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Sample records for hla-b27 transgenic rat

  1. Lactobacillus GG prevents recurrence of colitis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats after antibiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dieleman, L A; Goerres, M S; Arends, A; Sprengers, D; Torrice, C; Hoentjen, F; Grenther, W B; Sartor, R B

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims: Bacteroides vulgatus induces colitis in gnotobiotic HLA-B27 transgenic (TG) rats while broad spectrum antibiotics prevent and treat colitis in specific pathogen free (SPF) TG rats although disease recurs after treatment ends. Lactobacilli treat human pouchitis and experimental colitis. We investigated if Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L GG) can prevent colitis in TG rats monoassociated with B vulgatus and if L GG or Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (LP 299v) can treat establishe...

  2. HLA-B27 Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arthritis , juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) , or sometimes anterior uveitis . The HLA-B27 test is not a definitive ... form of arthritis that occurs in children. Anterior uveitis is associated with recurring inflammation of the structures ...

  3. HLA-B27 subtypes among the Chukotka native groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, M.Y.; Alexeeva, L.I.; Erdesz, S.; Benevolenskaya, L.I. [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Revmatizma; Reveille, J.D.; Arnett, F.C. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Health Science Center

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative frequency of the known HLA-B27 subtypes in HLA-B27 positive Chukotka natives, which have higher frequencies of HLA-B27 (to 40%) and spondylarthropathies (to 2%) than the Russian Caucasian population. Using oligotyping of the polymerase-chain reaction amplified second and third exons of the HLA-B27 gene in 86 DNA samples from HLA-B27 positive individuals were successfully typed. All had HLA-B*2705, including 4 patients with Reiter`s syndrome and 5 with ankylosing spondyloarthritis, except one Eskimo who had HLA-B*2702. None had HLA-B*2704, a frequent subtype in Orientals. With respect to HLA-B27 subtypes the indigenous populations from the eastern part of the Chukotka Peninsula are genetically more closely related to Caucasians than to Orientals. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. HLA-B27 subtypes among the Chukotka native groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative frequency of the known HLA-B27 subtypes in HLA-B27 positive Chukotka natives, which have higher frequencies of HLA-B27 (to 40%) and spondylarthropathies (to 2%) than the Russian Caucasian population. Using oligotyping of the polymerase-chain reaction amplified second and third exons of the HLA-B27 gene in 86 DNA samples from HLA-B27 positive individuals were successfully typed. All had HLA-B*2705, including 4 patients with Reiter's syndrome and 5 with ankylosing spondyloarthritis, except one Eskimo who had HLA-B*2702. None had HLA-B*2704, a frequent subtype in Orientals. With respect to HLA-B27 subtypes the indigenous populations from the eastern part of the Chukotka Peninsula are genetically more closely related to Caucasians than to Orientals. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Isolated HLA-B27 associated Achilles tendinitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Olivieri, I; Gemignani, G; Gherardi, S; Grassi, L.; M.L. Ciompi

    1987-01-01

    The case of a 37 year old man with a longstanding HLA-B27 associated bilateral Achilles tendinitis without seronegative spondyloarthropathy is reported. This case suggests that heel enthesopathy may for a long time be the only clinical manifestation of the HLA-B27 associated disease process.

  6. [HL-A B27 associated rheumatic disease].

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    Truog, P; Steiger, U; Loewi, G; Neuhaus, K

    1975-12-13

    Report on a HL-A B27 positive female patient with the typical cardiac lesion occasionally found inankylosing spondylitis, peripheral arthritis, and acute anterior uveitis but without clinical or radiological evidence of spine or sacroiliac joint involvement. The concept of "HL-A B27 associated disease", including ankylosing spondylitis as well as Reiter's disease or other forms of seronegative rheumatic diseases, is suggested. PMID:1240658

  7. HLA B27 y las espondilartropatías seronegativas

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    Modesto González Cortiñas

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el tipaje serológico para el antígeno HLA B27 a 19 pacientes con espondilartropatías seronegativas para conocer su relación y, de ellos, 6 resultaron positivos; 94 individuos sanos conformaron el grupo control y en 4 se encontró el antígeno. Los resultados expuestos sugieren la presencia de genes adicionales al B27 en los pacientes con este grupo de enfermedades.The serologic typing of HLA B27 antigen was perfomed in 19 patients presenting with seronegative spondyloarthropathies in order to know its relationship. Of them 6 patients were found to be positive; 94 healthy subjects were inclkuded in the control group and 4 presented with the antigen. Results reported suggest the presence of additional genes to B27 in patients presenting with this group of diseases.

  8. HLA B27 allele types in homogeneous groups of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Guseinova Dinara; Lazareva Arina; Sochnevs Arturs; Zavadska Dace; Eglite Jelena; Stanevicha Valda; Shantere Ruta; Gardovska Dace

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous condition and therapeutic strategies vary in different JIA types. The routinely accepted practice to start with Sulphasalazine (SS) as the first line treatment in patients with HLA B27 positive JIA proves to be ineffective in a large proportion of children. Objective to investigate HLA B27 positive JIA patients clinical characteristics, determined HLA B27 allele types and their connection with antirheumatic treatment in homogenou...

  9. HLA-B27 frequency in a group of patients with psoriatic arthritis Freqncia de HLA-B27 em uma amostra de pacientes com artrite psoritica

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    Danilo Garcia Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HLA-B27 is associated with spondyloarthritis, a group of diseases that includes psoriatic arthritis. OBJECTIVES: To describe the HLA-B27 frequency in a group of Brazilian patients with psoriatic arthritis and correlate its presence or absence with their clinical manifestations. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 44 psoriatic arthritis patients of a Rheumatology clinic. Demographic and social data were recorded, as were skin and joints clinical examination. HLA-B27 was tested. All data were processed descriptively and comparatively by appropriate software. Parametric and non parametric tests were used with 5% statistical significance. RESULTS: HLA-B27 was negative in 32 of the 44 patients (72,7%. Most of them were male, Caucasian, living in Rio de Janeiro, with plaque type psoriasis and average age of 52,9 years. There was statistical significant correlation between positive HLA-B27 and male gender (p=0,004. Negative HLA-B27 had a tendency to correlate with hands and wrists arthritis (p=0,07. There was an inverse significant correlation between HLA values and Schber's test (p=0,02. CONCLUSION: Although HLA-B27 is negative in most of patients, it is significantly associated to male gender and inversely correlated with Schber's test.FUNDAMENTOS: O HLA-B27 est associado s espondiloartrites, grupo de doenas que engloba, entre outras, a artrite psorisica. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a freqncia de HLA-B27 em uma amostra de pacientes brasileiros com artrite psorisica e correlacionar sua presena ou ausncia com as manifestaes clnicas dos mesmos. MTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliando 44 pacientes com artrite psorisica de um ambulatrio de Reumatologia. A avaliao consistia em registro de informaes demogrficas e sociais, exame clnico da pele e das articulaes e pesquisa de HLA-B27. Os dados gerados foram tratados por meio de estatstica descritiva e comparativa em Software apropriado. Foram utilizados testes paramtricos e no-paramtricos com significncia estatstica de 5%. RESULTADOS: O HLA-B27 resultou negativo em 32 dos 44 pacientes estudados (72,7%. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino, da raa branca, procedente do Rio de Janeiro, portador de psorase em placas e com idade mdia de 52,9 anos. Houve associao estatisticamente significativa entre o HLA-B27 positivo e o sexo masculino (p=0,004. O HLA-B27 negativo teve tendncia correlao com artrite de mos e punhos (p=0,07. Houve correlao inversa significativa entre os valores do HLA e do teste de Schber (p=0,02. CONCLUSO: Apesar do HLA-B27 ser negativo na maioria dos pacientes estudados, esteve significativamente associado ao sexo masculino e inversamente correlacionado ao teste de Schber.

  10. HLA B27 allele types in homogeneous groups of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients in Latvia

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    Guseinova Dinara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a heterogeneous condition and therapeutic strategies vary in different JIA types. The routinely accepted practice to start with Sulphasalazine (SS as the first line treatment in patients with HLA B27 positive JIA proves to be ineffective in a large proportion of children. Objective to investigate HLA B27 positive JIA patients clinical characteristics, determined HLA B27 allele types and their connection with antirheumatic treatment in homogenous patient groups. Materials and methods 56 patients diagnosed with JIA and observed over the period 2006 to 2009 included in the study. HLAB27 allele types were determined using PCR method. Results In HLA B27 positive JIA patients mean disease onset was 12.34 ± 3.3 years. Most common (44% JIA type was enthesitis related arthritis. Positive response to the treatment with SS was found in 32% of patients, Methotrexate (MTX - in 43%, combined treatment - SS with MTX was effective in 12.5%. 12.5% of patients required combination MTX with Enbrel. Eight HLA B27 allele types were found in JIA patients in Latvia: *2702, *2703, *2704, *2705, *2710, *2715, *2717, *2728. The most common was *2705 - in 55% of cases. Among all the patients enthesitis related arthritis most commonly occurred in patients with HLAB*2705 allele (OR = 2.01, p Conclusions There are 8 different HLA B27 alleles in JIA patients in Latvia and the most common is *2705, but in order to assert them to be disease associated alleles, more extensive studies are needed, including control group of HLA B27 positive healthy individuals. Standard treatment approach with SS proves to be unsatisfactory in the majority of JIA patients. To improve children's quality of life achieving rapid disease control, the first line treatment in HLA B27 positive patients should be MTX. In order to start with the most appropriate drug it is necessary to determine HLAB 27 type at the onset of disease.

  11. Panuveíte em artrite indiferenciada HLA-B27 positiva Panuveitis in HLA-B27 positive undifferentiated arthritis

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    Mário Sérgio Ferreira Santos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre os vários tipos de inflamação ocular associados às doenças reumatológicas, a uveíte anterior é particularmente comum nas espondiloartropatias, em especial quando associada à presença do genótipo HLA-B27. Relatou-se o caso de um paciente com artrite indiferenciada HLA-B27 positivo, complicado com panuveíte e vasculite da retina, refratária ao tratamento imunossupressor tradicional, que obteve boa resposta clínica ao uso de anti-TNF-alfa.Among the several types of ocular inflammation associated to the rheumatic diseases, anterior uveitis is particularly common in the spondyloarthropathies, especially when associated to the presence of the HLA-B27 genotype. We report the case of HLA-B27 positive patient with undifferentiated arthritis, complicated with panuveitis and retinal vasculitis, that was refractory to the traditional imunossupressive treatment, and had a good clinical response with anti-TNF-alpha therapy.

  12. The radiographic features of rheumatoid arthritis in HLA-B27-positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographs were reviewed in a group of nine patients with classical seropositive rheumatoid arthritis who on tissue typing were found to express the class I HLA-B27 allele. Radiographs were analyzed with regard to whether or not they demonstrated radiographic features of (1) classical rheumatoid arthritis, (2) seronegative arthritis, or (3) mixed features of rheumatoid and seronegative arthritis. Five patients (55%) displayed radiographic features consistent with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, two patients (22%) showed radiographic features of seronegative disorder (periostitis and sacroiliitis), and two patients (22%) showed a mixed picture with evidence of both rheumatoid arthritis and a seronegative disorder. Thus, the HLA-B27 allele contributed to the radiographic features in 44% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and associated HLA-B27. Thus, the wide range of findings in our population indicates that the radiographic attributes are not specific enough to constitute a unique subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  13. Genética, HLA-B27 y espondilitis anquilosante: 40 años

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    Patricia Castro-Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a prototypical inflammatory disease of the locomotor system affecting axial skeleton. It is part of the general group of spondyloarthopathies (SpA. Its strong association with histocompatibility antigen HLA-B27 is known since 1973. However, HLA-B27 contribution to AS genetic risk is approximately 16%. Therefore, other genes are necessarily involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genomic development and the possibility of making genome wide screening have contributed enormously to the study of the disease. In this paper, we describe the actual knowledge about AS genetic risk, which has contributed to understand the influence of HLA-B27 on the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. We also intend to foresee how these findings will result in an improvement of patients’ quality of life.

  14. Gentica, HLA-B27 y espondilitis anquilosante: 40 aos / Genetics of ankylosing spondylitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Castro-Santos; Miguel A, Gutirrez; Roberto, Daz-Pea.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a prototypical inflammatory disease of the locomotor system affecting axial skeleton. It is part of the general group of spondyloarthopathies (SpA). Its strong association with histocompatibility antigen HLA-B27 is known since 1973. However, HLA-B27 contribution to AS [...] genetic risk is approximately 16%. Therefore, other genes are necessarily involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genomic development and the possibility of making genome wide screening have contributed enormously to the study of the disease. In this paper, we describe the actual knowledge about AS genetic risk, which has contributed to understand the influence of HLA-B27 on the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. We also intend to foresee how these findings will result in an improvement of patients quality of life.

  15. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Spondyloarthritides and HLA-B27 Positive Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Glasnović, Marija; Bošnjak, Ivica; Šram, Miroslav; Vranješ, Željko; Včev, Aleksandar; Dobrošević, Blaženka; Sinčić Petričević, Jasminka; Horvatić, Elizabeta; Orkić, Želimir; Tadžić, Refmir; Soldo, Anamarija; Šišljagić, Dina; Dinjar, Kristijan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present our experiences in diagnosing spondyloarthritides (SpA), and to list the most common clinical features of HLA-B 27 positive patients.The study included 65 HLA-B 27 positive patients with confirmed diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis(AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) who were analyzed between 2009 and 2010 in Clinic of Internal Medicine in Osijek. The diagnosis of seronegative spondyloarthritides was based on the ASAS (Assessment in AS Working G...

  16. Clinical characteristics of patients with spondyloarthritides and HLA-B27 positive antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasnović, Marija; Bosnjak, Ivica; Sram, Miroslav; Vranjes, Zeljko; Vcev, Aleksandar; Dobrosević, Blazenka; Petricević, Jasminka Sincić; Horvatić, Elizabeta; Orkić, Zelimir; Tadzić, Refmir; Soldo, Anamarija; Sisljagić, Dina; Dinjar, Kristijan

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to present our experiences in diagnosing spondyloarthritides (SpA), and to list the most common clinical features of HLA-B27 positive patients. The study included 65 HLA-B27 positive patients with confirmed diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) who were analyzed between 2009 and 2010 in Clinic of Internal Medicine in Osijek. The diagnosis of seronegative spondyloarthritides was based on the ASAS (Assessment in AS Working Group) classification criteria for axial and then supplemented with ASAS criteria for peripheral SpA and was confirmed by radiological techniques. For diagnosing the ankylosing spondylitis (AS), there have been applied the modified New York criteria. Radiological criteria for definite sacroiliitis according to the modified New York criteria is bilateral sacroiliitis, grade 2-4 (> or = 2) or unilateral sacroiliitis, grade 3-4. For diagnosing the psoriatic arthritis (PsA), there were used CASPAR diagnostic criteria. Other features of SpA are defined within the existing classification criteria. HLA-B27 antigen was determined by direct immune-fluorescence technique using flow cytometer. The average age of patients was 50.34 years, of whom 27 female (41.53%), 38 male (58.46%). Duration of illness was 15.79 years on average. With 75.38% of patients, there had been determined the diagnosis of AS; 24.62% of patients had the diagnosis of PsA. The most common clinical characteristics that patients had were: inflammatory back pain (pain Inflammation along the lumbosacral spine), peripheral arthritis, intermittent pain in the gluteus, sacroiliitis, enthesitis, uveitis, dactilitis. PMID:21755709

  17. HLA-B27 testing in ankylosing spondylitis: an analysis of the pretesting assumptions.

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    Baron, M; Zendel, I

    1989-05-01

    Typing for histocompatibility antigen HLA-B27 has been suggested as a useful diagnostic test for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in certain clinical situations. The appropriate use of any diagnostic test requires the clinician to estimate the likelihood of disease before the test is performed. One clinical situation in which B27 testing has been suggested to be useful is in the investigation of a patient with low back pain suggestive of AS but with normal sacroiliac radiographs. We analyze here the sequence of steps taken by the clinican in estimating the likelihood of AS. The assumptions that must be made to render B27 typing useful are calculated. PMID:2526875

  18. HLA-B27 and psoriatic disease: a modern view of an old relationship.

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    Queiro, Rubn; Morante, Isla; Cabezas, Ivn; Acasuso, Beln

    2016-02-01

    Psoriasis and PsA are the main phenotypes of psoriatic disease. Both conditions are highly polygenic diseases in which stochastic and environmental factors are crucial in the pathogenic process. Although the MHC region is a highly dense genetic area, most of the genetic basis of psoriatic disease within it resides in the HLA region. For decades, HLA-C*06 has been accepted as the main descriptor of the two main phenotypes of skin psoriasis. There is now compelling evidence to suggest that HLA-C*06 is only a genetic biomarker for skin involvement and not for joint involvement in psoriatic disease. The role of HLA-B*27 in the genetic aetiology of PsA has been recognized since the 1970s. Recent population case-control studies with adequate patient groups and replication cohorts, as well as confirmation studies in family pedigrees through the use of modern molecular typing methods, have reinforced the aetiological role of this allele in PsA. These studies have offered a new vision of the role of this allele in disease expression. This review contextualizes the latest findings on the role of HLA-B27 in psoriatic disease, emphasizing those aspects of particular interest for clinical practice. PMID:26289052

  19. HLA-B27-ASSOCIATED UVEITIS: EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL PICTURE, AND COMPLICATIONS

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    T. V. Dubinina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anterior uveitis is the most common form of intraocular inflammation. Among them, HLA-B27-associated uveitis occupies one of the leading places, which may be an independent disease or one of the manifestations of spondy- loarthritis (SA. The paper considers the general issues of the nomenclature and classification of uveitis, by using the classification criteria of the International Uveitis Study Group and the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature Workshop. The epidemiological aspects of uveitis are described. Emphasis is laid on a difference in the detection rate of uveitis in different countries, in men and women, as well as in different forms of SA. The clinical features of SA- associated uveitis and its complications are discussed. 

  20. Körperliche Leistungsfähigkeit bei Patienten mit HLA B27 positiver juveniler idiopathischer Arthritis in Remission

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Michael Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Mit dieser Arbeit sollte untersucht werden, ob es eine Beeinträchtigung der körperlichen Leistungsfähigkeit bei Patienten bis zum 20. Lebensjahr mit inaktiver juveniler idiopathischer Arthritis bzw. einer Arthritis in Remission im Vergleich zu gesunden Gleichaltrigen gibt und wenn ja, ob ein Zusammenhang zu dem Eiweißkörper HLA B27 besteht.

  1. HLA-A*01:03, HLA-A*24:02, HLA-B*08:01, HLA-B*27:05, HLA-B*35:01, HLA-B*44:02, and HLA-C*07:01 Monochain Transgenic/H-2 Class I Null Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucherma, Rachid; Kridane-Miledi, Hdia; Bouziat, Romain; Rasmussen, Michael; Gatard, Tanja; Langa-Vives, Francina; Lemercier, Brigitte; Lim, Annick; Brard, Marion; Benmohamed, Lbachir; Buus, Sren; Rooke, Ronald; Lemonnier, Franois A

    2013-01-01

    We have generated a panel of transgenic mice expressing HLA-A*01:03, -A*24:02, -B*08:01, -B*27:05, -B*35:01, -B*44:02, or -C*07:01 as chimeric monochain molecules (i.e., appropriate HLA ?1?2 H chain domains fused with a mouse ?3 domain and covalently linked to human ?2-microglobulin). Whereas sur...... a versatile preclinical animal model that will speed up the identification and optimization of HLA-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitopes of potential interest in various autoimmune human diseases and in preclinical evaluation of T cell-based vaccines....... a quantitative and qualitative restoration of the peripheral CD8(+) T cell repertoire, which exhibited a TCR diversity comparable with C57BL/6 WT mice. Potent epitope-specific, HLA-restricted, IFN-?-producing CD8(+) T cell responses were generated against known reference T cell epitopes after either...

  2. Characterization of a Proteasome and TAP-independent Presentation of Intracellular Epitopes by HLA-B27 Molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Magnacca, A.

    2012-07-17

    Nascent HLA-class I molecules are stabilized by proteasome-derived peptides in the ER and the new complexes proceed to the cell surface through the post-ER vesicles. It has been shown, however, that less stable complexes can exchange peptides in the Trans Golgi Network (TGN). HLA-B27 are the most studied HLA-class I molecules due to their association with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). Chimeric proteins driven by TAT of HIV have been exploited by us to deliver viral epitopes, whose cross-presentation by the HLA-B27 molecules was proteasome and TAP-independent and not restricted to Antigen-Presenting Cells (APC). Here, using these chimeric proteins as epitope suppliers, we compared with each other and with the HLA-A2 molecules, the two HLA-B*2705 and B*2709 alleles differing at residue 116 (D116H) and differentially associated with AS. We found that the antigen presentation by the two HLA-B27 molecules was proteasome-, TAP-, and APC-independent whereas the presentation by the HLA-A2 molecules required proteasome, TAP and professional APC. Assuming that such difference could be due to the unpaired, highly reactive Cys-67 distinguishing the HLA-B27 molecules, C67S mutants in HLA-B*2705 and B*2709 and V67C mutant in HLA-A*0201 were also analyzed. The results showed that this mutation did not influence the HLA-A2-restricted antigen presentation while it drastically affected the HLA-B27-restricted presentation with, however, remarkable differences between B*2705 and B*2709. The data, together with the occurrence on the cell surface of unfolded molecules in the case of C67S-B*2705 mutant but not in that of C67S-B*2709 mutant, indicates that Cys-67 has a more critical role in stabilizing the B*2705 rather than the B*2709 complexes.

  3. An HLA-B27 Homodimer Specific Antibody Recognizes a Discontinuous Mixed-Disulfide Epitope as Identified by Affinity-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuraşcu, Marius-Ionuţ; Marroquin Belaunzanar, Osiris; Cozma, Claudia; Petrausch, Ulf; Renner, Christoph; Przybylski, Michael

    2016-04-01

    HLA-B27 homodimer formation is believed to be a hallmark of HLA-B27 associated spondyloarthritides. Recently, we have generated a homodimer-specific monoclonal antibody (HD6) and have demonstrated that HLA-B27 homodimer complexes are present on monocytes of healthy HLA-B27 gene carriers at low levels, with significantly increased levels at active disease. The capability of the HD6 antibody to discriminate between correctly formed HLA-B27 heterotrimers and pathology-associated homodimers is striking and cannot be explained by the primary structure of HLA-B27. We hypothesized that HD6 accesses a unique epitope and used affinity-mass spectrometry for its identification. The HD6 antibody was immobilized on an activated sepharose affinity column, and HLA-B27 homodimer characterized for affinity. The epitope was identified by proteolytic epitope excision and MALDI mass spectrometry, and shown to comprise a discontinuous Cys-203- 257-Cys mixed-disulfide peptide structure that is not accessible in HLA-B27 heterotrimers due to protection by noncovalently linked β2-microglobulin. The epitope peptides were synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis, and the two monomeric peptide components, HLA-B27(203-219) and HLA-B27(257-273), as well as the homo- and hetero-dimeric disulfide linked combinations prepared. The affinity binding constants KD towards the antibodies were determined using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor, and showed the highest affinity with a KD of approximately 40 nM to the HD6 antibody for the (203-219)-SS-(257-273) mixed disulfide epitope.

  4. A comparison of self-reported joint symptoms following infection with different enteric pathogens: effect of HLA-B27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiellerup, P.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Locht, H.

    2008-01-01

    positive fecal culture for Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and E. coli were addressed by questionnaires inquiring about gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the occurrence of joint pain in a previously healthy joint within 4 weeks after onset of infection. A blood sample was requested for HLA......-B27 typing. RESULTS: Of 3146 patients invited, 2105 (67%) responded to the survey questionnaire. The triggering infections were Campylobacter, 1003; Salmonella, 619; E. coli, 290; Shigella, 102; and Yersinia, 91. JPrea was reported by 294 subjects: Campylobacter, 131 (13.1%); Salmonella, 104 (16.......8%); Yersinia, 21 (23.1%); Shigella, 10 (9.8%); and E. coli, 28 (9.7%). There was a significant association between severity of gastroenteritis and development of arthralgia (p = 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for JPrea in an HLA-B27-positive individual was 2.62 (95% CI 1.67-3.93) for the entire group. A...

  5. Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Inactive HLA-B27-Associated-Spectrum Anterior Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Lisette; Los, Leonoor I

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) in patients with HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis (AU). The study was conducted in 2012 at the ophthalmology department of the University Medical Center of Groningen. We included AU patients who were HLA-B27 positive and/or were diagnosed by a rheumatologist with an HLA-B27 associated systemic disease. Sixty-one of 123 (50%) adult patients participated. All patients filled-out the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), social support lists and an additional questionnaire for gathering general information. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics. Analyses were conducted on various patient and ocular characteristics. We compared our NEI VFQ-25 scores with those previously found in the literature. Our main outcome measures were VR-QOL scores and their associations with various general patient and ocular characteristics. We found that the NEI VFQ-25 mean overall composite score was 88.98.8, which is relatively high, but lower than that found in a normal working population. The mean general health score was 47.420.8, which is lower than in patients with other ocular diseases. Patients with a systemic disease scored significantly lower on general health and VR-QOL, compared to patients without a systemic disease. Patients with a depression (6/59 (10%)) frequently had ankylosing spondylitis (5/6 patients) and they scored significantly worse on VR-QOL. We concluded that patients with HLA-B27 associated AU have a relatively high VR-QOL. However, the presence of a systemic disease is associated with lower VR-QOL and general health scores. In addition, depression is associated with a lower VR-QOL. PMID:26808922

  6. Structural analysis of an HLA-B27 functional variant, B27d detected in American blacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a new functional variant B27d has been established by comparative peptide mapping and radiochemical sequencing. This analysis complete the structural characterization of the six know histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 subtypes. The only detected amino acid change between the main HLA-B27.1 subtype and B27d is that of Try59 to His59. Position 59 has not been previously found to vary among class I HLA or H-2 antigens. Such substitution accounts for the reported isoelectric focusing pattern of this variant. HLA-B27d is the only B27 variant found to differ from other subtypes by a single amino acid replacement. The nature of the change is compatible with its origin by a point mutation from HLB-B27.1. Because B27d was found only American blacks and in no other ethnic groups, it is suggested that this variant originated as a result of a mutation of the B27.1 gene that occurred within the black population. Structural analysis of B27d was done by comparative mapping. Radiochemical sequencing was carried out with 14C-labeled and 3H-labeled amino acids

  7. Effect of HLA-B*27 and its subtypes on clinical manifestations and severity of ankylosing spondylitis in Iranian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Fallahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the role of HLA-B*27 and it's subtypes in determining severity and clinical manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis (AS.A total of 163 AS patients were assessed for clinical manifestations and severity using structured questionnaires. HLA-B*27 screening and B*27 sub-typing were performed by PCR.One hundred twenty two patients (74.8% were B*27 positive. The male to female ratio, peripheral arthritis, steroid use, intense dorsal kyphosis and decrease of cervical slope had a significantly higher frequency in B*27 positive patients compared to B*27 negative ones (p=0.01, 0.001, 0.01, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively. However, the age of diagnosis was significantly lower in B*27 positive patients (p=0.005. Trend in uveitis and some severity markers including: BASMI and ASQoL were toward higher values in B*27 positive group with no significant difference. After controlling confounding variables, significant relationship was found only between B*27 and BASMI (p=0.01. B*27 subtypes in patients were included B*2705: 48.4%, B*2702: 42.6%, B*2704: 5.7% and B*2707: 3.3%. No significant differences were seen for severity markers and clinical manifestations between subtypes; although trend toward lower values of severity markers, less intense dorsal kyphosis and less decrease of cervical slope were observed in B*2704 and B*2707 versus other polymorphisms.Clinical features and severity of AS is influenced by HLA-B*27. Trend toward higher severity markers in B*2705 and B*2702 versus other polymorphisms might be subject of interest for evaluation in other ethnicities with concentration to other novel susceptibility genes co-inherited in each B*27 subtype.

  8. Multiple sclerosis and HLA-B27 negative sacroiliitis in a Crohn’s disease patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Katsanos, N. Tzambouras, E.V. Tsianos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY A relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and MS is supported by a higher than expected coexistence of these diseases among families and individuals. A 32 year-old male with Crohn’s disease of the terminal ileum diagnosed 4 years earlier and HLA-B27 bilateral sacroiliitis diagnosed two years earlier, was admitted to our hospital because of an acute episode of blurred vision. In addition the patient complained of urine incontinence. Before this admission the patient had been elsewhere administered three doses of Remicade and 16mg of methylprednisolone p.os. During admission the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was made (MRI and IgG Index and Remicade was discontinued. The patient was started on therapy with interferon-beta for MS, oxybutynin hydrochloride (10mg/day for urine incontinence, prednizolone (10mg/day, methotrexate (10mg/week and azathioprine (100mg/day for Crohn’s disease and is now in excellent clinical status. To the best of our knowledge this is one of the very rare cases of Crohn’s disease with HLA-B27 negative sacroiliitis preceding multiple sclerosis diagnosis. Key words: Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, Remicade

  9. Extremely rare coincidence of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthropathy HLA-B27 positive and Stiff Person Syndrome - rheumatologist point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinović, Ivanka; Pivalica, Dinko; Aljinović, Jure; Vlak, Tonko; Škorić, Ela; Martinović Kaliterna, Dušanka

    2016-03-01

    Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS) is a rare autoimmune neurological disorder characterized by progressive stiffness and rigidity of truncal muscles accompanied with co-contraction of agonist-antagonist muscles. Our 51-year-old female patient was presented for the first time to physiatrists in 2006 and diagnosed with axial-spondyloarthropathy (SpA) HLA-B27 positive. SPS was diagnosed 7 years after initial symptoms. SPS should be taken into consideration in HLA-B27 positive patients if stiffness of paravertebral and abdominal muscles progresses during SpA therapy. PMID:24289195

  10. Expression profile of IL-1 family cytokines in aqueous humor and sera of patients with HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis and idiopathic anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Binbin; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ling; Gordon, Lynn; Chen, Ling

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytokine expression profile of specific IL-1 family members in the aqueous humor and sera of patients with HLA-B27 associated acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and idiopathic AAU. Following informed consent, a total of 13 patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU, 12 patients with idiopathic AAU and 9 controls were recruited to this study from May 2013 to July 2014. Each individual received a complete ophthalmologic examination. Aqueous humor and sera samples were collected and 11 inflammation-related cytokines of the IL-1 family (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-1 receptor antagonist [IL-1Ra], IL-18, IL-36 receptor antagonist [IL-36Ra], IL-33, IL-36?, IL-36?, IL-36?, IL-37, IL-38) were quantitatively measured and analyzed for statistical significance between groups. The degree of inflammation, anterior chamber cell or flare, correlated with expression of IL-1?, IL-1Ra, and IL-18. The highest levels of IL-1?, IL-1Ra, IL-18, and IL-36Ra were seen in the aqueous of patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU and this was statically significant when compared to the controls, but not to idiopathic AAU. Expression of IL-18 was statistically higher in the aqueous of patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU in comparison to either idiopathic AAU or controls, but this may reflect greater inflammation in this patient group. In the sera only IL-1? was statistically higher in the HLA-B27 associated AAU in comparison to the control. Cytokine analysis reveals elevation of multiple IL-1 family members in the aqueous humor of patients with AAU as compared to controls. The specific signature of inflammation may potentially be useful in developing new future therapies for AAU. PMID:26116905

  11. Prevalence of HLA-B27 in Moroccan healthy subjects and patients with ankylosing spondylitis and mapping construction of several factors influencing AS diagnosis by using multiple correspondence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akassou, Amal; Yacoubi, Hanae; Jamil, Afaf; Dakka, Nadia; Amzazi, Saad; Sadki, Khalid; Niamane, Redouane; Elhassani, Selma; Bakri, Youssef

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of human leukocyte antigen HLA-B27 in Moroccan healthy controls and in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and to analyze the correlation between HLA-B27 and AS in Moroccan patients. The prevalence of HLA-B27 was determined by evaluating the number of HLA-B27-positive samples in 128 healthy subjects and in 53 patients diagnosed with AS according to the ESSG and AMOR criteria. HLA-B27 was determined by the polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers. Multivariate analysis of our data (HLA-B27, age, sex, and family history) for AS and healthy controls was performed by multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). The frequency of HLA-B27 was significantly greater in AS patients (45.3 %) than in healthy controls (4.7 %) [p < 0.0001, OR 16.8, and CI 95 % (5.83-51.03)]. In addition, HLA-B27 was more common in male patients than in female ones (p < 0.05). 100 % of the AS patients reported a family history of AS, whereas only 20 % of the healthy controls reported a family history of AS. The graphical interpretation of MCA showed a significant relation between the presence of HLA-B27 and AS. This study strengthens the link between HLA-B27 and AS and represents a very valuable informative diagnostic tool, especially in regard to male patients who have a family history of AS. PMID:26248534

  12. Sulfasalazine Treatment Suppresses the Formation of HLA-B27 Heavy Chain Homodimer in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Lu, Ming-Chi; Huang, Kuang-Yung; Huang, Hsien-Lu; Liu, Su-Qin; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocytic antigen-B27 heavy chain (HLA-B27 HC) has the tendency to fold slowly, in turn gradually forming a homodimer, (B27-HC)? via a disulfide linkage to activate killer cells and T-helper 17 cells and inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to trigger the IL-23/IL-17 axis for pro-inflammatory reactions. All these consequences lead to the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Sulfasalazine (SSA) is a common medication used for treatment of patients with AS. However, the effects of SSA treatment on (B27-HC)? formation and on suppression of IL-23/IL-17 axis of AS patients remain to be determined. In the current study, we examine the (B27-HC)? of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), the mean grade of sarcoiliitis and lumbar spine Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index (BASRI) scores of 23 AS patients. The results indicated that AS patients without (B27-HC)? on PBMC showed the lower levels of mean grade of sarcoiliitis and the lumbar spine BASRI scores. In addition, after treatment with SSA for four months, the levels of (B27-HC)? on PBMCs were significantly reduced. Cytokines mRNA levels, including TNF?, IL-17A, IL-17F and IFN?, were also significantly down-regulated in PBMCs. However, SSA treatment did not affect the levels of IL-23 and IL-23R mRNAs. PMID:26729099

  13. Peptide-binding motifs associated with MHC molecules common in Chinese rhesus macaques are analogous to those of human HLA supertypes and include HLA-B27-like alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mothé, Bianca R.; Southwood, Scott; Sidney, John; English, A. Michelle; Wriston, Amanda; Hoof, Ilka; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Sette, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    deciphering outcomes of infection and vaccine efficacy. In this study, we have provided detailed characterization of six prevalent Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I alleles, yielding a combined phenotypic frequency of 29 %. The peptide-binding specificity of two of these alleles, Mamu-A2*01:02 and Mamu-B*010......Chinese rhesus macaques are of particular interest in simian immunodeficiency virus/human immunodeficiency virus (SIV/HIV) research as these animals have prolonged kinetics of disease progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), compared to their Indian counterparts, suggesting that......:01, as well as the previously characterized allele Mamu-B*003:01 (and Indian rhesus Mamu-B*003:01), was found to be analogous to that of alleles in the HLA-B27 supertype family. Specific alleles in the HLA-B27 supertype family, including HLA-B*27:05, have been associated with long-term nonprogression to...

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Endogenous Peptidomes Displayed by HLA-B*27 and Mamu-B*08: Two MHC Class I Alleles Associated with Elite Control of HIV/SIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilla, Miguel; Alvarez, Iñaki; Ramos-Fernández, Antonio; Lombardía, Manuel; Paradela, Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo

    2016-03-01

    Indian rhesus macaques are arguably the most reliable animal models in AIDS research. In this species the MHC class I allele Mamu-B*08, among others, is associated with elite control of SIV replication. A similar scenario is observed in humans where the expression of HLA-B*27 or HLA-B*57 has been linked to slow or no progression to AIDS after HIV infection. Despite having large differences in their primary structure, it has been reported that HLA-B*27 and Mamu-B*08 display peptides with sequence similarity. To fine-map the Mamu-B*08 binding motif and assess its similarities with that of HLA-B*27, we affinity purified the peptidomes bound to these MHC class I molecules and analyzed them by LC-MS, identifying several thousands of endogenous ligands. Sequence analysis of both sets of peptides revealed a degree of similarity in their binding motifs, especially at peptide position 2 (P2), where arginine was present in the vast majority of ligands of both allotypes. In addition, several differences emerged from this analysis: (i) ligands displayed by Mamu-B*08 tended to be shorter and to have lower molecular weight, (ii) Mamu-B*08 showed a higher preference for glutamine at P2 as a suboptimal binding motif, and (iii) the second major anchor position, found at PΩ, was much more restrictive in Mamu-B*08. In this regard, HLA-B*27 bound efficiently peptides with aliphatic, aromatic (including tyrosine), and basic C-terminal residues while Mamu-B*08 preferred peptides with leucine and phenylalanine in this position. Finally, in silico estimations of binding efficiency and competitive binding assays to Mamu-B*08 of several selected peptides revealed a good correlation between the characterized anchor motif and binding affinity. These results deepen our understanding of the molecular basis of the presentation of peptides by Mamu-B*08 and can contribute to the detection of novel SIV epitopes restricted by this allotype. PMID:26811146

  15. Azathioprine-induced severe pancytopenia due to a homozygous two-point mutation of the thiopurine methyltransferase gene in a patient with juvenile HLA-B27-associated spondylarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, G; Schtz, E; Haas, J P; Oellerich, M

    1997-10-01

    Severe pancytopenia due to azathioprine (AZA) toxicity in patients with autoimmune diseases is not uncommon. We describe a 14-year-old girl with HLA-B27+ spondylarthritis who was treated with AZA 3 mg/kg/day and who suddenly developed severe pancytopenia in the seventh week of treatment. Analysis of the catabolic pathway of AZA revealed a homozygous deficiency of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) on the basis of a combined 2-point mutation at nucleotide positions 460 and 719 in the gene for TPMT, causing a toxic level of the metabolic active 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) (2,394 pmoles/8 x 10(8) red blood cells). The patient was transfusion dependent and finally recovered 8 weeks after the development of the pancytopenia. At that time, 6-TGN had already returned to normal therapeutic levels. Family studies revealed another homozygous deficiency in the mother, while the other family members were heterozygous. PMID:9336428

  16. Can latent synergism of intestinal pathogens be responsible for inflammaging process causing Reiter's syndrome in a young patient HLA-B27 infected by atypical pathogens? A holistic view and clinical biochemical reinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Boccio, M; Lobefalo, L; Pennelli, A; Toniato, E; Martinotti, S; Tenaglia, R; Neri, G; Del Boccio, G; Gallenga, P E

    2012-01-01

    A case of a genetically HLA-B27 patient fully investigated by molecular analyses, following a holistic vision and an anamnestic assessment of multi-site ecosystems is repeated. VDRL, Lupus anti-coagulant (LAC) and Widal-Wright (WWR), resulted positive. The antibodies (IgG/IgA anti-Ct) against chronic Chlamydia trachomatis inflammation were positive. In the context of all the enzymatic activities in reference range, the AMS and the ALP enzymatic activities showed an increasing trend and a time course augment depending respectively. Cultures, parasitological, digestibility tests and molecular analyses were then performed to investigate the different human ecosystems. Parasitological research and digestibility test were performed, resulting a latent chronic bowel inflammation, including certain enteroinvasive pathogens, such as, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia and Campylobacter (Enteric Pathogens Group, EPG) and Escherichia Coli pathogens (Escherichia Coli Pathogens Group, ECPG). The Salmonella typhi-DNA resulted positive, while 90% of the total microbic charge (TMC) was represented by C. freundi in culture analyses. Interpreting the VDRL positive test as early triggering of autoimmune disease, a few acute phase proteins as a pauci-symptomatic chronic phlogistic process, the amylase and alkaline phosphatase alterations as tissue markers of early intestinal inflammation, the Widal's reaction positivity together with the precocious clinical and faecal manifestations, this study suggests the prime triggering role of these atypical pathogens to cause a chronic low grade autoimmune response against the tissue/organ susceptible target, causing inflammaging phenomenon in young patient with chronic latent infection by Salmonella typhi, leading to Reiter's syndrome, in HLA-B27 positive patient. PMID:23241124

  17. PP005. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension in transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkholt Andersen, Louise; Herse, Florian; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Dechend, Ralf; Müller, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats overexpress......INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats...

  18. Immunodeficient Parameters in the HIV-1 Transgenic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulie L. Chang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently an HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg rat model was created that carries a gag-pol-deleted HIV-1 genome under the control of the HIV-1 viral promoter. However, other viral proteins are expressed in most organs and tissues, and are found in the circulating blood. Since HIV-1 targets the immune system in humans, we examined two immunological parameters, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion (LEA and inflammatory cytokine production, in 5 mo old HIV-1Tg rats to identify immune functions that may be impaired even before the onset of symptoms of HIV-1 infection. We administered a single injection (i.p. of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250 ug/kg, to 5 mo old HIV-1Tg rats, age-matched transgenic control (Tg rats, and F344/NHsd (F344 control background strain rats. LPS induced an LEA response in both the Tg control and F344 control animals. However, in the HIV-1Tg rats, there was no LEA response to LPS. Following LPS administration, there was significantly greater serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, two pro-inflammatory cytokines, in the HIV-1Tg rats compared to the control animals. In contrast, the serum level of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was comparable in the HIV-1Tg, Tg control, and F344 control rats. Our data show that, in the HIV-1Tg rat, there is a negative correlation between the LEA response and the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial endotoxin. These findings suggest that the persistent presence of viral proteins may be, at least, partially responsible for the immunodeficiency that occurs with HIV-1 infection, and that the HIV-1Tg rat could be a valid rodent model in which to study various aspects of HIV-1 infection.

  19. A transgenic rat with ubiquitous expression of firefly luciferase gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamata, Yoji; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    In vivo imaging strategies provide cellular and molecular events in real time that helps us to understand biological processes in living animals. The development of molecular tags such as green fluorescent proteins and luciferase from the firefly Photinus pyralis has lead to a revolution in the visualization of complex biochemical processes. We developed a novel inbred transgenic rat strain containing firefly luciferase based on the transgenic (Tg) technique in rats. This Tg rat expressed the luciferase gene ubiquitously under control of the ROSA26 promoter. Cellular immune responsiveness against the luciferase protein was evaluated using conventional skin grafting and resulted in the long-term acceptance of Tg rat skin on wild-type rats. Strikingly, organ transplant with heart and small bowel demonstrated organ viability and graft survival, suggesting that cells from luciferase-Tg are transplantable to track their fate. Taking advantage of the less immunogenic luciferase, we also tested the role of hepatocyte-infusion in a liver injury model, and bone marrow-derived cells in a skin defect model. Employed in conjunction with modern advances in optical imaging, this luciferase-Tg rat system provides an innovative animal tool and a new means of facilitating biomedical research such as in the case of regeneration medicine.

  20. HIV-1 transgenic rats develop T cell abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV-1 infection leads to impaired antigen-specific T cell proliferation, increased susceptibility of T cells to apoptosis, progressive impairment of T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, and altered maturation of HIV-1-specific memory cells. We have identified similar impairments in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Tg rats developed an absolute reduction in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells able to produce IFN-γ following activation and an increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis. CD4+ and CD8+ effector/memory (CD45RC-CD62L-) pools were significantly smaller in Tg rats compared to non-Tg controls, although the converse was true for the naieve (CD45RC+CD62L+) T cell pool. Our interpretation is that the HIV transgene causes defects in the development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets, and that activation-induced apoptosis may be an essential factor in this process

  1. Developing tTA Transgenic Rats for Inducible and Reversible Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Jianbin Tong, Xu-Gang Xia

    2009-01-01

    To develop transgenic lines for conditional expression of desired genes in rats, we generated several lines of the transgenic rats carrying the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) gene. Using a vigorous, ubiquitous promoter to drive the tTA transgene, we obtained widespread expression of tTA in various tissues. Expression of tTA was sufficient to strongly activate its reporter gene, but was below the toxicity threshold. We examined the dynamics of Doxycycline (Dox)-regulated gene exp...

  2. Impulsivity trait in the early symptomatic BACHD transgenic rat model of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfr, Giuseppe; Doyre, Valrie; Bossi, Simon; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; El Massioui, Nicole

    2016-02-15

    Impulsivity trait was characterized in 3-5 months old BACHD rats, a transgenic model of Huntington disease, using (1) the delay discounting task to assess cognitive/choice impulsivity, and (2) the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate of Responding task to evaluate motor/action impulsivity. Transgenic animals showed a high level of choice impulsivity and, to a lesser extent, action impulsivity. Our results provide the first evidence that the transgenic BACHD rat (TG5 line) displays impulsivity disorder as early as 3 months old, as described in early symptomatic HD patients, thus adding to the face validity of the rat model. PMID:26592164

  3. Prostate carcinoma in transgenic Lewis rats - a tumor model for evaluation of immunological treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Laura E.; Becker, Jordan T; Dubovsky, Jason A.; Olson, Brian M.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic rodent models of prostate cancer have served as valuable preclinical models to evaluate novel treatments and understand malignant disease progression. In particular, a transgenic rat autochthonous model of prostate cancer using the SV40 large T antigen expressed under a prostate-specific probasin promoter was previously developed as a model of androgen-dependent prostate cancer (TRAP). In the current report, we backcrossed this strain to the Lewis strain, an inbred rat strain bette...

  4. Regulatory regions of rat insulin I gene necessary for expression in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Dandoy-Dron, F; Monthioux, E; Jami, J; Bucchini, D

    1991-01-01

    Ten transgenic mouse lines harboring the -346/-103 fragment of the rat insulin I enhancer linked to a heterologous promoter and a reporter gene (Eins-Ptk-CAT construct) were produced. Expression of the hybrid transgene was essentially observed in pancreas and to a lesser extent in brain. These results indicate that the rat insulin I promoter is dispensable for pancreatic expression. This insulin gene sequence is the shortest fragment described as conferring tissue-specific expression in trans...

  5. Transgenic LRRK2R1441G ratsa model for Parkinson disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal T. Shaikh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease (PD is the most common movement disorder, characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. While the cause of this disease is largely unknown, a rare autosomal dominant familial form of PD is caused by a genetic mutation in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene that presumably leads to a gain-of-function of LRRK2 kinase activity. Here, we explored the potential of over expression of this human gene in a new transgenic rat model to serve as an animal model for PD. Commercially available BAC transgenic rats expressing human LRRK2 with the familial PD mutation, R1441G, and their wild-type siblings were tested for deficits in motor function, sensorimotor gating, and higher cognitive function reminiscent of PD through the ages of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. At 12 months of age, rats were exposed to intraperitoneal injections of the environmental toxin Paraquat or saline. Our results indicate that LRRK2R1441G transgenic rats do not show signs of neurodegeneration and do not develop significant motor or cognitive deficits until the age of 16 months. In addition, LRRK2R1441G transgenic rats did not show increased vulnerability to sub-toxic doses of Paraquat. Gene expression studies indicate that despite genomic presence and initial expression of the transgene, its expression was greatly reduced in our aged rats. We conclude that the transgenic LRRK2R1441G rat is not a valid model for studying the pathology of PD and discuss this in relation to other transgenic rat models.

  6. A Novel Model of Intravital Platelet Imaging Using CD41-ZsGreen1 Transgenic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Makoto; Tomizawa, Atsuyuki; Ohno, Kousaku; Jakubowski, Joseph A.; Sugidachi, Atsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play pivotal roles in both hemostasis and thrombosis. Although models of intravital platelet imaging are available for thrombosis studies in mice, few are available for rat studies. The present effort aimed to generate fluorescent platelets in rats and assess their dynamics in a rat model of arterial injury. We generated CD41-ZsGreen1 transgenic rats, in which green fluorescence protein ZsGreen1 was expressed specifically in megakaryocytes and thus platelets. The transgenic rats exhibited normal hematological and biochemical values with the exception of body weight and erythroid parameters, which were slightly lower than those of wild-type rats. Platelet aggregation, induced by 20 μM ADP and 10 μg/ml collagen, and blood clotting times were not significantly different between transgenic and wild-type rats. Saphenous arteries of transgenic rats were injured with 10% FeCl3, and the formation of fluorescent thrombi was evaluated using confocal microscopy. FeCl3 caused time-dependent increases in the mean fluorescence intensity of injured arteries of vehicle-treated rats. Prasugrel (3 mg/kg, p.o.), administered 2 h before FeCl3, significantly inhibited fluorescence compared with vehicle-treated rats (4.5 ± 0.4 vs. 14.9 ± 2.4 arbitrary fluorescence units at 30 min, respectively, n = 8, P = 0.0037). These data indicate that CD41-ZsGreen1 transgenic rats represent a useful model for intravital imaging of platelet-mediated thrombus formation and the evaluation of antithrombotic agents. PMID:27128503

  7. Establishment of an Invasive Prostate Cancer Model in Transgenic Rats by Intermittent Testosterone Administration

    OpenAIRE

    SATO, SHINYA; Suzuki, Shugo; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Komiya, Masami; Ne, Long; Kato, Hiroyuki; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Yoriko; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    We have established a transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of the prostate (TRAP) model that features uniform adenocarcinoma development in prostatic lobes at high incidence within a short experimental period. However, no invasive carcinomas with reactive stroma characteristics similar to those in man were observed. We therefore have focused on a new model for invasive carcinoma of the prostate using TRAP rats. In experiment 1, male TRAP rats in groups 1 and 2 were treated with orchiectomy at da...

  8. Developing tTA Transgenic Rats for Inducible and Reversible Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Min Yang, Carlisle P Landel, Pedro Yuxing Xia, Yong-Jian Liu, Xu Gang Xia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop transgenic lines for conditional expression of desired genes in rats, we generated several lines of the transgenic rats carrying the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA gene. Using a vigorous, ubiquitous promoter to drive the tTA transgene, we obtained widespread expression of tTA in various tissues. Expression of tTA was sufficient to strongly activate its reporter gene, but was below the toxicity threshold. We examined the dynamics of Doxycycline (Dox-regulated gene expression in transgenic rats. In the two transmittable lines, tTA-mediated activation of the reporter gene was fully subject to regulation by Dox. Dox dose-dependently suppressed tTA-activated gene expression. The washout time for the effects of Dox was dose-dependent. We tested a complex regime of Dox administration to determine the optimal effectiveness and washout duration. Dox was administered at a high dose (500 μg/ml in drinking water for two days to reach the effective concentration, and then was given at a low dose (20 μg/ml to maintain effectiveness. This regimen of Dox administration can achieve a quick switch between ON and OFF statuses of tTA-activated gene expression. In addition, administration of Dox to pregnant rats fully suppressed postnatal tTA-activated gene expression in their offspring. Sufficient levels of Dox are present in mother's milk to produce maximal efficacy in nursing neonates. Administration of Dox to pregnant or nursing rats can provide a continual suppression of tTA-dependent gene expression during embryonic and postnatal development. The tTA transgenic rat allows for inducible and reversible gene expression in the rat; this important tool will be valuable in the development of genetic rat models of human diseases.

  9. Development of transgenic rats producing human ?-amyloid precursor protein as a model for Alzheimer's disease: Transgene and endogenous APP genes are regulated tissue-specifically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that affects a large and growing number of elderly individuals. In addition to idiopathic disease, AD is also associated with autosomal dominant inheritance, which causes a familial form of AD (FAD. Some instances of FAD have been linked to mutations in the ?-amyloid protein precursor (APP. Although there are numerous mouse AD models available, few rat AD models, which have several advantages over mice, have been generated. Results Fischer 344 rats expressing human APP driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter were generated via lentiviral vector infection of Fischer 344 zygotes. We generated two separate APP-transgenic rat lines, APP21 and APP31. Serum levels of human amyloid-beta (A?40 were 298 pg/ml for hemizygous and 486 pg/ml for homozygous APP21 animals. Serum A?42 levels in APP21 homozygous rats were 135 pg/ml. Immunohistochemistry in brain showed that the human APP transgene was expressed in neurons, but not in glial cells. These findings were consistent with independent examination of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP in the brains of eGFP-transgenic rats. APP21 and APP31 rats expressed 7.5- and 3-times more APP mRNA, respectively, than did wild-type rats. Northern blots showed that the human APP transgene, driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter, is expressed significantly more in brain, kidney and lung compared to heart and liver. A similar expression pattern was also seen for the endogenous rat APP. The unexpected similarity in the tissue-specific expression patterns of endogenous rat APP and transgenic human APP mRNAs suggests regulatory elements within the cDNA sequence of APP. Conclusion This manuscript describes the generation of APP-transgenic inbred Fischer 344 rats. These are the first human AD model rat lines generated by lentiviral infection. The APP21 rat line expresses high levels of human APP and could be a useful model for AD. Tissue-specific expression in the two transgenic rat lines and in wild-type rats contradicts our current understanding of APP gene regulation. Determination of the elements that are responsible for tissue-specific expression of APP may enable new treatment options for AD.

  10. Modified impact of emotion on temporal discrimination in a transgenic rat model of Huntington disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Faure; Brown, Bruce L.; Nguyen, Hoa P.; Stephan Von Horsten

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by triad of motor, cognitive, and emotional symptoms along with neuropathology in fronto-striatal circuit and limbic system including amygdala. Emotional alterations, which have a negative impact on patient well-being, represent some of the earliest symptoms of HD and might be related to the onset of the neurodegenerative process. In the transgenic rat model (tgHD rats), evidence suggest emotional alterations at the symptomatic stage along with neuro...

  11. A new transgenic rat model of of hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Qi, N.; Wang, J.; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal; Kurtz, T. W.

    Elsevier. Roč. 6, č. 1 (2005), s. 46-46. ISSN 1567-5688. [Congress of the European Atherosclerosis Society /75./. 23.04.2005-26.04.2005, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : SREBP1A transgenic * rat * metabolic syndrome Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  12. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference and associated behavioural plasticity in HIV-1 transgenic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Homji, Natasha F; Vigorito, Michael; Chang, Sulie L

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of morphine addiction in HIV-1 infected persons is higher than the healthy population. The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) which mediates the actions of morphine is shown to be up-regulated in the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat. In this study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) test to investigate if HIV-1Tg rats are more sensitive to the addictive properties of morphine compared to F344 control animals. Morphine-CPP was successfully established in the HIV-1Tg and F344 rat...

  13. Developmental expression of Fos-lacZ in the brains of postnatal transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasof, G M; Smeyne, R J; Curran, T; Morgan, J I

    1996-05-31

    Previously, we reported the production and characterization of fos-lacZ transgenic mice [41] and rats [19] that can be used to monitor both constitutive and evoked expression of c-fos in vivo. When we compared the sites of spontaneous fos-lacZ expression in the brains of developing transgenic fos-lacZ mice and rats, the patterns were almost identical. However, throughout the first postnatal month, the rat striatum contained a large number of Fos-lacZ-positive cells whereas only a few positive cells were seen in the mouse. By adulthood, the number of Fos-lacZ-positive cells in the rat striatum had declined dramatically to the low basal values seen in mice. To establish whether this species difference was evident in the adult striatum, rats and mice were treated with metamphetamine. This indirect D1 agonist, triggered a pronounced induction of fos-lacZ in the rat striatum while only a modest response was observed in the mouse. These data imply: (1) there are differences in dopamine-dependent stimulus-transcription coupling between the two species. (2) Maturation of dopaminergic signalling pathways may underlie the spontaneous immediate-early gene response in the developing rat striatum. PMID:8804706

  14. Temporal Sensitivity Changes with Extended Training in a Bisection Task in a Transgenic Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Bruce L.; Sophie Hhn; Stephan von Hrsten; Valerie Doyere

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated temporal perception in a Huntington disease transgenic rat model using a temporal bisection procedure. After initial discrimination training in which animals learned to press one lever after a 2-s tone duration, and the other lever after a 8-s tone duration for food reward, the bisection procedure was implemented in which intermediate durations with no available reinforcement were interspersed with trials with the anchor durations. Bisection tests were repeated ...

  15. Bioimaging of DsRed fluorescence in the transgenic rat liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arao, Yukitomo; Hakamata, Yoji; Igarashi, Yuka; Sato, Yuki; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    We developed the Alb-DsRed2 transgenic (Tg) rat designed with liver-specific expression of the red fluorescent protein, DsRed2. Herein, we report high expression of DsRed2 in neonate liver of both sexes, although they were sexually dimorphic and exhibited a male-specific pattern in adult rats. In an effort to examine the expression in each animal under development, we employed an in vivo Bio-imaging system to quantitatively estimate hepatic DsRed2 expression levels. The temporal profiles pertaining to DsRed expression were similar in male and female Tg rats until 28 days old. The levels in both sexes decreased gradually following birth, and were not detectable at 21 days. Subsequently, expression in males increased again at 35 days and was maintained at a persistently high level thereafter. On the other hand, expression in females disappeared steadily. Although hepatic DsRed expression levels in gonadectomized Tg rats was not significantly different, DsRed expression in hypophysectomized female Tg rats appeared dramatically 72 hr following operation. Hepatocytes were collected from adult Tg rats and cultured in conditioning medium. DsRed expression in female hepatocytes could be detected 72 hr following culturing. These results suggest that hepatic DsRed expression in female rats is regulated in vivo by the pituitary. This report is shows use of Alb-DsRed2 Tg rats in conjunction with a novel bio-imaging system represents a powerful experimental system.

  16. Cognitive impairment in the Tg6590 transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloskowska, Ewa; Pham, Therese M; Nilsson, Tatjana; Zhu, Shunwei; Oberg, Johanna; Codita, Alina; Pedersen, Lars A; Pedersen, Jan T; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Winblad, Bengt; Folkesson, Ronnie; Benedikz, Eirikur

    Recently, interest in the rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been growing. We have previously described the Tg6590 transgenic rat line expressing the amyloid precursor protein containing the Swedish AD mutation (K670M/N671L) that shows early stages of Abeta deposition......, predominantly in cerebrovascular blood vessels, after 15 months of age. Here we show that by the age of 9 months, that is long before the appearance of Abeta deposits, the Tg6590 rats exhibit deficits in the Morris water maze spatial navigation task and altered spontaneous behaviour in the open-field test. The...... should prove a suitable model of early AD for advanced studies including serial cerebrospinal fluid sampling, electrophysiology, neuroimaging or complex behavioural testing....

  17. Generation of a Homozygous Transgenic Rat Strain Stably Expressing a Calcium Sensor Protein for Direct Examination of Calcium Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Kornlia Szebnyi; Andrs Fredi; Orsolya Kolacsek; Enik? Pergel; Zsuzsanna B?sze; Balzs Bender; Pter Vajdovich; Jzsef Tvri; Lszl Homolya; Gergely Szakcs; Lszl Hja; gnes Enyedi; Balzs Sarkadi; gota Apti; Orbn, Tams I.

    2015-01-01

    In drug discovery, prediction of selectivity and toxicity require the evaluation of cellular calcium homeostasis. The rat is a preferred laboratory animal for pharmacology and toxicology studies, while currently no calcium indicator protein expressing rat model is available. We established a transgenic rat strain stably expressing the GCaMP2 fluorescent calcium sensor by a transposon-based methodology. Zygotes were co-injected with mRNA of transposase and a CAG-GCaMP2 expressing construct, an...

  18. Light-evoked Somatosensory Perception of Transgenic Rats That Express Channelrhodopsin-2 in Dorsal Root Ganglion Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Zhi-Gang; Ito, Shin; Honjoh, Tatsuya; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Toru; Fukazawa, Yugo; Yawo, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrate somatosensory systems, each mode of touch-pressure, temperature or pain is sensed by sensory endings of different dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which conducted to the specific cortical loci as nerve impulses. Therefore, direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve endings causes an erroneous sensation to be conducted by the nerve. We have recently generated several transgenic lines of rat in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) transgene is driven by the Thy-1.2 promot...

  19. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats causes oxidant stress and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Barbara A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for acute and chronic airway disease even though there is no evidence that the virus can infect the lung epithelium. Although HIV-related proteins including gp120 and Tat can directly cause oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction, their effects in the lung are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of HIV-1 transgene expression in rats on alveolar epithelial barrier function. Alveolar epithelial barrier function was assessed by determining lung liquid clearance in vivo and alveolar epithelial monolayer permeability in vitro. Oxidant stress in the alveolar space was determined by measuring the glutathione redox couple by high performance liquid chromatography, and the expression and membrane localization of key tight junction proteins were assessed. Finally, the direct effects of the HIV-related proteins gp120 and Tat on alveolar epithelial barrier formation and tight junction protein expression were determined. Results HIV-1 transgene expression caused oxidant stress within the alveolar space and impaired epithelial barrier function even though there was no evidence of overt inflammation within the airways. The expression and membrane localization of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin were decreased in alveolar epithelial cells from HIV-1 transgenic rats. Further, treating alveolar epithelial monolayers from wild type rats in vitro with recombinant gp120 or Tat for 24 hours reproduced many of the effects on zonula occludens-1 and occludin expression and membrane localization. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-related proteins cause oxidant stress and alter the expression of critical tight junction proteins in the alveolar epithelium, resulting in barrier dysfunction.

  20. Production and sorting of transgenic, modified human parathyroid hormone in vivo in rat salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaansen, Janik; ZHENG, CHANGYU; Perez, Paola; Baum, Bruce J

    2009-01-01

    Polarized salivary epithelial cells can sort secretory proteins towards either the basolateral or apical pole. Transgenic human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) exclusively sorts apically in rat submandibular glands. To help understand this specific process we modified the hPTH cDNA sequence and delivered the cDNAs to glands in vivo using adenoviral (Ad) vectors. The Ad vectors encoded: 1) the native form of hPTH (Ad.pre-pro-hPTH1-84), 2) the native sequence, but with the pro segment deleted (Ad.pr...

  1. Effect of HIV-1-related protein expression on cardiac and skeletal muscles from transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidot David M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and the consequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has protean manifestations, including muscle wasting and cardiomyopathy, which contribute to its high morbidity. The pathogenesis of these myopathies remains partially understood, and may include nutritional deficiencies, biochemical abnormalities, inflammation, and other mechanisms due to viral infection and replication. Growing evidence has suggested that HIV-1-related proteins expressed by the host in response to viral infection, including Tat and gp120, may also be involved in the pathophysiology of AIDS, particularly in cells or tissues that are not directly infected with HIV-1. To explore the potentially independent effects of HIV-1-related proteins on heart and skeletal muscles, we used a transgenic rat model that expresses several HIV-1-related proteins (e.g., Tat, gp120, and Nef. Outcome measures included basic heart and skeletal muscle morphology, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress, and gene expressions of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF-1 and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGFβ1, three factors associated with muscle catabolism. Results Consistent with HIV-1 associated myopathies in humans, HIV-1 transgenic rats had increased relative heart masses, decreased relative masses of soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles, and decreased total and myosin heavy chain type-specific plantaris muscle fiber areas. In both tissues, the levels of cystine (Cyss, the oxidized form of the anti-oxidant cysteine (Cys, and Cyss:Cys ratios were significantly elevated, and cardiac tissue from HIV-1 transgenic rats had altered glutathione metabolism, all reflective of significant oxidative stress. In HIV-1 transgenic rat hearts, MuRF-1 gene expression was increased. Further, HIV-1-related protein expression also increased atrogin-1 (~14- and ~3-fold and TGFβ1 (~5-fold and ~3-fold in heart and plantaris muscle tissues, respectively. Conclusion We provide compelling experimental evidence that HIV-1-related proteins can lead to significant cardiac and skeletal muscle complications independently of viral infection or replication. Our data support the concept that HIV-1-related proteins are not merely disease markers, but rather have significant biological activity that may lead to increased oxidative stress, the stimulation of redox-sensitive pathways, and altered muscle morphologies. If correct, this pathophysiological scheme suggests that the use of dietary thiol supplements could reduce skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction in HIV-1-infected individuals.

  2. Endotoxin-Mediated Downregulation of Hepatic Drug Transporters in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Ragia H; Piquette-Miller, Micheline

    2016-05-01

    Altered expression of drug transporters and metabolic enzymes is known to occur in infection-induced inflammation. We hypothesize that in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, further alteration could occur as a result of augmented inflammation. The HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat is used to simulate HIV pathologies associated with the presence of HIV viral proteins. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of endotoxin administration on the gene expression of drug transporters in the liver of HIV-Tg rats. Male and female HIV-Tg and wild-type (WT) littermates were injected with 5 mg/kg endotoxin or saline (n= 7-9/group). Eighteen hours later, rats were euthanized and tissues were collected. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to measure hepatic gene and protein expression, respectively, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum cytokine levels. Although an augmented inflammatory response was seen in HIV-Tg rats, similar endotoxin- mediated downregulation of Abcb1a, Abcc2, Abcg2, Abcb11, Slco1a1, Slco1a2, Slco1b2, Slc10a1, Slc22a1, Cyp3a2, and Cyp3a9 gene expression was seen in the HIV-Tg and WT groups. A significantly greater endotoxin- mediated downregulation of Ent1/Slc29a1 was seen in female HIV-Tg rats. Basal expression of inflammatory mediators was not altered in the HIV-Tg rat; likewise, the basal expression of most transporters was not significantly different between HIV-Tg and WT rats. Our findings suggest that hepatobiliary clearances of endogenous and exogenous substrates are altered in the HIV-Tg rat after endotoxin exposure. This is of particular importance because HIV-infected individuals frequently present with bacterial or viral infections, which are a potential source for drug-disease interactions. PMID:26977098

  3. Vascular oxidative stress and nitric oxide depletion in HIV-1 transgenic rats are reversed by glutathione restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Erik R; Kleinhenz, Dean J; Liang, Bill; Dikalov, Sergey; Guidot, David M; Hart, C Michael; Jones, Dean P; Sutliff, Roy L

    2008-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have a higher incidence of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease than uninfected individuals. Recent reports have demonstrated that viral proteins upregulate reactive oxygen species, which may contribute to elevated cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 patients. In this study we employed an HIV-1 transgenic rat model to investigate the physiological effects of viral protein expression on the vasculature. Markers of oxidative stress in wild-type and HIV-1 transgenic rats were measured using electron spin resonance, fluorescence microscopy, and various molecular techniques. Relaxation studies were completed on isolated aortic rings, and mRNA and protein were collected to measure changes in expression of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide sources. HIV-1 transgenic rats displayed significantly less NO-hemoglobin, serum nitrite, serum S-nitrosothiols, aortic tissue NO, and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation than wild-type rats. NO reduction was not attributed to differences in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) protein expression, eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation, or tetrahydrobiopterin availability. Aortas from HIV-1 transgenic rats had higher levels of superoxide and 3-nitrotyrosine but did not differ in expression of superoxide-generating sources NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. However, transgenic aortas displayed decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Administering the glutathione precursor procysteine decreased superoxide, restored aortic NO levels and NO-hemoglobin, and improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in HIV-1 transgenic rats. These results show that HIV-1 protein expression decreases NO and causes endothelial dysfunction. Diminished antioxidant capacity increases vascular superoxide levels, which reduce NO bioavailability and promote peroxynitrite generation. Restoring glutathione levels reverses HIV-1 protein-mediated effects on superoxide, NO, and vasorelaxation. PMID:18456725

  4. Relaxin Treatment in an Ang-II-Based Transgenic Preeclamptic-Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Nadine; Golic, Michaela; Herse, Florian; Rugor, Julianna; Linz, Dominik; Solano, Maria Emilia; Müller, Dominik N.; Dechend, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Relaxin is a peptide related to pregnancy that induces nitric oxide-related and gelatinase-related effects, allowing vasodilation and pregnancy-related adjustments permitting parturition to occur. Relaxin controls the hemodynamic and renovascular adaptive changes that occur during pregnancy. Interest has evolved regarding relaxin and a therapeutic principle in preeclampsia and heart failure. Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disorder, featuring hypertension, proteinuria and placental anomalies. We investigated relaxin in an established transgenic rat model of preeclampsia, where the phenotype is induced by angiotensin (Ang)-II production in mid pregnancy. We gave recombinant relaxin to preeclamtic rats at day 9 of gestation. Hypertension and proteinuria was not ameliorated after relaxin administration. Intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus was unaltered by relaxin. Heart-rate responses and relaxin levels documented drug effects. In this Ang-II-based model of preeclampsia, we could not show a salubrious effect on preeclampsia. PMID:26963382

  5. Angiotensin II induced inflammation in the kidney and in the heart of double transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Hermann

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We are investigating a double transgenic rat (dTGR model, in which rats transgenic for the human angiotensinogen and renin genes are crossed. These rats develop moderately severe hypertension but die of end-organ cardiac and renal damage by week 7. The heart shows necrosis and fibrosis, whereas the kidneys resemble the hemolytic-uremic syndrome vasculopathy. Surface adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are expressed early on the endothelium, while the corresponding ligands are found on circulating leukocytes. Leukocyte infiltration in the vascular wall accompanies PAI-1, MCP-1, iNOS and Tissue Factor expression. Furthermore we show evidence that Ang II causes the upregulation of NF-kB in our model. Methods We started PDTC-treatment on four weeks old dTGR (200 mg/kg sc and age-matched SD rats.. Blood-pressure- and albuminuria- measurements were monitored during the treatement period (four weeks. The seven weeks old animals were killed, hearts and kidneys were isolated and used for immunohistochemical-and electromobility shift assay analsis. Results Chronic treatment with the antioxidant PDTC decreased blood pressure (162 ± 8 vs. 190 ± 7 mm Hg, p = 0.02. Cardiac hypertrophy index was significantly reduced (4.90 ± 0.1 vs. 5.77 ± 0.1 mg/g, p Conclusion Our data show that inhibition of NF-κB by PDTC markedly reduces inflammation, iNOS expression in the dTGR most likely leading to decreased cytotoxicity, and cell proliferation. Thus, NF-κB activation plays an important role in ANG II-induced end-organ damage.

  6. Modified impact of emotion on temporal discrimination in a transgenic rat model of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Alexis; Es-Seddiqi, Mouna; Brown, Bruce L; Nguyen, Hoa P; Riess, Olaf; von Hörsten, Stephan; Le Blanc, Pascale; Desvignes, Nathalie; Bozon, Bruno; El Massioui, Nicole; Doyère, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by triad of motor, cognitive, and emotional symptoms along with neuropathology in fronto-striatal circuit and limbic system including amygdala. Emotional alterations, which have a negative impact on patient well-being, represent some of the earliest symptoms of HD and might be related to the onset of the neurodegenerative process. In the transgenic rat model (tgHD rats), evidence suggest emotional alterations at the symptomatic stage along with neuropathology of the central nucleus of amygdala (CE). Studies in humans and animals demonstrate that emotion can modulate time perception. The impact of emotion on time perception has never been tested in HD, nor is it known if that impact could be part of the presymptomatic emotional phenotype of the pathology. The aim of this paper was to characterize the effect of emotion on temporal discrimination in presymptomatic tgHD animals. In the first experiment, we characterized the acute effect of an emotion (fear) conditioned stimulus on temporal discrimination using a bisection procedure, and tested its dependency upon an intact central amygdala. The second experiment was aimed at comparing presymptomatic homozygous transgenic animals at 7-months of age and their wild-type littermates (WT) in their performance on the modulation of temporal discrimination by emotion. Our principal findings show that (1) a fear cue produces a short-lived decrease of temporal precision after its termination, and (2) animals with medial CE lesion and presymptomatic tgHD animals demonstrate an alteration of this emotion-evoked temporal distortion. The results contribute to our knowledge about the presymptomatic phenotype of this HD rat model, showing susceptibility to emotion that may be related to dysfunction of the central nucleus of amygdala. PMID:24133419

  7. Modified impact of emotion on temporal discrimination in a transgenic rat model of Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Faure

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is characterized by triad of motor, cognitive and emotional symptoms along with neuropathology in fronto-striatal circuit and limbic system including amygdala. Emotional alterations, which have a negative impact on patient well-being, represent some of the earliest symptoms of HD and might be related to the onset of the neurodegenerative process. In the transgenic rat model (tgHD rats, evidence suggest emotional alterations at the symptomatic stage along with neuropathology of the central nucleus of amygdala (CE. Studies in humans and animals demonstrate that emotion can modulate time perception. The impact of emotion on time perception has never been tested in HD, nor is it known if that impact could be part of the presymptomatic emotional phenotype of the pathology. The aim of this paper was to characterize the effect of emotion on temporal discrimination in presymptomatic tgHD animals. In the first experiment, we characterized the acute effect of an emotion (fear conditioned stimulus on temporal discrimination using a bisection procedure, and tested its dependency upon an intact central amygdala. The second experiment was aimed at comparing presymptomatic homozygous transgenic animals at 7-months of age and their wild-type littermates (WT in their performance on the modulation of temporal discrimination by emotion. Our principal findings show that (1 a fear cue produces a short-lived decrease of temporal precision after its termination, and (2 animals with medial CE lesion and presymptomatic tgHD animals demonstrate an alteration of this emotion-evoked temporal distortion. The results contribute to our knowledge about the presymptomatic phenotype of this HD rat model, showing susceptibility to emotion that may be related to dysfunction of the central nucleus of amygdala.

  8. Cardiac remodeling during and after renin-angiotensin system stimulation in Cyp1a1-Ren2 transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijnen, Bart Fj; Pelkmans, Leonie Pj; Danser, Ah Jan; Garrelds, Ingrid M; Mullins, John J; De Mey, Jo Gr; Struijker-Boudier, Harry Aj; Janssen, Ben Ja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-induced cardiac remodeling and its reversibility in the presence and absence of high blood pressure (BP) in Cyp1a1-Ren2 transgenic inducible hypertensive rats (IHR). In IHR (pro)renin levels and BP can be dose-dependently titrated by oral adm...

  9. A Phox2b BAC Transgenic Rat Line Useful for Understanding Respiratory Rhythm Generator Neural Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Keiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Sato, Shigeru; Igarashi, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Arata, Satoru; Southard-Smith, E Michelle; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Onimaru, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The key role of the respiratory neural center is respiratory rhythm generation to maintain homeostasis through the control of arterial blood pCO2/pH and pO2 levels. The neuronal network responsible for respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal rat resides in the ventral side of the medulla and is composed of two groups; the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) and the pre-Btzinger complex group (preBtC). The pFRG partially overlaps in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), which was originally identified in adult cats and rats. Part of the pre-inspiratory (Pre-I) neurons in the RTN/pFRG serves as central chemoreceptor neurons and the CO2 sensitive Pre-I neurons express homeobox gene Phox2b. Phox2b encodes a transcription factor and is essential for the development of the sensory-motor visceral circuits. Mutations in human PHOX2B cause congenital hypoventilation syndrome, which is characterized by blunted ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Here we describe the generation of a novel transgenic (Tg) rat harboring fluorescently labeled Pre-I neurons in the RTN/pFRG. In addition, the Tg rat showed fluorescent signals in autonomic enteric neurons and carotid bodies. Because the Tg rat expresses inducible Cre recombinase in PHOX2B-positive cells during development, it is a potentially powerful tool for dissecting the entire picture of the respiratory neural network during development and for identifying the CO2/O2 sensor molecules in the adult central and peripheral nervous systems. PMID:26147470

  10. Mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, J; Loli, P; Georgiadis, P; Dusinská, M; Hurbánková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Kazimírová, A; Barancoková, M; Tatrai, E; Oesterle, D; Wolff, T; Kyrtopoulos, S A

    2004-09-01

    In order to get more insight into the mechanism of asbestos-related lung cancer, the mutagenic potential of asbestos was examined in vivo in rat lung. Groups of five transgenic lambda-lacI (Big Blue) rats were intratracheally instilled with single doses of 1 or 2mg, or with four weekly doses of 2mg, per animal of the amosite asbestos. Sixteen weeks after instillation, the mutation frequency was found to be increased in lung DNA by 2-fold at doses of 2 mg (P = 0.035) and of 4 x 2 mg (P = 0.007) amosite. No significant changes were observed after 4 weeks of exposure. In separate experiments, wild-type F344 rats were treated by the same regimen as described above and markers of inflammation, genotoxicity, cell proliferation and lung tissue damage were analysed. Our results indicate a weak but persistent inflammation and cell proliferation which possibly plays a major role in the observed mutagenic effect. PMID:15288534

  11. Food-anticipatory activity and liver per1-luc activity in diabetic transgenic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Alec J.; Stokkan, Karl-Arne; Yamazaki, Shin; Menaker, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The mammalian Per1 gene is an important component of the core cellular clock mechanism responsible for circadian rhythms. The rodent liver and other tissues rhythmically express Per1 in vitro but typically damp out within a few cycles. In the liver, the peak of this rhythm occurs in the late subjective night in an ad lib-fed rat, but will show a large phase advance in response to restricted availability of food during the day. The relationship between this shift in the liver clock and food-anticipatory activity (FAA), the circadian behavior entrained by daily feeding, is currently unknown. Insulin is released during feeding in mammals and could serve as an entraining signal to the liver. To test the role of insulin in the shift in liver Per1 expression and the generation of FAA, per-luciferase transgenic rats were made diabetic with a single injection of streptozotocine. Following 1 week of restricted feeding and locomotor activity monitoring, liver was collected for per-luc recording. In two separate experiments, FAA emerged and liver Per1 phase-shifted in response to daytime 8-h food restriction. The results rule out insulin as a necessary component of this system.

  12. Effects of Metformin on Tissue Oxidative and Dicarbonyl Stress in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Expressing Human C-Reactive Protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malínská, H.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Škop, V.; Šilhavý, Jan; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2016), e0150924. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT14325 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : inflammation * spontaneously hypertensive rat * transgenic * C-reactive protein * dicarbonyl stress * metformin Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  13. Vascular oxidative stress and nitric oxide depletion in HIV-1 transgenic rats are reversed by glutathione restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Kline, Erik R.; Kleinhenz, Dean J.; Liang, Bill; Dikalov, Sergey; Guidot, David M.; Hart, C. Michael; Jones, Dean P.; Sutliff, Roy L.

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have a higher incidence of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease than uninfected individuals. Recent reports have demonstrated that viral proteins upregulate reactive oxygen species, which may contribute to elevated cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 patients. In this study we employed an HIV-1 transgenic rat model to investigate the physiological effects of viral protein expression on the vasculature. Markers of o...

  14. Rosuvastatin ameliorates inflammation, renal fat accumulation, and kidney injury in transgenic spontaneously hypertensive rats expressing human C-reactive protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Jan; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Mlejnek, Petr; Oliyarnyk, O.; Malínská, H.; Kazdová, L.; Mancini, M.; Pravenec, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2015), s. 295-301. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11049; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT14325; GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rosuvastatin * kidney damage * CRP * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  15. [HLA-B27 histocompatibility antigen in seronegative arthritis and idiopathic lumbar pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagredo, J P; Eguren, T T; Valverde, V R

    1980-06-01

    The authors studied the distribution of 23 histocompatibility antigens of the loci A + B in 114 patients: 26 cases of serum negative rheumatoid arthritis, and 66 variants of serum negative arthritis and 22 cases of idiopathic lumbar pain. The distribution of antigens was compared with 71 individuals in good health. The groups of serum negative rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic lumbar pain did not show significant differences compared with a control population. In the group of "variants" the frequency of B27 was increased (p < 0.001, p corrected < 0.02) especially in those who presented spinal involvement. In psoriatic spondylitis, there was no association between B27 and the spinal involvement (p < 0.01, corrected p < 0.23). PMID:7455599

  16. Neurobehavioral Abnormalities in the HIV-1 Transgenic Rat Do Not Correspond to Neuronal Hypometabolism on 18F-FDG-PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Muthusamy, Siva; Lee, Dianne E.; Ibrahim, Wael G.; Nair, Anand; Koziol, Deloris; Maric, Dragan; Hammoud, Dima A.

    2016-01-01

    Motor and behavioral abnormalities are common presentations among individuals with HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We investigated whether longitudinal motor and behavioral performance in the HIV-1 transgenic rat (Tg), a commonly used neuro-HIV model, corresponded to in vivo neuronal death/dysfunction, by using rotarod and open field testing in parallel to [18F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We demonstrated that age-matched non-Tg wild type (WT) rats outperformed the HIV-1 Tg rats at most time points on rotarod testing. Habituation to rotarod occurred at 8 weeks of age (fifth weekly testing session) in the WT rats but it never occurred in the Tg rats, suggesting deficits in motor learning. Similarly, in open field testing, WT rats outperformed the Tg rats at most time points, suggesting defective exploratory/motor behavior and increased emotionality in the Tg rat. Despite the neurobehavioral abnormalities, there were no concomitant deficits in 18F-FDG uptake in Tg rats on PET compared to age-matched WT rats and no significant longitudinal loss of FDG uptake in either group. The negative PET findings were confirmed using 14C- Deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography in 32 week-old Tg and WT rats. We believe that the neuropathology in the HIV-1 Tg rat is more likely a consequence of neuronal dysfunction rather than overt neurodegeneration/neuronal cell death, similar to what is seen in HIV-positive patients in the post-ART era. PMID:27010205

  17. Temporal sensitivity changes with extended training in a bisection task in a transgenic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L Brown

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated temporal perception in a Huntington Disease transgenic rat model using a temporal bisection procedure. After initial discrimination training in which animals learned to press one lever after a 2-s tone duration, and the other lever after a 8-s tone duration for food reward, the bisection procedure was implemented in which intermediate durations with no available reinforcement were interspersed with trials with the anchor durations. Bisection tests were repeated in a longitudinal design from 4 to 8 months of age. The results showed that response latencies evolved from a monotonic step-function to an inverted U-shaped function with repeated testing, a precursor of nonresponding on trials with intermediate durations. We inferred that temporal sensitivity and incentive motivation combined to control the transformation of the bisection task from a two-choice task at the outset of testing to a three-choice task with repeated testing. Changes in the structure of the task and/or continued training were accompanied by improvement in temporal sensitivity. In sum, the present data highlight the possible joint roles of temporal and non-temporal factors in the temporal bisection task, and suggested that non-temporal factors may compensate for deficits in temporal processing.

  18. Longitudinal analysis of the behavioral phenotype in a novel transgenic rat model of early stages of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Galeano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid β (iAβ has been linked to mild cognitive impairment that may precede Alzheimer’s disease (AD onset. This neuropathological trait was recently mimicked in a novel animal model of AD, the hemizygous transgenic McGill-R-Thy1-APP (Tg+/- rat. The characterization of the behavioral phenotypes in this animal model could provide a baseline of efficacy for earlier therapeutic interventions. The aim of the present study was to undertake a longitudinal study of Aβ accumulation and a comprehensive behavioral evaluation of this transgenic rat model. We assessed exploratory activity, anxiety-related behaviors, recognition memory, working memory, spatial learning and reference memory at 3, 6 and 12 months of age. In parallel, we measured Aβ by ELISA, Western blots and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry in hippocampal samples. SDS-soluble Aβ peptide accumulated at low levels (~9 pg/mg without differences among ages. However, Western blots showed SDS-resistant Aβ oligomers (~30 kDa at 6 and 12 months, but not at 3 months. When compared to wild-type (WT, male Tg+/- rats exhibited a spatial reference memory deficit in the Morris Water Maze (MWM as early as 3 months of age, which persisted at 6 and 12 months. In addition, Tg+/- rats displayed a working memory impairment in the Y-maze and higher anxiety levels in the Open Field (OF at 6 and 12 months of age, but not at 3 months. Exploratory activity in the OF was similar to that of WT at all time points. Spatial learning in the MWM and the recognition memory, as assessed by the Novel Object Recognition Test, were unimpaired at any time point. The data from the present study demonstrate that the hemizygous transgenic McGill-R-Thy1-APP rat has a wide array of behavioral and cognitive impairments from young adulthood to middle-age. The low Aβ burden and early emotional and cognitive deficits in this transgenic rat model supports its potential use for drug discovery purposes in early AD.

  19. Longitudinal analysis of the behavioral phenotype in a novel transgenic rat model of early stages of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Martino Adami, Pamela V.; Do Carmo, Sonia; Blanco, Eduardo; Rotondaro, Cecilia; Capani, Francisco; Castaño, Eduardo M.; Cuello, A. Claudio; Morelli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid β (iAβ) has been linked to mild cognitive impairment that may precede Alzheimer's disease (AD) onset. This neuropathological trait was recently mimicked in a novel animal model of AD, the hemizygous transgenic McGill-R-Thy1-APP (Tg+/−) rat. The characterization of the behavioral phenotypes in this animal model could provide a baseline of efficacy for earlier therapeutic interventions. The aim of the present study was to undertake a longitudinal study of Aβ accumulation and a comprehensive behavioral evaluation of this transgenic rat model. We assessed exploratory activity, anxiety-related behaviors, recognition memory, working memory, spatial learning and reference memory at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. In parallel, we measured Aβ by ELISA, Western blots and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry in hippocampal samples. SDS-soluble Aβ peptide accumulated at low levels (~9 pg/mg) without differences among ages. However, Western blots showed SDS-resistant Aβ oligomers (~30 kDa) at 6 and 12 months, but not at 3 months. When compared to wild-type (WT), male Tg+/− rats exhibited a spatial reference memory deficit in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) as early as 3 months of age, which persisted at 6 and 12 months. In addition, Tg+/− rats displayed a working memory impairment in the Y-maze and higher anxiety levels in the Open Field (OF) at 6 and 12 months of age, but not at 3 months. Exploratory activity in the OF was similar to that of WT at all-time points. Spatial learning in the MWM and the recognition memory, as assessed by the Novel Object Recognition Test, were unimpaired at any time point. The data from the present study demonstrate that the hemizygous transgenic McGill-R-Thy1-APP rat has a wide array of behavioral and cognitive impairments from young adulthood to middle-age. The low Aβ burden and early emotional and cognitive deficits in this transgenic rat model supports its potential use for drug discovery purposes in early AD. PMID:25278855

  20. Sustained and promoter dependent bone morphogenetic protein expression by rat mesenchymal stem cells after BMP-2 transgene electrotransfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ferreira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with electrotransferred bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 transgene is an attractive therapeutic modality for the treatment of large bone defects: it provides both stem cells with the ability to form bone and an effective bone inducer while avoiding viral gene transfer. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of the promoter driving the human BMP-2 gene on the level and duration of BMP-2 expression after transgene electrotransfer into rat MSCs. Cytomegalovirus, elongation factor-1α, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and beta-actin promoters resulted in a BMP-2 secretion rate increase of 11-, 78-, 66- and 36-fold over respective controls, respectively. In contrast, the osteocalcin promoter had predictable weak activity in undifferentiated MSCs but induced the strongest BMP-2 secretion rates in osteoblastically-differentiated MSCs. Regardless of the promoter driving the transgene, a plateau of maximal BMP-2 secretion persisted for at least 21 d after the hBMP-2 gene electrotransfer. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of gene electrotransfer for efficient BMP-2 transgene delivery into MSCs and for a three-week sustained BMP-2 expression. It also provides the first in vitro evidence for a safe alternative to viral methods that permit efficient BMP-2 gene delivery and expression in MSCs but raise safety concerns that are critical when considering clinical applications.

  1. Reduced impact of emotion on choice behavior in presymptomatic BACHD rats, a transgenic rodent model for Huntington Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjeroud, Najia; Yage, Sara; Yu-Taeger, Libo; Bozon, Bruno; Leblanc-Veyrac, Pascale; Riess, Olaf; Allain, Philippe; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Doyre, Valrie; El Massioui, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    Executive dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms are hallmarks of Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder genetically characterized by expanded CAG repeats in the HTT gene. Using the BACHD rat model of HD (97 CAG-CAA repeats), the present research seeks to characterize the progressive emergence of decision-making impairments in a rat version of the Iowa Gambling Task (RGT) and the impact of emotional modulation, whether positive or negative, on choice behavior. The choice efficiency shown both by WT rats (independent of their age) and the youngest BACHD rats (2 and 8months old) evidenced that they are able to integrate outcomes of past decisions to determine expected reward values for each option. However, 18months old BACHD rats made fewer choices during the RGT session and were less efficient in choosing advantageous options than younger animals. Presenting either chocolate pellets or electrical footshocks half-way through a second RGT session reduced exploratory activity (inefficient nose-poking) and choices with a weaker effect on BACHD animals than on WT. Choice efficiency was left intact in transgenic rats. Our results bring new knowledge on executive impairments and impact of emotional state on decision-making at different stages of the disease, increasing the face-validity of the BACHD rat model. PMID:26463506

  2. Declarative and Procedural Memory Dependent Behavioural Function in a Transgenic Rat Model of Huntingtons Disease: A Novel Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kirch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Huntingtons Disease (HD is a debilitating disease impacting on the individuals motor, affective and cognitive function and there are no cures or effective therapies today. The predominant pathological signature of the Huntingtons disease is the early and progressive loss of GABAergic medium spiny projection neurones from within the striatum. However, anatomical and metabolic changes in other regions have been described in asymptomatic, pre-clinical stages of the disease. Deficits in the fronto-striatal loop result in impairment in new learning and cognitive rigidity. These detriments can be offset by compensatory increases in hippocampal based memory systems. We chose to use a transgenic rat model of HD to examine memory capacity and whether this higher order function declines in any way comparable to the changes in declarative and procedural memory observed in HD patients. 40 transgenic rats (tgHD obtained from three pooled litters, comprised of all genotypes, were used in this study. Behavioural tests were conducted at 6-8 months and again at 12-14 months of age. Each behavioural battery of tests consisted of motoric (rotorod, grip strength and cognitive (elevated plus maze, Morris water maze, double-H maze elements. Additionally, 13 of the tgHD rats were examined by PET at 7 and 14 months of age. A dopamine D2-receptor radioligand was employed to examine anatomical and functional data. Overall, transgenic animals demonstrated poorer performance in motoric behavioural tests, as compared to wildtype litter mates. Little or no differences were observed during the first testing session, whereas slight to modest deficiencies were found when the animals were tested at 12-14 months, consistent with reported observations. In contrast, transgenic animals displayed inferior results in cognitive tests already at 6-8 months, which were more pronounced in the second testing session. Transgenic animals were able to learn the tasks, yet showed poor retention over time. They were able to relearn the tasks, albeit at a slower rate than wildtypes. This was most exacerbated in homozygote females. This population also spent larger amounts of time outside of the closed arms in the elevated plus maze, displaying a disturbed sense of anxiety. This likely contributed to the learning / memory deficits observed. PET examination revealed minimal changes (~2-3 % groups homozygotes and wildtype animals at both time points tested. However, one individual showed marked receptor loss (~50 % at 14 months. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis is underway, which will be used to correlate cellular pathology with the behavioural findings. The significance of these results in relation to disease progression will be discussed.

  3. Behavioral insensitivity to restraint stress, absent fear suppression of behavior and impaired spatial learning in transgenic rats with hippocampal neuropeptide Y overexpression

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsell, A; Michalkiewicz, M.; Dumont, Y.; Quirion, R; Caberlotto, L.; Rimondini, R.; Mathé, A A; Heilig, M.

    2000-01-01

    Exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) reduces experimental anxiety in a wide range of animal models. The generation of an NPY-transgenic rat has provided a unique model to examine the role of endogenous NPY in control of stress and anxiety-related behaviors using paradigms previously used by pharmacological studies. Locomotor activity and baseline behavior on the elevated plus maze were normal in transgenic subjects. Two robust phenotypic traits were observed. (i) Transge...

  4. Prostate and mammary adenocarcinoma in transgenic mice carrying a rat C3(1) simian virus 40 large tumor antigen fusion gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Maroulakou, I G; Anver, M; Garrett, L.; Green, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    A transgenic mouse model for prostate and mammary cancer has been developed in mice containing a recombinant gene expressing the simian virus 40 early-region transforming sequences under the regulatory control of the rat prostatic steroid binding protein [C3(1)] gene. Male transgenic mice develop prostatic hyperplasia in early life that progresses to adenoma or adenocarcinoma in most animals surviving to longer than 7 months of age. Prostate cancer metastases to lung have been observed. Femal...

  5. LRRK2 BAC transgenic rats develop progressive, L-DOPA-responsive motor impairment, and deficits in dopamine circuit function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Max; Alegre-Abarrategui, Javier; Potgieter, Dawid; Kaufmann, Anna-Kristin; Exley, Richard; Deltheil, Thierry; Threlfell, Sarah; Connor-Robson, Natalie; Brimblecombe, Katherine; Wallings, Rebecca; Cioroch, Milena; Bannerman, David M; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J; Cragg, Stephanie J; Dodson, Paul D; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) lead to late-onset, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease, characterized by the degeneration of dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, a deficit in dopamine neurotransmission and the development of motor and non-motor symptoms. The most prevalent Parkinson's disease LRRK2 mutations are located in the kinase (G2019S) and GTPase (R1441C) encoding domains of LRRK2. To better understand the sequence of events that lead to progressive neurophysiological deficits in vulnerable neurons and circuits in Parkinson's disease, we have generated LRRK2 bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic rats expressing either G2019S or R1441C mutant, or wild-type LRRK2, from the complete human LRRK2 genomic locus, including endogenous promoter and regulatory regions. Aged (18-21 months) G2019S and R1441C mutant transgenic rats exhibit L-DOPA-responsive motor dysfunction, impaired striatal dopamine release as determined by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, and cognitive deficits. In addition, in vivo recordings of identified substantia nigra pars compacta dopamine neurons in R1441C LRRK2 transgenic rats reveal an age-dependent reduction in burst firing, which likely results in further reductions to striatal dopamine release. These alterations to dopamine circuit function occur in the absence of neurodegeneration or abnormal protein accumulation within the substantia nigra pars compacta, suggesting that nigrostriatal dopamine dysfunction precedes detectable protein aggregation and cell death in the development of Parkinson's disease. In conclusion, our longitudinal deep-phenotyping provides novel insights into how the genetic burden arising from human mutant LRRK2 manifests as early pathophysiological changes to dopamine circuit function and highlights a potential model for testing Parkinson's therapeutics. PMID:26744332

  6. Age-related autocrine diabetogenic effects of transgenic resistin in spontaneously hypertensive rats: gene expression profile analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, J.; Maxová, M.; Kazdová, L.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Ch. E.; Eminaga, S.; Gorham, J.; Wang, J.; Kurtz, T. W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 7 (2011), s. 372-379. ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME08006; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110805; GA MZd(CZ) NS9759 Grant ostatní: Fondation Leducq(FR) 06CVD03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : transgenic rat * adipose tissue * insulin resistance * autocrine effects Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.735, year: 2011

  7. The Relationship of Photoreceptor Degeneration to Retinal Vascular Development and Loss in Mutant Rhodopsin Transgenic and RCS Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Nishikawa, Shimpei; Matthes, Michael T; Yasumura, Douglas; Lavail, Matthew M.

    2008-01-01

    The early loss of photoreceptors in some retinal degenerations in mice has been shown to have a profound effect on vascular development of the retina. To better characterize this relationship, we have examined the formation of retinal blood vessels during the first month of life in 8 lines of transgenic rats with different ages of onset and rates of photoreceptor cell loss mediated by the expression of mutant rhodopsin (P23H and S334ter). The number of capillary profiles in the superficial pl...

  8. Effects of Metformin on Tissue Oxidative and Dicarbonyl Stress in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Expressing Human C-Reactive Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malínská, Hana; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Škop, Vojtěch; Šilhavý, Jan; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Kazdová, Ludmila; Pravenec, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress play important roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because it effectively suppresses gluconeogenesis in the liver. However, its "pleiotropic" effects remain controversial. In the current study, we tested the effects of metformin on inflammation, oxidative and dicarbonyl stress in an animal model of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, using spontaneously hypertensive rats that transgenically express human C-reactive protein (SHR-CRP). We treated 8-month-old male transgenic SHR-CRP rats with metformin (5 mg/kg/day) mixed as part of a standard diet for 4 weeks. A corresponding untreated control group of male transgenic SHR-CRP rats were fed a standard diet without metformin. In a similar fashion, we studied a group of nontransgenic SHR treated with metformin and an untreated group of nontransgenic SHR controls. In each group, we studied 6 animals. Parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were measured using standard methods. Gene expression profiles were determined using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays. Statistical significance was evaluated by two-way ANOVA. In the SHR-CRP transgenic strain, we found that metformin treatment decreased circulating levels of inflammatory response marker IL-6, TNFα and MCP-1 while levels of human CRP remained unchanged. Metformin significantly reduced oxidative stress (levels of conjugated dienes and TBARS) and dicarbonyl stress (levels of methylglyoxal) in left ventricles, but not in kidneys. No significant effects of metformin on oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were observed in SHR controls. In addition, metformin treatment reduced adipose tissue lipolysis associated with human CRP. Possible molecular mechanisms of metformin action-studied by gene expression profiling in the liver-revealed deregulated genes from inflammatory and insulin signaling, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and gluconeogenesis pathways. It can be concluded that in the presence of high levels of human CRP, metformin protects against inflammation and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress in the heart, but not in the kidney. Accordingly, these cardioprotective effects of metformin might be especially effective in diabetic patients with high levels of CRP. PMID:26963617

  9. Effects of Metformin on Tissue Oxidative and Dicarbonyl Stress in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Expressing Human C-Reactive Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malínská, Hana; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Škop, Vojtěch; Šilhavý, Jan; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Kazdová, Ludmila; Pravenec, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress play important roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because it effectively suppresses gluconeogenesis in the liver. However, its “pleiotropic” effects remain controversial. In the current study, we tested the effects of metformin on inflammation, oxidative and dicarbonyl stress in an animal model of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, using spontaneously hypertensive rats that transgenically express human C-reactive protein (SHR-CRP). We treated 8-month-old male transgenic SHR-CRP rats with metformin (5 mg/kg/day) mixed as part of a standard diet for 4 weeks. A corresponding untreated control group of male transgenic SHR-CRP rats were fed a standard diet without metformin. In a similar fashion, we studied a group of nontransgenic SHR treated with metformin and an untreated group of nontransgenic SHR controls. In each group, we studied 6 animals. Parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were measured using standard methods. Gene expression profiles were determined using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays. Statistical significance was evaluated by two-way ANOVA. In the SHR-CRP transgenic strain, we found that metformin treatment decreased circulating levels of inflammatory response marker IL-6, TNFα and MCP-1 while levels of human CRP remained unchanged. Metformin significantly reduced oxidative stress (levels of conjugated dienes and TBARS) and dicarbonyl stress (levels of methylglyoxal) in left ventricles, but not in kidneys. No significant effects of metformin on oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were observed in SHR controls. In addition, metformin treatment reduced adipose tissue lipolysis associated with human CRP. Possible molecular mechanisms of metformin action–studied by gene expression profiling in the liver–revealed deregulated genes from inflammatory and insulin signaling, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and gluconeogenesis pathways. It can be concluded that in the presence of high levels of human CRP, metformin protects against inflammation and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress in the heart, but not in the kidney. Accordingly, these cardioprotective effects of metformin might be especially effective in diabetic patients with high levels of CRP. PMID:26963617

  10. Nicotine mediates expression of genes related to antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress response in HIV-1 transgenic rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guohua; Nesil, Tanseli; Cao, Junran; Yang, Zhongli; Chang, Sulie L; Li, Ming D

    2016-02-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of HIV-1 infection. Nicotine can either protect neurons from neurodegeneration or induce oxidative stress, depending on its dose and degree of oxidative stress impairment. However, the relationship between nicotine and oxidative stress in the HIV-1-infected individuals remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of nicotine on expression of genes related to the glutathione (GSH)-centered antioxidant system and oxidative stress in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) and F344 control rats. Adult HIV-1Tg and F344 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base, s.c.) or saline injections once per day for 27 days. At the end of treatment, various brain regions including the NAc and VTA were collected from each rat. Following total RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis of each sample, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was performed for 43 oxidative-stress-related genes. Compared with F344 control rats, HIV-1Tg rats showed a significant downregulation of genes involved in ATPase and cyctochrome oxidase at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level in both regions. Further, we found a significant downregulation of Gstm5 in the NAc and upregulation of Cox1, Cox3, and Gsta6 in the VTA of HIV-1Tg rats. HIV-1Tg rats showed brain-region-specific responses to chronic nicotine treatment. This response resulted in a change in the expression of genes involved in antioxidant mechanisms including the downregulation of genes such as Atp5h, Calml1, Gpx7, Gstm5, Gsr, and Gsta6 and upregulation of Sod1 in the NAc, as well as downregulation of genes like Cox5a, Gpx4, Gpx6, Gpx7, Gstm5, and Sod1 in the VTA of HIV-1Tg rats. Together, we conclude that chronic nicotine treatment has a dual effect on the antioxidant defense system and oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis signaling in HIV-1Tg rats. These findings suggest that nicotine has a negative effect on response to oxidative stress and antioxidant processes in HIV-1 Tg rat brain, especially in the VTA. PMID:26306689

  11. The relationship of photoreceptor degeneration to retinal vascular development and loss in mutant rhodopsin transgenic and RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Mark E; Nishikawa, Shimpei; Matthes, Michael T; Yasumura, Douglas; LaVail, Matthew M

    2008-12-01

    The early loss of photoreceptors in some retinal degenerations in mice has been shown to have a profound effect on vascular development of the retina. To better characterize this relationship, we have examined the formation of retinal blood vessels during the first month of life in 8 lines of transgenic rats with different ages of onset and rates of photoreceptor cell loss mediated by the expression of mutant rhodopsin (P23H and S334ter). The number of capillary profiles in the superficial plexus (SP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) of the retina were quantified in retinal sections taken at postnatal day (P) 8, 10, 12, 15 and 30. In normal wild-type rats, the SP and DCP had mostly established mature, adult patterns by P15, as previously shown. In the transgenic rats, the loss of photoreceptors had relatively little effect on the SP. By contrast, the loss of photoreceptors during vascular development had a major impact on the DCP. In the two lines with early and most rapid photoreceptor loss, S334ter-7 and S334ter-3, where about 90% and 65%, respectively, of the photoreceptors were already lost by P15, the DCP either failed to form (S334ter-7) or the number of capillary profiles was less than 7% of controls (S334ter-3). In lines where almost all photoreceptors were still present at P15 (S334ter-4, S334ter-9, P23H-2 and P23H-3), the number of profiles in the DCP were the same as in wild-type controls at P30. In two lines with an intermediate rate of degeneration (S334ter-5 and P23H-1), where only about 25% of the photoreceptors were lost by P15, there was an intermediate number of vascular profiles in the DCP at P30. Thus, a very close relationship between the number of photoreceptors and vessel profiles in the DCP during its development exists in the transgenic rats, and the loss of photoreceptors results in the failure or inhibition of the DCP to develop. Several mechanisms may explain this relationship including changes in the level of physiological oxygen tension or alteration in the release of angiogenic factors that normally drive vessel development. Analysis of older transgenic retinas up to 1 year of age revealed that (1) vascular profiles are lost from the DCP in essentially all lines once fewer than about 30-33% of photoreceptors remain; (2) in those lines where the DCP essentially did not develop (S334ter-7 and S334ter-3), the effect of photoreceptor absence was permanent, and there was no late vascularization of the DCP; (3) the number of capillary profiles in the SP remained no different from controls in any of the lines, despite long-standing loss of photoreceptors; and (4) neovascularization of the RPE by retinal capillaries occurred with a latency of 60-180 days after the loss of photoreceptors, except in S334ter-7 rats, where neovascularization essentially did not occur. Analysis of RCS rats was carried out for comparison. PMID:18848932

  12. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-ying Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BT799 is a genetically modified (GM maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58 at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  13. Sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 overexpression is associated with reduced adipogenesis and ectopic fat accumulation in transgenic spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Šilhavý, Jan; Trnovská, J.; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2014), s. 587-590. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH12061 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat * lipid metabolism Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  14. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of gama-lacI transgenic rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Loli, P.; Hurbánková, M.; Kováčiková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Wolff, T.; Oesterle, D.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 595, - (2006), s. 167-173. ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : transgenic rats * mineral fibres * mutations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.111, year: 2006

  15. Adeno-associated viral vector serotypes 1 and 5 targeted to the neonatal rat and pig striatum induce widespread transgene expression in the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Stott, Simon R W; Mattsson, Bengt; Wisman, Liselijn; Ettrup, Anders; Hermening, Stephan; Knudsen, Gitte M; Kirik, Deniz

    2010-01-01

    striatal input and output areas, including large parts of the cortex. In both species, rAAV5 resulted in a more widespread transgene expression compared to rAAV1. In neonatal rats, rAAV5 also transduced several other areas such as the olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, and septum. Phenotypic analysis of the GFP...

  16. Age-related prodiabetogenic effects of transgenic resistin in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Kazdová, L.; Kurtz, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 23, Suppl. 4 (2006), s. 271-271. ISSN 0742-3071. [World Diabetes Congress /19./. 03.12.2006-07.12.2006, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/06/0028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : resistin * autocrine effects * transgenic Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  17. Increased neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers, and reduced synaptic proteins, in brain of HIV-1 transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Gaylia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment has been reported in human immune deficiency virus-1- (HIV-1- infected patients as well as in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg rats. This impairment has been linked to neuroinflammation, disturbed brain arachidonic acid (AA metabolism, and synapto-dendritic injury. We recently reported upregulated brain AA metabolism in 7- to 9-month-old HIV-1 Tg rats. We hypothesized that these HIV-1 Tg rats also would show upregulated brain inflammatory and AA cascade markers and a deficit of synaptic proteins. Methods We measured protein and mRNA levels of markers of neuroinflammation and the AA cascade, as well as pro-apoptotic factors and synaptic proteins, in brains from 7- to 9-month-old HIV-1 Tg and control rats. Results Compared with control brain, HIV-1 Tg rat brain showed immunoreactivity to glycoprotein 120 and tat HIV-1 viral proteins, and significantly higher protein and mRNA levels of (1 the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor ?, (2 the activated microglial/macrophage marker CD11b, (3 AA cascade enzymes: AA-selective Ca2+-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2-IVA, secretory sPLA2-IIA, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, membrane prostaglandin E2 synthase, 5-lipoxygenase (LOX and 15-LOX, cytochrome p450 epoxygenase, and (4 transcription factor NF-?Bp50 DNA binding activity. HIV-1 Tg rat brain also exhibited signs of cell injury, including significantly decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and drebrin, a marker of post-synaptic excitatory dendritic spines. Expression of Ca2+-independent iPLA2-VIA and COX-1 was unchanged. Conclusions HIV-1 Tg rats show elevated brain markers of neuroinflammation and AA metabolism, with a deficit in several synaptic proteins. These changes are associated with viral proteins and may contribute to cognitive impairment. The HIV-1 Tg rat may be a useful model for understanding progression and treatment of cognitive impairment in HIV-1 patients.

  18. Regional gene expression of LOX-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in aorta of HIV-1 transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hag, Anne Mette Fisker; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Gutte, Henrik; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients has been observed. The cause of this accelerated atherosclerosis is a matter of controversy. As clinical studies are complicated by a multiplicity of risk-factors and a low incidence of hard......-infection per se may cause atherosclerosis. This transgenic rat model may be a very promising model for further studies of the pathophysiology behind HIV-associated cardiovascular disease....... endpoints, studies in animal models could be attractive alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated gene expression of lectin-like oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HIV-1...

  19. A new transgenic rat model of hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qi, N.R.; Wang, J.; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Kazdová, L.; Pravenec, Michal; Kurtz, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2005), s. 1004-1011. ISSN 0194-911X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7403; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant ostatní: NIH(US) HL35018; NIH(US) HL63709; NIH(US) TW01236 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : hepatic steatosis * Srebp1a * transgenic SHR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.331, year: 2005

  20. Effect of peripheral axotomy on pain-related behavior and dorsal root ganglion neurons excitability in NPY transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunar, Damir; Modric-Jednacak, Ksenija; Grkovic, Ivica; Michalkiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Hogan, Quinn H

    2005-11-23

    In order to clarify the physiologic role of NPY in sensory processing, we obtained intracellular recordings of DRG neurons from wild type (WT) and NPY overexpressing transgenic rats (NPY-TG) before and after injury. We investigated medium and large diameter DRG neurons since upregulation of NPY peptide following the nerve injury occurs primarily in those cells. Neurons were classified as Aalpha/beta and Adelta using conduction velocity and action potential duration. Prior to the injury, Aalpha/beta neurons of NPY-TG rats conducted more slowly and had a more brief AHP than similar cells from the WT group. Adelta neurons at baseline conducted faster in TG animals compared to WT. Ligation of the 5th lumbar spinal nerve (SNL) produced certain changes in Aalpha/beta cells that were evident only in the TG group. These include increased refractory period, increased input resistance, AHP prolongation and a depolarizing shift in threshold for AP initiation. The expected injury-induced CV slowing was not seen in NPY-TG Aalpha/beta cells. In the Adelta cell group, injury produced a depolarizing shift in the resting membrane potential, an increase in AP duration and decrease in AHP and refractory period duration only in WT rats, while NPY-TG cells lacked these injury-induced changes. Behavior tests showed diminished sensory response to nerve injury in NPY-TG rats, i.e., shorter duration of enhanced pain-related behavior and attenuation of contralateral effect. In conclusion, our observations suggest that NPY overexpression leads to reduced neuronal activity following nerve injury in a cell-specific manner. PMID:16259969

  1. Primary T-cells from human CD4/CCR5-transgenic rats support all early steps of HIV-1 replication including integration, but display impaired viral gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Volker

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo studies on HIV-1 pathogenesis and testing of antiviral strategies have been hampered by the lack of an immunocompetent small animal model that is highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Since native rodents are non-permissive, we developed transgenic rats that selectively express the HIV-1 receptor complex, hCD4 and hCCR5, on relevant target cells. These animals display a transient low-level plasma viremia after HIV-1YU-2 infection, demonstrating HIV-1 susceptibility in vivo. However, unlike macrophages, primary CD4 T-cells from double-transgenic animals fail to support viral spread ex vivo. To identify quantitative limitations or absolute blocks in this rodent species, we quantitatively assessed the efficiency of key steps in the early phase of the viral replication cycle in a side-by-side comparison in infected cell lines and primary T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5-transgenic rats and human donors. Results Levels of virus entry, HIV-1 cDNA synthesis, nuclear import, and integration into the host genome were shown to be remarkably similar in cell lines and, where technically accessible, in primary T-cells from both species. In contrast, a profound impairment at the level of early HIV gene expression was disclosed at the single-cell level in primary rat T-cells and most other rat-derived cells. Macrophages were a notable exception, possibly reflecting the unique transcriptional milieu in this evolutionarily conserved target cell of all lentiviruses. Importantly, transient trans-complementation by ex vivo nucleofection with the Tat-interacting protein Cyclin T1 of human origin markedly elevated HIV gene expression in primary rat T-cells. Conclusion This is the first study that has quantitatively determined the efficiency of consecutive steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle in infected primary HIV target cells from a candidate transgenic small animal and compared it to human cells. Unlike cells derived from mice or rabbits, rat cells complete all of the early steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle, including provirus integration in vivo, with high efficiency. A deficiency in gene expression was disclosed at the single cell level and could be counteracted by the human pTEFb transcription complex factor Cyclin T1. Collectively, these results provide the basis for the advancement of this transgenic rat model through strategies aimed at boosting HIV-1 gene expression in primary rat CD4 T-cells, including human Cyclin T1 transgenesis.

  2. HIV-1 transgenic rat CD4+ T cells develop decreased CD28 responsiveness and suboptimal Lck tyrosine dephosphorylation following activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impaired CD4+ T cell responses, resulting in dysregulated T-helper 1 (Th1) effector and memory responses, are a common result of HIV-1 infection. These defects are often preceded by decreased expression and function of the α/β T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex and of co-stimulatory molecules including CD28, resulting in altered T cell proliferation, cytokine secretion and cell survival. We have previously shown that HIV Tg rats have defective development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets. Here we identify abnormalities in activated HIV-1 Tg rat CD4+ T cells that include decreased pY505 dephosphorylation of Lck (required for Lck activation), decreased CD28 function, reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-xL, decreased secretion of the mitogenic lympokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and increased activation induced apoptosis. These events likely lead to defects in antigen-specific signaling and may help explain the disruption of Th1 responses and the generation of specific effector/memory subsets in transgenic CD4+ T cells

  3. Suppressed glycolytic metabolism in the prostate of transgenic rats overexpressing calcium-binding protein regucalcin underpins reduced cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Ctia V; Marques, Ricardo; Cardoso, Henrique J; Maia, Cludio J; Socorro, Slvia

    2016-04-01

    Regucalcin (RGN) is a calcium-binding protein underexpressed in human prostate cancer cases, and it has been associated with the suppression of cell proliferation and the regulation of several metabolic pathways. On the other hand, it is known that the metabolic reprogramming with augmented glycolytic metabolism and enhanced proliferative capability is a characteristic of prostate cancer cells. The present study investigated the influence of RGN on the glycolytic metabolism of rat prostate by comparing transgenic adult animals overexpressing RGN (Tg-RGN) with their wild-type counterparts. Glucose consumption was significantly decreased in the prostate of Tg-RGN animals relatively to wild-type, and accompanied by the diminished expression of glucose transporter 3 and glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase. Also, prostates of Tg-RGN animals displayed lower lactate levels, which resulted from the diminished expression/activity of lactate dehydrogenase. The expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 4 responsible for the export of lactate to the extracellular space was also diminished with RGN overexpression. These results showed the effect of RGN in inhibiting the glycolytic metabolism in rat prostate, which was underpinned by a reduced cell proliferation index. The present findings also suggest that the loss of RGN may predispose to a hyper glycolytic profile and fostered proliferation of prostate cells. PMID:26553531

  4. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loli, P; Topinka, J; Georgiadis, P; Dusinská, M; Hurbánková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Wolff, T; Oesterle, D; Kyrtopoulos, S A

    2004-09-01

    To study the suspected mechanism of the interaction between tobacco smoking and asbestos exposure in the modulation of cancer risk, the mutagenic potential of asbestos in combination with the tobacco smoke carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was examined in vivo in the rat lung. B[a]P was administered intratracheally in one set of experiments, or by two daily intraperitoneal injections in another set of experiments, to lambdalacI transgenic rats, together with 1, 2 or 4 x 2 mg amosite in one experiment. In the first experiment, the combined action of amosite and B[a]P caused a synergistic (superadditive) increase of mutation frequency in the lung, as compared to groups treated only with asbestos or B[a]P. In the second experiment, i.p. treatment with B[a]P did not significantly alter the mutation frequency induced by amosite, neither after 4 nor after 16 weeks of exposure. The B[a]P-DNA adduct levels were unaffected by amosite co-treatment in both experiments. We assume that the synergistic increase of mutation frequency after intratracheal treatment was due to the mitogenic activities of B[a]P and of amosite. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a weak and delayed mutagenic effect of amosite in rat lung observed in another study was strongly enhanced by the concomitant action of B[a]P. The striking enhancement effect of B[a]P may provide a basis for understanding the suspected synergism of smoking on asbestos carcinogenesis. PMID:15288535

  5. Fumaric Acid Esters Can Block Pro-Inflammatory Actions of Human CRP and Ameliorate Metabolic Disturbances in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Jan; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Oliyarnyk, O.; Škop, V.; Kazdová, L.; Kurtz, T.; Pravenec, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2014), e101906. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14325; GA MŠk(CZ) LH12061; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : fumaric acid esters * C-reactive protein * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  6. A transgenic rat expressing human APP with the Swedish Alzheimer's disease mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Ronnie; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Kloskowska, Ewa; Nilsson, Tatjana; Popova, Elena; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Ganten, Ursula; Ganten, Detlev; Bader, Michael; Winblad, Bengt; Benedikz, Eirikur

    2007-01-01

    protein (APP) containing the Swedish AD mutation. The highest level of expression in the brain is found in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Starting after the age of 15 months, the rats show increased tau phosphorylation and extracellular Abeta staining. The Abeta is found predominantly in...

  7. Transgenic rescue of defective Cd36 enhances myocardial adenylyl cyclase signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klevstig, M.; Manakov, D.; Kašparová, D.; Brabcová, I.; Papoušek, František; Žurmanová, J.; Zídek, Václav; Šilhavý, Jan; Neckář, Jan; Pravenec, Michal; Kolář, František; Nováková, O.; Novotný, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 465, č. 10 (2013), s. 1477-1486. ISSN 0031-6768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX01110901; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0505 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : SHR rats * Cd36 * heart * beta-Adrenergic receptors * Adenylyl cyclase * Protein kinase A Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.073, year: 2013

  8. Dual-Reporter β-Cell-Specific Male Transgenic Rats for the Analysis of β-Cell Functional Mass and Enrichment by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislain, Julien; Fontés, Ghislaine; Tremblay, Caroline; Kebede, Melkam A; Poitout, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Mouse β-cell-specific reporter lines have played a key role in diabetes research. Although the rat provides several advantages, its use has lagged behind the mouse due to the relative paucity of genetic models. In this report we describe the generation and characterization of transgenic rats expressing a Renilla luciferase (RLuc)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusion under control of a 9-kb genomic fragment from the rat ins2 gene (RIP7-RLuc-YFP). Analysis of RLuc luminescence and YFP fluorescence revealed that reporter expression is restricted to β-cells in the adult rat. Physiological characteristics including body weight, fat and lean mass, fasting and fed glucose levels, glucose and insulin tolerance, and β-cell mass were similar between two RIP7-RLuc-YFP lines and wild-type littermates. Glucose-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets was indistinguishable from controls in one of the lines, whereas surprisingly, insulin secretion was defective in the second line. Consequently, subsequent studies were limited to the former line. We asked whether transgene activity was responsive to glucose as shown previously for the ins2 gene. Exposing islets ex vivo to high glucose (16.7 mM) or in vivo infusion of glucose for 24 hours increased luciferase activity in islets, whereas the fraction of YFP-positive β-cells after glucose infusion was unchanged. Finally, we showed that fluorescence-activated cell sorting of YFP-positive islet cells can be used to enrich for β-cells. Overall, this transgenic line will enable for the first time the application of both fluorescence and bioluminescence/luminescence-based approaches for the study of rat β-cells. PMID:26671180

  9. Characterization of sevoflurane effects on Per2 expression using ex vivo bioluminescence imaging of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Izumi; Iijima, Norio; Takumi, Ken; Higo, Shimpei; Aikawa, Satoko; Anzai, Megumi; Ishii, Hirotaka; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    The inhalation anesthetic sevoflurane suppresses Per2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in rodents. Here, we investigated the intra-SCN regional specificity, time-dependency, and pharmacological basis of sevoflurane-effects. Bioluminescence image was taken from the SCN explants of mPer2 promoter-destabilized luciferase transgenic rats, and each small regions of interest (ROI) of the image was analyzed. Sevoflurane suppressed bioluminescence in all ROIs, suggesting that all regions in the SCN are sensitive to sevoflurane. Clear time-dependency in sevoflurane effects were also observed; application during the trough phase of the bioluminescence cycle suppressed the subsequent increase in bioluminescence and resulted in a phase delay of the cycle; sevoflurane applied during the middle of the ascending phase induced a phase advance; sevoflurane on the descending phase showed no effect. These results indicate that the sevoflurane effect may depend on the intrinsic state of circadian machinery. Finally, we examined the involvement of GABAergic signal transduction in the sevoflurane effect. Co-application of both GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists completely blocked the effect of sevoflurane on the bioluminescence rhythm, suggesting that sevoflurane inhibits Per2 expression via GABAergic signal transduction. Current study elucidated the anesthetic effects on the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythm. PMID:26696094

  10. Multi-Shell Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI) at 7 Tesla in TgF344-AD Transgenic Alzheimer Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jacobs, Russell E.; Weitz, Tara M.; Town, Terrence C.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is widely used to study microstructural characteristics of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-angular resolution imaging (HARDI) are frequently used in radiology and neuroscience research but can be limited in describing the signal behavior in composite nerve fiber structures. Here, we developed and assessed the benefit of a comprehensive diffusion encoding scheme, known as hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI), composed of 300 DWI volumes acquired at 7-Tesla with diffusion weightings at b = 1000, 3000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 s/mm2 and applied it in transgenic Alzheimer rats (line TgF344-AD) that model the full clinico-pathological spectrum of the human disease. We studied and visualized the effects of the multiple concentric shells when computing three distinct anisotropy mapsfractional anisotropy (FA), generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and normalized quantitative anisotropy (NQA). We tested the added value of the multi-shell q-space sampling scheme, when reconstructing neural pathways using mathematical frameworks from DTI and q-ball imaging (QBI). We show a range of properties of HYDI, including lower apparent anisotropy when using high b-value shells in DTI-based reconstructions, and increases in apparent anisotropy in QBI-based reconstructions. Regardless of the reconstruction scheme, HYDI improves FA-, GFA- and NQA-aided tractography. HYDI may be valuable in human connectome projects and clinical research, as well as magnetic resonance research in experimental animals. PMID:26683657

  11. Hormone secretion in transgenic rats and electrophysiological activity in their gonadotropin releasing-hormone neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Gay, Vernon L.; Hemond, Peter J.; Schmidt, Deena; O'Boyle, Michael P.; Hemond, Zoe; Best, Janet; O'Farrell, Laura; Suter, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    Expression of GFP in GnRH neurons has allowed for studies of individual GnRH neurons. We have demonstrated previously the preservation of physiological function in male GnRH-GFP mice. In the present study, we confirm using biocytin-filled GFP-positive neurons in the hypothalamic slice preparation that GFP-expressing somata, axons, and dendrites in hypothalamic slices from GnRH-GFP rats are GnRH1 peptide positive. Second, we used repetitive sampling to study hormone secretion from GnRH-GFP tra...

  12. A Phox2b BAC Transgenic Rat Line Useful for Understanding Respiratory Rhythm Generator Neural Circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Keiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Sato, Shigeru; Igarashi, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Arata, Satoru; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Onimaru, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The key role of the respiratory neural center is respiratory rhythm generation to maintain homeostasis through the control of arterial blood pCO2/pH and pO2 levels. The neuronal network responsible for respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal rat resides in the ventral side of the medulla and is composed of two groups; the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) and the pre-Btzinger complex group (preBtC). The pFRG partially overlaps in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), which was originally id...

  13. Different mechanisms of acute versus long-term antihypertensive effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition: studies in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporková, Alexandra; Jíchová, Sárka; Husková, Zuzana; Kopkan, Libor; Nishiyama, Akira; Hwang, Sung H; Hammock, Bruce D; Imig, John D; Kompanowska-Jezierska, Elzbieta; Sadowski, Janusz; Kramer, Herbert J; Cervenka, Luděk

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the long-term antihypertensive action of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition (sEH) in angiotensin-II (AngII)-dependent hypertension might be mediated by the suppression of intrarenal AngII levels. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of acute (2 days) and chronic (14 days) sEH inhibition on blood pressure (BP) in transgenic rats with inducible AngII-dependent hypertension. AngII-dependent malignant hypertension was induced by 10 days' dietary administration of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural xenobiotic that activates the mouse renin gene in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. BP was monitored by radiotelemetry. Acute and chronic sEH inhibition was achieved using cis-4-(4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)cyclohexyloxy) benzoic acid, given at doses of 0.3, 3, 13, 26, 60 and 130 mg/L in drinking water. At the end of experiments, renal concentrations of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, their inactive metabolites dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids and AngII were measured. Acute BP-lowering effects of sEH inhibition in I3C-induced rats was associated with a marked increase in renal epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio and acute natriuresis. Chronic treatment with cis-4-(4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)cyclohexyloxy) benzoic acid in I3C-induced rats elicited dose-dependent persistent BP lowering associated with a significant reduction of plasma and kidney AngII levels. Our findings show that the acute BP-lowering effect of sEH inhibition in I3C-induced Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats is mediated by a substantial increase in intrarenal epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and their natriuretic action without altering intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity. Long-term antihypertensive action of cis-4-(4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)cyclohexyloxy) benzoic acid in I3C-induced Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats is mediated mostly by suppression of intrarenal AngII concentration. PMID:25224811

  14. The reduction of volume and fiber bundle connections in the hippocampus of EGR3 transgenic schizophrenia rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ensen Ma,1,2,* Tianbin Song,3,* Hui Zhang,4,* Jie Lu,5 Liwen Wang,2 Qichao Zhao,2 Runcai Guo,2 Miao Li,2 Guolin Ma,2 Guangming Lu,1 Kefeng Li6,7 1Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Radiology, Beijing Shunyi Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Radiology, First Clinical Medical College, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Xicheng, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 6School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 7Tianjin SunnyPeak Biotech Co., Ltd, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objective: There is a growing consensus that schizophrenia is ultimately caused by abnormal communication between spatially disparate brain structures. White matter fasciculi represent the primary infrastructure for long distance communication in the brain. In this study, we aimed to investigate the white matter connection in schizophrenia susceptible brain regions of early growth response factor 3 (EGR3 expressing rats.Methods: A rat model of schizophrenia was created by the transfection of the EGR3 gene into rat hippocampus. All animals were placed in a fixation system using a commercial rat-dedicated coil. Schizophrenia susceptible brain regions were scanned using in vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. The volume, quantity, average length of fiber bundles, fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, the relative heterosexual fraction, and volume ratio were collected in the whole brain and schizophrenia related brain areas (the hippocampus, thalamus, and prefrontal lobe. MedINRIA software was used for data processing of diffusion tensor and fiber bundles tracking. The fibronectin in relevant brain regions was also analyzed.Results: There was a significant decrease in the volume of the fiber beam through the left hippocampus dentate in the schizophrenia model group in comparison to the control group and the risperidone treatment group (P<0.05. A significant reduction in the volume and number of the fiber bundles was also observed in left prefrontal–left hippocampus, left hippocampus–left thalamus, left prefrontal–left hippocampus–left thalamus areas in the model group (all P<0.05.Conclusion: The volume of hippocampus and the number of fiber bundles were reduced in EGR3 transgenic schizophrenia rats, and are the most sensitive indicators in schizophrenia. The diffusion tensor imaging technique plays an important role in the evaluation of patients with schizophrenia. Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, schizophrenia, early growth response factor 3, fractional anisotropy, diffusion tensor imaging 

  15. Adeno-associated viral vector serotypes 1 and 5 targeted to the neonatal rat and pig striatum induce widespread transgene expression in the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Stott, Simon R W; Mattsson, Bengt; Wisman, Liselijn; Ettrup, Anders; Hermening, Stephan; Knudsen, Gitte M; Kirik, Deniz

    2010-01-01

    Viral vector-mediated gene transfer has emerged as a powerful means to target transgene expression in the central nervous system. Here we characterized the efficacy of serotypes 1 and 5 recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) after stereotaxic...... striatal input and output areas, including large parts of the cortex. In both species, rAAV5 resulted in a more widespread transgene expression compared to rAAV1. In neonatal rats, rAAV5 also transduced several other areas such as the olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, and septum. Phenotypic analysis of the GFP...... study effects of genetic manipulation in this non-primate large animal species. Finally, we generated an atlas of the Göttingen minipig brain for guiding future studies in this large animal species....

  16. Transgenic mouse lines expressing rat AH receptor variants - A new animal model for research on AH receptor function and dioxin toxicity mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W) rats are exceptionally resistant to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity mainly because of their mutated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene. In H/W rats, altered splicing of the AHR mRNA generates two AHR proteins: deletion (DEL) and insertion (INS) variants, with the INS isoform being predominantly expressed. To gain further insight into their functional properties, cDNAs of these and rat wild-type (rWT) isoform were transferred into C57BL/6J-derived mice by microinjection. The endogenous mouse AHR was eliminated by selective crossing with Ahr-null mice. A single mouse line was obtained for each of the three constructs. The AHR mRNA levels in tissues were generally close to those of C57BL/6 mice in INS and DEL mice and somewhat higher in rWT mice; in testis, however, all 3 constructs exhibited marked overexpression. The transgenic mouse lines were phenotypically normal except for increased testis weight. Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes by TCDD occurred similarly to that in C57BL/6 mice, but there tended to be a correlation with AHR concentrations, especially in testis. In contrast to C57BL/6 mice, the transgenics did not display any major gender difference in susceptibility to the acute lethality and hepatotoxicity of TCDD; rWT mice were highly sensitive, DEL mice moderately resistant and INS mice highly resistant. Co-expression of mouse AHR and rWT resulted in augmented sensitivity to TCDD and abolished the natural resistance of female C57BL/6 mice, whereas mice co-expressing mouse AHR and INS were resistant. Thus, these transgenic mouse lines provide a novel promising tool for molecular studies on dioxin toxicity and AHR function.

  17. Enhanced Replication of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 in T Cells from Transgenic Rats Expressing Human CRM1 That Is Regulated in a Natural Manner▿

    OpenAIRE

    Takayanagi, Ryo; Ohashi, Takashi; Yamashita, Eizaburo; Kurosaki, Yohei; TANAKA, Kumiko; Hakata, Yoshiyuki; Komoda, Yasumasa; Ikeda, Satoru; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Shida, Hisatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). To develop a better animal model for the investigation of HTLV-1 infection, we established a transgenic (Tg) rat carrying the human CRM1 (hCRM1) gene, which encodes a viral RNA transporter that is a species-specific restriction factor. At first we found that CRM1 expression is elaborately regulated through a pathway involving protein kinase C during lymphocyte activation, initially by posttransc...

  18. Increased Sensitivity to Cocaine Self-Administration in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats is Associated with Changes in Striatal Dopamine Transporter Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Scot; Sexton, Tammy; Pattison, Lindsey P; Childers, Steven R; Hemby, Scott E

    2015-09-01

    Cocaine abuse in HIV patients accelerates the progression and severity of neuropathology, motor impairment and cognitive dysfunction compared to non-drug using HIV patients. Cocaine and HIV interact with the dopamine transporter (DAT); however, the effect of their interaction on DAT binding remains understudied. The present study compared the dose-response functions for intravenous self-administration of cocaine and heroin between male HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1 Tg) and Fischer 344 rats. The cocaine and heroin dose-response functions exhibit an inverted U-shape for both HIV-1 Tg and F344 rats. For cocaine, the number of infusions for each dose on the ascending limb was greater for HIV-1 Tg versus F344 rats. No significant changes in the heroin dose-response function were observed in HIV-1 Tg animals. Following the conclusion of self-administration experiments, DAT binding was assessed in striatal membranes. Saturation binding of the cocaine analog [(125)I] 3?-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2?-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([(125)I]RTI-55) in rat striatal membranes resulted in binding curves that were best fit to a two-site binding model, allowing for calculation of dissociation constant (Kd) and binding density (Bmax) values that correspond to high- and low-affinity DAT binding sites. Control HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited a significantly greater affinity (i.e., decrease in Kd value) in the low-affinity DAT binding site compared to control F344 rats. Furthermore, cocaine self-administration in HIV-1 Tg rats increased low-affinity Kd (i.e., decreased affinity) compared to levels observed in control F344 rats. Cocaine also increased low-affinity Bmax in HIV-1 Tg rats as compared to controls, indicating an increase in the number of low-affinity DAT binding sites. F344 rats did not exhibit any change in high- or low-affinity Kd or Bmax values following cocaine or heroin self-administration. The increase in DAT affinity in cocaine HIV-1 Tg rats is consistent with the leftward shift of the ascending limb of the cocaine dose-response curve observed in HIV-1 Tg vs. F344 rats, and has major implications for the function of cocaine binding to DAT in HIV patients. The absence of HIV-related changes in heroin intake are likely due to less dopaminergic involvement in the mediation of heroin reward, further emphasizing the preferential influence of HIV on dopamine-related behaviors. PMID:25749646

  19. Fluorescent Visualisation of Oxytocin in the Hypothalamo-neurohypophysial/-spinal Pathways After Chronic Inflammation in Oxytocin-Monomeric Red Fluorescent Protein 1 Transgenic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, T; Kawasaki, M; Hashimoto, H; Ishikura, T; Yoshimura, M; Ohkubo, J-I; Maruyama, T; Motojima, Y; Sabanai, K; Mori, T; Ohnishi, H; Sakai, A; Ueta, Y

    2015-07-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a well-known neurohypophysial hormone that is synthesised in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the hypothalamus. The projection of magnocellular neurosecretory cells, which synthesise OXT and arginine vasopressin in the PVN and SON, to the posterior pituitary plays an essential role in mammalian labour and lactation through its peripheral action. However, previous studies have shown that parvocellular OXTergic cells in the PVN, which project to the medulla and spinal cord, are involved in various physiological functions (e.g. sensory modulation and autonomic). In the present study, we examined OXT expression in the PVN, SON and spinal cord after chronic inflammation from adjuvant arthritis (AA). We used transgenic rats that express OXT and the monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion gene to visualise both the magnocellular and parvocellular OXTergic pathways. OXT-mRFP1 fluorescence intensity was significantly increased in the PVN, SON, dorsal horn of the spinal cord and posterior pituitary in AA rats. The levels of OXT-mRFP1 mRNA were significantly increased in the PVN and SON of AA rats. These results suggested that OXT was up-regulated in both hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and parvocellular cells by chronic inflammation, and also that OXT in the PVN-spinal pathway may be involved in sensory modulation. OXT-mRFP1 transgenic rats are a very useful model for visualising the OXTergic pathways from vesicles in a single cell to terminals in invitro preparations. PMID:25943916

  20. Human cyclin T1 expression ameliorates a T-cell-specific transcriptional limitation for HIV in transgenic rats, but is not sufficient for a spreading infection of prototypic R5 HIV-1 strains ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman Dan R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cells derived from native rodents have limits at distinct steps of HIV replication. Rat primary CD4 T-cells, but not macrophages, display a profound transcriptional deficit that is ameliorated by transient trans-complementation with the human Tat-interacting protein Cyclin T1 (hCycT1. Results Here, we generated transgenic rats that selectively express hCycT1 in CD4 T-cells and macrophages. hCycT1 expression in rat T-cells boosted early HIV gene expression to levels approaching those in infected primary human T-cells. hCycT1 expression was necessary, but not sufficient, to enhance HIV transcription in T-cells from individual transgenic animals, indicating that endogenous cellular factors are critical co-regulators of HIV gene expression in rats. T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5/hCycT1-transgenic rats did not support productive infection of prototypic wild-type R5 HIV-1 strains ex vivo, suggesting one or more significant limitation in the late phase of the replication cycle in this primary rodent cell type. Remarkably, we identify a replication-competent HIV-1 GFP reporter strain (R7/3 YU-2 Env that displays characteristics of a spreading, primarily cell-to-cell-mediated infection in primary T-cells from hCD4/hCCR5-transgenic rats. Moreover, the replication of this recombinant HIV-1 strain was significantly enhanced by hCycT1 transgenesis. The viral determinants of this so far unique replicative ability are currently unknown. Conclusion Thus, hCycT1 expression is beneficial to de novo HIV infection in a transgenic rat model, but additional genetic manipulations of the host or virus are required to achieve full permissivity.

  1. Transgen kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oversættelse af kunstneren Eduardo Kac' tekst "Transgenic Art" i Passepartout #27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07......Oversættelse af kunstneren Eduardo Kac' tekst "Transgenic Art" i Passepartout #27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07...

  2. Human cyclin T1 expression ameliorates a T-cell-specific transcriptional limitation for HIV in transgenic rats, but is not sufficient for a spreading infection of prototypic R5 HIV-1 strains ex vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Littman Dan R; Saifuddin Mohammed; KewalRamani Vineet N; Allespach Ina; Ganter Kerstin; Goffinet Christine; Michel Nico; Greene Warner C; Goldsmith Mark A; Keppler Oliver T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cells derived from native rodents have limits at distinct steps of HIV replication. Rat primary CD4 T-cells, but not macrophages, display a profound transcriptional deficit that is ameliorated by transient trans-complementation with the human Tat-interacting protein Cyclin T1 (hCycT1). Results Here, we generated transgenic rats that selectively express hCycT1 in CD4 T-cells and macrophages. hCycT1 expression in rat T-cells boosted early HIV gene expression to levels approa...

  3. Kaolin-induced chronic hydrocephalus accelerates amyloid deposition and vascular disease in transgenic rats expressing high levels of human APP

    OpenAIRE

    Silverberg, Gerald D; Miller, Miles C.; Pascale, Crissey L; Caralopoulos, Ilias N; Agca, Yuksel; Agca, Cansu; Stopa, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is most common in the elderly and has a high co-morbidity with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). To understand the relationship between NPH, AD and CVD, we investigated how chronic hydrocephalus impacts brain amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation and vascular pathology in an AD transgenic rodent model. Previously we showed that the altered CSF physiology produced by kaolin-hydrocephalus in older wild-type Sprague–Dawley...

  4. Unilateral induction of progenitors in the spinal cord of hSOD1(G93A) transgenic rats correlates with an asymmetrical hind limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hemptinne, Isabelle; Boucherie, Cédric; Pochet, Roland; Bantubungi, Kadiombo; Schiffmann, Serge N; Maloteaux, Jean-Marie; Hermans, Emmanuel

    2006-06-19

    Transgenic rats expressing a mutated form of the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (hSOD1(G93A)) develop an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like phenotype, including motor neurone degeneration and reactive gliosis in the spinal cord. This study aimed at examining the presence of endogenous neural progenitors in the lumbar spinal cord of these rats at the end-stage of the disease. Immunohistochemical data clearly demonstrated the induced expression of the stem cell factor reported as a chemoattractant and survival factor for neural stem cells as well as nestin (neuro-epithelial stem cell intermediate filament) in the spinal cord sections. While the stem cell factor immunolabelling appeared diffuse throughout the gray matter, nestin labelling was restricted to clusters within the ventral horn. Interestingly, as paralysis regularly develops asymmetrically, induction of nestin was only detected on the ipsilateral side of the predominant symptoms. Finally, immunohistochemical detection of the stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) revealed its specific induction which coincided with nestin immunolabelling. Together, these results are indicative of endogenous recruitment of neural progenitors within lesioned tissues and could support the development of treatments involving endogenous or exogenous stem cells. PMID:16540243

  5. Astrocytes and Müller Cell Alterations During Retinal Degeneration in a Transgenic Rat Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Lax, Pedro; Campello, Laura; Pinilla, Isabel; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Retinitis pigmentosa includes a group of progressive retinal degenerative diseases that affect the structure and function of photoreceptors. Secondarily to the loss of photoreceptors, there is a reduction in retinal vascularization, which seems to influence the cellular degenerative process. Retinal macroglial cells, astrocytes, and Müller cells provide support for retinal neurons and are fundamental for maintaining normal retinal function. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of macroglial changes during retinal degeneration in P23H rats. Methods: Homozygous P23H line-3 rats aged from P18 to 18 months were used to study the evolution of the disease, and SD rats were used as controls. Immunolabeling with antibodies against GFAP, vimentin, and transducin were used to visualize macroglial cells and cone photoreceptors. Results: In P23H rats, increased GFAP labeling in Müller cells was observed as an early indicator of retinal gliosis. At 4 and 12 months of age, the apical processes of Müller cells in P23H rats clustered in firework-like structures, which were associated with ring-like shaped areas of cone degeneration in the outer nuclear layer. These structures were not observed at 16 months of age. The number of astrocytes was higher in P23H rats than in the SD matched controls at 4 and 12 months of age, supporting the idea of astrocyte proliferation. As the disease progressed, astrocytes exhibited a deteriorated morphology and marked hypertrophy. The increase in the complexity of the astrocytic processes correlated with greater connexin 43 expression and higher density of connexin 43 immunoreactive puncta within the ganglion cell layer (GCL) of P23H vs. SD rat retinas. Conclusions: In the P23H rat model of retinitis pigmentosa, the loss of photoreceptors triggers major changes in the number and morphology of glial cells affecting the inner retina. PMID:26733810

  6. Astrocytes and Müller cells changes during retinal degeneration in a transgenic rat model of retinitis pigmentosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pinilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Retinitis pigmentosa includes a group of progressive retinal degenerative diseases that affect the structure and function of photoreceptors. Secondarily to the loss of photoreceptors, there is a reduction in retinal vascularization, which seems to influence the cellular degenerative process. Retinal macroglial cells, astrocytes and Müller cells provide support for retinal neurons and are fundamental for maintaining normal retinal function. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of macroglial changes during retinal degeneration in P23H rats. Methods: Homozygous P23H line-3 rats aged from P18 to 18 months were used to study the evolution of the disease, and SD rats were used as controls. Immunolabeling with antibodies against GFAP, vimentin, and transducin were used to visualize macroglial cells and cone photoreceptors. Results: In P23H rats, increased GFAP labeling in Müller cells was observed as an early indicator of retinal gliosis. At 4 and 12 months of age, the apical processes of Müller cells in P23H rats clustered in firework-like structures, which were associated with ring-like shaped areas of cone degeneration in the outer nuclear layer. These structures were not observed at 16 months of age. The number of astrocytes was higher in P23H rats than in the SD matched controls at 4 and 12 months of age, supporting the idea of astrocyte proliferation. As the disease progressed, astrocytes exhibited a deteriorated morphology and marked hypertrophy. The increase in the complexity of the astrocytic processes correlated with greater connexin 43 expression and higher density of connexin 43 immunoreactive puncta within the ganglion cell layer of P23H versus SD rat retinas. Conclusions: In the P23H rat model of retinitis pigmentosa, the loss of photoreceptors triggers major changes in the number and morphology of glial cells affecting the inner retina.

  7. Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis and ameliorates Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling in transgenic rats harboring human renin and angiotensinogen genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biala, Agnieszka; Tauriainen, Eveliina; Siltanen, Antti; Shi, Jin; Merasto, Saara; Louhelainen, Marjut; Martonen, Essi; Finckenberg, Piet; Muller, Dominik N; Mervaala, Eero

    2010-06-01

    There is compelling evidence to indicate an important role for increased local renin-angiotensin system activity in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that activates SIRT1, a novel cardioprotective and longevity factor having NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase activity. We tested the hypothesis whether resveratrol could prevent from angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiovascular damage. Four-week-old double transgenic rats harboring human renin and human angiotensinogen genes (dTGR) were treated for 4 weeks either with SIRT1 activator resveratrol or SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Untreated dTGR and their normotensive Sprague-Dawley control rats (SD) received vehicle. Untreated dTGR developed severe hypertension as well as cardiac hypertrophy, and showed pronounced cardiovascular mortality compared with normotensive SD rats. Resveratrol slightly but significantly decreased blood pressure, ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy and prevented completely Ang II-induced mortality, whereas nicotinamide increased blood pressure without significantly influencing cardiac hypertrophy or survival. Resveratrol decreased cardiac ANP mRNA expression and induced cardiac mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC-1alpha), mitochondrial transcription factor (Tfam), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 (cox4). Resveratrol dose-dependently increased SIRT1 activity in vitro. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of SIRT1 activator resveratrol on Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling are mediated by blood pressure-dependent pathways and are linked to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:20429690

  8. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of lamda-lacI transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, J; Loli, P; Hurbáková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Wolff, T; Oesterle, D; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Georgiadis, P

    2006-03-20

    In an attempt to examine the interaction of man-made mineral fibres with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), homozygous X-lacI transgenic F344 rats were intratracheally treated with rock (stone) wool RWI and glass wool MMVF 10 fibres together with B[a]P. To analyze the induction of gene mutations by fibres and B[a]P in lung, single doses of 1 and 2 mg fibres/animal or multiple doses of 2 mg fibres/animal were administered weekly on 4 consecutive weeks (total dose 8 mg/animal). B[a]P (10 mg/animal) was administered either simultaneously with fibres (for single dose treatment with fibres) or together with the last fiber treatment (for multiple dose treatment with fibres). Animals were scarified 4 weeks after the last treatment. Benzo[a]pyrene administered simultaneously with RW1 fibres exhibited a strong synergistic effect on mutagenicity, the observed mutant frequency (MF) being more than three-fold higher than the net sum of the MF induced after separate administration of both agents. Our data suggest that DNA adducts induced by simultaneous B[a]P and fiber treatment lead to a strong increase in mutatant frequencies. PMID:16375931

  9. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  10. Nogo-A-deficient transgenic rats show deficits in higher cognitive functions, decreased anxiety and altered circadian activity patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Petrasek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decreased levels of Nogo-A dependent signaling have been shown to affect behavior and cognitive functions. In Nogo-A knockout and knock-down laboratory rodents, behavioral alterations were observed, possibly corresponding with human neuropsychiatric diseases of neurodevelopmental origin, particularly schizophrenia. This study offers further insight into behavioral manifestations of Nogo-A knockdown in laboratory rats, focusing on spatial and non-spatial cognition, anxiety levels, circadian rhythmicity and activity patterns. Demonstrated is an impairment of cognitive functions and behavioral flexibility in a spatial active avoidance task, while non-spatial memory in a step-through avoidance task was spared. No signs of anhedonia, typical for schizophrenic patients, were observed in the animals. Some measures indicated lower anxiety levels in the Nogo-A deficient group. Circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity was preserved in the Nogo-A-knockout rats and their circadian period (tau did not differ from controls. However, daily activity patterns were slightly altered in the knockdown animals. We conclude that a reduction of Nogo-A levels induces changes in CNS development, manifested as subtle alterations in cognitive functions, emotionality and activity patterns.

  11. Effects of neutrophils peptide-1 transgenic Chlorella ellipsoidea on the gut microbiota of male Sprague-Dawley rats, as revealed by high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingzhang; Bao, Qi; Chen, Siyuan; Cui, Xingtian; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Luo, Yunbo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun

    2016-03-01

    Rabbit neutrophils peptide-1 (NP-1) is a type of defensin that possesses a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Chlorella ellipsoidea is a new eukaryotic expression system for exogenously producing NP-1. The NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea can be directly added into feed as antimicrobial agent without any purification procedure for the NP-1 peptide. However, the effects of C. ellipsoidea and NP-1 on the host gut microbiota should be explored before application. In this study, diets containing different concentrations (1.25, 2.5, and 5%) of C. ellipsoidea and NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea were administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with the chow diet control group, none of the experimental groups showed any significant differences in their growth indices, and no histopathological damage was observed. The phylotypes of gut microbiota in the control group, the 5% C. ellipsoidea diet group and the 5% NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea diet group were determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that both 5% experimental groups had shifted community memberships of gut microbiota. In particular, the 5% NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea diet exhibited an increased abundance of most Gram-positive bacterial taxa and a reduced abundance of most Gram-negative bacterial taxa, and it promoted the growth of some lactic acid bacterial genera. Lactic acid bacteria, especially the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, have been widely reported to be benefic effects on the host. Thus NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea is promising feed additive and gut regulator, as it have the potential to increase the abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in gut microbiota of animal. PMID:26873554

  12. Intrarenal alterations of the angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2/angiotensin 1-7 complex of the renin-angiotensin system do not alter the course of malignant hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husková, Zuzana; Kopkan, Libor; Červenková, Lenka; Doleželová, Šárka; Vaňourková, Zdeňka; Škaroupková, Petra; Nishiyama, Akira; Kompanowska-Jezierska, Elzbieta; Sadowski, Janusz; Kramer, Herbert J; Červenka, Luděk

    2016-04-01

    The role of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathophysiology of malignant hypertension is not fully understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that the recently discovered vasodilator axis of the RAS, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) type 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin 1-7 (ANG 1-7), constitutes an endogenous system counterbalancing the hypertensiogenic axis, ACE/angiotensin II (ANG II)/AT1 receptor. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the intrarenal vasodilator RAS axis in the pathophysiology of ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension was induced by 13 days' dietary administration of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural xenobiotic that activates the mouse renin gene in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. It was hypothesized that pharmacologically-induced inhibition of the ACE2/ANG 1-7 complex should aggravate, and activation of this axis should attenuate, the course of ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) was monitored by radiotelemetry. ACE2 inhibitor (DX 600, 0.2 μg/day) and ACE2 activator (DIZE, 1 mg/day) were administrated via osmotic minipumps. Even though ACE2 inhibitor significantly decreased and ACE2 activator increased intrarenal ANG 1-7 concentrations, the course of BP, as well as of albuminuria, cardiac hypertrophy and renal glomerular damage, were not altered. It was shown that intrarenal alterations in the ACE2/ANG 1-7 complex did not significantly modify the course of malignant hypertension in I3C-induced Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. Thus, in our experimental setting alterations of this intrarenal vasodilator complex of the RAS do not significantly modify the form of malignant hypertension that clearly depends on the inappropriately increased activity of the ACE/ANG II/AT1 receptor axis. PMID:26833491

  13. Peptide binding motifs associated with MHC molecules common in Chinese rhesus macaques are analogous to those of human HLA supertypes, and include HLA-B27-like alleles

    OpenAIRE

    Mothé, Bianca R.; Southwood, Scott; Sidney, John; English, A. Michelle; Wriston, Amanda; Hoof, Ilka; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Sette, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Chinese rhesus macaques are of particular interest in SIV/HIV research as these animals have prolonged kinetics of disease progression to AIDS, compared to their Indian counterparts, suggesting that they may be a better model for HIV. Nevertheless, the specific mechanism(s) accounting for these kinetics remains unclear. The study of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules, including their MHC:peptide binding motifs, provides valuable information for measuring cellular immune response...

  14. Neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a short review that introduces recent advances of neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies. The anatomical complexity of the nervous system remains a subject of tremendous fascination among neuroscientists. In order to tackle this extraordinary complexity, powerful transgenic technologies a...

  15. The rat elastase I regulatory element is an enhancer that directs correct cell specificity and developmental onset of expression in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, R. E.; Swift, G H; Ornitz, D M; Quaife, C J; Palmiter, R. D.; Brinster, R L; Macdonald, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 134 base pairs of the 5' flanking sequence of the elastase I gene is sufficient and necessary to direct expression of the passive human growth hormone gene (hGH) to the exocrine pancreas. We demonstrate that this elastase I regulatory region contains a transcriptional enhancer which directs acinar cell-specific expression in transgenic animals. The elastase I enhancer specifies correct expression of the linked hGH gene in an orientation- and position-independent manner and can acti...

  16. Comparative effects of the dual metallopeptidase inhibitor, MDL 100,240 and of enalaprilat on regional and on cardiac haemodynamics in conscious, hypertensive, transgenic ((mRen-2)27) rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, S M; Kemp, P A; Brunner-Ferber, F; Bennett, T

    1997-01-01

    Heterozygous, male, hypertensive, transgenic ((mRen-2)27) rats (350–450 g) were instrumented for the measurement of regional or cardiac haemodynamics (n = 16, in both groups). Animals were given continuous i.v. infusions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalaprilat, or the dual metallopeptidase inhibitor, MDL 100,240 (both at 3 mg kg−1, 3 mg kg−1 h−1; n = 8 for regional and cardiac haemodynamics), for 32 h. Twenty four hours after the onset of infusion of enalaprilat or MDL 100,240, the bradykinin (B2)-receptor antagonist, Hoe 140 (1 mg kg−1, i.v.), was given and measurements were continued for a further 8 h, to assess any possible involvement of bradykinin. Over the first 8 h of infusion, both enalaprilat and MDL 100,240 had significant antihypertensive effects, accompanied by similar regional vasodilatations. However, the blood pressure lowering effect of MDL 100,240 (−54 ± 9 mmHg) was greater than that of enalaprilat (−38 ± 4 mmHg), because the former caused a significantly greater reduction in cardiac index. Between 8–24 h after the onset of infusion, there was a reduction in the effect of enalaprilat on blood pressure, because cardiac index rose, with no further increase in total peripheral conductance. In contrast, the antihypertensive effect of MDL 100,240 persisted, in spite of a recovery in cardiac index, because there was further vasodilatation, particularly in the mesenteric and hindquarters vascular beds. There were no apparent haemodynamic changes associated with the injection of Hoe 140, and over the following 8 h, the difference between the haemodynamic effects of enalaprilat and MDL 100,240 persisted; there was little evidence of suppression of the effects of either drug. These results are more consistent with the antihypertensive effects of enalaprilat or MDL 100,240 in transgenic ((mRen-2)27) rats being due to suppression of angiotensin II production, than due to inhibition of bradykinin degradation. The additional effects of MDL 100,240 may be accounted for by inhibition of the degradation of natriuretic peptides reducing cardiac output, initially, and decreasing vascular tone, subsequently. Alternatively, the additional increase in vascular conductance following treatment with MDL 100,240 may represent an autoregulatory response to the reduced pressure. PMID:9422816

  17. Administration of 4-(α-L-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl Isothiocyanate Delays Disease Phenotype in SOD1G93A Rats: A Transgenic Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    4-(α-L-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin, GMG) is a compound found in Moringa oleifera seeds. Myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis at neutral pH of GMG releases the biologically active compound 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC). The present study was designed to test the potential therapeutic effectiveness of GMG-ITC to counteract the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using SOD1tg rats, which physiologically develops SOD1G93A at about 16 weeks of life, and can be considered a genetic model of disease. Rats were treated once a day with GMG (10 mg/Kg) bioactivated with myrosinase (20 µL/rat) via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection for two weeks before disease onset and the treatment was prolonged for further two weeks before the sacrifice. Immune-inflammatory markers as well as apoptotic pathway were investigated to establish whether GMG-ITC could represent a new promising tool in clinical practice to prevent ALS. Achieved data display clear differences in molecular and biological profiles between treated and untreated SOD1tg rats leading to guessing that GMG-ITC can interfere with the pathophysiological mechanisms at the basis of ALS development. Therefore, GMG-ITC produced from myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of pure GMG could be a candidate for further studies aimed to assess its possible use in clinical practice for the prevention or to slow down this disease. PMID:26075221

  18. Administration of 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate delays disease phenotype in SOD1(G93A) rats: a transgenic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuppo, Maria; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Iori, Renato; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    4-(α-L-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin, GMG) is a compound found in Moringa oleifera seeds. Myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis at neutral pH of GMG releases the biologically active compound 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC). The present study was designed to test the potential therapeutic effectiveness of GMG-ITC to counteract the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using SOD1tg rats, which physiologically develops SOD1(G93A) at about 16 weeks of life, and can be considered a genetic model of disease. Rats were treated once a day with GMG (10 mg/Kg) bioactivated with myrosinase (20 µL/rat) via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection for two weeks before disease onset and the treatment was prolonged for further two weeks before the sacrifice. Immune-inflammatory markers as well as apoptotic pathway were investigated to establish whether GMG-ITC could represent a new promising tool in clinical practice to prevent ALS. Achieved data display clear differences in molecular and biological profiles between treated and untreated SOD1tg rats leading to guessing that GMG-ITC can interfere with the pathophysiological mechanisms at the basis of ALS development. Therefore, GMG-ITC produced from myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of pure GMG could be a candidate for further studies aimed to assess its possible use in clinical practice for the prevention or to slow down this disease. PMID:26075221

  19. Epithelial cell differentiation in normal and transgenic mouse intestinal isografts

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Transgenes consisting of segments of the rat liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene's 5' non-transcribed domain linked to the human growth hormone (hGH) gene (minus its regulatory elements) have provided useful tools for analyzing the mechanisms that regulate cellular and spatial differentiation of the continuously renewing gut epithelium. We have removed the jejunum from normal and transgenic fetal mice before or coincident with, cytodifferentiation of its epithelium. These segments ...

  20. The rat elastase I regulatory element is an enhancer that directs correct cell specificity and developmental onset of expression in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, R E; Swift, G H; Ornitz, D M; Quaife, C J; Palmiter, R D; Brinster, R L; MacDonald, R J

    1987-08-01

    A total of 134 base pairs of the 5' flanking sequence of the elastase I gene is sufficient and necessary to direct expression of the passive human growth hormone gene (hGH) to the exocrine pancreas. We demonstrate that this elastase I regulatory region contains a transcriptional enhancer which directs acinar cell-specific expression in transgenic animals. The elastase I enhancer specifies correct expression of the linked hGH gene in an orientation- and position-independent manner and can activate a heterologous promoter. The enhancer also directs the appropriate temporal activation of the hGH gene in the developing pancreas. Transcription is initiated correctly for the elastase I or hGH promoter, and the transcripts are correctly processed regardless of the enhancer position within or outside the fusion gene. The elastase I enhancer generates coincident DNase I-hypersensitive sites in pancreatic chromatin when moved 3 kilobases upstream or within the first intron of the hGH gene and when associated with the hGH promoter. PMID:3670302

  1. Transgene mus som sygdomsmodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, Mikkel Bruhn; Porse, Bo Torben

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic animal models have proven to be useful tools in understanding both basic biology and the events associated with disease. Recent technical advances in the area of genomic manipulation in combination with the availability of the human and murine genomic sequences now allow the precise...... tailoring of the mouse genome. In this review we describe a few systems in which transgenic animal models have been employed for the purpose of studying the etiology of human diseases. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Feb-17...

  2. [Inheritance and expression stability of transgene in transgenic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qing-Ran; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technology is one of the most hotspots in biology. In the past decade, the progress in animal cloning has provided an alternative method to improve transgenic efficiency. Many kinds of transgenic animals have been successfully produced via the combination of transfection and nuclear transfer. However, the ultimate aim of transgenesis is not to produce several transgenic animals, but to service for the needs of human. In animal production, transgenic technology has been used to breed new livestock, which has received a lot of attention in China. It has been evidenced that inheritance and expression instability of transgene in transgenic animals is still the major limitation, which is attributed to position effect, epigenetic modification, and hereditary efficiency of transgene. In this review, we discussed the three points for promoting the industrialization of animal transgenic breeding. PMID:21586397

  3. Transgenic animal models for the functional analysis of vasoactive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bader

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of vasoactive peptide systems is an essential determinant of blood pressure regulation in mammals. While the endothelin and the renin-angiotensin systems raise blood pressure by inducing vasoconstriction and sodium retention, the kallikrein-kinin and the natriuretic-peptide systems reduce arterial pressure by eliciting vasodilatation and natriuresis. Transgenic technology has proven to be very useful for the functional analysis of vasoactive peptide systems. As an outstanding example, transgenic rats overexpressing the mouse Ren-2 renin gene in several tissues become extremely hypertensive. Several other transgenic rat and mouse strains with genetic modifications of components of the renin-angiotensin system have been developed in the past decade. Moreover, in recent years gene-targeting technology was employed to produce mouse strains lacking these proteins. The established animal models as well as the main insights gained by their analysis are summarized in this review.

  4. Calcium electrotransfer for termination of transgene expression in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Spanggaard, Iben; Olsen, Caroline Holkman; Gehl, Julie; Gissel, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    clinical grade calcium solution (20 μl, 168 mM) was injected into transfected mouse or rat tibialis cranialis muscle. Ca(2+) uptake was quantified using calcium 45 ((45)Ca), and voltage and time between injection and pulsation were varied. Extinction of transgene expression was investigated by using both...

  5. Retinoblastoma in transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Windle, J J; Albert, D. M.; O'Brien, J M; Marcus, D. M.; Disteche, Ch.M.; Bernards, R.A.; Mellon, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    Retinoblastoma, a malignancy of the eye occurring in young children, has been widely studied as a model for genetic predisposition to cancer. This disease is caused by mutations in both alleles of an anti-oncogene (the retinoblastoma gene, Rb) that inactivate or eliminate the Rb encoded protein, pl05rb. Here we report that expression of a viral oncogene, the simian virus 40 T antigen, in the retina of transgenic mice produces heritable ocular tumours with histological, ultrastructural and imm...

  6. Transgenics in crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wu, Y. H.; McAvoy, R.; Duan, H.

    2001-01-01

    With rapid world population growth and declining availability of fresh water and arable land, a new technology is urgently needed to enhance agricultural productivity. Recent discoveries in the field of crop transgenics clearly demonstrate the great potential of this technology for increasing food production and improving food quality while preserving the environment for future generations. In this review, we briefly discuss some of the recent achievements in crop improvement that have been made using gene transfer technology.

  7. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  8. Calcium electrotransfer for termination of transgene expression in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Spanggaard, Iben; Olsen, Caroline Holkman; Gehl, Julie; Gissel, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    in vivo imaging of infrared fluorescent "Katushka" and erythropoietin evaluated by ELISA and hemoglobin. Histology was performed. Electrotransfer of Katushka and erythropoietin yielded significant expression. Maximal calcium uptake occurred after injection of Ca(2+) before electropulsing using eight......Gene electrotransfer is expanding in clinical use, thus we have searched for an emergency procedure to stop transgene expression in case of serious adverse events. Calcium is cytotoxic at high intracellular levels, so we tested effects of calcium electrotransfer on transgene expression in muscle. A...... clinical grade calcium solution (20 l, 168 mM) was injected into transfected mouse or rat tibialis cranialis muscle. Ca(2+) uptake was quantified using calcium 45 ((45)Ca), and voltage and time between injection and pulsation were varied. Extinction of transgene expression was investigated by using both...

  9. Biosafety assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on model animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Bano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To know the effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms, animals and other expected hazards due to the introduction of GM crops into the environment is critical both scientifically and environmentally. The work was conducted to study the effect of insecticidal Bt protein on Rats and Earthworms. Methods: For this purpose, animals like rat and soil organisms like Earthworm were selected. Rats were selected on the basis of its 95% homology on genomic, cellular and enzymatic level with human while earthworm were preferred on the basis of their direct contact with soil to evaluate the impact of Bt (Cry1AC crop field soil on earthworm, secreted by root exudates of Bt cotton. Several physical, molecular, biochemical and histological analyses were performed on both Rats/Earthworms fed on standard diet (control group as well containing Bt protein (experimental group. Results: Molecular analyses such as immune Dot blot, SDS-PAGE, ELISA and PCR, confirmed the absence of Cry1Ac protein in blood and urine samples of rats, which were fed with Bt protein in their diet. Furthermore, histological studies showed that there was no difference in cellular architecture in liver, heart, kidney and intestine of Bt and non-Bt diet fed rats. To see the effect of Bt on earthworm two different groups were studied, one with transgenic plant field soil supplemented with grinded leaves of cotton and second group with non-Bt field soil. Conclusions: No lethal effects of transgenic Bt protein on the survival of earthworm and rats were observed. Bradford assay, Dipstick assay ELISA demonstrated the absence of Cry1Ac protein in the mid-gut epithelial tissue of earthworm. The results of present study will be helpful in successful deployment and commercial release of genetically modified crop in Pakistan.

  10. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4- CD8- double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tlaa-3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3b-TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3b-TL is driven by the promoter of H-2Kb. With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8+TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3b-TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL+ lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3b-TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  11. [Transgenics without Manichaeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, S

    2000-01-01

    We live in an era characterized by the hegemony of science and technology, an era fraught with questions awaiting answers which would enable a safe and sustainable future for humankind. The development of agro-industrial processes - food products in particular - through recombinant DNA technology has enhanced the profit prospects of the few big biotechnology companies and of large-scale farmers who have access to the latest technological developments. We thus oppose a moratorium on recombinant DNA technology. Moreover, hasty statements about risk-free transgenics may be misleading in the absence of extensive safety tests. There is a pressing need for the establishment of biosafety policy in this country involving the organized civil society and every government agency responsible for monitoring such matters. There is also the need to put in place a bio-surveillance and a code of ethics regarding genetic manipulation. PMID:16680900

  12. Transgenics, agroindustry and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Alejandro León Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food sovereignty has been implemented constitutionally in Ecuador; however, many of the actions and policies are designed to benefit the dominant model of food production, based in agroindustry, intensive monocultures, agrochemicals and transgenics. This article reflects upon the role of family farming as a generator of food sovereignty, and secondly the threat to them by agroindustry agriculture based in transgenic. The role played by food aid in the introduction of transgenic in Latin America and other regions of the world is also analyzed.

  13. Transgene teknikker erstatter problematisk avl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2016-01-01

    Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder.......Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder....

  14. A qRT-PCR RFLP Method for Monitoring Highly Conserved Transgene Expression during Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bruzzone, Carol M.; Belcher, John D; Schuld, Nathan J.; Newman, Kristal A; Vineyard, Julie; Nguyen, Julia; Chen, Chunsheng; Beckman, Joan D; Steer, Clifford J; Vercellotti, Gregory M

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of the transfer efficiency of a rat heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) transgene into mice requires differentiation of rat and mouse HO-1. However, rat and mouse HO-1 have 94% homology; antibodies and enzyme activity cannot adequately distinguish HO-1. We designed a qRT-PCR method to monitor HO-1 transcription relative to a housekeeping gene, GAPDH. The ratio of rat and mouse HO-1 mRNA could be estimated through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR products. In ...

  15. Intracerebral transplants of primary muscle cells: a potential 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, S.; Schultz, E.; Wolff, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    After the transplantation of rat primary muscle cells into the caudate or cortex of recipient rats, the muscle cells were able to persist for at least 6 months. Muscle cells transfected with expression plasmids prior to transplantation were able to express reporter genes in the brains for at least 2 months. These results suggest that muscle cells might be a useful 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain.

  16. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  17. Transgenic agriculture and environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Dias de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid diffusion of transgenic crops, there are still few environmental impact studies capable of supplying a conclusive scientific response in regard to its technical and economic advantages and disadvantages. Prospective scenarios were elaborated to assist environmental impact assessment, using techniques derived from SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis and the DPSIR (Driving Force – human activity, Pressure, State, Impact, Response model, to evaluate the environmental indicators and the relationship between them. Control and management actions were identified, searching the integration of aspects related to the biotechnology applied to transgenic processes, biodiversity, biosafety and intellectual property. It was demonstrated that the DPSIR model is, in fact, an instrument for integrated environmental assessment and the application of the proposed methodology resulted in favorable indicators to the adoption of transgenic agriculture. The elaborated scenarios are useful to develop an Environmental Management System (EMS to agriculture.

  18. How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  19. Progress on researches of transgenic alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the progress on the researches of transgenic alfalfa in the past two decades had been reviewed in the aspects of regeneration system, transformation, improvement of the important traits and so on. Moreover, such problems as variation of transgene expression and safety of transgenic plant had also been discussed and propose had been given for the future research work. (authors)

  20. Temporal Expression of Mutant LRRK2 in Adult Rats Impairs Dopamine Reuptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Jianbin Tong, Weimin C Hong, Yong-Jian Liu, Xu-Gang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD results from progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Most PD cases are sporadic, but some have pathogenic mutation in the individual genes. Mutation of the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2 gene is associated with familial and sporadic PD, as exemplified by G2019S substitution. While constitutive expression of mutant LRRK2 in transgenic mice fails to induce neuron death, transient expression of the disease gene by viral delivery causes a substantial loss of dopaminergic neurons in mice. To further assess LRRK2 pathogenesis, we created inducible transgenic rats expressing human LRRK2 with G2019S substitution. Temporal overexpression of LRRK2G2019S in adult rats impaired dopamine reuptake by dopamine transporter (DAT and thus enhanced locomotor activity, the phenotypes that were not observed in transgenic rats constitutively expressing the gene throughout life time. Reduced DAT binding activity is an early sign of dopaminergic dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects carrying pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Our transgenic rats recapitulated the initiation process of dopaminergic dysfunction caused by pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Inducible transgenic approach uncovered phenotypes that may be obscured by developmental compensation in constitutive transgenic rats. Finding in inducible LRRK2 transgenic rats would guide developing effective strategy in transgenic studies: Inducible expression of transgene may induce greater phenotypes than constitutive gene expression, particularly in rodents with short life time.

  1. Biotechnology network promotes knowledge of transgenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red de Ingenieria Genetica Aplicada al Mejoramiento de Cultivos Tropicales (Rigatrop) integrated by a group of scientists from the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Universidad Nacional (UNA) and of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (TEC) have organized two forums on the topic of transgenics. The first forum has shown successful experiences of development of transgenic crops in Latin America, as for example: the transgenic bean, project realized in Brazil and transgenic eggplant in Bangladesh. The second forum has been about transgenics and environment effected at the UCR, on the occasion of World Environment Day. Rigatrop members are working currently in two projects applying biotechnological tools to coffee

  2. Transgenic parasites accelerate drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Ana; Tarleton, Rick L

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic neglected diseases are in dire need of new drugs either to replace old drugs rendered ineffective because of resistance development, to cover clinical needs that had never been addressed or to tackle other associated problems of existing drugs such as high cost, difficult administration, restricted coverage or toxicity. The availability of transgenic parasites expressing reporter genes facilitates the discovery of new drugs through high throughput screenings, but also by allowing ra...

  3. Transgenic crop-mite interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Rostislav

    France : IOBC/WPRS, 2007 - (Weintraub, P.), s. 155-160 ISBN 92-9067-200-3. [Meeting of IOBC study group "Integrated Control of Plant-feeding Mites". Jerusalem (IL), 12.03.2007-14.03.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6007303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : GMO * transgenic plants * mites Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  4. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  5. Transgenic trees and forestry biosafety

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sofa, Valenzuela; Claudio, Balocchi; Jaime, Rodrguez.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The benefits from the development of transgenic trees are expected from the improvement of traits as growth and form, wood quality, industrial processes, disease and insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, ecological restoration, rooting ability, etc. One of the first reported field trials with gene [...] tically modified forest trees was established in Belgium in 1988 and the characteristic evaluated was herbicide tolerance in poplars. Since then, there have been more than 200 reported trials, involving at least 15 forest species. The majority of the field trials have been carried out in the USA (64%). More than 50% of the field trials are done with Populus species and the main target traits are herbicide tolerance (31%), followed by marker genes (23%) and insect resistance (14%). Until today, there is only one report on commercial-scale production of transgenic forest trees which is Populus nigra with the Bt gene release in China in 2002 and established on commercial plantations in 2003. Operational application of GMO's in forestry depends on technical, economical, political and public aspects, but the development of adequate regulatory frameworks and public acceptance of transgenic trees will define the future of this technology in forestry.

  6. Transgenic mouse offspring generated by ROSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pedro; Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín; Laguna, Ricardo; Fernández-Gonzalez, Raúl; Sanjuanbenito, Belén Pintado; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2016-02-20

    The production of transgenic animals is an important tool for experimental and applied biology. Over the years, many approaches for the production of transgenic animals have been tried, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, transfection of male germ cells, somatic cell nuclear transfer and the use of lentiviral vectors. In the present study, we developed a new transgene delivery approach, and we report for the first time the production of transgenic animals by co-injection of DNA and round spermatid nuclei into non-fertilized mouse oocytes (ROSI). The transgene used was a construct containing the human CMV immediate early promoter and the enhanced GFP gene. With this procedure, 12% of the live offspring we obtained carried the transgene. This efficiency of transgenic production by ROSI was similar to the efficiency by pronuclear injection or intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei (ICSI). However, ICSI required fewer embryos to produce the same number of transgenic animals. The expression of Egfp mRNA and fluorescence of EGFP were found in the majority of the organs examined in 4 transgenic lines generated by ROSI. Tissue morphology and transgene expression were not distinguishable between transgenic animals produced by ROSI or pronuclear injection. Furthermore, our results are of particular interest because they indicate that the transgene incorporation mediated by intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei is not an exclusive property of mature sperm cell nuclei with compact chromatin but it can be accomplished with immature sperm cell nuclei with decondensed chromatin as well. The present study also provides alternative procedures for transgene delivery into embryos or reconstituted oocytes. PMID:26498042

  7. Polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis in transgenic flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Magdalena; Zebrowski, Jacek; Szopa, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an annual plant species widely cultivated in temperate climates for bast fibres and linseed oil. Apart from traditional textile use, the fibres are fast becoming an integral part of new composite materials utilized in automobile and constructive industry. Especially attractive for environmental safety demands are biodegradable and renewable biocomposities based on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer as a matrix and reinforced with the flax fibres. Manufacturing of PHB by bacteria fermentation is however substantially more expansive as compared to technologies producing conventional plastics. We report for the first time generation of transgenic plants which produce both components of flax/PHB composites, i.e. the fibres and the thermoplastic matrix in the same plant organ of a crop. The flax (cv. Nike) plants were transformed using constructs bearing either single cDNA, encoding the beta-ketothiolase enzyme (C plants), or all three of the genes necessary for poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis (M plants). Both constructs contained a plastidial targeting sequence. The amount of PHB produced by the transgenic plants was up to over 70-fold higher than in wild-type plants, when analysed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS method). The PHB accumulation in plastids caused change both in their shape and size. The use of a stem-specific promoter for transgene expression protected the transgenic plant from growth retardation and also provided higher PHB synthesis than in the case of constructs governed by the 35S CaMV constitutive promoter. None toxic effects that could lead to stunted growth or the loss of fertility were observed, when 14-3-3 promoter was used as the stem-specific. Significant modifications in stem mechanical properties were accompanied to the PHB accumulation in growing cell of fibres in the transgenic plants. The Young's modulus E, the average measure of stem tissues resistance to tensile loads increased up to twice in M plants as compared to a single gene transformed ones. However, a wide range of E values, from 24.1 to 54.4 MPa, was observed in dependence of tested strain. Potential commercial significance of the genetic manipulation approach enabling synthesis of thermoplastic in crops cultivated for fibres is discussed. PMID:14687970

  8. Will transgenic plants adversely affect the environment?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassili V Velkov; Alexander B Medvinsky; Mikhail S Sokolov; Anatoly I Marchenko

    2005-09-01

    Transgenic insecticidal plants based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins, on proteinase inhibitors and on lectins, and transgenic herbicide tolerant plants are widely used in modern agriculture. The results of the studies on likelihood and non-likelihood of adverse effects of transgenic plants on the environment including: (i) effects on nontarget species; (ii) invasiveness; (iii) potential for transgenes to escape into the environment by horizontal gene transfer; and (iv) adverse effects on soil biota are reviewed. In general, it seems that large-scale implementation of transgenic insecticidal and herbicide tolerant plants do not display considerable negative effects on the environments and, moreover, at least some transgenic plants can improve the corresponding environments and human health because their production considerably reduces the load of chemical insecticides and herbicides.

  9. Determining gene flow in transgenic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Gene flow is one of the major concerns associated with the release of transgenic plants into the environment. Unrestricted gene flow can results in super weeds, reduction in species fitness and genetic diversity, and contamination of traditional plants and foods. Thus, it is important and also necessary to evaluate the extent of gene flow in the field for transgenic plants already released or being considered for a release. Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic crops for commercialization, which are widely cultivated around the world. In this chapter, we use transgenic insect resistant cotton and herbicide-tolerant cotton as two examples to present a field practice method for determining transgene flow in cotton. The procedure includes three major sections: (1) field design, (2) seed collection, and (3) field and lab bioassay. PMID:23143499

  10. Relative Fitness of Transgenic vs. Non-Transgenic Maize x Teosinte Hybrids: a Field Evalutation

    OpenAIRE

    Clegg, J.; Ellstrand, N C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Concern has been often expressed regarding the impact and persistence of transgenes that enter wild populations via gene flow. The impact of a transgene and its persistence are largely determined by the relative fitness of transgenic hybrids and hybrid derivatives compared to non-transgenic plants. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed this question experimentally in the field. Despite the economic importance of maize, and the fact that it naturally hybridizes with the teosinte taxon Zea m...

  11. A Built-In Strategy for Containment of Transgenic Plants: Creation of Selectively Terminable Transgenic Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chaoyang; Fang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Te; Cheng, Jiaan; Tu, Juming; Ye, Gongyin; Shen, Zhicheng

    2008-01-01

    Plant transgenic technology has been widely utilized for engineering crops for trait improvements and for production of high value proteins such as pharmaceuticals. However, the unintended spreading of commercial transgenic crops by pollination and seed dispersal is a major concern for environmental and food safety. Simple and reliable containment strategies for transgenes are highly desirable. Here we report a novel method for creating selectively terminable transgenic rice. In this method, ...

  12. Role of a 461-bp G-rich repetitive element in H19 transgene imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, M P; Pieracci, F M; Cranston, M J; Taksel, E; Thorvaldsen, J L; Bartolomei, M S

    1999-04-01

    The molecular mechanism leading to the imprinted expression of genes is poorly understood. While no conserved cis-acting elements have been identified within the known loci, many imprinted genes are located near directly repetitive sequence elements, suggesting that such repeats might play a role in imprinted gene expression. The maternally expressed mouse H19 gene is located approximately 1.5 kb downstream from a 461-bp G-rich repetitive element. We have used a transgenic model to investigate whether this element is essential for H19 imprinting. Previous results demonstrated that a transgene, which contains 14 kb of H19 sequence, exhibits parent-of-origin specific expression and methylation analogous to the endogenous H19 imprinting pattern. Here, we have generated transgenes lacking the G-rich repeat. One transgene, containing a deletion of the G-rich repetitive element but which includes an additional 1.7 kb of 5' H19 sequence, is imprinted similarly to the endogenous H19 gene. To determine whether the G-rich repeat is conserved in other imprinted mammalian H19 homologues, additional 5' flanking sequences were cloned from the rat and human. This element is conserved in the rat but not in human DNA. These results suggest that the 461-bp G-rich repetitive element is not essential for H19 imprinting. PMID:10079367

  13. Transgenic Papaya: Development, Release, Impact, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the technology for developing virus-resistant transgenic plants through the use of the coat protein of a virus was unveiled twenty years ago, it is surprising to note that only a three virus-resistant plants (squash, potato, and papaya) have been commercialized in the U.S. The transgenic p...

  14. Transgenic Biofuel Feedstocks and Strategies for Biocontainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several reasons to believe that transgenic plant feedstocks will be required to realize the full economic and environmental benefits of cellulosic and other biofuels. Much of the commercialization potential for the use of transgenic plant cellulosic feedstocks may be impacted by regulatio...

  15. Improving expression of reporter transgene in stem cell by construction of different lentiviral vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For stem cell trafficking applications, it is imperative to express transgenes at desired and stable levels. In recent years, lentivirus-mediated gene transfer was shown to be an efficient method to stably introduce genetic modifications in target cells, even if these are in proliferative or nonproliferative states. Moreover, transgene expression levels can be controlled by using different promoters. The present study was designed to compare the potency of various promoters regulating expression of imaging reporter genes in embryonic H9c2 cardiomyoblasts derived from rat heart. Lentiviral vector was produced by the transient transfection of plasmids carrying required genes and those encoding for virus coating proteins into 293T cells. Harvested viral constructs were incubated with Hela and H9c2 cells, respectively. Transgene expressions were detected by several imaging modalities and evaluated by enzymatic assays. Results - We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. Here we show that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer allows efficient and stable transgene expression in embryonic cardiomyoblasts in vitro and that transgene expression levels can be varied by using different well-characterized gene promoters. In vivo trials about gene expression will probably further determine the potential of long-term trafficking stem cells using lentivirus

  16. Combining M-FISH and Quantum Dot technology for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical mapping of transgenic insertions by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH is a reliable and cost-effective technique. Chromosomal assignment is commonly achieved either by concurrent G-banding or by a multi-color FISH approach consisting of iteratively co-hybridizing the transgenic sequence of interest with one or more chromosome-specific probes at a time, until the location of the transgenic insertion is identified. Results Here we report a technical development for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions at the single cell level in mouse and rat models. This comprises a simplified 'single denaturation mixed hybridization' procedure that combines multi-color karyotyping by Multiplex FISH (M-FISH, for simultaneous and unambiguous identification of all chromosomes at once, and the use of a Quantum Dot (QD conjugate for the transgene detection. Conclusions Although the exploitation of the unique optical properties of QD nanocrystals, such as photo-stability and brightness, to improve FISH performance generally has been previously investigated, to our knowledge this is the first report of a purpose-designed molecular cytogenetic protocol in which the combined use of QDs and standard organic fluorophores is specifically tailored to assist gene transfer technology.

  17. Metabolomic analysis of wild and transgenic Nicotiana langsdorffii plants exposed to abiotic stresses: unraveling metabolic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Rizzato, Giovanni; Bogani, Patrizia; Buiatti,Marcello; Gambaro, Andrea; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Nicotiana langsdorffii plants, wild and transgenic for the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol C gene and the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, were exposed to different abiotic stresses (high temperature, water deficit, and high chromium concentrations). An untargeted metabolomic analysis was carried out in order to investigate the metabolic effects of the inserted genes in response to the applied stresses and to obtain a comprehensive profiling of metabolites induced during abiotic stresses. ...

  18. Generation of transgenic Hydra by embryo microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Celina E; Lin, Haifan; Steele, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    As a member of the phylum Cnidaria, the sister group to all bilaterians, Hydra can shed light on fundamental biological processes shared among multicellular animals. Hydra is used as a model for the study of regeneration, pattern formation, and stem cells. However, research efforts have been hampered by lack of a reliable method for gene perturbations to study molecular function. The development of transgenic methods has revitalized the study of Hydra biology(1). Transgenic Hydra allow for the tracking of live cells, sorting to yield pure cell populations for biochemical analysis, manipulation of gene function by knockdown and over-expression, and analysis of promoter function. Plasmid DNA injected into early stage embryos randomly integrates into the genome early in development. This results in hatchlings that express transgenes in patches of tissue in one or more of the three lineages (ectodermal epithelial, endodermal epithelial, or interstitial). The success rate of obtaining a hatchling with transgenic tissue is between 10% and 20%. Asexual propagation of the transgenic hatchling is used to establish a uniformly transgenic line in a particular lineage. Generating transgenic Hydra is surprisingly simple and robust, and here we describe a protocol that can be easily implemented at low cost. PMID:25285460

  19. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  20. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  1. Proteomic analysis of known and candidate rice allergens between non-transgenic and transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Rie; Nakamura, Rika; Komatsu, Akira; Oshima, Masahiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2011-04-01

    Salt-soluble proteins extracted from non-transgenic and transgenic rice were evaluated for the presence of known and potential allergens by proteomic techniques. The salt-soluble proteins were extracted, separated by 1D and 2D electrophoresis, and analyzed by Western blotting. 1D immunoblot analysis with patients' sera revealed few qualitative differences between the IgE-binding proteins of the non-transgenic and transgenic rice. 1D immunoblot with antigen-specific-animal sera revealed no qualitative or quantitative differences in two known allergens, RAG2 and glyoxalase I, between non-transgenic and transgenic rice. Multiple spots containing known and novel IgE-binding proteins were detected among the salt-soluble proteins of non-transgenic rice by 2D immunoblotting. Two globulin-like proteins, a 52 kDa protein and a 63 kDa protein, were identified as novel IgE-binding proteins that are candidates for rice allergens. These globulin-like proteins were homologous to Cupin superfamily allergens. Quantitative analysis of 19, 52, and 63 kDa globulins with protein-specific-animal sera showed no significant differences in the expression of these proteins between the transgenic rice and non-transgenic rice. These results indicate that none of the known or novel endogenous IgE-binding proteins detected in this study appear to be altered by genetic modification. PMID:21300107

  2. [Effects of transgenic crops on soil ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwu; Feng, Yuanjiao; Luo, Shiming

    2002-04-01

    The effects of transgenic crops on the soil ecosystem were reviewed. The activity of Cry I Ab gene and proteinase inhibitor gene in the soil was summarized. The differences of soil microbes' components, soil enzyme activities, and soil fauna between genetic crops and isogenic strain crops were analyzed. According to current progress, the potential impacts of transgenic plant on soil microorganisms depend on the characteristics of the gene transferred into the crops and the soil properties. The change of soil ecosystem affected by many factors, and among them, the complex and stability of the ecosystem are the most important. The ecological effects of transgenic crops on the soil ecosystem need to be evaluated more fully before they are planted over extensive areas. Much effort should be devoted to the development of molecular techniques method to assess the effects of transgenic crops on soil ecosystem. PMID:12222061

  3. AN APPROACH TO TRANSGENIC CROP MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing by aerial or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pesticidal crop distribution in the landscape. Genetically engineered crops containing bacterial gene(s) that express an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are regulated...

  4. [Review of transgenic crop breeding in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dafang

    2015-06-01

    The development history and fundamental experience of transgenic crops (Genetically modified crops) breeding in China for near 30 years were reviewed. It was illustrated that a scientific research, development and industrialization system of transgenic crops including gene discovery, transformation, variety breeding, commercialization, application and biosafety assessment has been initially established which was few in number in the world. The research innovative capacity of transgenic cotton, rice and corn has been lifted. The research features as well as relative advantages have been initially formed. The problems and challenges of transgenic crop development were discussed. In addition, three suggestions of promoting commercialization, speeding up implementation of the Major National Project of GM Crops, and enhancing science communication were made. PMID:26672365

  5. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  6. Transgenic sorghum plants via microprojectile bombardment.

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, A. M.; Kononowicz, A K; Zehr, U B; Tomes, D T; Axtell, J D; Butler, L. G.; Bressan, R. A.; Hasegawa, P M

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic sorghum plants have been obtained after microprojectile bombardment of immature zygotic embryos of a drought-resistant sorghum cultivar, P898012. DNA delivery parameters were optimized based on transient expression of R and C1 maize anthocyanin regulatory elements in scutellar cells. The protocol for obtaining transgenic plants consists of the delivery of the bar gene to immature zygotic embryos and the imposition of bialaphos selection pressure at various stages during culture, fr...

  7. Comparison of nutritional value of transgenic peanut expressing bar and rcg3 genes with non-transgenic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transgenic peanut plants expressing bar and rcg3 genes were subjected to assessment of any change in nutritional value of the crop at various locations. The protein and fat contents of transgenic lines were compared with the non-transgenic parent varieties. Protein content in the transgenic lines was higher as compared to that in non-transgenic counterparts and differences among locations for fat and protein content were significant. No differences among fatty acids were recorded for genes, events and locations. Irrespective of small differences, all the values were in range described for this crop and transgenic lines appeared to be substantially equivalent to non-transgenic parent varieties. (author)

  8. TRANSGENIC FISH MODEL IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of experiments and the use of drugs have been performed in fish. The fish may be used as model organism in various biological experiments, including environmental toxicology. Aquatic animals are being engineered to increase aquaculture production, for medical and industrial research, and for ornamental reasons. Fish have been found to play an important role in assessing potential risks associated with exposure to toxic substances in aquatic environment. Hence, it has been thought that the development of transgenic fish can enhance the use of fish in environmental toxicology. India has developed experimental transgenics of rohu fish, zebra fish, cat fish and singhi fish. Genes, promoters and vectors of indigenous origin are now available for only two species namely rohu and singhi for engineering growth. Development of fish model carrying identical transgenes to those found in rodents is beneficial and has shown that several aspects of in vivo mutagenesis are similar between the two classes of vertebrates. Fish shows the frequencies of spontaneous mutations similar to rodents and respond to mutagen exposure consistent with known mutagenic mechanisms. The feasibility of in vivo mutation analysis using transgenic fish has been demonstrated and the potential value of transgenic fish as a comparative animal model has been illustrated. Therefore, the transgenic fish can give the significant contribution to study the environmental toxicity in animals as a whole.

  9. Transgenic animals and their application in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagle TR, Kunkulol RR, Baig MS, More SY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic animals are animals that are genetically altered to have traits that mimic symptoms of specific human pathologies. They provide genetic models of various human diseases which are important in understanding disease and developing new targets. In early 1980 Gordon and co-workers described the first gene addition experiment using the microinjection technology and since then the impact of transgenic technology on basic research has been significant. Within 20 years of its inception, ATryn the first drug approved by USFDA from transgenic animals was developed and it has opened door to drugs from transgenic animals. In addition, they are looked upon as potential future donors for xenotransplantation. With increasing knowledge about the genetics and improvements in the transgenetic technology numerous useful applications like biologically safe new-generation drugs based on human regulatory proteins are being developed.Various aspects of concern in the coming years are the regulatory guidelines, ethical issues and patents related to the use of transgenic animals. This modern medicine is on the threshold of a pharmacological revolution. Use of transgenic animals will provide solutions for drug research, xenotransplantation, clinical trials and will prove to be a new insight in drug development.

  10. Hypertensive retinopathy in a transgenic angiotensin-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhart, Nadine; Haase, Nadine; Crespo-Garcia, Sergio; Skosyrski, Sergej; Herrspiegel, Christina; Kociok, Norbert; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Dillinger, Andrea; Poglitsch, Marco; Müller, Dominik N; Joussen, Antonia M; Luft, Friedrich C; Dechend, Ralf; Strauß, Olaf

    2016-07-01

    Severe hypertension destroys eyesight. The RAS (renin-angiotensin system) may contribute to this. This study relied on an established angiotensin, AngII (angiotensin II)-elevated dTGR (double-transgenic rat) model and same-background SD (Sprague-Dawley) rat controls. In dTGRs, plasma levels of AngII were increased. We determined the general retinal phenotype and observed degeneration of ganglion cells that we defined as vascular degeneration. We also inspected relevant gene expression and lastly observed alterations in the outer blood-retinal barrier. We found that both scotopic a-wave and b-wave as well as oscillatory potential amplitude were significantly decreased in dTGRs, compared with SD rat controls. However, the b/a-wave ratio remained unchanged. Fluorescence angiography of the peripheral retina indicated that exudates, or fluorescein leakage, from peripheral vessels were increased in dTGRs compared with controls. Immunohistological analysis of blood vessels in retina whole-mount preparations showed structural alterations in the retina of dTGRs. We then determined the general retinal phenotype. We observed the degeneration of ganglion cells, defined vascular degenerations and finally found differential expression of RAS-related genes and angiogenic genes. We found the expression of both human angiotensinogen and human renin in the hypertensive retina. Although the renin gene expression was not altered, the AngII levels in the retina were increased 4-fold in the dTGR retina compared with that in SD rats, a finding with mechanistic implications. We suggest that alterations in the outer blood-retinal barrier could foster an area of visual-related research based on our findings. Finally, we introduce the dTGR model of retinal disease. PMID:27026533

  11. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  12. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver

    OpenAIRE

    MEI, N.; Guo, L.; Fu, P P; Heflich, R H; Chen, T

    2005-01-01

    Comfrey is a rat liver toxin and carcinogen that has been used as a vegetable and herbal remedy by humans. In order to evaluate the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, we examined the mutagenicity of comfrey in the transgenic Big Blue rat model. Our results indicate that comfrey is mutagenic in rat liver and the types of mutations induced by comfrey suggest that its tumorigenicity results from the genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant.

  13. Phycoremediation of heavy metals using transgenic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Sathish; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Falcao, Vanessa; Torres, Moacir; Colepicolo, Pio; Sayre, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Microalgae account for most of the biologically sequestered trace metals in aquatic environments. Their ability to adsorb and metabolize trace metals is associated with their large surface:volume ratios, the presence of high-affinity, metal-binding groups on their cell surfaces, and efficient metal uptake and storage systems. Microalgae may bind up to 10% of their biomass as metals. In addition to essential trace metals required for metabolism, microalgae can efficiently sequester toxic heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals often compete with essential trace metals for binding to and uptake into cells. Recently, transgenic approaches have been developed to further enhance the heavy metal specificity and binding capacity of microalgae with the objective of using these microalgae for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated wastewaters and sediments. These transgenic strategies have included the over expression of enzymes whose metabolic products ameliorate the effects of heavy metal-induced stress, and the expression of high-affinity, heavy metal binding proteins on the surface and in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. The most effective strategies have substantially reduced the toxicity of heavy metals allowing transgenic cells to grow at wild-type rates in the presence of lethal concentrations of heavy metals. In addition, the metal binding capacity of transgenic algae has been increased five-fold relative to wild-type cells. Recently, fluorescent heavy metal biosensors have been developed for expression in transgenic Chlamydomonas. These fluorescent biosensor strains can be used for the detection and quantification of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments. The use of transgenic microalgae to monitor and remediate heavy metals in aquatic environments is not without risk, however. Strategies to prevent the release of live microalgae having enhanced metal binding properties are described. PMID:18161494

  14. The hypocholesterolemic activity of transgenic rice seed accumulating lactostatin, a bioactive peptide derived from bovine milk ?-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Tamakoshi, Chiharu; Ohno, Tomoki; Hirose, Sakiko; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Satoshi; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2011-04-27

    Lactostatin is a novel pentapeptide (IIAEK) derived from bovine milk ?-lactoglobulin with greater hypocholesterolemic activity than ?-sitosterol, the drug commonly used to treat hypercholesterolemia. We developed transgenic rice expressing lactostatin as a fusion protein with seed storage protein (SSP) glutelins under the control of three different endosperm-specific promoters. Lactostatin accumulated in transgenic rice seed at approximately 1.6 mg/g seeds (dry seeds) without any apparent influence on seed traits such as endogenous SSP expression levels or alterations in the intracellular structures of endosperm cells. Short-term (three day) oral administration of the glutelin fraction containing lactostatin (namely three times of 300 mg/kg body weight/day) extracted from transgenic rice seeds resulted in hypocholesterolemic activity in rats; namely, the serum low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was significantly reduced accompanied by a significant increase in beneficial serum high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. PMID:21410288

  15. The rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Kloskowska, Ewa; Winblad, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    As a disease model, the laboratory rat has contributed enormously to neuroscience research over the years. It has also been a popular animal model for Alzheimer's disease but its popularity has diminished during the last decade, as techniques for genetic manipulation in rats have lagged behind that...... of mice. In recent years, the rat has been making a comeback as an Alzheimer's disease model and the appearance of increasing numbers of transgenic rats will be a welcome and valuable complement to the existing mouse models. This review summarizes the contributions and current status of the rat as an...... animal model of Alzheimer's disease....

  16. The ecological risks of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Manuela

    2003-01-01

    Biotechnologies have been utilized "ante litteram" for thousands of years to produce food and drink and genetic engineering techniques have been widely applied to produce many compounds for human use, from insulin to other medicines. The debate on genetically modified (GM) organisms broke out all over the world only when GM crops were released into the field. Plant ecologists, microbiologists and population geneticists carried out experiments aimed at evaluating the environmental impact of GM crops. The most significant findings concern: the spread of transgenes through GM pollen diffusion and its environmental impact after hybridisation with closely related wild species or subspecies; horizontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to soil microbes; the impact of insecticide proteins released into the soil by transformed plants on non-target microbial soil communities. Recent developments in genetic engineering produced a technology, dubbed "Terminator", which protects patented genes introduced in transgenic plants by killing the seeds in the second generation. This genetic construct, which interferes so heavily with fundamental life processes, is considered dangerous and should be ex-ante evaluated taking into account the data on "unexpected events", as here discussed, instead of relying on the "safe until proven otherwise" claim. Awareness that scientists, biotechnologists and genetic engineers cannot answer the fundamental question "how likely is that transgenes will be transferred from cultivated plants into the natural environment?" should foster long-term studies on the ecological risks and benefits of transgenic crops. PMID:14595899

  17. Pancreatic neoplasia induced by ras expression in acinar cells of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaife, C J; Pinkert, C A; Ornitz, D M; Palmiter, R D; Brinster, R L

    1987-03-27

    Expression of an activated human c-H-ras oncogene under control of rat elastase I regulating elements leads to neoplasia of the fetal exocrine pancreas. In most transgenic mice bearing this gene construct, massive tumors involving all the pancreatic acinar cells develop within a few days of pancreatic differentiation. Expression of the normal c-H-ras proto-oncogene in acinar cells leads to more subtle anomalies, but no tumors develop. Thus modest amounts of the mutant ras proteins are sufficient, in an otherwise normal genetic background, to lead to neoplastic transformation of differentiating pancreatic acinar cells. In contrast, a comparable elastase-myc construct produces no pancreatic tumors in transgenic mice. PMID:3470144

  18. Transgenic cultures: from the economic viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mosquera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of transgenic seeds for agricultural purposes poses modification to their production, due to the potential for reaching desired characteristics such as greater yield, this being fundamental in an economic environment characterised by open market conditions. However, acceptance of products resulting from genetic engineering is far from becoming a simple process; discussion relating to the predominance of private sector interests, the monopoly of knowledge and the safety of such seeds/food is currently in the spotlight. This article presents the main points of debate regarding adoption of transgenic cultures, contributing to discussion about this topic for Colombia.

  19. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI)

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  20. Production of Homozygous Transgenic Rainbow Trout with Enhanced Disease Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Pinwen Peter; Chen, Maria J.; Lin, Chun-Mean; Khoo, Jenny; Larson, Jon; Holt, Rich; Leong, Jo-Ann; Thorgarrd, Gary; Chen, Thomas T

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory showed that transgenic medaka expressing cecropin B transgenes exhibited resistant characteristic to fish bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Vibrio anguillarum. To confirm whether antimicrobial peptide gene will also exhibit anti-bacterial and anti-viral characteristics in aquaculture important fish species, we produced transgenic rainbow trout expressing cecropin P1 or a synthetic cecropin B analog, CF-17, transgene by sperm-mediated...

  1. Production of homozygous transgenic rainbow trout with enhanced disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Pinwen Peter; Chen, Maria J; Lin, Chun-Mean; Khoo, Jenny; Larson, Jon; Holt, Rich; Leong, Jo-Ann; Thorgarrd, Gary; Chen, Thomas T

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory showed that transgenic medaka expressing cecropin B transgenes exhibited resistant characteristic to fish bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Vibrio anguillarum. To confirm whether antimicrobial peptide gene will also exhibit anti-bacterial and anti-viral characteristics in aquaculture important fish species, we produced transgenic rainbow trout expressing cecropin P1 or a synthetic cecropin B analog, CF-17, transgene by sperm-mediated gene transfer method. About 30 % of fish recovered from electroporation were shown to carry the transgene as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification assay. Positive P₁ transgenic fish were crossed to non-transgenic fish to establish F₁ transgenic founder families, and subsequently generating F₂, and F₃ progeny. Expression of cecropin P1 and CF-17 transgenes was detected in transgenic fish by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis. The distribution of body sizes among F₁ transgenic fish were not significantly different from those of non-transgenic fish. Results of challenge studies revealed that many families of F₂ and F₃ transgenic fish exhibited resistance to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). All-male homozygous cecropin P1 transgenic families were produced by androgenesis from sperm of F₃ heterozygous transgenic fish in one generation. The resistant characteristic to A. salmonicida was confirmed in progeny derived from the outcross of all-male fish to non-transgenic females. Results of our current studies confirmed the possibility of producing disease-resistant homozygous rainbow trout strains by transgenesis of cecropin P1 or CF-17 gene and followed by androgenesis. PMID:24085608

  2. Detection of potential transgenic plant DNA recipients among soil bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Monier, Jean-Michel; Bernillon, Dominique; Kay, Elizabeth; Faugier, Aurélie; Rybalka, Oleksandra; Dessaux, Yves; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy,

    2007-01-01

    The likelihood of gene transfer from transgenic plants to bacteria is dependent on gene number and the presence of homologous sequences. The large number of transgene copies in transplastomic (transgenes contained in the chloroplast genome) plant cells as well as the prokaryotic origin of the transgene, may thus significantly increase the likelihood of gene transfer to bacteria that colonize plant tissues. In order to assess the probability of such transfer, the length of homologous DNA seque...

  3. Production of Transgenic Pigs Mediated by Pseudotyped Lentivirus and Sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongliang; Xi, Qianyun; Ding, Jinghua; Cai, Weiguang; Meng, Fanmin; Zhou, Junyun; Li, Hongyi; Jiang, Qingyan; Shu, Gang; Wang, Songbo; Zhu, Xiaotong; Ping GAO; Wu, Zhenfang

    2012-01-01

    Sperm-mediated gene transfer can be a very efficient method to produce transgenic pigs, however, the results from different laboratories had not been widely repeated. Genomic integration of transgene by injection of pseudotyped lentivirus to the perivitelline space has been proved to be a reliable route to generate transgenic animals. To test whether transgene in the lentivirus can be delivered by sperm, we studied incubation of pseudotyped lentiviruses and sperm before insemination. After in...

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF ESCAPED TRANSGENIC CREEPING BENTGRASS IN OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    When transgenic plants are cultivated near wild species that are sexually compatible with the crop, gene flow between the crop and wild plants is possible. A resultant concern is that transgene flow and transgene introgression within wild populations could have unintended ecologi...

  5. Progress in Xenotransplantation Research Employing Transgenic Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niemann

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of a fertilized oocyte has predominantly been used for the generation of transgenic livestock. This technology works reliably, but is inefficient and results in random integration and variable expression patterns in the transgenic offspring. Nevertheless, remarkable achievements have been made with this technology with regard to xenotransplantation. Transgenic pigs that express human complement regulating proteins have been tested in their ability to serve as donors in human organ transplantation (i.e. xenotransplantation. In vitro and in vivo data convincingly show that the hyperacute rejection response can be overcome in a clinically acceptable manner by successfully employing this strategy. The recent developments in nuclear transfer and its merger with the growing genomic data allow targeted and regulatable transgenesis. Systems for efficient homologous recombination in somatic cells are being developed and the first knock-out pigs, carrying a deletion in the a-galactosyltransferase gene, were recently generated. It is anticipated that poly-transgenic pigs will be available as donors for functional xenografts within a few years. Similarly, pigs may serve as donors for a variety of xenogenic cells and tissues. The availability of these technologies is essential to maintain "genetic security" and to ensure absence of unwanted side effects.

  6. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeck, Mark; Reynaerts, Arlette; Höfte, Herman; Jansens, Stefan; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Dean, Caroline; Zabeau, Marc; Montagu, Marc Van; Leemans, Jan

    1987-07-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins which are specifically toxic to a variety of insect species. Modified genes have been derived from bt2, a toxin gene cloned from one Bacillus strain. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes synthesize insecticidal proteins which protect them from feeding damage by larvae of the tobacco hornworm.

  7. Metal resistance sequences and transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard Brian; Summers, Anne O.; Rugh, Clayton L.

    1999-10-12

    The present invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding a metal ion resistance protein, which are expressible in plant cells. The metal resistance protein provides for the enzymatic reduction of metal ions including but not limited to divalent Cu, divalent mercury, trivalent gold, divalent cadmium, lead ions and monovalent silver ions. Transgenic plants which express these coding sequences exhibit increased resistance to metal ions in the environment as compared with plants which have not been so genetically modified. Transgenic plants with improved resistance to organometals including alkylmercury compounds, among others, are provided by the further inclusion of plant-expressible organometal lyase coding sequences, as specifically exemplified by the plant-expressible merB coding sequence. Furthermore, these transgenic plants which have been genetically modified to express the metal resistance coding sequences of the present invention can participate in the bioremediation of metal contamination via the enzymatic reduction of metal ions. Transgenic plants resistant to organometals can further mediate remediation of organic metal compounds, for example, alkylmetal compounds including but not limited to methyl mercury, methyl lead compounds, methyl cadmium and methyl arsenic compounds, in the environment by causing the freeing of mercuric or other metal ions and the reduction of the ionic mercury or other metal ions to the less toxic elemental mercury or other metals.

  8. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  9. Comparative metallomics of transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans using HPLC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. In the last years, many soybean varieties have been developed, and due to these modifications, the proteins composition and profile can be affected, causing changes in the species proteome (S. Natarajan et al., Anal. Biochem., 342 (2005), 214-220.). With the proteome modifications, the metallome of this specie, defined as the total content of metals and metalloids in a cell or tissue (J. Spuznar, Analyst, 130 (2005), 442-465.), can also be affected (A. Sussulini et al., J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 22 (2007), 1501-1506.). So, the aim of this work is to amplify the information about the transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans metallome, and doing that we expect to find biomarkers that can differentiate the transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans physiologically. For that purpose a SEC column (GE Healthcare, model Superdex 200) was employed for the separation of the proteins, which were extracted using the mobile phase of the chromatographic system (90 mmol.L-1 phosphate buffer - pH 7.2). After the chromatographic separation, the eluate was passed through a DAD Series 200 detector (PerkinElmer), the fractions were collected and latter introduced into the ICP-MS (PerkinElmer, model ELANDRC-e) for the element-selective detection. The calibration of the column using purified proteins of known molecular weight allowed the calculation of the approximate masses of the eight fractions (1800-800 kDa; 800-420 kDa; 420-120 kDa; 100-23 kDa; 23-7 kDa; 7-2 kDa; 2-0.4 kDa and 0.4-0.2 kDa, respectively) identified in the transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans after 95 min of separation using a flow rate of 0.25 mL.min-1. A wide range of elements could be identified in all the fractions, including: Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe and Pb. Differences in the detectability of elements in the transgenic and non-transgenic soybeans were found, specially for Hg where the counts were two times higher in the transgenic soybean. Elements were found in the two samples that were not common for both of them, such as Sr identified only in fraction 2 of the non-transgenic soybean and Th in fraction 4 of the transgenic soybean. Financial support from Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo - FAPESP and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico - CNPq are highly acknowledged.

  10. Effect of transgene number of spontaneous and radiation-induced micronuclei in lacl transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacl transgenic mice are widely used for the measurement of mutations in specific target issues. The lacl transgene is present in mice as 40 tandem repeats; this sequence is homozygous (contained in both copies of chromosome 5) in C57Bl/6 mice, and is hemizygous in B6C3F1 mice. Previous reports have indicated that tandem repeats can produce chromosome instability, fragile sites, and other effects. To determine whether the presence of the transgene effects micronucleus induction we compared the response of nontransgenic (NTR) to hemizygous (HEMI) transgenic B6C3F1 mice and to hemizygous and homozygous (HOMO) transgenic C57Bl/6 mice. Five mice/group were irradiated with 500 cGy from a 137Cs source. Bone marrow was harvested 24 hr after treatment and 2000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were analyzed per animal. The presence or absence of the lacl transgene had no effect in unirradiated mice on the percent of micronucleated PCE (MN) or on the ratio of PCE to total red blood cells for either strain: B6C3F1 mice had MN frequencies of 0.26% and 0.20% for NTR and HEMI mice, respectively; C57Bl/6 mice had MN frequencies of 0.34%, 0.32%, and 0.38% for NTR, HEMI, and HOMO mice, respectively. Radiation-induced micronucleus frequencies were significantly higher in HEMI lacl B6C3F1 mice (2.85%) than in NTR litter mates (1.59%); the converse was true in C57Bl/6 mice: NTR were 2.45%, HEMI were 1.25%, HOMO were 1.65%. These data suggest that the lacl transgene does not cause chromosome instability as measured by spontaneous micronucleus levels. However, the response of these transgenic mice to a variety of clastogenic agents needs to be investigated before they are integrated into standard in vivo assays for chromosome damage

  11. Making BAC transgene constructs with lambda-red recombineering system for transgenic animals or cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Scott; Lyman, Suzanne; Hsu, Jen-Kang; Cheng, JrGang

    2015-01-01

    The genomic DNA libraries based on Bacteria Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) are the foundation of whole genomic mapping, sequencing, and annotation for many species like mice and humans. With their large insert size, BACs harbor the gene-of-interest and nearby transcriptional regulatory elements necessary to direct the expression of the gene-of-interest in a temporal and cell-type specific manner. When replacing a gene-of-interest with a transgene in vivo, the transgene can be expressed with the same patterns and machinery as that of the endogenous gene. This chapter describes in detail a method of using lambda-red recombineering to make BAC transgene constructs with the integration of a transgene into a designated location within a BAC. As the final BAC construct will be used for transfection in cell lines or making transgenic animals, specific considerations with BAC transgenes such as genotyping, BAC coverage and integrity as well as quality of BAC DNA will be addressed. Not only does this approach provide a practical and effective way to modify large DNA constructs, the same recombineering principles can apply to smaller high copy plasmids as well as to chromosome engineering. PMID:25239742

  12. Effect of Angiotensin(1-7) on Heart Function in an Experimental Rat Model of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Katja; Schlegel, Franziska; Raasch, Walter; Bader, Michael; Dähnert, Ingo; Dhein, Stefan; Salameh, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Obesity is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Recently it was shown that overexpression of the Mas-receptor antagonist angiotensin(1-7) could prevent from diet-induced obesity. However, it remained unclear whether diet-induced obesity and angiotensin(1-7) overexpression might also have effects on the cardiovascular system in these rats. Methods:Twenty three male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with standard chow (SD+chow, n = 5) or a cafeteria diet (SD+CD, n = 6) for 5 months. To investigate the effect of angiotensin(1-7) transgenic rats, expressing an angiotensin(1-7)-producing fusion protein in testis were used. These transgenic rats also received a 5 month's feeding period with either chow (TGR+chow, n = 6) or cafeteria diet (TGR+CD, n = 6), respectively. Hemodynamic measurements (pressure-volume loops) were carried out to assess cardiac function and blood pressure. Subsequently, hearts were explanted and investigated according to the Langendorff technique. Furthermore, cardiac remodeling in these animals was investigated histologically. Results:After 5 months cafeteria diet feeding rats showed a significantly increased body weight, which could be prevented in transgenic rats. However, there was no effect on cardiac performance after cafeteria diet in non-transgenic and transgenic rats. Moreover, overexpression of angiotensin(1-7) deteriorated cardiac contractility as indicated by impaired dp/dt. Furthermore, histological analysis revealed that cafeteria diet led to myocardial fibrosis in both, control and transgenic rats and this was not inhibited by an overproduction of angiotensin(1-7). Conclusion:These results indicate that an overexpression of circulating angiotensin(1-7) prevents a cafeteria diet-induced increase in body weight, but does not affect cardiac performance in this experimental rat model of obesity. Furthermore, overexpression of angiotensin(1-7) alone resulted in an impairment of cardiac function. PMID:26733884

  13. Green Tea Polyphenols Control Dysregulated Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Transgenic Mice by Hijacking the ADP Activation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Bennett, Michael J.; Stanley, Charles A.; Smith, Thomas J. (CH-PA); (UPENN); (Danforth)

    2012-05-09

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic {beta}-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  14. Wading pools and fading memories place navigation in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimers disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Tanila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Morris swim navigation task (water maze has been a primary research tools to assess hippocampal delpendent spatial learning and memory is rodents for three decades. Originally developed for rats, its application to mouse studies has been a tedious process, but nowadays there are more studies performed with the Morris swim task in mice than in rats. The task has proved to be particularly useful in demonstrating age-related memory impairment in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimers disease. This review focuses on task details that are most relevant for its application to mouse studies in general and characteristic patterns of impaired performance in Alzheimer model mice as compared with rodents sustaining hippocampal lesions.

  15. [Application of transgenic animal in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhan Feng; Liu, Wen Ling

    2007-12-18

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an autosomal-dominant disease. Disease-causing mutations have been found in genes encoding structural components of the thick and thin filament systems of cardiac myocyte; it has therefore been named as a disease of sarcomere. Many approaches have been used to characterize the pathogenesis of the disease. Transgenic animal models have been created to gain further insight into the pathogenesis of this disease. Most of these models has been made in mice; however, recently a transgenic rabbit model has been created. In addition, there are several natural-occurring forms of HCM in animals. The discovery of responsible genes and the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis through the use of animal models promise improved and early diagnosis and the potential for mechanism-based therapeutics. PMID:18087565

  16. Transgenic arthropods and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique can benefit from transgenesis in three ways by creating; (1) genetically marked strains, (2) genetic sexing strains and (3) strains that induce molecular sterility in the field. Experience with the development of genetic sexing strains based on indicates that caution is required during the experimental evaluation of any potential transgenic strain. Two major scientific concerns involve the overall fitness of transgenic strains and their stability over time. The latter being very important especially when the extremely large numbers of insects that are mass reared is taken into account. Currently transformation events are random and it will probably be necessary to select suitable strains from many that are induced. The success of transformation itself in many insect species will enable many new strategies to be developed and tested. (author)

  17. Temporal and spatial patterns of transgene expression in aging adult mice provide insights about the origins, organization, and differentiation of the intestinal epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, S M; Roth, K A; Birkenmeier, E H; Gordon, J I

    1991-01-01

    We have used liver fatty acid-binding protein/human growth hormone (L-FABP/hGH) fusion genes to explore the temporal and spatial differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells in 1- to 12-month-old transgenic mice. The intact, endogenous L-FABP gene (Fabpl) was not expressed in the colon at any time. Young adult transgenic mice containing nucleotides -596 to +21 of the rat L-FABP gene linked to the hGH gene (minus its 5' nontranscribed domain) demonstrated inappropriate expression of hGH in e...

  18. A multidisciplinary approach involving comparative 'OMICS' of transgenic and non-transgenic soybeam seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Soybean culture has an expressive impact in the economy of many countries, being the commercialization of its by-products, which presents many benefits in terms of health and nutritional aspects, and which also includes a fuel alternative (biodiesel), the main factor for the large soybean production. Part of this impact is due to the transgenic modification of soybean, conferring enhanced characteristics to the culture, such as tolerance to fungicides (Y. Kim et al., J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 16 (2006), 25-31.). Due to the insertion of hexogen genes, some proteome modification is possible (S. Natarajan et al., Anal. Biochem., 342 (2005), 214-220), and recently some metallome modification was reported by our research group (A. Sussulini et al., J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 22 (2007), 1501-1506). Then, the aim of this work is to enlarge the results in terms of 'omics' when considering transgenic and non-transgenic soybean seeds. For this task, the identification of more than 140 soybean proteins using MALDI-QTOF-MS after 2D-PAGE protein separation (369±46 and 376±42 protein spots in the 4-7 pI range for transgenic and non-transgenic soybean seeds, respectively), the analysis of the protein expression using image program, the analysis of some enzymes (SOD, GR, APX, CAT) involved in the ROS production, the mapping of 80 protein spots using SR-XRF, and the metal identification of more than 30 spots using ICP-MS was carried out. In terms of metal distribution when considering some proteins, the results displayed a great ability of proteins bind different metal ions. High iron (sucrose binding protein homolog S-64 - 57,922 kDa), chromium (protein not identified), lead (seed maturation protein PM 41 - 15,103 kDa), copper and tin (trypsin inhibitor (kunitz), chain A - 20,417 kDa) contents were achieved in the non-transgenic soybean, while high magnesium (actin - 50,281 kDa), barium (protein not identified) and ruthenium (protein not identified) contents were achieved in the transgenic soybean. The results put in evidence the possibility to find a biomarker candidate for differentiating transgenic and non-transgenic organisms. Financial support from Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo - FAPESP, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico - CNPq, Fianciadora de Estudos e Projetos - FINEP, and Proteome Network of the Sao Paulo state - Brazilian National Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation are highly acknowledged.

  19. Transgenic nonhuman primates for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models that represent human diseases constitute an important tool in understanding the pathogenesis of the diseases, and in developing effective therapies. Neurodegenerative diseases are complex disorders involving neuropathologic and psychiatric alterations. Although transgenic and knock-in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and Huntington's disease (HD have been created, limited representation in clinical aspects has been recognized and the rodent models lack true neurodegeneration. Chemical induction of HD and PD in nonhuman primates (NHP has been reported, however, the role of intrinsic genetic factors in the development of the diseases is indeterminable. Nonhuman primates closely parallel humans with regard to genetic, neuroanatomic, and cognitive/behavioral characteristics. Accordingly, the development of NHP models for neurodegenerative diseases holds greater promise for success in the discovery of diagnoses, treatments, and cures than approaches using other animal species. Therefore, a transgenic NHP carrying a mutant gene similar to that of patients will help to clarify our understanding of disease onset and progression. Additionally, monitoring disease onset and development in the transgenic NHP by high resolution brain imaging technology such as MRI, and behavioral and cognitive testing can all be carried out simultaneously in the NHP but not in other animal models. Moreover, because of the similarity in motor repertoire between NHPs and humans, it will also be possible to compare the neurologic syndrome observed in the NHP model to that in patients. Understanding the correlation between genetic defects and physiologic changes (e.g. oxidative damage will lead to a better understanding of disease progression and the development of patient treatments, medications and preventive approaches for high risk individuals. The impact of the transgenic NHP model in understanding the role which genetic disorders play in the development of efficacious interventions and medications is foreseeable.

  20. Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls by transgenic tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrastilová, Z.; Macková, M.; Nováková, M.; Szekeres, M.; Macek, Tomáš

    Chania : Technical University of Crete, 2008 - (Kalogerakis, N.; Fava, F.; Banwart, S.). s. 295-295 ISBN 978-960-8475-12-0. [European Bioremediation Conference /4./. 03.09.2008-06.09.2008, Chania] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phytoremediation * PCB * transgenic plants * bphC Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  1. Penicillin production using transgenic merodiploid strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Teresa; Turner, Geoffrey; Arst, Herbert Nathan Jr.; Peñalva, Miguel Ángel

    2001-01-01

    [EN]The invention relates to a method for obtaining a Penicillium chrysogenum transgenic merodiploid strain in which the activity of the regulating gene controlling the biosynthesis of penicillin has been altered in a targeted manner. Hence, said strain is a hyperproductive strain of penicillin. This is the first time in which the biosynthesis of an industrially important metabolite has been increased by manipulation of a regulating gene and thereby represents an outstanding novelty in compar...

  2. Transgenic cultures: from the economic viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Mosquera

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of transgenic seeds for agricultural purposes poses modification to their production, due to the potential for reaching desired characteristics such as greater yield, this being fundamental in an economic environment characterised by open market conditions. However, acceptance of products resulting from genetic engineering is far from becoming a simple process; discussion relating to the predominance of private sector interests, the monopoly of knowledge and the safety of suc...

  3. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020. PMID:11171275

  4. FTY720 Attenuates Acute Pancreatitis in Hypertriglyceridemic Apolipoprotein CIII Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinjiao; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Ling; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Wang, Yunan; Wang, Mengyu; Gao, Mingming; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George

    2015-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP) is often encountered clinically as a common form of recurrent acute pancreatitis (AP). It is important to evaluate the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) or anti-inflammation in the prophylaxis of HTGP in the clinic. FTY720 (2-amino-2[2-(4-octylphenyl) ethyl]-1, 3-propanediol) is a new anti-inflammatory agent with low toxicity and reported to ameliorate lung injury with pancreatitis in rat. We evaluated its protective affection on AP induced by seven hourly intraperitoneal injection of cerulein in apolipoprotein CIII transgenic mice with severe HTG. FTY720 at 1.5 mg/kg was administered by gastric lavage daily for 3 days before induction of AP. The effects of FTY720 to protect against HTGP were assessed by serum amylase, pancreatic pathological scores, immunostaining, and the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes. As a result, injection of cerulein resulted in more severe pathological changes of AP and higher monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression in the pancreas in transgenic than in nontransgenic mice. FTY720 pretreatment improved the pathological severity of AP and decreased the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in the pancreas significantly, especially near fourfold reduction in transgenic mice. However, FTY720 did not affect plasma triglyceride levels, and other inflammatory factors and plasma amylase were not correlated with the extent of pancreatic damage in AP with or without FTY720 administration. In summary, our study in a new model, apolipoprotein CIII transgenic mice, demonstrated that HTG mice are susceptible to induction of AP. Prophylactic treatment of FTY720 can significantly attenuate cerulein-induced AP and hence warrant further investigation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors agonist for potential clinical application in recurrent attacks of HTGP. PMID:25944794

  5. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Young-Mi, E-mail: youngmi_ham@hms.harvard.edu [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Mahoney, Sarah Jane [Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

  6. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors

  7. Establishment of conditionally immortalized epithelial cell lines from the intestinal tissue of adult normal and transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Robert H; Robinson, Pamela S

    2009-03-01

    It has proved to be impossible to culture epithelial cells from the gastrointestinal tract of adult animals. Researchers have had to use either cell lines derived from newborn rat small intestine or colon carcinoma cell lines that have retained some of the properties of the gastrointestinal mucosa. We have described a method for establishing conditionally immortalized cell lines from the stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, and liver from tissue obtained from a transgenic mouse strain carrying a temperature-sensitive mutant of the SV40 large T gene (the "Immortomouse"). This immortalizing gene has proved to be useful for establishing cell lines from a number of transgenic mice following crossbreeding of the Immortomouse with the transgenic mouse of interest. These cell lines are being used in numerous studies. In this review we describe the methods for developing such lines and list the range of cell lines that have been developed from colon, small intestine, stomach, liver, and pancreas of a number of transgenic mice. PMID:19109407

  8. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Remuge, Liliana; Carlisle, Ailsa; Lillico, Simon; Sandøe, Peter; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Olsson, I. Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology—animal welfare—has not been approached through systematic assessment and...... statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals...... months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs...

  9. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, M.; Loon, J.J.A. Van; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commercially available insect-resistant transgenic crops show clear benefits for agriculture and there are many exciting new developments such as transgenic plants that enhance biological control. Effectiv...

  10. Efficient expression of transgenes in adult zebrafish by electroporation

    OpenAIRE

    Rao S Hari; Rambabu K Murali; Rao N Madhusudhana

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Expression of transgenes in muscle by injection of naked DNA is widely practiced. Application of electrical pulses at the site of injection was demonstrated to improve transgene expression in muscle tissue. Zebrafish is a precious model to investigate developmental biology in vertebrates. In this study we investigated the effect of electroporation on expression of transgenes in 36 month old adult zebrafish. Results Electroporation parameters such as number of pulses, volt...

  11. Antifungal activity of a virally encoded gene in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M; Kruter, R; Schachermayr, G; Potrykus, I; Sautter, C

    2000-04-01

    The cDNA encoding the antifungal protein KP4 from Ustilago maydis-infecting virus was inserted behind the ubiquitin promoter of maize and genetically transferred to wheat varieties particularly susceptible to stinking smut (Tilletia tritici) disease. The transgene was integrated and inherited over several generations. Of seven transgenic lines, three showed antifungal activity against U. maydis. The antifungal activity correlated with the presence of the KP4 transgene. KP4-transgenic, soil-grown wheat plants exhibit increased endogenous resistance against stinking smut. PMID:10748529

  12. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.; Noguera, O.R.; Knudsen, Søren; Larsen, J.; Brinch-Pedersen, H.; Holm, P.B.; Olsen, O.; Svensson, Birte

    2004-01-01

    . Eleven of these were identified by mass spectrometric peptide mass mapping, including an abundant chitinase implicated in defence against fungal pathogens and a small heat-shock protein. To enable a comparison with transgenic seed protein patterns, differences in spot patterns between field and...... with extra nitrogen. Finally, the fate of transgene products in barley seeds was followed. Spots containing two green fluorescent protein constructs and the herbicide resistance marker phosphinothricin acetyltransferase were observed in 2D-gel patterns of transgenic seeds and identified by mass...... spectrometry. Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase was observed in three spots differing in pI suggesting that post-translational modification of the transgene product had occurred....

  13. Hepatic steatosis in transgenic mice overexpressing human histone deacetylase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally thought that histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the transcriptional regulation of genes. However, little information is available concerning the specific functions of individual HDACs in disease states. In this study, two transgenic mice lines were established which harbored the human HDAC1 gene. Overexpressed HDAC1 was detected in the nuclei of transgenic liver cells, and HDAC1 enzymatic activity was significantly higher in the transgenic mice than in control littermates. The HDAC1 transgenic mice exhibited a high incidence of hepatic steatosis and nuclear pleomorphism. Molecular studies showed that HDAC1 may contribute to nuclear pleomorphism through the p53/p21 signaling pathway

  14. Rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Sofía Rodríguez-Reyna, Cynthia Martínez-Reyes, Jesús Kazúo Yamamoto-Furusho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature concerning rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, including common immune-mediated pathways, frequency, clinical course and therapy. Musculoskeletal complications are frequent and well-recognized manifestations in IBD, and affect up to 33% of patients with IBD. The strong link between the bowel and the osteo-articular system is suggested by many clinical and experimental observations, notably in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. The autoimmune pathogenic mechanisms shared by IBD and spondyloarthropathies include genetic susceptibility to abnormal antigen presentation, aberrant recognition of self, the presence of autoantibodies against specific antigens shared by the colon and other extra-colonic tissues, and increased intestinal permeability. The response against microorganisms may have an important role through molecular mimicry and other mechanisms. Rheumatic manifestations of IBD have been divided into peripheral arthritis, and axial involvement, including sacroiliitis, with or without spondylitis, similar to idiopathic ankylosing spondylitis. Other periarticular features can occur, including enthesopathy, tendonitis, clubbing, periostitis, and granulomatous lesions of joints and bones. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia secondary to IBD and iatrogenic complications can also occur. The management of the rheumatic manifestations of IBD consists of physical therapy in combination with local injection of corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; caution is in order however, because of their possible harmful effects on intestinal integrity, permeability, and even on gut inflammation. Sulfasalazine, methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclosporine and leflunomide should be used for selected indications. In some cases, tumor necrosis factor-α blocking agents should be considered as first-line therapy.

  15. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP) in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio) introduced in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Scotto; Fernando Serna

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio), found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color) in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the...

  16. Effect of the cauliflower Or transgene on carotenoid accumulation and chromoplast formation in transgenic potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants have facilitated our understanding of the functional roles of genes and the metabolic processes affected in plants. Recently, we isolated the Or gene from an orange cauliflower mutant and showed that the Or gene could serve as a novel genetic tool to enrich carotenoid content in tr...

  17. Synthesis of minus-strand copies of a viral transgene during viral infections of transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants can be genetically engineered to express viral sequences, often resulting in resistance to the virus from which the sequence was derived. The generally accepted mechanism for this pathogen induced resistance is gene silencing. Previous work has demonstrated that viral transgenes can be incorp...

  18. Cloned transgenic heart-healthy pork?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Randall S

    2006-08-01

    Here I comment on the production and uses of swine that express a humanized fat-1 gene. The gene product is a fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids have been implicated as being important for reproductive success, maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system, sustaining a functional immune system, and even preventing depression and cancer. The descendants of these hfat-1 transgenic swine will be very useful as models of the human condition, and if they are permitted to enter the food chain, they may improve human health. PMID:16906441

  19. Characterization of a maize Wip1 promoter in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengxue; Lian, Yun; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yunjun; Wang, Guoying

    2013-01-01

    The Maize Wip1 gene encodes a wound-induced Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) protein which is a type of serine protease inhibitor, and its expression is induced by wounding or infection, conferring resistance against pathogens and pests. In this study, the maize Wip1 promoter was isolated and its function was analyzed. Different truncated Wip1 promoters were fused upstream of the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice plants. We found that (1) several truncated maize Wip1 promoters led to strong GUS activities in both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, whereas low GUS activity was detected in transgenic rice leaves; (2) the Wip1 promoter was not wound-induced in transgenic tobacco leaves, but was induced by wounding in transgenic rice leaves; (3) the truncated Wip1 promoter had different activity in different organs of transgenic tobacco plants; (4) the transgenic plant leaves containing different truncated Wip1 promoters had low GUS transcripts, even though high GUS protein level and GUS activities were observed; (5) there was one transcription start site of Wip1 gene in maize and two transcription start sites of GUS in Wip1::GUS transgenic lines; (6) the adjacent 35S promoter which is present in the transformation vectors enhanced the activity of the truncated Wip1 promoters in transgenic tobacco leaves, but did not influence the disability of truncated Wip1231 promoter to respond to wounding signals. We speculate that an ACAAAA hexamer, several CAA trimers and several elements similar to ACAATTAC octamer in the 5'-untranslated region might contribute to the strong GUS activity in Wip1231 transgenic lines, meanwhile, compared to the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1231 transgenic lines, the additional upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1737 transgenic lines might contribute to the lower level of GUS transcript and GUS activity. PMID:24322445

  20. Characterization of a Maize Wip1 Promoter in Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxue Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Maize Wip1 gene encodes a wound-induced Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI protein which is a type of serine protease inhibitor, and its expression is induced by wounding or infection, conferring resistance against pathogens and pests. In this study, the maize Wip1 promoter was isolated and its function was analyzed. Different truncated Wip1 promoters were fused upstream of the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice plants. We found that (1 several truncated maize Wip1 promoters led to strong GUS activities in both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, whereas low GUS activity was detected in transgenic rice leaves; (2 the Wip1 promoter was not wound-induced in transgenic tobacco leaves, but was induced by wounding in transgenic rice leaves; (3 the truncated Wip1 promoter had different activity in different organs of transgenic tobacco plants; (4 the transgenic plant leaves containing different truncated Wip1 promoters had low GUS transcripts, even though high GUS protein level and GUS activities were observed; (5 there was one transcription start site of Wip1 gene in maize and two transcription start sites of GUS in Wip1::GUS transgenic lines; (6 the adjacent 35S promoter which is present in the transformation vectors enhanced the activity of the truncated Wip1 promoters in transgenic tobacco leaves, but did not influence the disability of truncated Wip1231 promoter to respond to wounding signals. We speculate that an ACAAAA hexamer, several CAA trimers and several elements similar to ACAATTAC octamer in the 5'-untranslated region might contribute to the strong GUS activity in Wip1231 transgenic lines, meanwhile, compared to the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1231 transgenic lines, the additional upstream open reading frames (uORFs in the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1737 transgenic lines might contribute to the lower level of GUS transcript and GUS activity.

  1. Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Lorna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulatory elements that control expression of specific genes during development have been shown in many cases to contain functionally-conserved modules that can be transferred between species and direct gene expression in a comparable developmental pattern. An example of such a module has been identified at the rat myosin light chain (MLC 1/3 locus, which has been well characterised in transgenic mouse studies. This locus contains two promoters encoding two alternatively spliced isoforms of alkali myosin light chain. These promoters are differentially regulated during development through the activity of two enhancer elements. The MLC3 promoter alone has been shown to confer expression of a reporter gene in skeletal and cardiac muscle in transgenic mice and the addition of the downstream MLC enhancer increased expression levels in skeletal muscle. We asked whether this regulatory module, sufficient for striated muscle gene expression in the mouse, would drive expression in similar domains in the chicken. Results We have observed that a conserved downstream MLC enhancer is present in the chicken MLC locus. We found that the rat MLC1/3 regulatory elements were transcriptionally active in chick skeletal muscle primary cultures. We observed that a single copy lentiviral insert containing this regulatory cassette was able to drive expression of a lacZ reporter gene in the fast-fibres of skeletal muscle in chicken in three independent transgenic chicken lines in a pattern similar to the endogenous MLC locus. Reporter gene expression in cardiac muscle tissues was not observed for any of these lines. Conclusions From these results we conclude that skeletal expression from this regulatory module is conserved in a genomic context between rodents and chickens. This transgenic module will be useful in future investigations of muscle development in avian species.

  2. Hydrogen fuel production by transgenic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios; Seibert, Michael; Ghirardi, Maria L

    2007-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the state-of-art in the field of green algal H2-production and examines physiological and genetic engineering approaches by which to improve the hydrogen metabolism characteristics of these microalgae. Included in this chapter are emerging topics pertaining to the application of sulfur-nutrient deprivation to attenuate O2-evolution and to promote H2-production, as well as the genetic engineering of sulfate uptake through manipulation of a newly reported sulfate permease in the chloroplast of the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Application of the green algal hydrogenase assembly genes is examined in efforts to confer H2-production capacity to other commercially significant unicellular green algae. Engineering a solution to the O2 sensitivity of the green algal hydrogenase is discussed as an alternative approach to sulfur nutrient deprivation, along with starch accumulation in microalgae for enhanced H2-production. Lastly, current efforts aiming to optimize light utilization in transgenic microalgae for enhanced H2-production under mass culture conditions are presented. It is evident that application of genetic engineering technologies and the use of transgenic green algae will improve prospects for commercial exploitation of these photosynthetic micro-organisms in the generation of H2, a clean and renewable fuel. PMID:18161495

  3. Transgenic crops. Processes, products and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transgenic crops are a natural extension of plant breeding technologies, offering new opportunities for increasing the productivity of agriculture and reducing the cost of food production, for increasing the appeal, nutritional content and quality of fresh and processed foods, and for reducing the environmental damage of agricultural practices. These new transgenic traits will be combined with continuing improvements in the latest varieties developed via breeding technologies, spurring investment in both. These technologies are inherently compatible with and necessary for meeting the challenges now facing the world, namely, economic growth and development, environmental protection and remediation, and human needs for food, shelter and a decent quality of life. The first products from genetically engineered crops are beginning to enter commerce. This is a critical time for issues that will shape public acceptance and for adoption of regulatory and trade policies that encourage rather than discourage investment in and use of this technology. Further investment in the tools for transforming crops and in the basic and applied sciences that will provide a pipeline of new genes is also needed. (author). 24 refs, 1 tab

  4. Effects of Transgenic Glyphosate-Resistant Crops on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) is a highly effective, non-selective herbicide. Herbicide-resistant crop (HRC) has been the most successful trait used in transgenic crops throughout the world. Transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the...

  5. EXPRESSION OF ENDOGLUCANASE E1 IN TRANSGENIC DUCKWEED LEMNA MINOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic duckweed (Lemna minor) that expresses Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase was generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Out of 15 independent transgenic lines, 1 line with the highest CMC-degrading activity was selected for further studies. The 2-week-old transgeni...

  6. Gene flow in genetically altered crops helps progress transgenic turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous useful traits are being imparted into transgenic and non-transgenic plants. Gene flow as indicated in a recent publication from the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST 2007) is the successful transfer of genetic information between different individuals, populations, and g...

  7. Transgenic Resistance to Citrus tristeza virus in Grapefruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) transgenic plants transformed with a variety of constructs derived from the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome were tested for their resistance to the virus. Most transgenic lines were susceptible (27 lines), a few were partially resistant (6 lines) and only one line, tr...

  8. Overview on the investigations of transgenic plums in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, PT3 and PT5 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natu...

  9. Transgenic Crops and Sustainable Agriculture in the European Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The rapid adoption of transgenic crops in the United States, Argentina, and Canada stands in strong contrast to the situation in the European Union (EU), where a de facto moratorium has been in place since 1998. This article reviews recent scientific literature relevant to the problematic introduction of transgenic crops in the EU to assess if

  10. 2013 North Dakota Transgenic Barley Research and FHB Nursery Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research continues to develop and test new transgenic plants using genes provided by collaborators. As lines are developed in Golden Promise, they are crossed to Conlon for field testing. Transgenic lines developed in Conlon are being crossed to resistant lines developed by the breeding programs. ...

  11. Transgenic Crops and Sustainable Agriculture in the European Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The rapid adoption of transgenic crops in the United States, Argentina, and Canada stands in strong contrast to the situation in the European Union (EU), where a de facto moratorium has been in place since 1998. This article reviews recent scientific literature relevant to the problematic introduction of transgenic crops in the EU to assess if…

  12. Transgenic phenolic production in corn silks moderately enhances insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some phenolic compounds produced in corn silks, such as maysin, can promote resistance to caterpillar pests. We evaluated transgenic maize engineered to express a maize cDNA controlled by a putative silk specific promoter for secondary metabolite production and corn earworm resistance. Transgene e...

  13. Overview of the investigation of transgenic plums in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and PT3 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natural i...

  14. MRI of Transgene Expression: Correlation to Therapeutic Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotsugu Ichikawa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can provide highresolution 3D maps of structural and functional information, yet its use of mapping in vivo gene expression has only recently been explored. A potential application for this technology is to noninvasively image transgene expression. The current study explores the latter using a nonregulatable internalizing engineered transferrin receptor (ETR whose expression can be probed for with a superparamagnetic Tf-CLIO probe. Using an HSV-based amplicon vector system for transgene delivery, we demonstrate that: 1 ETR is a sensitive MR marker gene; 2 several transgenes can be efficiently expressed from a single amplicon; 3 expression of each transgene results in functional gene product; and 4 ETR gene expression correlates with expression of therapeutic genes when the latter are contained within the same amplicon. These data, taken together, suggest that MRI of ETR expression can serve as a surrogate for measuring therapeutic transgene expression.

  15. Advancing environmental risk assessment for transgenic biofeedstock crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolt Jeffrey D

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transgenic modification of plants is a key enabling technology for developing sustainable biofeedstocks for biofuels production. Regulatory decisions and the wider acceptance and development of transgenic biofeedstock crops are considered from the context of science-based risk assessment. The risk assessment paradigm for transgenic biofeedstock crops is fundamentally no different from that of current generation transgenic crops, except that the focus of the assessment must consider the unique attributes of a given biofeedstock crop and its environmental release. For currently envisioned biofeedstock crops, particular emphasis in risk assessment will be given to characterization of altered metabolic profiles and their implications relative to non-target environmental effects and food safety; weediness and invasiveness when plants are modified for abiotic stress tolerance or are domesticated; and aggregate risk when plants are platforms for multi-product production. Robust risk assessments for transgenic biofeedstock crops are case-specific, initiated through problem formulation, and use tiered approaches for risk characterization.

  16. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Hühns, Maja; Broer, Inge; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2014-01-01

    induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots of...

  17. T cell immunity using transgenic B lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloni, Mara; Rizzi, Marta; Castiglioni, Paola; Zanetti, Maurizio

    2004-03-01

    Adaptive immunity exists in all vertebrates and plays a defense role against microbial pathogens and tumors. T cell responses begin when precursor T cells recognize antigen on specialized antigen-presenting cells and differentiate into effector cells. Currently, dendritic cells are considered the only cells capable of stimulating T lymphocytes. Here, we show that mature naïve B lymphocytes can be genetically programmed by using nonviral DNA and turned into powerful antigen-presenting cells with a dual capacity of synthesis and presentation of antigen to T cells in vivo. A single i.v. injection of transgenic lymphocytes activates T cell responses reproducibly and specifically even at very low cell doses (102). We also demonstrate that T cell priming can occur in the absence of dendritic cells and results in immunological memory with protective effector functions. These findings disclose aspects in the regulation of adaptive immunity and indicate possibilities for vaccination against viruses and cancer in humans.

  18. Magnetic biomineralisation in Huntington's disease transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhum, W.; Hautot, D.; Dobson, J.; Pankhurst, Q. A.

    2005-01-01

    The concentration levels of biogenic magnetite nanoparticles in transgenic R6/2 Huntington's disease (HD) mice have been investigated, using seven control and seven HD mice each from an 8 week-old litter and from a 12 week-old litter. Hysteresis and isothermal remnant magnetisation data were collected on a SQUID magnetometer, and analysed using a model comprising dia/paramagnetic, ferrimagnetic and superparamagnetic contributions, to extract the magnetite and ferritin concentrations present. It was found that magnetite was present in both superparamagnetic and blocked states. A larger spread and higher concentration of magnetite levels was found in the diseased mice for both the 8 week-old and 12 week-old batches, compared to the controls.

  19. Magnetic biomineralisation in Huntington's disease transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration levels of biogenic magnetite nanoparticles in transgenic R6/2 Huntington's disease (HD) mice have been investigated, using seven control and seven HD mice each from an 8 week-old litter and from a 12 week-old litter. Hysteresis and isothermal remnant magnetisation data were collected on a SQUID magnetometer, and analysed using a model comprising dia/paramagnetic, ferrimagnetic and superparamagnetic contributions, to extract the magnetite and ferritin concentrations present. It was found that magnetite was present in both superparamagnetic and blocked states. A larger spread and higher concentration of magnetite levels was found in the diseased mice for both the 8 week-old and 12 week-old batches, compared to the controls

  20. WP1: transgenic opto-animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    UŻarowska, E.; Czajkowski, Rafał; Konopka, W.

    2014-11-01

    We aim to create a set of genetic tools where permanent opsin expression (ChR or NpHR) is precisely limited to the population of neurons that express immediate early gene c-fos during a specific temporal window of behavioral training. Since the c-fos gene is only expressed in neurons that form experience-dependent ensemble, this approach will result in specific labeling of a small subset of cells that create memory trace for the learned behavior. To this end we employ two alternative inducible gene expression systems: Tet Expression System and Cre/lox System. In both cases, the temporal window for opsin induction is controlled pharmacologically, by doxycycline or tamoxifen, respectively. Both systems will be used for creating lines of transgenic animals.

  1. Transgenic Studies with a Keratin Promoter-Driven Growth Hormone Transgene: Prospects for Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zinkel, Sandra; Polonsky, Kenneth; Fuchs, Elaine

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocytes are potentially appealing vehicles for the delivery of secreted gene products because they can be transferred to human skin by the relatively simple procedure of grafting. Adult human keratinocytes can be efficiently propagated in culture with sufficient proliferative capacity to produce enough epidermis to cover the body surface of an average adult. However, the feasibility of delivering secreted proteins through skin grafting rests upon (i) the strength of the promoter in keratinocytes and (ii) the efficiency of protein transport through the basement membrane of the stratified epithelium and into the bloodstream. In this paper, we use transgenic technology to demonstrate that the activity of the human keratin 14 promoter remains high in adult skin and that keratinocyte-derived human growth hormone (hGH) can be produced, secreted, and transported to the bloodstream of mice with efficiency that is sufficient to exceed by an order of magnitude the circulating hGH concentration in growing children. Transgenic skin grafts from these adults continue to produce and secrete hGH stably, at ? 1/10 physiological levels in the bloodstream of nontransgenic recipient mice. These studies underscore the utility of the keratin 14 promoter for expressing foreign transgenes in keratinocytes and demonstrate that keratinocytes can be used as effective vehicles for transporting factors to the bloodstream and for eliciting metabolic changes. These findings have important implications for considering the keratinocyte as a possible vehicle for gene therapy.

  2. Ectopic growth of hippocampal mossy fibers in a mutated GAP-43 transgenic mouse with impaired spatial memory retention

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew R Holahan; Honegger, Kyle S.; Routtenberg, Aryeh

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, it was shown that transgenic mice, designated G-NonP, forget the location of a water maze hidden platform when tested 7 days after the last training day (Holahan and Routtenberg, 2008). The memory loss in G-NonP mice might be related to altered hippocampal architecture suggested by the fact that in the rat, 7 days after water maze training, there is discernible mossy fiber (MF) growth (Holahan et al., 2006; Rekart et al., 2007). In the present report, we studied the distr...

  3. Design and Management of Field Trials of Transgenic Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedő, Zoltán; Rakszegi, Mariann; Láng, László

    The development of gene transformation systems has allowed the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. The design and the management of field trials vary according to the purpose for which transgenic cereals are developed. Breeders study the phenotypic and genotypic stability of transgenic plants, monitor the increase in homozygosity of transgenic genotypes under field conditions, and develop backcross generations to transfer the introduced genes into secondary transgenic cereal genotypes. For practical purposes, they may also multiply seed of the transgenic lines to produce sufficient amounts of grain for the detailed analysis of trait(s) of interest, to determine the field performance of transgenic lines, and to compare them with the non-transformed parental genotypes. Prior to variety registration, the Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) tests and Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) experiments are carried out in field trials. Field testing includes specific requirements for transgenic cereals to assess potential environmental risks. The capacity of the pollen to survive, establish and disseminate in the field test environment, the potential for gene transfer, the effects of products expressed by the introduced sequences and phenotypic and genotypic instability that might cause deleterious effects must all be specifically monitored, as required by EU Directives 2003/701/EC (1) on the release of genetically modified higher plants in the environment.

  4. Genetic load and transgenic mitigating genes in transgenic Brassica rapa (field mustard × Brassica napus (oilseed rape hybrid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Suzanne I

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One theoretical explanation for the relatively poor performance of Brassica rapa (weed × Brassica napus (crop transgenic hybrids suggests that hybridization imparts a negative genetic load. Consequently, in hybrids genetic load could overshadow any benefits of fitness enhancing transgenes and become the limiting factor in transgenic hybrid persistence. Two types of genetic load were analyzed in this study: random/linkage-derived genetic load, and directly incorporated genetic load using a transgenic mitigation (TM strategy. In order to measure the effects of random genetic load, hybrid productivity (seed yield and biomass was correlated with crop- and weed-specific AFLP genomic markers. This portion of the study was designed to answer whether or not weed × transgenic crop hybrids possessing more crop genes were less competitive than hybrids containing fewer crop genes. The effects of directly incorporated genetic load (TM were analyzed through transgene persistence data. TM strategies are proposed to decrease transgene persistence if gene flow and subsequent transgene introgression to a wild host were to occur. Results In the absence of interspecific competition, transgenic weed × crop hybrids benefited from having more crop-specific alleles. There was a positive correlation between performance and number of B. napus crop-specific AFLP markers [seed yield vs. marker number (r = 0.54, P = 0.0003 and vegetative dry biomass vs. marker number (r = 0.44, P = 0.005]. However under interspecific competition with wheat or more weed-like conditions (i.e. representing a situation where hybrid plants emerge as volunteer weeds in subsequent cropping systems, there was a positive correlation between the number of B. rapa weed-specific AFLP markers and seed yield (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001, although no such correlation was detected for vegetative biomass. When genetic load was directly incorporated into the hybrid genome, by inserting a fitness-mitigating dwarfing gene that that is beneficial for crops but deleterious for weeds (a transgene mitigation measure, there was a dramatic decrease in the number of transgenic hybrid progeny persisting in the population. Conclusion The effects of genetic load of crop and in some situations, weed alleles might be beneficial under certain environmental conditions. However, when genetic load was directly incorporated into transgenic events, e.g., using a TM construct, the number of transgenic hybrids and persistence in weedy genomic backgrounds was significantly decreased.

  5. Making better transgenic models: conditional, temporal, and spatial approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevski, Sika

    2005-02-01

    Over the last decade transgenic mouse models have become a common experimental tool for unraveling gene function. During this time there has been a growing expectation that transgenes resemble the in vivo state as much as possible. To this end, a preference away from heterologous promoters has emerged, and transgene constructs often utilize the endogenous promoter and gene sequences in BAC, PAC and YAC form without the addition of selectable markers, or at least their subsequent removal. There has been a trend toward controlled integration by homologous recombination, either at a characterized chromosomal localization or in some cases within the allele of interest. Markers such as green fluorescent protein (GFP), beta-galactosidase (LacZ), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) continue to be useful to trace transgenic cells, or transgene expression. The development of technologies such as RNA interference (RNAi), are introducing new ways of using transgenic models. Future developments in RNAi technology may revolutionize tissue specific inactivation of gene function, without the requirement of generating conditionally targeted mice and tissue specific recombinase mice. Transgenic models are biological tools that aid discovery. Overall, the main consideration in the generation of transgenic models is that they are bona fide biological models that best impart the disease model or biological function of the gene that they represent. The main consideration is to make the best model for the biological question at heart and this review aims to simplify that task somewhat. Here we take a historical perspective on the development of transgenic models, with many of the important considerations to be made in design and development along the way. PMID:15699570

  6. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye-Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Yang, Jaeseok; Cho, Bumrae; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Park, Sol Ji; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Hwajung; Lee, Eun Mi; Ro, Han; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Su Jin; Won, Jae-Kyung; O'Connell, Philip J; Kim, Hyunil; Surh, Charles D; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs). Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-? and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-? and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-? or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation. PMID:23071605

  7. Areas of concern for the evaluation of transgenic arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areas of concern for the release of transgenic insects relate to risks associated with: (1) the host insect involved, (2) the vector used for gene transfer, (3) genes of interest within the vector including markers, and (4) the expected persistence of the transgenic strain in the environment. The transgenic insect must be considered in terms of whether it is a pest or beneficial insect and risks relevant to its use as a non-transgenic insect. The vector used for gene transfer must be considered in terms of its mobility properties in the host insect and its potential for intra-genomic and inter-genomic movement, potentially mediated by a cross-mobilizing system. Intra-genomic movement may influence the expected expression and activity of gene of interest within the transgene, possibly having unanticipated effects on the host and, thus, program effectiveness. Inter-genomic movement is of considerable importance since risks must be evaluated in terms of the effects of the vector system and genes of interest on a multitude of potential host organisms. Risk assessment for transgene stability requires methods for transformant identification and a full genetic analysis of the transformed genome so changes in transgene presence or movement can be rapidly and reliably determined. Genes of interest within the transgene must be evaluated in terms of their affect on the host insect, and the potential influence of their gene products on the environment and other organisms should the transgene be transmitted to another host. These factors must be considered individually, their interaction with one another, and also in the context of transformant strain persistence in the field. (author)

  8. Transgenic Rice Expressing Amyloid ?-peptide for Oral Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Yoshida, Eiichi Kimura, Setsuo Koike, Jun Nojima, Eugene Futai, Noboru Sasagawa, Yuichiro Watanabe, Shoichi Ishiura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various vaccine therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD have been investigated. Here we report transgenic rice expressing amyloid ?-peptide (A?. The A?42 gene fused with a green fluorescent protein gene was introduced into rice using the Agrobacterium method. When transgenic brown rice expressing A? was orally administered to mice, serum anti-A? antibody titers were elevated. The same results were observed when mice were fed boiled, transgenic brown rice. The results indicate that an edible vaccine against AD using rice may be feasible. A vaccine derived from rice would be far cheaper than existing medical vaccines.

  9. Transgenic approaches to a non-transgenic release of sterile male Lepidoptera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Tortricidae), in British Columbia, Canada, resulted in demands for the expansion of codling moth SIT and a related suppression strategy, radiation-induced inherited sterility (IS), in other countries. In the current SIT programme, both sterile males and females are released to control the pest population. There are compelling reasons to believe that both codling moth SIT and IS would benefit if efficient ways could be found to produce and release only males. Recently, a new scheme for genetic sexing in Lepidoptera has been proposed. The scheme is based on the construction of transgenic females carrying a dominant conditional lethal gene in the female-determining chromosome W. Following this scheme we intend to develop transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth. This requires basic knowledge of codling moth genome and appropriate molecular tools for codling moth transgenesis. We performed a detailed analysis of codling moth karyotype with a particular focus on the identification and characterization of sex chromosomes. Here we summarize our data on codling moth cytogenetics and discuss the potential of codling moth sex chromosomes for their use in developing transgenic sexing strains. The karyotype of codling moth consists of 2n=56 chromosomes, which can be classified into five groups according to their sizes: extra large (3 pairs), large (3 pairs), medium (15 pairs), small (5 pairs), and dot-like (2 pairs). Females are heterogametic with a W-Z sex chromosome pair, males are homogametic with two Z chromosomes. The W and Z chromosomes represent the two largest elements in female chromosome complements. While the Z is composed of euchromatin and resembles to autosomes, the W consists largely of heterochromatin. For successful development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, it is required to insert a conditional dominant lethal mutation (a transgene) into the W chromosome. Theoretically, the transgene insertion is a matter of probability, which is dependent on the size of the W relative to the rest of the genome. In the codling moth, the W is one of two largest chromosomes, comprising about 4% of the female genome, which should make it a good target for transgenesis with the probability of insertion of 1 in 25 (if only females are included) or with the overall probability of 1 in 50 (since both female and male embryos are exposed). However, since the W chromosome is mainly composed of heterochromatin, silencing of the transgene expression might be a serious problem. Different ways how to overcome this problem are discussed. For further characterisation of the codling moth W chromosome we employed advanced methods of molecular cytogenetics, genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) and comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH). GISH detected the W chromosome by strong binding of the Cy3-labelled, female-derived DNA probe. With CGH, both the Cy3-labelled female-derived probe and Fluor-X labelled male-derived probe evenly bound to the W. This suggested that the W is composed predominantly of repetitive DNA sequences occurring scattered in other chromosomes but accumulated in the W. Finally, we prepared W-specific probes by laser microdissection of the W chromatin followed by DOP-PCR and PCR labelling. The probes stained the W with a high specificity in a chromosome-painting manner. DNA fragments of the microdissected W chromatin were cloned and sequenced. The W-sequence analysis revealed no homology to any DNA sequenced so far. Several cloned sequences were found to originate exclusively from the W chromosome. These unique sequences can be very useful as molecular markers of the W chromosome in codling moth transgenesis. The demonstrated ways of W chromosome identification will facilitate the development of genetic sexing strains in the codling moth

  10. Microinjection of A. aegypti Embryos to Obtain Transgenic Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinskiene, Nijole; Juhn, Jennifer; JAMES, ANTHONY A.

    2007-01-01

    In this video, Nijole Jasinskiene demonstrates the methodology employed to generate transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are vectors for dengue fever. The techniques for correctly preparing microinjection needles, dessicating embryos, and performing microinjection are demonstrated.

  11. Microinjection of A. aegypti embryos to obtain transgenic mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinskiene, Nijole; Juhn, Jennifer; James, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    In this video, Nijole Jasinskiene demonstrates the methodology employed to generate transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are vectors for dengue fever. The techniques for correctly preparing microinjection needles, desiccating embryos, and performing microinjection are demonstrated. PMID:18979017

  12. OPTIMAL BAND SELECTION OF HYPERSPECTRAL DATA FOR TRANSGENIC CORN IDENTIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance development by insect pests to the insecticidal proteins expressed in transgenic crops would increase reliance on broad spectrum chemical insecticides subsequently reducing environmental quality and increasing worker exposure to toxic chemicals. An important component ...

  13. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenza, G.L.; Traystman, M.D.; Gearhart, J.D.; Antonarakis, S.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5{prime} flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3{prime} flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and increased serum erythropoietin levels. Transgenic homozygotes show a greater degree of polycythemia than do heterozygotes as well as striking extramedullary erythropoiesis. Human erythropoietin RNA was found not only in fetal liver, adult liver, and kidney but also in all other transgenic tissues analyzed. Anemia induced increased human erythropoietin RNA levels in liver but not kidney. These transgenic mice represent a unique model of polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin levels.

  14. Hybridization between transgenic and wild plants: environmental risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified products are widely commercialized in agricultural production. These include resistant plants to diseases, insects or herbicides, plants with capacity for longer storing times or better nutritional quality. However, there are some concerns and critics from environmental organizations on the risk associated to transgenic plants or organisms genetically modified (OGM. This review discusses the vertical gene transfer (plant/Plant within the OGM context. Although transgenic hybrids have been reported between transgenic plants and their wild relatives, the extent of the environmental risk has not been evaluated per se. The risk depends on the plant species involved, the transgenes, and the ecosystem where the plants are located. Studies on biosafety assessment must be evaluated case by case. Biotechnology and conventional methods allow to control gen flow and decrease the risk of gene transfer among species.

  15. Pronuclear Microinjection and Oviduct Transfer Procedures for Transgenic Mouse Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyu; Xie, Wen; Gui, Changyun; Du, Yubin

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse technology is a powerful method for studying gene function and creating animal models of human diseases. Currently, the most widely used method for generating transgenic mice is the pronuclear microinjection method. In this method, a transgenic DNA construct is physically microinjected into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg. The injected embryos are subsequently transferred into the oviducts of pseudopregnant surrogate mothers. A portion of the mice born to these surrogate mothers will harbor the injected foreign gene in their genomes. These procedures are technically challenging for most biomedical researchers. Inappropriate experimental procedures or suboptimal equipment setup can substantially reduce the efficiency of transgenic mouse production. In this chapter, we describe in detail our microinjection setup as well as our standard microinjection and oviduct transfer procedures. PMID:23912989

  16. Microinjection of A. aegypti Embryos to Obtain Transgenic Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinskiene, Nijole; Juhn, Jennifer; James, Anthony A.

    2007-01-01

    In this video, Nijole Jasinskiene demonstrates the methodology employed to generate transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are vectors for dengue fever. The techniques for correctly preparing microinjection needles, dessicating embryos, and performing microinjection are demonstrated. PMID:18979017

  17. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  18. Construction of transgenic plants with improved uptake of heavy metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.; Pavlíková, D.; Száková, J.; Cundy, A. S.; Kotrba, P.; Scouten, W. H.

    Chania : Technical University of Crete, 2001, s. 344-347. [European Bioremediation Conference /1./. Chania (GR), 02.07.2001-05.07.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : phytoremediation * transgenic plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  19. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5' flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3' flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and increased serum erythropoietin levels. Transgenic homozygotes show a greater degree of polycythemia than do heterozygotes as well as striking extramedullary erythropoiesis. Human erythropoietin RNA was found not only in fetal liver, adult liver, and kidney but also in all other transgenic tissues analyzed. Anemia induced increased human erythropoietin RNA levels in liver but not kidney. These transgenic mice represent a unique model of polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin levels

  20. Characterization of competitive interactions in the coexistence of Bt-transgenic and conventional rice

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yongbo; Feng GE; Liang, Yuyong; Wu, Gang; Li, Junsheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Transgene flow through pollen and seeds leads to transgenic volunteers and feral populations in the nature, and consumer choice and economic incentives determine whether transgenic crops will be cultivated in the field. Transgenic and non-transgenic plants are likely to coexist in the field and natural habitats, but their competitive interactions are not well understood. Methods Field experiments were conducted in an agricultural ecosystem with insecticide spraying and a natural ec...

  1. Evaluation of tyrosinase minigene co-injection as a marker for genetic manipulations in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Methot, D; Reudelhuber, T L; Silversides, D W

    1995-01-01

    The utility of tyrosinase minigene co-injection was evaluated as a visual marker for the generation and breeding of transgenic mice. In an evaluation of 39 transgenic founder animals and 44 transgenic lines five phenotypic patterns of pigmentation were consistently observed, including albino, dark, light, mottled and himalayan. In these studies co-injection of the tyrosinase minigene along with the transgene of interest (TOI) resulted in genomic integration of the two transgenes in 95% of the...

  2. Hybridization between transgenic and wild plants: environmental risk

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified products are widely commercialized in agricultural production. These include resistant plants to diseases, insects or herbicides, plants with capacity for longer storing times or better nutritional quality. However, there are some concerns and critics from environmental organizations on the risk associated to transgenic plants or organisms genetically modified (OGM). This review discusses the vertical gene transfer (plant/Plant) within the OGM context. Although transgenic...

  3. Neuron Loss in Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Wirths; Bayer, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Since their initial generation in the mid 1990s, transgenic mouse models of Alzheimers's disease (AD) have been proven to be valuable model systems which are indispensable for modern AD research. Whereas most of these models are characterized by extensive amyloid plaque pathology, inflammatory changes and often behavioral deficits, modeling of neuron loss was much less successful. The present paper discusses the current achievements of modeling neuron loss in transgenic mouse models based...

  4. Anbau transgener Pflanzen – Räumliche Aspekte der Koexistenz

    OpenAIRE

    Schlatter, Christian; Oehen,Bernadette

    2005-01-01

    Most of the farmers in Switzerland won’t apply GMO farming. Their organisations support a five-year ban for the marketing of transgenic plants. However, in Switzerland there is no political discussion on co-existence as in the European community and their member states. In this study, the spatial aspects of coexistence of transgenic, conventional and organic farming in Switzerland are investigated. It shows that there are only 28 communities of 2848 where all farmers are bound by different la...

  5. Generation and Characterization of Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Transgenic Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Yeom, Hye-Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Yang, Jaeseok; Cho, Bumrae; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Park, Sol Ji; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Hwajung; Lee, Eun Mi; Ro, Han; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Su Jin; Won, Jae-Kyung; O'Connell, Philip J.; Kim, Hyunil

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neon...

  6. Generation of Stable Transgenic C. elegans Using Microinjection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Laura A.; Knight, Adam L.; Caldwell, Guy A.; Caldwell, Kim A.

    2008-01-01

    Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans can be readily created via microinjection of a DNA plasmid solution into the gonad 1. The plasmid DNA rearranges to form extrachromosomal concatamers that are stably inherited, though not with the same efficiency as actual chromosomes 2. A gene of interest is co-injected with an obvious phenotypic marker, such as rol-6 or GFP, to allow selection of transgenic animals under a dissecting microscope. The exogenous gene may be expressed from its native promoter for cellular localization studies. Alternatively, the transgene can be driven by a different tissue-specific promoter to assess the role of the gene product in that particular cell or tissue. This technique efficiently drives gene expression in all tissues of C. elegans except for the germline or early embryo 3. Creation of transgenic animals is widely utilized for a range of experimental paradigms. This video demonstrates the microinjection procedure to generate transgenic worms. Furthermore, selection and maintenance of stable transgenic C. elegans lines is described. PMID:19066505

  7. Production of transgenic pigs mediated by pseudotyped lentivirus and sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongliang; Xi, Qianyun; Ding, Jinghua; Cai, Weiguang; Meng, Fanmin; Zhou, Junyun; Li, Hongyi; Jiang, Qingyan; Shu, Gang; Wang, Songbo; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Wu, Zhenfang

    2012-01-01

    Sperm-mediated gene transfer can be a very efficient method to produce transgenic pigs, however, the results from different laboratories had not been widely repeated. Genomic integration of transgene by injection of pseudotyped lentivirus to the perivitelline space has been proved to be a reliable route to generate transgenic animals. To test whether transgene in the lentivirus can be delivered by sperm, we studied incubation of pseudotyped lentiviruses and sperm before insemination. After incubation with pig spermatozoa, 623 lentiviral particles were detected per 100 sperm cells using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The association of lentivirus with sperm was further confirmed by electron microscopy. The sperm incubated with lentiviral particles were artificially inseminated into pigs. Of the 59 piglets born from inseminated 5 sows, 6 piglets (10.17%) carried the transgene based on the PCR identification. Foreign gene and EGFP was successfully detected in ear tissue biopsies from two PCR-positive pigs, revealed via in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Offspring of one PCR-positive boar with normal sows showed PCR-positive. Two PCR-positive founders and offsprings of PCR-positive boar were further identified by Southern-blot analysis, out of which the two founders and two offsprings were positive in Southern blotting, strongly indicating integration of foreign gene into genome. The results indicate that incubation of sperm with pseudotyped lentiviruses can incorporated with sperm-mediated gene transfer to produce transgenic pigs with improved efficiency. PMID:22536374

  8. Evaluating potential risks of transgenic arthropods for pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic modification using recombinant DNA methods can now be used, almost routinely, to transform pest and beneficial arthropods and such genetically engineered insects and mites could be used to improve pest management programs. Genetic manipulation with recombinant DNA techniques may generate concerns about risk, requiring additional time and resources to resolve. Risk assessments must be conducted prior to releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment for either short term experiments or permanent establishment. Potential risk issues to be resolved include whether: the inserted gene(s) (trait) is stable; the traits can be horizontally transferred to other populations or species; released arthropods will perform as expected (especially with regard to their geographic distribution, host or prey specificity; released arthropods will have unintended environmental effects; and, in the case of short term releases, the released arthropods can be recovered from field sites. If the transgenic arthropods strain(s) perform well in preliminary, short term releases and risk assessments are completed satisfactorily, permanent releases into the environment may follow. Many pest management programs, especially those involving replacement of pest populations by the transgenic population, will require permanent establishment in the environment and the use of 'drive mechanisms', have been proposed to achieve this. Because efficacy can be severely compromised by 'transgene silencing', plant molecular biologists are now attempting to stabilize gene expression by building in 'insulators'. Transgene silencing occurs in Drosophila and will no doubt be a factor in other transgenic arthropods. (author)

  9. Enhanced polyhydroxybutyrate production in transgenic sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasovits, Lars A; Zhao, Lihan; McQualter, Richard B; Snell, Kristi D; Somleva, Maria N; Patterson, Nii A; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2012-06-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a bacterial polyester that has properties similar to some petrochemically produced plastics. Plant-based production has the potential to make this biorenewable plastic highly competitive with petrochemical-based plastics. We previously reported that transgenic sugarcane produced PHB at levels as high as 1.8% leaf dry weight without penalty to biomass accumulation, suggesting scope for improving PHB production in this species. In this study, we used different plant and viral promoters, in combination with multigene or single-gene constructs to increase PHB levels. Promoters tested included the maize and rice polyubiquitin promoters, the maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter and a Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter. At the seedling stage, the highest levels of polymer were produced in sugarcane plants when the Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter was used. However, in all cases, this promoter underwent silencing as the plants matured. The rice Ubi promoter enabled the production of PHB at levels similar to the maize Ubi promoter. The maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter enabled the production of PHB to levels as high as 4.8% of the leaf dry weight, which is approximately 2.5 times higher than previously reported levels in sugarcane. This is the first time that this promoter has been tested in sugarcane. The highest PHB-producing lines showed phenotypic differences to the wild-type parent, including reduced biomass and slight chlorosis. PMID:22369516

  10. ALIMENTOS TRANSGÉNICOS TRANSGENIC FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Reyes S.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Gracias al gran avance de la tecnología, la ingeniería genética y la biología molecular, se han desarrollado los productos transgénicos. En sus inicios, los productos modificados genéticamente tenían como objeto obtener ventajas en las áreas de la agricultura y ganadería. Posteriormente esta técnica se comenzó a aplicar en el ámbito de la producción de alimentos para el consumo humano. Se ha generado mucha controversia en relación a su utilización. Esta revisión tiene por objeto revisar la información científica disponible en relación a las aplicaciones, ventajas y potenciales riesgos para la salud humana y el medio ambiente asociados al consumo de los alimentos transgénicosDue to the advancements in technology, genetic engineering and molecular biology, have develop transgenic foods. Initially, genetically modified plants were produced to confer advantages in agriculture and animal husbandry. Later this technique was applied to the production of food for human consumption, generating a great deal of controversy. This review discusses the available scientific evidence in relation to the advantages and potential risks of genetically modified foods

  11. Evaluating cerebellar functions using optogenetic transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, John P.; Turecek, Josef; Turner, Eric E.

    2013-03-01

    We employed a transgenic mouse having conditional expression of ChR2(H134R) in neurons of the inferior olive to facilitate understanding of the role of electrical coupling and oscillation in central nervous system function. Two-photon excitation of ChR2-expressing neurons using 64 laser beams restricted to single inferior olive cell bodies depolarized neurons and evoked voltage deflections in neighboring neurons demonstrating electrical coupling. Broader illumination of neuronal ensembles using blue light induced an optical clamp of endogenous electrical rhythms in the inferior olive of acutely-prepared brain slices, which when applied in vivo directly modulated the local field potential activity and induced tremor. The experiments demonstrate novel methods to optically manipulate electrically coupled potentials and rhythmogenesis within a neuronal ensemble. From a functional perspective, the experiments shed light on the cellular and circuitry mechanisms of essential tremor, a prevalent neurological condition, by indicating time- and frequencydependence of tremor upon varying rhythms of inferior olive stimulation. The experiments indicate analog control of a brain rhythm that may be used to enhance our understanding of the functional consequences of central rhythmogenesis.

  12. Comparative study of transgenic and non-transgenic maize (Zea mays) flours commercialized in Brazil, focussing on proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Ndia; Barbosa, Herbert; Jacob, Silvana; Arruda, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Genetically modified foods are a major concern around the world due to the lack of information concerning their safety and health effects. This work evaluates differences, at the proteomic level, between two types of crop samples: transgenic (MON810 event with the Cry1Ab gene, which confers resistance to insects) and non-transgenic maize flour commercialized in Brazil. The 2-D DIGE technique revealed 99 differentially expressed spots, which were collected in 2-D PAGE gels and identified via mass spectrometry (nESI-QTOF MS/MS). The abundance of protein differences between the transgenic and non-transgenic samples could arise from genetic modification or as a result of an environmental influence pertaining to the commercial sample. The major functional category of proteins identified was related to disease/defense and, although differences were observed between samples, no toxins or allergenic proteins were found. PMID:25766830

  13. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on antioxidant enzymes activities in transgenic and non-transgenic tobacco seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of activities of antioxidant enzymes in pprI-transgenic tobacco seedlings and non-transgenic tobacco seedlings after different doses 60Co γ-rays irradiation were studied. The results showed that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in pprI-transgenic tobacco seedlings and non-transgenic tobacco seedlings were gradually increased after different doses 60Co γ-rays irradiation. The activity of SOD was to the maximum at 100 Gy treatment, but the activity of POD and CAT at 300 Gy treatment, and then these three antioxidant enzymes gradually decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis also revealed that the over-express of these antioxidant enzymes were induced after different doses 60Co γ-rays irradiation and were consistent with the variance of their enzymic activities, which enhanced the tolerance of tobacco against irradiation. (authors)

  14. Cloning of transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells; an efficient method to analyse and reduce high natural heterogeneity of transgene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer Lukas; Nocarova Eva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Phenotypic characterization of transgenic cell lines, frequently used in plant biology studies, is complicated because transgene expression in individual cells is often heterogeneous and unstable. To identify the sources and to reduce this heterogeneity, we transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cells with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and then introduced a simple cloning procedure to generate cell lines derived f...

  15. RNAi-mediated knockdown of IKK1 in transgenic mice using a transgenic construct containing the human H1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Maldonado, Rodolfo; Murillas, Rodolfo; Navarro, Manuel; Page, Angustias; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Ramirez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of gene expression through siRNAs is a tool increasingly used for the study of gene function in model systems, including transgenic mice. To achieve perdurable effects, the stable expression of siRNAs by an integrated transgenic construct is necessary. For transgenic siRNA expression, promoters transcribed by either RNApol II or III (such as U6 or H1 promoters) can be used. Relatively large amounts of small RNAs synthesis are achieved when using RNApol III promoters, which can be advantageous in knockdown experiments. To study the feasibility of H1 promoter-driven RNAi-expressing constructs for protein knockdown in transgenic mice, we chose IKK1 as the target gene. Our results indicate that constructs containing the H1 promoter are sensitive to the presence of prokaryotic sequences and to transgene position effects, similar to RNApol II promoters-driven constructs. We observed variable expression levels of transgenic siRNA among different tissues and animals and a reduction of up to 80% in IKK1 expression. Furthermore, IKK1 knockdown led to hair follicle alterations. In summary, we show that constructs directed by the H1 promoter can be used for knockdown of genes of interest in different organs and for the generation of animal models complementary to knockout and overexpression models. PMID:24523631

  16. Culturable endophytic filamentous fungi from leaves of transgenic imidazolinone-tolerant sugarcane and its non-transgenic isolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Rodrigo Makowiecky; Romão, Aline Silva; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2010-04-01

    The diversity of endophytic filamentous fungi from leaves of transgenic imidazolinone-tolerant sugarcane plants and its isoline was evaluated by cultivation followed by amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) of randomly selected strains. Transgenic and non-transgenic cultivars and their crop management (herbicide application or manual weed control) were used to assess the possible non-target effects of genetically modified sugarcane on the fungal endophytic community. A total of 14 ARDRA haplotypes were identified in the endophytic community of sugarcane. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing revealed a rich community represented by 12 different families from the Ascomycota phylum. Some isolates had a high sequence similarity with genera that are common endophytes in tropical climates, such as Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Guignardia, Pestalotiopsis and Xylaria. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that fluctuations in fungal population were related to both transgenic plants and herbicide application. While herbicide applications quickly induced transient changes in the fungal community, transgenic plants induced slower changes that were maintained over time. These results represent the first draft on composition of endophytic filamentous fungi associated with sugarcane plants. They are an important step in understanding the possible effects of transgenic plants and their crop management on the fungal endophytic community. PMID:20191263

  17. A Comparison of Neuroinflammation to Implanted Microelectrodes in Rat and Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Ravikumar, Madhumitha; Burke, Alan A.; Meador, William D.; Householder, Kyle T.; Buck, Amy C.; Sunil, Smrithi; Stewart, Wade G.; Anna, Jake P.; Tomaszewski, William H.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Rat models have emerged as a common tool to study neuroinflammation to intracortical microelectrodes. While a number of studies have attempted to understand the factors resulting in neuroinflammation using rat models, a complete understanding of key mechanistic pathways remains elusive. Transgenic mouse models, however, could facilitate a deeper understanding of mechanistic pathways due to an ease of genetic alteration. Therefore, the goal of the present study is to compare neuroinflammation ...

  18. Efficient gene targeting by homology-directed repair in rat zygotes using TALE nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Remy, Séverine; Tesson, Laurent; Menoret, Séverine; Usal, Claire; De Cian, Anne; Thepenier, Virginie; Thinard, Reynald; Baron, Daniel; Charpentier, Marine; Renaud, Jean-Baptiste; Buelow, Roland; Cost, Gregory J.; Giovannangeli, Carine; Fraichard, Alexandre; Concordet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The generation of genetically modified animals is important for both research and commercial purposes. The rat is an important model organism that until recently lacked efficient genetic engineering tools. Sequence-specific nucleases, such as ZFNs, TALE nucleases, and CRISPR/Cas9 have allowed the creation of rat knockout models. Genetic engineering by homology-directed repair (HDR) is utilized to create animals expressing transgenes in a controlled way and to introduce precise genetic modific...

  19. Myosin 3A transgene expression produces abnormal actin filament bundles in transgenic Xenopus laevis rod photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin-Jones, Jennifer; Parker, Ed; Wu, Mike; Dos, Andra; Burnside, Beth

    2004-11-15

    Myo3A, a class III myosin, localizes to the distal (plus) ends of inner segment actin filament bundles that form the core of microvillus-like calycal processes encircling the base of the photoreceptor outer segment. To investigate Myo3A localization and function, we expressed green fluorescent protein-tagged bass Myo3A and related constructs in transgenic Xenopus rods using a modified opsin promoter. Tagged intact Myo3A localized to rod calycal processes, as previously reported for native bass Myo3A. Transgenic rods developed abnormally large calycal processes and subsequently degenerated. Modified Myo3A expression constructs demonstrated that calycal process localization required an active motor domain and the tail domain. Expressed tail domain alone localized to actin bundles along the entire inner segment length, rather than to the distal end. This tail domain localization required the conserved C-terminal domain (3THDII) previously shown to possess an actin-binding motif. Our findings suggest that Myo3A plays a role in the morphogenesis and maintenance of calycal processes of vertebrate photoreceptors. PMID:15522885

  20. [Analysis of transgenic and non-transgenic rice leaves using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-chao; Cheng, Fang

    2012-02-01

    Visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was investigated for the fast discrimination of rice leaves with different genes and the determination of chlorophyll content. Least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) was employed to discriminate transgenic rice leaves from non-transgenic ones. The classification accuracy of calibration samples reached to 100%. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select effective wavelengths. SPA-LS-SVM discrimination model was performed, and the result indicated that an 87.27% recognition ratio was achieved using only 0.3% of total variables. The optimal performance of each quantification model was achieved after orthogonal signal correction (OSA). Performances treated by SPA were better than that of full-spectrum PLS, which indicated that SPA is a powerful way for effective wavelength selection. The best performance of quantification was obtained by SPA-LS-SVM model; with correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) being 0.902 2 and 1.312 1, respectively. Excellent classification and prediction precision were achieved. The overall results indicated that the new proposed SPA-LS-SVM is a powerful method for varieties recognition and SPAD prediction. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of Vis/NIR spectroscopy in on-field classification and monitoring. PMID:22512170

  1. Stability of transgene expression, field performance and recombination breeding of transformed barley lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, H.; Jensen, L.G.; Wong, O.T.; Kohl, E.; Ullrich, S.E.; Cochran, J.; Kannangara, C.G.; Wettstein, D. von

    2001-01-01

    in homozygous transgenic T-3 plants, and these remained constant over a 3-year period. In micro-malting experiments, the heat-stable enzyme reached levels of up to 1.4 mug.mg(-1) protein and survived kiln drying at levels of 70-100%. In the field trials of 1997 and 1998 the transgenic lines had a...... transformants were observed in some F-4 lines homozygous for the morphological phenotypes and for the transgene. In the case of a homozygous nutans line, the transgenic plants had a higher 1000-grain weight than those lacking the transgene. Like mutants providing useful output traits, transgenic plants will......Stable inheritance of the transgene, consistent expression and competitive agronomic properties of transgenic crops are important parameters for successful use of the latter. These properties have been analyzed with 18 homozygous transgenic barley lines of the cultivar Golden Promise. The lines...

  2. Transgenic and conventional Brazilian soybeans don't cause or prevent preneoplastic colon lesions or oxidative stress in a 90-day in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Sbruzzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study presents the results of a 90-day safety assessment of rats fed with four varieties of soybeans, BRS 245 RR and BRS Valiosa RR (transgenic, BRS 133 and MG BR46 Conquista (non-transgenic. METHODS: Diets were prepared by incorporating toasted soybean flour to a commercial diet at 1%, 10% or 20% weight In the in vivo experimental the rats' body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, number of aberrant crypt foci, oxidative stress biomarkers, urea and creatinine levels were analyzed and compared between experimental groups, as well as histopathological observations (digestive tract, liver, kidneys. RESULTS: The results indicate that glyphosate-tolerant soy varieties neither induce nor prevent aberrant crypt foci induction, nor do their conventional counterparts. Similarly, none of the four soybean varieties tested induced changes in the digestive tract, liver or kidney. Serum biochemical parameters were also unchanged. CONCLUSION: The consumption of both, conventional and transgenic soybeans, were insufficient to ameliorate dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress.

  3. Differences in social interaction- vs cocaine reward in rat vs mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai K Kummer

    2014-10-01

    Considering that human addicts regularly prefer drugs of abuse to drug-free social interaction, the present findings suggest that our experimental paradigm of concurrent CPP for cocaine vs social interaction is of even greater translational power if performed in C57BL/6 mice, the genetic background for most transgenic rodent models, than in rats.

  4. Mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Loli, P.; Dušinská, M.; Hurbánková, M.; Kováčiková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Kažimírová, A.; Barančoková, M.; Tatrai, E.; Wolff, T.; Oesterle, D.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 595, - (2006), s. 174-183. ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : transgenic rats * mineral fibres Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.111, year: 2006

  5. Immunity to tomato yellow leaf curl virus in transgenic tomato is associated with accumulation of transgene small RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibman, Diana; Prakash, Shanmugam; Wolf, Dalia; Zelcer, Aaron; Anfoka, Ghandi; Haviv, Sabrina; Brumin, Marina; Gaba, Victor; Arazi, Tzahi; Lapidot, Moshe; Gal-On, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Gene silencing is a natural defense response of plants against invading RNA and DNA viruses. The RNA post-transcriptional silencing system has been commonly utilized to generate transgenic crop plants that are "immune" to plant virus infection. Here, we applied this approach against the devastating DNA virus tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in its host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). To generate broad resistance to a number of different TYLCV viruses, three conserved sequences (the intergenic region [NCR], V1-V2 and C1-C2 genes) from the genome of the severe virus (TYLCV) were synthesized as a single insert and cloned into a hairpin configuration in a binary vector, which was used to transform TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants. Eight of 28 independent transgenic tomato lines exhibited immunity to TYLCV-Is and to TYLCV-Mld, but not to tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus, which shares relatively low sequence homology with the transgene. In addition, a marker-free (nptII-deleted) transgenic tomato line was generated for the first time by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation without antibiotic selection, followed by screening of 1180 regenerated shoots by whitefly-mediated TYLCV inoculation. Resistant lines showed a high level of transgene-siRNA (t-siRNA) accumulation (22% of total small RNA) with dominant sizes of 21 nt (73%) and 22 nt (22%). The t-siRNA displayed hot-spot distribution ("peaks") along the transgene, with different distribution patterns than the viral-siRNA peaks observed in TYLCV-infected tomato. A grafting experiment demonstrated the mobility of 0.04% of the t-siRNA from transgenic rootstock to non-transformed scion, even though scion resistance against TYLCV was not achieved. PMID:26255053

  6. Transgenic expression of dentin phosphoprotein inhibits skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Liu, P; Wang, S; Liu, C; Jani, P; Lu, Y; Qin, C

    2016-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is proteolytically processed into an NH2-terminal fragment called dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and a COOH-terminal fragment known as dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). These two fragments are believed to perform distinct roles in formation of bone and dentin. To investigate the functions of DPP in skeletal development, we generated transgenic mice to overexpress hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged DPP under the control of a 3.6 kb type I collagen (Col1a1) promoter (designated as Col1a1-HA-DPP). The Col1a1-HA-DPP transgenic mice were significantly smaller by weight, had smaller skeletons and shorter long bones than their wild type littermates, as demonstrated by X-ray radiography. They displayed reduced trabecular bone formation and narrower zones of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the long bones. Histological analyses showed that the transgenic mice had reduced cell proliferation in the proliferating zone, but lacked obvious defects in the chondrocyte differentiation. In addition, the transgenic mice with a high level of transgene expression developed spontaneous long bone fractures. In conclusion, overexpressing DPP inhibited skeletal development, suggesting that the balanced actions between the NH2- and COOH-terminal fragments of DSPP may be required for normal skeletal development. PMID:26972716

  7. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in transgenic purple tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Rhodes, Davina; Shen, Yanting; Song, Weixing; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Most tomatoes produce little anthocyanins, but the transgenic purple tomato biosynthesizes a high level of anthocyanins due to expression of two transcription factors (Del and Ros1). This study was to identify and quantify anthocyanins in this transgenic tomato line. Seven anthocyanins, including two new anthocyanins [malvidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and malvidin-3-(feruloyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside], were identified by LC-MS/MS. Petunidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and delphinidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanins, making up 86% of the total anthocyanins. Compared to undetectable anthocyanins in the wild type, the contents of anthocyanins in the whole fruit, peel, and flesh of the Del/Ros1-transgenic tomato were 5.2±0.5, 5.1±0.5, and 5.8±0.3g/kg dry matter, respectively. Anthocyanins were undetectable in the seeds of both wide-type and transgenic tomato lines. Such novel and high levels of anthocyanins obtained in this transgenic tomato may provide unique functional products with potential health benefits. PMID:26920283

  8. Quality of transgenic laboratory strains of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Margaret L; Scholl, Philip J

    2005-12-01

    Genetically modified, mass reared insects present novel possibilities for the future of insect control. One concern about manipulation of insects is a possible loss of strain quality due to the introduction of a foreign gene of any sort into the insect genome. Eight transgenic strains of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were compared with the wild-type parental laboratory strain in laboratory culture. Measurements of average fertility, fecundity, larval productivity, and longevity were analyzed. Two transgenic strains had significantly lower larval productivity than controls, one of which was explained by a homozygous lethal insertion of the transgene. Another strain produced significantly fewer eggs than controls. Overall strain characteristics, including measurements from egg, larva, pupa, and adult stages, were compared. Transgenic colonies did not consistently show significantly lower individual or aggregate strain quality characteristics than the control parental colony; hence, the presence of the transgene used to produce the strains tested did not incur a discrete cost to the colonies of laboratory-reared C. hominivorax. PMID:16539163

  9. CCK Response Deficiency in Synphilin-1 Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wanli W.; Smith, Megan; Yang, Dejun; Choi, Pique P.; Moghadam, Alexander; Li, Tianxia; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have identified a novel role for the cytoplasmic protein, synphilin-1(SP1), in the controls of food intake and body weight in both mice and Drosophila. Ubiquitous overexpression of human SP1 in brain neurons in transgenic mice results in hyperphagia expressed as an increase in meal size. However, the mechanisms underlying this action of SP1 remain to be determined. Here we investigate a potential role for altered gut feedback signaling in the effects of SP1 on food intake. We examined responses to peripheral administration of cholecytokinin (CCK), amylin, and the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, exendin-4. Intraperitoneal administration of CCK at doses ranging from 110 nmol/kg significantly reduced glucose intake in wild type (WT) mice, but failed to affect intake in SP1 transgenic mice. Moreover, there was a significant attenuation of CCK-induced c-Fos expression in the dorsal vagal complex in SP1 transgenic mice. In contrast, WT and SP1 transgenic mice were similarly responsive to both amylin and exendin-4 treatment. These studies demonstrate that SP1 results in a CCK response deficiency that may contribute to the increased meal size and overall hyperphagia in synphillin-1 transgenic mice. PMID:26569394

  10. Experimental rat models to study the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre de Artiñano, Amaya; Miguel Castro, Marta

    2009-11-01

    Being the metabolic syndrome a multifactorial condition, it is difficult to find adequate experimental models to study this pathology. The obese Zucker rats, which are homozygous for the fa allele, present abnormalities similar to those seen in human metabolic syndrome and are a widely extended model of insulin resistance. The usefulness of these rats as a model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is nevertheless questionable, and they neither can be considered a clear experimental model of hypertension. Some experimental models different from the obese Zucker rats have also been used to study the metabolic syndrome. Some derive from the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In this context, the most important are the obese SHR, usually named Koletsky rats. Hyperinsulinism, associated with either normal or slightly elevated levels of blood glucose, is present in these animals, but SHR/N-corpulent rats are a more appropriated model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The SHR/NDmc corpulent rats, a subline of SHR/N-corpulent rats, also exhibit metabolic and histopathologic characteristics associated with human metabolic disorders. A new animal model of the metabolic syndrome, stroke-prone-SHR (SHRSP) fatty rats, was obtained by introducing a segment of the mutant leptin receptor gene from the Zucker line heterozygous for the fa gene mutation into the genetic background of the SHRSP. Very recently, it has been developed as a non-obese rat model with hypertension, fatty liver and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome by transgenic overexpression of a sterol-regulatory element-binding protein in the SHR rats. The Wistar Ottawa Karlsburg W rats are also a new strain that develops a nearly complete metabolic syndrome. Moreover, a new experimental model of low-capacity runner rats has also been developed with elevated blood pressure levels together with the other hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19631025

  11. Glycinebetaine synthesizing transgenic potato plants exhibit enhanced tolerance to salt and cold stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiotic stresses are the most important contributors towards low productivity of major food crops. Various attempts have been made to enhance abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants by classical breeding and genetic transformation. Genetic transformation with glycinebetaine (GB) synthesizing enzymes' gene(s) in naturally non accumulating plants has resulted in enhanced tolerance against variety of abiotic stresses. Present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of GB synthesizing transgenic potato plants against salt and cold stresses. Transgenic potato plants were challenged against salt and cold stresses at whole plant level. Transgenic lines were characterized to determine the transgene copy number. Different parameters like integrity, chlorophyll contents, tuber yield and vegetative biomass were studied to monitor the stress tolerance of transgenic potato plants. The results were compared with Non-transgenic (NT) plants and statistically analyzed to evaluate significant differences. Multi-copy insertion of expression cassette was found in both transgenic lines. Upon salt stress, transgenic plants maintained better growth as compared to NT plants. The tuber yield of transgenic plants was significantly greater than NT plants in salt stress. Transgenic plants showed improved membrane integrity against cold stress by depicting appreciably reduced ion leakage as compared to NT plants. Moreover, transgenic plants showed significantly less chlorophyll bleaching than NT plants upon cold stress. In addition, NT plants accumulated significantly less biomass, and yielded fewer tubers as compared to transgenic plants after cold stress treatment. The study will be a committed step for field evaluation of transgenic plants with the aim of commercialization. (author)

  12. Time-Course Expression Profiles of Hair Cycle-Associated Genes in Male Mini Rats after Depilation of Telogen-Phase Hairs

    OpenAIRE

    Aya Umeda-Ikawa; Isao Shimokawa; Kunio Doi

    2009-01-01

    Jcl:WistarTGN(ARGHGEN)1Nts rat (Mini rat) is a growth hormone (GH)-deficient transgenic rat. The hair cycle in the dorsal skin of male Mini rats enters a long-lasting telogen phase after eights weeks of age, but depilation can induce a transient hair cycle again. In this study, a time-course profiling of genes expression was done on the dorsal skin of male Mini rats along the progression of depilation-induced hair cycle using DNA microarray analysis. As a result, 1,215 probe sets including 1,...

  13. Engineered resistance to Plasmodium falciparum development in transgenic Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Alison T; Li, Fengwu; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Chen, Xiaoguang; Nirmala, Xavier; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Vinetz, Joseph M; James, Anthony A

    2011-04-01

    Transposon-mediated transformation was used to produce Anopheles stephensi that express single-chain antibodies (scFvs) designed to target the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The scFvs, m1C3, m4B7, and m2A10, are derived from mouse monoclonal antibodies that inhibit either ookinete invasion of the midgut or sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. The scFvs that target the parasite surface, m4B7 and m2A10, were fused to an Anopheles gambiae antimicrobial peptide, Cecropin A. Previously-characterized Anopheles cis-acting DNA regulatory elements were included in the transgenes to coordinate scFv production with parasite development. Gene amplification and immunoblot analyses showed promoter-specific increases in transgene expression in blood-fed females. Transgenic mosquito lines expressing each of the scFv genes had significantly lower infection levels than controls when challenged with P. falciparum. PMID:21533066

  14. Alteration of neurotransmitter phenotype in noradrenergic neurons of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadd, G G; Hoyle, G W; Quaife, C J; Marck, B; Matsumoto, A M; Brinster, R L; Palmiter, R D

    1992-11-01

    The normal complement of neurotransmitters in noradrenergic neurons was altered by expressing the structural gene for the enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) under the control of the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase gene promoter in transgenic mice. This resulted in accumulation of large amounts of epinephrine in neurons of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and central nervous system (CNS) but did not reduce norepinephrine levels. Adrenalectomy reduced PNMT levels in the SNS and CNS, suggesting that the transgene is positively regulated by adrenal steroids. Epinephrine levels were unaffected by this treatment in the CNS, suggesting that PNMT is not rate limiting for epinephrine synthesis. However, catecholamines were elevated in a sympathetic ganglion and a target tissue of the SNS, perhaps due to up-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in response to adrenalectomy. These transgenic mice also reveal a marked difference in the ability of chromaffin cells and neurons to synthesize epinephrine. PMID:1480181

  15. Degradation of β-Aryl Ether Bonds in Transgenic Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mnich, Ewelina

    cell wall. The aim of the study was to alter lignin structure by expression in plants of the enzymes from S. paucimobilis involved in ether bond degradation (LigDFG). Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon transgenic lines were generated and characterized with respect to lignin structure and...... cell wall polysaccharide extractability. Structural changes in lignin detected by 2D HSQC NMR analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis stems correlated with a slight increase in the saccharification yield. An increase in oxidized guaiacyl and syringyl units resulting from the action of LigDFG was observed...... be degraded by LigDFG, which can presumably cause loosening of the lignin-ferulate-polysaccharide matrix. In a xylanase hydrolysis of Brachypodium transgenic stems, the release of arabinose and xylose was increased compared to wild type. The data presented demonstrate that introduction of lignin...

  16. Amino acids regulate transgene expression in MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Marta; Guetg, Adriano; Sass, Jrn Oliver; Arps, Lisa; Ruckstuhl, Lisa; Camargo, Simone M R; Verrey, Franois

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression and cell growth rely on the intracellular concentration of amino acids, which in metazoans depends on extracellular amino acid availability and transmembrane transport. To investigate the impact of extracellular amino acid concentrations on the expression of a concentrative amino acid transporter, we overexpressed the main kidney proximal tubule luminal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1-collectrin (SLC6A19-TMEM27) in MDCK cell epithelia. Exogenously expressed proteins co-localized at the luminal membrane and mediated neutral amino acid uptake. However, the transgenes were lost over few cell culture passages. In contrast, the expression of a control transgene remained stable. To test whether this loss was due to inappropriately high amino acid uptake, freshly transduced MDCK cell lines were cultivated either with physiological amounts of amino acids or with the high concentration found in standard cell culture media. Expression of exogenous transporters was unaffected by physiological amino acid concentration in the media. Interestingly, mycoplasma infection resulted in a significant increase in transgene expression and correlated with the rapid metabolism of L-arginine. However, L-arginine metabolites were shown to play no role in transgene expression. In contrast, activation of the GCN2 pathway revealed by an increase in eIF2? phosphorylation may trigger transgene derepression. Taken together, high extracellular amino acid concentration provided by cell culture media appears to inhibit the constitutive expression of concentrative amino acid transporters whereas L-arginine depletion by mycoplasma induces the expression of transgenes possibly via stimulation of the GCN2 pathway. PMID:24797296

  17. [Distribution of Bt protein in transgenic cotton soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Ling; Chen, Su-Wan; Hu, Hong-Qing; Li, Zhen; Han, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Pu

    2011-06-01

    A pot experiment with red soil, yellow brown soil, and yellow cinnamon soil was conducted to detect the Bt protein content in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils at different growth stages of transgenic Bt cotton and common cotton by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). With the planting of transgenic Bt cotton, the Bt protein content in rhizosphere soil was significantly higher than that in non-rhizosphere soil; while in common cotton soils, there was no significant difference in the Bt protein content between rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil. At bud stage of transgenic Bt cotton, the Bt protein content in rhizosphere soil was in the order of yellow cinnamon soil > yellow brown soil > red soil, being 144% 121%, and 238% of that in common cotton rhizosphere soil; at florescence stage of transgenic Bt cotton, the Bt protein content in rhizosphere soil was in the order of yellow brown soil > yellow cinnamon soil > red soil, being 156% , 116% , and 197% of that in common cotton rhizosphere soil, respectively. Regardless of planting Bt cotton or common cotton, the Bt protein content in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils had an initial increase with the growth of cotton, peaked at florescence stage, and then decreased. Throughout the whole cotton growth period, the Bt protein content in transgenic Bt cotton rhizosphere soil was higher than that in Bt cotton non-rhizosphere soil, and also, higher than that in common cotton rhizosphere soil, indicating that transgenic Bt cotton could release its Bt protein to rhizosphere soil. PMID:21941750

  18. Establishment and detection of HBV transgenic mice with YMDD mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-qin YOU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the hepatitis B virus(HBV transgenic mice with YMDD mutation,and provide an animal model for research of HBV prevention and therapeutic approach.Methods 1.3 copies HBV genome containing YMDD mutation associated with lamivudine resistance was injected into the zygote of FVB/N female mice by microinjection.Integration and passage of exogenous gene in transgenic mice was confirmed by PCR.The expression of HBsAg in liver and kidney tissues in transgenic mice was identified by ELISA and immunohistochemistry.Results A total of 3401 zygotes were injected and 269 F0 pups were born.PCR analysis indicated that 33 out of 269 pups were positive,and the integrating rate of exogenous gene was 12.3% in F0.Fluorescent quantitative PCR showed that HBV DNA was weakly positive in serum samples in 9 transgenic mice,less than 103copies/ml.The expression of HBsAg in transgenic mice was observed in liver and kidney tissues by immunohistochemistry,and it was higher in kidney than in liver.The target gene was detected by PCR in 27.6% of 47 F1 offsprings.The expression of HBsAg could be observed in liver and kidney tissues in F1,which was similar to that in F0.Conclusion 1.3 copies HBV transgenic mice model containing YMDD mutation associated with lamivudine resistance is successfully produced by microinjection,and HBsAg expression can be transmitted through germline cells.

  19. Tandem constructs to mitigate transgene persistence: tobacco as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmad, Hani; Galili, Shmuel; Gressel, Jonathan

    2004-03-01

    Some transgenic crops can introgress genes into other varieties of the crop, to related weeds or themselves remain as 'volunteer' weeds, potentially enhancing the invasiveness or weediness of the resulting offspring. The presently suggested mechanisms for transgene containment allow low frequency of gene release (leakage), requiring the mitigation of continued spread. Transgenic mitigation (TM), where a desired primary gene is tandemly coupled with mitigating genes that are positive or neutral to the crop but deleterious to hybrids and their progeny, was tested as a mechanism to mitigate transgene introgression. Dwarfism, which typically increases crop yield while decreasing the ability to compete, was used as a mitigator. A construct of a dominant ahasR (acetohydroxy acid synthase) gene conferring herbicide resistance in tandem with the semidominant mitigator dwarfing Delta gai (gibberellic acid-insensitive) gene was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The integration and the phenotypic stability of the tandemly linked ahasR and Delta gai genomic inserts in later generations were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The hemizygous semidwarf imazapyr-resistant TM T1 (= BC1) transgenic plants were weak competitors when cocultivated with wild type segregants under greenhouse conditions and without using the herbicide. The competition was most intense at close spacings typical of weed offspring. Most dwarf plants interspersed with wild type died at 1-cm, > 70% at 2.5-cm and 45% at 5-cm spacing, and the dwarf survivors formed no flowers. At 10-cm spacing, where few TM plants died, only those TM plants growing at the periphery of the large cultivation containers formed flowers, after the wild type plants terminated growth. The highest reproductive TM fitness relative to the wild type was 17%. The results demonstrate the suppression of crop-weed hybrids when competing with wild type weeds, or such crops as volunteer weeds, in seasons when the selector (herbicide) is not used. The linked unfitness would be continuously manifested in future generations, keeping the transgene at a low frequency. PMID:14871372

  20. Nontarget DNA sequences reduce the transgene length necessary for RNA-mediated tospovirus resistance in transgenic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Sheng-Zhi; Jan, Fuh-Jyh; Gonsalves, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    RNA-mediated virus resistance has recently been shown to be the result of post-transcriptional transgene silencing in transgenic plants. This study was undertaken to characterize the effect of transgene length and nontarget DNA sequences on RNA-mediated tospovirus resistance in transgenic plants. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants were generated to express different regions of the nucleocapsid (N) protein of tomato spotted wilt (TSWV) tospovirus. Transgenic plants expressing half-gene se...

  1. A modified cell surface marker gene for transgenic animal studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Kieffer, L; Kavathas, P B

    1998-01-01

    We developed a marker gene encoding a human cell surface molecule called CD8 for use in transgenic animal studies. The CD8 cDNA contains three mutations: one in the extracellular domain which prevents interaction with its ligand MHC class I and the other two in the cytoplasmic domain which inhibit its signalling function. The cDNA was linked to a fragment of the human growth hormone gene and in transgenic animal studies, expression was observed in the appropriate cell types using a CD2 enhanc...

  2. Neutralizing antibodies against rotavirus produced in transgenically labelled purple tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Jurez, Paloma; Presa, Silvia; Esp, Joaqun; Pineda, Benito; Antn, Mara T.; MORENO, VICENTE; Buesa, Javier; Granell, Antonio; Orzaez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Edible fruits are inexpensive biofactories for human health-promoting molecules that can be ingested as crude extracts or partially purified formulations. We show here the production of a model human antibody for passive protection against the enteric pathogen rotavirus in transgenically labelled tomato fruits. Transgenic tomato plants expressing a recombinant human immunoglobulin A (hIgA_2A1) selected against the VP8* peptide of rotavirus SA11 strain were obtained. The amount of hIgA_2A1 pro...

  3. Developmental analysis of the cytomegalovirus enhancer in transgenic animals.

    OpenAIRE

    Baskar, J F; Smith, P P; Ciment, G S; Hoffmann, S; Tucker, C.; Tenney, D J; Colberg-Poley, A M; Nelson, J A; Ghazal, P.

    1996-01-01

    The major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) of human, cytomegalovirus (HCMV) constitutes a primary genetic switch for viral activation. In this study, regulation of the enhancer-containing segment (nucleotides -670 to +54) of the HCMV MIEP attached to the 1acZ reporter gene was examined in the developing embryos of transgenic mice to identify temporal and tissue-specific expression. We find that the transgene reporter is first detected as a dorsal stripe of expression in the neural folds of emb...

  4. Metal mutagenesis in transgenic Chinese hamster cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, C B; Kargacin, B; Su, L; Cosentino, S; Snow, E T; Costa, M

    1994-01-01

    Metals are toxic agents for which genotoxic effects are often difficult to demonstrate. To study metal mutagenesis, we have used two stable hprt/gpt+ transgenic cell lines that were derived from Chinese hamster V79 cells. Both the G12 and G10 cell lines are known to be very sensitive to clastogens such as X-rays and bleomycin, with the mutagenic response of the integrated xanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (gpt) gene in G10 usually exceeding that of the same gene in the transgenic G1...

  5. A recombinase-mediated transcriptional induction system in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, T; Schnorr, K M; Mundy, J

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and tested a Cre-loxP recombination-mediated vector system termed pCrox for use in transgenic plants. In this system, treatment of Arabidopsis under inducing conditions mediates an excision event that removes an intervening piece of DNA between a promoter and the gene to be expressed......-mediated GUS activation. Induction was shown to be possible at essentially any stage of plant growth. This single vector system circumvents the need for genetic crosses required by other, dual recombinase vector systems. The pCrox system may prove particularly useful in instances where transgene over...

  6. AB75. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in a pink1 gene knockout rat model for Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Guiting

    2014-01-01

    Bladder dysfunction is a common non-motor disorder on Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. A new transgenic Pink1 gene knockout rat model of PD has been developed recently. To explore lower urinary tract function in this newly established PD model and provide possible therapeutic base for PD urinary complications. Twelve Pink1 KO rats (pink1-/-, LEH-pink1tm 1sage, 40 weeks old) and twelve wide type rats (pink1+/+, LEH, 40 weeks old) were used in this project. After acclimation, the rats underwe...

  7. Determination of Transgene Copy Number by Real-time Quantitative-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient methods to characterize transgenic plants are important to quickly understand the state of the transformant. Determining transgene copy number is an important step in transformant characterization and can differentiate between complex and simple transformation events. This knowledge can ...

  8. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio introduced in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio, found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the existing fluorescent protein GFP from the Genbank, this could help identify quickly if they are new genes or variants thereof as these novel fluorescent proteins may be introduced in aquatic GMO in the future. Thus, developing and improving biosecurity measures through its timely detection at the molecular genetic level.

  9. Using Metabolomics To Estimate Unintended Effects in Transgenic Crop Plants: Problems, Promises, and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekenga, Owen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transgenic crops are widespread in some countries and sectors of the agro-economy, but are also highly contentious. Proponents of transgenic crop improvement often cite the substantial equivalence of transgenic crops to the their nontransgenic parents and sibling varieties. Opponents of transgenic crop improvement dismiss the substantial equivalence standard as being without statistical basis and emphasize the possible unintended effects to food quality and composition due to genetic transf...

  10. Marketing Strategic Benefit-risk Analysis: Transgenic Poultry Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Liu; Dazheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the causes of marketing strategic benefit-risk of transgenic poultry food supply chain in china, we analyze the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of transgenic poultry food participants. This study discusses the ways and strategies of transgenic poultry food supply chain from the following aspects: a), the food's safety concerning producers, marketing participants and consumers’ risk behaviour at three stages of the transgenic ...

  11. Male mating strategy and the introgression of a growth hormone transgene

    OpenAIRE

    Valosaari, Kata-Riina; Aikio, Sami; Kaitala, Veijo

    2008-01-01

    Escaped transgenic organisms (GMO's) may threaten the populations of their wild relatives if able to hybridize with each other. The introgression of a growth enhancement transgene into a wild Atlantic salmon population may be affected by the transgene's effects not only on fitness parameters, but also on mating behaviour. Large anadromous GMO males are most preferred in mating, but a transgene can also give the large sneakers a reproductive advantage over the smaller wild individuals. With a ...

  12. Effective generation of transgenic pigs and mice by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shih Ping Yao; Ho Pei-Yu; Huang Hsiao-I; Bolen James; Brown Lucy; Hsiao Chin-Ton; Lo Hsin-Lung; Lai Chao-Kuen; Chen Chi-Dar; Wu Ming-Che; Liu Yi-Hsin; Jiang MeiSheng; Qian Jin; Chang Keejong; Yao Chen-Wen

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Transgenic animals have become valuable tools for both research and applied purposes. The current method of gene transfer, microinjection, which is widely used in transgenic mouse production, has only had limited success in producing transgenic animals of larger or higher species. Here, we report a linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer method (LB-SMGT) that greatly improves the production efficiency of large transgenic animals. Results The linker protein, a monoclonal ...

  13. Salinity Response of Transgenic Potato Genotypes Expressing the Oxalate Oxidase Gene

    OpenAIRE

    TURHAN, Hakan

    2005-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo responses of transgenic and non-transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes to salinity were investigated. A gene responsible for the production of oxalate oxidase enzyme, whose expression has been associated with plant stress tolerance, was used. Transgenic potato plants expressing the oxalate oxidase enzyme were produced using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic nature of the plants was verified by their antibiotic (kanamycin) resistance and the...

  14. ELITE TRANSGENIC LINES OF BASMATI-370 REVEALED HIGH LEVEL OF LODGING RESISTANCE UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood-ur-Rahman; Noor Muhammad; Ahmad Ali Shahid, Tayyab Husnain

    2012-01-01

    Lodging decreases crop yield, photosynthesis and grain quality. Three transgenic lines of Basmati-370 containing two Bt genes (cry1Ac & cry2A) were evaluated in the field along with non-transgenic parent as control. The experiment was repeated for consecutive two years. Transgenic rice revealed tremendous morphological variations associated with lodging such as short stature, more number of nodes, less internodal length, etc. The transgenic plants were 33% short in stature while average numbe...

  15. Fitness cost and competitive ability of transgenic herbicide-tolerant rice expressing a protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Gi Kim; Young Jin Chun; Dae In Kim; Kee Woong Park; Soon-Chun Jeong; Sangkyu Park; Kyoungwhan Back

    2013-01-01

    The expression of transgenic traits in genetically modified crops is sometimes associated with decreases in crop performanceor fitness. These decreases in performance or fitness of transgenic plants in unfavourable conditions may providevaluable information about the ecological consequences of transgene escape. In a glasshouse trial, we tested the costassociated with resistance to herbicides by comparing the growth, yield, and competitive ability of transgenic rice withits parental non-transg...

  16. In utero recombinant adeno-associated virus gene transfer in mice, rats, and primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrero Luis

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene transfer into the amniotic fluid using recombinant adenovirus vectors was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer of transgenes into the lungs and intestines. Adenovirus mediated in utero gene therapy, however, resulted in expression of the transgene for less than 30 days. Recombinant adenovirus associated viruses (rAAV have the advantage of maintaining the viral genome in daughter cells thus providing for long-term expression of transgenes. Methods Recombinant AAV2 carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP was introduced into the amniotic sac of fetal rodents and nonhuman primates. Transgene maintenance and expression was monitor. Results Gene transfer resulted in rapid uptake and long-term gene expression in mice, rats, and non-human primates. Expression and secretion of the reporter gene, GFP, was readily demonstrated within 72 hours post-therapy. In long-term studies in rats and nonhuman primates, maintenance of GFP DNA, protein expression, and reporter gene secretion was documented for over one year. Conclusions Because only multipotential stem cells are present at the time of therapy, these data demonstrated that in utero gene transfer with AAV2 into stem cells resulted in long-term systemic expression of active transgene roducts. Thus, in utero gene transfer via the amniotic fluid may be useful in treatment of gene disorders.

  17. Salicylate and catechol levels are maintained in nahG transgenic poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic profiling was used to investigate the molecular phenotypes of transgenic Populus tremula x P. alba bybrids expressing the nahG transgene, a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol. Despite the efficacy of this transgenic approach to reducing...

  18. Auxin synthesis-encoding transgene enhances grape fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Elisa; Landi, Lucia; Silvestroni, Oriana; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Spena, Angelo; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2007-04-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera) yield is largely dependent on the fecundity of the cultivar. The average number of inflorescences per shoot (i.e. shoot fruitfulness) is a trait related to fecundity of each grapevine. Berry number and weight per bunch are other features affecting grape yield. An ovule-specific auxin-synthesizing (DefH9-iaaM) transgene that increases the indole-3-acetic acid content of grape transgenic berries was transformed into cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless, which differ in the average number of inflorescences per shoots. Thompson Seedless naturally has very low shoot fruitfulness, whereas Silcora has medium shoot fruitfulness. The average number of inflorescences per shoot in DefH9-iaaM Thompson Seedless was doubled compared to its wild-type control. Berry number per bunch was increased in both transgenic cultivars. The quality and nutritional value of transgenic berries were substantially equivalent to their control fruits. The data presented indicate that auxin enhances fecundity in grapes, thus enabling to increase yield with lower production costs. PMID:17337528

  19. Environmental Impacts of Transgenic Herbicide-Resistant Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic glufosinate- and glyphosate-resistant crops are currently commercialized, and bromoxynil-resistant crops have been removed from the market for economic reasons. Glyphosate-resistant cotton and soybean have become dominant in those countries where they can be grown. Potential effects of gl...

  20. Efficient expression of transgenes in adult zebrafish by electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S Hari

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of transgenes in muscle by injection of naked DNA is widely practiced. Application of electrical pulses at the site of injection was demonstrated to improve transgene expression in muscle tissue. Zebrafish is a precious model to investigate developmental biology in vertebrates. In this study we investigated the effect of electroporation on expression of transgenes in 36 month old adult zebrafish. Results Electroporation parameters such as number of pulses, voltage and amount of plasmid DNA were optimized and it was found that 6 pulses of 40 Vcm-1 at 15 ?g of plasmid DNA per fish increased the luciferase expression 10-fold compared to controls. Similar enhancement in transgene expression was also observed in Indian carp (Labeo rohita. To establish the utility of adult zebrafish as a system for transient transfections, the strength of the promoters was compared in A2 cells and adult zebrafish after electroporation. The relative strengths of the promoters were found to be similar in cell lines and in adult zebrafish. GFP fluorescence in tissues after electroporation was also studied by fluorescence microscopy. Conclusion Electroporation after DNA injection enhances gene expression 10-fold in adult zebrafish. Electroporation parameters for optimum transfection of adult zebrafish with tweezer type electrode were presented. Enhanced reporter gene expression upon electroporation allowed comparison of strengths of the promoters in vivo in zebrafish.

  1. Providing sustained transgene induction through affinity-based drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Delgado, Edgardo; Ward, Emily; von Recum, Horst A

    2016-05-01

    Small molecule drug activators of gene expression have been used in applications ranging from gene therapy, to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. One concern is that for sustained gene expression, a long-term, controlled delivery system is needed. Insoluble polymers containing a high proportion of cyclodextrin (CD) affinity groups have been shown to prolong drug delivery far beyond that capable of polymers relying on diffusion alone. In this study we evaluate the capacity of such polymers to deliver the transgene inducer doxycycline. Our results show that initial drug loading is proportional to affinity, with ∼8% loading in high-affinity γ-CD polymers; ∼7% loading in moderate-affinity β-CD polymers; and only ∼4.5% loading in the non-affinity control polymer made from linear dextran. When release aliquots from these polymers were incubated with cells genetically modified for inducible transgene expression we observed activation of transgene expression for up to three weeks from samples released by affinity-based polymers. We showed that drug stability is maintained over the course of the study using a bacterial zone of inhibition assay where again affinity-based polymers show sustained availability of drug, weeks longer than non-affinity controls. Lastly we provide theoretical calculations of strength of binding interactions between cyclodextrins and many additional transgene inducers demonstrating the broad utility of this delivery platform. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1135-1142, 2016. PMID:26749453

  2. Transgenic RNAi in mouse oocytes: The first decade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Radek; Svoboda, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 134, 1-2 (2012), s. 64-68. ISSN 0378-4320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : RNAi * oocyte * transgene * silencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2012

  3. [Features of development and reproduction of transgenic flax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemesh, V A; Samatadze, T E; Guzenko, E V; Zhelezniakova, E V; Amosova, A V; Zelenin, A V; Muravenko, O V

    2014-01-01

    Primary transformants carrying a genetic construct with the chimeric gfp-tua6 gene were obtained using biolistic transformation of hypocotyl explants of flax variety Vasilek. Viable modified plants were used as a basis for the production of inbred lines with confirmed inheritance of introduced genetic construct in three generations. The characteristics of phenological growth stages, plant height, number of bolls and meiosis were studied for transgenic plants. A comparison of transformed lines based on reproduction years revealed a significant decrease of seed production in one line. Meiotic analysis of this line at metaphase I and anaphase I stages was conducted. The percentage of cells with impaired meiosis was highest in transgenic plants of the line with the lowest seed production. Thus, the nonspecific incorporation of genetic construct into the flax genome using biolistic transformation impairs meiosis to a different extent and it is the main reason for unequal reproducibility of transgenic flax. The production of stably reproducing transgenic lines requires systematic analysis of meiosis. PMID:25739298

  4. Development of transgenic chickens expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we demonstrated the successful production of transgenic chickens expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene. Replication-defective recombinant retroviruses produced from vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped retrovirus vector system were injected beneath the blastoderm of non-incubated chicken embryos (stage X). From 129 injected eggs, 13 chicks hatched after 21 days of incubation. All hatched chicks were found to express vector-encoded EGFP gene, which was under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter and boosted post-transcriptionally by woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element sequence. Green fluorescent signals, indicative of the EGFP gene expression, were detected in various body parts, including head, limb, eye, toe, and several internal organs. Genomic incorporation of the transgene was also proven by Southern blot assay. Our results show the exceptional versatile effectiveness of the EGFP gene as a marker in the gene expression-related studies which therefore would be very helpful in establishing a useful transgenic chicken model system for studies on embryo development and for efficient production of transgenic chickens as bioreactors

  5. Oncogene-induced liver neoplasia in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, E P; Quaife, C J; Pinkert, C A; Palmiter, R D; Brinster, R L

    1989-06-01

    Models of hepatocarcinogenesis were generated by directing the expression of SV40 T-antigens, an oncogenic mutant of c-H-ras, or c-myc to the liver of transgenic mice using the albumin enhancer/promoter. The majority of mice carrying the ras transgene (group A) were born with enlarged livers and atypical hepatic architecture, and these all died within several days of birth. The remaining ras transgenic mice (group B) had lower levels of hepatic ras expression, exhibited mild hepatic dysplasia but no liver enlargement, and all ultimately died from development of lung tumors. In contrast, the livers of mice expressing T-antigens were relatively normal at birth, by one month displayed marked dysplasia, and by three to seven months developed multiple nodular adenomas and carcinomas. Myc expression caused mild to severe hepatic dysplasia in young mice, and focal hepatic adenomas in some mice over fifteen months of age. Lines of mice expressing ras (group B), T-antigen, or myc were established and crossed with each other to generate dual transgenic mice expressing oncogene pairs. Each combination resulted in accelerated tumor development, suggesting that these oncoproteins can cooperate with one another during multistep hepatic transformation. PMID:2543942

  6. APPLICATION OF SPECTRAL IMAGING TO TRANSGENIC CORN MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic crops containing pesticidal traits are regulated by EPA under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. The EPA has declared crops engineered to contain a bacterial gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to be in the public good, due to their potential to...

  7. TRANSGENE ESCAPE MONITORING, POPULATION GENETICS, AND THE LAW

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been little discussion about how to apply population genetics methods to monitor the spread of transgenes that are detected outside the agricultural populations where they are deployed. Population geneticists have developed tools for analyzing the genetic makeup of indi...

  8. RESOLUTION OF COMPLEX INTEGRATION PATTERNS TO OBTAIN SINGLE COPY TRANSGENES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present invention provides methods for producing a transgenic cell having a stably integrated, single copy of an exogenous polynucleotide sequence. The method, which resolves repeated insertions of the introduced polynucleotide sequence into a single copy, involves introducing into a genetic loc...

  9. Body composition of transgenic pigs expressing the myostatin pro domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous results have shown that male mice expressing a myostatin pro domain construct (MLC-Pro) have increased body weight, more total body lean mass, and lower percentage of total body fat. Founder transgenic (TG) pigs were generated by standard pronuclear microinjection techniques using the sam...

  10. Transgenic cotton age effects on lepidopteran larvae mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaves from plants containing various transgenic traits (Non-Bt, Bollgard, Bollgard II, and WideStrike)were assayed for bioactivity in the laboratory against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), beet armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner). About 5...

  11. Transgenic Papaya: Can We Proceed Beyond the Hawaiian Experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The story of the development, deregulation, and commercialization of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) resistant transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya for Hawaii is quite well known at least among plant virologist and knowledgeable people in the field of papaya. Thus, the story will be only briefly r...

  12. Transgenic Crops in Argentina: The Ecological and Social Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengue, Walter A.

    2005-01-01

    There is no doubt that soybean is the most important crop for Argentina, with a planted surface that rose 11,000,000 hectares and a production of around 35,000,000 metric tons. During the 1990s, there was a significant agriculture transformation in the country, motorize by the adoption of transgenic crops (soy-bean, maize, and cotton) under the

  13. Dispersal of Transgenes through Maize Seed Systems in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, George A.; Serratos-Hernández, J. Antonio; Perales, Hugo R.; Gepts, Paul; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Chávez, Angeles; Salinas-Arreortua, Noé; Yúnez-Naude, Antonio; Taylor, J. Edward; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Current models of transgene dispersal focus on gene flow via pollen while neglecting seed, a vital vehicle for gene flow in centers of crop origin and diversity. We analyze the dispersal of maize transgenes via seeds in Mexico, the crop's cradle. Methods We use immunoassays (ELISA) to screen for the activity of recombinant proteins in a nationwide sample of farmer seed stocks. We estimate critical parameters of seed population dynamics using household survey data and combine these estimates with analytical results to examine presumed sources and mechanisms of dispersal. Results Recombinant proteins Cry1Ab/Ac and CP4/EPSPS were found in 3.1% and 1.8% of samples, respectively. They are most abundant in southeast Mexico but also present in the west-central region. Diffusion of seed and grain imported from the United States might explain the frequency and distribution of transgenes in west-central Mexico but not in the southeast. Conclusions Understanding the potential for transgene survival and dispersal should help design methods to regulate the diffusion of germplasm into local seed stocks. Further research is needed on the interactions between formal and informal seed systems and grain markets in centers of crop origin and diversification. PMID:19503610

  14. TRANSGENIC PLANTS EXPRESSING BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DELTA-ENDOTOXINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial varieties of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants have been developed in many countries to control target pests. Initially, the expression of native Bt genes in plants was low due to mRNA instability, improper splicing, and post-translation modifications. Subsequently, modificati...

  15. Agricultural Biotechnology (Production of Foreign Compounds in Transgenic Plants)

    OpenAIRE

    Pueyo, José J.; Hiatt, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Expression of bacterial genes, mammalian genes, or other plant genes is becoming routine for several plant species. Most transgenic plants are generated for basic research purposes, such as the evaluation of tissue-specific expression of genes, processing and secretion signals, and enhancer elements.

  16. Enhancer-promoter interference and its prevention in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptional enhancer elements have been shown to override the specificity of nearby promoters in a position- and orientation-independent manner. This is problematic when multiple enhancers/promoters co-exist within a single transgenic construct as it has the potential to cause the mis-expressio...

  17. BIODIVERSITY (COMMUNICATIONS ARISING): MAIZE TRANSGENE RESULTS IN MEXICO ARE ARTEFACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist and Chapela's conclusion that the transgenes they claim to have detected in native maize in Oaxaca, Mexico, are predominantly reassorted and inserted into a "diversity of genomic contexts" seems to be based on an artefact arising from the inverse polymerase chain reaction (i-PCR) they used to ...

  18. 2012 North Dakota Transgenic Barley FHB Nursery Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2012 North Dakota transgenic field trials consisted of 23 barley lines, tested in three misted and three non-misted replicates. Plots were sown on May 9, 2012 in hill plots with 10 seed per hill spaced at 30 cm, and all plots were inoculated using the grain spawn method at heading. Lines include...

  19. Transgenic Crops in Argentina: The Ecological and Social Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengue, Walter A.

    2005-01-01

    There is no doubt that soybean is the most important crop for Argentina, with a planted surface that rose 11,000,000 hectares and a production of around 35,000,000 metric tons. During the 1990s, there was a significant agriculture transformation in the country, motorize by the adoption of transgenic crops (soy-bean, maize, and cotton) under the…

  20. Transgenic perennial biofuel feedstocks and strategies for bioconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of transgenic tools for the improvement of plant feedstocks will be required to realize the full economic and environmental benefits of cellulosic and other biofuels, particularly from perennial plants. Traits that are targets for improvement of biofuels crops include he...

  1. Testicular pathology in transgenic minipig boars - in brief

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mačáková, Monika; Bohuslavová, Božena; Vochozková, Petra; Baxa, Monika; Ellederová, Zdeňka; Sedláčková, M.; Lišková, Irena; Valeková, Ivona; Vidinská, Daniela; Klíma, Jiří; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 19-19. ISSN 1210-7859 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : transgenic minipig model of Huntington´s disease * testes * spermatozoa Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  2. Transgenic Herbicide-resistant Crops and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic glufosinate- and glyphosate-resistant crops are currently commercialized, and bromoxynil-resistant crops have been removed from the market for economic reasons. Glyphosate-resistant cotton and soybean have become dominant in those countries where they can be grown. Potential effects of gl...

  3. Transgenic Crops to Address Third World Hunger? A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Industry and mainstream research and policy institutions often suggest that transgenic crop varieties can raise the productivity of poor third world farmers, feed the hungry, and reduce poverty. These claims are critically evaluated by examining global-hunger data, the constraints that affect the productivity of small farmers in the third world,…

  4. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Winther, K D; Secher, J O; Callesen, H

    2015-10-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Gttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig embryos than in those with LW embryos (26% and 24% vs. 6%). Piglets (n = 815) were born from 128 sows with 6.5 0.4 full-born piglets per litter. The overall rate of stillborn piglets was 21% of all born with the number of stillborn piglets ranging from one to nine in a litter. The mortality of the surviving piglets during the first month was 48%. Thus, altogether 58% of the full-born piglets died before weaning. In 87 of the 128 litters (68%), one to 12 of the piglets showed major or minor malformations. Malformations were found in 232 piglets (29.5% of all born). A single malformation was registered in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Gttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17%). There was a gender difference in the transgenic minipigs because male piglets had a higher rate of malformations (49.1%) than females (29.7%). The most common defects in the cloned piglets were in the digestive (12.2%), circulatory (9.4%), reproductive (11.3%), and musculoskeletal (9.1%) systems. Malformations of the musculoskeletal system were most frequent in Gttingen (16.3% vs. approximately 5.5% in the two other breeds), whereas abnormal cardiopulmonary systems were most frequent in Yucatan piglets (26.9% vs. 2.1% in LW and 5.3% in Gttingen). In conclusion, these results show that pig cloning results in a considerable loss of piglets and that many of these can be related to various malformations that all are also seen in noncloned piglets. Because approximately half of the cloned piglets still survive, even with eventual unknown minor malformations, use of pigs as models for human diseases is still realistic. However, continued efforts are needed to further reduce the level of malformations. PMID:26166169

  5. Options for development of transgenic pigs with enhanced performance traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Traditional breeding practices have yielded a slow but steady genetic improvement of domestic animals. Unfortunately, these practices often do not enable the separation of desirable production traits from undesirable traits, and furthermore, do not enable the transfer of advantageous genetic traits from one species to another. Transgenic methodologies surmount these barriers, and transgenic pigs have been developed that have a variety of novel enhanced performance traits, the capability to serve as factories for the production of pharmaceuticals, and soon may provide a reliable supply of organs for xenotransplantation. This presentation will focus primarily on the expression of novel performance traits, since they have the potential to provide the greatest benefit to farmers in countries with a less well developed agricultural infrastructure. The first hurdle in the development of animals with novel production characteristics is the availability of reliable methods for the production of transgenic animals. This requires the combination of a suitable transgenic technique and an appropriate genetic construct. Classic pronuclear microinjection, the original method for producing transgenic animals may soon be surpassed by the more convenient sperm-mediated transgenesis, use of a retroviral vector system, or by techniques involving nuclear transfer. Despite the complexity involved in generating transgenic animals, a variety of interesting performance enhancing genes have been introduced into pigs. These include porcine growth hormone and IGF1 to enhance growth characteristics and carcass quality, α-lactalbumin to enhance the growth of nursing piglets, plant oleate desaturase (http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99991841) to increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in tissues, and phytase to enhance plant phosphorus utilization. No information is available on the performance or meat quality characteristics of pigs expressing the desaturase gene, however, expression of growth hormone, α- lactalbumin and phytase genes in pigs has been shown to be efficacious. As an example, phytase in transgenic pigs enable practically complete utilization of the phosphorus in cereal grain as compared to less than half by non-transgenic pigs. This new trait would be particularly beneficial in a production environment without extensive infrastructure characteristic of modern intensive Western-style agriculture. In addition to bypassing the need for expensive supplemental phosphorus, it also could help avoid environmental problems associated with intensive agriculture. In addition to genes already tested that enhance performance characteristics of pigs, other genes of interest include those coding for plant cell wall hydrolases, genes coding for disease resistance, and yet others that could improve protein utilization. Expression of a novel gene in a pig is only the first step in bringing a new line of transgenic pigs into the pork production system. Once a transgenic pig has been documented to perform according to expectation, and several generations have passed to ensure that the novel gene is stably inherited and expression maintained, governmental regulatory requirements must be satisfied to ensure that the pig has no deleterious effect on the environment, and that the meat is safe for human consumption. The food safety standards may vary among countries, but those established by the FAO (http://www.fao.org/es/ESN/food/risk_biotech_papers_en.stm) are usually taken as the primary requirement and country specific requirement overlaid. Meeting these standards dictates that, at least initially, only traits with great utility will be funded at a sufficiently high level to afford the essential testing to meet national and international safety requirements. (author)

  6. Adenoviral vector-mediated overexpression of osteoprotegerin accelerates osteointegration of titanium implants in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, G; Chen, J; Wei, S; Wang, H; Chen, Q; Lin, Y; Hu, J; Luo, E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of human osteoprotegerin (hOPG) transgene to accelerate osteointegration of titanium implant in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Bone marrow stromal cells transduced with Ad-hOPG-EGFP could sustainedly express hOPG. Osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells treated by the hOPG were examined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and bone slice resorption assay. The results showed differentiation and function of osteoclasts were significantly suppressed by hOPG in vitro. Ad-hOPG-EGFP was locally administered to the bone defect prior to implant placement in OVX and sham rats. After 3, 7, 28 days of implantation, the femurs were harvested for molecular and histological analyses. Successful transgene expression was confirmed by western blot and cryosectioning. A significant reduction in TRAP+ numbers was detected in Ad-hOPG-EGFP group. Real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR examination revealed that hOPG transgene markedly diminished the expression of cathepsin K and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κ B ligand in vivo. The transgene hOPG modification revealed a marked increasing osteointegration and restored implant stability in OVX rats (Prats. Osteoprotegerin gene therapy may be an effective strategy to osteointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions. PMID:25871826

  7. Restriction of neuroblastoma to the prostate gland in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalnik, D G; Dorfman, D M; Williams, D A; Orkin, S H

    1991-09-01

    Male transgenic mice that carry a construct containing 5'-flanking sequences of the gp91-phox gene linked to the early region of the simian virus 40 (SV40) genome reproducibly develop tumors arising from the prostate gland. As gp91-phox is expressed exclusively in terminally differentiating hematopoietic cells of the myelomonocytic lineage, the induction of tumors arising from the prostate gland was unexpected. These lesions appear to be due to a novel transcription signal that was generated during the construction of the transgene. Surprisingly, the histopathological and biochemical properties of the tumor are diagnostic of neuroblastoma rather than of adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. Tumors produce SV40 T antigen and isoforms of neural cell adhesion molecule characteristic of neuronal cells, and they occur in a testosterone-independent manner. Microscopic examination of prostate glands from young transgenic mice reveals the presence of small lesions arising outside of the prostate gland epithelium, which is consistent with the diagnosis of neuroblastoma and further distinguishes this tumor from prostatic adenocarcinoma. Prostate gland tumors occur in all male animals of susceptible lines carrying the gp91-phox promoter/SV40 early-region transgene. However, variability in the time at which gross tumors appear and the presence of cells expressing T antigen prior to tumorigenesis suggest that somatic events in addition to T-antigen production are required for the development of a malignancy. The extraordinary restriction of the site of tumorigenesis in these animals indicates the presence in the prostate gland of a novel, tissue-specific neuroectodermal cell of origin. These transgenic animals provide a model system for the study of neuroectodermal malignancies. PMID:1652058

  8. Inducible Cardiomyocyte-Specific Gene Disruption Directed by the Rat Tnnt2 Promoter in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Bingruo; Wang, Yidong; Cheng, Hsiu-Ling; Hang, Calvin T.; Pu, William T.; Chang, Ching-Pin; Zhou, Bin

    2010-01-01

    We developed a conditional and inducible gene knockout methodology that allows effective gene deletion in mouse cardiomyocytes. This transgenic mouse line was generated by co-injection of two transgenes, a “reverse” tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA) directed by a rat cardiac troponin T (Tnnt2) promoter and a Cre recombinase driven by a tetracycline-responsive promoter (TetO). Here, Tnnt2-rtTA activated TetO-Cre expression takes place in cardiomyocytes following doxycycline treatme...

  9. The Effects of Fe2O3 Nanoparticles on Physiology and Insecticide Activity in Non-Transgenic and Bt-Transgenic Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nhan, Le; Ma, Chuanxin; Rui, Yukui; Cao, Weidong; Deng, Yingqing; Liu, Liming; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    As the demands for nanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP) applications in agriculture increase, the ecological risk has drawn more attention because of the unpredictable results of interactions between NPs and transgenic crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs on Bt-transgenic cotton in comparison with conventional cotton for 10 days. Each treatment was conducted in triplicate, and each experiment was repeated three times. Results demonstrated that Fe2O3 NPs inhibited the plant height and root length of Bt-transgenic cotton and promoted root hairs and biomass of non-transgenic cotton. Nutrients such as Na and K in Bt-transgenic cotton roots increased, while Zn contents decreased with Fe2O3 NPs. Most hormones in the roots of Bt-transgenic cotton increased at low Fe2O3 NP exposure (100 mg?L-1) but decreased at high concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs (1000 mg?L-1). Fe2O3 NPs increased the Bt-toxin in leaves and roots of Bt-transgenic cotton. Fe2O3 NPs were absorbed into roots, then transported to the shoots of both Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons. The bioaccumulation of Fe2O3 NPs in plants might be a potential risk for agricultural crops and affect the environment and human health. PMID:26834767

  10. Transgenic mouse model for estrogen-regulated lipoprotein metabolism: studies on apoVLDL-II expression in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsigmond, E; Nakanishi, M K; Ghiselli, F E; Chan, L

    1995-07-01

    We have produced transgenic mice that express an estrogen-responsive avian apolipoprotein, apoVLDL-II. An apoVLDL-II natural gene construct containing 4.7 kb of 5' flanking and 19 bp of 3' flanking sequences together with the 4 exon/3 intron structural gene was expressed in a liver-specific manner in transgenic mice. A single injection of estrogen caused a 5.9- to 7.5-fold stimulation of apoVLDL-II mRNA in the liver. The transgene mRNA had the same initiation sites of transcription as the native mRNA isolated from laying hen liver, and the same sites were used before and after estrogen treatment. The number of hepatocytes that stain positive for immunoreactive apoVLDL-II increased from trangenic mice as in the cockerel, hepatocytes are biochemically heterogeneous and induction of apoVLDL-II synthesis occurs by recruitment of hepatocytes. In the plamsa compartment, compared to controls, transgenic mice have a 3- to 5-fold higher basal total plasma triglyceride which was accounted for by a 5.4-fold high basal VLDL triglyceride. Estrogen treatment results in a approximately 2-fold increase in the VLDL triglycerides over basal levels and 8.5-fold increase over nontransgenic mice, which did not show any change in VLDL in response to estrogen. Transgenic mice with the integrated apoVLDL-II gene provide a useful model for the study of the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism by estrogen. PMID:7595069

  11. Characteristics of ChgH-GFP transgenic medaka lines, an in vivo estrogenic compound detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurauchi, Kanta; Hirata, Takashi; Kinoshita, Masato

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported the characteristics of a ChgH-GFP transgenic medaka line that indicates estrogenic compound pollution in environmental water by the green fluorescence of their liver. Recently, we established four more lines. In this study, the characteristics of the five transgenic medaka lines were investigated. The intensity of reporter gene expression varied among transgenic lines and generally correlated well with the amount of integrated transgene in each line. Line-specific ectopic expression was also observed. However, the sensitivity to 17-beta estradiol did not differ among transgenic lines. Three transgenic lines are considered to be suitable as bio-indicators of estrogenic activity, due to the ease of observing green fluorescence in their livers. The transgenic lines can also detect the estrogenic activity of testosterone and 17-beta trenbolone at the nominal concentration of 30 and 100 microg/l, respectively. PMID:18513755

  12. Transgenic Expression of Osteoactivin/gpnmb Enhances Bone Formation In Vivo and Osteoprogenitor Differentiation Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frara, Nagat; Abdelmagid, Samir M; Sondag, Gregory R; Moussa, Fouad M; Yingling, Vanessa R; Owen, Thomas A; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-01-01

    Initial identification of osteoactivin (OA)/glycoprotein non-melanoma clone B (gpnmb) was demonstrated in an osteopetrotic rat model, where OA expression was increased threefold in mutant bones, compared to normal. OA mRNA and protein expression increase during active bone regeneration post-fracture, and primary rat osteoblasts show increased OA expression during differentiation in vitro. To further examine OA/gpnmb as an osteoinductive agent, we characterized the skeletal phenotype of transgenic mouse overexpressing OA/gpnmb under the CMV-promoter (OA-Tg). Western blot analysis showed increased OA/gpnmb in OA-Tg osteoblasts, compared to wild-type (WT). In OA-Tg mouse femurs versus WT littermates, micro-CT analysis showed increased trabecular bone volume and thickness, and cortical bone thickness; histomorphometry showed increased osteoblast numbers, bone formation and mineral apposition rates in OA-Tg mice; and biomechanical testing showed higher peak moment and stiffness. Given that OA/gpnmb is also over-expressed in osteoclasts in OA-Tg mice, we evaluated bone resorption by ELISA and histomorphometry, and observed decreased serum CTX-1 and RANK-L, and decreased osteoclast numbers in OA-Tg, compared to WT mice, indicating decreased bone remodeling in OA-Tg mice. The proliferation rate of OA-Tg osteoblasts in vitro was higher, compared to WT, as was alkaline phosphatase staining and activity, the latter indicating enhanced differentiation of OA-Tg osteoprogenitors. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed increased TGF-?1 and TGF-? receptors I and II expression in OA-Tg osteoblasts, compared to WT. Together, these data suggest that OA overexpression has an osteoinductive effect on bone mass in vivo and stimulates osteoprogenitor differentiation ex vivo. PMID:25899717

  13. Extended transgene expression from a nonintegrating adenoviral vector containing retroviral elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Changyu; Vitolo, Joseph M; Zhang, Weitian; Mineshiba, Fumi; Chiorini, John A; Baum, Bruce J

    2008-06-01

    We studied the effects of specific retroviral elements in a first-generation serotype 5 adenoviral (Ad5) vector, AdLTR(2)EF1alpha-hEPO. This vector contains 858 base pair (bp) [251-bp envelope sequence plus 607-bp long-terminal repeat (LTR)] from Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), upstream of the human elongation factor-1alpha (EF1alpha) promoter and human erythropoietin (hEPO) cDNA, with the LTR sequence downstream of the polyadenylation signal. We compared expression of AdLTR(2)EF1alpha-hEPO with corresponding expressions of two conventional Ad5 vectors, AdEF1alpha-hEPO and AdCMV-hEPO, in vivo in submandibular glands in rats. Both the conventional vectors yielded low serum hEPO levels by day 7, and little change in hematocrits. In contrast, after receiving AdLTR(2)EF1alpha-hEPO, the rats showed elevated hEPO levels and hematocrits for 1-3 months. In vitro studies showed that the integration efficiencies of all the vectors were similar (approximately 10(-3)). Approximately 0.1% of the vector genomes were present 1 year after delivery in the case of each of the three vectors, primarily as intact linear double-strand DNA. The unique results seen with AdLTR(2)EF1alpha-hEPO are partly because of LTR enhancer activity. However, other cis-acting activity, which is not immunomodulatory but nevertheless influences promoter methylation, appears to be involved. A vector such as AdLTR(2)EF1alpha-hEPO may prove useful in clinical applications in which extended, but not "permanent," transgene expression is desirable. PMID:18388914

  14. Simultaneous determination of shikimic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in wild and transgenic Nicotiana langsdorffii plants exposed to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    The presence and relative concentration of phytohormones may be regarded as a good indicator of an organism's physiological state. The integration of the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes and of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (gr) in Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinmann plants has shown to determine various physiological and metabolic effects. The analysis of wild and transgenic N. langsdorffii plants, exposed to different abiotic stresses (high temperature, water deficit, and high chromium concentrations) was conducted, in order to investigate the metabolic effects of the inserted genes in response to the applied stresses. The development of a new analytical procedure was necessary, in order to assure the simultaneous determination of analytes and to obtain an adequately low limit of quantification. For the first time, a sensitive HPLC-HRMS quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and shikimic acid was developed and validated. The method was applied to 80 plant samples, permitting the evaluation of plant stress responses and highlighting some metabolic mechanisms. Salicylic, jasmonic and shikimic acids proved to be suitable for the comprehension of plant stress responses. Chemical and heat stresses showed to induce the highest changes in plant hormonal status, differently affecting plant response. The potential of each genetic modification toward the applied stresses was marked and particularly the resistance of the gr modified plants was evidenced. This work provides new information in the study of N. langsdorffii and transgenic organisms, which could be useful for the further application of these transgenes. PMID:26966898

  15. Vldlr overexpression causes hyperactivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Keiko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reelin regulates neuronal positioning in cortical brain structures and neuronal migration via binding to the lipoprotein receptors Vldlr and Lrp8. Reeler mutant mice display severe brain morphological defects and behavioral abnormalities. Several reports have implicated reelin signaling in the etiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Moreover, it has been reported that VLDLR mRNA levels are increased in the post-mortem brain of autistic patients. Methods We generated transgenic (Tg rats overexpressing Vldlr, and examined their histological and behavioral features. Results Spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly increased in Tg rats, without detectable changes in brain histology. Additionally, Tg rats tended to show performance deficits in the radial maze task, suggesting that their spatial working memory was slightly impaired. Thus, Vldlr levels may be involved in determining locomotor activity and memory function. Conclusions Unlike reeler mice, patients with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders do not show striking neuroanatomical aberrations. Therefore, it is notable, from a clinical point of view, that we observed behavioral phenotypes in Vldlr-Tg rats in the absence of neuroanatomical abnormalities.

  16. Transgenic approaches for development of disease resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important food and cash crop worldwide. Diseases and pests pose the most serious constraint to banana cultivation. Among the diseases, Fusarium wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) are the most important economically. We have explored different transgenic approaches for development of efficient resistance in banana against these two diseases. For countering Fusarium wilt, we have over expressed Petunia floral defensins using a strong constitutive promoter in transgenic banana plants. We have also tested a host induced gene silencing strategy targeting two vital fungal genes to obtain Fusarium resistant banana plants. For development of BBTV resistant banana plants also, we have used a host-induced gene silencing approach utilizing the full and partial coding sequence of the viral replication initiation protein. Successful bioassays performed in controlled greenhouse conditions have shown the efficacy of using these strategies to develop disease resistant banana plants. (author)

  17. Sperm cells as vectors in the production of transgenic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, R.M.

    1993-04-28

    Transgenic animals are used in industry and in biomedical research in order to provide in vivo experimental model systems. Sperm cells have been reported used as vectors in the production of transgenic animals before, however no approach has of yet proven to be successful. Fertilizing eggs with genetically modified sperm would be advantageous in that sperm are readily accessible and stable, and eggs can be fertilized by modified sperm cells in vivo. Recent elucidations regarding the unique manner of DNA packaging in sperm chromatin by protamines has provided us with the insight for developing a method of introducing foreign DNA into sperm which is likely to succeed where others have failed. We have developed a method for mimicking the in vivo system of sperm chromatin toroid subunits in vitro, concentrating these toroids, and fluorescent visualization. Our present work concerns development of a method to successfully deliver DNA across the cell membranes and into the nucleus.

  18. [Experimental models of transgenic plants promising for the modern technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeeva, I A; Goldenkova-Pavlova, I V; Mokriakova, M V; Volkova, L V; Bogush, V G; Sidoruk, K V; Iur'eva, N O; Debabov, V G; Piruzian, E S

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic popato plants have been created which express recombinant proteins, analogues of spidroin 1, the protein of the cobweb skeleton thread. Expression of the hybrid spidroin 1 genes possessing some repeated sequences retains both in the model test-tube-growing plants and in the crops. Expression level of the synthetic spidroin 1 genes and the level of accumulation of their products in plants depend on the type of promoter, number of repeats, organ specificity and plant species but not on the duration of plant material storage. The results show that the strategy based on constuction and expression of hybrid proteins which include the reporter protein makes it easier to select and analyse expression of hybrid proteins in transgenic organisms. PMID:17649625

  19. Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Wendt, Toni; Holm, Preben Bach

    2013-01-01

    internationally only 9 and 7 years ago, several different traits in a variety of crops have currently been modified according to these concepts. Five of these crops are now in field trials and two have pending applications for deregulation. Currently, intragenic/cisgenic plants are regulated as transgenic plants......One of the major concerns of the general public about transgenic crops relates to the mixing of genetic materials between species that cannot hybridize by natural means. To meet this concern, the two transformation concepts cisgenesis and intragenesis were developed as alternatives to transgenesis....... Both concepts imply that plants must only be transformed with genetic material derived from the species itself or from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. Intragenesis differs...

  20. Case Study: Polycystic Livers in a Transgenic Mouse Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Artwohl, James E.; Ward, Christopher J.; Diekwisch, Thomas G. H.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2014-04-01

    Three mice (2 male, 1 female; age, 5 to 16 mo) from a mouse line transgenic for keratin 14 (K14)-driven LacZ expression and on an outbred Crl:CD1(ICR) background, were identified as having distended abdomens and livers that were diffusely enlarged by numerous cysts (diameter, 0.1 to 2.0 cm). Histopathology revealed hepatic cysts lined by biliary type epithelium and mild chronic inflammation, and confirmed the absence of parasites. Among 21 related mice, 5 additional affected mice were identified via laparotomy. Breeding of these 5 mice (after 5 mo of age) did not result in any offspring; the K14 mice with olycystic livers failed to reproduce. Affected male mice had degenerative testicular lesions, and their sperm was immotile. Nonpolycystic K14 control male mice bred well, had no testicular lesions, and had appropriate sperm motility. Genetic analysis did not identify an association of this phenotype with the transgene or insertion site.

  1. Probing Pineal-specific Gene Expression with Transgenic Zebrafish†

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Daisuke; Dowling, John E.; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains lightsensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. The zebrafish exorhodopsin gene encodes a pineal-specific photoreceptive protein, whose promoter region harbors a cis-acting element, pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), directing pineal-specific gene expression. For in vivo genetic studies on PIPE-binding proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg...

  2. Electrochemical determination of metallothionein in transgenic tobacco plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížková, S.; Diopan, V.; Baloun, J.; Šupálková, V.; Shestisvka, V.; Kotrba, P.; Macková, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Havel, L.; Adam, V.; Zehnálek, J.; Kizek, R.

    Praha : VŠCHT Praha, 2007 - (Macková, M.; Macek, T.; Demnerová, K.; Pazlar, V.). s. 15 ISBN 978-80-7080-025-6. [Symposium on Biosorption and Bioremediation /4./. 26.08.2007-30.08.2007, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/07/0692 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : metallothionein * heavy metals * transgenic plant * tobacco Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  3. Critical choices for modeling breast cancer in transgenic mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Isabella; Rizzolio, Flavio; Boffo, Silvia; Giordano, Antonio; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Modeling breast cancer in the mouse has helped to better define the heterogeneity of human breast cancer. In the recent past, it has become evident that some limitations have restricted the potential benefits that can be achieved with this approach. In this review, we highlight some key points that should be taken into account when the mouse is used, with special emphasis on transgenic models. PMID:22170180

  4. Dantrolene is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease transgenic mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Xi; Wu Jun; Lvovskaya Svetlana; Herndon Emily; Supnet Charlene; Bezprozvanny Ilya

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the Huntingtin protein which results in the selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Our group has previously demonstrated that calcium (Ca2+) signaling is abnormal in MSNs from the yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (YAC128). Moreover, we demonstrated that deranged intracellular Ca2+ signaling sensitizes YAC128 MSNs to g...

  5. Nonapoptotic neurodegeneration in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Turmaine, Mark; Raza, Aysha; Mahal, Amarbirpal; Mangiarini, Laura; Bates, Gillian P.; Davies, Stephen W.

    2000-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by personality changes, motor impairment, and subcortical dementia. HD is one of a number of diseases caused by expression of an expanded polyglutamine repeat. We have developed several lines of mice that are transgenic for exon 1 of the HD gene containing an expanded CAG sequence. These mice exhibit a defined neurological phenotype along with neuronal changes that are pathognomonic for the disease. We hav...

  6. Towards Transgenic Primates: What can we learn from mouse genetics?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Hui; WANG, Phillip L.; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the great physiological and behavioral similarities with humans, monkeys represent the ideal models not only for the study of complex cognitive behavior but also for the preclinical research and development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases. Various powerful genetic technologies initially developed for making mouse models are being explored for generating transgenic primate models. We review the latest genetic engineering technologies and discuss the potentials and...

  7. Destabilization of homologous transgene interactions in tobacco cell cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížová, Kateřina; Fojtová, Miloslava; Depicker, A.; Kovařík, Aleš

    Olomouc, 2007. s. 63. ISSN 1213-6670. [Konference experimentální biologie rostlin, 11. dny fyziologie rostlin. 09.07.2007-12.07.2007, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600040611; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : gene expression * DNA methylation * transgenic tobacco plants Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  8. Modulation of Alzheimer’s Pathology in Transgenic Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Duma, Carmen Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common cause of dementia. The neuropathological hallmarks of AD include extracellular deposits of the amyloid-ß peptide (Aß) and neurofibrillary tangles, composed of filamentous aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. To study AD pathogenesis, transgenic mice that overexpress human mutated amyloid precursor protein (APP) and/or mutated presenilin1/2 (PS1/2) have been generated. These models exhibit age-r...

  9. Application of Echocardiography on Transgenic Mice with Cardiomyopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, G; Li, Y.; Tian, J; Zhang, L.; P. Jean-Charles; Gobara, N.; Nan, C.; J.-P. Jin; Huang, X. P.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies are common cardiac disorders that primarily affect cardiac muscle resulting in cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Transgenic mouse disease models have been developed to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying heart failure and sudden cardiac death observed in cardiomyopathy cases and to explore the therapeutic outcomes in experimental animals in vivo. Echocardiography is an essential diagnostic tool for accurate and noninvasive assessment of cardiac structure and f...

  10. Restriction of neuroblastoma to the prostate gland in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Skalnik, D G; Dorfman, D M; Williams, D.A.; Orkin, S H

    1991-01-01

    Male transgenic mice that carry a construct containing 5'-flanking sequences of the gp91-phox gene linked to the early region of the simian virus 40 (SV40) genome reproducibly develop tumors arising from the prostate gland. As gp91-phox is expressed exclusively in terminally differentiating hematopoietic cells of the myelomonocytic lineage, the induction of tumors arising from the prostate gland was unexpected. These lesions appear to be due to a novel transcription signal that was generated ...

  11. Efficient discovery of ASCL1 regulatory sequences through transgene pooling

    OpenAIRE

    McGaughey, David M.; Mccallion, Andrew S

    2010-01-01

    Zebrafish transgenesis is a powerful and increasingly common strategy to assay vertebrate transcriptional regulatory control. Several challenges remain, however, to the broader application of this technique; they include increasing the rate with which transgenes can be analyzed and maximizing the informational value of the data generated. Presently, many rely on the injection of individual constructs and the analysis of resulting reporter expression in mosaic G0 embryos. Here, we contrast the...

  12. MAPK transgenic circuit to improve plant stress-tolerance?

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to their distinctive mode of action in a coordinated switch-like way, their multi-tiered signaling cascades and their involvement in cell responses to multiple internal and external stimuli, MAP kinases offer a remarkable possibility to be assembled into what we can call “MAPK transgenic circuits” to improve cell functions. Such circuit could be used to enhance cell signaling efficiency and boost cell functions for several purposes in plant biotechnology, medicine, and pharmaceutical i...

  13. MAPK transgenic circuit to improve plant stress-tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to their distinctive mode of action in a coordinated switch-like way, their multi-tiered signaling cascades and their involvement in cell responses to multiple internal and external stimuli, MAP kinases offer a remarkable possibility to be assembled into what we can call “MAPK transgenic circuits” to improve cell functions. Such circuit could be used to enhance cell signaling efficiency and boost cell functions for several purposes in plant biotechnology, medicine, and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25482799

  14. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, E.J.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; R. Goldbach; Grinsven, van, H

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can be obtained by introgression of natural sources of resistance from wild relatives or by expressing viral sequences in transgenic tomato plants. We report high levels of resistance to TSWV obtained...

  15. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Semenza, G L; Traystman, M D; Gearhart, J D; Antonarakis, S. E.

    1989-01-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5' flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3' flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and ...

  16. Fatal encephalopathy with astrocyte inclusions in GFAP transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Messing, A; Head, M.W.; Galles, K.; Galbreath, E. J.; Goldman, J. E.; Brenner, M.

    1998-01-01

    Increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a hallmark of gliosis, the astrocytic hypertrophy that occurs during a wide variety of diseases of the central nervous system. To determine whether this increase in GFAP expression per se alters astrocyte function, we generated transgenic mice that carry copies of the human GFAP gene driven by its own promoter. Astrocytes of these mice are hypertrophic, up-regulate small heat-shock proteins, and contain inclusion bodies identic...

  17. Analysis of promoters in transgenic barley and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J; Pellegrineschi, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Advances in the genetic transformation of cereals have improved the prospects of using biotechnology for plant improvement, and a toolbox of promoters with defined specificities would be a valuable resource in controlling the expression of transgenes in desired tissues for both plant improvement and molecular farming. A number of promoters have been isolated from the important cereals (wheat, barley, rice and maize), and these promoters have been tested mostly in homologous cereal systems and, to a lesser extent, in heterologous cereal systems. The use of these promoters across the important cereals would add value to the utility of each promoter. In addition, promoters with less sequence homology, but with similar specificities, will be crucial in avoiding homology-based gene silencing when expressing more than one transgene in the same tissue. We have tested wheat and barley promoters in transgenic barley and wheat to determine whether their specificity is shared across these two species. The barley bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (Isa) promoter, specific to the pericarp in barley, failed to show any activity in wheat, whereas the wheat early-maturing (Em) promoter showed similar activity in wheat and barley. The wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin (HMW-Glu) and barley D-hordein (D-Hor) and B-hordein (B-Hor) storage protein promoters maintained endosperm-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in wheat and barley, respectively. Using gfp, we have demonstrated that the Isa and Em promoters can be used as strong promoters to direct transgenes in specific tissues of barley and wheat grain. Differential promoter activity across cereals expands and adds value to a promoter toolbox for utility in plant biotechnology. PMID:19175520

  18. DNA-Delivery Methods to Produce Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Darbani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, diverse methods for plant transformation have been described including biological, chemical and physical based methods. Transformation is performed to introduce novel traits, study basic biological processes, or produce recombinant proteins of interest. We review Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as well as non-biological based approaches for the production of transgenic plants. This review presents the methods of gene transfer into plants, applications, advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  19. Proteotypic classification of spontaneous and transgenic mammary neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammary tumors in mice are categorized by using morphologic and architectural criteria. Immunolabeling for terminal differentiation markers was compared among a variety of mouse mammary neoplasms because expression of terminal differentiation markers, and especially of keratins, provides important information on the origin of neoplastic cells and their degree of differentiation. Expression patterns for terminal differentiation markers were used to characterize tumor types and to study tumor progression in transgenic mouse models of mammary neoplasia (mice overexpressing Neu (Erbb2), Hras, Myc, Notch4, SV40-TAg, Tgfa, and Wnt1), in spontaneous mammary carcinomas, and in mammary neoplasms associated with infection by the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). On the basis of the expression of terminal differentiation markers, three types of neoplasm were identified: first, simple carcinomas composed exclusively of cells with a luminal phenotype are characteristic of neoplasms arising in mice transgenic for Neu, Hras, Myc, Notch4, and SV40-TAg; second, 'complex carcinomas' displaying luminal and myoepithelial differentiation are characteristic of type P tumors arising in mice transgenic for Wnt1, neoplasms arising in mice infected by the MMTV, and spontaneous adenosquamous carcinomas; and third, 'carcinomas with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)' are a characteristic feature of tumor progression in Hras-, Myc-, and SV40-TAg-induced mammary neoplasms and PL/J and SJL/J mouse strains, and display de novo expression of myoepithelial and mesenchymal cell markers. In sharp contrast, EMT was not detected in papillary adenocarcinomas arising in BALB/cJ mice, spontaneous adenoacanthomas, neoplasms associated with MMTV-infection, or in neoplasms arising in mice transgenic for Neu and Wnt1. Immunohistochemical profiles of complex neoplasms are consistent with a stem cell origin, whereas simple carcinomas might originate from a cell committed to the luminal lineage. In addition, these results suggest that the initiating oncogenic events determine the morphologic features associated with cancer progression because EMT is observed only in certain types of neoplasm

  20. Transgenic rabbit that expresses a functional human lipoprotein (a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouy, Didier; Duverger, Nicolas; Emmanuel, Florence; Denefle, Patrice; Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Viglietta, Celine; Rubin, Edward M.; Hughes, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    A transgenic rabbit which has in its genomic DNA sequences that encode apolipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein B polypeptides which are capable of combining to produce lipoprotein (a), a process for creating such a rabbit, and the use of the rabbit to identify compounds which are effective in the treatment of human diseases which are associated with, induced and/or exacerbated by Lp(a) expression.

  1. Using inositol as a biocompatible ligand for efficient transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Bellis, Susan L; Fan, Yiwen; Wu, Yunkun

    2015-01-01

    Transgene transfection techniques using cationic polymers such as polyethylenimines (PEIs) and PEI derivatives as gene vectors have shown efficacy, although they also have shortcomings. PEIs have decent DNA-binding capability and good cell internalization performance, but they cannot deliver gene payloads very efficiently to cell nuclei. In this study, three hyperbranched polyglycerol-polyethylenimine (PG6-PEI) polymers conjugated with myo-inositol (INO) molecules were developed. The three resulting PG6-PEI-INO polymers have an increased number of INO ligands per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 1 had only 14 carboxymethyl INO (CMINO) units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 2 had approximately 130 CMINO units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 3 had as high as 415 CMINO units approximately. Mixing PG6-PEI-INO polymers with DNA produced compact nanocomposites. We then performed localization studies using fluorescent microscopy. As the number of conjugated inositol ligands increased in PG6-PEI-INO polymers, there was a corresponding increase in accumulation of the polymers within 293T cell nuclei. Transfection performed with spherical 293T cells yielded 82% of EGFP-positive cells when using PG6-PEI-INO 3 as the vehicle. Studies further revealed that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) can inhibit the transgene efficiency of PG6-PEI-INO polymers, as compared with PEI and PG6-PEI that were not conjugated with inositol. Our work unveiled the possibility of using inositol as an effective ligand for transgene expression. PMID:25926732

  2. Lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphoma in KSHV K1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkova, Zuzana; Wang, Shu; Sehgal, Lalit; Patel, Keyur Pravinchandra; Prakash, Om; Samaniego, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Growing evidence supports the involvement of human herpervirus 8, Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), in the pathology of primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma, but the exact mechanism of KSHV contribution to the oncogenic process remains elusive. We studied transgenic mice expressing the ORF K1 of KSHV, whose position in the KSHV genome corresponds to known lymphoproliferative genes of other herpesviruses. K1 protein was previously shown to contain a constitutively active ITAM domain, involved in activation of Akt and pro-survival signaling, and to inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis by interfering with binding of FasL. All this pointed to a possible role of K1 in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated cancers. K1 transgenic mice (80-90%) developed lymphoid hyperplasia and splenomegaly at 8 and 10 months of age, 25% had confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma, and 50% developed abdominal and/or hepatic tumors by 18 months of age. Histological examination showed loss of splenic architecture and increased cellularity. Lymph nodes showed disrupted architecture with effaced follicles and other pathological changes, including signs of angiofollicular lymphoid hyperplasia. One of the livers showed signs of angiosarcoma. In summary, our histology results revealed pathological changes in K1 transgenic mice similar to lymphoma, Castleman's disease, and angiosarcoma, suggesting that K1 may contribute to the development of KSHV-associated cancers. PMID:25301266

  3. Molecular Characterization of Transgenic Events Using Next Generation Sequencing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadov, Jafar; Ye, Liang; Soe, Khaing; Richey, Kimberly; Cruse, James; Zhuang, Meibao; Gao, Zhifang; Evans, Clive; Rounsley, Steve; Kumpatla, Siva P.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for the commercial use of genetically modified (GM) crops has been increasing in light of the projected growth of world population to nine billion by 2050. A prerequisite of paramount importance for regulatory submissions is the rigorous safety assessment of GM crops. One of the components of safety assessment is molecular characterization at DNA level which helps to determine the copy number, integrity and stability of a transgene; characterize the integration site within a host genome; and confirm the absence of vector DNA. Historically, molecular characterization has been carried out using Southern blot analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing. While this is a robust approach to characterize the transgenic crops, it is both time- and resource-consuming. The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has provided highly sensitive and cost- and labor-effective alternative for molecular characterization compared to traditional Southern blot analysis. Herein, we have demonstrated the successful application of both whole genome sequencing and target capture sequencing approaches for the characterization of single and stacked transgenic events and compared the results and inferences with traditional method with respect to key criteria required for regulatory submissions. PMID:26908260

  4. Production of transgenic rabbit embryos through intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuyan; Hou, Jian; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Yongfu; An, Xiao-Rong

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test if intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-mediated gene transfer was an effective method in the production of transgenic rabbit embryos. Rabbit sperm diluted in different media with various pH were treated by freezing without cryoprotectant, and their ability for DNA uptake was determined. In these experiments using production of transgenic rabbit embryos by ICSI, exogenous genes at three concentrations and of two conformation types were used. The rate of DNA association to the sperm seen by rhodamine-tagged DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was 90.0%, 92.7%, 91.0%, 91.7%, and 92.3%, respectively in TCM199, DM, DPBS, CZB, and HCZB media. The DNA attachment to sperm was not affected by media pH within the range of 5.4-9.4 (p > 0.05). Expression of GFP first occurred at the 2-cell stage and continued to blastocyst formation. DNA concentration (between 5, 10, and 20 ng/?l) or conformation (linear and circular) had no effect on the production rate of transgenic embryos. These results indicated that genetically modified rabbit blastocysts can be efficiently produced by ICSI technique. PMID:20663236

  5. Molecular Characterization of Transgenic Events Using Next Generation Sequencing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikonda, Satish K; Marri, Pradeep; Mammadov, Jafar; Ye, Liang; Soe, Khaing; Richey, Kimberly; Cruse, James; Zhuang, Meibao; Gao, Zhifang; Evans, Clive; Rounsley, Steve; Kumpatla, Siva P

    2016-01-01

    Demand for the commercial use of genetically modified (GM) crops has been increasing in light of the projected growth of world population to nine billion by 2050. A prerequisite of paramount importance for regulatory submissions is the rigorous safety assessment of GM crops. One of the components of safety assessment is molecular characterization at DNA level which helps to determine the copy number, integrity and stability of a transgene; characterize the integration site within a host genome; and confirm the absence of vector DNA. Historically, molecular characterization has been carried out using Southern blot analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing. While this is a robust approach to characterize the transgenic crops, it is both time- and resource-consuming. The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has provided highly sensitive and cost- and labor-effective alternative for molecular characterization compared to traditional Southern blot analysis. Herein, we have demonstrated the successful application of both whole genome sequencing and target capture sequencing approaches for the characterization of single and stacked transgenic events and compared the results and inferences with traditional method with respect to key criteria required for regulatory submissions. PMID:26908260

  6. Improved antioxidant activity in transgenic Perilla frutescens plants via overexpression of the ?-tocopherol methyltransferase (?-tmt) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Bimal Kumar; Seong, Eun Soo; Lee, Chan Ok; Lee, Jae Geun; Yu, Chang Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyun; Chung, Ill Min

    2015-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to generate transgenic Perilla frutescens with enhanced antioxidant properties by overexpressing the ?-tocopherol methyltransferase (?-tmt) gene. In this study, the antioxidant activity of methanolic crude extracts of transgenic and non-transgenic control plants was investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using ?-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyl toluene as standard antioxidants. In general, the ethyl acetate fraction of transgenic P. frutescens showed stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity than the ethyl acetate fraction from non-transgenic control plants (IC50 2.00 0.10 and 5.53 0.40 ?g ? ml(-1), respectively). High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of phenolic acids in leaf extracts confirmed increased levels of 16 individual phenolic compounds in two transgenic lines (pf47-5 and pf47-8) compared with control plants. Changes in the phenolic compound profile and ?-tocopherol content were correlated with the antioxidant properties of transgenic plants, indicating that the introduction of transgene ?-tmt influenced the metabolism of phenolic compounds and subsequently produced biochemical changes in the transformants. There were no significant differences in photosynthetic rate in the transgenic plants as compared to the non-transgenic control plants, suggesting that the alteration of phenolic compounds and tocopherol composition had little impact on photosynthesis. PMID:25604637

  7. Effects of Transgenic Rice on Life History Traits of Daphnia magna in Life Table Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam, Sungjin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impacts of transgenic rice on freshwater organisms, we conducted two life tableexperiments using Daphnia magna for fifteen and twenty days, respectively. We examined life history traits suchas population growth rates (r, reproductive rates (R0, generation times, and survivorship. In the first experiment,we used non-drought-stressed transgenic and non-transgenic rice harvested in 2005. In the second study, weused non-transgenic and transgenic rice harvested in 2006 following drought stress. Each experiment involvedthree treatments in which D. magna neonates were fed with Selenastrum capricornutum (control treatment andS. capricornutum with 5% aqueous extracts of non-transgenic rice (N-T and transgenic rice (T. In the firstexperiment, D. magna showed reduced population growth rates and lowered fecundity in the N-T and Ttreatments. In the second experiment, D. magna receiving both transgenic and non-transgenic rice extractsshowed very high mortality, low population growth rates and reproduction rates. We could not detect anysignificant negative effects of extracts from transgenic rice on D. magna life history traits at 95%.

  8. Instability of transgenes in plants and its implications for plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major commitment is being made to the exploitation of transgenes for crop improvement. Numerous studies involving many transgenes and plant species indicate that transgenes are often silent, or display variable expression during development or between sexual generations. Transgene expression is affected by the number of transgenes, the genetic background and the environment. Instability in expression of chalcone synthase genes in petunia in the presence of a transgene(s) encoding chalcone synthase under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter is described. Chalcone synthase is a key enzyme in floral anthocyanin production. Such transgenic plants vary in floral phenotype. Some have purple flowers, others white flowers and many have flowers with non-random white and purple sectors. Flower type is characteristic of a particular transformant. Somatic variants are observed frequently. Loss of purple pigment production is associated with post-transcriptional loss of mRNA from trans and endogenous chalcone synthase genes (co-suppression). Studies on the structure of the chalcone synthase RNAs produced in transgenic plants, amplified using polymerase chain reaction, have revealed several kinds of aberration. It is therefore postulated that aberrant RNAs provoke chalcone synthase RNA turnover. A speculative scheme to explain how RNA degradation occurs, involving antisense RNA, is presented. The implications of transgene behaviour and instability in plant breeding are discussed. (author). 27 refs, 3 figs

  9. Absence of detectable transgenes in local landraces of maize in Oaxaca, Mexico (2003-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Garca, S; Ezcurra, E; Schoel, B; Acevedo, F; Sobern, J; Snow, A A

    2005-08-30

    In 2000, transgenes were detected in local maize varieties (landraces) in the mountains of Oaxaca, Mexico [Quist, D. & Chapela, I. H. (2001) Nature 414, 541-543]. This region is part of the Mesoamerican center of origin for maize (Zea mays L.), and the genetic diversity that is maintained in open-pollinated landraces is recognized as an important genetic resource of great cultural value. The presence of transgenes in landraces was significant because transgenic maize has never been approved for cultivation in Mexico. Here we provide a systematic survey of the frequency of transgenes in currently grown landraces. We sampled maize seeds from 870 plants in 125 fields and 18 localities in the state of Oaxaca during 2003 and 2004. We then screened 153,746 sampled seeds for the presence of two transgene elements from the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus and the nopaline synthase gene (nopaline synthase terminator) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. One or both of these transgene elements are present in all transgenic commercial varieties of maize. No transgenic sequences were detected with highly sensitive PCR-based markers, appropriate positive and negative controls, and duplicate samples for DNA extraction. We conclude that transgenic maize seeds were absent or extremely rare in the sampled fields. This study provides a much-needed preliminary baseline for understanding the biological, socioeconomic, and ethical implications of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenes from the United States and elsewhere to local landraces of maize in Mexico. PMID:16093316

  10. Comparative nutritional compositions and proteomics analysis of transgenic Xa21 rice seeds compared to conventional rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Dipak; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-07-15

    Transgenic rice expressing the Xa21 gene have enhanced resistant to most devastating bacterial blight diseases caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). However, identification of unintended modifications, owing to the genetic modification, is an important aspect of transgenic crop safety assessment. In this study, the nutritional compositions of seeds from transgenic rice plants expressing the Xa21 gene were compared against non-transgenic rice seeds. In addition, to detect any changes in protein translation levels as a result of Xa21 gene expression, rice seed proteome analyses were also performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. No significant differences were found in the nutritional compositions (proximate components, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients) of the transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds. Although gel electrophoresis identified 11 proteins that were differentially expressed between the transgenic and non-transgenic seed, only one of these (with a 20-fold up-regulation in the transgenic seed) shows nutrient reservoir activity. No new toxins or allergens were detected in the transgenic seeds. PMID:26948618

  11. Recent advances in development of marker-free transgenic plants: Regulation and biosafety concern

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Narendra Tuteja; Shiv Verma; Ranjan Kumar Sahoo; Sebastian Raveendar; In Bheema Lingeshwara Reddy

    2012-03-01

    During the efficient genetic transformation of plants with the gene of interest, some selectable marker genes are also used in order to identify the transgenic plant cells or tissues. Usually, antibiotic- or herbicide-selective agents and their corresponding resistance genes are used to introduce economically valuable genes into crop plants. From the biosafety authority and consumer viewpoints, the presence of selectable marker genes in released transgenic crops may be transferred to weeds or pathogenic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract or soil, making them resistant to treatment with herbicides or antibiotics, respectively. Sexual crossing also raises the problem of transgene expression because redundancy of transgenes in the genome may trigger homology-dependent gene silencing. The future potential of transgenic technologies for crop improvement depends greatly on our abilities to engineer stable expression of multiple transgenic traits in a predictable fashion and to prevent the transfer of undesirable transgenic material to non-transgenic crops and related species. Therefore, it is now essential to develop an efficient marker-free transgenic system. These considerations underline the development of various approaches designed to facilitate timely elimination of transgenes when their function is no longer needed. Due to the limiting number of available selectable marker genes, in future the stacking of transgenes will be increasingly desirable. The production of marker-free transgenic plants is now a critical requisite for their commercial deployment and also for engineering multiple and complex trait. Here we describe the current technologies to eliminate the selectablemarker genes (SMG) in order to develop marker-free transgenic plants and also discuss the regulation and biosafety concern of genetically modified (GM) crops.

  12. Characterization of the ICSI-mediated gene transfer method in the production of transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hitoshi; Kurome, Mayuko; Matsunari, Hitomi; Watanabe, Masahito; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the behavior of transgenes introduced into oocytes or embryos is essential for evaluating the methodologies for transgenic animal production. We investigated the expression pattern of a transgene transferred to porcine eggs by intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated gene transfer (ICSI-MGT) or pronuclear microinjection (PN injection). The introduction of the EGFP gene by ICSI-MGT yielded significantly more embryos with non-mosaic transgene expression (P?transgenes, ranging from 3.0 to 7.5?kb in size, we confirmed that approximately one in four fetuses obtained by ICSI-MGT was transgenic, suggesting that ICSI-MGT is a practical method for transgenic pig production. Southern blot analysis of 12 transgenic fetuses produced by ICSI-MGT revealed that the number of integrated transgene copies varied from 1 to 300, with no correlation between transgene size and the number of integrated copies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed that the transgenes were randomly integrated into a single site on the host chromosomes. Together, these data indicate that multiple-copy, single-site integration of a transgene is the primary outcome of ICSI-MGT in the pig and that ICSI-MGT is less likely than PN injection to cause transgene integration in a mosaic manner. PMID:22213433

  13. Extraction and separation of water soluble proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis-transgenic and non-transgenic maize species by CZE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sázelová, Petra; Kašička, Václav; Ibanez, E.; Cifuentes, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 21 (2009), s. 3801-3808. ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/0675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis-transgenic maize * CZE-UV profiling * Maize proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2009

  14. Endophytic microbial community in two transgenic maize genotypes and in their near-isogenic non-transgenic maize genotype

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Débora Alves Ferreira; Cotta, Simone Raposo; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Jurelevicius, Diogo de Azevedo; Marques, Joana Montezano; Marriel, Ivanildo Evódio; Seldin, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite all the benefits assigned to the genetically modified plants, there are still no sufficient data available in literature concerning the possible effects on the microbial communities associated with these plants. Therefore, this study was aimed at examining the effects of the genetic modifications of two transgenic maize genotypes (MON810 – expressing the insecticidal Bt-toxin and TC1507 – expressing the insecticidal Bt-toxin and the herbicide resistance PAT [phosphinothrici...

  15. Transgenic plants for enhanced biodegradation and phytoremediation of organic xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, P C; Jamil, Sarah; Singh, Nandita

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation--the use of plants to clean up polluted soil and water resources--has received much attention in the last few years. Although plants have the inherent ability to detoxify xenobiotics, they generally lack the catabolic pathway for the complete degradation of these compounds compared to microorganisms. There are also concerns over the potential for the introduction of contaminants into the food chain. The question of how to dispose of plants that accumulate xenobiotics is also a serious concern. Hence the feasibility of phytoremediation as an approach to remediate environmental contamination is still somewhat in question. For these reasons, researchers have endeavored to engineer plants with genes that can bestow superior degradation abilities. A direct method for enhancing the efficacy of phytoremediation is to overexpress in plants the genes involved in metabolism, uptake, or transport of specific pollutants. Furthermore, the expression of suitable genes in root system enhances the rhizodegradation of highly recalcitrant compounds like PAHs, PCBs etc. Hence, the idea to amplify plant biodegradation of xenobiotics by genetic manipulation was developed, following a strategy similar to that used to develop transgenic crops. Genes from human, microbes, plants, and animals are being used successfully for this venture. The introduction of these genes can be readily achieved for many plant species using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation or direct DNA methods of gene transfer. One of the promising developments in transgenic technology is the insertion of multiple genes (for phase 1 metabolism (cytochrome P450s) and phase 2 metabolism (GSH, GT etc.) for the complete degradation of the xenobiotics within the plant system. In addition to the use of transgenic plants overexpressed with P450 and GST genes, various transgenic plants expressing bacterial genes can be used for the enhanced degradation and remediation of herbicides, explosives, PCBs etc. Another approach to enhancing phytoremediation ability is the construction of plants that secrete chemical degrading enzymes into the rhizosphere. Recent studies revealed that accelerated ethylene production in response to stress induced by contaminants is known to inhibit root growth and is considered as major limitation in improving phytoremediation efficiency. However, this can be overcome by the selective expression of bacterial ACC deaminase (which regulates ethylene levels in plants) in plants together with multiple genes for the different phases of xenobiotic degradation. This review examines the recent developments in use of transgenic-plants for the enhanced metabolism, degradation and phytoremediation of organic xenobiotics and its future directions. PMID:19371778

  16. The Comparative Effects of Genetically Modified Maize and Conventional Maize on Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Klgn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Genetically modified crops have a potential to solve many of the worlds nutrition problems. On the other hand, the impact of these novel crops on environmental, animal and human health should be tested and their risk assessment is required. In this study, the aim of this study was to investigate the positive or possible negative effects of genetically modified maize on offspring rats which were between the start of dry food feeding and the time interval until they reached puberty. Material and Method: Thirty Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were fed with transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize and conventional maize during 40 days. After the experimental period, the length, height and weight of organs and serum chemistry and hematology values were measured. Results: The length, height and weight of liver, spleen, lung and kidneys in Bacillus thuringiensis maize group of rats were different from those in control and conventional groups. When mean values of serum chemistry and hematology parameters, which were glucose, urea, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chlorine were examined, some obvious differences were found between the rats fed with transgenic maize and its conventional counterpart and control groups. Discussion: The results of this study showed that Bacillus thuringiensis maize may not only have an effect on the length, height and weight of organs of the maturing term of rats but also lead to alterations in serum chemistry and hematology values.

  17. Expression of Trichoderma reesei exo-cellobiohydrolase I transgenic tobacco leaves and calli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hooker, Brian S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Quesenberry, Ryan D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gao, Jianwei (PNNL)

    1998-12-01

    Expression of Trichoderma reesei exo-cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) gene in transgenic tobacco was under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. In transgenic leaf tissues, CBHI activity up to 66.1 mmol h{sup -1} g{sup -1} total protein was observed. In transgenic calli, the highest CBHI activity was 83.6 umol h{sup -1} g{sup -1} total protein. Protein immunoblot analysis confirms the presence of CBHI enzyme in both transgenic calli and leaf tissues. CBHI expression levels accounted for about 0.11% and 0.082% of total protein in transgenic leaf tissues and calli, respectively. Furthermore, expression of CBHI gene did not affect normal growth and development of transgenic plants.

  18. Overexpression of the A-FABP gene facilitates intermuscular fat deposition in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z W; Fan, H L; Liu, X F; Ding, X B; Wang, T; Sui, G N; Li, G P; Guo, H

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), the most abundant FABP in adipocytes, controls fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism in fat cells. We constructed a transgenic mice model that overexpressed the cattle A-FABP gene to investigate the relationship between A-FABP expression and intermuscular fat deposition. There was no significant difference in body weight and serum biochemical indexes between transgenic and wild-type mice. Further, there were no significant differences in intermuscular triglyceride content and A-FABP expression levels over three generations of transgenic mice. However, abdominal adipose rate, A-FABP protein content, and intermuscular triglyceride levels of transgenic mice were significantly higher than those of wild-type mice. In addition, triglycerides were remarkably higher in the skeletal muscle but lower in the myocardium of transgenic mice. Thus, overexpression of cattle A-FABP gene promoted fat deposition in the skeletal muscle of transgenic mice. PMID:25867423

  19. Transgene Silencing in Wheat Transformed with the WSMV-CP Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Li

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum was co-transformed with the bar gene and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Coat Protein gene (WSMV-CP by the biolistic method. Transgenic wheat carrying the WSMV-CP showed non-uniform segregation patterns due to transgene loss or silencing. Loss of transgene expression was observed at the T1, T2 or T3 generations. Among these silenced lines, transgenic line 566B was chosen for detailed studies. Results indicated that all 566B T1 plants containing the WSMV-CP expressed WSMV coat protein and all showed strong resistance to WSMV. While the WSMV-CP was carried through to the T2 and T3 generations, all transgenic plants in these generations showed transgene silencing. Expression of WSMV-CP could be restored, at least temporarily, in most of these silenced plants by treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC.

  20. Transgenic plants expressing GLK1 and CCA1 having increased nitrogen assimilation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruzzi, Gloria; Gutierrez, Rodrigo A.; Nero, Damion C.

    2012-04-10

    Provided herein are compositions and methods for producing transgenic plants. In specific embodiments, transgenic plants comprise a construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1, operably linked to a plant-specific promote, wherein the CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 is ectopically overexpressed in the transgenic plants, and wherein the promoter is optionally a constitutive or inducible promoter. In other embodiments, transgenic plants in which express a lower level of CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 are provided. Also provided herein are commercial products (e.g., pulp, paper, paper products, or lumber) derived from the transgenic plants (e.g., transgenic trees) produced using the methods provided herein.

  1. Post-mortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winther, Kjeld Dahl; Secher, Jan O; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large...... White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig...... in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17...

  2. Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, Manda G.; Yafuso, Christine; Schmidt, Chris; Huang, Cho-Ying; Rahman, Magfurar; Olson, Carl; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orr, Barron J.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Antilla, Larry; Dutilleul, Pierre; Carrière, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Higher yields and reduced pesticide impacts are needed to mitigate the effects of agricultural intensification. A 2-year farm-scale evaluation of 81 commercial fields in Arizona show that use of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton reduced insecticide use, whereas transgenic cotton with Bt protein and herbicide resistance (BtHr) did not affect herbicide use. Transgenic cotton had higher yield than nontransgenic cotton for any given number of insecticide applications. However, nontran...

  3. Post-mortem re-cloning of a transgenic red fluorescent protein dog

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, So Gun; Koo, Ok Jae; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; KIM, MINJUNG; Kim, Geon-A; Park, Eun Jung; JANG, Goo; LEE, Byeong-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the world's first transgenic dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, cellular senescence is a major limiting factor for producing more advanced transgenic dogs. To overcome this obstacle, we rejuvenated transgenic cells using a re-cloning technique. Fibroblasts from post-mortem red fluorescent protein (RFP) dog were reconstructed with in vivo matured oocytes and transferred into 10 surrogate dogs. One puppy was produced and confirmed as a re-cloned dog. Althoug...

  4. Mutagenicity testing with transgenic mice. Part I: Comparison with the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test

    OpenAIRE

    Wahnschaffe U; Bitsch A; Kielhorn J; Mangelsdorf I

    2005-01-01

    Abstract As part of a larger literature study on transgenic animals in mutagenicity testing, test results from the transgenic mutagenicity assays (lacI model; commercially available as the Big Blue mouse, and the lacZ model; commercially available as the MutaMouse), were compared with the results on the same substances in the more traditional mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. 39 substances were found which had been tested in the micronucleus assay and in the above transgenic mouse ...

  5. A wheat genomic DNA fragment reduces pollen transmission of maize transgenes by reducing pollen viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M Paul; Peterson, Joan M; Moran, Daniel L; Sangtong, Varaporn; Smith, LaTrice

    2007-10-01

    A genomic DNA fragment from wheat carrying the Glu-1Dx5 gene has been shown to exhibit reduced pollen transmission in transgenic maize. To localize the region of the DNA fragment responsible for this reduced pollen transmission, we produced transgenic maize plants in which the wheat genomic DNA proximal to the 1Dx5 coding sequence was replaced with the maize 27 kDa gamma-zein promoter. Like the wheat promoter-driven Glu-1Dx5 transgene, this zein promoter-driven transgene functioned to produce 1Dx5 in maize endosperm. However, with the zein promoter-driven transgene, pollen transmission of the transgene loci was normal in most self- and cross-pollinations. We concluded that the wheat genomic DNA proximal to the wheat 1Dx5 coding sequence was required for reduced pollen transmission of the transgene in maize. In two of four transformation events of the wheat promoter-driven construct examined, pollen exhibited two morphological classes. In one class, pollen was normal in morphology and displayed average viability, and in the second, pollen was reduced in size and did not germinate on artificial media. DNA from the transgene was detectable in mature pollen from plants with reduced pollen transmission of transgene loci. To explain these observations, we hypothesize that elements within the transgene construct interfere with pollen development. We demonstrated that the wheat genomic DNA fragment can be used to control pollen transmission of an herbicide resistance transgene genetically linked to it. The wheat genomic DNA fragment may contain elements that are useful for controlling pollen transmission of transgene loci in commercial maize grain and seed production. PMID:17216545

  6. Coccinellids, Aphids, and Pollen in Diversified Vegetable Fields with Transgenic and Isoline Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Hoheisel, G.-A.; Fleischer, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of concurrent introduction of three transgenic vegetable cultivars on seasonal dynamics of coccinellids and their food, aphids and pollen, was examined within diversified farm systems practicing insect pest management in northeastern US agroecosystems. The transgenic cultivars used included sweet corn, potato, and winter squash, expressing Cry1(A)b, Cry3A, and plant viral coat proteins that target Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and aphid-transmitted viruses, respectively. Transgenic s...

  7. Modulation of the basal ganglia dopaminergic system in a transgenic mouse exhibiting dystonia-like features

    OpenAIRE

    Giannakopoulou, D.; Armata, I.A.; Mitsacos, A.; Shashidharan, P.; Giompres, P.

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary excessive muscle activity and abnormal postures. There are data supporting the hypothesis that basal ganglia dysfunction, and specifically dopaminergic system dysfunction, plays a role in dystonia. In the present study, we used hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and compared the basal ganglia dopaminergic system between transgenic mice exhibiting hyperkinesia (affected) transgenic mice not showing mov...

  8. Standing genetic variation and compensatory evolution in transgenic organisms: a growth-enhanced salmon simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Robert N M; Devlin, Robert H

    2011-06-01

    Genetically modified strains usually are generated within defined genetic backgrounds to minimize variation for the engineered characteristic in order to facilitate basic research investigations or for commercial application. However, interactions between transgenes and genetic background have been documented in both model and commercial agricultural species, indicating that allelic variation at transgene-modifying loci are not uncommon in genomes. Engineered organisms that have the potential to allow entry of transgenes into natural populations may cause changes to ecosystems via the interaction of their specific phenotypes with ecosystem components and services. A transgene introgressing through natural populations is likely to encounter a range of natural genetic variation (among individuals or sub-populations) that could result in changes in phenotype, concomitant with effects on fitness and ecosystem consequences that differ from that seen in the progenitor transgenic strain. In the present study, using a growth hormone transgenic salmon example, we have modeled selection of modifier loci (single and multiple) in the presence of a transgene and have found that accounting for genetic background can significantly affect the persistence of transgenes in populations, potentially reducing or reversing a "Trojan gene" effect. Influences from altered life history characteristics (e.g., developmental timing, age of maturation) and compensatory demographic/ecosystem controls (e.g., density dependence) also were found to have a strong influence on transgene effects. Further, with the presence of a transgene in a population, genetic backgrounds were found to shift in non-transgenic individuals as well, an effect expected to direct phenotypes away from naturally selected optima. The present model has revealed the importance of understanding effects of selection for background genetics on the evolution of phenotypes in populations harbouring transgenes. PMID:20878546

  9. Co-injection strategies to modify radiation sensitivity and tumor initiation in transgenic Zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Langenau, DM; Keefe, MD; Storer, NY; Jette, CA; Smith, ACH; Ceol, CJ; Bourque, C; Look, AT; Zon, LI

    2008-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful genetic model of cancer, but has been limited by the use of stable transgenic approaches to induce disease. Here, a co-injection strategy is described that capitalizes on both the numbers of embryos that can be microinjected and the ability of transgenes to segregate together and exert synergistic effects in forming tumors. Using this mosaic transgenic approach, gene pathways involved in tumor initiation and radiation sensitivity have been identified.

  10. Construction and analysis of the transgenic carrot and celery plants expressing the recombinant thaumatin II protein

    OpenAIRE

    Luchakivska Yu. S.; Komarnytskii I. K.; Kurchenko I. M.; Yurieva O. M.; Zhytkevich N. V.; Kuchuk M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To obtain the transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II in order to increase plant stress tolerance. Methods. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the carrot and celery seedlings was used for obtaining the transgenic plants. Presence and transcription of the transgene in plant tissues were proved by PCR and RT-PCR analysis. The plants were tested for the biotic stress tolerance by in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity assays and for the sali...

  11. Experimental systems to monitor the impact of transgenic corn on keystone soil microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Turrini, Dr. Alessandra; Sbrana, Dr. Cristiana; Giovannetti, Prof. Manuela

    2008-01-01

    Risks and benefits of transgenic crop plants should be evaluated not only by assessing pollen flow, but also by considering soil persistence of transgenic products, such as Bt toxins, which can accumulate in the soil and remain active for a long time. Moreover, transgenic plants are often ploughed under as crop residues, representing a potential hazard for non-target arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, a group of beneficial plant symbionts fundamental for soil fertility. In this study we monit...

  12. Characterization of Expression of Puumala Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Transgenic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Khattak, Shahryar; Darai, Gholamreza; Süle, Sandor; Rösen-Wolff, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing a foreign gene are a suitable system for the production of relevant immunogens in high amounts that can be used for the development of a new generation of vaccines against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study, the expression of the nucleocapsid (N) protein of hantavirus serotype Puumala in tobacco and potato plants was investigated. Transgenic tobacco and potato plants were generated and established. These transgenic plants expressed the N protei...

  13. Comparative analysis of transgenic rice plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment

    OpenAIRE

    S. Dai; Zheng, P; Marmey, Philippe; Zhang, S.; Tian, W.; Chen, S.; Beachy, R.N.; Fauquet, Claude

    2001-01-01

    We compared rice transgenic plants obtained by #Agrobacterium$-mediated and particle bombardment transformation by carrying out molecular analyses of the T0, T1 and T2 transgenic plants. #Oryza sativa japonica$ rice (c.v. Taipei 309) was transformed with a construct (pWNHG) that carried genes coding for neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), hygromycin phosphotransferase (Hyg(sup)r), and Beta-glucuronidase (GUS). Thirteen and fourteen transgenic lines produced via either method were selected an...

  14. Determination of gene escape and fruit quality characteristics in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus)

    OpenAIRE

    MENDİ, Yeşim YALÇIN; SARI, Nebahat; Akyildiz, Asiye; SOLMAZ, İlknur; ÜNEK, Ceren

    2010-01-01

    Gene escape and fruit quality characteristics of transgenic melons (Cucumis melo L. var inodorus cv. 'Kirkagac 637') resistant to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and control plants were investigated under screenhouse conditions. No significant differences were observed between transgenic and transgenic × control genotypes, with regard to rind thickness, fruit cavity length, fruit cavity width, total soluble solids, pistil scar diameter, and peduncle length. Fruit characters, inc...

  15. Development of transgenic Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) to study cell fate during development and regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sobkow, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    The establishment of transgenesisi in axolotls is crucial for studying development and regeneration, as it would allow for long-term fate tracing as well as gene expression analysis, therefore we were interested in both obtaining animals expresing the transgene with little mosaicism in F0 generation and transgenesis. We demonstrate here that plasmid injection into one cell stage axolotl embryo generates transgenic animals that display germline transmission of a transgene. However, the efficie...

  16. Relaxin treatment in an Ang-II-Based transgenic reeclamptic-rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, N; Golic, M.; Herse, F.; Rugor, J.; D. Linz; Solano, M.E.; Mueller, D.N.; Dechend, R.

    2016-01-01

    Relaxin is a peptide related to pregnancy that induces nitric oxide-related and gelatinase-related effects, allowing vasodilation and pregnancy-related adjustments permitting parturition to occur. Relaxin controls the hemodynamic and renovascular adaptive changes that occur during pregnancy. Interest has evolved regarding relaxin and a therapeutic principle in preeclampsia and heart failure. Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disorder, featuring hypertension, proteinuria and placental anomalies. We ...

  17. NEURON-GLIA INTERACTIONS IN PERIPHERAL VASOPRESSIN AND OXYTOCIN SYSTEMS UNVEILED IN TRANSGENIC RATS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dayanithi, Govindan; Forostyak, Oksana; Forostyak, Serhiy; Arboleda Toro, David; Viero, C.; Strunin, Dmytro; Folková, Dagmar; Syková, Eva; Shibuya, I.; Ueta, Y.; Toescu, E.C.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, Supplement 1 (2011), S103-S103. ISSN 0894-1491. [European meeting on Glial Cells in Health and Disease /10./. 13.09.2011-17.09.2011, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : neuropeptides * nociception * lactation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. Transgenic and recombinant resistin impair skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Kazdová, L.; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Jansa, Petr; Wang, J.; Qi, N.; Kurtz, T. W.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 46 (2003), s. 45209-45215. ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GA301/01/0278; GA ČR GA301/03/0751 Grant ostatní: HHMI(US) 55000331 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : resistin * insulin resistance * muscle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.482, year: 2003

  19. Mutagenesis by asbestos in the lung of lambda-lacI transgenic rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Loli, P.; Georgiadis, P.; Dušinská, M.; Hurbánková, M.; Kováčiková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Kažimírová, A.; Barančoková, M.; Tatrai, E.; Oesterle, D.; Wolff, T.; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 553, 1-2 (2004), s. 67-78. ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : asbestos * mutations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2004

  20. Sustained peripheral expression of transgene adiponectin offsets the development of diet-induced obesity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shklyaev, Stanislav; Aslanidi, George; Tennant, Michael; Prima, Victor; Kohlbrenner, Eric; Kroutov, Vadim; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Crawford, James; Shek, Eugene W.; Scarpace, Philip J.; ZOLOTUKHIN, SERGEI

    2003-01-01

    Adiponectin (Acrp30) is a physiologically active polypeptide hormone secreted by adipose tissue that shows insulin-sensitizing, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. In humans, Acrp30 levels are inversely related to the degree of adiposity. In the current study, we tested the long-term weight-reducing and insulin-enhancing effects of Acrp30 cDNA delivered peripherally by a viral vector. To this end, we have generated a series of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors of seroty...

  1. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. → hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. → hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  2. Establishment of transgenic mice carrying gene encoding human zinc finger protein 191

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Xia; Yang, Hua; Wang, Shui-Liang; Gong, Xue-Lian; Feng, Hao; Guo, Bao-Yu; Yu, Long; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Fu, Ji-Liang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Human zinc finger protein 191 (ZNF191) was cloned and characterized as a Krppel-like transcription factor, which might be relevant to many diseases such as liver cancer, neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular diseases. Although progress has been made recently, the biological function of ZNF191 remains largely unidentified. The aim of this study was to establish a ZNF 191 transgenic mouse model, which would promote the functional study of ZNF191. METHODS: Transgene fragments were microinjected into fertilized eggs of mice. The manipulated embryos were transferred into the oviducts of pseudo-pregnant female mice. The offsprings were identified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. ZNF 191 gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. Transgenic founder mice were used to establish transgenic mouse lineages. The first generation (F1) and the second generation (F2) mice were identified by PCR analysis. Ten-week transgenic mice were used for pathological examination. RESULTS: Four mice were identified as carrying copies of ZNF191 gene. The results of RT-PCR showed that ZNF 191 gene was expressed in the liver, testis and brain in one of the transgenic mouse lineages. Genetic analysis of transgenic mice demonstrated that ZNF 191 gene was integrated into the chromosome at a single site and could be transmitted stably. Pathological analysis showed that the expression of ZNF 191 did not cause obvious pathological changes in multiple tissues of transgenic mice. CONCLUSION: ZNF 191 transgenic mouse model would facilitate the investigation of biological functions of ZNF191 in vivo. PMID:14716836

  3. The distribution of cotransformed transgenes in particle bombardment-mediated transformed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yonghua; Blechl, Ann; Wang, Daowen

    2015-12-01

    Although particle bombardment is the predominant method of foreign DNA direct transfer, whether transgene is integrated randomly into the genome has not been determined. In this study, we identified the distribution of transgene loci in 45 transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines containing co-transformed high molecular weight glutenin subunit genes and the selectable marker bar using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Transgene loci were shown to distribute unevenly throughout the genome and incorporate into different locations along individual chromosomes. There was only a slight tendency towards the localization of transgenes in distal chromosome regions. High proportions of transgenes in separate plasmids integrated at the same site and only 7 lines had 2 or 3 loci. Such loci may not segregate frequently in subsequent generations so it is difficult to remove selectable markers from transgenic lines after regeneration. We also found that three transgene lines were associated with rearranged chromosomes, suggesting a the close relationship between particle bombardment-mediated transgene integration and chromosomal rearrangements. PMID:26405007

  4. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ki [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sorrell, Alice M. [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jae-Seok [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bong-Hwan [Genomics and Bioinformatics Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won-Kyong [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hosup, E-mail: shim@dku.edu [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. {yields} hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. {yields} hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  5. Maternal endometrial edema may increase perinatal mortality of cloned and transgenic piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winter, Kjeld Dahl; Dantzer, Vibeke; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter M; Du, Yutao; Lin, Lin; Liu, Ying; Vajta, Gabor; Sangild, P T; Callesen, Henrik; Agerholm, Jrgen Steen

    2011-01-01

    The perinatal mortality of cloned animals is a well-known problem. In the present retrospective study, we report on mortality of cloned transgenic or non-transgenic piglets produced as part of several investigations. Large White (LW) sows (n = 105) received hand-made cloned LW or minipig blastocy......The perinatal mortality of cloned animals is a well-known problem. In the present retrospective study, we report on mortality of cloned transgenic or non-transgenic piglets produced as part of several investigations. Large White (LW) sows (n = 105) received hand-made cloned LW or minipig...

  6. Matrix attachment regions (MARs) enhance transformation frequencies and reduce variance of transgene expression in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.; Leah, R.; Knudsen, S.; Cameron-Mills, V.

    2002-01-01

    this crop by biotechnology. Two plant MAR sequences were tested both for their ability to bind to the nuclear matrix of barley leaf nuclei and to regulate the expression of a reporter gene in transgenic barley. Competitive in vitro MAR binding assays with the 520 bp P1-MAR from soybean and the 516 bp...... transgene cassettes enhances their expression and reduces position-effect variations in the transgenic host. The present study is the first to investigate the influence of MAR sequences on transformation frequencies and transgene expression in barley, which is highly relevant to the future improvement of...

  7. [Enhanced biosynthesis of scopolamine in transgenic Atropa belladonna by overexpression of h6h gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Di; Qin, Bai-Fu; Yang, Chun-Xian; Lan, Xiao-Zhong; Wu, Neng-Biao; Liao, Zhi-Hua

    2013-06-01

    Transgenic Atropa belladonna with high levels of scopolamine was developed by metabolic engineering. A functional gene involved in the rate limiting enzyme of h6h involved in the biosynthetic pathway of scopolamine was over expressed in A. belladonna via Agrobacterium-mediation. The transgenic plants were culturing till fruiting through micropropogating and acclimating. The integration of the h6h genes into the genomic DNA of transgenic plants were confirmed by genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Analysis of the difference of plant height, crown width, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width, branch number and fresh weight was carried out using SPSS software. The content of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in roots, stems, leaves and fruits was determined by HPLC. The investigation of the expression levels of Hnh6h by qPCR. Both Kan(r) and Hnh6h genes were detected in five transgenic lines of A. belladonna plants (A8, A11, A12, C8 and C19), but were not detected in the controls. The plant height, crown width, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width, branch number and fresh weight of transgenic plants did not decrease by comparison with the non-transgenic ones, and furthermore some agronomic characters of transgenic plants were better than those of the controls. The highest level of scopolamine was found in leaves of transgenic A. belladonna, and the content of scopolamine was also higher than that of hyoscyamine in leaves. The contents of scopolamine of leaves in different transgenic lines were listed in order: C8 > A12 > C19 > A11 > A8, especially, the content of scopolamine in transgenic line C8 was 2.17 mg x g(-1) DW that was 4.2 folds of the non-transgenic ones (0.42 mg x g(-1) DW). The expression of transgenic Hnh6h was detected in all the transgenic plants but not in the control. The highest level of Hnh6h expression was found in transgenic leaves. Overexpression of Hnh6h is able to break the rate limiting steps involved in the downstream pathway of scopolamine biosynthesis, and thus promotes the metabolic flux flowing toward biosynthesis of scopolamine to improve the capacity of scopolamine biosynthesis in transgenic plants. As a result, transgenic plants of A. belladonna with higher level of scopolamine were developed. PMID:24010284

  8. Maternal endometrial oedema may increase perinatal mortality of cloned and transgenic piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winter, K.D.; Dantzer, Vibeke; Li, J.; Kragh, P.M.; Du, Y.; Lin, L.; Liu, Y.; Vajta, Gabor; Sangild, Per Torp; Callesen, Henrik; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen

    2011-01-01

    The perinatal mortality of cloned animals is a well-known problem. In the present retrospective study, we report on mortality of cloned transgenic or non-transgenic piglets produced as part of several investigations. Large White (LW) sows (n = 105) received hand-made cloned LW or minipig...... endometrial oedema in sows pregnant with cloned and transgenic piglets, as well as in empty recipients, at term. The growth of certain organs in some of the cloned piglets was reduced and the rate of stillborn piglets was greater in cloned and transgenic piglets delivered vaginally, possibly because of oedema...

  9. Development of potato transgenic plants and molecular and genetic analyses of their integration stability and transgene expression efficiency using vegetative and sexual propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrobacterium mediated transformation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the stability of integration, expression and inheritance of transgenes were investigated. Over 400 kanamycin resistant transgenic plants with the nptII, gus, tt (insect toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis, variety kurstaki) and tg (fusion of tt and gus under the 35S promoter) foreign genes were obtained from eight potato genotypes by co-cultivation of the leaf discs with A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 (pBI 121), A. tumefaciens 3850 (pGV 941tg) and A. rchizogenes A4 (pGV 941tt). Southern blot analysis showed that more than 80% of the regenerating plants had one or several copies of the foreign genes. Selection for kanamycin resistance and Southern blot analysis revealed the stability of inheritance of transgenes by vegetative propagation of the plants via cloning and through tubers. However, 0.3% of the plants lost the nptII gene during the cloning process. About 500 self-pollinated seeds of four independently obtained transgenic clones were harvested. Analysis of the phenotypic segregation of the transgenic progeny on selective medium with kanamycin (50 mg/L) was made and compared with the controls. Inheritance and expression of the nptII transgene in the progeny of all four transgenic clones were shown, although the character of segregation appeared to differ in the various clones

  10. Cardiac angiotensin-(1-12) expression and systemic hypertension in rats expressing the human angiotensinogen gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Carlos M; VonCannon, Jessica; Jiao, Yan; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Bader, Michael; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Groban, Leanne; Varagic, Jasmina

    2016-04-15

    Angiotensin-(1-12) [ANG-(1-12)] is processed into ANG II by chymase in rodent and human heart tissue. Differences in the amino acid sequence of rat and human ANG-(1-12) render the human angiotensinogen (hAGT) protein refractory to cleavage by renin. We used transgenic rats harboring the hAGT gene [TGR(hAGT)L1623] to assess the non-renin-dependent effects of increased hAGT expression on heart function and arterial pressure. Compared with Sprague-Dawley (SD) control rats (n= 11), male homozygous TGR(hAGT)L1623 (n= 9) demonstrated sustained daytime and nighttime hypertension associated with no changes in heart rate but increased heart rate lability. Increased heart weight/tibial length ratio and echocardiographic indexes of cardiac hypertrophy were associated with modest reduction of systolic function in hAGT rats. Robust human ANG-(1-12) immunofluorescence within myocytes of TGR(hAGT)L1623 rats was associated with a fourfold increase in cardiac ANG II content. Chymase enzymatic activity, using the rat or human ANG-(1-12) as a substrate, was not different in the cardiac tissue of SD and hAGT rats. Since both cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities were not different among the two strains, the changes in cardiac structure and function, blood pressure, and left ventricular ANG II content might be a product of an increased cardiac expression of ANG II generated through a non-renin-dependent mechanism. The data also underscore the existence in the rat of alternate enzymes capable of acting on hAGT protein. Homozygous transgenic rats expressing the hAGT gene represent a novel tool to investigate the contribution of human relevant renin-independent cardiac ANG II formation and function. PMID:26873967

  11. Polyamines in response to abiotic stress tolerance through transgenic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Malabika Roy; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Wani, Shabir H

    2014-01-01

    The distribution, growth, development and productivity of crop plants are greatly affected by various abiotic stresses. Worldwide, sustainable crop productivity is facing major challenges caused by abiotic stresses by reducing the potential yield in crop plants by as much as 70%. Plants can generally adapt to one or more environmental stresses to some extent. Physiological and molecular studies at transcriptional, translational, and transgenic plant levels have shown the pronounced involvement of naturally occurring plant polyamines (PAs), in controlling, conferring, and modulating abiotic stress tolerance in plants. PAs are small, low molecular weight, non-protein polycations at physiological pH, that are present in all living organisms, and that have strong binding capacity to negatively charged DNA, RNA, and different protein molecules. They play an important role in plant growth and development by controlling the cell cycle, acting as cell signaling molecules in modulating plant tolerance to a variety of abiotic stresses. The commonly known PAs, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine tend to accumulate together accompanied by an increase in the activities of their biosynthetic enzymes under a range of environmental stresses. PAs help plants to combat stresses either directly or by mediating a signal transduction pathway, as shown by molecular cloning and expression studies of PA biosynthesis-related genes, knowledge of the functions of PAs, as demonstrated by developmental studies, and through the analysis of transgenic plants carrying PA genes. This review highlights how PAs in higher plants act during environmental stress and how transgenic strategies have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at play. PMID:24710064

  12. GH/IGF-I Transgene Expression on Muscle Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    We propose to test the hypothesis that the growth hormone/ insulin like growth factor-I axis through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms may provide long term muscle homeostasis under conditions of prolonged weightlessness. As a key alternative to hormone replacement therapy, ectopic production of hGH, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), and IGF-I will be studied for its potential on muscle mass impact in transgenic mice under simulated microgravity. Expression of either hGH or IGF-I would provide a chronic source of a growth-promoting protein whose biosynthesis or secretion is shut down in space. Muscle expression of the IGF-I transgene has demonstrated about a 20% increase in hind limb muscle mass over control nontransgenic litter mates. These recent experiments, also establish the utility of hind-limb suspension in mice as a workable model to study atrophy in weight bearing muscles. Thus, transgenic mice will be used in hind-limb suspension models to determine the role of GH/IGF-I on maintenance of muscle mass and whether concentric exercises might act in synergy with hormone treatment. As a means to engineer and ensure long-term protein production that would be workable in humans, gene therapy technology will be used by to monitor muscle mass preservation during hind-limb suspension, after direct intramuscular injection of a genetically engineered muscle-specific vector expressing GHRH. Effects of this gene-based therapy will be assessed in both fast twitch (medial gastrocnemius) and slow twitch muscle (soleus). End-points include muscle size, ultrastructure, fiber type, and contractile function, in normal animals, hind limb suspension, and reambutation.

  13. Field performance of transgenic sugarcane expressing isomaltulose synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Morgan, Terrance C; Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing a vacuole-targeted isomaltulose (IM) synthase in seven recipient genotypes (elite cultivars) were evaluated over 3 years at a field site typical of commercial cane growing conditions in the Burdekin district of Australia. IM concentration typically increased with internode maturity and comprised up to 217 mm (33% of total sugars) in whole-cane juice. There was generally a comparable decrease in sucrose concentration, with no overall decrease in total sugars. Sugarcane is vegetatively propagated from stem cuttings known as setts. Culture-derived plants were slower to establish and generally gave shorter and thinner stalks at harvest than those grown from field-sourced setts in the initial field generations. However, after several cycles of field propagation, selections were obtained with cane yields similar to the recipient genotypes. There was no apparent adverse effect of IM accumulation on vigour assessed by stalk height and diameter or other visual indicators including germination of setts and establishment of stools. There was some inconsistency in IM levels in juice, between samplings of the vegetatively propagated transgenic lines. Until the causes are resolved, it is prudent to selectively propagate from stalks with higher IM levels in the initial vegetative field generations. Pol/Brix ratio allowed rapid identification of lines with high IM levels, using common sugar industry instruments. Sucrose isomerase activity was low in these transgenic lines, and the results indicate strong potential to develop sugarcane for commercial-scale production of IM if higher activity can be engineered in appropriate developmental patterns. PMID:21895946

  14. [Evaluation of imaging biomarker by transgenic mouse models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Jun; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2009-04-01

    The invention of trangenic and gene knockout mice contributes to the understanding of various brain functions. With the previous-generation positron emission tomography (PET) camera it was impossible to visualize the mouse brain functions, while the newly developed small-animal PET camera with higher resolution is enough to visualize the mouse brain functions. In the present study, we investigated the visualization of functional brain images for a few transgenic mouse models using the small-animal PET. In neurodegenerative illnesses such as Alzheimer disease (AD), the relationship between etiopathology and main symptoms has been elucidated relatively well; therefore several transgenic mice have been already developed. We succeeded in visualizing amyloid images in human mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice brains. This result suggested that small-animal PET enabled the quantitative analysis of pathologies in the Tg mouse brain. Psychiatric disorders are presumed to have underlying multiple neural dysfunctions. Despite some efficient medicinal therapies having been already established, the etiopathology of mental illness and its biological markers have not been clarified. Thus, we investigated in type II Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase alpha (CaMKII alpha) heterozygous knockout (hKO) mouse, a major protein kinase in the brain. The CaMKII alpha hKO mice have several abnormal behavioral phenotypes, such as hyper aggression and lack of anxiogenic responses; therefore CaMKII alpha might involve in the pathogenesis of mood disorder and affect personal characterizations. Furthermore, serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor density in the CaMKII alpha hKO mouse brain changed among various brain regions compared to wild mice. These mechanistic insights, PET assays of Tg mice that we have established here, provide an efficient methodology for preclinical evaluation of emerging diagnostic and therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative and psychiatric illnesses. PMID:19562945

  15. Transgenic and knockout mice in research on prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeber, A J; Brandner, S; Klein, M A; Benninger, Y; Musahl, C; Frigg, R; Roeckl, C; Fischer, M B; Weissmann, C; Aguzzi, A

    1998-10-01

    Since the discovery of the prion protein (PrP) gene more than a decade ago, transgenetic investigations on the PrP gene have shaped the field of prion biology in an unprecedented way. Many questions regarding the role of PrP in susceptibility of an organism exposed to prions have been elucidated. For example mice with a targeted disruption of the PrP gene have allowed the demonstration that an organism that lacks PrPc is resistant to infection by prions. Reconstitution of these mice with mutant PrP genes allowed investigations on the structure-activity relationship of the PrP gene with regard to scrapie susceptibility. Unexpectedly, transgenic mice expressing PrP with specific amino-proximal truncations spontaneously develop a neurologic syndrome presenting with ataxia and cerebellar lesions. A distinct spontaneous neurologic phenotype was observed in mice with internal deletions in PrP. Using ectopic expression of PrP in PrP knockout mice has turned out to be a valuable approach towards the identification of host cells that are capable of replicating prions. Transgenic mice have also contributed to our understanding of the molecular basis of the species barrier for prions. Finally, the availability of PrP knockout mice and transgenic mice overexpressing PrP allows selective reconstitution experiments aimed at expressing PrP in neurografts or in specific populations of hemato- and lymphopoietic cells. Such studies have shed new light onto the mechanisms of prion spread and disease pathogenesis. PMID:9804380

  16. The sensitivity of Crepis capillaris transgenic roots to mutagenic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid progress has recently been made in biotechnology, especially in the development of transformation techniques including transgenic roots - hairy roots. Transgenic root cultures are used not only as a source of secondary metabolites, but have also proven to be a very good material for cytogenetic analysis of cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of environmental factors on plant cells. In the present study, the sensitivity of transgenic roots of Crepis capillaris has been analysed. The agents used for treatment were X-rays, maleic hydrazid acid - mutagen effective in the S phase, and oryzaline - herbicide that causes depolimerization of mitotic spindle microtubules. Crepis capillaris is a very good model plant for those studies because it has three pairs of relatively big and morphologically differentiated chromosomes. The transformed Crepis roots grow quickly and are easy to culture in vitro. This makes it very convenient for the analysis of the influence of mutagenic and stress factors on plant cell. The effect of mutagenic treatments was estimated using two mutagenic tests namely micronucleus test and anaphase - telophase test. Additionally, fluorescence in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA was applied in order to analyse the involvement of NOR chromosomes in the formation of micronuclei, fragments and other types of chromosomal aberrations. Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were analysed to test the structural chromosome changes. The analysis of the changes in cells of Crepis capillaris after oryzaline treatment encompassed also the observation of microtubules of cytoskeleton and of mitotic spindle using the immunocytochemical approach. The results show different sensitivity of cells in 'hairy roots' and primary roots of Crepis capillaris to mutagenic factors. (author)

  17. Expressing of bacterial dihydrodipicolinate synthase in transgenic barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cernei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional quality of human and animal foodstuffs is determined by the content of essential amino acids. Barley is the fourth most important cereal of the world and the second most important cereal grown in the Czech Republic. Cereal grains such as barley contain insufficient levels of some essential amino acid, especially lysine. The ionex chromatography is very selective and convenient for aminoacids determination such as lysine. In connection with post column derivatization the limit of detection of lysine determination was below 1?M and linearity of calibration curve was R2=0.995. Thus we were able to determine the rate of expression for transgenic Barley.

  18. FLUORESCENT TRANSGENIC FISH IN PERU: BIOSAFETY AND RISK ANALYSIS PENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotto, Carlos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Transgenesis involves processes of molecular genetic manipulation of DNAwhich seeks to "introduce genes" of interest from one organism into the genetic material of another to obtain goods or services. The resulting organism is called a Genetically Modified Organism or GMO. It shows the first case of transgenic fluorescent fish as a real example of GMOs existing in Peru. Reproduction and hybridization in confined environments, provide new approaches to biosecurity decision-makers about this new technological contribution to the task of Peru.

  19. Memory Impairment in Transgenic Alzheimer Mice Requires Cellular Prion Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Gimbel, David A.; Nygaard, Haakon B.; Coffey, Erin E.; Gunther, Erik C.; Laurén, Juha; Gimbel, Zachary A.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Soluble oligomers of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide are thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, we reported that synthetic Aβ oligomers bind to cellular prion protein (PrPC) and that this interaction is required for suppression of synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices by oligomeric Aβ peptide. We hypothesized that PrPC is essential for the ability of brain-derived Aβ to suppress cognitive function. Here, we crossed familial AD transgenes encodi...

  20. Belowground environmental effects of transgenic crops: a soil microbial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Alessandra; Sbrana, Cristiana; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2015-04-01

    Experimental studies investigated the effects of transgenic crops on the structure, function and diversity of soil and rhizosphere microbial communities playing key roles in belowground environments. Here we review available data on direct, indirect and pleiotropic effects of engineered plants on soil microbiota, considering both the technology and the genetic construct utilized. Plants modified to express phytopathogen/phytoparasite resistance, or traits beneficial to food industries and consumers, differentially affected soil microorganisms depending on transformation events, experimental conditions and taxa analyzed. Future studies should address the development of harmonized methodologies by taking into account the complex interactions governing soil life. PMID:25728596

  1. Electrochemical determination of metallothionein in transgenic tobacco plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížková, S.; Diopan, V.; Baloun, J.; Šupálková, V.; Shestisvka, V.; Kotrba, P.; Macková, Martina; Macek, Tomáš; Havel, L.; Adam, V.; Zehnálek, J.; Kizek, R.

    Praha : VŠCHT, 2007 - (Macková, M.; Macek, T.; Demnerová, K.; Pazlar, V.; Nováková, M.), s. 21-23 ISBN 978-80-7080-026-3. [Symposium on Biosorption and Bioremediation /4./. Praha (CZ), 26.08.2007-30.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Grant ostatní: GAČR(CZ) GA522/07/0692 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : metallothionein * heavy metals * transgenic plants * GM-tobacco Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  2. Evaluation of adenovirus capsid labeling versus transgene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curiel David T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adenoviral vectors have been utilized for a variety of gene therapy applications. Our group has incorporated bioluminescent, fluorographic reporters, and/or suicide genes within the adenovirus genome for analytical and/or therapeutic purposes. These molecules have also been incorporated as capsid components. Recognizing that incorporations at either locale yield potential advantages and disadvantages, our report evaluates the benefits of transgene incorporation versus capsid incorporation. To this end, we have genetically incorporated firefly luciferase within the early region 3 or at minor capsid protein IX and compared vector functionality by means of reporter readout.

  3. Targeted and additional transgenic animal models in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homologous recombination in ES cells and trans-genesis are now technologies used to produce animals in which the physiological consequences of radiation injury can be examined. Null models have been produced to study DNA repair machinery and cells cycle control. Transgenic mice have also been produced that may be used as assay systems to study damages on tissue development and progressive of carcinogenesis as well as pharmacological manipulations and screening for radioprotection. These trans-genesis have offers unlimited possibilities for creating animal models that can be used in radiation biology. (authors)

  4. Transgenic engineering of male-specific muscular hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Pirottin, Dimitri; Grobet, Luc; Adamantidis, Antoine; Farnir, Frédéric; Herens, Christian; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Georges, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Using a two-step procedure involving insertional gene targeting and recombinase-mediated cassette exchange in ES cells, we have produced two lines of transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative latency-associated myostatin propeptide under control of the myosin light chain 1F promoter and 1/3 enhancer from the TSPY locus on the Y chromosome. Males of the corresponding lines are characterized by a 5-20% increase in skeletal muscle mass. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of a more...

  5. [Transgenic bioinsecticides inimical to parasites, but imical to environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucińska, Jolanta; Lonc, Elzbieta; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna

    2003-01-01

    Identification of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) parasporal crystalline inclusions composed of Cry proteins (=delta-endotoxins) resulted in introduction of microbial pesticides for biological control of some parasites. Delta-endotoxins are encoded by cry genes and are active against pest and nuisance insects (mostly mosquitoes and black flies--vectors of still important infectious diseases). The recent significant progress in DNA recombination technique may overcome limitations (a short residual persistence and a narrow spectrum of activity) associated with application of Bt conventional products. An introduction of cry genes from mosquitocidal subspecies B. th. israelensis (Bti) to the aquatic microorganisms inhabiting the same water bodies as mosquito and fly larvae (Diptera), has considerably improved the toxin delivery system to target insects. However, in the first experiments, in which Bti genes were cloned in cyanobacteria (Agmenellum quadruplicatum, Synechocystis PCC6803), a low gene expression was observed. Thus, it was necessary to integrate cry genes with strong promoters or to increase the number of vector-introduced copies. To overcome the obstacles of low gene expression and regulatory restriction for recombinant organisms, Bti spore/crystal formulations were encapsulated in the aquatic protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis. Large numbers of crystals (180 to 240/cell) were accumulated in its food vacuoles. This system resulted also in an increase in toxin persistence from 24 to 71 h. Cloning Bti genes in B. sphaericus (which also produces mosquitocidal proteins) was another way of an increasing Bt crystal residual activity. In this case, the crystals were additionally protected by B. sphaericus exosporium. These transgenic bacteria produced large amounts of delta-endotoxins that remained under water surface longer than the wild B. sphaericus strains. Moreover, they had a broader spectrum of insecticidal activity, because B. sphaericus is toxic mostly to Culex and Anopheles, and Bti--mostly to Culex, Aedes and some Simmulidae. Gram-negative bacteria (Asticcacaulis excentricus, Caulobacter crescentus and Ancylobacter aquaticus) turned out also to be effective delta-endotoxin producers. They grow on simple media and do not contain proteases which could degrade Cry proteins. In some cases, 100% mosquito larvae mortality was observed as a result of an exposure to transgenic microorganisms containing Bti genes. However, transgenic techniques are still not very popular in the world, despite their efficacy in biological control of insects. The transgenic organism construction is expensive and time-consuming. Genetic engineering is still raising a lot of anxieties and doubts concerning inappropriate use of modified organisms. On the other hand, this technology could solve many problems associated with vectors of important diseases, which are still unapproachable to contemporary medicine. PMID:16889013

  6. The nature and current status of Transgenic Atlantic Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, T.F.; Galvin, P. T.

    1997-01-01

    This study was commissioned by the Irish Marine Institute in response to a Ministerial request from the Department of the Marine. The definition of Genetically Modified fish (GMO) that we use throughout this report is of fish that have a gene added from the same or another species, i.e. transgenics. This is a narrow definition, in that it excludes products of sex manipulation or ploidy manipulation, but is the one accepted by, for example, the European Union (Council Directive 90/220/EEC, ...

  7. Detection of metallothionein level at transgenic plants of tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diopan, V.; Baloun, J.; Šupálková, V.; Křížková, S.; Shestisvka, V.; Kotrba, P.; Macková, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Havel, L.; Adam, V.; Zehnálek, J.; Kizek, R.

    Nitra : Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology SAV, 2007 - (Libiaková, G.; Gajdošová, A.). s. 119 ISBN 978-80-89088-51-5. [Plant biotechnology: Impact on high Qualityn Plant Production. International Symposium in the Series Recent Advances in Plant Biotechnology /7./. 10.06.2007-16.06.2007, Stará Lesná] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/07/0692 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : transgenic plants * tobacco Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  8. Cell culture induced epigenetic changes in tobacco transgenic loci

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížová, Kateřina; Fojtová, Miloslava; Depicker, A.; Kovařík, Aleš

    Brno, 2009. s. 28. ISBN 978-80-210-4830-0. [Pracovní setkání biochemiků a molekulárních biologů /13./. 14.04.2009-15.04.2009, Brno] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600040611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : gene silencing * transgenes * plant cell culture Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  9. CNTF Induces Regeneration of Cone Outer Segments in a Rat Model of Retinal Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yiwen; TAO, WENG; Luo, Lingyu; Huang, Deqiang; Kauper, Konrad; Stabila, Paul; LaVail, Matthew M.; Laties, Alan M.; Wen, Rong

    2010-01-01

    Background Cone photoreceptors are responsible for color and central vision. In the late stage of retinitis pigmentosa and in geographic atrophy associated with age-related macular degeneration, cone degeneration eventually causes loss of central vision. In the present work, we investigated cone degeneration secondary to rod loss in the S334ter-3 transgenic rats carrying the rhodopsin mutation S334ter. Methodology/Principal Findings Recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was del...

  10. Transgenic Quail Production by Microinjection of Lentiviral Vector into the Early Embryo Blood Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zifu; Sun, Peng; Yu, Fuxian; Yan, Li; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Wenxin; Wang, Tao; Wan, Zhiyi; Shao, Qiang; Li, Zandong

    2012-01-01

    Several strategies have been used to generate transgenic birds. The most successful method so far has been the injection of lentiviral vectors into the subgerminal cavity of a newly laid egg. We report here a new, easy and effective way to produce transgenic quails through direct injection of a lentiviral vector, containing an enhanced-green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgene, into the blood vessels of quail embryos at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 1315 (HH1315). A total of 80 embryos were injected and 48 G0 chimeras (60%) were hatched. Most injected embryo organs and tissues of hatched quails were positive for eGFP. In five out of 21 mature G0 male quails, the semen was eGFP-positive, as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating transgenic germ line chimeras. Testcross and genetic analyses revealed that the G0 quail produced transgenic G1 offspring; of 46 G1 hatchlings, 6 were transgenic (6/46, 13.0%). We also compared this new method with the conventional transgenesis using stage X subgerminal cavity injection. Total 240 quail embryos were injected by subgerminal cavity injection, of which 34 (14.1%) were hatched, significantly lower than the new method. From these hatched quails semen samples were collected from 19 sexually matured males and tested for the transgene by PCR. The transgene was present in three G0 male quails and only 4/236 G1 offspring (1.7%) were transgenic. In conclusion, we developed a novel bird transgenic method by injection of lentiviral vector into embryonic blood vessel at HH 1315 stage, which result in significant higher transgenic efficiency than the conventional subgerminal cavity injection. PMID:23251391

  11. AAV vectors transduce hepatocytes in vivo as efficiently in cirrhotic as in healthy rat livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrevals, L; Enguita, M; Rodriguez, C; Gonzalez-Rojas, J; Alzaguren, P; Razquin, N; Prieto, J; Fortes, P

    2012-04-01

    In liver cirrhosis, abnormal liver architecture impairs efficient transduction of hepatocytes with large viral vectors such as adenoviruses. Here we evaluated the ability of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, small viral vectors, to transduce normal and cirrhotic rat livers. Using AAV serotype-1 (AAV1) encoding luciferase (AAV1Luc) we analyzed luciferase expression with a CCD camera. AAV1Luc was injected through the hepatic artery (intra-arterial (IA)), the portal vein (intra-portal (IP)), directly into the liver (intra-hepatic (IH)) or infused into the biliary tree (intra-biliar). We found that AAV1Luc allows long-term and constant luciferase expression in rat livers. Interestingly, IP administration leads to higher expression levels in healthy than in cirrhotic livers, whereas the opposite occurs when using IA injection. IH administration leads to similar transgene expression in cirrhotic and healthy rats, whereas intra-biliar infusion is the least effective route. After 70% partial hepatectomy, luciferase expression decreased in the regenerating liver, suggesting lack of efficient integration of AAV1 DNA into the host genome. AAV1Luc transduced mainly the liver but also the testes and spleen. Within the liver, transgene expression was found mainly in hepatocytes. Using a liver-specific promoter, transgene expression was detected in hepatocytes but not in other organs. Our results indicate that AAVs are convenient vectors for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. PMID:21850051

  12. TT2014 meeting report on the 12th Transgenic Technology meeting in Edinburgh: new era of transgenic technologies with programmable nucleases in the foreground

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beck, Inken; Sedláček, Radislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2015), s. 179-183. ISSN 0962-8819 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Transgenic * Nuclease * Gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.322, year: 2014

  13. Transgenic Drosophila model to study apolipoprotein E4-induced neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Mohammad; Nongthomba, Upendra; Jahromi, Samaneh Reiszadeh; Ramesh, S R

    2016-03-15

    The ε4 isoform of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) that is involved in neuron-glial lipid metabolism has been demonstrated as the main genetic risk factor in late-onset of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism underlying ApoE4-mediated neurodegeneration remains unclear. We created a transgenic model of neurodegenerative disorder by expressing ε3 and ε4 isoforms of human ApoE in the Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic models exhibited progressive neurodegeneration, shortened lifespan and memory impairment. Genetic interaction studies between amyloid precursor protein and ApoE in axon pathology of the disease revealed that over expression of hApoE in Appl-expressing neurons of Drosophila brain causes neurodegeneration. Moreover, acute oxidative damage in the hApoE transgenic flies triggered a neuroprotective response of hApoE3 while chronic induction of oxidative damage accelerated the rate of neurodegeneration. This Drosophila model may facilitate analysis of the molecular and cellular events implicated in hApoE4 neurotoxicity. PMID:26706888

  14. Developmental analysis of the cytomegalovirus enhancer in transgenic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, J F; Smith, P P; Ciment, G S; Hoffmann, S; Tucker, C; Tenney, D J; Colberg-Poley, A M; Nelson, J A; Ghazal, P

    1996-05-01

    The major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) of human, cytomegalovirus (HCMV) constitutes a primary genetic switch for viral activation. In this study, regulation of the enhancer-containing segment (nucleotides -670 to +54) of the HCMV MIEP attached to the 1acZ reporter gene was examined in the developing embryos of transgenic mice to identify temporal and tissue-specific expression. We find that the transgene reporter is first detected as a dorsal stripe of expression in the neural folds of embryos at day 8.5 postcoitum (p.c.). A broad expression pattern is exhibited in embryos at day 9.5 p.c. This pattern becomes more restricted by day 10.5 p.c. as organogenesis progresses. By day 14.5 p.c., prominent expression is observed in a subpopulation of central nervous system cells and spinal ganglia, endothelial cells, muscle, skin, thyroid, parathyroid, kidney, lung, liver, and gut cells, and the pancreas and submandibular and pituitary glands. This distribution pattern is discussed in relation to human congenital HCMV infection. These results suggest that the transcriptional activity of the HCMV MIEP may determine in part, the ability of the virus to specifically target developing fetal tissues in utero. PMID:8627802

  15. Lactoferrin-derived resistance against plant pathogens in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Dilip K; Natarajan, Savithiry; Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a ubiquitous cationic iron-binding milk glycoprotein that contributes to nutrition and exerts a broad-spectrum primary defense against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses in mammals. These qualities make lactoferrin protein and its antimicrobial motifs highly desirable candidates to be incorporated in plants to impart broad-based resistance against plant pathogens or to economically produce them in bulk quantities for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. This study introduced bovine LF (BLF) gene into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi), Arabidopsis ( A. thaliana ) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) via Agrobacterium -mediated plant transformation. Transgenic plants or detached leaves exhibited high levels of resistance against the damping-off causing fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and the head blight causing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum . LF also imparted resistance to tomato plants against a bacterial pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum . Similarly, other researchers demonstrated expression of LF and LF-mediated high-quality resistance to several other aggressive fungal and bacterial plant pathogens in transgenic plants and against viral pathogens by foliar applications of LF or its derivatives. Taken together, these studies demonstrated the effectiveness of LF for improving crop quality and its biopharming potentials for pharmaceautical and nutritional applications. PMID:23889215

  16. The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

    1993-12-01

    The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  17. Induction and analysis of cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Marcos E; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy is an adaptational process of the heart to increased workload caused by mechanical stress, growth factors, cytokines, catecholamines, or primary genetic abnormalities. Chronic induction of hypertrophy leads to the gradual deterioration of ventricular function and is an independent risk factor for cardiac-related morbidity and mortality in patients with hypertension and ventricular arrythmias. Transgenic animals are very useful models to study the factors involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. To achieve this goal, rodents lacking or overexpressing a specific gene are subjected to banding of the abdominal aorta, an experimental model of cardiac hypertrophy that leads to pressure overload on the heart. After periods between 3 and 21 d, parameters such as cardiac hemodynamics, morphologic alterations, and expression of marker genes (e.g., the gene for atrial natriuretic peptide) are analyzed in genetically modified animals and compared with controls elucidating a possible implication of the modified gene in the pathogenic process leading to myocardial hypertrophy. This article summarizes the techniques necessary to induce left ventricular hypertrophy by aortic banding and to analyze the effects of this experimental model on hemodynamics, cardiac morphology, and gene expression of transgenic and control animals. PMID:16010028

  18. Phage integrases for the construction and manipulation of transgenic mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sclimenti Christopher R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phage integrases catalyze site-specific, unidirectional recombination between two short att recognition sites. Recombination results in integration when the att sites are present on two different DNA molecules and deletion or inversion when the att sites are on the same molecule. Here we demonstrate the ability of the ?C31 integrase to integrate DNA into endogenous sequences in the mouse genome following microinjection of donor plasmid and integrase mRNA into mouse single-cell embryos. Transgenic early embryos and a mid-gestation mouse are reported. We also demonstrate the ability of the ?C31, R4, and TP901-1 phage integrases to recombine two introduced att sites on the same chromosome in human cells, resulting in deletion of the intervening material. We compare the frequencies of mammalian chromosomal deletion catalyzed by these three integrases in different chromosomal locations. The results reviewed here introduce these bacteriophage integrases as tools for site-specific modification of the genome for the creation and manipulation of transgenic mammals.

  19. An in vivo screen for the luciferase transgene in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, P D; Peek, A; Thorgaard, G

    1994-12-01

    A simple and economical large-scale in vivo screen for firefly luciferase expression in transgenic zebrafish is described. The screen is a film assay of luminescence during embryogenesis. Either luciferin substrate can be microinjected into the embryo, or the embryo can be raised in a luciferin solution. In a test of transient expression in the G0 (microinjected) generation, a construct with the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter gave higher levels of expression than three other constructs. Using the CMV promoter, injection of supercoiled or linear DNA led to approximately equivalent amounts of expression. Although G0 transient luciferase expression is high enough to be reliably screened, G1 integrated expression is either low or nonexistent, and therefore unscreenable. In the G1 and G2 generations, low-level expression was increased with application of 5-azacytidine. The fact that both transgene methylation and 5-azacytidine activation of expression occurred suggests that methylation is involved in either reducing or eliminating integrated luciferase expression. This in vivo luciferase screen may be useful for insertional mutagenesis, promoter, gene, or enhancer traps, promoter analysis, and optimization of conditions for gene transfer. PMID:7535626

  20. MR Microimaging of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurological condition affecting industrialized nations and will rapidly become a healthcare crisis as the population ages. Currently, the post-mortem histological observation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles is the only definitive diagnosis available for AD. A pre-mortem biological or physiological marker specific for AD used in conjunction with current neurological and memory testing could add a great deal of confidence to the diagnosis of AD and potentially allow therapeutic intervention much earlier in the disease process. Our group has developed MRI techniques to detect individual amyloid plaques in AD transgenic mouse brain in vivo. We are also developing contrast-enhancing agents to increase the specificity of detection of amyloid plaques. Such in vivo imaging of amyloid plaques will also allow the evaluation of anti-amyloid therapies being developed by the pharmaceutical industry in pre-clinical trials of AD transgenic mice. This short review briefly discusses our progress in these areas. (orig.)

  1. Glyphosate drift promotes changes in fitness and transgene flow in canola (Brassica napus) and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. With the advent of transgenic crops, genetically modified, herbicide resistant B. napus has become a model system for examining the risks of escape of transgenes from cultivation and for evaluating potential ecological consequences of novel genes in wild species. 2. We exam...

  2. Virus Resistant Transgenic Papaya: Commercial Development and Regulatory and Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Hawaii, transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was developed starting in the 1980s and released commercially in 1998 to combat the wide spread destruction of Hawaii’s papaya industry. This review describes the proactive development of the transgenic papaya and its impact on ...

  3. The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) crops and non-GM crops is a myth because the movement of transgenes beyond their intended destinations is a certainty, and this leads to genetic contamination of organic farms and other systems. It is unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of

  4. Pharmacological activation of Kv11.1 in transgenic long QT-1 rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Bahrke, Sophia; Wu, Kezhong; Larsen, Anders Peter; Odening, Katja E; Franke, Gerlind; Storm vans Gravesande, Karin; Biermann, Jrgen; Peng, Xuwen; Koren, Gideon; Zehender, Manfred; Bode, Christoph; Grunnet, Morten; Brunner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic rabbits expressing pore mutants of K(V)7.1 display a long QT syndrome 1 (LQT1) phenotype. Recently, NS1643 has been described to increase I(Kr).We hypothesized that NS1643 would shorten the action potential duration (APD(90)) in LQT1 rabbits. Transgenic LQT1 rabbits were compared with...

  5. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic. PMID:22101927

  6. Construction and analysis of the transgenic carrot and celery plants expressing the recombinant thaumatin II protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchakivska Yu. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To obtain the transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II in order to increase plant stress tolerance. Methods. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the carrot and celery seedlings was used for obtaining the transgenic plants. Presence and transcription of the transgene in plant tissues were proved by PCR and RT-PCR analysis. The plants were tested for the biotic stress tolerance by in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity assays and for the salinity and osmotic stress tolerance by plant survival test in presence of NaCl and PEG in different concentrations. Results. Transgenic plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II gene (transcription proved for 60–100 % were obtained by agrobacterial transformation. The transgenic carrot plant extracts inhibited the growth of the studied phytopathogenic bacteria strains but exhibited no antifungal activity. Survival level of transgenic plants under the salinity and osmotic stress effect was definitely higher comparing to the untransgenic ones. The analysis of the photosynthetic pigment content in the transgenic carrot plants showed no significant difference of this parameter under salinity stress that may indicate a possible protective activity of the recombinant protein. Conclusions. The obtained in our study transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express the recombinant thaumatin II gene were characterized by antibacterial activity and increased tolerance to salinity and osmotic stress factors.

  7. Effect of 5'-flanking sequence deletions on expression of the human insulin gene in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromont-Racine, M; Bucchini, D; Madsen, O; Desbois, P; Linde, S; Saulnier, C; Ripoche, M A; Jami, J; Pictet, R; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the human insulin gene was examined in transgenic mouse lines carrying the gene with various lengths of DNA sequences 5' to the transcription start site (+1). Expression of the transgene was demonstrated by 1) the presence of human C-peptide in urine, 2) the presence of specific tra...

  8. Ear leaf photosynthesis and related parameters of transgenic and non-GMO maize hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) has undergone transformation by using transgenic technology to include d-endotoxins for insect control and tolerance for the herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate . Maize hybrids are being grown with multiple transgenic traits into their genotype (stacked-gene). Limited...

  9. TRANSGENIC COMPARISONS OF PINK BOLLWORM EFFICACY AND RESPONSE TO HEAT STRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen lines from 3 different cotton families were compared. Each family had a conventional, non-transgenic standard, as well as 4 other transgenic lines. Each Bt line was evaluated for this trait's efficacy in controlling pink bollworm under high pressure, artificial infestations. Various agronomi...

  10. Human anti-rhesus D IgG1 antibody produced in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouquin, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed; Green, Trine Hefsgaard; Mundy, John; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic plants represent an alternative to cell culture systems for producing cheap and safe antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic use. To evaluate the functional properties of a 'plantibody', we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing full-length human IgG1 against the Rhesus D...

  11. Utilization of next generation sequencing for analyzing transgenic insertions in plum

    Science.gov (United States)

    When utilizing transgenic plants, it is useful to know how many copies of the genes were inserted and the locations of these insertions in the genome. This information can provide important insights for the interpretation of transgene expression and the resulting phenotype. Traditionally, these qu...

  12. Biolistic-mediated genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and stable Mendelian inheritance of transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivo, Nayche L; Nascimento, Cristina P; Vieira, Lívia S; Campos, Francisco A P; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2008-09-01

    We describe a novel system of exploiting the biolistic process to generate stable transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants. The system is based on combining the use of the herbicide imazapyr to select transformed meristematic cells after physical introduction of the mutated ahas gene (coding for a mutated acetohydroxyacid synthase, under control of the ahas 5' regulatory sequence) and a simple tissue culture protocol. The gus gene (under control of the act2 promoter) was used as a reporter gene. The transformation frequency (defined as the total number of putative transgenic plants divided by the total number of embryonic axes bombarded) was 0.90%. Southern analyses showed the presence of both ahas and gus expression cassettes in all primary transgenic plants, and demonstrated one to three integrated copies of the transgenes into the genome. The progenies (first and second generations) of all self-fertilized transgenic lines revealed the presence of the transgenes (gus and ahas) co-segregated in a Mendelian fashion. Western blot analysis revealed that the GUS protein expressed in the transgenic plants had the same mass and isoelectric point as the bacterial native protein. This is the first report of biolistic-mediated cowpea transformation in which fertile transgenic plants transferred the foreign genes to next generations following Mendelian laws. PMID:18587583

  13. Efficient generation of transgenic mice by lentivirus-mediated modification of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekran, Anil; Sarkar, Rupa; Thrasher, Adrian; Fraser, Scott E; Dibb, Nicholas; Casimir, Colin; Winston, Robert; Readhead, Carol

    2014-02-01

    Transgenic technologies conventionally rely on the oocyte as a substrate for genetic modification. Owing to their accessibility, however, male germ cells, including mature sperm, have material advantages for use in transgenesis. Here we have exploited lentiviruses to generate transgenic animals via the male germline. When pseudotyped lentiviral vectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) were incubated with mouse spermatozoa, these sperm were highly successful in producing transgenics. Lentivirally transduced mouse spermatozoa were used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) studies, and when followed by embryo transfer, ? 42% of founders were found to be transgenic for GFP. Inverse PCR strategy for integration site analysis demonstrated integration of at least 1 or 2 copies of GFP in the transgenics, mapping to different chromosomes. GFP expression was detected in a wide range of murine tissues, including testis and the transgene was stably transmitted to a third generation of transgenic animals. This relatively simple, yet highly efficient, technique for generating transgenic animals by transducing spermatozoa with lentiviral vectors in vitro is a powerful tool for the study of fertilization/preimplantation development, vertical viral gene transmission, gene function and regulation, and epigenetic inheritance. PMID:24297703

  14. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  15. PERSISTENCE IN SOIL OF TRANSGENIC PLANT PRODUCED BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI O-ENDOTOXIN1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants that produce pesticidal proteins will release these proteins into the soil when these plants are incorporated into the soil by tillage or as leaf litter. Little is known about the fate and persistence of transgenic plant pesticidal products in the soil. We used ...

  16. Approaches for improving present laboratory and field methodology for evaluation efficacy of transgenic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the efficacy of transgenic plants under new environmental and management regimes is of prime importance to the companies which produce new or improved existing transgenic products, breeders which create different varieties stacked with Bt endotoxins, and growers who use them for production...

  17. The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) crops and non-GM crops is a myth because the movement of transgenes beyond their intended destinations is a certainty, and this leads to genetic contamination of organic farms and other systems. It is unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of…

  18. Virtual Transgenics: Using a Molecular Biology Simulation to Impact Student Academic Achievement and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Lazarus, Melanie M.; Murray, Nancy G.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Sessions, Nathalie; Zsigmond, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic mouse model is useful for studying the causes and potential cures for human genetic diseases. Exposing high school biology students to laboratory experience in developing transgenic animal models is logistically prohibitive. Computer-based simulation, however, offers this potential in addition to advantages of fidelity and reach.…

  19. Marketing Strategic Benefit-risk Analysis: Transgenic Poultry Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the causes of marketing strategic benefit-risk of transgenic poultry food supply chain in china, we analyze the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of transgenic poultry food participants. This study discusses the ways and strategies of transgenic poultry food supply chain from the following aspects: a, the food's safety concerning producers, marketing participants and consumers’ risk behaviour at three stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. b, all these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption or catastrophic economic consequences for all stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. c, the identification, analysis, determination and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in transgenic poultry food market may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well informed and effective corporate marketing strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. We hope these can accelerate the construction of marketing strategic benefit-risk trade-offs of transgenic poultry food supply chain, promote sustained and rapid growth of transgenic poultry food industry in china.

  20. Virtual Transgenics: Using a Molecular Biology Simulation to Impact Student Academic Achievement and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Lazarus, Melanie M.; Murray, Nancy G.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Sessions, Nathalie; Zsigmond, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic mouse model is useful for studying the causes and potential cures for human genetic diseases. Exposing high school biology students to laboratory experience in developing transgenic animal models is logistically prohibitive. Computer-based simulation, however, offers this potential in addition to advantages of fidelity and reach.