and biomass of non-transgenic cotton. Nutrients such as Na and K in Bt-transgenic cotton roots increased, while Zn contents decreased with Fe2O3 NPs. Most hormones in the roots of Bt-transgenic cotton increased at low Fe2O3 NP exposure (100 mg?L-1) but decreased at high concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs (1000 mg?L-1). Fe2O3 NPs increased the Bt-toxin in leaves and roots of Bt-transgenic cotton. Fe2O3 NPs were absorbed into roots, then transported to the shoots of both Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons. The bioaccumulation of Fe2O3 NPs in plants might be a potential risk for agricultural crops and affect the environment and human health. PMID:26834767

  3. Evaluation of tyrosinase minigene co-injection as a marker for genetic manipulations in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methot, D; Reudelhuber, T L; Silversides, D W

    1995-11-25

    The utility of tyrosinase minigene co-injection was evaluated as a visual marker for the generation and breeding of transgenic mice. In an evaluation of 39 transgenic founder animals and 44 transgenic lines five phenotypic patterns of pigmentation were consistently observed, including albino, dark, light, mottled and himalayan. In these studies co-injection of the tyrosinase minigene along with the transgene of interest (TOI) resulted in genomic integration of the two transgenes in 95% of the F0 generation. Co-segregation of transgenes occurred in 94% of doubly transgenic mice in the F1 generation, without dissociation in subsequent generations. All pigmented phenotypes proved useful for distinguishing homozygous from heterozygous F2 animals via backcross trials, while the light, mottled and himalayan phenotypes proved useful in visually discriminating between homozygous and heterozygous F2 animals. In addition, the light, mottled and himalayan phenotypes proved useful in determining segregation patterns of transgenes in the progeny of crosses between separate transgenic lines. Moreover, there appears to be a correlation between intensity of pigmentation and degree of expression of the co-injected TOI. These studies confirm that tyrosinase co-injection is a useful adjunct in transgenic mouse studies and can serve to reduce routine genetic validation of transgenic lines. PMID:8524641

  4. Characteristics of ChgH-GFP transgenic medaka lines, an in vivo estrogenic compound detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurauchi, Kanta; Hirata, Takashi; Kinoshita, Masato

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported the characteristics of a ChgH-GFP transgenic medaka line that indicates estrogenic compound pollution in environmental water by the green fluorescence of their liver. Recently, we established four more lines. In this study, the characteristics of the five transgenic medaka lines were investigated. The intensity of reporter gene expression varied among transgenic lines and generally correlated well with the amount of integrated transgene in each line. Line-specific ectopic expression was also observed. However, the sensitivity to 17-beta estradiol did not differ among transgenic lines. Three transgenic lines are considered to be suitable as bio-indicators of estrogenic activity, due to the ease of observing green fluorescence in their livers. The transgenic lines can also detect the estrogenic activity of testosterone and 17-beta trenbolone at the nominal concentration of 30 and 100 microg/l, respectively. PMID:18513755

  5. Potassium channels in hippocampal neurones are absent in a transgenic but not in a chemical model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, B; Wilton, L A K; Good, M; Chapman, P F; Wann, K T

    2008-01-23

    We have investigated using single channel patch-clamp methods potassium channel prevalence in hippocampal neurones from two animal models of AD. Experiments have been carried out on transgenic mice (Tg2576) carrying the Swedish mutation (K670N/M671L) and rats receiving ventricular infusions of okadaic acid. In cell-attached patches from hippocampal neurones from the Tg2576 and control littermate mice there were three principal unitary conductance - 22 pS, 111 pS and 178 pS. The two channels of intermediate and large conductance were voltage-dependent, highly active in cell-attached patches, activity decreasing markedly on hyperpolarisation. The large conductance channel was sensitive to TEA, iberiotoxin, was activated in excised inside-out patches by Ca 2+(i) and is the type I maxi-K+ channel. Significantly, there was a reduction in the prevalence of a TEA-sensitive 113 pS channel in neurones from TG2576 mice with a corresponding increase in prevalence of the maxi-K+ channel. There was no difference in the characteristics of maxi-K+ between patches in neurones from the transgenic and littermate controls. In the rat model single channel analysis was performed on hippocampal neurons from three groups of animals i.e. non-operated, and these receiving an infusion of vehicle or vehicle with okadaic acid. Three principal unitary conductances of around 18 pS, 118 pS and 185 pS were also observed in cell-attached recordings from these three groups. The intermediate and high conductance channels were blocked by TEA or 4-AP or 140 mM RbCl. There were no statistically significant differences in the channel prevalence or channel density between the control and test groups. PMID:18093574

  6. Extended transgene expression from a nonintegrating adenoviral vector containing retroviral elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Changyu; Vitolo, Joseph M; Zhang, Weitian; Mineshiba, Fumi; Chiorini, John A; Baum, Bruce J

    2008-06-01

    We studied the effects of specific retroviral elements in a first-generation serotype 5 adenoviral (Ad5) vector, AdLTR(2)EF1alpha-hEPO. This vector contains 858 base pair (bp) [251-bp envelope sequence plus 607-bp long-terminal repeat (LTR)] from Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), upstream of the human elongation factor-1alpha (EF1alpha) promoter and human erythropoietin (hEPO) cDNA, with the LTR sequence downstream of the polyadenylation signal. We compared expression of AdLTR(2)EF1alpha-hEPO with corresponding expressions of two conventional Ad5 vectors, AdEF1alpha-hEPO and AdCMV-hEPO, in vivo in submandibular glands in rats. Both the conventional vectors yielded low serum hEPO levels by day 7, and little change in hematocrits. In contrast, after receiving AdLTR(2)EF1alpha-hEPO, the rats showed elevated hEPO levels and hematocrits for 1-3 months. In vitro studies showed that the integration efficiencies of all the vectors were similar (approximately 10(-3)). Approximately 0.1% of the vector genomes were present 1 year after delivery in the case of each of the three vectors, primarily as intact linear double-strand DNA. The unique results seen with AdLTR(2)EF1alpha-hEPO are partly because of LTR enhancer activity. However, other cis-acting activity, which is not immunomodulatory but nevertheless influences promoter methylation, appears to be involved. A vector such as AdLTR(2)EF1alpha-hEPO may prove useful in clinical applications in which extended, but not "permanent," transgene expression is desirable. PMID:18388914

  7. Transgenic Expression of Osteoactivin/gpnmb Enhances Bone Formation In Vivo and Osteoprogenitor Differentiation Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frara, Nagat; Abdelmagid, Samir M; Sondag, Gregory R; Moussa, Fouad M; Yingling, Vanessa R; Owen, Thomas A; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-01-01

    Initial identification of osteoactivin (OA)/glycoprotein non-melanoma clone B (gpnmb) was demonstrated in an osteopetrotic rat model, where OA expression was increased threefold in mutant bones, compared to normal. OA mRNA and protein expression increase during active bone regeneration post-fracture, and primary rat osteoblasts show increased OA expression during differentiation in vitro. To further examine OA/gpnmb as an osteoinductive agent, we characterized the skeletal phenotype of transgenic mouse overexpressing OA/gpnmb under the CMV-promoter (OA-Tg). Western blot analysis showed increased OA/gpnmb in OA-Tg osteoblasts, compared to wild-type (WT). In OA-Tg mouse femurs versus WT littermates, micro-CT analysis showed increased trabecular bone volume and thickness, and cortical bone thickness; histomorphometry showed increased osteoblast numbers, bone formation and mineral apposition rates in OA-Tg mice; and biomechanical testing showed higher peak moment and stiffness. Given that OA/gpnmb is also over-expressed in osteoclasts in OA-Tg mice, we evaluated bone resorption by ELISA and histomorphometry, and observed decreased serum CTX-1 and RANK-L, and decreased osteoclast numbers in OA-Tg, compared to WT mice, indicating decreased bone remodeling in OA-Tg mice. The proliferation rate of OA-Tg osteoblasts in vitro was higher, compared to WT, as was alkaline phosphatase staining and activity, the latter indicating enhanced differentiation of OA-Tg osteoprogenitors. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed increased TGF-?1 and TGF-? receptors I and II expression in OA-Tg osteoblasts, compared to WT. Together, these data suggest that OA overexpression has an osteoinductive effect on bone mass in vivo and stimulates osteoprogenitor differentiation ex vivo. PMID:25899717

  8. Vldlr overexpression causes hyperactivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Keiko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reelin regulates neuronal positioning in cortical brain structures and neuronal migration via binding to the lipoprotein receptors Vldlr and Lrp8. Reeler mutant mice display severe brain morphological defects and behavioral abnormalities. Several reports have implicated reelin signaling in the etiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Moreover, it has been reported that VLDLR mRNA levels are increased in the post-mortem brain of autistic patients. Methods We generated transgenic (Tg rats overexpressing Vldlr, and examined their histological and behavioral features. Results Spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly increased in Tg rats, without detectable changes in brain histology. Additionally, Tg rats tended to show performance deficits in the radial maze task, suggesting that their spatial working memory was slightly impaired. Thus, Vldlr levels may be involved in determining locomotor activity and memory function. Conclusions Unlike reeler mice, patients with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders do not show striking neuroanatomical aberrations. Therefore, it is notable, from a clinical point of view, that we observed behavioral phenotypes in Vldlr-Tg rats in the absence of neuroanatomical abnormalities.

  9. FAS-Dependent Cell Death in ?-Synuclein Transgenic Oligodendrocyte Models of Multiple System Atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Christine L; Fillon, Gwenaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a parkinsonian neurodegenerative disorder. It is cytopathologically characterized by accumulation of the protein p25? in cell bodies of oligodendrocytes followed by accumulation of aggregated ?-synuclein in so-called glial cytoplasmic inclusions. p25? is a stimulator of ?-synuclein aggregation, and coexpression of ?-synuclein and p25? in the oligodendroglial OLN-t40-AS cell line causes ?-synuclein aggregate-dependent toxicity. In this study, we investigated whether the FAS system is involved in ?-synuclein aggregate dependent degeneration in oligodendrocytes and may play a role in multiple system atrophy. Using rat oligodendroglial OLN-t40-AS cells we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity caused by coexpressing ?-synuclein and p25? relies on stimulation of the death domain receptor FAS and caspase-8 activation. Using primary oligodendrocytes derived from PLP-?-synuclein transgenic mice we demonstrate that they exist in a sensitized state expressing pro-apoptotic FAS receptor, which makes them sensitive to FAS ligand-mediated apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis shows an increase in FAS in brain extracts from multiple system atrophy cases. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated enhanced FAS expression in multiple system atrophy brains notably in oligodendrocytes harboring the earliest stages of glial cytoplasmic inclusion formation. Oligodendroglial FAS expression is an early hallmark of oligodendroglial pathology in multiple system atrophy that mechanistically may be coupled to ?-synuclein dependent degeneration and thus represent a potential target for protective intervention.

  10. [Experimental models of transgenic plants promising for the modern technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeeva, I A; Goldenkova-Pavlova, I V; Mokriakova, M V; Volkova, L V; Bogush, V G; Sidoruk, K V; Iur'eva, N O; Debabov, V G; Piruzian, E S

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic popato plants have been created which express recombinant proteins, analogues of spidroin 1, the protein of the cobweb skeleton thread. Expression of the hybrid spidroin 1 genes possessing some repeated sequences retains both in the model test-tube-growing plants and in the crops. Expression level of the synthetic spidroin 1 genes and the level of accumulation of their products in plants depend on the type of promoter, number of repeats, organ specificity and plant species but not on the duration of plant material storage. The results show that the strategy based on constuction and expression of hybrid proteins which include the reporter protein makes it easier to select and analyse expression of hybrid proteins in transgenic organisms. PMID:17649625

  11. Sperm cells as vectors in the production of transgenic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, R.M.

    1993-04-28

    Transgenic animals are used in industry and in biomedical research in order to provide in vivo experimental model systems. Sperm cells have been reported used as vectors in the production of transgenic animals before, however no approach has of yet proven to be successful. Fertilizing eggs with genetically modified sperm would be advantageous in that sperm are readily accessible and stable, and eggs can be fertilized by modified sperm cells in vivo. Recent elucidations regarding the unique manner of DNA packaging in sperm chromatin by protamines has provided us with the insight for developing a method of introducing foreign DNA into sperm which is likely to succeed where others have failed. We have developed a method for mimicking the in vivo system of sperm chromatin toroid subunits in vitro, concentrating these toroids, and fluorescent visualization. Our present work concerns development of a method to successfully deliver DNA across the cell membranes and into the nucleus.

  12. Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Kohn, Jessica; Szwed, Sarah K; Pariser, Eben; Sepe, Sharon; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Oshimori, Naoki; Marsala, Martin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Lee, Ramee

    2015-11-01

    Speech and vocal impairments characterize many neurological disorders. However, the neurogenetic mechanisms of these disorders are not well understood, and current animal models do not have the necessary circuitry to recapitulate vocal learning deficits. We developed germline transgenic songbirds, zebra finches (Taneiopygia guttata) expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT), a protein responsible for the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Although generally healthy, the mutant songbirds had severe vocal disorders, including poor vocal imitation, stuttering, and progressive syntax and syllable degradation. Their song abnormalities were associated with HD-related neuropathology and dysfunction of the cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) song circuit. These transgenics are, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimentally created, functional mutant songbirds. Their progressive and quantifiable vocal disorder, combined with circuit dysfunction in the CBG song system, offers a model for genetic manipulation and the development of therapeutic strategies for CBG-related vocal and motor disorders. PMID:26436900

  13. Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Wendt, Toni; Holm, Preben Bach

    2013-01-01

    internationally only 9 and 7 years ago, several different traits in a variety of crops have currently been modified according to these concepts. Five of these crops are now in field trials and two have pending applications for deregulation. Currently, intragenic/cisgenic plants are regulated as transgenic plants......One of the major concerns of the general public about transgenic crops relates to the mixing of genetic materials between species that cannot hybridize by natural means. To meet this concern, the two transformation concepts cisgenesis and intragenesis were developed as alternatives to transgenesis....... Both concepts imply that plants must only be transformed with genetic material derived from the species itself or from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. Intragenesis differs...

  14. Transgenic approaches for development of disease resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important food and cash crop worldwide. Diseases and pests pose the most serious constraint to banana cultivation. Among the diseases, Fusarium wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) are the most important economically. We have explored different transgenic approaches for development of efficient resistance in banana against these two diseases. For countering Fusarium wilt, we have over expressed Petunia floral defensins using a strong constitutive promoter in transgenic banana plants. We have also tested a host induced gene silencing strategy targeting two vital fungal genes to obtain Fusarium resistant banana plants. For development of BBTV resistant banana plants also, we have used a host-induced gene silencing approach utilizing the full and partial coding sequence of the viral replication initiation protein. Successful bioassays performed in controlled greenhouse conditions have shown the efficacy of using these strategies to develop disease resistant banana plants. (author)

  15. Case Study: Polycystic Livers in a Transgenic Mouse Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Artwohl, James E.; Ward, Christopher J.; Diekwisch, Thomas G. H.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2014-04-01

    Three mice (2 male, 1 female; age, 5 to 16 mo) from a mouse line transgenic for keratin 14 (K14)-driven LacZ expression and on an outbred Crl:CD1(ICR) background, were identified as having distended abdomens and livers that were diffusely enlarged by numerous cysts (diameter, 0.1 to 2.0 cm). Histopathology revealed hepatic cysts lined by biliary type epithelium and mild chronic inflammation, and confirmed the absence of parasites. Among 21 related mice, 5 additional affected mice were identified via laparotomy. Breeding of these 5 mice (after 5 mo of age) did not result in any offspring; the K14 mice with olycystic livers failed to reproduce. Affected male mice had degenerative testicular lesions, and their sperm was immotile. Nonpolycystic K14 control male mice bred well, had no testicular lesions, and had appropriate sperm motility. Genetic analysis did not identify an association of this phenotype with the transgene or insertion site.

  16. Use of Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for Determining Copy Numbers of Transgenes in Lesquerella fendleri

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Q. Chen; Jiann-Tsyh Lin

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In transgenic plants, the number of transgene copies could greatly influence the level of expression and genetic stability of the target gene, thus it is important to develop an efficient method for accurate estimation of transgene copies. The quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) technique is becoming more efficient nowadays to determine copy numbers of transgenes in transgenic plants, being used here, for the first time in quantifying copy numb...

  17. Glutamate metabolism is impaired in transgenic mice with tau hyperphosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Hege Nilsen, Linn; Rae, Caroline; Lars M. Ittner; Götz, Jürgen; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    In neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia, the protein tau is hyperphosphorylated and eventually aggregates to develop neurofibrillary tangles. Here, the consequences of tau hyperphosphorylation on both neuronal and astrocytic metabolism and amino-acid neurotransmitter homeostasis were assessed in transgenic mice expressing the pathogenic mutation P301L in the human tau gene (pR5 mice) compared with nontransgenic littermate controls. Mice were inj...

  18. Transgenic rabbit that expresses a functional human lipoprotein (a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouy, Didier (Thiais, FR); Duverger, Nicolas (Paris, FR); Emmanuel, Florence (Aubervilliers, FR); Denefle, Patrice (Saint Maur, FR); Houdebine, Louis-Marie (Buc, FR); Viglietta, Celine (Versailles, FR); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA); Hughes, Steven D. (Oakland, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A transgenic rabbit which has in its genomic DNA sequences that encode apolipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein B polypeptides which are capable of combining to produce lipoprotein (a), a process for creating such a rabbit, and the use of the rabbit to identify compounds which are effective in the treatment of human diseases which are associated with, induced and/or exacerbated by Lp(a) expression.

  19. Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Wendt, Toni; Holm, Preben Bach

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns of the general public about transgenic crops relates to the mixing of genetic materials between species that cannot hybridize by natural means. To meet this concern, the two transformation concepts cisgenesis and intragenesis were developed as alternatives to transgenesis. Both concepts imply that plants must only be transformed with genetic material derived from the species itself or from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign seq...

  20. Evaluating impact of possible transgenic poplar cultivation on protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Buonamici Anna; Paffetti Donatella; Travaglini Davide; Biricolti Stefano; Bottalico Francesca; Chelazzi Lorenzo; Cimò Filippo; Colombini Isabella; Fiorentini Silvia; Tomaselli Valeria; Vettori Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Plant biodiversity studies have been performed in the Migliarino-San Rossore-Massaciuccoli Regional Park in Tuscany (Italy) within the framework of the European project LIFE08 NAT/IT/342.This project aims at developing a quick monitoring index (QMI) to rapidly assess the potential risk generated by transgenic plants in characterized ecosystems or biotopes. For this reason test areas have been selected inside the protected area to evaluate plant (weeds and trees), animal, and soil microoganism...

  1. Nonapoptotic neurodegeneration in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Turmaine, Mark; Raza, Aysha; Mahal, Amarbirpal; Mangiarini, Laura; Bates, Gillian P.; Davies, Stephen W.

    2000-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by personality changes, motor impairment, and subcortical dementia. HD is one of a number of diseases caused by expression of an expanded polyglutamine repeat. We have developed several lines of mice that are transgenic for exon 1 of the HD gene containing an expanded CAG sequence. These mice exhibit a defined neurological phenotype along with neuronal changes that are pathognomonic for the disease. We hav...

  2. The role of transgenic mouse models in carcinogen identification.

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, John B.; French, John E; Davis, Barbara J.; Haseman, Joseph K

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we examine existing data on the use of transgenic mouse models for identification of human carcinogens. We focus on the three most extensively studied of these mice, Trp53+/-, Tg/AC, and RasH2, and compare their performance with the traditional 2-year rodent bioassay. Data on 99 chemicals were evaluated. Using the International Agency for Research on Cancer/Report on Carcinogens determinations for the carcinogenicity of these chemicals to humans as the standard for comparison...

  3. Application of Echocardiography on Transgenic Mice with Cardiomyopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, G; Li, Y.; Tian, J; Zhang, L.; P. Jean-Charles; Gobara, N.; Nan, C.; J.-P. Jin; Huang, X. P.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies are common cardiac disorders that primarily affect cardiac muscle resulting in cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Transgenic mouse disease models have been developed to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying heart failure and sudden cardiac death observed in cardiomyopathy cases and to explore the therapeutic outcomes in experimental animals in vivo. Echocardiography is an essential diagnostic tool for accurate and noninvasive assessment of cardiac structure and f...

  4. The expression of modified 7SL RNA in transgenic potato.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Lukáš; Matoušek, Jaroslav

    Nitra : IPGB SAS, 2003. s. 80. [Int. Symp. Ser. Recent Advances in Plant Biotechnology: Plant Biotechnology - Progress and Developments/5./. 07.09.2003-13.09.2003, Stará Lesná] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA521/99/1591; GA ?R GA521/03/0072; GA AV ?R IBS5051006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : transgenic plants * potato es Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Early flowering and genetic containment studies in transgenic poplar

    OpenAIRE

    Fladung M; Polak O; Lehnhardt D; Hoenicka H

    2012-01-01

    Despite of the immense potential of gene technologies for tree breeding, release of genetic modified trees is still very rare. Biosafety concerns have hitherto limited application of gene technologies. The potential risks of transgenic trees, in particular transfer of recombinant DNA into the gene pool of a given species via vertical gene transfer, have been motive of concern. Biosafety research may allow avoiding potential risks of this technology. However, the evaluation of strategies for p...

  6. Transgenic Vegetable Breeding for Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    João Silva Dias; Rodomiro Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Vegetables are essential for well-balanced diets. About 3 billion people in the world are malnourished due to imbalanced diets. Vegetables can contribute to the prevention of malnutrition disorders. Genetic engineering enables vegetable breeders to incorporate desired transgenes into elite cultivars, thereby improving their value considerably. It further offers unique opportunities for improving nutritional quality and bringing other health benefits. Many vegetable crops have been genetically...

  7. Giardia lamblia infections in B-cell-deficient transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Stager, S; Muller, N.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we infected B-cell (and antibody-)-deficient transgenic mice with the Giardia lamblia clone GS/M-83-H7. These animals were inhibited in intestinal anti-Giardia immunoglobulin A (IgA) production and could not resolve the parasite infection, and antigenic diversification within the respective parasite populations occurred in an unusually slow manner. These findings indicate an important immunological function of local IgA antibodies which promotes antigenic variation of th...

  8. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.

    2004-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise is no longer widely used for malting, but is amenable to transformation and is therefore a valuable experimental cultivar. Its characteristics include high salt tolerance, however it is also susceptible to several fungal pathogens. Proteome analysis was used to describe the water-soluble protein fraction of Golden Promise seeds in comparison with the modern malting cultivar Barke. Using 2D-gel electrophoresis to visualise several hundred proteins in the pH ranges 4-7 and 6-11, 16 protein spots were found to differ between the two cultivars. Eleven of these were identified by mass spectrometric peptide mass mapping, including an abundant chitinase implicated in defence against fungal pathogens and a small heat-shock protein. To enable a comparison with transgenic seed protein patterns, differences in spot patterns between field and greenhouse-grown seeds were analysed. Four spots were observed to be increased in intensity in the proteome of greenhouse-grown seeds, three of which may be related to nitrogen availability during grain filling and total protein content of the seeds, since they also increased in field grown seeds supplied with extra nitrogen. Finally, the fate of transgene products in barley seeds was followed. Spots containing two green fluorescent protein constructs and the herbicide resistance marker phosphinothricin acetyltransferase were observed in 2D-gel patterns of transgenic seeds and identified by mass spectrometry. Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase was observed in three spots differing in pI suggesting that post-translational modification of the transgene product had occurred.

  9. Risks and concerns regarding transgenic food and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Acosta

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic technology in agriculture has recently been in the center of an intense debate between two radically opposite points of view. Some non-government organizations (NGO) consider this technology as dangerous for human health, environment and economics of developing countries. On the contrary, the scientific community has been publicly supportive of this technology, suggesting that education is the key to gaining the public acceptance. Although genetically modified (GM) plants for f...

  10. Electrochemical determination of metallothionein in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    K?ížková, S.; Diopan, V.; Baloun, J.; Šupálková, V.; Shestisvka, V.; Kotrba, P.; Macková, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Havel, L.; Adam, V.; Zehnálek, J.; Kizek, R.

    Praha : VŠCHT Praha, 2007 - (Macková, M.; Macek, T.; Demnerová, K.; Pazlar, V.). s. 15 ISBN 978-80-7080-025-6. [Symposium on Biosorption and Bioremediation /4./. 26.08.2007-30.08.2007, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030; GA ?R(CZ) GA522/07/0692 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : metallothionein * heavy metals * transgenic plant * tobacco Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  11. Towards Transgenic Primates: What can we learn from mouse genetics?

    OpenAIRE

    KUANG, Hui; WANG, Phillip L.; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the great physiological and behavioral similarities with humans, monkeys represent the ideal models not only for the study of complex cognitive behavior but also for the preclinical research and development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases. Various powerful genetic technologies initially developed for making mouse models are being explored for generating transgenic primate models. We review the latest genetic engineering technologies and discuss the potentials and...

  12. Probing Pineal-specific Gene Expression with Transgenic Zebrafish†

    OpenAIRE

    KOJIMA, Daisuke; DOWLING, JOHN E.; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains lightsensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. The zebrafish exorhodopsin gene encodes a pineal-specific photoreceptive protein, whose promoter region harbors a cis-acting element, pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), directing pineal-specific gene expression. For in vivo genetic studies on PIPE-binding proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg...

  13. Critical choices for modeling breast cancer in transgenic mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Isabella; Rizzolio, Flavio; Boffo, Silvia; Giordano, Antonio; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Modeling breast cancer in the mouse has helped to better define the heterogeneity of human breast cancer. In the recent past, it has become evident that some limitations have restricted the potential benefits that can be achieved with this approach. In this review, we highlight some key points that should be taken into account when the mouse is used, with special emphasis on transgenic models. PMID:22170180

  14. EXPRESSION OF CHITINASE GENE IN TRANSGENIC RAPE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ruili; Duan Hongying; Wang Jingxue; Gao Wu Jun; Lu Longdou

    2005-01-01

    The hypocotyl and cotyledon of Brassica napus L. H165 and Brassica juncea DB3 were transformed with chitinase gene and herbicide-resistance gene by co-culture with Agrobacterium tumefacients LBA4404, and rape plants were obtained which could grow on the medium containing herbicide. The PCR result showed that exotic genes were integrated in the genome of the rape. Further study was performed to determine the impact of temperature on the transgenic rate and the differentiation of explants.

  15. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Semenza, G L; Traystman, M D; Gearhart, J D; Antonarakis, S. E.

    1989-01-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5' flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3' flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and ...

  16. DNA-Delivery Methods to Produce Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Darbani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, diverse methods for plant transformation have been described including biological, chemical and physical based methods. Transformation is performed to introduce novel traits, study basic biological processes, or produce recombinant proteins of interest. We review Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as well as non-biological based approaches for the production of transgenic plants. This review presents the methods of gene transfer into plants, applications, advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  17. Early flowering and genetic containment studies in transgenic poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fladung M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the immense potential of gene technologies for tree breeding, release of genetic modified trees is still very rare. Biosafety concerns have hitherto limited application of gene technologies. The potential risks of transgenic trees, in particular transfer of recombinant DNA into the gene pool of a given species via vertical gene transfer, have been motive of concern. Biosafety research may allow avoiding potential risks of this technology. However, the evaluation of strategies for prevention of vertical gene transfer, probably the most important concern toward transgenic trees, has been hindered by the long time they require to reach the reproductive phase. We tested different strategies for promoting early flowering in poplar, aiming the development of a system for biosafety studies on gene containment. Early flowering poplar containing the 35S::LFY or HSP::FT gene constructs allowed first approaches for the faster evaluation of gene containment. However, some drawbacks, e.g., disturbed vegetative growth and flower development, still limit their potential application on biosafety research. A non-transgenic hybrid aspen showing a short vegetative phase was successfully used for the evaluation of the PrMALE1::STS sterility gene construct.

  18. Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Wendt, Toni

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns of the general public about transgenic crops relates to the mixing of genetic materials between species that cannot hybridize by natural means. To meet this concern, the two transformation concepts cisgenesis and intragenesis were developed as alternatives to transgenesis. Both concepts imply that plants must only be transformed with genetic material derived from the species itself or from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. Intragenesis differs from cisgenesis by allowing use of new gene combinations created by in vitro rearrangements of functional genetic elements. Several surveys show higher public acceptance of intragenic/cisgenic crops compared to transgenic crops. Thus, although the intragenic and cisgenic concepts were introduced internationally only 9 and 7 years ago, several different traits in a variety of crops have currently been modified according to these concepts. Five of these crops are now in field trials and two have pending applications for deregulation. Currently, intragenic/cisgenic plants are regulated as transgenic plants worldwide. However, as the gene pool exploited by intragenesis and cisgenesis are identical to the gene pool available for conventional breeding, less comprehensive regulatory measures are expected. The regulation of intragenic/cisgenic crops is presently under evaluation in the EU and in the US regulators are considering if a subgroup of these crops should be exempted from regulation. It is accordingly possible that the intragenic/cisgenic route will be of major significance for future plant breeding.

  19. Using inositol as a biocompatible ligand for efficient transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Bellis, Susan L; Fan, Yiwen; Wu, Yunkun

    2015-01-01

    Transgene transfection techniques using cationic polymers such as polyethylenimines (PEIs) and PEI derivatives as gene vectors have shown efficacy, although they also have shortcomings. PEIs have decent DNA-binding capability and good cell internalization performance, but they cannot deliver gene payloads very efficiently to cell nuclei. In this study, three hyperbranched polyglycerol-polyethylenimine (PG6-PEI) polymers conjugated with myo-inositol (INO) molecules were developed. The three resulting PG6-PEI-INO polymers have an increased number of INO ligands per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 1 had only 14 carboxymethyl INO (CMINO) units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 2 had approximately 130 CMINO units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 3 had as high as 415 CMINO units approximately. Mixing PG6-PEI-INO polymers with DNA produced compact nanocomposites. We then performed localization studies using fluorescent microscopy. As the number of conjugated inositol ligands increased in PG6-PEI-INO polymers, there was a corresponding increase in accumulation of the polymers within 293T cell nuclei. Transfection performed with spherical 293T cells yielded 82% of EGFP-positive cells when using PG6-PEI-INO 3 as the vehicle. Studies further revealed that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) can inhibit the transgene efficiency of PG6-PEI-INO polymers, as compared with PEI and PG6-PEI that were not conjugated with inositol. Our work unveiled the possibility of using inositol as an effective ligand for transgene expression. PMID:25926732

  20. Pathogen resistance of transgenic tobacco plants producing caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Soo; Sano, Hiroshi

    2008-02-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a typical purine alkaloid, and produced by a variety of plants such as coffee and tea. Its physiological function, however, is not completely understood, but chemical defense against pathogens and herbivores, and allelopathic effects against competing plant species have been proposed. Previously, we constructed transgenic tobacco plants, which produced caffeine up to 5 microg per gram fresh weight of leaves, and showed them to repel caterpillars of tobacco cutworms (Spodoptera litura). In the present study, we found that these transgenic plants constitutively expressed defense-related genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR)-1a and proteinase inhibitor II under non-stressed conditions. We also found that they were highly resistant against pathogens, tobacco mosaic virus and Pseudomonas syringae. Expression of PR-1a and PR-2 was higher in transgenic plants than in wild-type plants during infection. Exogenously applied caffeine to wild-type tobacco leaves exhibited the similar resistant activity. These results suggested that caffeine stimulated endogenous defense system of host plants through directly or indirectly activating gene expression. This assumption is essentially consistent with the idea of chemical defense, in which caffeine may act as one of signaling molecules to activate defense response. It is thus conceivable that the effect of caffeine is bifunctional; direct interference with pest metabolic pathways, and activation of host defense systems. PMID:18036626

  1. Wheat puroindolines enhance fungal disease resistance in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, K; Balconi, C; Sherwood, J E; Giroux, M J

    2001-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides play a role in the immune systems of animals and plants by limiting pathogen infection and growth. The puroindolines, endosperm-specific proteins involved in wheat seed hardness, are small proteins reported to have in vitro antimicrobial properties. Rice, the most widely used cereal crop worldwide, normally does not contain puroindolines. Transgenic rice plants that constitutively express the puroindoline genes pinA and/or pinB throughout the plants were produced. PIN extracts of leaves from the transgenic plants reduced in vitro growth of Magnaporthe grisea and Rhizoctonia solani, two major fungal pathogens of rice, by 35 to 50%. Transgenic rice expressing pinA and/or pinB showed significantly increased tolerance to M. grisea (rice blast), with a 29 to 54% reduction in symptoms, and R. solani (sheath blight), with an 11 to 22% reduction in symptoms. Puroindolines are effective in vivo in antifungal proteins and could be valuable new tools in the control of a wide range of fungal pathogens of crop plants. PMID:11605965

  2. Production of transgenic rabbit embryos through intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuyan; Hou, Jian; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Yongfu; An, Xiao-Rong

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test if intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-mediated gene transfer was an effective method in the production of transgenic rabbit embryos. Rabbit sperm diluted in different media with various pH were treated by freezing without cryoprotectant, and their ability for DNA uptake was determined. In these experiments using production of transgenic rabbit embryos by ICSI, exogenous genes at three concentrations and of two conformation types were used. The rate of DNA association to the sperm seen by rhodamine-tagged DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was 90.0%, 92.7%, 91.0%, 91.7%, and 92.3%, respectively in TCM199, DM, DPBS, CZB, and HCZB media. The DNA attachment to sperm was not affected by media pH within the range of 5.4-9.4 (p > 0.05). Expression of GFP first occurred at the 2-cell stage and continued to blastocyst formation. DNA concentration (between 5, 10, and 20 ng/?l) or conformation (linear and circular) had no effect on the production rate of transgenic embryos. These results indicated that genetically modified rabbit blastocysts can be efficiently produced by ICSI technique. PMID:20663236

  3. Molecular Characterization of Transgenic Events Using Next Generation Sequencing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadov, Jafar; Ye, Liang; Soe, Khaing; Richey, Kimberly; Cruse, James; Zhuang, Meibao; Gao, Zhifang; Evans, Clive; Rounsley, Steve; Kumpatla, Siva P.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for the commercial use of genetically modified (GM) crops has been increasing in light of the projected growth of world population to nine billion by 2050. A prerequisite of paramount importance for regulatory submissions is the rigorous safety assessment of GM crops. One of the components of safety assessment is molecular characterization at DNA level which helps to determine the copy number, integrity and stability of a transgene; characterize the integration site within a host genome; and confirm the absence of vector DNA. Historically, molecular characterization has been carried out using Southern blot analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing. While this is a robust approach to characterize the transgenic crops, it is both time- and resource-consuming. The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has provided highly sensitive and cost- and labor-effective alternative for molecular characterization compared to traditional Southern blot analysis. Herein, we have demonstrated the successful application of both whole genome sequencing and target capture sequencing approaches for the characterization of single and stacked transgenic events and compared the results and inferences with traditional method with respect to key criteria required for regulatory submissions. PMID:26908260

  4. Transgenic Plants Lower the Costs of Cellulosic Biofuels (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    A new transgenic maize was observed to be less recalcitrant than wild-type biomass, as manifested through lower severity requirements to achieve comparable levels of conversion. Expression of a single gene derived from bacteria in plants has resulted in transgenic plants that are easier and cheaper to convert into biofuels. Part of the high production cost of cellulosic biofuels is the relatively poor accessibility of substrates to enzymes due to the strong associations between plant cell wall components. This biomass recalcitrance makes costly thermochemical pretreatment necessary. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have created transgenic maize expressing an active glycosyl hydrolase enzyme, E1 endoglucanase, originally isolated from a thermophilic bacterium, Acidothermus cellulolyticus. This engineered feedstock was observed to be less recalcitrant than wild-type biomass when subjected to reduced severity pretreatments and post-pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis. This reduction in recalcitrance was manifested through lower severity requirements to achieve comparable levels of conversion of wild-type biomass. The improvements observed are significant enough to positively affect the economics of the conversion process through decreased capital construction costs and decreased degradation products and inhibitor formation.

  5. Improved antioxidant activity in transgenic Perilla frutescens plants via overexpression of the ?-tocopherol methyltransferase (?-tmt) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Bimal Kumar; Seong, Eun Soo; Lee, Chan Ok; Lee, Jae Geun; Yu, Chang Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyun; Chung, Ill Min

    2015-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to generate transgenic Perilla frutescens with enhanced antioxidant properties by overexpressing the ?-tocopherol methyltransferase (?-tmt) gene. In this study, the antioxidant activity of methanolic crude extracts of transgenic and non-transgenic control plants was investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using ?-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyl toluene as standard antioxidants. In general, the ethyl acetate fraction of transgenic P. frutescens showed stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity than the ethyl acetate fraction from non-transgenic control plants (IC50 2.00 ± 0.10 and 5.53 ± 0.40 ?g ? ml(-1), respectively). High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of phenolic acids in leaf extracts confirmed increased levels of 16 individual phenolic compounds in two transgenic lines (pf47-5 and pf47-8) compared with control plants. Changes in the phenolic compound profile and ?-tocopherol content were correlated with the antioxidant properties of transgenic plants, indicating that the introduction of transgene ?-tmt influenced the metabolism of phenolic compounds and subsequently produced biochemical changes in the transformants. There were no significant differences in photosynthetic rate in the transgenic plants as compared to the non-transgenic control plants, suggesting that the alteration of phenolic compounds and tocopherol composition had little impact on photosynthesis. PMID:25604637

  6. Absence of detectable transgenes in local landraces of maize in Oaxaca, Mexico (2003-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-García, S; Ezcurra, E; Schoel, B; Acevedo, F; Soberón, J; Snow, A A

    2005-08-30

    In 2000, transgenes were detected in local maize varieties (landraces) in the mountains of Oaxaca, Mexico [Quist, D. & Chapela, I. H. (2001) Nature 414, 541-543]. This region is part of the Mesoamerican center of origin for maize (Zea mays L.), and the genetic diversity that is maintained in open-pollinated landraces is recognized as an important genetic resource of great cultural value. The presence of transgenes in landraces was significant because transgenic maize has never been approved for cultivation in Mexico. Here we provide a systematic survey of the frequency of transgenes in currently grown landraces. We sampled maize seeds from 870 plants in 125 fields and 18 localities in the state of Oaxaca during 2003 and 2004. We then screened 153,746 sampled seeds for the presence of two transgene elements from the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus and the nopaline synthase gene (nopaline synthase terminator) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. One or both of these transgene elements are present in all transgenic commercial varieties of maize. No transgenic sequences were detected with highly sensitive PCR-based markers, appropriate positive and negative controls, and duplicate samples for DNA extraction. We conclude that transgenic maize seeds were absent or extremely rare in the sampled fields. This study provides a much-needed preliminary baseline for understanding the biological, socioeconomic, and ethical implications of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenes from the United States and elsewhere to local landraces of maize in Mexico. PMID:16093316

  7. Effects of Transgenic Rice on Life History Traits of Daphnia magna in Life Table Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam, Sungjin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impacts of transgenic rice on freshwater organisms, we conducted two life tableexperiments using Daphnia magna for fifteen and twenty days, respectively. We examined life history traits suchas population growth rates (r, reproductive rates (R0, generation times, and survivorship. In the first experiment,we used non-drought-stressed transgenic and non-transgenic rice harvested in 2005. In the second study, weused non-transgenic and transgenic rice harvested in 2006 following drought stress. Each experiment involvedthree treatments in which D. magna neonates were fed with Selenastrum capricornutum (control treatment andS. capricornutum with 5% aqueous extracts of non-transgenic rice (N-T and transgenic rice (T. In the firstexperiment, D. magna showed reduced population growth rates and lowered fecundity in the N-T and Ttreatments. In the second experiment, D. magna receiving both transgenic and non-transgenic rice extractsshowed very high mortality, low population growth rates and reproduction rates. We could not detect anysignificant negative effects of extracts from transgenic rice on D. magna life history traits at 95%.

  8. Instability of transgenes in plants and its implications for plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major commitment is being made to the exploitation of transgenes for crop improvement. Numerous studies involving many transgenes and plant species indicate that transgenes are often silent, or display variable expression during development or between sexual generations. Transgene expression is affected by the number of transgenes, the genetic background and the environment. Instability in expression of chalcone synthase genes in petunia in the presence of a transgene(s) encoding chalcone synthase under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter is described. Chalcone synthase is a key enzyme in floral anthocyanin production. Such transgenic plants vary in floral phenotype. Some have purple flowers, others white flowers and many have flowers with non-random white and purple sectors. Flower type is characteristic of a particular transformant. Somatic variants are observed frequently. Loss of purple pigment production is associated with post-transcriptional loss of mRNA from trans and endogenous chalcone synthase genes (co-suppression). Studies on the structure of the chalcone synthase RNAs produced in transgenic plants, amplified using polymerase chain reaction, have revealed several kinds of aberration. It is therefore postulated that aberrant RNAs provoke chalcone synthase RNA turnover. A speculative scheme to explain how RNA degradation occurs, involving antisense RNA, is presented. The implications of transgene behaviour and instability in plant breeding are discussed. (author). 27 refs, 3 figs

  9. Comparative nutritional compositions and proteomics analysis of transgenic Xa21 rice seeds compared to conventional rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Dipak; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-07-15

    Transgenic rice expressing the Xa21 gene have enhanced resistant to most devastating bacterial blight diseases caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). However, identification of unintended modifications, owing to the genetic modification, is an important aspect of transgenic crop safety assessment. In this study, the nutritional compositions of seeds from transgenic rice plants expressing the Xa21 gene were compared against non-transgenic rice seeds. In addition, to detect any changes in protein translation levels as a result of Xa21 gene expression, rice seed proteome analyses were also performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. No significant differences were found in the nutritional compositions (proximate components, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients) of the transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds. Although gel electrophoresis identified 11 proteins that were differentially expressed between the transgenic and non-transgenic seed, only one of these (with a 20-fold up-regulation in the transgenic seed) shows nutrient reservoir activity. No new toxins or allergens were detected in the transgenic seeds. PMID:26948618

  10. Recent advances in development of marker-free transgenic plants: Regulation and biosafety concern

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Narendra Tuteja; Shiv Verma; Ranjan Kumar Sahoo; Sebastian Raveendar; In Bheema Lingeshwara Reddy

    2012-03-01

    During the efficient genetic transformation of plants with the gene of interest, some selectable marker genes are also used in order to identify the transgenic plant cells or tissues. Usually, antibiotic- or herbicide-selective agents and their corresponding resistance genes are used to introduce economically valuable genes into crop plants. From the biosafety authority and consumer viewpoints, the presence of selectable marker genes in released transgenic crops may be transferred to weeds or pathogenic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract or soil, making them resistant to treatment with herbicides or antibiotics, respectively. Sexual crossing also raises the problem of transgene expression because redundancy of transgenes in the genome may trigger homology-dependent gene silencing. The future potential of transgenic technologies for crop improvement depends greatly on our abilities to engineer stable expression of multiple transgenic traits in a predictable fashion and to prevent the transfer of undesirable transgenic material to non-transgenic crops and related species. Therefore, it is now essential to develop an efficient marker-free transgenic system. These considerations underline the development of various approaches designed to facilitate timely elimination of transgenes when their function is no longer needed. Due to the limiting number of available selectable marker genes, in future the stacking of transgenes will be increasingly desirable. The production of marker-free transgenic plants is now a critical requisite for their commercial deployment and also for engineering multiple and complex trait. Here we describe the current technologies to eliminate the selectablemarker genes (SMG) in order to develop marker-free transgenic plants and also discuss the regulation and biosafety concern of genetically modified (GM) crops.

  11. Characterization of the ICSI-mediated gene transfer method in the production of transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hitoshi; Kurome, Mayuko; Matsunari, Hitomi; Watanabe, Masahito; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the behavior of transgenes introduced into oocytes or embryos is essential for evaluating the methodologies for transgenic animal production. We investigated the expression pattern of a transgene transferred to porcine eggs by intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated gene transfer (ICSI-MGT) or pronuclear microinjection (PN injection). The introduction of the EGFP gene by ICSI-MGT yielded significantly more embryos with non-mosaic transgene expression (P?transgenes, ranging from 3.0 to 7.5?kb in size, we confirmed that approximately one in four fetuses obtained by ICSI-MGT was transgenic, suggesting that ICSI-MGT is a practical method for transgenic pig production. Southern blot analysis of 12 transgenic fetuses produced by ICSI-MGT revealed that the number of integrated transgene copies varied from 1 to 300, with no correlation between transgene size and the number of integrated copies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed that the transgenes were randomly integrated into a single site on the host chromosomes. Together, these data indicate that multiple-copy, single-site integration of a transgene is the primary outcome of ICSI-MGT in the pig and that ICSI-MGT is less likely than PN injection to cause transgene integration in a mosaic manner. PMID:22213433

  12. Ex Vivo Gene Therapy Using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Deliver Growth Factors in the Skeletal Muscle of a Familial ALS Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Svendsen, Clive N

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic protein and molecule delivery to target sites by transplanted human stem cells holds great promise for ex vivo gene therapy. Our group has demonstrated the therapeutic benefits of ex vivo gene therapy targeting the skeletal muscles in a transgenic rat model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We used human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and genetically modified them to release neuroprotective growth factors such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Intramuscular growth factor delivery via hMSCs can enhance neuromuscular innervation and motor neuron survival in a rat model of ALS (SOD1(G93A) transgenic rats). Here, we describe the protocol of ex vivo delivery of growth factors via lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of hMSCs and hMSC transplantation into the skeletal muscle of a familial ALS rat model. PMID:26611598

  13. Extraction and separation of water soluble proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis-transgenic and non-transgenic maize species by CZE.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sázelová, Petra; Kaši?ka, Václav; Ibanez, E.; Cifuentes, A.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 32, ?. 21 (2009), s. 3801-3808. ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/09/0675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis -transgenic maize * CZE-UV profiling * Maize proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2009

  14. Transgenic plants for enhanced biodegradation and phytoremediation of organic xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, P C; Jamil, Sarah; Singh, Nandita

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation--the use of plants to clean up polluted soil and water resources--has received much attention in the last few years. Although plants have the inherent ability to detoxify xenobiotics, they generally lack the catabolic pathway for the complete degradation of these compounds compared to microorganisms. There are also concerns over the potential for the introduction of contaminants into the food chain. The question of how to dispose of plants that accumulate xenobiotics is also a serious concern. Hence the feasibility of phytoremediation as an approach to remediate environmental contamination is still somewhat in question. For these reasons, researchers have endeavored to engineer plants with genes that can bestow superior degradation abilities. A direct method for enhancing the efficacy of phytoremediation is to overexpress in plants the genes involved in metabolism, uptake, or transport of specific pollutants. Furthermore, the expression of suitable genes in root system enhances the rhizodegradation of highly recalcitrant compounds like PAHs, PCBs etc. Hence, the idea to amplify plant biodegradation of xenobiotics by genetic manipulation was developed, following a strategy similar to that used to develop transgenic crops. Genes from human, microbes, plants, and animals are being used successfully for this venture. The introduction of these genes can be readily achieved for many plant species using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation or direct DNA methods of gene transfer. One of the promising developments in transgenic technology is the insertion of multiple genes (for phase 1 metabolism (cytochrome P450s) and phase 2 metabolism (GSH, GT etc.) for the complete degradation of the xenobiotics within the plant system. In addition to the use of transgenic plants overexpressed with P450 and GST genes, various transgenic plants expressing bacterial genes can be used for the enhanced degradation and remediation of herbicides, explosives, PCBs etc. Another approach to enhancing phytoremediation ability is the construction of plants that secrete chemical degrading enzymes into the rhizosphere. Recent studies revealed that accelerated ethylene production in response to stress induced by contaminants is known to inhibit root growth and is considered as major limitation in improving phytoremediation efficiency. However, this can be overcome by the selective expression of bacterial ACC deaminase (which regulates ethylene levels in plants) in plants together with multiple genes for the different phases of xenobiotic degradation. This review examines the recent developments in use of transgenic-plants for the enhanced metabolism, degradation and phytoremediation of organic xenobiotics and its future directions. PMID:19371778

  15. The Comparative Effects of Genetically Modified Maize and Conventional Maize on Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kýlýçgün

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available       Aim: Genetically modified crops have a potential to solve many of the world’s  nutrition problems. On the other hand, the impact of these novel crops on environmental, animal and human health should be tested and their risk assessment is required. In this study, the aim of this study was to investigate the positive or possible negative effects of genetically modified maize on offspring rats which were between the start of dry food feeding and the time interval until they reached puberty. Material and Method: Thirty Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were fed with transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize and conventional maize during 40 days. After the experimental period, the length, height and weight of organs and serum chemistry and hematology values were measured. Results: The length, height and weight of liver, spleen, lung and kidneys in Bacillus thuringiensis maize group of rats were different from those in control and conventional groups. When mean values of serum chemistry and hematology parameters, which were glucose, urea, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chlorine were examined, some obvious differences were found between the rats fed with transgenic maize and its conventional counterpart and control groups. Discussion: The results of this study showed that Bacillus  thuringiensis maize may not only have an effect on the length, height and weight of organs of the maturing term of rats but also lead to alterations in serum chemistry and hematology values.

  16. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Poulsen, Morten; Schrøder, Malene; Kvist, Peter H.; Taylor, Mark; Gatehouse, Angharad; Shu, Qinqyao; Knudsen, L. B.

    immunomodulating effect when feeding rats for 90 days with approximately 70 mg PHA-E/kg bodyweight per day. As both PHA-E lectin and Cry1Ab protein were capable of inducing an antigen-specific antibody response it is important to make careful considerations when designing future animal studies to avoid intake of......As part of the SAFOTEST project the immunmodulating effect of Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and PHA-E lectin from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin) was examined in 28- and 90-day feeding studies in Wistar rats. PHA-E lectin was chosen as positive control. Rats...... were fed control rice, transgenic rice expressing Cry I Ab protein or PHA-E lectin, or transgenic rice spiked with the purified recombinant protein. Total immunoglobulin levels, mitogen-induced cell proliferation, T-dependent antibody response to sheep red blood cells and the antigen-specific antibody...

  17. Overexpression of the A-FABP gene facilitates intermuscular fat deposition in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z W; Fan, H L; Liu, X F; Ding, X B; Wang, T; Sui, G N; Li, G P; Guo, H

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), the most abundant FABP in adipocytes, controls fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism in fat cells. We constructed a transgenic mice model that overexpressed the cattle A-FABP gene to investigate the relationship between A-FABP expression and intermuscular fat deposition. There was no significant difference in body weight and serum biochemical indexes between transgenic and wild-type mice. Further, there were no significant differences in intermuscular triglyceride content and A-FABP expression levels over three generations of transgenic mice. However, abdominal adipose rate, A-FABP protein content, and intermuscular triglyceride levels of transgenic mice were significantly higher than those of wild-type mice. In addition, triglycerides were remarkably higher in the skeletal muscle but lower in the myocardium of transgenic mice. Thus, overexpression of cattle A-FABP gene promoted fat deposition in the skeletal muscle of transgenic mice. PMID:25867423

  18. Expression of Trichoderma reesei exo-cellobiohydrolase I transgenic tobacco leaves and calli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hooker, Brian S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Quesenberry, Ryan D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gao, Jianwei (PNNL)

    1998-12-01

    Expression of Trichoderma reesei exo-cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) gene in transgenic tobacco was under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. In transgenic leaf tissues, CBHI activity up to 66.1 mmol h{sup -1} g{sup -1} total protein was observed. In transgenic calli, the highest CBHI activity was 83.6 umol h{sup -1} g{sup -1} total protein. Protein immunoblot analysis confirms the presence of CBHI enzyme in both transgenic calli and leaf tissues. CBHI expression levels accounted for about 0.11% and 0.082% of total protein in transgenic leaf tissues and calli, respectively. Furthermore, expression of CBHI gene did not affect normal growth and development of transgenic plants.

  19. Transgenic plants expressing GLK1 and CCA1 having increased nitrogen assimilation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruzzi, Gloria (New York, NY); Gutierrez, Rodrigo A. (Santiago, CL); Nero, Damion C. (Woodside, NY)

    2012-04-10

    Provided herein are compositions and methods for producing transgenic plants. In specific embodiments, transgenic plants comprise a construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1, operably linked to a plant-specific promote, wherein the CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 is ectopically overexpressed in the transgenic plants, and wherein the promoter is optionally a constitutive or inducible promoter. In other embodiments, transgenic plants in which express a lower level of CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 are provided. Also provided herein are commercial products (e.g., pulp, paper, paper products, or lumber) derived from the transgenic plants (e.g., transgenic trees) produced using the methods provided herein.

  20. Transgene Silencing in Wheat Transformed with the WSMV-CP Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Li

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum was co-transformed with the bar gene and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Coat Protein gene (WSMV-CP by the biolistic method. Transgenic wheat carrying the WSMV-CP showed non-uniform segregation patterns due to transgene loss or silencing. Loss of transgene expression was observed at the T1, T2 or T3 generations. Among these silenced lines, transgenic line 566B was chosen for detailed studies. Results indicated that all 566B T1 plants containing the WSMV-CP expressed WSMV coat protein and all showed strong resistance to WSMV. While the WSMV-CP was carried through to the T2 and T3 generations, all transgenic plants in these generations showed transgene silencing. Expression of WSMV-CP could be restored, at least temporarily, in most of these silenced plants by treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC.

  1. Pre-immunization with an Intramuscular Injection of AAV9-Human Erythropoietin Vectors Reduces the Vector-Mediated Transduction following Re-Administration in Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chun; Yang, Wei-hua; Chen, Sha-Sha; Ma, Bao-Feng; Li, Bin; Lu, Tao; Qu, Ting-Yu; Klein, Ronald L.; Zhao, Li-Ru; DUAN, WEI-MING

    2013-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-mediated human erythropoietin (hEPO) gene delivery into the brain protects dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we examined whether pre-exposure to AAV9-hEPO vectors with an intramuscular or intrastriatal injection would reduce AAV9-mediated hEPO transduction in rat brain. We first characterized transgene expression and immune responses against ...

  2. Identifying the integrated neural networks involved in capsaicin-induced pain using fMRI in awake TRPV1 knockout and wild-type rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Jason R.; Kenkel, William; Caccaviello, John C.; Gamber, Kevin; Simmons, Phil; Nedelman, Mark; Kulkarni, Praveen; Ferris, Craig F

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we used functional MRI in awake rats to investigate the pain response that accompanies intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw. To this end, we used BOLD imaging together with a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas and computational analysis to identify the integrated neural circuits involved in capsaicin-induced pain. The specificity of the pain response to capsaicin was tested in a transgenic model that contains a biallelic deletion of the gene encoding for th...

  3. Mutagenicity testing with transgenic mice. Part I: Comparison with the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test

    OpenAIRE

    Wahnschaffe U; Bitsch A; Kielhorn J; Mangelsdorf I

    2005-01-01

    Abstract As part of a larger literature study on transgenic animals in mutagenicity testing, test results from the transgenic mutagenicity assays (lacI model; commercially available as the Big Blue® mouse, and the lacZ model; commercially available as the Muta™Mouse), were compared with the results on the same substances in the more traditional mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. 39 substances were found which had been tested in the micronucleus assay and in the above transgenic mouse ...

  4. Cyclic hair-loss and regrowth in transgenic mice overexpressing an intermediate filament gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, B C; Rogers, G E

    1990-01-01

    We have produced transgenic mice containing up to 250 copies of a sheep wool intermediate filament keratin gene to study the effect of its expression on hair structure and development. Several transgenic lines expressed the gene and in the one containing 250 transgenes, a pattern of hair-loss and regrowth was stably established. Successive waves of hair growth follow periods of denuding like the natural progression of hairs in the mouse hair cycle. By in situ hybridization we have shown that ...

  5. Standing genetic variation and compensatory evolution in transgenic organisms: a growth-enhanced salmon simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Robert N M; Devlin, Robert H

    2011-06-01

    Genetically modified strains usually are generated within defined genetic backgrounds to minimize variation for the engineered characteristic in order to facilitate basic research investigations or for commercial application. However, interactions between transgenes and genetic background have been documented in both model and commercial agricultural species, indicating that allelic variation at transgene-modifying loci are not uncommon in genomes. Engineered organisms that have the potential to allow entry of transgenes into natural populations may cause changes to ecosystems via the interaction of their specific phenotypes with ecosystem components and services. A transgene introgressing through natural populations is likely to encounter a range of natural genetic variation (among individuals or sub-populations) that could result in changes in phenotype, concomitant with effects on fitness and ecosystem consequences that differ from that seen in the progenitor transgenic strain. In the present study, using a growth hormone transgenic salmon example, we have modeled selection of modifier loci (single and multiple) in the presence of a transgene and have found that accounting for genetic background can significantly affect the persistence of transgenes in populations, potentially reducing or reversing a "Trojan gene" effect. Influences from altered life history characteristics (e.g., developmental timing, age of maturation) and compensatory demographic/ecosystem controls (e.g., density dependence) also were found to have a strong influence on transgene effects. Further, with the presence of a transgene in a population, genetic backgrounds were found to shift in non-transgenic individuals as well, an effect expected to direct phenotypes away from naturally selected optima. The present model has revealed the importance of understanding effects of selection for background genetics on the evolution of phenotypes in populations harbouring transgenes. PMID:20878546

  6. Severe B cell hyperplasia and autoimmune disease in TALL-1 transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, Sanjay D.; Sarosi, Ildiko; Xia, Xing-Zhong; McCabe, Susan; Miner, Kent; Solovyev, Irina; Hawkins, Nessa; Kelley, Michael; Chang, David; Van, Gwyneth; Ross, Larry; Delaney, John; Wang, Ling; Lacey, David; Boyle, William J.

    2000-01-01

    TALL-1/Blys/BAFF is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand superfamily that is functionally involved in B cell proliferation. Here, we describe B cell hyperplasia and autoimmune lupus-like changes in transgenic mice expressing TALL-1 under the control of a ?-actin promoter. The TALL-1 transgenic mice showed severe enlargement of spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches because of an increased number of B220+ cells. The transgenic mice also had hypergammaglobulinemia contributed by...

  7. Hypotension and reduced nitric oxide-elicited vasorelaxation in transgenic mice overexpressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohashi, Y.; Kawashima, S.; Hirata, K i; Yamashita, T.; Ishida, T1; Inoue, N.; Sakoda, T; Kurihara, H; Yazaki, Y.; Yokoyama, M.

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), constitutively produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure and vascular tone. We generated transgenic mice overexpressing bovine eNOS in the vascular wall using murine preproendothelin-1 promoter. In transgenic lineages with three to eight transgene copies, bovine eNOS-specific mRNA, protein expression in the particulate fractions, and calcium-dependent NOS activity were confirmed by RNase protection assay, im...

  8. Comparative analysis of transgenic rice plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, S.; Zheng, P.; Marmey, Philippe; Zhang, S.; Tian, W.; Chen, S; Beachy, R.N.; Fauquet, Claude (dir.)

    2001-01-01

    We compared rice transgenic plants obtained by #Agrobacterium$-mediated and particle bombardment transformation by carrying out molecular analyses of the T0, T1 and T2 transgenic plants. #Oryza sativa japonica$ rice (c.v. Taipei 309) was transformed with a construct (pWNHG) that carried genes coding for neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), hygromycin phosphotransferase (Hyg(sup)r), and Beta-glucuronidase (GUS). Thirteen and fourteen transgenic lines produced via either method were selected an...

  9. Determination of gene escape and fruit quality characteristics in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus)

    OpenAIRE

    MENDİ, Yeşim YALÇIN; SARI, Nebahat; Akyildiz, Asiye; SOLMAZ, İlknur; ÜNEK, Ceren

    2010-01-01

    Gene escape and fruit quality characteristics of transgenic melons (Cucumis melo L. var inodorus cv. 'Kirkagac 637') resistant to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and control plants were investigated under screenhouse conditions. No significant differences were observed between transgenic and transgenic × control genotypes, with regard to rind thickness, fruit cavity length, fruit cavity width, total soluble solids, pistil scar diameter, and peduncle length. Fruit characters, inc...

  10. Characterization of Expression of Puumala Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Transgenic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Khattak, Shahryar; Darai, Gholamreza; Süle, Sandor; Rösen-Wolff, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing a foreign gene are a suitable system for the production of relevant immunogens in high amounts that can be used for the development of a new generation of vaccines against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study, the expression of the nucleocapsid (N) protein of hantavirus serotype Puumala in tobacco and potato plants was investigated. Transgenic tobacco and potato plants were generated and established. These transgenic plants expressed the N protei...

  11. Construction and analysis of the transgenic carrot and celery plants expressing the recombinant thaumatin II protein

    OpenAIRE

    Luchakivska Yu. S.; Komarnytskii I. K.; Kurchenko I. M.; Yurieva O. M.; Zhytkevich N. V.; Kuchuk M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To obtain the transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II in order to increase plant stress tolerance. Methods. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the carrot and celery seedlings was used for obtaining the transgenic plants. Presence and transcription of the transgene in plant tissues were proved by PCR and RT-PCR analysis. The plants were tested for the biotic stress tolerance by in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity assays and for the sali...

  12. A wheat genomic DNA fragment reduces pollen transmission of maize transgenes by reducing pollen viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M Paul; Peterson, Joan M; Moran, Daniel L; Sangtong, Varaporn; Smith, LaTrice

    2007-10-01

    A genomic DNA fragment from wheat carrying the Glu-1Dx5 gene has been shown to exhibit reduced pollen transmission in transgenic maize. To localize the region of the DNA fragment responsible for this reduced pollen transmission, we produced transgenic maize plants in which the wheat genomic DNA proximal to the 1Dx5 coding sequence was replaced with the maize 27 kDa gamma-zein promoter. Like the wheat promoter-driven Glu-1Dx5 transgene, this zein promoter-driven transgene functioned to produce 1Dx5 in maize endosperm. However, with the zein promoter-driven transgene, pollen transmission of the transgene loci was normal in most self- and cross-pollinations. We concluded that the wheat genomic DNA proximal to the wheat 1Dx5 coding sequence was required for reduced pollen transmission of the transgene in maize. In two of four transformation events of the wheat promoter-driven construct examined, pollen exhibited two morphological classes. In one class, pollen was normal in morphology and displayed average viability, and in the second, pollen was reduced in size and did not germinate on artificial media. DNA from the transgene was detectable in mature pollen from plants with reduced pollen transmission of transgene loci. To explain these observations, we hypothesize that elements within the transgene construct interfere with pollen development. We demonstrated that the wheat genomic DNA fragment can be used to control pollen transmission of an herbicide resistance transgene genetically linked to it. The wheat genomic DNA fragment may contain elements that are useful for controlling pollen transmission of transgene loci in commercial maize grain and seed production. PMID:17216545

  13. Determination of gene escape and fruit quality characteristics in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus)

    OpenAIRE

    MEND?, Ye?im YALÇIN; SARI, Nebahat; AKYILDIZ, Asiye; SOLMAZ, ?lknur; ÜNEK, Ceren

    2010-01-01

    Gene escape and fruit quality characteristics of transgenic melons (Cucumis melo L. var inodorus cv. 'Kirkagac 637') resistant to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and control plants were investigated under screenhouse conditions. No significant differences were observed between transgenic and transgenic × control genotypes, with regard to rind thickness, fruit cavity length, fruit cavity width, total soluble solids, pistil scar diameter, and peduncle length. Fruit characters, inc...

  14. Sustained peripheral expression of transgene adiponectin offsets the development of diet-induced obesity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shklyaev, Stanislav; Aslanidi, George; Tennant, Michael; Prima, Victor; Kohlbrenner, Eric; Kroutov, Vadim; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Crawford, James; Shek, Eugene W.; Scarpace, Philip J.; ZOLOTUKHIN, SERGEI

    2003-01-01

    Adiponectin (Acrp30) is a physiologically active polypeptide hormone secreted by adipose tissue that shows insulin-sensitizing, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. In humans, Acrp30 levels are inversely related to the degree of adiposity. In the current study, we tested the long-term weight-reducing and insulin-enhancing effects of Acrp30 cDNA delivered peripherally by a viral vector. To this end, we have generated a series of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors of seroty...

  15. Effect of Sirolimus on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Transgenic Hypertensive Rat.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohmová, R.; Honsová, E.; Heemann, U.; Mandys, Václav; Lodererová, A.; Matl, I.; Viklický, O.

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 34, - (2002), s. 3051-3052. ISSN 0041-1345 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : sirolimus Subject RIV: FE - Other Internal Medicine Disciplines Impact factor: 0.478, year: 2002

  16. Mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Loli, P.; Georgiadis, P.; Dušinská, M.; Hurbánková, M.; Ková?iková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Kažimírová, A.; Baran?oková, M.; Tatrai, E.; Oesterle, D.; Wolff, T.; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 553, 1-2 (2004), s. 67-78. ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : asbestos * mutations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2004

  17. Preservation and faithful expression of transgene via artificial seeds in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenting; Liang, Zongsuo; Wang, Xinhua; Sibbald, Susan; Hunter, David; Tian, Lining

    2013-01-01

    Proper preservation of transgenes and transgenic materials is important for wider use of transgenic technology in plants. Here, we report stable preservation and faithful expression of a transgene via artificial seed technology in alfalfa. DNA constructs containing the uid reporter gene coding for ?-glucuronidase (GUS) driven by a 35S promoter or a tCUP promoter were introduced into alfalfa via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Somatic embryos were subsequently induced from transgenic alfalfa plants via in vitro technology. These embryos were treated with abscisic acid to induce desiccation tolerance and were subjected to a water loss process. After the desiccation procedure, the water content in dried embryos, or called artificial seeds, was about 12-15% which was equivalent to that in true seeds. Upon water rehydration, the dried somatic embryos showed high degrees of viability and exhibited normal germination. Full plants were subsequently developed and recovered in a greenhouse. The progeny plants developed from artificial seeds showed GUS enzyme activity and the GUS expression level was comparable to that of plants developed from somatic embryos without the desiccation process. Polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the transgene was well retained in the plants and Southern blot analysis showed that the transgene was stably integrated in plant genome. The research showed that the transgene and the new trait can be well preserved in artificial seeds and the progeny developed. The research provides a new method for transgenic germplasm preservation in different plant species. PMID:23690914

  18. The distribution of cotransformed transgenes in particle bombardment-mediated transformed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yonghua; Blechl, Ann; Wang, Daowen

    2015-12-01

    Although particle bombardment is the predominant method of foreign DNA direct transfer, whether transgene is integrated randomly into the genome has not been determined. In this study, we identified the distribution of transgene loci in 45 transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines containing co-transformed high molecular weight glutenin subunit genes and the selectable marker bar using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Transgene loci were shown to distribute unevenly throughout the genome and incorporate into different locations along individual chromosomes. There was only a slight tendency towards the localization of transgenes in distal chromosome regions. High proportions of transgenes in separate plasmids integrated at the same site and only 7 lines had 2 or 3 loci. Such loci may not segregate frequently in subsequent generations so it is difficult to remove selectable markers from transgenic lines after regeneration. We also found that three transgene lines were associated with rearranged chromosomes, suggesting a the close relationship between particle bombardment-mediated transgene integration and chromosomal rearrangements. PMID:26405007

  19. Maternal endometrial edema may increase perinatal mortality of cloned and transgenic piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winter, Kjeld Dahl; Dantzer, Vibeke; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter M; Du, Yutao; Lin, Lin; Liu, Ying; Vajta, Gabor; Sangild, P T; Callesen, Henrik; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen

    2011-01-01

    The perinatal mortality of cloned animals is a well-known problem. In the present retrospective study, we report on mortality of cloned transgenic or non-transgenic piglets produced as part of several investigations. Large White (LW) sows (n = 105) received hand-made cloned LW or minipig blastocy......The perinatal mortality of cloned animals is a well-known problem. In the present retrospective study, we report on mortality of cloned transgenic or non-transgenic piglets produced as part of several investigations. Large White (LW) sows (n = 105) received hand-made cloned LW or minipig...

  20. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ki [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sorrell, Alice M. [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jae-Seok [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bong-Hwan [Genomics and Bioinformatics Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won-Kyong [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hosup, E-mail: shim@dku.edu [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. {yields} hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. {yields} hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  1. Establishment of transgenic mice carrying gene encoding human zinc finger protein 191

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Xia; Yang, Hua; Wang, Shui-Liang; Gong, Xue-Lian; Feng, Hao; Guo, Bao-Yu; Yu, Long; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Fu, Ji-Liang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Human zinc finger protein 191 (ZNF191) was cloned and characterized as a Krüppel-like transcription factor, which might be relevant to many diseases such as liver cancer, neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular diseases. Although progress has been made recently, the biological function of ZNF191 remains largely unidentified. The aim of this study was to establish a ZNF 191 transgenic mouse model, which would promote the functional study of ZNF191. METHODS: Transgene fragments were microinjected into fertilized eggs of mice. The manipulated embryos were transferred into the oviducts of pseudo-pregnant female mice. The offsprings were identified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. ZNF 191 gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. Transgenic founder mice were used to establish transgenic mouse lineages. The first generation (F1) and the second generation (F2) mice were identified by PCR analysis. Ten-week transgenic mice were used for pathological examination. RESULTS: Four mice were identified as carrying copies of ZNF191 gene. The results of RT-PCR showed that ZNF 191 gene was expressed in the liver, testis and brain in one of the transgenic mouse lineages. Genetic analysis of transgenic mice demonstrated that ZNF 191 gene was integrated into the chromosome at a single site and could be transmitted stably. Pathological analysis showed that the expression of ZNF 191 did not cause obvious pathological changes in multiple tissues of transgenic mice. CONCLUSION: ZNF 191 transgenic mouse model would facilitate the investigation of biological functions of ZNF191 in vivo. PMID:14716836

  2. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. ? hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. ? hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  3. Matrix attachment regions (MARs) enhance transformation frequencies and reduce variance of transgene expression in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.; Leah, R.; Knudsen, S.; Cameron-Mills, V.

    2002-01-01

    this crop by biotechnology. Two plant MAR sequences were tested both for their ability to bind to the nuclear matrix of barley leaf nuclei and to regulate the expression of a reporter gene in transgenic barley. Competitive in vitro MAR binding assays with the 520 bp P1-MAR from soybean and the 516 bp...... transgene cassettes enhances their expression and reduces position-effect variations in the transgenic host. The present study is the first to investigate the influence of MAR sequences on transformation frequencies and transgene expression in barley, which is highly relevant to the future improvement of...

  4. Development of potato transgenic plants and molecular and genetic analyses of their integration stability and transgene expression efficiency using vegetative and sexual propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrobacterium mediated transformation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the stability of integration, expression and inheritance of transgenes were investigated. Over 400 kanamycin resistant transgenic plants with the nptII, gus, tt (insect toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis, variety kurstaki) and tg (fusion of tt and gus under the 35S promoter) foreign genes were obtained from eight potato genotypes by co-cultivation of the leaf discs with A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 (pBI 121), A. tumefaciens 3850 (pGV 941tg) and A. rchizogenes A4 (pGV 941tt). Southern blot analysis showed that more than 80% of the regenerating plants had one or several copies of the foreign genes. Selection for kanamycin resistance and Southern blot analysis revealed the stability of inheritance of transgenes by vegetative propagation of the plants via cloning and through tubers. However, 0.3% of the plants lost the nptII gene during the cloning process. About 500 self-pollinated seeds of four independently obtained transgenic clones were harvested. Analysis of the phenotypic segregation of the transgenic progeny on selective medium with kanamycin (50 mg/L) was made and compared with the controls. Inheritance and expression of the nptII transgene in the progeny of all four transgenic clones were shown, although the character of segregation appeared to differ in the various clones

  5. GH/IGF-I Transgene Expression on Muscle Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    We propose to test the hypothesis that the growth hormone/ insulin like growth factor-I axis through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms may provide long term muscle homeostasis under conditions of prolonged weightlessness. As a key alternative to hormone replacement therapy, ectopic production of hGH, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), and IGF-I will be studied for its potential on muscle mass impact in transgenic mice under simulated microgravity. Expression of either hGH or IGF-I would provide a chronic source of a growth-promoting protein whose biosynthesis or secretion is shut down in space. Muscle expression of the IGF-I transgene has demonstrated about a 20% increase in hind limb muscle mass over control nontransgenic litter mates. These recent experiments, also establish the utility of hind-limb suspension in mice as a workable model to study atrophy in weight bearing muscles. Thus, transgenic mice will be used in hind-limb suspension models to determine the role of GH/IGF-I on maintenance of muscle mass and whether concentric exercises might act in synergy with hormone treatment. As a means to engineer and ensure long-term protein production that would be workable in humans, gene therapy technology will be used by to monitor muscle mass preservation during hind-limb suspension, after direct intramuscular injection of a genetically engineered muscle-specific vector expressing GHRH. Effects of this gene-based therapy will be assessed in both fast twitch (medial gastrocnemius) and slow twitch muscle (soleus). End-points include muscle size, ultrastructure, fiber type, and contractile function, in normal animals, hind limb suspension, and reambutation.

  6. Transgenic and knockout mice in research on prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeber, A J; Brandner, S; Klein, M A; Benninger, Y; Musahl, C; Frigg, R; Roeckl, C; Fischer, M B; Weissmann, C; Aguzzi, A

    1998-10-01

    Since the discovery of the prion protein (PrP) gene more than a decade ago, transgenetic investigations on the PrP gene have shaped the field of prion biology in an unprecedented way. Many questions regarding the role of PrP in susceptibility of an organism exposed to prions have been elucidated. For example mice with a targeted disruption of the PrP gene have allowed the demonstration that an organism that lacks PrPc is resistant to infection by prions. Reconstitution of these mice with mutant PrP genes allowed investigations on the structure-activity relationship of the PrP gene with regard to scrapie susceptibility. Unexpectedly, transgenic mice expressing PrP with specific amino-proximal truncations spontaneously develop a neurologic syndrome presenting with ataxia and cerebellar lesions. A distinct spontaneous neurologic phenotype was observed in mice with internal deletions in PrP. Using ectopic expression of PrP in PrP knockout mice has turned out to be a valuable approach towards the identification of host cells that are capable of replicating prions. Transgenic mice have also contributed to our understanding of the molecular basis of the species barrier for prions. Finally, the availability of PrP knockout mice and transgenic mice overexpressing PrP allows selective reconstitution experiments aimed at expressing PrP in neurografts or in specific populations of hemato- and lymphopoietic cells. Such studies have shed new light onto the mechanisms of prion spread and disease pathogenesis. PMID:9804380

  7. The sensitivity of Crepis capillaris transgenic roots to mutagenic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid progress has recently been made in biotechnology, especially in the development of transformation techniques including transgenic roots - hairy roots. Transgenic root cultures are used not only as a source of secondary metabolites, but have also proven to be a very good material for cytogenetic analysis of cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of environmental factors on plant cells. In the present study, the sensitivity of transgenic roots of Crepis capillaris has been analysed. The agents used for treatment were X-rays, maleic hydrazid acid - mutagen effective in the S phase, and oryzaline - herbicide that causes depolimerization of mitotic spindle microtubules. Crepis capillaris is a very good model plant for those studies because it has three pairs of relatively big and morphologically differentiated chromosomes. The transformed Crepis roots grow quickly and are easy to culture in vitro. This makes it very convenient for the analysis of the influence of mutagenic and stress factors on plant cell. The effect of mutagenic treatments was estimated using two mutagenic tests namely micronucleus test and anaphase - telophase test. Additionally, fluorescence in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA was applied in order to analyse the involvement of NOR chromosomes in the formation of micronuclei, fragments and other types of chromosomal aberrations. Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were analysed to test the structural chromosome changes. The analysis of the changes in cells of Crepis capillaris after oryzaline treatment encompassed also the observation of microtubules of cytoskeleton and of mitotic spindle using the immunocytochemical approach. The results show different sensitivity of cells in 'hairy roots' and primary roots of Crepis capillaris to mutagenic factors. (author)

  8. Detection of Transgenic and Endogenous Plant DNA Fragments and Proteins in the Digesta, Blood, Tissues, and Eggs of Laying Hens Fed with Phytase Transgenic Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Qiugang; Gao, Chunqi; Zhang, Jianyun; Zhao, Lihong; Hao, Wenbo; Ji, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The trials were conducted to assess the effects of long-term feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) to hens on laying performance and egg quality, and investigate the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in digesta, blood, tissues, and eggs. Fifty-week old laying hens (n?=?144) were fed with a diet containing 62.4% PTC or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for 16 weeks. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on laying performance or egg quality (P>0.05) exc...

  9. Case Study: Polycystic Livers in a Transgenic Mouse Line

    OpenAIRE

    Lovaglio, Jamie; Artwohl, James E.; Ward, Christopher J.; Diekwisch, Thomas GH; Ito, Yoshihiro; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Three mice (2 male, 1 female; age, 5 to 16 mo) from a mouse line transgenic for keratin 14 (K14)-driven LacZ expression and on an outbred Crl:CD1(ICR) background, were identified as having distended abdomens and livers that were diffusely enlarged by numerous cysts (diameter, 0.1 to 2.0 cm). Histopathology revealed hepatic cysts lined by biliary type epithelium and mild chronic inflammation, and confirmed the absence of parasites. Among 21 related mice, 5 additional affected mice were identif...

  10. Transmission of Elk and Deer Prions to Transgenic Mice†

    OpenAIRE

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Bouzamondo-Bernstein, Essia; Bosque, Patrick J.; Miller, Michael W; Safar, Jiri; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease in deer and elk. Unique among the prion diseases, it is transmitted among captive and free-ranging animals. To facilitate studies of the biology of CWD prions, we generated five lines of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing prion protein (PrP) from Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), denoted Tg(ElkPrP), and two lines of Tg mice expressing PrP common to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), den...

  11. The nature and current status of Transgenic Atlantic Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, T.F.; Galvin, P. T.

    1997-01-01

    This study was commissioned by the Irish Marine Institute in response to a Ministerial request from the Department of the Marine. The definition of Genetically Modified fish (GMO) that we use throughout this report is of fish that have a gene added from the same or another species, i.e. transgenics. This is a narrow definition, in that it excludes products of sex manipulation or ploidy manipulation, but is the one accepted by, for example, the European Union (Council Directive 90/220/EEC, ...

  12. Evaluation of adenovirus capsid labeling versus transgene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curiel David T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adenoviral vectors have been utilized for a variety of gene therapy applications. Our group has incorporated bioluminescent, fluorographic reporters, and/or suicide genes within the adenovirus genome for analytical and/or therapeutic purposes. These molecules have also been incorporated as capsid components. Recognizing that incorporations at either locale yield potential advantages and disadvantages, our report evaluates the benefits of transgene incorporation versus capsid incorporation. To this end, we have genetically incorporated firefly luciferase within the early region 3 or at minor capsid protein IX and compared vector functionality by means of reporter readout.

  13. Transgenic Mice Convert Carbohydrates to Essential Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Victor J.; Wang, Bin; LI, XIANGYONG; Wu, Lin; Jing X. Kang

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic mice (named “Omega mice”) were engineered to carry both optimized fat-1 and fat-2 genes from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and are capable of producing essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids from saturated fats or carbohydrates. When maintained on a high-saturated fat diet lacking essential fatty acids or a high-carbohydrate, no-fat diet, the Omega mice exhibit high tissue levels of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, with a ratio of ?1?1. This study thus presents an in...

  14. [Transgenic bioinsecticides inimical to parasites, but imical to environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuci?ska, Jolanta; Lonc, Elzbieta; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna

    2003-01-01

    Identification of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) parasporal crystalline inclusions composed of Cry proteins (=delta-endotoxins) resulted in introduction of microbial pesticides for biological control of some parasites. Delta-endotoxins are encoded by cry genes and are active against pest and nuisance insects (mostly mosquitoes and black flies--vectors of still important infectious diseases). The recent significant progress in DNA recombination technique may overcome limitations (a short residual persistence and a narrow spectrum of activity) associated with application of Bt conventional products. An introduction of cry genes from mosquitocidal subspecies B. th. israelensis (Bti) to the aquatic microorganisms inhabiting the same water bodies as mosquito and fly larvae (Diptera), has considerably improved the toxin delivery system to target insects. However, in the first experiments, in which Bti genes were cloned in cyanobacteria (Agmenellum quadruplicatum, Synechocystis PCC6803), a low gene expression was observed. Thus, it was necessary to integrate cry genes with strong promoters or to increase the number of vector-introduced copies. To overcome the obstacles of low gene expression and regulatory restriction for recombinant organisms, Bti spore/crystal formulations were encapsulated in the aquatic protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis. Large numbers of crystals (180 to 240/cell) were accumulated in its food vacuoles. This system resulted also in an increase in toxin persistence from 24 to 71 h. Cloning Bti genes in B. sphaericus (which also produces mosquitocidal proteins) was another way of an increasing Bt crystal residual activity. In this case, the crystals were additionally protected by B. sphaericus exosporium. These transgenic bacteria produced large amounts of delta-endotoxins that remained under water surface longer than the wild B. sphaericus strains. Moreover, they had a broader spectrum of insecticidal activity, because B. sphaericus is toxic mostly to Culex and Anopheles, and Bti--mostly to Culex, Aedes and some Simmulidae. Gram-negative bacteria (Asticcacaulis excentricus, Caulobacter crescentus and Ancylobacter aquaticus) turned out also to be effective delta-endotoxin producers. They grow on simple media and do not contain proteases which could degrade Cry proteins. In some cases, 100% mosquito larvae mortality was observed as a result of an exposure to transgenic microorganisms containing Bti genes. However, transgenic techniques are still not very popular in the world, despite their efficacy in biological control of insects. The transgenic organism construction is expensive and time-consuming. Genetic engineering is still raising a lot of anxieties and doubts concerning inappropriate use of modified organisms. On the other hand, this technology could solve many problems associated with vectors of important diseases, which are still unapproachable to contemporary medicine. PMID:16889013

  15. Electrochemical determination of metallothionein in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    K?ížková, S.; Diopan, V.; Baloun, J.; Šupálková, V.; Shestisvka, V.; Kotrba, P.; Macková, Martina; Macek, Tomáš; Havel, L.; Adam, V.; Zehnálek, J.; Kizek, R.

    Praha : VŠCHT, 2007 - (Macková, M.; Macek, T.; Demnerová, K.; Pazlar, V.; Nováková, M.), s. 21-23 ISBN 978-80-7080-026-3. [Symposium on Biosorption and Bioremediation /4./. Praha (CZ), 26.08.2007-30.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Grant ostatní: GA?R(CZ) GA522/07/0692 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : metallothionein * heavy metals * transgenic plants * GM-tobacco Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  16. Expressing of bacterial dihydrodipicolinate synthase in transgenic barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cernei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional quality of human and animal foodstuffs is determined by the content of essential amino acids. Barley is the fourth most important cereal of the world and the second most important cereal grown in the Czech Republic. Cereal grains such as barley contain insufficient levels of some essential amino acid, especially lysine. The ionex chromatography is very selective and convenient for aminoacids determination such as lysine. In connection with post column derivatization the limit of detection of lysine determination was below 1?M and linearity of calibration curve was R2=0.995. Thus we were able to determine the rate of expression for transgenic Barley.

  17. ADAM 12 protease induces adipogenesis in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Nobuko; Xu, Xiufeng; Tajima, Rie; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Sundberg, Christina; Loechel, Frosty; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Wewer, Ulla M

    2002-01-01

    ADAM 12 (meltrin-alpha) is a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family. ADAM 12 functions as an active metalloprotease, supports cell adhesion, and has been implicated in myoblast differentiation and fusion. Human ADAM 12 exists in two forms: the prototype membrane-anchored protein, ADAM 12-L, and a shorter secreted form, ADAM 12-S. Here we report the occurrence of adipocytes in the skeletal muscle of transgenic mice in which overexpression of either form is driven by the mus...

  18. FLUORESCENT TRANSGENIC FISH IN PERU: BIOSAFETY AND RISK ANALYSIS PENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotto, Carlos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Transgenesis involves processes of molecular genetic manipulation of DNAwhich seeks to "introduce genes" of interest from one organism into the genetic material of another to obtain goods or services. The resulting organism is called a Genetically Modified Organism or GMO. It shows the first case of transgenic fluorescent fish as a real example of GMOs existing in Peru. Reproduction and hybridization in confined environments, provide new approaches to biosecurity decision-makers about this new technological contribution to the task of Peru.

  19. EXPRESSION OF CHITINASE GENE IN TRANSGENIC RAPE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ruili

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypocotyl and cotyledon of Brassica napus L. H165 and Brassica juncea DB3 were transformed with chitinase gene and herbicide-resistance gene by co-culture with Agrobacterium tumefacients LBA4404, and rape plants were obtained which could grow on the medium containing herbicide. The PCR result showed that exotic genes were integrated in the genome of the rape. Further study was performed to determine the impact of temperature on the transgenic rate and the differentiation of explants.

  20. Belowground environmental effects of transgenic crops: a soil microbial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Alessandra; Sbrana, Cristiana; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2015-04-01

    Experimental studies investigated the effects of transgenic crops on the structure, function and diversity of soil and rhizosphere microbial communities playing key roles in belowground environments. Here we review available data on direct, indirect and pleiotropic effects of engineered plants on soil microbiota, considering both the technology and the genetic construct utilized. Plants modified to express phytopathogen/phytoparasite resistance, or traits beneficial to food industries and consumers, differentially affected soil microorganisms depending on transformation events, experimental conditions and taxa analyzed. Future studies should address the development of harmonized methodologies by taking into account the complex interactions governing soil life. PMID:25728596

  1. Targeted and additional transgenic animal models in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homologous recombination in ES cells and trans-genesis are now technologies used to produce animals in which the physiological consequences of radiation injury can be examined. Null models have been produced to study DNA repair machinery and cells cycle control. Transgenic mice have also been produced that may be used as assay systems to study damages on tissue development and progressive of carcinogenesis as well as pharmacological manipulations and screening for radioprotection. These trans-genesis have offers unlimited possibilities for creating animal models that can be used in radiation biology. (authors)

  2. Patogenia de las espondiloartropatías seronegativas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Modesto, González Cortiñas.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la función que desempeña el antígeno leucocitario humano (HLA-B27) en la patogénesis de las espondiloartropatias seronegativas. Se describió detalladamente la zona de unión de péptidos de la molécula conocida como «bolsón 45». Como hipótesis actuales en el surgimiento de la enfermedad se [...] discutieron la mímica molecular entre bacterias artritogénicas y HLA-B27, la positividad del HLA-B27 y la persistencia de las infecciones enterobacteriales, HLA-B27 factores modificantes y el modelo del péptido artritogénico. Se explicó la función de la célula T CDB+ en el desencadenamiento de la enfermedad y su control por los linfocitos T CD4+. Abstract in english The function of HLA-B27 in the pathogenesis of seronegative spondyloarthropathies was studied. The zone of union of the peptides of the molecule known as «big pocket 45» was described in detail. The molecular mimicry between arthritogenic bacteria and HLA-B27, the positivity of HLA-B27 and the persi [...] stance of enterobacterial infections, the HLA-B27 modifying factors, and the model of arthritogenic peptide were discussed as present hypotheses connected with the appearance of the disease. The function of the CDB-positive T-cell in the outbreak of the disease, as well as its control by the CD4-positive T-lymphocytes was explained.

  3. CNTF Induces Regeneration of Cone Outer Segments in a Rat Model of Retinal Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yiwen; TAO, WENG; Luo, Lingyu; Huang, Deqiang; Kauper, Konrad; Stabila, Paul; LaVail, Matthew M.; Laties, Alan M.; Wen, Rong

    2010-01-01

    Background Cone photoreceptors are responsible for color and central vision. In the late stage of retinitis pigmentosa and in geographic atrophy associated with age-related macular degeneration, cone degeneration eventually causes loss of central vision. In the present work, we investigated cone degeneration secondary to rod loss in the S334ter-3 transgenic rats carrying the rhodopsin mutation S334ter. Methodology/Principal Findings Recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was del...

  4. Effects of aliskiren on stroke in rats expressing human renin and angiotensinogen genes

    OpenAIRE

    Schmerbach, K; Pfab, T.; Zhao, Y; Culman, J; Mueller, S; Villringer, A.; Mueller, D.N.; Hocher, B; Unger, T.; Thoene-Reineke, C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pre-treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers is known to improve neurological outcome after stroke. This study investigated for the first time, whether the renin inhibitor aliskiren has similar neuroprotective effects. METHODS: Since aliskiren specifically blocks human renin, double transgenic rats expressing human renin and angiotensinogen genes were used. To achieve a systolic blood pressure of 150 or 130 mmHg animals were treated with aliskiren (7.5 or 12.5 mg/kg*d) or cande...

  5. Transgenic Quail Production by Microinjection of Lentiviral Vector into the Early Embryo Blood Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zifu; Sun, Peng; Yu, Fuxian; Yan, Li; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Wenxin; Wang, Tao; Wan, Zhiyi; Shao, Qiang; Li, Zandong

    2012-01-01

    Several strategies have been used to generate transgenic birds. The most successful method so far has been the injection of lentiviral vectors into the subgerminal cavity of a newly laid egg. We report here a new, easy and effective way to produce transgenic quails through direct injection of a lentiviral vector, containing an enhanced-green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgene, into the blood vessels of quail embryos at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 13–15 (HH13–15). A total of 80 embryos were injected and 48 G0 chimeras (60%) were hatched. Most injected embryo organs and tissues of hatched quails were positive for eGFP. In five out of 21 mature G0 male quails, the semen was eGFP-positive, as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating transgenic germ line chimeras. Testcross and genetic analyses revealed that the G0 quail produced transgenic G1 offspring; of 46 G1 hatchlings, 6 were transgenic (6/46, 13.0%). We also compared this new method with the conventional transgenesis using stage X subgerminal cavity injection. Total 240 quail embryos were injected by subgerminal cavity injection, of which 34 (14.1%) were hatched, significantly lower than the new method. From these hatched quails semen samples were collected from 19 sexually matured males and tested for the transgene by PCR. The transgene was present in three G0 male quails and only 4/236 G1 offspring (1.7%) were transgenic. In conclusion, we developed a novel bird transgenic method by injection of lentiviral vector into embryonic blood vessel at HH 13–15 stage, which result in significant higher transgenic efficiency than the conventional subgerminal cavity injection. PMID:23251391

  6. AAV vectors transduce hepatocytes in vivo as efficiently in cirrhotic as in healthy rat livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrevals, L; Enguita, M; Rodriguez, C; Gonzalez-Rojas, J; Alzaguren, P; Razquin, N; Prieto, J; Fortes, P

    2012-04-01

    In liver cirrhosis, abnormal liver architecture impairs efficient transduction of hepatocytes with large viral vectors such as adenoviruses. Here we evaluated the ability of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, small viral vectors, to transduce normal and cirrhotic rat livers. Using AAV serotype-1 (AAV1) encoding luciferase (AAV1Luc) we analyzed luciferase expression with a CCD camera. AAV1Luc was injected through the hepatic artery (intra-arterial (IA)), the portal vein (intra-portal (IP)), directly into the liver (intra-hepatic (IH)) or infused into the biliary tree (intra-biliar). We found that AAV1Luc allows long-term and constant luciferase expression in rat livers. Interestingly, IP administration leads to higher expression levels in healthy than in cirrhotic livers, whereas the opposite occurs when using IA injection. IH administration leads to similar transgene expression in cirrhotic and healthy rats, whereas intra-biliar infusion is the least effective route. After 70% partial hepatectomy, luciferase expression decreased in the regenerating liver, suggesting lack of efficient integration of AAV1 DNA into the host genome. AAV1Luc transduced mainly the liver but also the testes and spleen. Within the liver, transgene expression was found mainly in hepatocytes. Using a liver-specific promoter, transgene expression was detected in hepatocytes but not in other organs. Our results indicate that AAVs are convenient vectors for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. PMID:21850051

  7. Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses to Transgene Product, Not Adeno-Associated Viral Capsid Protein, Limit Transgene Expression in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Siders, William M.; Shields, Jacqueline; KAPLAN, JOHANNE; Lukason, Michael; Woodworth, Lisa; Wadsworth, Sam; Scaria, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    The use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for gene replacement therapy is currently being explored in several clinical indications. However, reports have suggested that input capsid proteins from AAV-2 vector particles may result in the stimulation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses that can result in a loss of transduced cells. To explore the impact of anti-AAV CTLs on AAV-mediated transgene expression, both immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice and B cell-deficient ?MT mice were immuniz...

  8. TT2014 meeting report on the 12th Transgenic Technology meeting in Edinburgh: new era of transgenic technologies with programmable nucleases in the foreground.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beck, Inken; Sedlá?ek, Radislav

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 24, ?. 1 (2015), s. 179-183. ISSN 0962-8819 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Transgenic * Nuclease * Gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.322, year: 2014

  9. Transgenic Drosophila model to study apolipoprotein E4-induced neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Mohammad; Nongthomba, Upendra; Jahromi, Samaneh Reiszadeh; Ramesh, S R

    2016-03-15

    The ε4 isoform of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) that is involved in neuron-glial lipid metabolism has been demonstrated as the main genetic risk factor in late-onset of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism underlying ApoE4-mediated neurodegeneration remains unclear. We created a transgenic model of neurodegenerative disorder by expressing ε3 and ε4 isoforms of human ApoE in the Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic models exhibited progressive neurodegeneration, shortened lifespan and memory impairment. Genetic interaction studies between amyloid precursor protein and ApoE in axon pathology of the disease revealed that over expression of hApoE in Appl-expressing neurons of Drosophila brain causes neurodegeneration. Moreover, acute oxidative damage in the hApoE transgenic flies triggered a neuroprotective response of hApoE3 while chronic induction of oxidative damage accelerated the rate of neurodegeneration. This Drosophila model may facilitate analysis of the molecular and cellular events implicated in hApoE4 neurotoxicity. PMID:26706888

  10. Neuronal transgene expression in dominant-negative SNARE mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takumi; Chen, Michael J; Li, Baoman; Smith, Nathan A; Peng, Weiguo; Sun, Wei; Toner, Michael J; Kress, Benjamin T; Wang, Linhui; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Takano, Takahiro; Wang, Su; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-12-10

    Experimental advances in the study of neuroglia signaling have been greatly accelerated by the generation of transgenic mouse models. In particular, an elegant manipulation that interferes with astrocyte vesicular release of gliotransmitters via overexpression of a dominant-negative domain of vesicular SNARE (dnSNARE) has led to documented astrocytic involvement in processes that were traditionally considered strictly neuronal, including the sleep-wake cycle, LTP, cognition, cortical slow waves, depression, and pain. A key premise leading to these conclusions was that expression of the dnSNARE was specific to astrocytes. Inconsistent with this premise, we report here widespread expression of the dnSNARE transgene in cortical neurons. We further demonstrate that the activity of cortical neurons is reversibly suppressed in dnSNARE mice. These findings highlight the need for independent validation of astrocytic functions identified in dnSNARE mice and thus question critical evidence that astrocytes contribute to neurotransmission through SNARE-dependent vesicular release of gliotransmitters. PMID:25505312

  11. Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease: phenotype and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Guy A; Jacobsen, Heimut

    2003-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of senile dementia, for which there is presently no disease-based treatment. The identification of genetic factors contributing to this disease, and the intense investigation into the cell biology of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and, to some extent, tau, has led to the development of several transgenic mouse models of this disease. These mice show some of the characteristic AD pathology, such as an age-dependent formation of amyloid plaques consisting of Abeta peptides. However, they usually lack both the tau pathology, i.e. neurofibrillary tangle formation, and the neurodegeneration also associated with AD. Importantly, many of these transgenic lines develop age-dependent deficits in some relevant behavioural tests and thus provide an animal model not only for amyloidosis but also for the cognitive deficits of AD patients. Incorporation of additional disease genes may lead to models that show a more complete disease phenotype. This review attempts to summarize much of this work, and describes how the availability of these models should assist in the understanding of AD aetiology and the identification of effective treatments for this disease. The review also considers the role behavioural testing may have in future AD drug discovery research. PMID:14501255

  12. Transgenic mouse model for neurocristopathy: Schwannomas and facial bone tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, N A; Rodriguez, M L; Garvey, J S; Miller, C A; Hood, L

    1993-04-15

    We have characterized a strain of double transgenic mice with simian virus 40 large tumor antigen and prokaryotic lacZ under the control of the myelin basic protein promoter that develops spindle-cell sarcomas and osteogenic sarcomas at 5-7 months of age. Although poorly differentiated, the spindle-cell sarcomas were characterized as malignant Schwannomas based on their neural association, the presence of basal lamina, and expression of Schwann cell-specific genes. The osteogenic sarcomas were often multiple and appeared predominantly in the facial bones, less frequently in the ribs and vertebral column, and only rarely in the appendicular skeleton. Benign osteoblastic lesions were often observed adjacent to these sarcomas. Both the osteoblastic cells in the facial skeleton and Schwann cells are regarded as neural crest derivatives. The biological properties and anatomical location of these tumors suggest that they may share a common origin from the neural crest or its derivatives. R.P. Bolande [Hum. Pathol. (1974) 5, 409-429] introduced the term neurocristopathy as a unifying concept to describe such lesions arising from the neural crest or its derivatives. Cell lines established from both bone and Schwann cell tumors arising in these transgenic mice express simian virus 40 large tumor antigen mRNA as well as functional large tumor antigen. Such cell lines are potentially valuable in the search for markers that identify mammalian neural crest derivatives. PMID:8386366

  13. An in vivo screen for the luciferase transgene in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, P D; Peek, A; Thorgaard, G

    1994-12-01

    A simple and economical large-scale in vivo screen for firefly luciferase expression in transgenic zebrafish is described. The screen is a film assay of luminescence during embryogenesis. Either luciferin substrate can be microinjected into the embryo, or the embryo can be raised in a luciferin solution. In a test of transient expression in the G0 (microinjected) generation, a construct with the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter gave higher levels of expression than three other constructs. Using the CMV promoter, injection of supercoiled or linear DNA led to approximately equivalent amounts of expression. Although G0 transient luciferase expression is high enough to be reliably screened, G1 integrated expression is either low or nonexistent, and therefore unscreenable. In the G1 and G2 generations, low-level expression was increased with application of 5-azacytidine. The fact that both transgene methylation and 5-azacytidine activation of expression occurred suggests that methylation is involved in either reducing or eliminating integrated luciferase expression. This in vivo luciferase screen may be useful for insertional mutagenesis, promoter, gene, or enhancer traps, promoter analysis, and optimization of conditions for gene transfer. PMID:7535626

  14. The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

    1993-12-01

    The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  15. Spontaneous and transgenic rodent models of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prattis, Susan; Jurjus, Abdo

    2015-06-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disorder with many different putative influences mediating disease onset, severity, progression and diminution. Spontaneous natural IBD is classically expressed as Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) commonly found in primates; lymphoplasmocytic enteritis, eosinophilic gastritis and colitis, and ulcerative colitis with neuronal hyperplasia in dogs; and colitis in horses. Spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease has been noted in a number of rodent models which differ in genetic strain background, induced mutation, microbiota influences and immunopathogenic pathways. Histological lesions in Crohn's Disease feature noncaseating granulomatous inflammation while UC lesions typically exhibit ulceration, lamina propria inflammatory infiltrates and lack of granuloma development. Intestinal inflammation caused by CD and UC is also associated with increased incidence of intestinal neoplasia. Transgenic murine models have determined underlying etiological influences and appropriate therapeutic targets in IBD. This literature review will discuss current opinion and findings in spontaneous IBD, highlight selected transgenic rodent models of IBD and discuss their respective pathogenic mechanisms. It is very important to provide accommodation of induced putative deficits in activities of daily living and to assess discomfort and pain levels in the face of significant morbidity and/or mortality in these models. Epigenetic, environmental (microbiome, metabolome) and nutritional factors are important in IBD pathogenesis, and evaluating ways in which they influence disease expression represent potential investigative approaches with the greatest potential for new discoveries. PMID:26155200

  16. Phage integrases for the construction and manipulation of transgenic mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sclimenti Christopher R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phage integrases catalyze site-specific, unidirectional recombination between two short att recognition sites. Recombination results in integration when the att sites are present on two different DNA molecules and deletion or inversion when the att sites are on the same molecule. Here we demonstrate the ability of the ?C31 integrase to integrate DNA into endogenous sequences in the mouse genome following microinjection of donor plasmid and integrase mRNA into mouse single-cell embryos. Transgenic early embryos and a mid-gestation mouse are reported. We also demonstrate the ability of the ?C31, R4, and TP901-1 phage integrases to recombine two introduced att sites on the same chromosome in human cells, resulting in deletion of the intervening material. We compare the frequencies of mammalian chromosomal deletion catalyzed by these three integrases in different chromosomal locations. The results reviewed here introduce these bacteriophage integrases as tools for site-specific modification of the genome for the creation and manipulation of transgenic mammals.

  17. MR Microimaging of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurological condition affecting industrialized nations and will rapidly become a healthcare crisis as the population ages. Currently, the post-mortem histological observation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles is the only definitive diagnosis available for AD. A pre-mortem biological or physiological marker specific for AD used in conjunction with current neurological and memory testing could add a great deal of confidence to the diagnosis of AD and potentially allow therapeutic intervention much earlier in the disease process. Our group has developed MRI techniques to detect individual amyloid plaques in AD transgenic mouse brain in vivo. We are also developing contrast-enhancing agents to increase the specificity of detection of amyloid plaques. Such in vivo imaging of amyloid plaques will also allow the evaluation of anti-amyloid therapies being developed by the pharmaceutical industry in pre-clinical trials of AD transgenic mice. This short review briefly discusses our progress in these areas. (orig.)

  18. Expression of functional oat phytochrome A in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R C; Casal, J J; Jordan, E T; Christou, P; Vierstra, R D

    1995-11-01

    To investigate the biological functions of phytochromes in monocots, we generated, by electric discharge particle bombardment, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa cv Gulfmont) that constitutively expresses the oat phytochrome A apoprotein. The introduced 124-kD polypeptide bound chromophore and assembled into a red- and far-red-light-photoreversible chromoprotein with absorbance spectra indistinguishable from those of phytochrome purified from etiolated oats. Transgenic lines expressed up to 3 and 4 times more spectrophotometrically detectable phytochrome than wild-type plants in etiolated and green seedlings, respectively. Upon photo-conversion to the far-red-absorbing form of phytochrome, oat phytochrome A was degraded in etiolated seedlings with kinetics similar to those of endogenous rice phytochromes (half-life approximately 20 min). Although plants overexpressing phytochrome A were phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type plants when grown under high-fluence white light, they were more sensitive as etiolated seedlings to light pulses that established very low phytochrome equilibria. This indicates that the introduced oat phytochrome A was biologically active. Thus, rice ectopically expressing PHY genes may offer a useful model to help understand the physiological functions of the various phytochrome isoforms in monocotyledonous plants. PMID:8552709

  19. Development of transgenic yellow poplar for mercury phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, C L; Senecoff, J F; Meagher, R B; Merkle, S A

    1998-10-01

    We examined the ability of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) tissue cultures and plantlets to express modified mercuric reductase (merA) gene constructs. Mercury-resistant bacteria express merA to convert highly toxic, ionic mercury, Hg(II), to much less toxic, elemental mercury, Hg(O). Expression of merA in transgenic plants might provide an ecologically compatible approach for the remediation of mercury pollution. Because the alteration of the bacterial merA gene sequence is necessary for high-level expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, yellow poplar proembryogenic masses (PEMs) were transformed with three modified merA constructs via microprojectile bombardment. Each construct was synthesized to have altered flanking regions with increasing amounts of modified coding sequence. All merA constructs conferred resistance to toxic, ionic mercury in independently transformed PEM colonies. Stability of merA transgene expression increased in parallel with the extent of gene coding sequence modification. Regenerated plantlets containing the most modified merA gene (merA18) germinated and grew vigorously in media containing normally toxic levels of ionic mercury. The merA18 plantlets released elemental mercury at approximately 10 times the rate of untransformed plantlets. These results indicate that plants expressing modified merA constructs may provide a means for the phytoremediation of mercury pollution. PMID:9788347

  20. Genetic modification and screening in rat using haploid embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Xin; Li, Tianda; Jiang, Ming-Gui; Wan, Haifeng; Luo, Guan-Zheng; Feng, Chunjing; Cui, Xiaolong; Teng, Fei; Yuan, Yan; Zhou, Quan; Gu, Qi; Shuai, Ling; Sha, Jiahao; Xiao, Yamei; Wang, Liu; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhao, Xiao-Yang; Zhou, Qi

    2014-03-01

    The rat is an important animal model in biomedical research, but practical limitations to genetic manipulation have restricted the application of genetic analysis. Here we report the derivation of rat androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells (RahESCs) as a tool to facilitate such studies. Our approach is based on removal of the maternal pronucleus from zygotes to generate androgenetic embryos followed by derivation of ESCs. The resulting RahESCs have 21 chromosomes, express pluripotency markers, differentiate into three germ layer cells, and contribute to the germline. Homozygous mutations can be introduced by both large-scale gene trapping and precise gene targeting via homologous recombination or the CRISPR-Cas system. RahESCs can also produce fertile rats after intracytoplasmic injection into oocytes and are therefore able to transmit genetic modifications to offspring. Overall, RahESCs represent a practical tool for functional genetic studies and production of transgenic lines in rat. PMID:24360884