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HDAC Inhibition Modulates Hippocampus-Dependent Long-Term Memory for Object Location in a CBP-Dependent Manner  

Science.gov (United States)

Transcription of genes required for long-term memory not only involves transcription factors, but also enzymatic protein complexes that modify chromatin structure. Chromatin-modifying enzymes, such as the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB (cyclic-AMP response element binding) binding protein (CBP), are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation…

Haettig, Jakob; Stefanko, Daniel P.; Multani, Monica L.; Figueroa, Dario X.; McQuown, Susan C.; Wood, Marcelo A.

2011-01-01

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MHC class I immune proteins are critical for hippocampus-dependent memory and gate NMDAR-dependent hippocampal long-term depression  

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Memory impairment is a common feature of conditions that involve changes in inflammatory signaling in the brain, including traumatic brain injury, infection, neurodegenerative disorders, and normal aging. However, the causal importance of inflammatory mediators in cognitive impairments in these conditions remains unclear. Here we show that specific immune proteins, members of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I), are essential for normal hippocampus-dependent memory, and...

Nelson, P. Austin; Sage, Jennifer R.; Wood, Suzanne C.; Davenport, Christopher M.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Boulanger, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

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The APP-Interacting Protein FE65 is Required for Hippocampus-Dependent Learning and Long-Term Potentiation  

Science.gov (United States)

FE65 is expressed predominantly in the brain and interacts with the C-terminal domain of [beta]-amyloid precursor protein (APP). We examined hippocampus-dependent memory and in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) at the CA1 synapses with isoform-specific FE65 knockout (p97FE65[superscript -/-]) mice. When examined using the Morris water maze,…

Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Moon, Changjong; Hu, Qubai; Wang, Baiping; Martin, George; Sun, Zhongsheng; Wang, Hongbing

2009-01-01

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Beneficial Effects of Tianeptine on Hippocampus-Dependent Long-Term Memory and Stress-Induced Alterations of Brain Structure and Function  

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Tianeptine is a well-described antidepressant which has been shown to prevent stress from producing deleterious effects on brain structure and function. Preclinical studies have shown that tianeptine blocks stress-induced alterations of neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity. Moreover, tianeptine prevents stress from impairing learning and memory, and, importantly, demonstrates memory-enhancing properties in the absence of stress. Recent research has indicated that tianeptine works by no...

Carmen Muñoz; Diamond, David M.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

2010-01-01

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MHC Class I Immune Proteins Are Critical for Hippocampus-Dependent Memory and Gate NMDAR-Dependent Hippocampal Long-Term Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Memory impairment is a common feature of conditions that involve changes in inflammatory signaling in the brain, including traumatic brain injury, infection, neurodegenerative disorders, and normal aging. However, the causal importance of inflammatory mediators in cognitive impairments in these conditions remains unclear. Here we show that…

Nelson, P. Austin; Sage, Jennifer R.; Wood, Suzanne C.; Davenport, Christopher M.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Boulanger, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

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Beneficial Effects of Tianeptine on Hippocampus-Dependent Long-Term Memory and Stress-Induced Alterations of Brain Structure and Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tianeptine is a well-described antidepressant which has been shown to prevent stress from producing deleterious effects on brain structure and function. Preclinical studies have shown that tianeptine blocks stress-induced alterations of neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity. Moreover, tianeptine prevents stress from impairing learning and memory, and, importantly, demonstrates memory-enhancing properties in the absence of stress. Recent research has indicated that tianeptine works by normalizing glutamatergic neurotransmission, a mechanism of action that may underlie its effectiveness as an antidepressant. These findings emphasize the value in focusing on the mechanisms of action of tianeptine, and specifically, the glutamatergic system, in the development of novel pharmacotherapeutic strategies in the treatment of depression.

Carmen Muñoz

2010-10-01

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Resistance exercise improves hippocampus-dependent memory  

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Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that resistance exercise improves cognitive functions in humans. Thus, an animal model that mimics this phenomenon can be an important tool for studying the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Here, we tested if an animal model for resistance exercise was able to improve the performance in a hippocampus-dependent memory task. In addition, we also evaluated the level of insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin growth factor receptor (IGF-1/IGF-1R, which plays pleiotropic roles in the nervous system. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10 for each group: control, SHAM, and resistance exercise (RES. The RES group was submitted to 8 weeks of progressive resistance exercise in a vertical ladder apparatus, while the SHAM group was left in the same apparatus without exercising. Analysis of a cross-sectional area of the flexor digitorum longus muscle indicated that this training period was sufficient to cause muscle fiber hypertrophy. In a step-through passive avoidance task (PA, the RES group presented a longer latency than the other groups on the test day. We also observed an increase of 43 and 94% for systemic and hippocampal IGF-1 concentration, respectively, in the RES group compared to the others. A positive correlation was established between PA performance and systemic IGF-1 (r = 0.46, P < 0.05. Taken together, our data indicate that resistance exercise improves the hippocampus-dependent memory task with a concomitant increase of IGF-1 level in the rat model. This model can be further explored to better understand the effects of resistance exercise on brain functions.

R.C. Cassilhas

2012-12-01

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Resistance exercise improves hippocampus-dependent memory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english It has been demonstrated that resistance exercise improves cognitive functions in humans. Thus, an animal model that mimics this phenomenon can be an important tool for studying the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Here, we tested if an animal model for resistance exercise was able to impro [...] ve the performance in a hippocampus-dependent memory task. In addition, we also evaluated the level of insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin growth factor receptor (IGF-1/IGF-1R), which plays pleiotropic roles in the nervous system. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10 for each group): control, SHAM, and resistance exercise (RES). The RES group was submitted to 8 weeks of progressive resistance exercise in a vertical ladder apparatus, while the SHAM group was left in the same apparatus without exercising. Analysis of a cross-sectional area of the flexor digitorum longus muscle indicated that this training period was sufficient to cause muscle fiber hypertrophy. In a step-through passive avoidance task (PA), the RES group presented a longer latency than the other groups on the test day. We also observed an increase of 43 and 94% for systemic and hippocampal IGF-1 concentration, respectively, in the RES group compared to the others. A positive correlation was established between PA performance and systemic IGF-1 (r = 0.46, P

R.C., Cassilhas; K.S., Lee; D.P., Venâncio; M.G.M., Oliveira; S., Tufik; M.T., Mello.

1215-12-01

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Circadian Oscillations within the Hippocampus Support Hippocampus-dependent Memory Processing  

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Full Text Available The ability to sustain memories over long periods of time, sometimes even a lifetime, is one of the most remarkable properties of the brain. Much knowledge has been gained over the past few decades regarding the molecular correlates of memory formation. Once a memory is forged, however, the molecular events that provide permanence are as of yet unclear. Studies in multiple organisms have revealed that circadian rhythmicity is important for the formation, stability, and recall of memories [1]. The neuronal events that provide this link need to be explored further. This article will discuss the findings related to the circadian regulation of memory-dependent processes in the hippocampus. Specifically, the circadian-controlled MAP kinase and cAMP signal transduction pathway plays critical roles in the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. A series of studies have revealed the circadian oscillation of this pathway within the hippocampus, an activity that is absent in memory-deficient, transgenic mice lacking Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclases. Interference with these oscillations proceeding the cellular memory consolidation period impairs the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory. These data suggest that the persistence of long-term memories may depend upon reactivation of this signal transduction pathway in the hippocampus during the circadian cycle. New data reveals the dependence of hippocampal oscillation in MAPK activity on the SCN, again underscoring the importance of this region in maintaining the circadian physiology of memory. Finally, the downstream ramification of these oscillations in terms of gene expression and epigenetics should be considered, as emerging evidence is pointing strongly to a circadian link between epigenetics and long term synaptic plasticity.

KristinLynnEckel-Mahan

2012-04-01

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Neuromodulatory Signaling in Hippocampus-dependent Memory Retrieval.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable advances have been made toward understanding the molecular signaling events that underlie memory acquisition and consolidation. In contrast, less is known about memory retrieval, despite its necessity for utilizing learned information. This review focuses on neuromodulatory and intracellular signaling events that underlie memory retrieval mediated by the hippocampus, for which the most information is currently available. Among neuromodulators, adrenergic signaling is required for the retrieval of various types of hippocampus-dependent memory. Although they contribute to acquisition and/or consolidation, cholinergic and dopaminergic signaling are generally not required for retrieval. Interestingly, while not required for retrieval, serotonergic and opioid signaling may actually constrain memory retrieval. Roles for histamine and non-opioid neuropeptides are currently unclear but possible. A critical effector of adrenergic signaling in retrieval is reduction of the slow afterhyperpolarization mediated by ?1 receptors, cyclic AMP, protein kinase A, Epac and possibly ERK. In contrast, stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval by decreasing cyclic AMP, mediated in part by the activation of ?2 -adrenergic receptors. Clinically, alterations in neuromodulatory signaling and in memory retrieval occur in Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and recent evidence has begun to link changes in neuromodulatory signaling with effects on memory retrieval. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25475876

Thomas, Steven A

2014-12-01

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Erythropoietin enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythropoietin (EPO improves cognition of human subjects in the clinical setting by as yet unknown mechanisms. We developed a mouse model of robust cognitive improvement by EPO to obtain the first clues of how EPO influences cognition, and how it may act on hippocampal neurons to modulate plasticity. Results We show here that a 3-week treatment of young mice with EPO enhances long-term potentiation (LTP, a cellular correlate of learning processes in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. This treatment concomitantly alters short-term synaptic plasticity and synaptic transmission, shifting the balance of excitatory and inhibitory activity. These effects are accompanied by an improvement of hippocampus dependent memory, persisting for 3 weeks after termination of EPO injections, and are independent of changes in hematocrit. Networks of EPO-treated primary hippocampal neurons develop lower overall spiking activity but enhanced bursting in discrete neuronal assemblies. At the level of developing single neurons, EPO treatment reduces the typical increase in excitatory synaptic transmission without changing the number of synaptic boutons, consistent with prolonged functional silencing of synapses. Conclusion We conclude that EPO improves hippocampus dependent memory by modulating plasticity, synaptic connectivity and activity of memory-related neuronal networks. These mechanisms of action of EPO have to be further exploited for treating neuropsychiatric diseases.

El-Kordi Ahmed

2008-09-01

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Enhance, delete, incept: Manipulating hippocampus-dependent memories?  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we provide a brief overview of recent research on memory manipulation. We focus primarily on memories for which the hippocampus is thought to be required due to its central importance in the study of memory. The repertoire of methods employed is expanding and includes optogenetics, transcranial stimulation, deep brain stimulation, cued reactivation during sleep and the use of pharmacological agents. In addition, the possible mechanisms underlying these memory changes have been investigated using techniques such as single unit recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Memory enhancement’. PMID:24397964

Spiers, Hugo J.; Bendor, Daniel

2014-01-01

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Enhance, delete, incept: manipulating hippocampus-dependent memories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we provide a brief overview of recent research on memory manipulation. We focus primarily on memories for which the hippocampus is thought to be required due to its central importance in the study of memory. The repertoire of methods employed is expanding and includes optogenetics, transcranial stimulation, deep brain stimulation, cued reactivation during sleep and the use of pharmacological agents. In addition, the possible mechanisms underlying these memory changes have been investigated using techniques such as single unit recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory enhancement'. PMID:24397964

Spiers, Hugo J; Bendor, Daniel

2014-06-01

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A Transcription Factor-Binding Domain of the Coactivator CBP Is Essential for Long-Term Memory and the Expression of Specific Target Genes  

Science.gov (United States)

Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with…

Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.; Attner, Michelle A.

2006-01-01

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Andra long term memory project - 59277  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Long term memory of repositories is required by safety, reversibility and social expectations. Thus Andra has implemented since 2010 a long-term memory project to reinforce and diversify its current arrangements in this field, as well as to explore opportunities to extend memory keeping over thousands years. The project includes opportunity studies of dedicated facilities. The 'Ecotheque' and 'Geotheque' projects contribute to memory respectively through environmental and geological samples preservation. The options of creating (i) an archive centre for Andra's interim and permanent archives, (ii) an artist center to study the contribution of arts to memory preservation, (iii) a museum of radioactive waste disposal history and technology (radium industry..., sea disposal, current solutions...) are considered. Other studies provided by the project examine our heritage. This includes the continuity of languages and symbolic systems, the continuity of writing and engraving methods, the archaeology of landscapes (memory of the earths evolution, multi-century memory of industrial and agricultural landscapes), the archaeology practices (how might a future archaeologist be interested in our current activity?), the preservation of historical sites and industrial memory, the continuity of institutional organizations, the memory and history of science evolution as well as broad historyas well as broad history

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Membrane-associated glucocorticoid activity is necessary for modulation of long-term memory via chromatin modification  

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Glucocorticoid hormones enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of emotionally arousing training experiences. This memory enhancement requires activation of the cAMP-dependent kinase pathway and the subsequent phosphorylation of cAMP response-element binding (CREB) protein. Here, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids enhance the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent aspects of object recognition memory via chromatin modification. More specifically, systemic co...

Roozendaal, Benno; Hernandez, Angelina; Cabrera, Sara M.; Hagewoud, Roelina; Malvaez, Melissa; Stefanko, Daniel P.; Haettig, Jakob; Wood, Marcelo A.

2010-01-01

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A cost of long-term memory in Drosophila  

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Two distinct forms of consolidated associative memory are known in Drosophila: long-term memory and so-called anesthesia-resistant memory. Long-term memory is more stable, but unlike anesthesia-resistant memory, its formation requires protein synthesis. We show that flies induced to form long-term memory become more susceptible to extreme stress (such as desiccation). In contrast, induction of anesthesia-resistant memory had no detectable effect on desiccation resistance. This finding may hel...

Mery, Frederic; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

2005-01-01

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Item-location binding in working memory: is it hippocampus-dependent?  

Science.gov (United States)

A general consensus is emerging that the hippocampus has an important and active role in the creation of new long-term memory representations of associations or bindings between elements. However, it is less clear whether this contribution can be extended to the creation of temporary bound representations in working memory, involving the retention of small numbers of items over short delays. We examined this by administering a series of recognition and recall tests of working memory for colour-location binding and object-location binding to a patient with highly selective hippocampal damage (Jon), and groups of control participants. Jon achieved high levels of accuracy in all working memory tests of recognition and recall binding across retention intervals of up to 10s. In contrast, Jon performed at chance on an unexpected delayed test of the same object-location binding information. These findings indicate a clear dissociation between working memory and long-term memory, with no evidence for a critical hippocampal contribution to item-location binding in working memory. PMID:24784006

Allen, Richard J; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D

2014-07-01

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Acute predator stress impairs the consolidation and retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory in male and female rats  

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We have studied the effects of an acute predator stress experience on spatial learning and memory in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. All rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM), a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory task. In the control (non-stress) condition, female rats were superior to the males in the accuracy and consistency of their spatial memory performance tested over multiple days of training. In the stress ...

Park, Collin R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.; Conrad, Cheryl D.; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M.

2008-01-01

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Enhanced long-term and impaired short-term spatial memory in GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit knockout mice: Evidence for a dual-process memory model  

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The GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is a key mediator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and is especially important for a rapidly-induced, short-lasting form of potentiation. GluA1 gene deletion impairs hippocampus-dependent, spatial working memory, but spares hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory. These findings may reflect the necessity of GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity for short-term memory of recently visited places, but not for the ability to form long-term associations betwee...

Sanderson, Dj; Good, Ma; Skelton, K.; Sprengel, R.; Seeburg, Ph; Rawlins, Jn; Bannerman, Dm

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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D-Cycloserine Enhances Memory Consolidation of Hippocampus-Dependent Latent Extinction  

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Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained to run in a straight-alley maze for food reward and subsequently received hippocampus-dependent latent extinction training. Immediately following latent extinction, rats received peripheral injections of the NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS, 15 mg/kg), or saline. Twenty-four hours later, rats…

Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G.

2007-01-01

22

Long-term memories in online users' selecting activities  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we investigate the long-term memory effect in the behavior of online users. Two user-oriented online movie systems are used in this study. Due to the short length of the series, the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy approach is used to evaluate scaling-invariance in selecting activities of users in the two online movie systems. Our results indicate that persistence (long-term memory) exists widely in the movie selecting series. However, there is generally significant difference between a user's objective and subjective behaviors. Additionally, statistically, the long-term memory depends on activity levels, as results show that the much more active a users' group, the stronger the long-term memory will be. These findings provide a new criterion for constructing reasonable models, and can help understand how individuals' behaviors form a collective behavior of an online society.

Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie

2014-07-01

23

Long-term memory, sleep, and the spacing effect.  

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Many studies have shown that memory is enhanced when study sessions are spaced apart rather than massed. This spacing effect has been shown to have a lasting benefit to long-term memory when the study phase session follows the encoding session by 24 hours. Using a spacing paradigm we examined the impact of sleep and spacing gaps on long-term declarative memory for Swahili-English word pairs by including four spacing delay gaps (massed, 12 hours same-day, 12 hours overnight, and 24 hours). Results showed that a 12-hour spacing gap that includes sleep promotes long-term memory retention similar to the 24-hour gap. The findings support the importance of sleep to the long-term benefit of the spacing effect. PMID:23521365

Bell, Matthew C; Kawadri, Nader; Simone, Patricia M; Wiseheart, Melody

2014-01-01

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The neuronal response at extended timescales: long-term correlations without long-term memory  

Science.gov (United States)

Long term temporal correlations frequently appear at many levels of neural activity. We show that when such correlations appear in isolated neurons, they indicate the existence of slow underlying processes and lead to explicit conditions on the dynamics of these processes. Moreover, although these slow processes can potentially store information for long times, we demonstrate that this does not imply that the neuron possesses a long memory of its input, even if these processes are bidirectionally coupled with neuronal response. We derive these results for a broad class of biophysical neuron models, and then fit a specific model to recent experiments. The model reproduces the experimental results, exhibiting long term (days-long) correlations due to the interaction between slow variables and internal fluctuations. However, its memory of the input decays on a timescale of minutes. We suggest experiments to test these predictions directly. PMID:24744724

Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

2014-01-01

25

Long-Term Memory: Scaling of Information to Brain Size  

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The material bases of information - paper, computer discs - usually scale with information quantity. Large quantities of information usually require large material bases. Conventional wisdom has it that human long-term memory locates within brain tissue, and so might be expected to scale with brain size which, in turn, depends on cranial capacity. Large memories, as in savants, should always require large heads. Small heads should always scale with small memories. While it w...

Forsdyke, Donald R.

2013-01-01

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Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z is involved in hippocampus-dependent memory formation through dephosphorylation at Y1105 on p190 RhoGAP.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ptprz is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase predominantly expressed in the brain as a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Ptprz-deficient mice exhibit an age (maturation)-dependent impairment of spatial learning in the Morris water maze test and enhancement of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region in hippocampal slices. The enhanced LTP is canceled out by pharmacological inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), suggesting that the lack of Ptprz causes learning impairment due to aberrant activation of ROCK. Here, we report that Ptprz-deficient mice exhibit impairments in hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory because of abnormal tyrosine phosphorylation of p190 RhoGAP, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Rho GTPase. We found that phosphorylation at Y1105, a major tyrosine phosphorylation site on p190 RhoGAP, is decreased 1h after the conditioning in the hippocampus of wild-type mice, but not of Ptprz-deficient mice. Pleiotrophin, a ligand for Ptprz, increased tyrosine phosphorylation of p190 RhoGAP in B103 neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, Ptprz selectively dephosphorylated pY1105 of p190 RhoGAP in vitro, and the tyrosine phosphorylation at Y1105 controls p190 RhoGAP activity in vivo. These results suggest that Ptprz plays a critical role in memory formation by modulating Rho GTPase activity through dephosphorylation at Y1105 on p190 RhoGAP. PMID:16513268

Tamura, Hiroshi; Fukada, Masahide; Fujikawa, Akihiro; Noda, Masaharu

2006-05-15

27

Time of Day and Retrieval from Long-term Memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three separate groups of women performed a semantic classification task during the morning, afternoon, or evening. Results were directly opposite findings that short-term memory performance declines as the day progresses. It is suggested that physiological arousal, which rises through the day, may benefit retrieval efficiency from long-term

Millar, Keith; And Others

1980-01-01

28

Systemic lipopolysaccharide administration impairs retrieval of context-object discrimination, but not spatial, memory: Evidence for selective disruption of specific hippocampus-dependent memory functions during acute neuroinflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroinflammation is implicated in impairments in neuronal function and cognition that arise with aging, trauma, and/or disease. Therefore, understanding the underlying basis of the effect of immune system activation on neural function could lead to therapies for treating cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation is widely thought to preferentially impair hippocampus-dependent memory, data on the effects of cytokines on cognition are mixed. One possible explanation for these inconsistent results is that cytokines may disrupt specific neural processes underlying some forms of memory but not others. In an earlier study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on retrieval of hippocampus-dependent context memory and neural circuit function in CA3 and CA1 (Czerniawski and Guzowski, 2014). Paralleling impairment in context discrimination memory, we observed changes in neural circuit function consistent with disrupted pattern separation function. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation selectively disrupts memory retrieval in tasks requiring hippocampal pattern separation processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats given LPS systemically prior to testing exhibited intact performance in tasks that do not require hippocampal pattern separation processes: novel object recognition and spatial memory in the water maze. By contrast, memory retrieval in a task thought to require hippocampal pattern separation, context-object discrimination, was strongly impaired in LPS-treated rats in the absence of any gross effects on exploratory activity or motivation. These data show that LPS administration does not impair memory retrieval in all hippocampus-dependent tasks, and support the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory via disruption of pattern separation processes in hippocampus. PMID:25451612

Czerniawski, Jennifer; Miyashita, Teiko; Lewandowski, Gail; Guzowski, John F

2015-02-01

29

A quantitative proteomic analysis of long-term memory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory is the ability to store, retain, and later retrieve learned information. Long-term memory (LTM formation requires: DNA transcription, RNA translation, and the trafficking of newly synthesized proteins. Several components of these processes have already been identified. However, due to the complexity of the memory formation process, there likely remain many yet to be identified proteins involved in memory formation and persistence. Results Here we use a quantitative proteomic method to identify novel memory-associated proteins in neural tissue taken from animals that were trained in vivo to form a long-term memory. We identified 8 proteins that were significantly up-regulated, and 13 that were significantly down-regulated in the LTM trained animals as compared to two different control groups. In addition we found 19 proteins unique to the trained animals, and 12 unique proteins found only in the control animals. Conclusions These results both confirm the involvement of previously identified memory proteins such as: protein kinase C (PKC, adenylate cyclase (AC, and proteins in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway. In addition these results provide novel protein candidates (e.g. UHRF1 binding protein on which to base future studies.

Rosenegger David

2010-03-01

30

Long-term memory in electricity prices: Czech market evidence  

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We analyze long-term memory properties of hourly prices of electricity in the Czech Republic between 2009 and 2012. As the dynamics of the electricity prices is dominated by cycles -- mainly intraday and daily -- we opt for the detrended fluctuation analysis, which is well suited for such specific series. We find that the electricity prices are non-stationary but strongly mean-reverting which distinguishes them from other financial assets which are usually characterized as u...

Kristoufek, Ladislav; Lunackova, Petra

2013-01-01

31

Wnt Signaling Is Required for Long-Term Memory Formation  

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Full Text Available Wnt signaling regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult nervous system, suggesting a potential role in behavioral processes. Here, we probed the requirement for Wnt signaling during olfactory memory formation in Drosophila using an inducible RNAi approach. Interfering with ?-catenin expression in adult mushroom body neurons specifically impaired long-term memory (LTM without altering short-term memory. The impairment was reversible, being rescued by expression of a wild-type ?-catenin transgene, and correlated with disruption of a cellular LTM trace. Inhibition of wingless, a Wnt ligand, and arrow, a Wnt coreceptor, also impaired LTM. Wingless expression in wild-type flies was transiently elevated in the brain after LTM conditioning. Thus, inhibiting three key components of the Wnt signaling pathway in adult mushroom bodies impairs LTM, indicating that this pathway mechanistically underlies this specific form of memory.

Ying Tan

2013-09-01

32

Persistent deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity accompany losses of hippocampus-dependent memory in a rodent model of psychosis  

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Full Text Available Irreversible N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR antagonism is known to provoke symptoms of psychosis and schizophrenia in healthy humans. NMDAR hypofunction is believed to play a central role in the pathophysiology of both disorders and in an animal model of psychosis, that is based on irreversible antagonism of NMDARs, pronounced deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity have been reported shortly after antagonist treatment. Here, we examined the long-term consequences for long-term potentiation (LTP of a single acute treatment with an irreversible antagonist and investigated whether deficits are associated with memory impairments. The ability to express long-term potentiation (LTP at the perforant pathway – dentate gyrus synapse, as well as object recognition memory was assessed 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after a single -treatment of the antagonist, MK801. Here, LTP in freely behaving rats was significantly impaired at all time-points compared to control LTP before treatment. Object recognition memory was also significantly poorer in MK801-treated compared to vehicle-treated animals for several weeks after treatment. Histological analysis revealed no changes in brain tissue. Taken together, these data support that acute treatment with an irreversible NMDAR antagonist persistently impairs hippocampal functioning on behavioral, as well as synaptic levels. The long-term deficits in synaptic plasticity may underlie the cognitive impairments that are associated with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

DeniseManahan-Vaughan

2013-03-01

33

Long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations by African lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Animals that use and evaluate long-distance signals have the potential to glean valuable information about others in their environment via eavesdropping. In those areas where they coexist, African lions (Panthera leo) are a significant eavesdropper on spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), often using hyena vocalizations to locate and scavenge from hyena kills. This relationship was used to test African lions' long-term memory of the vocalizations of spotted hyenas via playback experiments. Hyena whoops and a control sound (Canis lupus howls) were played to three populations of lions in South Africa: (1) lions with past experience of spotted hyenas; (2) lions with current experience; and (3) lions with no experience. The results strongly suggest that lions have the cognitive ability to remember the vocalizations of spotted hyenas even after 10 years with no contact of any kind with them. Such long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations may be widespread in species that gain fitness benefits from eavesdropping on others, but where such species are sympatric and often interact it may pass unrecognized as short-term memory instead.

Grinnell, Jon; van Dyk, Gus; Slotow, Rob

2005-09-01

34

[The long-term memory retrieval following kainic acid administration].  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of the neurotoxin kainic acid to the food-procuring task were studied in Wistar rats. A single injection of the acid in subconvulsive dose (8 mg/kg) impaired the task performance within some weeks but not immediately after the treatment. Higher doses of kainic acid (10 mg/kg) impaired the task performance within a few hours after treatment for up to 10 days. The treatment did not prevent rat's learning of a new task in the same experimental chamber. The revealed deficit in the long-term memory retrieval might be explained by specific effects of kainic acid upon the hippocampal system. PMID:15462208

Arkhipov, V I; Shevchenko, N A

2004-07-01

35

Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, and Medial Temporal Lobe Function  

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Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance…

Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

2012-01-01

36

Short- and long-term memory: differential involvement of neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction cascades  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since William James (1890) first distinguished primary from secondary memory, equivalent to short- and long-term memory, respectively, it has been assumed that short-term memory processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory is being consolidated. From those days a major question has been whether short-term memory is merely a initial phase of long-term memory, or a separate phenomena. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into th...

Vianna Mo?nica, R. M.; Izquierdo Luciana, A.; Barros Daniela, M.; WALZ ROGER; Medina Jorge, H.; IZQUIERDO IVÁN

2000-01-01

37

DNA Methylation Mediates the Discriminatory Power of Associative Long-Term Memory in Honeybees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Memory is created by several interlinked processes in the brain, some of which require long-term gene regulation. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely candidates for regulating memory-related genes. Among these, DNA methylation is known to be a long lasting genomic mark and may be involved in the establishment of long-term memory. Here we demonstrate that DNA methyltransferases, which induce and maintain DNA methylation, are involved in a particular aspect of associative long-term memory formatio...

Biergans, Stephanie D.; Jones, Julia C.; Treiber, Nadine; Galizia, Giovanni; Szyszka, Paul

2012-01-01

38

Long-term memory of individual identity in ant queens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Remembering individual identities is part of our own everyday social life. Surprisingly, this ability has recently been shown in two social insects. While paper wasps recognize each other individually through their facial markings, the ant, Pachycondyla villosa, uses chemical cues. In both species, individual recognition is adaptive since it facilitates the maintenance of stable dominance hierarchies among individuals, and thus reduces the cost of conflict within these small societies. Here, we investigated individual recognition in Pachycondyla ants by quantifying the level of aggression between pairs of familiar or unfamiliar queens over time. We show that unrelated founding queens of P. villosa and Pachycondyla inversa store information on the individual identity of other queens and can retrieve it from memory after 24h of separation. Thus, we have documented for the first time that long-term memory of individual identity is present and functional in ants. This novel finding represents an advance in our understanding of the mechanism determining the evolution of cooperation among unrelated individuals.

Dreier, Stéphanie Agnès Jeanine; Van Zweden, Jelle Stijn

2007-01-01

39

Working memory, long-term memory, and medial temporal lobe function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance in patients with MTL lesions on tasks with short retention intervals, or no retention interval, and neuroimaging findings with similar tasks have be...

Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

2012-01-01

40

Exploring the interaction between working memory and long-term memory: Evidence for the workspace model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a large range of models of working memory, each with different scopes and emphases. Current interest focuses strongly on the interaction of working memory with long-term memory, as it has become clear that models of working memory alone are incapable of capturing some of our complex cognitive abilities. Most models have contrasting views on how this interaction is implemented. In this thesis, three classes of models are defined, each proposing a different type of interaction. The fir...

Meulen, Marian

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

2009-01-01

42

Creating the Unforgettable: The Short Story of Mapping Long-Term Memory: Bicentennial Symposium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Memory is a binary process relying on a short-term form lasting minutes to forge and communicate with a long-term form lasting years. Yale’s Bicentennial Symposium opened with a lecture elucidating the obscure process of long-term memory formation. From his decades of research, Nobel Laureate Eric Kandel offered insight into the molecular framework that is long term-memory.

Wang, Samantha X. Y.

2011-01-01

43

Subregion-specific p300 conditional knock-out mice exhibit long-term memory impairments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Histone acetylation plays a critical role during long-term memory formation. Several studies have demonstrated that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CBP is required during long-term memory formation, but the involvement of other HAT proteins has not been extensively investigated. The HATs CBP and p300 have at least 400 described interacting proteins including transcription factors known to play a role in long-term memory formation. Thus, CBP and p300 constitute likely candidates for transc...

Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Este?vez, Marcel A.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Grimes, Shannon; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted

2011-01-01

44

The Neural Substrates of Recognition Memory for Verbal Information: Spanning the Divide between Short- and Long-term Memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the classic categorical divisions in the history of memory research is that between short-term and long-term memory. Indeed, because memory for the immediate past (a few seconds) and memory for the relatively more remote past (several seconds and beyond) are assumed to rely on distinct neural systems, more often than not, memory research has focused either on short- (or “working memory”) or on long-term memory. Using an auditory–verbal continuous recognition paradigm designed for...

Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Berman, Karen Faith

2010-01-01

45

Short- and long-term memory: differential involvement of neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction cascades  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since William James (1890 first distinguished primary from secondary memory, equivalent to short- and long-term memory, respectively, it has been assumed that short-term memory processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory is being consolidated. From those days a major question has been whether short-term memory is merely a initial phase of long-term memory, or a separate phenomena. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into the hippocampus and related brain areas after one-trial avoidance learning can effectively cancel short-term memory without affecting long-term memory formation. This shows that short-term memory and long-term memory involve separate mechanisms and are independently processed. Other treatments, however, influence both memory types similarly, suggesting links between both at the receptor and at the post-receptor level, which should not be surprising as they both deal with nearly the same sensorimotor representations. This review examines recent advances in short- and long-term memory mechanisms based on the effect of intra-hippocampal infusion of drugs acting upon neurotransmitter and signal transduction systems on both memory types.

MÔNICA R.M. VIANNA

2000-09-01

46

Short- and long-term memory: differential involvement of neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction cascades  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Since William James (1890) first distinguished primary from secondary memory, equivalent to short- and long-term memory, respectively, it has been assumed that short-term memory processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory is being consolidated. From those days a major question has be [...] en whether short-term memory is merely a initial phase of long-term memory, or a separate phenomena. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into the hippocampus and related brain areas after one-trial avoidance learning can effectively cancel short-term memory without affecting long-term memory formation. This shows that short-term memory and long-term memory involve separate mechanisms and are independently processed. Other treatments, however, influence both memory types similarly, suggesting links between both at the receptor and at the post-receptor level, which should not be surprising as they both deal with nearly the same sensorimotor representations. This review examines recent advances in short- and long-term memory mechanisms based on the effect of intra-hippocampal infusion of drugs acting upon neurotransmitter and signal transduction systems on both memory types.

MÔNICA R.M., VIANNA; LUCIANA A., IZQUIERDO; DANIELA M., BARROS; ROGER, WALZ; JORGE H., MEDINA; IVÁN, IZQUIERDO.

2000-09-01

47

Subregion-Specific p300 Conditional Knock-Out Mice Exhibit Long-Term Memory Impairments  

Science.gov (United States)

Histone acetylation plays a critical role during long-term memory formation. Several studies have demonstrated that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CBP is required during long-term memory formation, but the involvement of other HAT proteins has not been extensively investigated. The HATs CBP and p300 have at least 400 described interacting…

Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Estevez, Marcel A.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Grimes, Shannon; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted

2011-01-01

48

They Saw a Movie: Long-Term Memory for an Extended Audiovisual Narrative  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured long-term memory for a narrative film. During the study session, participants watched a 27-min movie episode, without instructions to remember it. During the test session, administered at a delay ranging from 3 h to 9 mo after the study session, long-term memory for the movie was probed using a computerized questionnaire that assessed…

Furman, Orit; Dorfman, Nimrod; Hasson, Uri; Davachi, Lila; Dudai, Yadin

2007-01-01

49

The histone deacetylase HDAC4 regulates long-term memory in Drosophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing body of research indicates that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) correlates with enhancement of long-term memory and current research is concentrated on determining the roles that individual HDACs play in cognitive function. Here, we investigate the role of HDAC4 in long-term memory formation in Drosophila. We show that overexpression of HDAC4 in the adult mushroom body, an important structure for memory formation, resulted in a specific impairment in long-term courtship memory, but had no affect on short-term memory. Overexpression of an HDAC4 catalytic mutant also abolished LTM, suggesting a mode of action independent of catalytic activity. We found that overexpression of HDAC4 resulted in a redistribution of the transcription factor MEF2 from a relatively uniform distribution through the nucleus into punctate nuclear bodies, where it colocalized with HDAC4. As MEF2 has also been implicated in regulation of long-term memory, these data suggest that the repressive effects of HDAC4 on long-term memory may be through interaction with MEF2. In the same genetic background, we also found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 impairs long-term memory, therefore we demonstrate that HDAC4 is not only a repressor of long-term memory, but also modulates normal memory formation. PMID:24349558

Fitzsimons, Helen L; Schwartz, Silvia; Given, Fiona M; Scott, Maxwell J

2013-01-01

50

Transient impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in relatively low-dose of acute radiation syndrome is associated with inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In addition, the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks after single whole-body gamma-irradiation were examined in order to evaluate the hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction in the relatively low-dose exposure of ARS. The number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the dentate gyrus (DG) was increased 6-12 h after acute gamma-irradiation (a single dose of 0.5 to 4 Gy). In contrast, the number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells began to decrease significantly 6 h postirradiation, reaching its lowest level 24 h after irradiation. The level of Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner within the range of irradiation applied (0-4 Gy). In passive avoidance and object recognition memory test, the mice trained 1 day after acute irradiation (2 Gy) showed significant memory deficits, compared with the sham controls. In conclusion, the pattern of the hippocampus-dependent memory dysfunction is consispus-dependent memory dysfunction is consistent with the change in neurogenesis after acute irradiation. It is suggested that a relatively low dose of ARS in adult ICR mice is sufficiently detrimental to interrupt the functioning of the hippocampus, including learning and memory, possibly through the inhibition of neurogenesis. (author)

51

Evidence for long-term memory in sea level  

Science.gov (United States)

and attribution of anthropogenic climate change signals in sea level rise (SLR) has experienced considerable attention during the last decades. Here we provide evidence that superimposed on any possible anthropogenic trend there is a significant amount of natural decadal and multidecadal variability. Using a set of 60 centennial tide gauge records and an ocean reanalysis, we find that sea levels exhibit long-term correlations on time scales up to several decades that are independent of any systematic rise. A large fraction of this long-term variability is related to the steric component of sea level, but we also find long-term correlations in current estimates of mass loss from glaciers and ice caps. These findings suggest that (i) recent attempts to detect a significant acceleration in regional SLR might underestimate the impact of natural variability and (ii) any future regional SLR threshold might be exceeded earlier/later than from anthropogenic change alone.

Dangendorf, Sönke; Rybski, Diego; Mudersbach, Christoph; Müller, Alfred; Kaufmann, Edgar; Zorita, Eduardo; Jensen, Jürgen

2014-08-01

52

Excess protein synthesis in Drosophila Fragile X mutants impairs long-term memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We used Drosophila olfactory memory in order to understand in vivo the molecular basis of cognitive defect in Fragile X syndrome. We observed that Fragile X protein (FMRP) was required acutely and interacted with argonaute1 and staufen in long-term memory (LTM). Occlusion of long-term memory formation in Fragile X mutants could be rescued by protein synthesis inhibitors, suggesting that excess baseline protein synthesis could impact negatively on cognition.

Bolduc, Franc?ois V.; Bell, Kimberly; Cox, Hilary; Broadie, Kendal; Tully, Tim

2008-01-01

53

Distinct dopamine neurons mediate reward signals for short- and long-term memories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drosophila melanogaster can acquire a stable appetitive olfactory memory when the presentation of a sugar reward and an odor are paired. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which a single training induces long-term memory are poorly understood. Here we show that two distinct subsets of dopamine neurons in the fly brain signal reward for short-term (STM) and long-term memories (LTM). One subset induces memory that decays within several hours, whereas the other induces memory that gradually develops after training. They convey reward signals to spatially segregated synaptic domains of the mushroom body (MB), a potential site for convergence. Furthermore, we identified a single type of dopamine neuron that conveys the reward signal to restricted subdomains of the mushroom body lobes and induces long-term memory. Constant appetitive memory retention after a single training session thus comprises two memory components triggered by distinct dopamine neurons. PMID:25548178

Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Aso, Yoshinori; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Friedrich, Anja B; Sima, Richard J; Preat, Thomas; Rubin, Gerald M; Tanimoto, Hiromu

2015-01-13

54

Long-term Memory and Volatility Clustering in Daily and High-frequency Price Changes  

CERN Document Server

We study the long-term memory in diverse stock market indices and foreign exchange rates using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis(DFA). For all daily and high-frequency market data studied, no significant long-term memory property is detected in the return series, while a strong long-term memory property is found in the volatility time series. The possible causes of the long-term memory property are investigated using the return data filtered by the AR(1) model, reflecting the short-term memory property, and the GARCH(1,1) model, reflecting the volatility clustering property, respectively. Notably, we found that the memory effect in the AR(1) filtered return and volatility time series remains unchanged, while the long-term memory property either disappeared or diminished significantly in the volatility series of the GARCH(1,1) filtered data. We also found that in the high-frequency data the long-term memory property may be generated by the volatility clustering as well as higher autocorrelation. Our results i...

Oh, G J; Um, C J; Kim, Seunghwann; Oh, GabJin; Um, Cheol-Jun

2006-01-01

55

Early calcium increase triggers the formation of olfactory long-term memory in honeybees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Synaptic plasticity associated with an important wave of gene transcription and protein synthesis underlies long-term memory processes. Calcium (Ca2+ plays an important role in a variety of neuronal functions and indirect evidence suggests that it may be involved in synaptic plasticity and in the regulation of gene expression correlated to long-term memory formation. The aim of this study was to determine whether Ca2+ is necessary and sufficient for inducing long-term memory formation. A suitable model to address this question is the Pavlovian appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex in the honeybee Apis mellifera, in which animals learn to associate an odor with a sucrose reward. Results By modulating the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i in the brain, we show that: (i blocking [Ca2+]i increase during multiple-trial conditioning selectively impairs long-term memory performance; (ii conversely, increasing [Ca2+]i during single-trial conditioning triggers long-term memory formation; and finally, (iii as was the case for long-term memory produced by multiple-trial conditioning, enhancement of long-term memory performance induced by a [Ca2+]i increase depends on de novo protein synthesis. Conclusion Altogether our data suggest that during olfactory conditioning Ca2+ is both a necessary and a sufficient signal for the formation of protein-dependent long-term memory. Ca2+ therefore appears to act as a switch between short- and long-term storage of learned information.

Matsumoto Yukihisa

2009-06-01

56

Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Lateral Habenula (LHb is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA. We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 hours after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience.

Micol Tomaiuolo

2014-05-01

57

Endogenous BDNF Is Required for Long-Term Memory Formation in the Rat Parietal Cortex  

Science.gov (United States)

Information storage in the brain is a temporally graded process involving different memory phases as well as different structures in the mammalian brain. Cortical plasticity seems to be essential to store stable long-term memories, although little information is available at the moment regarding molecular and cellular events supporting memory

Alonso, Mariana; Bekinschtein, Pedro, Cammarota, Martin; Vianna, Monica R. M.; Izquierdo, Ivan; Medina, Jorge H.

2005-01-01

58

Synaptic Scaling Enables Dynamically Distinct Short- and Long-Term Memory Formation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Memory storage in the brain relies on mechanisms acting on time scales from minutes, for long-term synaptic potentiation, to days, for memory consolidation. During such processes, neural circuits distinguish synapses relevant for forming a long-term storage, which are consolidated, from synapses of short-term storage, which fade. How time scale integration and synaptic differentiation is simultaneously achieved remains unclear. Here we show that synaptic scaling – a slow process usually ass...

Tetzlaff, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Tsodyks, Misha; Wo?rgo?tter, Florentin

2013-01-01

59

Early calcium increase triggers the formation of olfactory long-term memory in honeybees.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Synaptic plasticity associated with an important wave of gene transcription and protein synthesis underlies long-term memory processes. Calcium (Ca2+) plays an important role in a variety of neuronal functions and indirect evidence suggests that it may be involved in synaptic plasticity and in the regulation of gene expression correlated to long-term memory formation. The aim of this study was to determine whether Ca2+ is necessary an...

Matsumoto Yukihisa; Néant Isabelle; Raymond-Delpech Valérie; Perisse Emmanuel; Leclerc Catherine; Moreau Marc; Sandoz Jean-Christophe

2009-01-01

60

Function of the Drosophila CPEB protein Orb2 in long-term courtship memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both long-term behavioral memory and synaptic plasticity require protein synthesis, some of which may occur locally at specific synapses. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB) proteins are thought to contribute to the local protein synthesis that underlies long-term changes in synaptic efficacy, but a role has not been established for them in the formation of long-term behavioral memory. We found that the Drosophila melanogaster CPEB protein Orb2 is acutely required for long-term conditioning of male courtship behavior. Deletion of the N-terminal glutamine-rich region of Orb2 resulted in flies that were impaired in their ability to form long-term, but not short-term, memory. Memory was restored by expressing Orb2 selectively in fruitless (fru)-positive gamma neurons of the mushroom bodies and by providing Orb2 function in mushroom bodies only during and shortly after training. Our data thus demonstrate that a CPEB protein is important in long-term memory and map the molecular, spatial and temporal requirements for its function in memory formation. PMID:17965711

Keleman, Krystyna; Krüttner, Sebastian; Alenius, Mattias; Dickson, Barry J

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

2011-01-01

62

Genetic modulation of Rpd3 expression impairs long-term courtship memory in Drosophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing evidence that regulation of local chromatin structure is a critical mechanism underlying the consolidation of long-term memory (LTM), however considerably less is understood about the specific mechanisms by which these epigenetic effects are mediated. Furthermore, the importance of histone acetylation in Drosophila memory has not been reported. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) Rpd3 is abundant in the adult fly brain, suggesting a post-mitotic function. Here, we investigated the role of Rpd3 in long-term courtship memory in Drosophila. We found that while modulation of Rpd3 levels predominantly in the adult mushroom body had no observed impact on immediate recall or one-hour memory, 24-hour LTM was severely impaired. Surprisingly, both overexpression as well as RNAi-mediated knockdown of Rpd3 resulted in impairment of long-term courtship memory, suggesting that the dose of Rpd3 is critical for normal LTM. PMID:22195015

Fitzsimons, Helen L; Scott, Maxwell J

2011-01-01

63

An Account of Performance in Accessing Information Stored in Long-Term Memory. A Fixed-Links Model Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance in working memory and short-term memory tasks was employed for predicting performance in a long-term memory task in order to find out about the underlying processes. The types of memory were represented by versions of the Posner Task, the Backward Counting Task and the Sternberg Task serving as measures of long-term memory, working…

Altmeyer, Michael; Schweizer, Karl; Reiss, Siegbert; Ren, Xuezhu; Schreiner, Michael

2013-01-01

64

Specific requirement of NMDA receptors for long-term memory consolidation in Drosophila ellipsoid body  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In humans and many other animals, memory consolidation occurs through multiple temporal phases and usually involves more than one neuroanatomical brain system. Genetic dissection of Pavlovian olfactory learning in Drosophila melanogaster has revealed multiple memory phases, but the predominant view holds that all memory phases occur in mushroom body neurons. Here, we demonstrate an acute requirement for NMDA receptors (NMDARs) outside of the mushroom body during long-term memory (LTM) consoli...

Wu, Chia-lin; Xia, Shouzhen; Fu, Tsai-feng; Wang, Huaien; Chen, Ying-hsiu; Leong, Daniel; Chiang, Ann-shyn; Tully, Tim

2007-01-01

65

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SHORT TERM AND LONG TERM MEMORY BETWEEN ATHLETE AND NON ATHLETE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to compare the Short Term Memory and Long Term Memory of Athlete and non Athlete. One hundred college boys (50 Athlete participated in inter-college tournament and 50 non Athlete) from different colleges of north 24 district in West Bengal were considered for this study whose age range between 22 to 25 years. Only, Short Term and Long Term memory were measured for this study. Standard questionnaires were used for this study. The statistical 't' test was a...

GOPAL CHANDRA SAHA; SHANTANU HALDER; PULEN DAS

2013-01-01

66

PKG-Mediated MAPK Signaling Is Necessary for Long-Term Operant Memory in "Aplysia"  

Science.gov (United States)

Signaling pathways necessary for memory formation, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, appear highly conserved across species and paradigms. Learning that food is inedible (LFI) represents a robust form of associative, operant learning that induces short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) in "Aplysia." We investigated the…

Michel, Maximilian; Green, Charity L.; Eskin, Arnold; Lyons, Lisa C.

2011-01-01

67

The interaction of short-term and long-term memory in phonetic category formation  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the role that short-term memory capacity plays in the relationship between novel stimuli (e.g., non-native speech sounds, native nonsense words) and phonetic categories in long-term memory. Thirty native speakers of American English were administered five tests: categorial AXB discrimination using nasal consonants from Malayalam; categorial identification, also using Malayalam nasals, which measured the influence of phonetic categories in long-term memory; digit span; nonword span, a short-term memory measure mediated by phonetic categories in long-term memory; and paired-associate word learning (word-word and word-nonword pairs). The results showed that almost all measures were significantly correlated with one another. The strongest predictor for the discrimination and word-nonword learning results was nonword (r=+0.62) and digit span (r=+0.51), respectively. When the identification test results were partialed out, only nonword span significantly correlated with discrimination. The results show a strong influence of short-term memory capacity on the encoding of phonetic detail within phonetic categories and suggest that long-term memory representations regulate the capacity of short-term memory to preserve information for subsequent encoding. The results of this study will also be discussed with regards to resolving the tension between episodic and abstract models of phonetic category structure.

Harnsberger, James D.

2002-05-01

68

Hormonal and Monoamine Signaling during Reinforcement of Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation and Memory Retrieval  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently it was shown that holeboard training can reinforce, i.e., transform early-LTP into late-LTP in the dentate gyrus during the initial formation of a long-term spatial reference memory in rats. The consolidation of LTP as well as of the reference memory was dependent on protein synthesis. We have now investigated the transmitter systems…

Korz, Volker; Frey, Julietta U.

2007-01-01

69

Retinoid signaling is necessary for, and promotes long-term memory formation following operant conditioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinoic acid, a metabolite of vitamin A, is proposed to play an important role in vertebrate learning and memory, as well as hippocampal-dependent synaptic plasticity. However, it has not yet been determined whether retinoic acid plays a similar role in learning and memory in invertebrates. In this study, we report that retinoid signaling in the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis, is required for long-term memory formation following operant conditioning of its aerial respiratory behaviour. Animals were exposed to inhibitors of the RALDH enzyme (which synthesizes retinoic acid), or various retinoid receptor antagonists. Following exposure to these inhibitors, neither learning nor intermediate-term memory (lasting 2 h) was affected, but long-term memory formation (tested at either 24 or 72 h) was inhibited. We next demonstrated that various retinoid receptor agonists promoted long-term memory formation. Using a training paradigm shown only to produce intermediate-term memory (lasting 2 h, but not 24 h) we found that exposure of animals to synthetic retinoids promoted memory formation that lasted up to 30 h. These findings suggest that the role of retinoids in memory formation is ancient in origin, and that retinoid signaling is also important for the formation of implicit memories, in addition to its previously demonstrated role in hippocampal-dependent memories. PMID:24925874

Rothwell, Cailin M; Spencer, Gaynor E

2014-10-01

70

Enhanced Long-Term and Impaired Short-Term Spatial Memory in GluA1 AMPA Receptor Subunit Knockout Mice: Evidence for a Dual-Process Memory Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is a key mediator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and is especially important for a rapidly-induced, short-lasting form of potentiation. GluA1 gene deletion impairs hippocampus-dependent, spatial working memory, but spares hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory. These findings may reflect the necessity of…

Sanderson, David J.; Good, Mark A.; Skelton, Kathryn; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Bannerman, David M.

2009-01-01

71

What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rath...

Cowan, Nelson

2008-01-01

72

PKG-mediated MAPK signaling is necessary for long-term operant memory in Aplysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Signaling pathways necessary for memory formation, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, appear highly conserved across species and paradigms. Learning that food is inedible (LFI) represents a robust form of associative, operant learning that induces short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) in Aplysia. We investigated the role of MAPK signaling in LFI memory in vivo. Inhibition of MAPK activation in animals prior to training blocked STM and LTM. Discontinuing MAPK signal...

Michel, Maximilian; Green, Charity L.; Eskin, Arnold; Lyons, Lisa C.

2011-01-01

73

Tree ring records capture long-term memory in climate systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Measuring tree rings is a mainstay technique for estimating ancient climatic conditions, with a tree's year-by-year growth reflecting changes in precipitation and temperature. In some cases, paleoclimatological records compiled from tree ring measurements can stretch for thousands of years. Based on recent research, climatologists have found that hydrological and other systems have long-term memory. Drawing on tree ring measurements compiled from across the continental United States, Bowers et al. sought to determine whether such long-term relationships are preserved in ring width measurements. The authors analyzed the Hurst parameter—a measure of long-term memory—of 697 different tree ring records that were collected from 10 tree species from locations across the United States. They found that though each tree species had a different mean value for its Hurst parameter, meaning that each species recorded long-term trends in the climate differently, they all fell within the range suggestive of their being able to properly represent long-term memory.

Schultz, Colin

2013-03-01

74

Long-term effects of neonatal single or multiple isoflurane exposures on spatial memory in rats  

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Full Text Available General anesthetics are neurotoxic to neonatal rodents and nonhuman primates. Neonatal exposure to general anesthetics has been associated with long-term cognitive deficits in animal models. Some data from humans are consistent with long-term deleterious effects of anesthetic exposure early in life on cognitive development, with multiple exposures to general anesthetics being particularly damaging. We sought to determine whether repeated exposure of neonatal rats to anesthesia was associated with long-term cognitive impairments and whether the magnitude of impairments was greater than that resulting from a single exposure. Male or female Long-Evans rat pups were exposed to 1.8% isoflurane for 2 hours on postnatal day (P 7, or for 2 hours each on P7, P10, and P13. Testing in a spatial working memory task began on P91. Rats that were repeatedly exposed to isoflurane were impaired relative to controls in the spatial working memory task. Male rats that received a single exposure to isoflurane showed an unexpected facilitation in spatial memory performance. These results support the hypothesis that multiple neonatal exposures to general anesthesia are associated with greater long-term cognitive impairment than a single exposure. The findings are congruent with human epidemiological studies reporting long-term cognitive impairments following multiple but not single general anesthetics early in life.

MarkGBaxter

2013-07-01

75

Long-term effects of neonatal single or multiple isoflurane exposures on spatial memory in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

General anesthetics are neurotoxic to neonatal rodents and non-human primates. Neonatal exposure to general anesthetics has been associated with long-term cognitive deficits in animal models. Some data from humans are consistent with long-term deleterious effects of anesthetic exposure early in life on cognitive development, with multiple exposures to general anesthetics being particularly damaging. We sought to determine whether repeated exposure of neonatal rats to anesthesia was associated with long-term cognitive impairments and whether the magnitude of impairments was greater than that resulting from a single exposure. Male or female Long-Evans rat pups were exposed to 1.8% isoflurane for 2?h on postnatal day (P) 7, or for 2?h each on P7, P10, and P13. Testing in a spatial working memory task began on P91. Rats that were repeatedly exposed to isoflurane were impaired relative to controls in the spatial working memory task. Male rats that received a single exposure to isoflurane showed an unexpected facilitation in spatial memory performance. These results support the hypothesis that multiple neonatal exposures to general anesthesia are associated with greater long-term cognitive impairment than a single exposure. The findings are congruent with human epidemiological studies reporting long-term cognitive impairments following multiple but not single general anesthetics early in life. PMID:23847588

Murphy, Kathy L; Baxter, Mark G

2013-01-01

76

SNAP-25 in hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SNAP-25 is a synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa, a key component of synaptic vesicle-docking/fusion machinery, and plays a critical role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. We previously reported that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA1 region is involved in consolidation of contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory (Hou et al. European J Neuroscience, 20: 1593-1603, 2004). SNAP-25 is expressed not only in the CA1 region, but also in the CA3 region, and the SNAP-25 mRNA level in the CA3 region is higher than in the CA1 region. Here, we provide evidence that SNAP-25 in the CA3 region is also involved in learning/memory. Intra-CA3 infusion of SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide impaired both long-term contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory, with short-term memory intact. Furthermore, the SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) in the mossy-fiber pathway (DG-CA3 pathway), with no effect on paired-pulse facilitation of the fEPSP. These results are consistent with the notion that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation

77

Transcriptional regulation of long-term memory in the marine snail Aplysia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Whereas the induction of short-term memory involves only covalent modifications of constitutively expressed preexisting proteins, the formation of long-term memory requires gene expression, new RNA, and new protein synthesis. On the cellular level, transcriptional regulation is thought to be the starting point for a series of molecular steps necessary for both the initiation and maintenance of long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF. The core molecular features of transcriptional regulation involved in the long-term process are evolutionally conserved in Aplysia, Drosophila, and mouse, and indicate that gene regulation by the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB acting in conjunction with different combinations of transcriptional factors is critical for the expression of many forms of long-term memory. In the marine snail Aplysia, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the storage of long-term memory have been extensively studied in the monosynaptic connections between identified sensory neuron and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex. One tail shock or one pulse of serotonin (5-HT, a modulatory transmitter released by tail shocks, produces a transient facilitation mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase leading to covalent modifications in the sensory neurons that results in an enhancement of transmitter release and a strengthening of synaptic connections lasting minutes. By contrast, repeated pulses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT induce a transcription- and translation-dependent long-term facilitation (LTF lasting more than 24 h and trigger the activation of a family of transcription factors in the presynaptic sensory neurons including ApCREB1, ApCREB2 and ApC/EBP. In addition, we have recently identified novel transcription factors that modulate the expression of ApC/EBP and also are critically involved in LTF. In this review, we examine the roles of these transcription factors during consolidation of LTF induced by different stimulation paradigms.

Lee Yong-Seok

2008-06-01

78

Heightened false memory: a long-term sequela of severe closed head injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Declarative memory impairment is a common long-term sequela of severe closed head injury (CHI). Although veridical memory performance following severe CHI has received attention in the literature, little is known about false memory production in this population. Within the present study, both long-term survivors of severe CHI and matched control participants studied and were tested on six 12-items word lists from the Deese Roediger McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Word lists from the DRM are composed of words that are strongly semantically associated to a non-presented word (i.e., the critical lure). Prior studies have shown that healthy young adults show a high level of false recall and recognition memory for the critical lures, and it was hypothesized individuals with severe CHI would show heightened susceptibility to false memory compared to control participants due to difficulty with monitoring of memory. It was further hypothesized that severe CHI participants would show high confidence in their false memories. Consistent with hypotheses, results indicated that although severe CHI participants remembered fewer actual list items, they made more semantically related intrusion errors (recall) and false-positive responses (recognition) than the control participants. Severe CHI participants also showed greater confidence in their false memories than did control participants. The results are interpreted in the context of theoretical accounts of false memory, and possible structural and functional brain changes that might account for the Severe CHI group's memory performance are discussed. PMID:16814819

Ries, Michele; Marks, William

2006-01-01

79

Devil in the Details? Developmental Dyslexia and Visual Long-Term Memory for Details  

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Full Text Available Cognitive theories on causes of developmental dyslexia can be divided into language-specific and general accounts. While the former assume that words are special in that associated processing problems are rooted in language-related cognition (e.g., phonology deficits, the latter propose that dyslexia is rather rooted in a general impairment of cognitive (e.g., visual and/or auditory processing streams. In the present study, we examined to what extent dyslexia (typically characterized by poor orthographic representations may be associated with a general deficit in visual long-term memory for details. We compared object- and detail-related visual long-term memory performance (and phonological skills between dyslexic primary school children and IQ-, age- and gender-matched controls. The results revealed that while the overall amount of long-term memory errors was comparable between groups, dyslexic children exhibited a greater portion of detail-related errors. The results suggest that not only phonological, but also general visual resolution deficits in long-term memory may play an important role in developmental dyslexia.

LynnHuestegge

2014-07-01

80

Transgenic Mice Expressing an Inhibitory Truncated Form of p300 Exhibit Long-Term Memory Deficits  

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The formation of many forms of long-term memory requires several molecular mechanisms including regulation of gene expression. The mechanisms directing transcription require not only activation of individual transcription factors but also recruitment of transcriptional coactivators. CBP and p300 are transcriptional coactivators that interact with…

Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Wood, Marcelo A.; McDonough, Conor B.; Abel, Ted

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The long-term memory analysis of industrial indices of the Chinese stock market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main work of this paper is to apply the fractional market theory and time series analysis for analyzing various industrial indices of the Chinese stock market by rescaling range analysis. Hurst index and the long-term memory of price change in Chinese stock market are studied

82

The Drosophila lingerer protein cooperates with Orb2 in long-term memory formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently mated Drosophila females were shown to be reluctant to copulate and to exhibit rejecting behavior when courted by a male. Males that experience mate refusal by a mated female subsequently attenuate their courtship effort toward not only mated females but also virgin females. This courtship suppression persists for more than a day, and thus represents long-term memory. The courtship long-term memory has been shown to be impaired in heterozygotes as well as homozygotes of mutants in orb2, a locus encoding a set of CPEB RNA-binding proteins. We show that the impaired courtship long-term memory in orb2-mutant heterozygotes is restored by reducing the activity of lig, another putative RNA-binding protein gene, yet on its own the loss-of-function lig mutation is without effect. We further show that Lig forms a complex with Orb2. We infer that a reduction in the Lig levels compensates the Orb2 deficiency by mitigating the negative feedback for Orb2 expression and thereby alleviating defects in long-term memory. PMID:24913805

Kimura, Shingo; Sakakibara, Yasufumi; Sato, Kosei; Ote, Manabu; Ito, Hiroki; Koganezawa, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Daisuke

2014-07-01

83

Competitive short-term and long-term memory processes in spatial habituation.  

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Exposure to a spatial location leads to habituation of exploration such that, in a novelty preference test, rodents subsequently prefer exploring a novel location to the familiar location. According to Wagner's (1981) theory of memory, short-term and long-term habituation are caused by separate and sometimes opponent processes. In the present study, this dual-process account of memory was tested. Mice received a series of exposure training trials to a location before receiving a novelty prefe...

Sanderson, Dj; Bannerman, Dm

2011-01-01

84

Long-Term Behaviors of Stochastic Interest Rate Models with Jumps and Memory  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we show the convergence of the long-term return $t^{-\\mu}\\int_0^tX(s)\\d s$ for some $\\mu\\geq1$, where $X$ is the short-term interest rate which follows an extension of Cox-Ingersoll-Ross type model with jumps and memory, and, as an application, we also investigate the corresponding behavior of two-factor Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model with jumps and memory

Bao, Jianhai

2011-01-01

85

Genetic Modulation of Rpd3 Expression Impairs Long-Term Courtship Memory in Drosophila  

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There is increasing evidence that regulation of local chromatin structure is a critical mechanism underlying the consolidation of long-term memory (LTM), however considerably less is understood about the specific mechanisms by which these epigenetic effects are mediated. Furthermore, the importance of histone acetylation in Drosophila memory has not been reported. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) Rpd3 is abundant in the adult fly brain, suggesting a post-mitotic function. Here, we investigated ...

Fitzsimons, Helen L.; Scott, Maxwell J.

2011-01-01

86

Hippocampus-dependent learning influences hippocampal neurogenesis.  

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The structure of the mammalian hippocampus continues to be modified throughout life by continuous addition of neurons in the dentate gyrus. Although the existence of adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted the function that adult generated granule cells play is a topic of intense debate. Many studies have argued that adult generated neurons, due to unique physiological characteristics, play a unique role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. However, it is not currently clear whethe...

JonathanRichardEpp; CarmenChow

2013-01-01

87

Sensitivity from short-term memory vs. stability from long-term memory in visual attention method  

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In this paper a special focus on the relationship between sensitivity and stability in a dynamic selective visual attention method is described. In this proposal sensitivity is associated to short-term memory and stability to long-term memory, respectively. In first place, all necessary mechanisms to provide sensitivity to the system are included in order to succeed in keeping the attention in our short-term memory. Frame to frame attention is captured on elements constructed from image pixel...

2005-01-01

88

Temporal lobe surgery in childhood and neuroanatomical predictors of long-term declarative memory outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The temporal lobes play a prominent role in declarative memory function, including episodic memory (memory for events) and semantic memory (memory for facts and concepts). Surgical resection for medication-resistant and well-localized temporal lobe epilepsy has good prognosis for seizure freedom, but is linked to memory difficulties in adults, especially when the removal is on the left side. Children may benefit most from surgery, because brain plasticity may facilitate post-surgical reorganization, and seizure cessation may promote cognitive development. However, the long-term impact of this intervention in children is not known. We examined memory function in 53 children (25 males, 28 females) who were evaluated for epilepsy surgery: 42 underwent unilateral temporal lobe resections (25 left, 17 right, mean age at surgery 13.8 years), 11 were treated only pharmacologically. Average follow-up was 9 years (range 5-15). Post-surgical change in visual and verbal episodic memory, and semantic memory at follow-up were examined. Pre- and post-surgical T1-weighted MRI brain scans were analysed to extract hippocampal and resection volumes, and evaluate post-surgical temporal lobe integrity. Language lateralization indices were derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant pre- to postoperative decrements in memory associated with surgery. In contrast, gains in verbal episodic memory were seen after right temporal lobe surgery, and visual episodic memory improved after left temporal lobe surgery, indicating a functional release in the unoperated temporal lobe after seizure reduction or cessation. Pre- to post-surgical change in memory function was not associated with any indices of brain structure derived from MRI. However, better verbal memory at follow-up was linked to greater post-surgical residual hippocampal volumes, most robustly in left surgical participants. Better semantic memory at follow-up was associated with smaller resection volumes and greater temporal pole integrity after left temporal surgery. Results were independent of post-surgical intellectual function and language lateralization. Our findings indicate post-surgical, hemisphere-dependent material-specific improvement in memory functions in the intact temporal lobe. However, outcome was linked to the anatomical integrity of the temporal lobe memory system, indicating that compensatory mechanisms are constrained by the amount of tissue which remains in the operated temporal lobe. Careful tailoring of resections for children undergoing epilepsy surgery may enhance long-term memory outcome. PMID:25392199

Skirrow, Caroline; Cross, J Helen; Harrison, Sue; Cormack, Francesca; Harkness, William; Coleman, Rosie; Meierotto, Ellen; Gaiottino, Johanna; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baldeweg, Torsten

2015-01-01

89

Depletion of Serotonin Selectively Impairs Short-Term Memory without Affecting Long-Term Memory in Odor Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"  

Science.gov (United States)

The terrestrial slug "Limax" is able to acquire short-term and long-term memories during aversive odor-taste associative learning. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on memory. Behavioral studies indicated that 5,7-DHT impaired short-term memory but not long-term memory. HPLC…

Santa, Tomofumi; Kirino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shirahata, Takaaki; Tsunoda, Makoto

2006-01-01

90

Long-term memory for calls of relatives in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognition of relatives is important for dispersing animals to avoid inbreeding and possibly for developing cooperative, reciprocal relationships between individuals after dispersal. We demonstrate under controlled captive conditions that cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) have a long-term memory for long calls of relatives from which they had been separated for periods ranging from 4 to 55 months. Tamarins responded with lower levels of arousal behavior to playbacks of long calls from current mates and from separated relatives compared to calls of unfamiliar, unrelated tamarins. Four tamarins had been out of contact with relatives for more than 4 years and still showed recognition as evidenced by low levels of arousal. Results could not be explained in terms of proximity to former relatives. Long-term memory for vocal signatures of relatives is adaptive and may be much more common than has been demonstrated. PMID:21574684

Matthews, Stephanie; Snowdon, Charles T

2011-08-01

91

Cholestasis progression effects on long-term memory in bile duct ligation rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: There is evidence that cognitive functions are affected by some liver diseases such as cholestasis. Bile duct ligation induces cholestasis as a result of impaired liver function and cognition. This research investigates the effect of cholestasis progression on memory function in bile duct ligation rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, which include: control group for BDL-7, control group for BDL-21, sham group (underwent laparotomy without bile duct ligation), BDL-7 group (7 days after bile duct ligation), and BDL-21 group (21 days after bile duct ligation). Step-through passive avoidance test was employed to examine memory function. In all groups, short-term (7 days after foot shock) and long-term memories (21 days after foot shock) were assessed. Results: Our results showed that liver function significantly decreased with cholestasis progression (P < 0.01). Also our findings indicated BDL-21 significantly impaired acquisition time (P < 0.05). Memory retrieval impaired 7 (P < 0.05) and 21 days (P < 0.001) after foot shock in BDL-7 and BDL-21 groups, respectively. Conclusion: Based on these findings, liver function altered in cholestasis and memory (short-term and long-term memory) impaired with cholestasis progression in bile duct ligation rats. Further studies are needed to better insight the nature of progression of brain damage in cholestatic disease. PMID:25371872

Hosseini, Nasrin; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Nasehi, Mohammad; Radahmadi, Maryam

2014-01-01

92

Making synapses strong: metaplasticity prolongs associativity of long-term memory by switching synaptic tag mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

One conceptual mechanism for the induction of associative long-term memory is that a synaptic tag, set by a weak event, can capture plasticity-related proteins from a nearby strong input, thus enabling associativity between the 2 (synaptic tagging and capture, STC). So far, STC has been observed for only a limited time of 60 min. Nevertheless, association of weak memory forms can occur beyond this period and its mechanism is not well understood. Here we report that metaplasticity induced by ryanodine receptor activation or synaptic activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors prolongs the durability of the synaptic tag, thus extending the time window for associative interactions mediating storage of long-term memory. We provide evidence that such metaplasticity alters the mechanisms of STC from a CaMKII-mediated (in non-primed STC) to a protein kinase Mzeta (PKM?)-mediated process (in primed STC). Thus the association of weak synapses with strong synapses in the "late" stage of associative memory formation occurs only through metaplasticity. The results also reveal that the short-lived, CaMKII-mediated tag may contribute to a mechanism for a fragile form of memory while metaplasticity enables a PKM?-mediated synaptic tag capable of prolonged interactions that induce a more stable form of memory that is resistant to reversal. PMID:23048020

Li, Qin; Rothkegel, Martin; Xiao, Zhi Cheng; Abraham, Wickliffe C; Korte, Martin; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

2014-02-01

93

CNTRICS Imaging Biomarkers Final Task Selection: Long-Term Memory and Reinforcement Learning  

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Functional imaging paradigms hold great promise as biomarkers for schizophrenia research as they can detect altered neural activity associated with the cognitive and emotional processing deficits that are so disabling to this patient population. In an attempt to identify the most promising functional imaging biomarkers for research on long-term memory (LTM), the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative selected “item encoding and r...

Ragland, John D.; Cohen, Neal J.; Cools, Roshan; Frank, Michael J.; Hannula, Deborah E.; Ranganath, Charan

2012-01-01

94

Complex network structure influences processing in long-term and short-term memory  

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Complex networks describe how entities in systems interact; the structure of such networks is argued to influence processing. One measure of network structure, clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous psycholinguistic experiments found that the C of phonological word-forms influenced retrieval from the mental lexicon (that portion of long-term memory dedicated to language) during the on-line recognition and producti...

Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Roodenrys, Steven

2012-01-01

95

Long-Term Memory Motion-Compensated Prediction for Robust Video Transmission  

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Long-term memory prediction extends the spatial displacement vector utilized in hybrid video coding by a variable time delay permitting the use of more than one reference frame for motion compensation. This extension provides improved rate-distortion performance. However, motion compensation in combination with transmission errors leads to temporal error propagation that occurs when the reference frames at encoder and decoder differ. In this paper, we present a framework that incorporates an ...

Wiegand, T.; Fa?rber, N.; Stuhlmu?ller, K.; Girod, B.

2000-01-01

96

Demonstration of long-term memory in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis  

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We studied the formation of protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of fly pupae. Female wasps were trained in one of five different training procedures in the presence of hosts and the odour cinnamon. Six days later the reaction of the wasps towards the odour was tested in a static four-chamber olfactometer. When wasps were trained by a single drilling experience we could not find any reacti...

Schurmann, D.; Sommer, C.; Schinko, A. P. B.; Greschista, M.; Smid, H. M.; Steidle, J. L. M.

2012-01-01

97

Long-term Memory for Calls of Relatives in Cotton-top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recognition of relatives is important for dispersing animals to avoid inbreeding and possibly for developing cooperative, reciprocal relationships between individuals after dispersal. We demonstrate under controlled captive conditions that cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) have a long-term memory for long calls of relatives from which they had been separated for periods ranging from 4 to 55 months. Tamarins responded with lower levels of arousal behavior to playbacks of long calls from c...

Matthews, Stephanie; Snowdon, Charles T.

2011-01-01

98

A clock gene, period, plays a key role in long-term memory formation in Drosophila  

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The cAMP-responsive transcription factor, CREB, is required for formation of long-term memory (LTM) in Drosophila melanogaster and regulates transcription of a circadian clock gene, period (per). Involvement of CREB both in LTM and circadian rhythm raises the possibility that per also plays a role in LTM. Assaying the experience-dependent courtship inhibition in male flies as a measure for LTM, we show here that per mutants are defective in LTM formation. This defect was rescued by induction ...

Sakai, Takaomi; Tamura, Takuya; Kitamoto, Toshihiro; Kidokoro, Yoshiaki

2004-01-01

99

The control of long-term memory: brain systems and cognitive processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a selective review of controlled memory retrieval, i.e., processes, that operate on long-term stored information in the service of current goals and task demands. Binding mechanisms that combine fragments of long-term stored information in response to a retrieval cue, are central for the understanding of the interaction between a retrieval cue and memory-stored information. The paper summarizes empirical evidence showing that ERP slow waves are highly sensitive to the initiation and maintenance of retrieval orientations. It is argued that similar mechanisms of controlled memory retrieval operate in the service of successful remembering and the suppression of unwanted memories (forgetting). The mechanisms can be grouped into two classes: those that enhance retrieval cue processing (cue bias) and those that directly act on memory representations and modulate their accessibility (target bias). From a neuroanatomical point of view, the former class of processes reflects selection mechanisms for internal actions that rely on the integrity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas the second class of processes can be identified with selective attention mechanisms for which the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays an important role. PMID:19944118

Mecklinger, Axel

2010-06-01

100

Neurotrophins play differential roles in short and long-term recognition memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neurotrophin family of proteins are believed to mediate various forms of synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. Here we have assessed the roles of these proteins in object recognition memory in the rat, using icv infusions of function-blocking antibodies or the tyrosine kinase antagonist, tyrphostin AG879, to block Trk receptors. We report that tyrphostin AG879 impairs both short-term and long-term recognition memory, indicating a requirement for Trk receptor activation in both processes. The effect of inhibition of each of the neurotrophins with activity-blocking neutralising antibodies was also tested. Treatment with anti-BDNF, anti-NGF or anti-NT4 had no effect on short-term memory, but blocked long-term recognition memory. Treatment with anti-NT3 had no effect on either process. We also assessed changes in expression of neurotrophins and their respective receptors in the hippocampus, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex over a 24 h period following training in the object recognition task. We observed time-dependent changes in expression of the Trk receptors and their ligands in the dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex. The data are consistent with a pivotal role for neurotrophic factors in the expression of recognition memory. PMID:23669064

Callaghan, Charlotte K; Kelly, Aine M

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Novel long-term anticonvulsant treatment with gabapentin without causing memory impairment in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported that administration of a single dose of gabapentin (GBP) immediately after training improves memory of mice in an inhibitory avoidance task (IA), whereas GBP administered repeatedly for 7 days impairs memory. This is in accordance with the observation that long-term clinical treatment with GBP may be associated with adverse cognitive side effects. In the present work we used a GBP-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) implant, allowing controlled release of the drug and maintenance of constant plasma levels over 1 week. When GBP-loaded implants were inserted subcutaneously into mice, immediately after training in the IA task, memory consolidation was enhanced. Moreover, GBP released from implants had an anticonvulsant action against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. These results suggest that maintenance of stable GBP plasma levels could protect against seizures without causing memory impairment. Hence, the adverse cognitive effects might be avoided by stabilizing plasma levels of the drug. PMID:20079694

Blake, Mariano G; Boccia, Mariano M; Carcaboso, Angel M; Chiappetta, Diego A; Höcht, Christian; Krawczyk, María C; Sosnik, Alejandro; Baratti, Carlos M

2010-02-01

102

Slow oscillations in two pairs of dopaminergic neurons gate long-term memory formation in Drosophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fundamental duty of any efficient memory system is to prevent long-lasting storage of poorly relevant information. However, little is known about dedicated mechanisms that appropriately trigger production of long-term memory (LTM). We examined the role of Drosophila dopaminergic neurons in the control of LTM formation and found that they act as a switch between two exclusive consolidation pathways leading to LTM or anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM). Blockade, after aversive olfactory conditioning, of three pairs of dopaminergic neurons projecting on mushroom bodies, the olfactory memory center, enhanced ARM, whereas their overactivation conversely impaired ARM. Notably, blockade of these neurons during the intertrial intervals of a spaced training precluded LTM formation. Two pairs of these dopaminergic neurons displayed sustained calcium oscillations in naive flies. Oscillations were weakened by ARM-inducing massed training and were enhanced during LTM formation. Our results indicate that oscillations of two pairs of dopaminergic neurons control ARM levels and gate LTM. PMID:22366756

Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Trannoy, Séverine; Isabel, Guillaume; Aso, Yoshinori; Siwanowicz, Igor; Belliart-Guérin, Ghislain; Vernier, Philippe; Birman, Serge; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Preat, Thomas

2012-04-01

103

Expectation-driven changes in cortical functional connectivity influence working memory and long-term memory performance  

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Expectations generated by predictive cues increase the efficiency of perceptual processing for complex stimuli (e.g. faces, scenes), however the impact this has on working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) has not yet been investigated. Here, healthy young adults performed delayed-recognition tasks that differed only in stimulus-category expectations, while behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected. Univariate and functional-connectivity analyses wer...

Bollinger, Jacob; Rubens, Michael T.; Zanto, Theodore P.; Gazzaley, Adam

2010-01-01

104

Long-term memory in speech perception: Some new findings on talker variability, speaking rate and perceptual learning *  

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This paper summarizes results from recent studies on the role of long-term memory in speech perception and spoken word recognition. Experiments on talker variability, speaking rate and perceptual learning provide strong evidence for implicit memory for very fine perceptual details of speech. Listeners apparently encode specific attributes of the talker’s voice and speaking rate into long-term memory. Acoustic–phonetic variability does not appear to be “lost” as a result of phonetic an...

Pisoni, David B.

1993-01-01

105

Verapamil enhances the impairing effects of stress on retrieval of long-term memory in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated an interaction between acute restraint stress and verapamil, as a blocker of L-type voltage sensitive channels on retrieval of long-term memory. Materials and Methods: Young adult male rats were trained in one trial inhibitory avoidance task (1mA, 1.5s footshock. On retention test given 48 hr after training, the latency to re-enter dark compartment and time spent in light chamber of the apparatus were recorded. Thirty min before retention test, the rats were exposed to a 10 min of restraint stress in a Plexiglass with or without prior treatment of verapamil (5, 10, 20 mg/kg. Results: The results showed verapamil pretreatment enhanced the impairing effect of stress on memory retrieval. The applied stress increased circulating corticosterone levels as assessed immediately after the retention test, indicating that stress–induced impairment of memory retrieval is mediated, in part, by increased plasma levels of glucocorticoids. Verapamil did not affect on this response. Conclusion: These findings indicate that acute restraint stress impair retrieval of long-term memory, and provide evidence for the existence of an interaction between stress and L-type voltage calcium channels on this process.

A. Rashidy-Pour

2006-11-01

106

Fragile X mental retardation 1 and Filamin A interact genetically in Drosophila long-term memory  

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Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed the identification of single-gene defects associated with an impressive number of mental retardation syndromes. Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of mental retardation for instance, results from disruption of the FMR1 gene. Similarly, Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia (PNH, which includes cerebral malformation, epilepsy and cognitive disabilities, derives from disruption of the Filamin A gene. While it remains unclear whether defects in common molecular pathways may underlie the cognitive dysfunction of these various syndromes, defects in cytoskeletal structure nonetheless appear to be common to several mental retardation syndromes. FMR1 is known to interact with Rac, profilin, PAK and Ras, which are associated with dendritic spine defects. In Drosophila, disruptions of the dFmr1 gene impair long-term memory, and the Filamin A homolog (cheerio was identified in a behavioral screen for long-term memory mutants. Thus, we investigated the possible interaction between cheerio and dFmr1 during long-term memory (LTM formation in Drosophila. We show that LTM specifically is defective in dFmr1/cheerio double heterozygotes, while it is normal in single heterozygotes for either dFmr1 or cheerio. In dFmr1 mutants, Filamin (Cheerio levels are lower than normal after spaced training. These observations support the notion that decreased actin cross-linking underlies the persistence of long and thin dendritic spines in Fragile X patients and animal models. More generally, our results represent the first demonstration of a genetic interaction between mental retardation genes in an in vivo model system of memory formation.

FrancoisBolduc

2010-01-01

107

Mushroom body ablation impairs short-term memory and long-term memory of courtship conditioning in Drosophila melanogaster.  

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We have evaluated the role of the Drosophila mushroom bodies (MBs) in courtship conditioning, in which experience with mated females causes males to reduce their courtship toward virgins (Siegel and Hall, 1979). Whereas previous studies indicated that MB ablation abolished learning in an olfactory conditioning paradigm (deBelle and Heisenberg, 1994), MB-ablated males were able to learn in the courtship paradigm. They resumed courting at naive levels within 30 min after training, however, while the courtship of control males remained depressed 1 hr after training. We also describe a novel courtship conditioning paradigm that established long-term memory, lasting 9 days. In MB-ablated males, memory dissipated completely within 1 day. Our results indicate that the MBs are not required for learning and immediate recall of courtship conditioning but are required for consolidation of short-term and long-term associative memories. PMID:10624959

McBride, S M; Giuliani, G; Choi, C; Krause, P; Correale, D; Watson, K; Baker, G; Siwicki, K K

1999-12-01

108

Narrative organisation at encoding facilitated children's long-term episodic memory.  

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This study examined the effect of narrative organisation at encoding on long-term episodic memory in a sample of five- to seven-year-old children (N = 113). At an initial interview, children were asked to narrate a story from a picture book. Six months later, they were interviewed again and asked to recall the story and answer a series of direct questions about the story. Children who initially encoded more information in narrative and produced more complete, complex, cohesive and coherent narratives remembered the story in greater detail and accuracy following the six-month interval, independent of age and verbal skills. The relation between narrative organisation and memory was consistent across culture and gender. These findings provide new insight into the critical role of narrative in episodic memory. PMID:24786637

Wang, Qi; Bui, Van-Kim; Song, Qingfang

2015-06-01

109

Facilitation of long-term object recognition memory by pretraining administration of diphenyl diselenide in mice.  

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Selenium compounds display antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)(2) is an organic selenium compound that affects a number of neuronal processes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the systemic administration of (PhSe)(2) on novel object recognition memory in mice. Adult male CF1 mice were given an i.p. injection of (PhSe)(2) (0.2, 1.0, 5.0, or 25.0 micromol/kg) 30 min before training in an object recognition task. (PhSe)(2) did not affect short-term memory or the total time exploring both objects, but induced a facilitation of retention measured 24 h after training. The present findings show that systemic administration of (PhSe)(2) induces a facilitation of formation of long-term object recognition memory. PMID:12697287

Rosa, Renato M; Flores, Debora G; Appelt, Helmoz R; Braga, Antônio Luiz; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Roesler, Rafael

2003-05-01

110

A phenomenological memristor model for short-term/long-term memory  

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Memristor is considered to be a natural electrical synapse because of its distinct memory property and nanoscale. In recent years, more and more similar behaviors are observed between memristors and biological synapse, e.g., short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The traditional mathematical models are unable to capture the new emerging behaviors. In this article, an updated phenomenological model based on the model of the Hewlett-Packard (HP) Labs has been proposed to capture such new behaviors. The new dynamical memristor model with an improved ion diffusion term can emulate the synapse behavior with forgetting effect, and exhibit the transformation between the STM and the LTM. Further, this model can be used in building new type of neural networks with forgetting ability like biological systems, and it is verified by our experiment with Hopfield neural network.

Chen, Ling; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Ahmad, Hafiz Gulfam; Chen, Yiran

2014-08-01

111

Evidence for two distinct sleep-related long-term memory consolidation processes.  

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Numerous studies examine the effect of a night's sleep on memory consolidation, but few go beyond this short time-scale to test long-lasting effects of sleep on memory. We investigated long-term effects of sleep on typical memory tasks. During the hours following learning, participants slept or stayed awake. We compared recall performance between wake and sleep conditions after delays of up to 6 days. Performance develops in two distinct ways. Word pair, syllable, and motor sequence learning tasks benefit from sleep during the first day after encoding, when compared with daytime or nighttime wakefulness. However, performance in the wake conditions recovers after another night of sleep, so that we observe no lasting effect of sleep. Sleep deprivation before recall does not impair performance. Thus, fatigue cannot adequately explain the lack of long-term effects. We suggest that the hippocampus might serve as a buffer during the retention interval, and consolidation occurs during delayed sleep. In contrast, a non-hippocampal mirror-tracing task benefits significantly from sleep, even when tested after a 4-day delay including recovery sleep. This indicates a dissociation between two sleep-related consolidation mechanisms, which could rely on distinct neuronal processes. PMID:25243990

Schönauer, Monika; Grätsch, Melanie; Gais, Steffen

2015-02-01

112

Strategic search from long-term memory: an examination of semantic and autobiographical recall.  

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Searching long-term memory is theoretically driven by both directed (search strategies) and random components. In the current study we conducted four experiments evaluating strategic search in semantic and autobiographical memory. Participants were required to generate either exemplars from the category of animals or the names of their friends for several minutes. Self-reported strategies suggested that participants typically relied on visualization strategies for both tasks and were less likely to rely on ordered strategies (e.g., alphabetic search). When participants were instructed to use particular strategies, the visualization strategy resulted in the highest levels of performance and the most efficient search, whereas ordered strategies resulted in the lowest levels of performance and fairly inefficient search. These results are consistent with the notion that retrieval from long-term memory is driven, in part, by search strategies employed by the individual, and that one particularly efficient strategy is to visualize various situational contexts that one has experienced in the past in order to constrain the search and generate the desired information. PMID:23885826

Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

2014-01-01

113

Sleep Improves Memory: The Effect of Sleep on Long Term Memory in Early Adolescence  

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Sleep plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. This has been most clearly shown in adults for procedural memory (i.e. skills and procedures) and declarative memory (e.g. recall of facts). The effects of sleep and memory are relatively unstudied in adolescents. Declarative memory is important in school performance and consequent social functioning in adolescents. This is the first study to specifically examine the effects of normal sleep on auditory declarative memory in an earl...

Potkin, Katya Trudeau; Bunney, William E.

2012-01-01

114

Expression of human PQBP-1 in Drosophila impairs long-term memory and induces abnormal courtship.  

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Frame shift mutations of the polyglutamine binding protein-1 (PQBP1) gene lead to total or partial truncation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) and cause mental retardation in human patients. Interestingly, normal Drosophila homologue of PQBP-1 lacks CTD. As a model to analyze the molecular network of PQBP-1 affecting intelligence, we generated transgenic flies expressing human PQBP-1 with CTD. Pavlovian olfactory conditioning revealed that the transgenic flies showed disturbance of long-term memory. In addition, they showed abnormal courtship that male flies follow male flies. Abnormal functions of PQBP-1 or its binding partner might be linked to these symptoms. PMID:16597440

Yoshimura, Natsue; Horiuchi, Daisuke; Shibata, Masao; Saitoe, Minoru; Qi, Mei-Ling; Okazawa, Hitoshi

2006-04-17

115

Solution polymeric optical temperature sensors with long-term memory function powered by supramolecular chemistry.  

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A poly[(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-ran-(2-nonyl-2-oxazoline)] copolymer in combination with hydroxypropylated cyclodextrins has been demonstrated to lead to a supramolecular self-assembly process that results in the formation of kinetically trapped thermoresponsive nanoparticles. Selection of the cyclodextrin type provides control over the nanoparticle phase-transition thermodynamics, thus affording optical temperature sensors with an unprecedented, long-term thermal memory function, which is reversible or irreversible. This research also sheds light onto kinetic and dynamic supramolecular assemblies, thus providing important insight because similar supramolecular processes are at the foundation of living matter. PMID:25412901

de la Rosa, Victor R; Hoogenboom, Richard

2015-01-12

116

Long-term potentiation decay and memory loss are mediated by AMPAR endocytosis.  

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Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength between hippocampal neurons is associated with learning and memory, and LTP dysfunction is thought to underlie memory loss. LTP can be temporally and mechanistically classified into decaying (early-phase) LTP and nondecaying (late-phase) LTP. While the nondecaying nature of LTP is thought to depend on protein synthesis and contribute to memory maintenance, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of decaying LTP. Here, we demonstrated that inhibiting endocytosis of postsynaptic ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) prevents LTP decay, thereby converting it into nondecaying LTP. Conversely, restoration of AMPAR endocytosis by inhibiting protein kinase M? (PKM?) converted nondecaying LTP into decaying LTP. Similarly, inhibition of AMPAR endocytosis prolonged memory retention in normal animals and reduced memory loss in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease. These results strongly suggest that an active process that involves AMPAR endocytosis mediates the decay of LTP and that inhibition of this process can prolong the longevity of LTP as well as memory under both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25437879

Dong, Zhifang; Han, Huili; Li, Hongjie; Bai, Yanrui; Wang, Wei; Tu, Man; Peng, Yan; Zhou, Limin; He, Wenting; Wu, Xiaobin; Tan, Tao; Liu, Mingjing; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Weihui; Jin, Wuyang; Zhang, Shu; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong; Wang, Yu Tian

2015-01-01

117

Attention, Working Memory, and Long-Term Memory in Multimedia Learning: An Integrated Perspective Based on Process Models of Working Memory  

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Cognitive models of multimedia learning such as the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer 2009) or the Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller 1999) are based on different cognitive models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley 1986) and long-term memory. The current paper describes a working memory model that has recently gained popularity in basic…

Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

2014-01-01

118

On the Detection of Long-Term Memory in Short Records  

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Long-term memory is ubiquitous in nature and has important consequences for the occurrence of natural hazards, but its detection often is complicated by the short length of the considered records. Here we study synthetic long-term correlated records of length N that are characterized by a correlation exponent ?, 00)=B· s-? and E=E(B,?,N)= 2B/((2-?)(1-?))· N-?+O(N-1). Due to the finite-size correction E, a direct determination of ? is difficult to achieve and generally leads to an enhanced value of ?. The parameter E also occurs in related quantities, that are characterized by the Hurst-exponent, which describe how the fluctuations of the records in time windows of length s decay with s, for example the variance of the local mean in time windows of length s. We show how to estimate E from a given data set which then allows a more accurate determination of ?. This approach can be applied also to long-term correlated records in the presence of additional white noise, where the determination of ? is particularly difficult (which is the case, e.g. in the records of return intervals between consecutive events above a certain threshold).

Lennartz, S.; Bunde, A.

2008-12-01

119

The evidence for hippocampal long-term potentiation as a basis of memory for simple tasks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A potenciação de longa duração (LTP) é o aumento de respostas pós-sinápticas durante horas, dias ou semanas após a breve estimulação repetitiva de aferentes pre-sinápticos. Foi proposto durante 30 anos ser a base da memória de longa duração. Vários achados recentes finalmente apoiaram esta hipótese: [...] a) a formação da memória de esquiva inibitória adquirida numa sessão depende de uma cadeia de processos moleculares na região CA1 do hipocampo quase idêntica à da LTP nessa mesma região; b) LTP hipocampal nessa região acompanha a formação da memóría dessa tarefa e de outra semelhante. No entanto, a LTP de CA1 e os processos de memória podem ser dissociados e, fora disso, processos plásticos em outras regiões cerebrais (amígdala, córtex entorrinal, córtex parietal) também são necessários para a formação da memória da tarefa de uma sessão e talvez de muitas outras. Abstract in english Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the enhancement of postsynaptic responses for hours, days or weeks following the brief repetitive afferent stimulation of presynaptic afferents. It has been proposed many times over the last 30 years to be the basis of long-term memory. Several recent findings finally [...] supported this hypothesis: a) memory formation of one-trial avoidance learning depends on a series of molecular steps in the CA1 region of the hippocampus almost identical to those of LTP in the same region; b)hippocampal LTP in this region accompanies memory formation of that task and of another similar task. However, CA1 LTP and the accompanying memory processes can be dissociated, and in addition plastic events in several other brain regions(amygdala, entorhinal cortex, parietal cortex) are also necessary for memory formation of the one-trial task, and perhaps of many others.

Iván, Izquierdo; Martín, Cammarota; Weber C. Da, Silva; Lia R.M., Bevilaqua; Janine I., Rossato; Juliana S., Bonini; Pamela, Mello; Fernando, Benetti; Jaderson C., Costa; Jorge H., Medina.

2008-03-01

120

The flavonol epicatechin reverses the suppressive effects of a stressor on long-term memory formation.  

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Learning and subsequent memory formation are influenced by both environmental and lifestyle factors, such as stress and diet. Epicatechin, a plant flavonol found in cocoa, red wine and green tea enhances long-term memory (LTM) formation in Lymnaea. By contrast, an ecologically relevant stressor, low-calcium pond water, suppresses LTM formation. We tested the hypothesis that epicatechin overcomes the suppressive effects of the stressor on LTM formation in the continued presence of the stressor. Snails trained in low-calcium pond water exhibit learning but not LTM. Epicatechin (15 mg l(-1)) in control pond water enhances LTM formation. When epicatechin was added to the low-calcium pond water an enhanced LTM similar to that seen in control pond water was observed. Thus, a naturally occurring bioactive plant compound was able to overcome the suppressive effects of an ecologically relevant stressor on LTM formation. PMID:25267853

Knezevic, Bogdan; Lukowiak, Ken

2014-11-15

 
 
 
 
121

Aging impairs protein-synthesis-dependent long-term memory in Drosophila.  

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Although aging is known to impair intermediate-term memory in Drosophila, its effect on protein-synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) is unknown. We show here that LTM is impaired with age, not due to functional defects in synaptic output of mushroom body (MB) neurons, but due to connectivity defects of dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons with their postsynaptic MB neurons. GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) experiments revealed structural connectivity defects in aged animals of DPM neurons with MB axons in the ? lobe neuropil. As a consequence, a protein-synthesis-dependent LTM trace in the ?/? MB neurons fails to form. Aging thus impairs protein-synthesis-dependent LTM along with the ?/? MB neuron LTM trace by lessening the connectivity of DPM and ?/? MB neurons. PMID:25609631

Tonoki, Ayako; Davis, Ronald L

2015-01-21

122

Roles of NO signaling in long-term memory formation in visual learning in an insect.  

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Many insects exhibit excellent capability of visual learning, but the molecular and neural mechanisms are poorly understood. This is in contrast to accumulation of information on molecular and neural mechanisms of olfactory learning in insects. In olfactory learning in insects, it has been shown that cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling critically participates in the formation of protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) and, in some insects, nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling also plays roles in LTM formation. In this study, we examined the possible contribution of NO-cGMP signaling and cAMP signaling to LTM formation in visual pattern learning in crickets. Crickets that had been subjected to 8-trial conditioning to associate a visual pattern with water reward exhibited memory retention 1 day after conditioning, whereas those subjected to 4-trial conditioning exhibited 30-min memory retention but not 1-day retention. Injection of cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, into the hemolymph prior to 8-trial conditioning blocked formation of 1-day memory, whereas it had no effect on 30-min memory formation, indicating that 1-day memory can be characterized as protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM). Injection of an inhibitor of the enzyme producing an NO or cAMP prior to 8-trial visual conditioning blocked LTM formation, whereas it had no effect on 30-min memory formation. Moreover, injection of an NO donor, cGMP analogue or cAMP analogue prior to 4-trial conditioning induced LTM. Induction of LTM by an NO donor was blocked by DDA, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme producing cAMP, but LTM induction by a cAMP analogue was not impaired by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase. The results indicate that cAMP signaling is downstream of NO signaling for visual LTM formation. We conclude that visual learning and olfactory learning share common biochemical cascades for LTM formation. PMID:23894314

Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Hirashima, Daisuke; Terao, Kanta; Mizunami, Makoto

2013-01-01

123

Long-term odor recognition memory in unipolar major depression and Alzheimer?s disease.  

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Major depression and Alzheimer?s disease (AD) are often observed in the elderly. The identification of specific markers for these diseases could improve their screening. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term odor recognition memory in depressed and AD patients, with a view to identifying olfactory markers of these diseases. We included 20 patients with unipolar major depressive episodes (MDE), 20 patients with mild to moderate AD and 24 healthy subjects. We investigated the cognitive profile and olfactory memory capacities (ability to recognize familiar and unfamiliar odors) of these subjects. Olfactory memory test results showed that AD and depressed patients were characterized by significantly less correct responses and more wrong responses than healthy controls. Detection index did not differ significantly between patients with major depression and those with AD when the results were analyzed for all odors. However, MDE patients displayed an impairment of olfactory memory for both familiar and unfamiliar odors, whereas AD subjects were impaired only in the recognition of unfamiliar odors, with respect to healthy subjects. If preservation of olfactory memory for familiar stimuli in patients with mild to moderate AD is confirmed, this test could be used in clinical practice as a complementary tool for diagnosis. PMID:25262560

Naudin, Marine; Mondon, Karl; El-Hage, Wissam; Desmidt, Thomas; Jaafari, Nematollah; Belzung, Catherine; Gaillard, Philippe; Hommet, Caroline; Atanasova, Boriana

2014-12-30

124

Ecdysone signaling regulates the formation of long-term courtship memory in adult Drosophila melanogaster.  

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Improved survival is likely linked to the ability to generate stable memories of significant experiences. Considerable evidence in humans and mammalian model animals shows that steroid hormones, which are released in response to emotionally arousing experiences, have an important role in the consolidation of memories of such events. In insects, ecdysone is the major steroid hormone, and it is well characterized with respect to its essential role in coordinating developmental transitions such as larval molting and metamorphosis. However, the functions of ecdysone in adult physiology remain largely elusive. Here, we show that 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the active metabolite of ecdysone that is induced by environmental stimuli in adult Drosophila, has an important role in the formation of long-term memory (LTM). In male flies, the levels of 20E were found to be significantly increased after courtship conditioning, and exogenous administration of 20E either enhanced or suppressed courtship LTM, depending on the timing of its administration. We also found that mutants in which ecdysone signaling is reduced were defective in LTM, and that an elevation of 20E levels was associated with activation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), an essential regulator of LTM formation. Our results demonstrate that the molting steroid hormone ecdysone in adult Drosophila is critical to the evolutionarily conserved strategy that is used for the formation of stable memories. We propose that ecdysone is able to consolidate memories possibly by recapturing molecular and cellular processes that are used for normal neural development. PMID:19342482

Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Sakai, Takaomi; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

2009-04-14

125

Continuum Climate Variability:. Long-Term Memory, Scaling, and 1/F-NOISE  

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Continuum temperature variability represents the response of the Earth's climate to deterministic external forcing. Scaling regimes are observed which range from hours to millennia with low frequency fluctuations characterizing long-term memory. The presence of 1/f power spectra in weather and climate is noteworthy: (i) In the tropical atmosphere 1/f scaling ranging from hours to weeks is found for several variables; it emerges as superposition of uncorrelated pulses with individual 1/f spectra. (ii) The daily discharge of the Yangtze shows 1/f within one week to one year, although the precipitation spectrum is white. (iii) Beyond one year mid-latitude sea surface temperatures reveal 1/f scaling in large parts of the global ocean. The spectra can be simulated by complex atmosphere-ocean general circulation models and understood as a two layer heat diffusion process forced by an uncorrelated stochastic atmospheric. Long-term memory on time scales up to millennia are the global sea surface temperatures and the Greenland ice core records (GISP2, GRIP) with ?18O temperature proxy data during the Holocene. Complex atmosphere ocean general circulation models reproduce this behavior quantitatively up to millennia without solar variability, interacting land-ice and vegetation components.

Fraedrich, Klaus; Blender, Richard; Zhu, Xiuhua

126

Forward processing of long-term associative memory in monkey inferotemporal cortex.  

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The macaque inferotemporal (IT) cortex, which serves as the storehouse of visual long-term memory, consists of two distinct but mutually interconnected areas: area TE (TE) and area 36 (A36). In the present study, we tested whether memory encoding is put forward at this stage, i.e., whether association between the representations of different but semantically linked objects proceeds forward from TE to A36. To address this question, we trained monkeys in a pair-association (PA) memory task, after which single-unit activities were recorded from TE and A36 during PA trials. Neurons in both areas showed stimulus-selective cue responses (347 in TE, 76 in A36; "cue-selective neurons") that provided, at the population level, mnemonic linkage between the paired associates. The percentage of neurons in which responses to the paired associates were significantly (p A36 (33%). The pair-coding neurons in A36 were further separable into Type1 (68%) and Type2 (32%) on the basis of their initial transient responses after cue stimulus presentation. Type1 neurons, but not Type2 neurons, began to encode association between paired stimuli as soon as they exhibited stimulus selectivity. Thus, the representation of long-term memory encoded by Type1 neurons in A36 is likely substantiated without feedback input from other higher centers. Therefore, we conclude that association between the representations of the paired associates proceeds forward at this critical step within IT cortex, suggesting selective convergence onto a single A36 neuron from two TE neurons that encode separate visual objects. PMID:12684473

Naya, Yuji; Yoshida, Masatoshi; Miyashita, Yasushi

2003-04-01

127

Interactions between the orbitofrontal cortex and the hippocampal memory system during the storage of long-term memory.  

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It has been proposed that long-term declarative memories are ultimately stored through interactions between the hippocampal memory system and the neocortical association areas that initially processed the to-be-stored information. One association neocortex, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is strongly and reciprocally connected with the hippocampal memory system and plays an important role in odor recognition memory in rats. We will report data from two studies: one that examined the firing of neurons in a task dependent on the parahippocampal region (PHR; including the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entrorhinal cortices), and one examined the firing of OFC neurons performing a task that is presumably dependent on the hippocampus. In the first study, we examined the role of OFC neurons in the continuous odor-guided nonmatching to sample task. While the firing of neurons in the PHR and OFC are similar in this task, there are several notable differences that are consistent with the idea that OFC is a high-order association cortex which interacts extensively with the PHR to store declarative memories. In the second study, we characterized the firing patterns of neurons in the OFC rats performing a passive, 8-odor-sequence memory task. Most interesting were neurons that fired selectively in anticipation of specific odors. We found that hippocampal lesions abolished the anticipatory firing in OFC, suggesting that these anticipatory responses (memory) were in fact dependent on the hippocampus, further supporting the view that the OFC interacts with the hippocampal memory system to store long-term, declarative memories. PMID:17872388

Ramus, Seth J; Davis, Jena B; Donahue, Rachel J; Discenza, Claire B; Waite, Alissa A

2007-12-01

128

Errors in nonword repetition: bridging short- and long-term memory  

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Full Text Available According to the working memory model, the phonological loop is the component of working memory specialized in processing and manipulating limited amounts of speech-based information. The Children's Test of Nonword Repetition (CNRep is a suitable measure of phonological short-term memory for English-speaking children, which was validated by the Brazilian Children's Test of Pseudoword Repetition (BCPR as a Portuguese-language version. The objectives of the present study were: i to investigate developmental aspects of the phonological memory processing by error analysis in the nonword repetition task, and ii to examine phoneme (substitution, omission and addition and order (migration errors made in the BCPR by 180 normal Brazilian children of both sexes aged 4-10, from preschool to 4th grade. The dominant error was substitution [F(3,525 = 180.47; P < 0.0001]. The performance was age-related [F(4,175 = 14.53; P < 0.0001]. The length effect, i.e., more errors in long than in short items, was observed [F(3,519 = 108.36; P < 0.0001]. In 5-syllable pseudowords, errors occurred mainly in the middle of the stimuli, before the syllabic stress [F(4,16 = 6.03; P = 0.003]; substitutions appeared more at the end of the stimuli, after the stress [F(12,48 = 2.27; P = 0.02]. In conclusion, the BCPR error analysis supports the idea that phonological loop capacity is relatively constant during development, although school learning increases the efficiency of this system. Moreover, there are indications that long-term memory contributes to holding memory trace. The findings were discussed in terms of distinctiveness, clustering and redintegration hypotheses.

F.H. Santos

2006-03-01

129

Protein degradation and protein synthesis in long-term memory formation  

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Full Text Available Long-term memory (LTM formation requires transient changes in the activity of intracellular signaling cascades that are thought to regulate new gene transcription and de novo protein synthesis in the brain. Consistent with this, protein synthesis inhibitors impair LTM for a variety of behavioral tasks when infused into the brain around the time of training or following memory retrieval, suggesting that protein synthesis is a critical step in LTM storage in the brain. However, evidence suggests that protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system may also be a critical regulator of LTM formation and stability following retrieval. This requirement for increased protein degradation has been shown in the same brain regions in which protein synthesis is required for LTM storage. Additionally, increases in the phosphorylation of proteins involved in translational control parallel increases in protein polyubiquitination and the increased demand for protein degradation is regulated by intracellular signaling molecules thought to regulate protein synthesis during LTM formation. In some cases inhibiting proteasome activity can rescue memory impairments that result from pharmacological blockade of protein synthesis, suggesting that protein degradation may control the requirement for protein synthesis during the memory storage process. Results such as these suggest that protein degradation and synthesis are both critical for LTM formation and may interact to properly “consolidate” and store memories in the brain. Here, we review the evidence implicating protein synthesis and degradation in LTM storage and highlight the areas of overlap between these two opposing processes. We also discuss evidence suggesting these two processes may interact to properly form and store memories. LTM storage likely requires a coordinated regulation between protein degradation and synthesis at multiple sites in the mammalian brain.

Fred J Helmstetter

2014-06-01

130

Different Phases of Long-Term Memory Require Distinct Temporal Patterns of PKA Activity after Single-Trial Classical Conditioning  

Science.gov (United States)

The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is known to play a critical role in both transcription-independent short-term or intermediate-term memory and transcription-dependent long-term memory (LTM). Although distinct phases of LTM already have been demonstrated in some systems, it is not known whether these phases require distinct temporal patterns…

Michel, Maximilian; Kemenes, Ildiko; Muller, Uli; Kemenes, Gyorgy

2008-01-01

131

Studies of the reproduction of long-term memory during exposure to kainic Acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the neurotoxin kainic acid on a food-producing habit were studied in Wistar rats in an experimental chamber. Single doses of kainic acid at a subconvulsive dose (8 mg/kg, i.p.) were found to impair the habit, onset of impairment being delayed by several weeks rather than immediate. Conversely, administration of the neurotoxin at the convulsive dose (10 mg/kg) impaired reproduction of the habit with onset within several hours after treatment and persistence for periods of up to 10 days, though this dose did not prevent the acquisition of a new food-procuring habit. These defects in the reproduction of long-term memory traces were explained in terms of the characteristics of the effects of kainic acid on the hippocampal system, which is the most susceptible to systemic administration of the neurotoxin. PMID:16132264

Arkhipov, V I; Shevchenko, N A

2005-10-01

132

The effect of crying on long-term memory in infancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of crying on infants' long-term memory for a learned response was investigated in 3 experiments. In each, infants were trained to move a crib mobile containing 10 identical objects by means of kicking and were then exposed to a reinforcer containing only 2 of these components. This shift in component numerosity produced crying in 53% of the infants. Infants who cried in response to the reward shift evidenced no retention of the contingency 1 week later (Experiment 1) but did have excellent retention at 1 day (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, a brief reactivation treatment alleviated forgetting at 3 weeks regardless of the presence of crying in response to the change in mobiles. An unexpected recency effect characterized the efficacy of the reactivation treatment. The results indicate that crying in response to the violation of a reward-expectation habit functions as an amnesic agent to produce accelerated forgetting. PMID:4075876

Fagen, J W; Ohr, P S; Fleckenstein, L K; Ribner, D R

1985-12-01

133

Long-term memory in experiments and numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyze time series stemming from experiments and direct numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Simulations are done in periodic boxes, but with a volumetric forcing chosen to mimic the geometry of the flow in the experiments, the von Kármán swirling flow between two counterrotating impellers. Parameters in the simulations are chosen to (within computational limitations) allow comparisons between the experiments and the numerical results. Conducting fluids are considered in all cases. Two different configurations are considered: a case with a weak externally imposed magnetic field and a case with self-sustained magnetic fields. Evidence of long-term memory and 1/f noise is observed in experiments and simulations, in the case with weak magnetic field associated with the hydrodynamic behavior of the shear layer in the von Kármán flow, and in the dynamo case associated with slow magnetohydrodynamic behavior of the large-scale magnetic field. PMID:25353878

Mininni, P; Dmitruk, P; Odier, P; Pinton, J-F; Plihon, N; Verhille, G; Volk, R; Bourgoin, M

2014-05-01

134

Long-term memory in experiments and numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence  

CERN Document Server

We analyze time series stemming from experiments and direct numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Simulations are done in periodic boxes, but with a volumetric forcing chosen to mimic the geometry of the flow in the experiments, the von K\\'arm\\'an swirling flow between two counter-rotating impellers. Parameters in the simulations are chosen to (within computational limitations) allow comparisons between the experiments and the numerical results. Conducting fluids are considered in all cases. Two different configurations are considered: a case with a weak externally imposed magnetic field, and a case with self-sustained magnetic fields. Evidence of long-term memory and $1/f$ noise is observed in experiments and simulations, in the case with weak magnetic field associated with the hydrodynamic behavior of the shear layer in the von K\\'arm\\'an flow, and in the dynamo case associated with slow magnetohydrodynamic behavior of the large scale magnetic field.

Mininni, Pablo; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier; Volk, Romain; Bourgoin, Mickael

2014-01-01

135

Interdisciplinary Approach to the Mental Lexicon: Neural Network and Text Extraction From Long-term Memory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper touches upon the principles of mental lexicon organization in the light of recent research in psycho- and neurolinguistics. As a focal point of discussion two main approaches to mental lexicon functioning are considered: modular or dual-system approach, developed within generativism and opposite single-system approach, representatives of which are the connectionists and supporters of network models. The paper is an endeavor towards advocating the viewpoint that mental lexicon is complex psychological organization based upon specific composition of neural network. In this regard, the paper further elaborates on the matter of storing text in human mental space and introduces a model of text extraction from long-term memory. Based upon data available, the author develops a methodology of modeling structures of knowledge representation in the systems of artificial intelligence.

Vardan G. Arutyunyan

2013-01-01

136

The effect of cognitive reappraisal on long-term emotional experience and emotional memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

One's ability to properly regulate emotion is critical to psychological and physical well-being. Among various strategies to regulate emotion, cognitive reappraisal has been shown to modulate both emotional experience and emotional memory. However, most studies of reappraisal have focused on reappraisal of negative situations, with reappraisal of positive emotion receiving considerably less attention. In addition, the effects of reappraisal on emotional reactions to stimuli are typically only assessed either immediately or after a short delay, and it remains unclear whether reappraisal effects persist over longer time periods. We investigated the effect of cognitive reappraisal on emotional reactions and long-term episodic memory for positive and negative stimuli. Men and women viewed emotionally negative, positive, and neutral pictures while they were instructed to either increase, decrease, or maintain the initial emotional reactions elicited by the pictures. Subjective ratings of emotional valence and arousal were assessed during the regulation task and again after 1 week. Memory for the pictures was assessed with free recall. Results indicated that pictures accompanied by instructions to increase emotion were better recalled than pictures reappraised to decrease emotion. Modulation of emotional arousal elicited by stimuli persisted over a week, but this effect was observed only for men. These findings suggest that cognitive reappraisal can have long-lasting effects on emotional reactions to stimuli. However, the sex differences observed for the effects of reappraisal on emotional reactions highlight the importance of considering individual differences in the effects of regulation. PMID:24330427

Ahn, Hyeon Min; Kim, Shin Ah; Hwang, In Jae; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Hamann, Stephan; Kim, Sang Hee

2013-12-11

137

Consolidation of visual associative long-term memory in the temporal cortex of primates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropsychological theories have proposed a critical role for the interaction between the medial temporal lobe and the neocortex in the formation of long-term memory for facts and events, which has often been tested by learning of a series of paired words or figures in humans. We have examined neural mechanisms underlying the memory "consolidation" process by single-unit recording and molecular biological methods in an animal model of a visual pair-association task in monkeys. In our previous studies, we found that long-term associative representations of visual objects are acquired through learning in the neural network of the anterior inferior temporal (IT) cortex. In this article, we propose the hypothesis that limbic neurons undergo rapid modification of synaptic connectivity and provide backward signals that guide the reorganization of neocortical neural circuits. Two experiments tested this hypothesis: (1) we examined the role of the backward connections from the medial temporal lobe to the IT cortex by injecting ibotenic acid into the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices, which provided massive backward projections ipsilaterally to the IT cortex. We found that the limbic lesion disrupted the associative code of the IT neurons between the paired associates, without impairing the visual response to each stimulus. (2) We then tested the first half of this hypothesis by detecting the expression of immediate-early genes in the monkey temporal cortex. We found specific expression of zif268 during the learning of a new set of paired associates in the pair-association task, most intensively in area 36 of the perirhinal cortex. All these results with the visual pair-association task support our hypothesis and demonstrate that the consolidation process, which was first proposed on the basis of clinico-psychological evidence, can now be examined in primates using neurophysiolocical and molecular biological approaches. PMID:9753597

Miyashita, Y; Kameyama, M; Hasegawa, I; Fukushima, T

1998-01-01

138

Long-term potentiation in bone – a role for glutamate in strain-induced cellular memory?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The adaptive response of bone cells to mechanical strain is a primary determinant of skeletal architecture and bone mass. In vivo mechanical loading induces new bone formation and increases bone mineral density whereas disuse, immobilisation and weightlessness induce bone loss. The potency of mechanical strain is such that a single brief period of loading at physiological strain magnitude is able to induce a long-lasting osteogenic response that lasts for days. Although the process of mechanotransduction in bone is incompletely understood, observations that responses to mechanical strain outlast the duration of stimulation necessitate the existence of a form of cellular memory through which transient strain episodes are recorded, interpreted and remembered by bone cells. Recent evidence supports the existence of a complex multicellular glutamate-signalling network in bone that shares functional similarities to glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. In neurones, these signalling molecules coordinate synaptic communication required to support learning and memory formation, through a complex process of long-term potentiation. Presentation of the hypothesis We hypothesise that osteoblasts use a cellular mechanism similar or identical to neuronal long-term potentiation in the central nervous system to mediate long-lasting changes in osteogenesis following brief periods of mechanical strain. Testing the hypothesis N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonism should inhibit the saturating response of mechanical strain and reduce the enhanced osteogenicity of segregated loading to that of an equivalent period of uninterrupted loading. Changes in ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole propionate (AMPA receptor expression, localisation and electrophysiological responses should be induced by mechanical strain and inhibited by modulators of neuronal long-term potentiation. Implications of the hypothesis If true, this hypothesis would provide a mechanism through which the skeleton could be pharmacologically primed to enhance or retrieve the normal osteogenic response to exercise. This would form a basis through which novel therapies could be developed to target osteoporosis and other prevalent bone disorders associated with low bone mass.

Genever Paul G

2003-07-01

139

Identification of Gene Expression Changes Associated With Long-Term Memory of Courtship Rejection in Drosophila Males  

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Long-term memory formation in Drosophila melanogaster is an important neuronal function shaping the insect’s behavioral repertoire by allowing an individual to modify behaviors on the basis of previous experiences. In conditioned courtship or courtship suppression, male flies that have been repeatedly rejected by mated females during courtship advances are less likely than naïve males to subsequently court another mated female. This long-term courtship suppression can last for several days...

Winbush, Ari; Reed, Danielle; Chang, Peter L.; Nuzhdin, Sergey V.; Lyons, Lisa C.; Arbeitman, Michelle N.

2012-01-01

140

Better than normal: improved formation of long-term spatial memory in healthy rats treated with levodopa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dopaminergic signaling modulates learning and memory. Consequently, treatment with the dopamine precursor levodopa ameliorates memory deficits in murine models of Alzheimer's disease. In healthy humans, administration of L-DOPA increases learning and memory. However, it is unknown whether dopamine-enhanced memory can also be modeled in normal animals. We here investigated if in healthy non-food-deprived rats low and high doses of levodopa (20 and 50 mg levodopa/kg bodyweight) increase spatial learning and long-term memory performance in a radial arm maze. After 4 months, rats treated with levodopa during training had significantly better memory of food rewarded arms than vehicle-treated animals. Interestingly, acute learning curves did not differ between levodopa and vehicle animals. This suggests that enhanced dopaminergic signaling may have predominantly acted on the cortical long-term consolidation of newly acquired spatial information. PMID:19043682

Reinholz, Julia; Skopp, Oliver; Breitenstein, Caterina; Winterhoff, Hilke; Knecht, Stefan

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
141

Notch-inducible hyperphosphorylated CREB and its ultradian oscillation in long-term memory formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notch is a cell surface receptor that is known to regulate developmental processes by establishing physical contact between neighboring cells. Many recent studies show that it also plays an important role in the formation of long-term memory (LTM) in adults, implying that memory formation requires regulation at the level of cell-cell contacts among brain cells. Neither the target of Notch activity in LTM formation nor the underlying mechanism of regulation is known. We report here results of our studies in adult Drosophila melanogaster showing that Notch regulates dCrebB-17A, the CREB protein. CREB is a transcriptional factor that is pivotal for intrinsic and synaptic plasticity involved in LTM formation. Notch in conjunction with PKC activity upregulates the level of a hyperphosphorylated form of CREB (hyper-PO4 CREB) and triggers its ultradian oscillation, both of which are linked to LTM formation. One of the sites that is phosphorylated in hyper-PO4 CREB is serine 231, which is the functional equivalent of mammalian CREB serine 133, the phosphorylation of which is an important regulator of CREB functions. Our data suggest the model that Notch and PKC activities generate a cyclical accumulation of cytoplasmic hyper-PO4 CREB that is a precursor for generating the nuclear CREB isoforms. Cyclical accumulation of CREB might be important for repetitive aspects of LTM formation, such as memory consolidation. Because Notch, PKC, and CREB have been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), our data might also shed some light on memory loss and dementia. PMID:23904617

Zhang, Jiabin; Little, Christopher J; Tremmel, Daniel M; Yin, Jerry C P; Wesley, Cedric S

2013-07-31

142

DAT genotype modulates striatal processing and long-term memory for items associated with reward and punishment?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. ...

Wittmann, Bianca C.; Tan, Geoffrey C.; Lisman, John E.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Du?zel, Emrah

2013-01-01

143

Introgression of Brown Norway chromosome 1 onto the fawn hooded hypertensive background rescues long-term fear memory deficits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The isolation of genes influencing long-term memory is critical for an understanding of learning at the molecular level. Recently, chromosomal substitution rat strains, known as consomics, have been developed. Here we report the results of the first study on aversive learning and memory with these consomic rats. We compared the Fawn Hooded Hypertensive (FHH) and Brown Norway (BN) parent strains with a Brown Norway chromosome 1 substitution on the FHH background (FHH-1(BN)). Results indicated that while all strains had normal short-term memory, the FHH animals were impaired relative to BN in tests of long-term memory for a discrete auditory cue. This deficit was rescued by the introgression of the BN1 chromosome onto the FHH background. Furthermore, the FHH-1(BN) consomic showed an enhancement in long-term contextual fear memory relative to the FHH strain. These changes were not due to differences in pain sensitivity as both strains performed equally on two different pain tests. These results provide preliminary support that consomic rat strains can be a useful tool in identifying genes related to long-term fear memory formation. PMID:19757016

Jarome, Timothy J; Kwapis, Janine L; Nye, Steven H; Helmstetter, Fred J

2010-01-01

144

[Short-and long-term effects of cannabinoids on memory, cognition and mental illness].  

Science.gov (United States)

Marijuana is considered the most commonly used drug in the world, with estimated millions of users. There is dissent in the medical world about the positive and negative effects of marijuana, and recently, a large research effort has been directed to that domain. The main influencing drug ingredient is THC, which acts on the cannabinoid system and binds to the CB1 receptor. The discovery of the receptor led to the finding of an endogenous ligand, anandamide, and another receptor-CB2. The researchers also discovered that cannabinoids have extensive biological activity, and its short and long-term effects may cause cognitive and emotional deficiencies. Findings show that the short-term effects, such as shortterm memory and verbal Learning, are reversible. However, despite the accumulation of evidence about long-term cognitive damage due to cannabis use, it is difficult to find unequivocal results, arising from the existence of many variables such as large differences between cannabis users, frequency of use, dosage and endogenous brain compensation. Apart from cognitive damage, current studies investigate how marijuana affects mental illness: a high correlation between cannabis use and schizophrenia was found and a high risk to undergo a psychotic attack. Furthermore, patients with schizophrenia who used cannabis showed a selective neuro-psychological disruption, and similar cognitive deficiencies and brain morphological changes were found among healthy cannabis users and schizophrenia patients. In contrast to the negative effects of marijuana including addiction, there are the medical uses: reducing pain, anxiety and nausea, increasing appetite and an anti-inflammatory activity. Medicalization of marijuana encourages frequent use, which may elevate depression. PMID:24483000

Sagie, Shira; Eliasi, Yehuda; Livneh, Ido; Bart, Yosi; Monovich, Einat

2013-12-01

145

Differential role of entorhinal and hippocampal nerve growth factor in short- and long-term memory modulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the effects of infusion of nerve growth factor (NGF into the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex of male Wistar rats (250-300 g, N = 11-13 per group on inhibitory avoidance retention. In order to evaluate the modulation of entorhinal and hippocampal NGF in short- and long-term memory, animals were implanted with cannulae in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus or entorhinal cortex and trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance (foot shock, 0.4 mA. Retention tests were carried out 1.5 h or 24 h after training to measure short- and long-term memory, respectively. Immediately after training, rats received 5 µl NGF (0.05, 0.5 or 5.0 ng or saline per side into the CA1 area and entorhinal cortex. The correct position of the cannulae was confirmed by histological analysis. The highest dose of NGF (5.0 ng into the hippocampus blocked short-term memory (P < 0.05, whereas the doses of 0.5 (P < 0.05 and 5.0 ng (P < 0.01 NGF enhanced long-term memory. NGF administration into the entorhinal cortex improved long-term memory at the dose of 5.0 ng (P < 0.05 and did not alter short-term memory. Taken as a whole, our results suggest a differential modulation by entorhinal and hippocampal NGF of short- and long-term memory.

Walz R.

2005-01-01

146

Molecular mechanisms underlying formation of long-term reward memories and extinction memories in the honeybee (Apis mellifera).  

Science.gov (United States)

The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a flower's characteristic features with a reward in a way that resembles olfactory appetitive classical conditioning, a learning paradigm that is used to study mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in the honeybee. Due to a plethora of studies on appetitive classical conditioning and phenomena related to it, the honeybee is one of the best characterized invertebrate model organisms from a learning psychological point of view. Moreover, classical conditioning and associated behavioral phenomena are surprisingly similar in honeybees and vertebrates, suggesting a convergence of underlying neuronal processes, including the molecular mechanisms that contribute to them. Here I review current thinking on the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term memory (LTM) formation in honeybees following classical conditioning and extinction, demonstrating that an in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms of classical conditioning in honeybees might add to our understanding of associative learning in honeybees and vertebrates. PMID:25225299

Eisenhardt, Dorothea

2014-10-01

147

A clock gene, period, plays a key role in long-term memory formation in Drosophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cAMP-responsive transcription factor, CREB, is required for formation of long-term memory (LTM) in Drosophila melanogaster and regulates transcription of a circadian clock gene, period (per). Involvement of CREB both in LTM and circadian rhythm raises the possibility that per also plays a role in LTM. Assaying the experience-dependent courtship inhibition in male flies as a measure for LTM, we show here that per mutants are defective in LTM formation. This defect was rescued by induction of a wild-type per transgene in a per-null mutant, and overexpression of per enhanced LTM formation in the wild-type background. Furthermore, we found that synaptic transmission through per-expressing cells is most likely to be required during retrieval of LTM. In contrast, mutations in other clock genes (timeless, dClock, and cycle) did not affect LTM formation. Thus, independent of the core oscillator of circadian clock, per plays a key role in LTM formation. PMID:15522971

Sakai, Takaomi; Tamura, Takuya; Kitamoto, Toshihiro; Kidokoro, Yoshiaki

2004-11-01

148

Effects of Different Types of True-False Questions on Memory Awareness and Long-Term Retention  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of two different true-false questions on memory awareness and long-term retention of knowledge. Participants took four subsequent knowledge tests on curriculum learning material that they studied at different retention intervals prior to the start of this study (i.e. prior to the first test). At the first and…

Schaap, Lydia; Verkoeijen, Peter; Schmidt, Henk

2014-01-01

149

Naringin Enhances CaMKII Activity and Improves Long-Term Memory in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Amyloid-? (A?)-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity is an underlying mechanism of memory loss in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in human and mouse models. The inhibition of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation plays an important role in long-term memory. In this study, we isolated naringin from Pomelo peel (a Citrus species) and studied its effect on long-term memory in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Three-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a vehicle group, two naringin (either 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight/day) groups, or an Aricept (2 mg/kg body weight/day) group. After 16 weeks of treatment, we observed that treatment with naringin (100 mg/kg body weight/day) enhanced the autophosphorylation of CaMKII, increased the phosphorylation of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPA) receptor at a CaMKII-dependent site and improved long-term learning and memory ability. These findings suggest that the increase in CaMKII activity may be one of the mechanisms by which naringin improves long-term cognitive function in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. PMID:23478434

Wang, Dong-Mei; Yang, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Lian-Feng

2013-01-01

150

Serological Memory and Long-term Protection to Novel H1N1 Influenza Virus After Skin Vaccination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background.?A major goal in influenza vaccine development is induction of serological memory and cellular responses to confer long-term protection and limit virus spread after infection. Here, we investigate induction of long-lived immunity against the 2009 H1N1 virus after skin vaccination.

Koutsonanos, Dimitrios G.; Del Pilar Martin, Maria; Zarnitsyn, Vladimir G.; Jacob, Joshy; Prausnitz, Mark R.; Compans, Richard W.; Skountzou, Ioanna

2011-01-01

151

Fan-Shaped Body Neurons Are Involved in "Period"-Dependent Regulation of Long-Term Courtship Memory in "Drosophila"  

Science.gov (United States)

In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the "Drosophila" gene "period" ("per") also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of "per" in subsets of brain neurons enhance and…

Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

2012-01-01

152

Dietary Cholesterol Concentration and Duration Degrade Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning of the Rabbit's Nictitating Membrane Response  

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A rabbit model of Alzheimer's disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease, including learning and memory changes. Although we have shown 2% cholesterol and copper in water can retard learning, other studies show feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition whereas feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explored this issue by manipulating cholesterol concentration and duration following c...

Jimena Gonzalez-Joekes; Roger Bell; Burhans, Lauren B.; Schreurs, Bernard G.; Smith-bell, Carrie A.; Desheng Wang

2012-01-01

153

On the interplay between short and long term memory in the power-law cross-correlations setting  

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We focus on emergence of the power-law cross-correlations from processes with both short and long term memory properties. In the case of correlated error-terms, the power-law decay of the cross-correlation function comes automatically with the characteristics of separate processes. Bivariate Hurst exponent is then equal to an average of separate Hurst exponents of the analyzed processes. Strength of short term memory has no effect on these asymptotic properties. Implications...

Kristoufek, Ladislav

2014-01-01

154

Evidence for long-term memory of the mucosal immune system: milk secretory immunoglobulin A against Shigella lipopolysaccharides.  

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Although the common mucosal immune system has generally been considered to have only short-term memory, recent data suggest that long-term memory exists for Shigella virulence plasmid antigens. Because such antigens might cross-react with environmental antigens, we investigated milk for the persistence of antibodies to the specific Shigella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) against Shigella flexneri and Shigella s...

Hayani, K. C.; Guerrero, M. L.; Ruiz-palacios, G. M.; Gomez, H. F.; Cleary, T. G.

1991-01-01

155

A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in nondecisional reaction time for both episodic and semantic retrieval. In Experiment 2, an age difference in boundary separation also indicated an age-re...

Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

2006-01-01

156

Effect of zinc supplementation of pregnant rats on short-term and long-term memory of their offspring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To see the dose dependent effects of zinc chloride on the short-term and long-term memory in a shuttle box (rats). Six pair adult wistar rats were taken for this experiment. One group of pregnant rats received a daily oral dose of 20 mg/kg Zn as zinc chloride and the remaining groups received a daily oral dose of (30, 50, 70,100 mg/kg) zinc chloride for two weeks by gavage. One month after birth, a shuttle box was used to test short-term and long-term memory. Two criteria were considered to behavioral test, including latency in entering dark chamber and time spent in the dark chamber. This experiment showed that oral administration of ZnCl/sub 2/ with (20, 30, 50 mg/kg/day) doses after 2 weeks at the stage of pregnancy, can improve the working memory of their offspring (p<0.05). Where as ZnCl/sub 2/ with 30 mg/kg/day dose has been more effective than other doses (p<0.001). But rat which received ZnCl/sub 2/ with 100 mg/kg/day at the stage of pregnancy, has shown significant impairment in working (short-term) memory of their offspring (p<0.05) and there was no significant difference in reference (long-term) memory 3 for any of groups. This study has demonstrated that zinc chloride consumption with 30 mg/kg/day dose for two weeks at the stage of pregnancy in rats, has positive effect on short-term memory on their offspring. But consumption of enhanced zinc 100 mg/kg/day in pregnant rats can cause short-term memory impairment. On the other hand, zinc supplementation such the other hand, zinc supplementation such as zinc chloride has no effect on long-term memory. (author)

157

Long-term olfactory memories are stabilised via protein synthesis in Camponotus fellah ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ants exhibit impressive olfactory learning abilities. Operant protocols in which ants freely choose between rewarded and nonrewarded odours have been used to characterise associative olfactory learning and memory. Yet, this approach precludes the use of invasive methods allowing the dissection of molecular bases of learning and memory. An open question is whether the memories formed upon olfactory learning that are retrievable several days after training are indeed based on de novo protein synthesis. Here, we addressed this question in the ant Camponotus fellah using a conditioning protocol in which individually harnessed ants learn an association between odour and reward. When the antennae of an ant are stimulated with sucrose solution, the insect extends its maxilla–labium to absorb the solution (maxilla–labium extension response). We differentially conditioned ants to discriminate between two long-chain hydrocarbons, one paired with sucrose and the other with quinine solution. Differential conditioning leads to the formation of a long-term memory retrievable at least 72¿h after training. Long-term memory consolidation was impaired by the ingestion of cycloheximide, a protein synthesis blocker, prior to conditioning. Cycloheximide did not impair acquisition of either short-term memory (10¿min) or early and late mid-term memories (1 or 12¿h). These results show that, upon olfactory learning, ants form different memories with variable molecular bases. While short- and mid-term memories do not require protein synthesis, long-term memories are stabilised via protein synthesis. Our behavioural protocol opens interesting research avenues to explore the cellular and molecular bases of olfactory learning and memory in ants.

Guerrieri, Fernando Javier; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

2011-01-01

158

2010 Survey on long-term preservation of information and memory for geological disposal of radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preservation of information and memory across generations is a cross-cutting theme of increasing importance for radioactive waste management. Because of the experience accumulated by the advanced national programmes that the RWMC represents, and the breadth of its related high-level initiatives, the Committee is uniquely placed internationally to combine resources and help develop state-of-the-art guidance on the long-term preservation of information and memory. In the context of fostering knowledge consolidation and transfer (KCT), the RWMC has already identified - in its reference document on KCT - the area of inter-generational transfer of knowledge as one of two areas needing development. In 2009, the RWMC decided to implement its programme of work in the area of information preservation and long-term memory as a series of projects or lines of actions opened by the RWMC and supervised by its Bureau. In order to better define its first series of projects the RWMC preformed a survey of its organisations needs and available materials and experience. At its meeting in 2010 the RWMC determined that the survey materials provided by organisations from 12 NEA countries constitute a good contribution to the literature in this field, and certainly to the upcoming projects. They provide as well a good baseline of information against which to measure progress a few years hence. This document reports the answers provided by organisations from 12 countries (Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the USA,) to five questions related to long-term preservation of information and memory in the field of geological disposal. The questions are as follows: o What specific priority areas for long-term memory development have been identified in your agencies/countries? Which are the time scales of largest interest? o Do these priority proceed from good practice or/and from specific laws, regulations, policies exist in your country that set out requirements for long-term memory in long-term waste management? o How far advanced are you regarding establishing an action plan for long-term information and memory preservation in the field of geological disposal? Are you addressing the following RWMC questions: What information should be preserved? Why? Where? How should it be preserved? Which target groups? Which time horizons? What suggestions do you have for possible areas of focus for RWMC? (e.g. an international project that may assist Members?) What are the untapped areas that deserve more attention? Would you have studies, reports, policies that you might share with RWMC members? (author)

159

Differential effects of quercetin on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in mice fed with different diets related with oxidative stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

High fat diets induce oxidative stress which may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases. Quercetin is a kind of antioxidant that has neuroprotective effects and potent7ial pro-oxidant effects as well. In this study, we evaluated cognitive function in mice fed with high fat diets and basic diets with or without quercetin. Male Chinese Kunming (KM) mice were randomly assigned to five groups fed with basic diet (Control), basic diet with 0.005% (w/w) quercetin (CQ1), high fat diet (HFD), HFD with 0.005% (w/w) quercetin (HFDQ1) and 0.01% (w/w) quercetin (HFDQ2) for 13weeks. At the end of the study period, fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma and hippocampal markers of oxidative stress, plasma lipid status, Morris water maze as well as hippocampal relative mRNA expression of akt, bdnf, camkII, creb, gsk-3?, nrf2 and pi3k were examined. The results suggested that in comparison to the control group, the escape latency was increased and percent time spent in the target quadrant was decreased, with increased reactive carbonyls, malondialdehyde (MDA) and declined expression of pi3k, akt, nrf2, creb and bdnf in the hippocampus of HFD and CQ1 groups. Conversely, higher quercetin supplemented to HFD improved antioxidant capacity and reversed cognitive decline completely. Significant correlations between the redox status and cognition-related gene expression were observed as well (P<0.05). Thus, in the case of oxidative stress, an appropriate dose of quercetin can attenuate oxidative stress to improve hippocampus dependent cognition. But under a balanced situation, quercetin exerts pro-oxidant effects to impair cognition. PMID:25447470

Xia, Shu-Fang; Xie, Zhen-Xing; Qiao, Yi; Li, Li-Rong; Cheng, Xiang-Rong; Tang, Xue; Shi, Yong-Hui; Le, Guo-Wei

2015-01-01

160

Two Pairs of Mushroom Body Efferent Neurons Are Required for Appetitive Long-Term Memory Retrieval in Drosophila  

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Full Text Available One of the challenges facing memory research is to combine network- and cellular-level descriptions of memory encoding. In this context, Drosophila offers the opportunity to decipher, down to single-cell resolution, memory-relevant circuits in connection with the mushroom bodies (MBs, prominent structures for olfactory learning and memory. Although the MB-afferent circuits involved in appetitive learning were recently described, the circuits underlying appetitive memory retrieval remain unknown. We identified two pairs of cholinergic neurons efferent from the MB ? vertical lobes, named MB-V3, that are necessary for the retrieval of appetitive long-term memory (LTM. Furthermore, LTM retrieval was correlated to an enhanced response to the rewarded odor in these neurons. Strikingly, though, silencing the MB-V3 neurons did not affect short-term memory (STM retrieval. This finding supports a scheme of parallel appetitive STM and LTM processing.

Pierre-Yves Plaçais

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Anatomical organization of forward fiber projections from area TE to perirhinal neurons representing visual long-term memory in monkeys.  

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A number of studies have shown that the perirhinal (PRh) cortex, which is part of the medial temporal lobe memory system, plays an important role in declarative long-term memory. The PRh cortex contains neurons that represent visual long-term memory. The aim of the present study is to characterize the anatomical organization of forward projections that mediate information flow from visual area TE to memory neurons in the PRh cortex. In monkeys performing a visual pair-association memory task, we conducted an extensive mapping of neuronal responses in the anteroventral part of area TE (TEav) and area 36 (A36) of the PRh cortex. Then, three retrograde tracers were separately injected into A36 and the distribution of retrograde labels in TEav was analyzed. We focused on the degree of divergent projections from TEav to memory neurons in A36, because the highly divergent nature of these forward fiber projections has been implicated in memory function. We found that the degree of divergent projection to memory neurons in A36 was smaller from the TEav neurons selective to learned pictures than from the nonselective TEav neurons. This result demonstrates that the anatomical difference (the divergence) correlates with the physiological difference (selectivity of TEav neurons to the learned pictures). Because the physiological difference is attributed to whether the projections are involved in information transmission required for memory neurons in A36, it can be speculated that the reduced divergent projection resulted from acquisition of visual long-term memory, possibly through retraction of the projecting axon collaterals. PMID:12651941

Yoshida, Masatoshi; Naya, Yuji; Miyashita, Yasushi

2003-04-01

162

Do serotonin(1-7) receptors modulate short and long-term memory?  

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Evidence from invertebrates to human studies indicates that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system modulates short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). This work is primarily focused on analyzing the contribution of 5-HT, cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors as well as protein synthesis to STM and LTM of an autoshaping learning task. It was observed that the inhibition of hippocampal protein synthesis or new mRNA did not produce a significant effect on autoshaping STM performance but it did impair LTM. Both non-contingent protein inhibition and 5-HT depletion showed no effects. It was basically the non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist cyproheptadine, which facilitated STM. However, the blockade of glutamatergic and cholinergic transmission impaired STM. In contrast, the selective 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist SB-224289 facilitated both STM and LTM. Selective receptor antagonists for the 5-HT(1A) (WAY100635), 5-HT(1D) (GR127935), 5-HT(2A) (MDL100907), 5-HT(2C/2B) (SB-200646), 5-HT(3) (ondansetron) or 5-HT(4) (GR125487), 5-HT(6) (Ro 04-6790, SB-399885 and SB-35713) or 5-HT(7) (SB-269970) did not impact STM. Nevertheless, WAY100635, MDL100907, SB-200646, GR125487, Ro 04-6790, SB-399885 or SB-357134 facilitated LTM. Notably, some of these changes shown to be independent of food-intake. Concomitantly, these data indicate that '5-HT tone via 5-HT(1B) receptors' might function in a serial manner from STM to LTM, whereas working in parallel using 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B/2C), 5-HT(4), or 5-HT(6) receptors. PMID:17224282

Meneses, A

2007-05-01

163

NF-?B p50 subunit knockout impairs late LTP and alters long term memory in the mouse hippocampus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B is a transcription factor typically expressed with two specific subunits (p50, p65. Investigators have reported that NF-?B is activated during the induction of in vitro long term potentiation (LTP, a paradigm of synaptic plasticity and correlate of memory, suggesting that NF-?B may be necessary for some aspects of memory encoding. Furthermore, NF-?B has been implicated as a potential requirement in behavioral tests of memory. Unfortunately, very little work has been done to explore the effects of deleting specific NF-?B subunits on memory. Studies have shown that NF-?B p50 subunit deletion (p50?/? leads to memory deficits, however some recent studies suggest the contrary where p50?/? mice show enhanced memory in the Morris water maze (MWM. To more critically explore the role of the NF-?B p50 subunit in synaptic plasticity and memory, we assessed long term spatial memory in vivo using the MWM, and synaptic plasticity in vitro utilizing high frequency stimuli capable of eliciting LTP in slices from the hippocampus of NF-?B p50?/? versus their controls (p50+/+. Results We found that the lack of the NF-?B p50 subunit led to significant decreases in late LTP and in selective but significant alterations in MWM tests (i.e., some improvements during acquisition, but deficits during retention. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that the NF-? p50 subunit is required in long term spatial memory in the hippocampus.

Oikawa Kensuke

2012-07-01

164

Failure of delayed nonsynaptic neuronal plasticity underlies age-associated long-term associative memory impairment  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment associated with subtle changes in neuron and neuronal network function rather than widespread neuron death is a feature of the normal aging process in humans and animals. Despite its broad evolutionary conservation, the etiology of this aging process is not well understood. However, recent evidence suggests the existence of a link between oxidative stress in the form of progressive membrane lipid peroxidation, declining neuronal electrical excitability and functional decline of the normal aging brain. The current study applies a combination of behavioural and electrophysiological techniques and pharmacological interventions to explore this hypothesis in a gastropod model (Lymnaea stagnalis feeding system that allows pinpointing the molecular and neurobiological foundations of age-associated long-term memory (LTM failure at the level of individual identified neurons and synapses. Results Classical appetitive reward-conditioning induced robust LTM in mature animals in the first quartile of their lifespan but failed to do so in animals in the last quartile of their lifespan. LTM failure correlated with reduced electrical excitability of two identified serotonergic modulatory interneurons (CGCs critical in chemosensory integration by the neural network controlling feeding behaviour. Moreover, while behavioural conditioning induced delayed-onset persistent depolarization of the CGCs known to underlie appetitive LTM formation in this model in the younger animals, it failed to do so in LTM-deficient senescent animals. Dietary supplementation of the lipophilic anti-oxidant ?-tocopherol reversed the effect of age on CGCs electrophysiological characteristics but failed to restore appetitive LTM function. Treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine reversed both the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of age in senior animals. Conclusions The results identify the CGCs as cellular loci of age-associated appetitive learning and memory impairment in Lymnaea and buttress the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation-dependent depression of intrinsic excitability is a hallmark of normal neuronal aging. The data implicate both lipid peroxidation-dependent non-synaptic as well as apparently lipid peroxidation-independent synaptic mechanisms in the age-dependent decline in behavioural plasticity in this model system.

Watson Shawn N

2012-08-01

165

The dynamics of HDAC activity on memory formation  

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Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have previously been shown to be critical for the formation of long-term memories. Recent findings now show that a specific HDAC isoform, HDAC2, negatively regulates formation of hippocampus-dependent memory. These recent findings published in Nature highlight potential new therapeutic interventions for the treatment of memory impairments associated with human neurological disorders.

Grissom, Nicola M.; Lubin, Farah D.

2009-01-01

166

Memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) dissociated: Normal spatial memory despite CA1 LTP elimination with Kv1.4 antisense  

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Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal slice preparation has been proposed as an in vitro model for long-term memory. However, correlation of LTP with memory in living animals has been difficult to demonstrate. Furthermore, in the last few years evidence has accumulated that dissociate the two. Because potassium channels might determine the weight of synapses in networks, we studied the role of Kv1.4, a presynaptic A-type voltage-dependent K+ channel, in both memory and LTP. Reverse ...

Meiri, Noam; Sun, Miao-kun; Segal, Zachary; Alkon, Daniel L.

1998-01-01

167

Does sustained ERP activity in posterior lexico-semantic processing areas during short-term memory tasks only reflect activated long-term memory?  

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We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of posterior brain regions could also reflect the contribution of a verbal STM buffer.

Majerus, Steve; Linden, Martial; Collette, Fabienne; Salmon, Eric

2003-01-01

168

Long-term maintenance of smartphone and PDA use in individuals with moderate to severe memory impairment.  

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In an earlier paper we described a structured, theory-driven training programme which was administered to 10 individuals with moderate-to-severe memory impairment. All individuals received an errorless-fading-of-cues protocol in the use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) or smartphones (Svoboda, Richards, Leach, & Mertens, 2012 ) and demonstrated generalisation of acquired skills to day-to-day memory challenges. Maintenance of intervention gains over the long-term is another indicator of successful generalisation. Here we present the maintenance of device use in the same group of individuals 12 to 19?months after programme completion. A within-subject, ABABB multi-case experimental design was used to evaluate the impact of PDA or smartphone use on day-to-day memory functioning at baseline, immediately post-intervention, at return to baseline, and at short-term and long-term follow-up. Results presented here focus predominantly on long-term follow-up. All 10 individuals showed maintenance of gains in day-to-day functioning as quantified across several ecologically valid questionnaire and task-based measures. This was corroborated by family members with whom six of the participants resided. This study further demonstrates the programme's clinical effectiveness in enabling individuals with moderate-to-severe memory impairment to function more independently and with greater confidence up to 19?months following programme completion. PMID:24945553

Svoboda, Eva; Richards, Brian; Yao, Christie; Leach, Larry

2014-06-19

169

Identification of gene expression changes associated with long-term memory of courtship rejection in Drosophila males.  

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Long-term memory formation in Drosophila melanogaster is an important neuronal function shaping the insect's behavioral repertoire by allowing an individual to modify behaviors on the basis of previous experiences. In conditioned courtship or courtship suppression, male flies that have been repeatedly rejected by mated females during courtship advances are less likely than naïve males to subsequently court another mated female. This long-term courtship suppression can last for several days after the initial rejection period. Although genes with known functions in many associative learning paradigms, including those that function in cyclic AMP signaling and RNA translocation, have been identified as playing critical roles in long-term conditioned courtship, it is clear that additional mechanisms also contribute. We have used RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes and transcript isoforms between naïve males and males subjected to courtship-conditioning regimens that are sufficient for inducing long-term courtship suppression. Transcriptome analyses 24 hours after the training regimens revealed differentially expressed genes and transcript isoforms with predicted and known functions in nervous system development, chromatin biology, translation, cytoskeletal dynamics, and transcriptional regulation. A much larger number of differentially expressed transcript isoforms were identified, including genes previously implicated in associative memory and neuronal development, including fruitless, that may play functional roles in learning during courtship conditioning. Our results shed light on the complexity of the genetics that underlies this behavioral plasticity and reveal several new potential areas of inquiry for future studies. PMID:23173095

Winbush, Ari; Reed, Danielle; Chang, Peter L; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Lyons, Lisa C; Arbeitman, Michelle N

2012-11-01

170

On the role of the hippocampus in the acquisition, long-term retention and semanticisation of memory  

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A consensus on how to characterise the anterograde and retrograde memory processes that are lost or spared after hippocampal damage has not been reached. In this thesis, I critically re-examine the empirical literature and the assumptions behind current theories. I formulate a coherent view of what makes a task hippocampally dependent at acquisition and how this relates to its long-term fate. Findings from a neural net simulation indicate the plausibility of my proposals. My...

Gingell, Sarah M.

2005-01-01

171

Comparable Analysis of Long-term Memory of EUR/USD Based on Non-parametrical Statistics  

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Full Text Available Non-parameter statistical methods of classical R/S, revised R/S and V/S was proposed in long-term Memory of EUR/USD. It was concluded through comparable analysis that: (1 Through Normality Test of Return Sequences of EUR/USD Daily Closing Prices, the experimental results imply that bias of daily return sequences of EUR/USD is not equal to zero, and the curve appears to high peak and fat tail. (2 Jarque-Bera test is adopted. The estimated values reject the null hypothesis of normal distribution. (3 The paper estimates daily return series of EUR/USD using classical R/S method. The results show that Hurst exponent is equal to 0.612425; the statistical cycle is 160 days; the correlative scale is close to 1.3432. This study's conclusion was that long-term memory exists in daily return time series of EUR/USD is proved.Key words: rescaled range (R/S analysis; rescaled variance (V/S analysis; long-term memory

Yan-xi LI

2010-09-01

172

Fan-shaped body neurons are involved in period-dependent regulation of long-term courtship memory in Drosophila.  

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In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the Drosophila gene period (per) also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of per in subsets of brain neurons enhance and suppress LTM, respectively, and (2) suppression of synaptic transmission during memory retrieval in the same neuronal subsets leads to defective LTM. Further analysis strongly suggests that the brain region critical for per-dependent LTM regulation is the fan-shaped body, which is involved in sleep-induced enhancement of courtship LTM. PMID:23154928

Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

2012-01-01

173

Improved long-term memory via enhancing cGMP-PKG signaling requires cAMP-PKA signaling.  

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Memory consolidation is defined by the stabilization of a memory trace after acquisition, and consists of numerous molecular cascades that mediate synaptic plasticity. Commonly, a distinction is made between an early and a late consolidation phase, in which early refers to the first hours in which labile synaptic changes occur, whereas late consolidation relates to stable and long-lasting synaptic changes induced by de novo protein synthesis. How these phases are linked at a molecular level is not yet clear. Here we studied the interaction of the cyclic nucleotide-mediated pathways during the different phases of memory consolidation in rodents. In addition, the same pathways were studied in a model of neuronal plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP). We demonstrated that cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling mediates early memory consolidation as well as early-phase LTP, whereas cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling mediates late consolidation and late-phase-like LTP. In addition, we show for the first time that early-phase cGMP/PKG signaling requires late-phase cAMP/PKA-signaling in both LTP and long-term memory formation. PMID:24813825

Bollen, Eva; Puzzo, Daniela; Rutten, Kris; Privitera, Lucia; De Vry, Jochen; Vanmierlo, Tim; Kenis, Gunter; Palmeri, Agostino; D'Hooge, Rudi; Balschun, Detlef; Steinbusch, Harry M W; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

2014-10-01

174

Memory T and memory B cells share a transcriptional program of self-renewal with long-term hematopoietic stem cells  

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The only cells of the hematopoietic system that undergo self-renewal for the lifetime of the organism are long-term hematopoietic stem cells and memory T and B cells. To determine whether there is a shared transcriptional program among these self-renewing populations, we first compared the gene-expression profiles of naïve, effector and memory CD8+ T cells with those of long-term hematopoietic stem cells, short-term hematopoietic stem cells, and lineage-committed progenitors. Transcripts aug...

Luckey, Chance John; Bhattacharya, Deepta; Goldrath, Ananda W.; Weissman, Irving L.; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

2006-01-01

175

Mushroom body neuronal remodelling is necessary for short-term but not for long-term courtship memory in Drosophila.  

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The remodelling of neurons during their development is considered necessary for their normal function. One fundamental mechanism involved in this remodelling process in both vertebrates and invertebrates is axon pruning. A well-documented case of such neuronal remodelling is the developmental axon pruning of mushroom body ? neurons that occurs during metamorphosis in Drosophila. The ? neurons undergo pruning of larval-specific dendrites and axons at metamorphosis, followed by their regrowth as adult-specific dendrites and axons. We recently revealed a molecular cascade required for this pruning. The nuclear receptor ftz-f1 activates the expression of the steroid hormone receptor EcR-B1, a key component for ? remodelling, and represses expression of Hr39, an ftz-f1 homologous gene. If ectopically expressed in the ? neurons, HR39 inhibits normal pruning, probably by competing with endogenous FTZ-F1, which results in decreased EcR-B1 expression. The mushroom bodies are a bilaterally symmetric structure in the larval and adult brain and are involved in the processing of different types of olfactory memory. How memory is affected in pruning-deficient adult flies that possess larval-stage neuronal circuitry will help to explain the functional role of neuron remodelling. Flies overexpressing Hr39 are viable as adults and make it possible to assess the requirement for wild-type mushroom body pruning in memory. While blocking mushroom body neuron remodelling impaired memory after short-term courtship conditioning, long-term memory was normal. These results show that larval pruning is necessary for adult memory and that expression of courtship short-term memory and long-term memory may be parallel and independent. PMID:22571719

Redt-Clouet, Christelle; Trannoy, Séverine; Boulanger, Ana; Tokmatcheva, Elena; Savvateeva-Popova, Elena; Parmentier, Marie-Laure; Preat, Thomas; Dura, Jean-Maurice

2012-06-01

176

The role of reconsolidation and the dynamic process of long-term memory formation and storage  

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Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that the processes of memory formation and storage are exquisitely dynamic. Elucidating the nature and temporal evolution of the biological changes that accompany encoding, storage and retrieval is key to understand memory formation. For explicit or medial temporal lobe-dependent memories that form after a discrete event and are stored for a long time, the physical changes underlying the encoding and processing of the information (memory trace or engram remain in a fragile state for some time. However, over time, the new memory becomes increasingly resistant to disruption until it is consolidated. Retrieval or reactivation of an apparently consolidated memory can render the memory labile again, and reconsolidation is the process that occurs to mediate its restabilization. Reconsolidation also evolves with the age of the memory: Young memories are sensitive to postreactivation disruption, but older memories are more resistant. Why does a memory become labile again if it is retrieved or reactivated? Here I suggest that the main function of reconsolidation is to contribute to the lingering consolidation process and mediate memory strengthening. I also discuss the literature and results regarding the influence of the passage of time on the reconsolidation of memory. These points have important implications for the use of reconsolidation in therapeutic settings.

CristinaMAlberini

2011-03-01

177

Four-Month-Old Infants’ Long-Term Memory for a Stressful Social Event  

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Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants’ memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to...

Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

2013-01-01

178

Long-term sequelae of critical illness: memories and health-related quality of life  

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Impaired health-related quality of life after critical illness has been demonstrated in a number of studies. It is not clear exactly how or why critical illness and intensive care lead to impaired health status, but understanding this association is an important step to improving long-term outcomes of the critically ill. There is growing evidence that neuro-psychological symptoms play a significant role in this impairment and that management of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) may in...

Hough, Catherine Lee; Curtis, J. Randall

2005-01-01

179

Attention Problems, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Visuospatial Short-Term Memory: Differential Effects on Near- and Long-Term Scholastic Achievement  

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The current study examined individual differences in children's phonological and visuospatial short-term memory as potential mediators of the relationship among attention problems and near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Nested structural equation models revealed that teacher-reported attention problems were associated negatively with…

Sarver, Dustin E.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Scanlan, Sean W.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Altro, Thomas A.; Bolden, Jennifer

2012-01-01

180

Olfaction, Emtion & the Amygdala: arousal-dependent modulation of long-term autobiographical memory and its association with olfaction  

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Full Text Available The sense of smell is set apart from other sensory modalities. Odours possess the capacity to trigger immediately strong emotional memories. Moreover, odorous stimuli provide a higher degree of memory retention than other sensory stimuli. Odour perception, even in its most elemental form - olfaction - already involves limbic structures. This early involvement is not paralleled in other sensory modalities. Bearing in mind the considerable connectivity with limbic structures, and the fact that an activation of the amygdala is capable of instantaneously evoking emotions and facilitating the encoding of memories, it is unsurprising that the sense of smell has its characteristic nature. The aim of this review is to analyse current understanding of higher olfactory information processing as it relates to the ability of odours to spontaneously cue highly vivid, affectively toned, and often very old autobiographical memories (episodes known anecdotally as Proust phenomena. Particular emphasis is placed on the diversity of functions attributed to the amygdala. Its role in modulating the encoding and retrieval of long-term memory is investigated with reference to lesion, electrophysiological, immediate early gene, and functional imaging studies in both rodents and humans. Additionally, the influence of hormonal modulation and the adrenergic system on emotional memory storage is outlined. I finish by proposing a schematic of some of the critical neural pathways that underlie the odour-associated encoding and retrieval of emotionally toned autobiographical memories.

Mark Hughes

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Differential role of entorhinal and hippocampal nerve growth factor in short- and long-term memory modulation  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied the effects of infusion of nerve growth factor (NGF) into the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex of male Wistar rats (250-300 g, N = 11-13 per group) on inhibitory avoidance retention. In order to evaluate the modulation of entorhinal and hippocampal NGF in short- and long-term memory, ani [...] mals were implanted with cannulae in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus or entorhinal cortex and trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance (foot shock, 0.4 mA). Retention tests were carried out 1.5 h or 24 h after training to measure short- and long-term memory, respectively. Immediately after training, rats received 5 µl NGF (0.05, 0.5 or 5.0 ng) or saline per side into the CA1 area and entorhinal cortex. The correct position of the cannulae was confirmed by histological analysis. The highest dose of NGF (5.0 ng) into the hippocampus blocked short-term memory (P

R., Walz; R., Roesler; A., Reinke; M.R., Martins; J., Quevedo; I., Izquierdo.

2005-01-01

182

Long-Term Memory Shapes the Primary Olfactory Center of an Insect Brain  

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The storage of stable memories is generally considered to rely on changes in the functional properties and/or the synaptic connectivity of neural networks. However, these changes are not easily tractable given the complexity of the learning procedures and brain circuits studied. Such a search can be narrowed down by studying memories of specific…

Hourcade, Benoit; Perisse, Emmanuel; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

2009-01-01

183

Creation of Long-Term Coherent Optical Memory via Controlled Nonlinear Interactions in Bose-Einstein Condensates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical dipole trap is used to generate long-term coherent memory for light, and storage times of more than 1 s are observed. Phase coherence of the condensate as well as controlled manipulations of elastic and inelastic atomic scattering processes are utilized to increase the storage fidelity by several orders of magnitude over previous schemes. The results have important applications for creation of long-distance quantum networks and for generation of entangled states of light and matter.

184

Creation of long-term coherent optical memory via controlled nonlinear interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates  

CERN Document Server

A Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical dipole trap is used to generate long-term coherent memory for light, and storage times of more than one second are observed. Phase coherence of the condensate as well as controlled manipulations of elastic and inelastic atomic scattering processes are utilized to increase the storage fidelity by several orders of magnitude over previous schemes. The results have important applications for creation of long-distance quantum networks and for generation of entangled states of light and matter.

Zhang, Rui; Hau, Lene Vestergaard

2009-01-01

185

Odor-enriched environment rescues long-term social memory, but does not improve olfaction in social isolated adult mice.  

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Prolonged permanence of animals under social isolation (SI) arouses a variety of psychological symptoms like aggression, stress, anxiety and depression. However, short-term SI is commonly used to evaluate social memory. Interestingly, the social memory cannot be accessed with delays higher than 30min in SI mice. Our hypothesis is that SI with intermediate duration, like one week (1w), impairs the long-term storage of new social information (S-LTM), without affecting anxiety or other types of memories, because the SI compromises the olfactory function of the animal. Our results demonstrated that SI impaired S-LTM, without affecting other kinds of memory or anxiety. In addition, the SI increased the latency in the buried-food finding task, but did not affect the habituation or the discrimination of odors. Next, we postulated that if continuous input to the olfactory system is fundamental for the maintenance of the olfactory function and social memory persistence, isolated mice under odor-enriched environment (OEE) should behave like group-housed (GH) animals. In fact, the OEE prevented the S-LTM deficit imposed by the SI. However, OEE did not restore the SI mice olfaction to the GH mice level. Our results suggest that SI modulates olfaction and social memory persistence, probably, by independent mechanisms. We also showed for the first time that OEE rescued S-LTM in SI mice through a mechanism not necessarily involved with olfaction. PMID:22226622

Gusmão, Isabela D; Monteiro, Brisa M M; Cornélio, Guilherme O S; Fonseca, Cristina S; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

2012-03-17

186

Memory and learning sequelae in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: association with attention deficits.  

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A systematic study of verbal and nonverbal memory and learning was undertaken in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia to assess the incidence and pattern of impairments and to determine the relationship between these deficits and computed tomography (CT) brain scan abnormalities. Twenty-three children who had received cranial irradiation (2,400 cGy) and intrathecal chemotherapy as central nervous system (CNS) preventive therapy and who were off all therapy for at least 4 years were evaluated. On the basis of their CT brain scan findings, patients were divided into three groups: those with intracerebral calcifications (n = 5), those with cortical atrophy (n = 8), and those with normal CT findings (n = 10). Significant deficits in verbal memory (p less than 0.025) and verbal learning (p less than 0.05) were observed that were associated with the presence and type of CT brain scan abnormalities; the greatest impairments were observed in patients with calcifications. No significant differences between CT scan groups were found for nonverbal memory and learning. Previous evaluation of attentional processing in these patients using reaction time tests had revealed the presence of deficits primarily in the ability to sustain attention. Combining those data with findings from the present study showed that memory impairments, particularly those in short-term memory, were primarily attributable to an underlying attentional defect that affect the encoding stage of memory processing. PMID:2116096

Brouwers, P; Poplack, D

1990-01-01

187

Memory and learning sequelae in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Association with attention deficits  

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A systematic study of verbal and nonverbal memory and learning was undertaken in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia to assess the incidence and pattern of impairments and to determine the relationship between these deficits and computed tomography (CT) brain scan abnormalities. Twenty-three children who had received cranial irradiation (2,400 cGy) and intrathecal chemotherapy as central nervous system (CNS) preventive therapy and who were off all therapy for at least 4 years were evaluated. On the basis of their CT brain scan findings, patients were divided into three groups: those with intracerebral calcifications (n = 5), those with cortical atrophy (n = 8), and those with normal CT findings (n = 10). Significant deficits in verbal memory (p less than 0.025) and verbal learning (p less than 0.05) were observed that were associated with the presence and type of CT brain scan abnormalities; the greatest impairments were observed in patients with calcifications. No significant differences between CT scan groups were found for nonverbal memory and learning. Previous evaluation of attentional processing in these patients using reaction time tests had revealed the presence of deficits primarily in the ability to sustain attention. Combining those data with findings from the present study showed that memory impairments, particularly those in short-term memory, were primarily attributable to an underlying attentional defect that affect the encoding stage of memory processing.

Brouwers, P.; Poplack, D. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

188

Memory and learning sequelae in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Association with attention deficits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A systematic study of verbal and nonverbal memory and learning was undertaken in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia to assess the incidence and pattern of impairments and to determine the relationship between these deficits and computed tomography (CT) brain scan abnormalities. Twenty-three children who had received cranial irradiation (2,400 cGy) and intrathecal chemotherapy as central nervous system (CNS) preventive therapy and who were off all therapy for at least 4 years were evaluated. On the basis of their CT brain scan findings, patients were divided into three groups: those with intracerebral calcifications (n = 5), those with cortical atrophy (n = 8), and those with normal CT findings (n = 10). Significant deficits in verbal memory (p less than 0.025) and verbal learning (p less than 0.05) were observed that were associated with the presence and type of CT brain scan abnormalities; the greatest impairments were observed in patients with calcifications. No significant differences between CT scan groups were found for nonverbal memory and learning. Previous evaluation of attentional processing in these patients using reaction time tests had revealed the presence of deficits primarily in the ability to sustain attention. Combining those data with findings from the present study showed that memory impairments, particularly those in short-term memory, were primarily attributable to an underlying attentional defect that affect the encoding stage ofl defect that affect the encoding stage of memory processing

189

Electrical stunning and hibernation: suggestion of new terms for short- and long-term cardiac memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent T wave changes following resumption of sinus rhythm induced by pacing or arrhythmias that cause altering of ventricular activation sequence are named "cardiac memory". After this initial definition there has been a discussion whether such T wave changes are primary, secondary or pseudoprimary. In addition according to the results of pathophysiological studies investigating the mechanism and nature of this repolarization abnormality some authors have preferred to use the term "electrical remodelling" instead of cardiac memory. But these two terms are still not well defined. In this article, the previous terms are discussed and a new term instead of cardiac memory is introduced. PMID:15294266

Zoghi, Mehdi; Nalbantgil, Sanem

2004-09-01

190

Rapid consolidation to a radish and protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory after single-session appetitive olfactory conditioning in Drosophila.  

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In Drosophila, formation of aversive olfactory long-term memory (LTM) requires multiple training sessions pairing odor and electric shock punishment with rest intervals. In contrast, here we show that a single 2 min training session pairing odor with a more ethologically relevant sugar reinforcement forms long-term appetitive memory that lasts for days. Appetitive LTM has some mechanistic similarity to aversive LTM in that it can be disrupted by cycloheximide, the dCreb2-b transcriptional rep...

Krashes, Mj; Waddell, S

2008-01-01

191

Mice overexpressing type 1 adenylyl cyclase show enhanced spatial memory flexibility in the absence of intact synaptic long-term depression  

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There is significant interest in understanding the contribution of intracellular signaling and synaptic substrates to memory flexibility, which involves new learning and suppression of obsolete memory. Here, we report that enhancement of Ca2+-stimulated cAMP signaling by overexpressing type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1) facilitated long-term potentiation (LTP) but impaired long-term depression (LTD) at the hippocampal Shaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. However, following the induction of LTP, low-fr...

Zhang, Ming; Wang, Hongbing

2013-01-01

192

Errors in nonword repetition: bridging short- and long-term memory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english According to the working memory model, the phonological loop is the component of working memory specialized in processing and manipulating limited amounts of speech-based information. The Children's Test of Nonword Repetition (CNRep) is a suitable measure of phonological short-term memory for Englis [...] h-speaking children, which was validated by the Brazilian Children's Test of Pseudoword Repetition (BCPR) as a Portuguese-language version. The objectives of the present study were: i) to investigate developmental aspects of the phonological memory processing by error analysis in the nonword repetition task, and ii) to examine phoneme (substitution, omission and addition) and order (migration) errors made in the BCPR by 180 normal Brazilian children of both sexes aged 4-10, from preschool to 4th grade. The dominant error was substitution [F(3,525) = 180.47; P

F.H., Santos; O.F.A., Bueno; S.E., Gathercole.

2006-03-01

193

Stress administered prior to encoding impairs neutral but enhances emotional long-term episodic memories  

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Stressful events frequently comprise both neutral and emotionally arousing information, yet the impact of stress on emotional and neutral events is still not fully understood. The hippocampus and frontal cortex have dense concentrations of receptors for stress hormones, such as cortisol, which at high levels can impair performance on hippocampally dependent memory tasks. Yet, the same stress hormones can facilitate memory for emotional information, which involves interactions between the hipp...

Payne, Jessica D.; Jackson, Eric D.; Hoscheidt, Siobhan; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W. Jake; Nadel, Lynn

2007-01-01

194

An fMRI study of long-term everyday memory using SenseCam.  

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We used a novel automatic camera, SenseCam, to investigate recognition memory for real-life events at a 5-month retention interval. Using fMRI we assessed recollection and familiarity memory using the remember/know procedure. Recollection evoked no medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation compared to familiarity and new responses. Instead, recollection activated diverse regions in neocortex including medial prefrontal cortex. We observed decreased activation in anterior hippocampus/ anterior par...

Milton, F.; Muhlert, N.; Butler, Cr; Smith, A.; Benattayallah, A.; Zeman, Az

2011-01-01

195

Ecdysone signaling regulates the formation of long-term courtship memory in adult Drosophila melanogaster  

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Improved survival is likely linked to the ability to generate stable memories of significant experiences. Considerable evidence in humans and mammalian model animals shows that steroid hormones, which are released in response to emotionally arousing experiences, have an important role in the consolidation of memories of such events. In insects, ecdysone is the major steroid hormone, and it is well characterized with respect to its essential role in coordinating developmental transitions such ...

Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Sakai, Takaomi; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

2009-01-01

196

Long-term habituation (LTH in the crab Chasmagnathus: a model for behavioral and mechanistic studies of memory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A decade of studies on long-term habituation (LTH in the crab Chasmagnathus is reviewed. Upon sudden presentation of a passing object overhead, the crab reacts with an escape response that habituates promptly and for at least five days. LTH proved to be an instance of associative memory and showed context, stimulus frequency and circadian phase specificity. A strong training protocol (STP (³15 trials, intertrial interval (ITI of 171 s invariably yielded LTH, while a weak training protocol (WTP (£10 trials, ITI = 171 s invariably failed. STP was used with a presumably amnestic agent and WTP with a presumably hypermnestic agent. Remarkably, systemic administration of low doses was effective, which is likely to be due to the lack of an endothelial blood-brain barrier. LTH was blocked by inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis, enhanced by protein kinase A (PKA activators and reduced by PKA inhibitors, facilitated by angiotensin II and IV and disrupted by saralasin. The presence of angiotensins and related compounds in the crab brain was demonstrated. Diverse results suggest that LTH includes two components: an initial memory produced by spaced training and mainly expressed at an initial phase of testing, and a retraining memory produced by massed training and expressed at a later phase of testing (retraining. The initial memory would be associative, context specific and sensitive to cycloheximide, while the retraining memory would be nonassociative, context independent and insensitive to cycloheximide

H. Maldonado

1997-07-01

197

Long-term habituation (LTH) in the crab Chasmagnathus: a model for behavioral and mechanistic studies of memory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A decade of studies on long-term habituation (LTH) in the crab Chasmagnathus is reviewed. Upon sudden presentation of a passing object overhead, the crab reacts with an escape response that habituates promptly and for at least five days. LTH proved to be an instance of associative memory and showed [...] context, stimulus frequency and circadian phase specificity. A strong training protocol (STP) (³15 trials, intertrial interval (ITI) of 171 s) invariably yielded LTH, while a weak training protocol (WTP) (£10 trials, ITI = 171 s) invariably failed. STP was used with a presumably amnestic agent and WTP with a presumably hypermnestic agent. Remarkably, systemic administration of low doses was effective, which is likely to be due to the lack of an endothelial blood-brain barrier. LTH was blocked by inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis, enhanced by protein kinase A (PKA) activators and reduced by PKA inhibitors, facilitated by angiotensin II and IV and disrupted by saralasin. The presence of angiotensins and related compounds in the crab brain was demonstrated. Diverse results suggest that LTH includes two components: an initial memory produced by spaced training and mainly expressed at an initial phase of testing, and a retraining memory produced by massed training and expressed at a later phase of testing (retraining). The initial memory would be associative, context specific and sensitive to cycloheximide, while the retraining memory would be nonassociative, context independent and insensitive to cycloheximide

H., Maldonado; A., Romano; D., Tomsic.

1997-07-01

198

Effect of Oral Aluminum Chloride Administration During Lactation on Short and Long-Term Memory of Their Offspring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study the relationship between aluminum chloride (AlCl3 and memory of their offspring male. Five groups of adult Wistar rats (200 ± 30 were taken for this experiment. Female rats were concurrently exposed (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/day of aluminum administered as AlCl3 in drinking water for two weeks. Forty-five after birth, a shuttle box was used to test memory. This experiment showed that maternal dietary exposure Alcl3 (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg/day doses after two weeks during lactation, there were no different on the working memory of their offspring for any of groups. But rat which received AlCl3 800 mg/kg/day during lactation, has shown significant impairment in working memory of their offspring (p < 0.001 (p < 0.05. This study has demonstrated that (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg/day AlCl3 consumption for two weeks during lactation had no effect. But consumption of AlCl3 800 mg/kg/day during lactation, can impairment in (short-term and long-term memory of their offspring.

Moazedi Ahmad Ali

2008-01-01

199

On the scaling ranges of detrended fluctuation analysis for long-term memory correlated short series of data  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the scaling regime for the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA)-the most popular method used to detect the presence of long-term memory in data and the fractal structure of time series. First, the scaling range for DFA is studied for uncorrelated data as a function of time series length L and the correlation coefficient of the linear regression R2 at various confidence levels. Next, a similar analysis for artificial short series of data with long-term memory is performed. In both cases the scaling range ? is found to change linearly-both with L and R2. We show how this dependence can be generalized to a simple unified model describing the relation ?=?(L,R2,H) where H (1/2?H?1) stands for the Hurst exponent of the long range autocorrelated signal. Our findings should be useful in all applications of DFA technique, particularly for instantaneous (local) DFA where a huge number of short time series has to be analyzed at the same time, without possibility of checking the scaling range in each of them separately.

Grech, Dariusz; Mazur, Zygmunt

2013-05-01

200

Improvement in long term and visuo-spatial memory following chronic pioglitazone in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-?) agonists (thiazolidinediones) are widely prescribed for the treatment of type-II diabetes mellitus. Recently, PPAR-? agonists have shown neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative disorders. The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of chronic administration of pioglitazone, a PPAR-? agonist, on cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease induced by scopolamine. Scopolamine was administered in a dose of 1mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.). Cognitive functions were assessed using step-down latency (SDL) on a passive avoidance apparatus and escape latency in Morris water maze test. Pioglitazone was also investigated for its effects on parameters of oxidative stress by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the brain. Scopolamine produced significant reduction in SDL and prolongation of escape latency indicating cognitive impairment in mice. Pioglitazone (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.), administered for 21 days, showed significant dose-dependent improvement in scopolamine-induced dysfunctions in long-term and visuo-spatial memory in passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests, respectively. Furthermore, pioglitazone significantly prevented the fall in GSH levels and elevation in brain MDA levels induced by scopolamine. These results demonstrate that pioglitazone offers protection against scopolamine-induced dysfunctions in long-term and visuo-spatial memory, possibly due to its antioxidant action, and therefore, could have a therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22503969

Gupta, Rachna; Gupta, Lalit Kumar

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

An optical model for implementing Parrondo’s game and designing stochastic game with long-term memory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Using a photon propagating through a designed array of beam splitters to simulate Parrondo’s game paradox. ? Design the optical flowchart for implementing Parrondo history-dependent game paradox. ? Design new game with long-term memory on a designed tree lattice and loop lattice. - Abstract: An optical model for a photon propagating through a designed array of beam splitters is developed to give a physical implementation of Parrondo’s game and Parrondo’s history-dependent game. The winner in this optical model is a photon passed the beam splitter. The loser is a photon being reflected by the beam splitter. The optical beam splitter is the coin-tosser. We designed new games with long-term memory by using this optical diagram method. The optical output of the combined game of two losing games could be a win, or a loss, or an oscillation between win and loss. The modern technology to implement this optical model is well developed. A circularly polarized photon is a possible candidate for this physical implementation in laboratory.

202

Lead (Pb+2) impairs long-term memory and blocks learning-induced increases in hippocampal protein kinase C activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term storage of information in the brain known as long-term memory (LTM) depends on a variety of intracellular signaling cascades utilizing calcium (Ca2+) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate as second messengers. In particular, Ca+2/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) activity has been proposed to be necessary for the transition from short-term memory to LTM. Because the neurobehavioral toxicity of lead (Pb+2) has been associated to its interference with normal Ca+2 signaling in neurons, we studied its effects on spatial learning and memory using a hippocampal-dependent discrimination task. Adult rats received microinfusions of either Na+ or Pb+2 acetate in the CA1 hippocampal subregion before each one of four training sessions. A retention test was given 7 days later to examine LTM. Results suggest that intrahippocampal Pb+2 did not affect learning of the task, but significantly impaired retention. The effects of Pb+2 selectively impaired reference memory measured in the retention test, but had no effect on the general performance because it did not affect the latency to complete the task during the test. Finally, we examined the effects of Pb+2 on the induction of hippocampal Ca+2/phospholipid-dependent PKC activity during acquisition training. The results showed that Pb+2 interfered with the learning-induced activation of Ca+2/phospholipid-dependent PKC on day 3 of acquisition. Overall, our results indicate that Pb+2 causes cognitive impairments in adult rats and that such effects might be subserved by interference with Ca+2-related signaling mechanisms required for normal LTM

203

Inhibition of PKM? in Nucleus Accumbens Core Abolishes Long-Term Drug Reward Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

During abstinence, memories of drug-associated cues persist for many months, and exposure to these cues often provokes relapse to drug use. The mechanisms underlying the maintenance of these memories are unknown. A constitutively active atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme, protein kinase M ? (PKM?), is required for maintenance of spatial memory, conditioned taste aversion, and other memory forms. We used conditioned place preference (CPP) and conditioned place aversion (CPA) procedures to study the role of nucleus accumbens PKM? in the maintenance of drug reward and aversion memories in rats. Morphine CPP training (10 mg/kg, 4 pairings) increased PKM? levels in accumbens core but not shell. Injections of the PKM? inhibitor ? inhibitory peptide (ZIP) into accumbens core but not shell after CPP training blocked morphine CPP expression for up to 14 d after injections. This effect was mimicked by the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine, which inhibits PKM?, but not by the conventional and novel PKC inhibitor staurosporine, which does not effectively inhibit PKM?. ZIP injections into accumbens core after training also blocked the expression of cocaine (10 mg/kg) and high-fat food CPP but had no effect on CPA induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Accumbens core injections of Tat-GluR23Y, which inhibits GluR2-dependent AMPA receptor endocytosis, prevented the impairment in morphine CPP induced by local ZIP injections, indicating that the persistent effect of PKM? is on GluR2-containing AMPA receptors. Results indicate that PKM? activity in accumbens core is a critical cellular substrate for the maintenance of memories of relapse-provoking reward cues during prolonged abstinence periods. PMID:21471379

Li, Yan-qin; Xue, Yan-xue; He, Ying-ying; Li, Fang-qiong; Xue, Li-fen; Xu, Chun-mei; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Shaham, Yavin

2011-01-01

204

DAT genotype modulates striatal processing and long-term memory for items associated with reward and punishment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. We also investigated how the neural processing of appetitive and aversive motivation and episodic memory were modulated by dopaminergic mechanisms. To that end, participants were selected on the basis of their genotype for a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene. The resulting groups were carefully matched for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene. Recognition memory for cues from both motivational categories was enhanced in participants homozygous for the 10-repeat allele of the DAT, the functional effects of which are not known yet, but not in heterozygous subjects. In comparison with heterozygous participants, 10-repeat homozygous participants also showed increased striatal activity for anticipation of motivational outcomes compared to neutral outcomes. In a subsequent memory analysis, encoding activity in striatum and hippocampus was found to be higher for later recognized items in 10-repeat homozygotes compared to 9/10-repeat heterozygotes. These findings suggest that processing of appetitive and aversive motivation in the human striatum involve the dopaminergic system and that dopamine plays a role in memory for both types of motivational information. In accordance with animal studies, these data support the idea that encoding of motivational events depends on dopaminergic processes in the hippocampus. PMID:23911780

Wittmann, Bianca C; Tan, Geoffrey C; Lisman, John E; Dolan, Raymond J; Düzel, Emrah

2013-09-01

205

Reprint of: DAT genotype modulates striatal processing and long-term memory for items associated with reward and punishment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. We also investigated how the neural processing of appetitive and aversive motivation and episodic memory were modulated by dopaminergic mechanisms. To that end, participants were selected on the basis of their genotype for a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene. The resulting groups were carefully matched for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene. Recognition memory for cues from both motivational categories was enhanced in participants homozygous for the 10-repeat allele of the DAT, the functional effects of which are not known yet, but not in heterozygous subjects. In comparison with heterozygous participants, 10-repeat homozygous participants also showed increased striatal activity for anticipation of motivational outcomes compared to neutral outcomes. In a subsequent memory analysis, encoding activity in striatum and hippocampus was found to be higher for later recognized items in 10-repeat homozygotes compared to 9/10-repeat heterozygotes. These findings suggest that processing of appetitive and aversive motivation in the human striatum involve the dopaminergic system and that dopamine plays a role in memory for both types of motivational information. In accordance with animal studies, these data support the idea that encoding of motivational events depends on dopaminergic processes in the hippocampus. PMID:24139823

Wittmann, Bianca C; Tan, Geoffrey C; Lisman, John E; Dolan, Raymond J; Düzel, Emrah

2013-10-01

206

Aversive Olfactory Learning and Associative Long-Term Memory in "Caenorhabditis elegans"  

Science.gov (United States)

The nematode "Caenorhabditis elegans" ("C. elegans") adult hermaphrodite has 302 invariant neurons and is suited for cellular and molecular studies on complex behaviors including learning and memory. Here, we have developed protocols for classical conditioning of worms with 1-propanol, as a conditioned stimulus (CS), and hydrochloride (HCl) (pH…

Amano, Hisayuki; Maruyama, Ichiro N.

2011-01-01

207

Activation of MAPK Is Necessary for Long-Term Memory Consolidation Following Food-Reward Conditioning  

Science.gov (United States)

Although an important role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been established for memory consolidation in a variety of learning paradigms, it is not known if this pathway is also involved in appetitive classical conditioning. We address this question by using a single-trial food-reward conditioning paradigm in the freshwater…

Ribeiro, Maria J.; Schofield, Michael G.; Kemenes, Ildiko; O'Shea, Michael; Kemenes, Gyorgy; Benjamin, Paul R.

2005-01-01

208

Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

2012-01-01

209

Making the case that episodic recollection is attributable to operations occurring at retrieval rather than to content stored in a dedicated subsystem of long-term memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Episodic memory often is conceptualized as a uniquely human system of long-term memory that makes available knowledge accompanied by the temporal and spatial context in which that knowledge was acquired. Retrieval from episodic memory entails a form of first–person subjectivity called autonoetic consciousness that provides a sense that a recollection was something that took place in the experiencer’s personal past. In this paper I expand on this definition of episodic memory. Specific...

StanKlein

2013-01-01

210

CBP is required for both short-term and long-term memory formation  

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CREB binding protein (CBP) is a transcriptional co-activator with histone acetyltransferase activity. Our prior study suggested that CBP might be a key target of presenilins in the regulation of memory formation and neuronal survival. To elucidate the role of CBP in the adult brain, we generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which CBP is completely inactivated in excitatory neurons of the postnatal forebrain. Histological analysis revealed normal neuronal morphology and absence of age-de...

Chen, Guiquan; Zou, Xiaoyan; Watanabe, Hirotaka; Deursen, Jan M.; Shen, Jie

2010-01-01

211

Hippocampal inactivation with TTX impairs long-term spatial memory retrieval and modifies brain metabolic activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional inactivation techniques enable studying the hippocampal involvement in each phase of spatial memory formation in the rat. In this study, we applied tetrodotoxin unilaterally or bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus to evaluate the role of this brain structure in retrieval of memories acquired 28 days before in the Morris water maze. We combined hippocampal inactivation with the assessment of brain metabolism using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. Several brain regions were considered, including the hippocampus and other related structures. Results showed that both unilateral and bilateral hippocampal inactivation impaired spatial memory retrieval. Hence, whereas subjects with bilateral hippocampal inactivation showed a circular swim pattern at the side walls of the pool, unilateral inactivation favoured swimming in the quadrants adjacent to the target one. Analysis of cytochrome oxidase activity disclosed regional differences according to the degree of hippocampal functional blockade. In comparison to control group, animals with bilateral inactivation showed increased CO activity in CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus during retrieval, while the activity of the dentate gyrus substantially decreased. However, unilateral inactivated animals showed decreased CO activity in Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus. This study demonstrated that retrieval recruits differentially the hippocampal subregions and the balance between them is altered with hippocampal functional lesions. PMID:23724089

Conejo, Nélida María; Cimadevilla, José Manuel; González-Pardo, Héctor; Méndez-Couz, Marta; Arias, Jorge Luis

2013-01-01

212

Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: Translation effects in long-term memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering. PMID:24528147

Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

2015-04-01

213

How Chunks, Long-Term Working Memory and Templates Offer a Cognitive Explanation for Neuroimaging Data on Expertise Acquisition: A Two-Stage Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

Our review of research on PET and fMRI neuroimaging of experts and expertise acquisition reveals two apparently discordant patterns in working-memory-related tasks. When experts are involved, studies show activations in brain regions typically activated during long-term memory tasks that are not observed with novices, a result that is compatible…

Guida, Alessandro; Gobet, Fernand; Tardieu, Hubert; Nicolas, Serge

2012-01-01

214

The relationship between NMDA receptors and microwave induced learning and memory impairment: a long term observation on Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Purpose: In the present study, we intended to investigate whether the high power microwave could cause the continuous disorders of learning and memory in Wistar rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Materials and methods: 80 Wistar rats were exposed to a 2.856 GHz pulsed microwave source at a power density of 0 mW/cm(2) and 50 mW/cm(2) microwave for 6 min. The spatial memory ability, the structure of the hippocampus, contents of amino acids neurotransmitters in hippocampus and the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDAR) subunit 1, 2A and 2B (NR1, NR2A and NR2B) were detected at 1 m, 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m and 18 m after microwave exposure. Results: Our results showed that the microwave exposed rats showed consistent deficiencies in spatial learning and memory. The level of amino acid neurotransmitters also decreased after microwave radiation. The ratio of glutamate (Glu) and gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) significantly decreased at 6 m. Besides, the hippocampus showed varying degrees of degeneration of neurons, increased postsynaptic density and blurred synaptic clefts in the exposure group. The NR1 and NR2B expression showed a significant decrease, especially the NR2B expression. Conclusions: This study indicated that the content of amino acids neurotransmitters, the expression of NMDAR subunits and the variation of hippocampal structure might contribute to the long term cognitive impairment after microwave exposure. PMID:25426698

Wang, Hui; Peng, Ruiyun; Zhao, Li; Wang, Shuiming; Gao, Yabing; Wang, Lifeng; Zuo, Hongyan; Dong, Ji; Xu, Xinping; Zhou, Hongmei; Su, Zhentao

2014-11-26

215

Long-term social recognition memory in adult male rats: factor analysis of the social and non-social behaviors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A modified version of the intruder-resident paradigm was used to investigate if social recognition memory lasts at least 24 h. One hundred and forty-six adult male Wistar rats were used. Independent groups of rats were exposed to an intruder for 0.083, 0.5, 2, 24, or 168 h and tested 24 h after the [...] first encounter with the familiar or a different conspecific. Factor analysis was employed to identify associations between behaviors and treatments. Resident rats exhibited a 24-h social recognition memory, as indicated by a 3- to 5-fold decrease in social behaviors in the second encounter with the same conspecific compared to those observed for a different conspecific, when the duration of the first encounter was 2 h or longer. It was possible to distinguish between two different categories of social behaviors and their expression depended on the duration of the first encounter. Sniffing the anogenital area (49.9% of the social behaviors), sniffing the body (17.9%), sniffing the head (3%), and following the conspecific (3.1%), exhibited mostly by resident rats, characterized social investigation and revealed long-term social recognition memory. However, dominance (23.8%) and mild aggression (2.3%), exhibited by both resident and intruders, characterized social agonistic behaviors and were not affected by memory. Differently, sniffing the environment (76.8% of the non-social behaviors) and rearing (14.3%), both exhibited mostly by adult intruder rats, characterized non-social behaviors. Together, these results show that social recognition memory in rats may last at least 24 h after a 2-h or longer exposure to the conspecific.

P.J., Moura; S.T., Meirelles; G.F., Xavier.

2010-07-01

216

Long-Term T-Cell-Mediated Immunologic Memory to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Young Adults Following Neonatal Vaccination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The long-term duration of cell-mediated immunity induced by neonatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is unknown. Objectives: Study was designed to determine the cellular immunity memory status among young adults twenty years after infantile HB immunization. Patients and Methods: Study subjects were party selected from a recent seroepidemiologic study in young adults, who had been vaccinated against HBV twenty years earlier. Just before and ten to 14 days after one dose of HBV vaccine booster injection, blood samples were obtained and sera concentration of cytokines (interleukin 2 and interferon) was measured. More than twofold increase after boosting was considered positive immune response. With regard to the serum level of antibody against HBV surface antigen (HBsAb) before boosting, the subjects were divided into four groups as follow: GI, HBsAb titer < 2; GII, titer 2 to 9.9; GIII, titer 10 to 99; and GIV, titers ? 100 IU/L. Mean concentration level (MCL) of each cytokines for each group at preboosting and postboosting and the proportion of responders in each groups were determined. Paired descriptive statistical analysis method (t test) was used to compare the MCL of each cytokines in each and between groups and the frequency of responders in each group. Results: Before boosting, among 176 boosted individuals, 75 (42.6%) had HBsAb 10 IU/L and were considered seroprotected. Among 101 serosusceptible persons, more than 80% of boosted individuals showed more than twofold increase in cytokines concentration, which meant positive HBsAg-specific cell-mediated immunity. MCL of both cytokines after boosting in GIV were decreased more than twofold, possibly because of recent natural boosting. Conclusions: Findings showed that neonatal HBV immunization was efficacious in inducing long-term immunity and cell-mediated immune memory for up to two decades, and booster vaccination are not required. Further monitoring of vaccinated subjects for HBV infections are recommended. PMID:25368659

Saffar, Hiva; Saffar, Mohammed Jafar; Ajami, Abolghasem; Khalilian, Ali Reza; Shams-Esfandabad, Kian; Mirabi, Araz Mohammad

2014-01-01

217

Access to long-term optical memories using photon echoes retrieved from semiconductor spins  

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The ability to store optical information is important for both classical and quantum communication. Achieving this in a comprehensive manner (converting the optical field into material excitation, storing this excitation, and releasing it after a controllable time delay) is greatly complicated by the many, often conflicting, properties of the material. More specifically, optical resonances in semiconductor quantum structures with high oscillator strength are inevitably characterized by short excitation lifetimes (and, therefore, short optical memory). Here, we present a new experimental approach to stimulated photon echoes by transferring the information contained in the optical field into a spin system, where it is decoupled from the optical vacuum field and may persist much longer. We demonstrate this for an n-doped CdTe/(Cd,Mg)Te quantum well, the storage time of which could be increased by more than three orders of magnitude, from the picosecond range up to tens of nanoseconds.

Langer, L.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Yugova, I. A.; Salewski, M.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.; Akimov, I. A.; Bayer, M.

2014-11-01

218

D-cycloserine prevents relational memory deficits and suppression of long-term potentiation induced by scopolamine in the hippocampus.  

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Previous research has demonstrated that systemic D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), enhances memory processes in different learning paradigms and attenuates mnemonic deficits produced by diverse pharmacological manipulations. In the present study two experiments were conducted in rats to investigate whether DCS administered in the hippocampus may rescue relational memory deficits and improve deficient synaptic plasticity, both induced by an intracerebral injection of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCOP). In experiment 1, we assessed whether DCS would prevent SCOP-induced amnesia in an olfactory learning paradigm requiring the integrity of the cholinergic system, the social transmission of food preference (STFP). The results showed that DCS (10 ?g/site) injected into the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) before STFP acquisition compensated the 24-h retention deficit elicited by post-training intra-vHPC SCOP (40 ?g/site), although it did not affect memory expression in non-SCOP treated rats. In experiment 2, we evaluated whether the perfusion of DCS in hippocampal slices may potentiate synaptic plasticity in CA1 synapses and thus recover SCOP-induced deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP). We found that DCS (50 µM and 100 µM) was able to rescue SCOP (100 µM)-induced LTP maintenance impairment, in agreement with the behavioral findings. Additionally, DCS alone (50 µM and 100 µM) enhanced field excitatory postsynaptic potentials prior to high frequency stimulation, although it did not significantly potentiate LTP. Our results suggest that positive modulation of the NMDAR, by activation of the glycine-binding site, may compensate relational memory impairments due to hippocampal muscarinic neurotransmission dysfunction possibly through enhancements in LTP maintenance. PMID:25453488

Portero-Tresserra, Marta; Del Olmo, Nuria; Martí-Nicolovius, Margarita; Guillazo-Blanch, Gemma; Vale-Martínez, Anna

2014-11-01

219

Hearing Loss Is Negatively Related to Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory but Not to Short-Term Memory  

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Purpose: To test the relationship between degree of hearing loss and different memory systems in hearing aid users. Method: Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to study the relationship between auditory and visual acuity and different cognitive and memory functions in an age-hetereogenous subsample of 160 hearing aid users without…

Ronnberg, Jerker; Danielsson, Henrik; Rudner, Mary; Arlinger, Stig; Sternang, Ola; Wahlin, Ake; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

2011-01-01

220

Monosynaptic connections made by the sensory neurons of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia participate in the storage of long-term memory for sensitization  

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We have found that in the gill- and siphon- withdrawal reflex of Aplysia, the memory for short-term sensitization grades smoothly into long-term memory with increased amounts of sensitization training. One cellular locus for the storage of the memory underlying short-term sensitization is the set of monosynaptic connections between the siphon sensory cells and the gill and siphon motor neurons. We have now also found that these same monosynaptic connections participate in the storage of the m...

Frost, William N.; Castellucci, Vincent F.; Hawkins, Robert D.; Kandel, Eric R.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Short and long-term memory are modulated by multiple isoforms of the fragile X mental retardation protein  

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The diversity of protein isoforms arising from alternative splicing is thought to modulate fine-tuning of synaptic plasticity. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a neuronal RNA binding protein, exists in isoforms as a result of alternative splicing, but the contribution of these isoforms to neural plasticity are not well understood. We show that two isoforms of D. melanogaster FMRP (dFMR1) have differential roles in mediating neural development and behavior functions conferred by the dfmr1 gene. These isoforms differ in the presence of a protein interaction module that is related to prion domains and is functionally conserved between FMRPs. Expression of both isoforms is necessary for optimal performance in tests of short and long-term memory of courtship training. The presence or absence of the protein interaction domain may govern the types of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes dFMR1 assembles into, with different RNPs regulating gene expression in a manner necessary for establishing distinct phases of memory formation. PMID:20463240

Banerjee, Paromita; Schoenfeld, Brian P.; Bell, Aaron J.; Choi, Catherine H.; Bradley, Michael P.; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Park, Jae H.; McBride, Sean M.J.; Dockendorff, Thomas C.

2010-01-01

222

Short- and long-term memory are modulated by multiple isoforms of the fragile X mental retardation protein.  

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The diversity of protein isoforms arising from alternative splicing is thought to modulate fine-tuning of synaptic plasticity. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a neuronal RNA binding protein, exists in isoforms as a result of alternative splicing, but the contribution of these isoforms to neural plasticity are not well understood. We show that two isoforms of Drosophila melanogaster FMRP (dFMR1) have differential roles in mediating neural development and behavior functions conferred by the dfmr1 gene. These isoforms differ in the presence of a protein interaction module that is related to prion domains and is functionally conserved between FMRPs. Expression of both isoforms is necessary for optimal performance in tests of short- and long-term memory of courtship training. The presence or absence of the protein interaction domain may govern the types of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes dFMR1 assembles into, with different RNPs regulating gene expression in a manner necessary for establishing distinct phases of memory formation. PMID:20463240

Banerjee, Paromita; Schoenfeld, Brian P; Bell, Aaron J; Choi, Catherine H; Bradley, Michael P; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Park, Jae H; McBride, Sean M J; Dockendorff, Thomas C

2010-05-12

223

Long-term memory traces for language sounds are highly context-sensitive: an MEG/ERF study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: An early component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP), the mismatch negativity (MMN), has been shown to be sensitive to native phonemic language sound contrasts compared to non-native or allophonic language sound contrasts. So far this has not been attested for different phonetic contexts. In the present study we investigated the mismatch field (MMF) response (the magnetic counterpart of the MMN) of native Danish speakers to the Danish phonetic contrast of [t]-[d] in two different phonetic contexts: One in which the sound contrast was phonemic ([tæ] versus [dæ]), and one in which the sound contrast was allophonic ([æt] versus [æd]), i.e. its phonemic status was neutralized. Methods: The stimuli consisted of the four Danish syllables: [tæ] and [dæ] (meaning ‘take’ and ‘then’, respectively), and [æt] and [æd] (both meaning ‘that’). These were presented in a passive listening MMN paradigm while participants’ MEG was recorded. [tæ] and [æt] acted as standards, and [dæ] and [æd] thus as deviants, respectively. Results: Comparing brain responses to the deviants and the standards, only the phonemic [tæ]-[dæ] contrast showed significant effects (FWE-corrected at p<0.05 at the cluster-level) within the typical MMN time range (100 to 300 ms after deviance onset) and over both hemispheres. Comparing the differences between the two contrasts ([dæ]-[tæ] minus [æd]-[æt]), the phonemic context elicited significantly larger MMF responses than the allophonic context (FWE-corrected at p<0.05 at the cluster-level), again over both hemispheres and within the typical MMN time range. Conclusion: By manipulating the immediate phonetic context in an oddball paradigm, we demonstrate that the human brain’s MMF response to language sounds is highly context-sensitive. This has important impact on the proposed long-term memory traces for native phonological categories. In order to generate different MMF responses to the same language sound contrast depending on the phonetic context, these long-term memory traces must thus be context-sensitive themselves or exist as separate traces for the context-dependent allophones of the phonological categories.

Nielsen, Andreas HØjlund; Gebauer, Line

224

Vividness of visual imagery and incidental recall of verbal cues, when phenomenological availability reflects long-term memory accessibility  

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Full Text Available The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall was replicated, refined and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal-cues (controlled on several verbal properties and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; thirty minutes later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest. Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ, as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories.

AmedeoD'Angiulli

2013-02-01

225

Novel interactive effects of darkness and retinoid signaling in the ability to form long-term memory following aversive operant conditioning.  

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The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid, is important for memory formation and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in vertebrate species. In our studies in the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis, we have shown that retinoic acid plays a role in memory formation following operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behaviour. Inhibition of either retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) or the retinoid receptors prevents long-term memory (LTM) formation, whereas synthetic retinoid receptor agonists promote memory formation by converting intermediate-term memory (ITM) into LTM. In this study, animals were exposed to constant darkness in order to test whether light-sensitive retinoic acid would promote memory formation. However, we found that exposure to constant darkness alone (in the absence of retinoic acid) enhanced memory formation. To determine whether the memory-promoting effects of darkness could override the memory-inhibiting effects of the retinoid signaling inhibitors, we exposed snails to RALDH inhibitors or a retinoid receptor antagonist in constant darkness. We found that darkness overcame the inhibitory effects of RALDH inhibition, but did not overcome the inhibitory effects of the retinoid receptor antagonist. We also tested whether constant darkness and training affected the mRNA levels of the retinoid metabolic enzymes RALDH and Cyp26, or the mRNA levels of the retinoid receptors, but found no significant effect. Overall, these data demonstrate an interaction between environmental light conditions and the retinoid signaling pathway, which influence long-term memory formation in a mollusc. PMID:25062644

Rothwell, Cailin M; Simmons, Jason; Peters, Grace; Spencer, Gaynor E

2014-10-01

226

Making the case that episodic recollection is attributable to operations occurring at retrieval rather than to content stored in a dedicated subsystem of long-term memory.  

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Episodic memory often is conceptualized as a uniquely human system of long-term memory that makes available knowledge accompanied by the temporal and spatial context in which that knowledge was acquired. Retrieval from episodic memory entails a form of first-person subjectivity called autonoetic consciousness that provides a sense that a recollection was something that took place in the experiencer's personal past. In this paper I expand on this definition of episodic memory. Specifically, I suggest that (1) the core features assumed unique to episodic memory are shared by semantic memory, (2) episodic memory cannot be fully understood unless one appreciates that episodic recollection requires the coordinated function of a number of distinct, yet interacting, "enabling" systems. Although these systems-ownership, self, subjective temporality, and agency-are not traditionally viewed as memorial in nature, each is necessary for episodic recollection and jointly they may be sufficient, and (3) the type of subjective awareness provided by episodic recollection (autonoetic) is relational rather than intrinsic-i.e., it can be lost in certain patient populations, thus rendering episodic memory content indistinguishable from the content of semantic long-term memory. PMID:23378832

Klein, Stanley B

2013-01-01

227

Naringin Enhances CaMKII Activity and Improves Long-Term Memory in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease  

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Full Text Available The Amyloid-? (A?-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity is an underlying mechanism of memory loss in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD in human and mouse models. The inhibition of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII autophosphorylation plays an important role in long-term memory. In this study, we isolated naringin from Pomelo peel (a Citrus species and studied its effect on long-term memory in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Three-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a vehicle group, two naringin (either 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight/day groups, or an Aricept (2 mg/kg body weight/day group. After 16 weeks of treatment, we observed that treatment with naringin (100 mg/kg body weight/day enhanced the autophosphorylation of CaMKII, increased the phosphorylation of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPA receptor at a CaMKII-dependent site and improved long-term learning and memory ability. These findings suggest that the increase in CaMKII activity may be one of the mechanisms by which naringin improves long-term cognitive function in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD.

Lian-Feng Zhang

2013-03-01

228

Naringin Enhances CaMKII Activity and Improves Long-Term Memory in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

The Amyloid-? (A?)-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity is an underlying mechanism of memory loss in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in human and mouse models. The inhibition of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation plays an important role in long-term memory. In this study, we isolated naringin from Pomelo peel (a Citrus species) and studied its effect on long-term memory in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Three-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a vehicle group, two naringin (either 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight/day) groups, or an Aricept (2 mg/kg body weight/day) group. After 16 weeks of treatment, we observed that treatment with naringin (100 mg/kg body weight/day) enhanced the autophosphorylation of CaMKII, increased the phosphorylation of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPA) receptor at a CaMKII-dependent site and improved long-term learning and memory ability. These findings suggest that the increase in CaMKII activity may be one of the mechanisms by which naringin improves long-term cognitive function in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. PMID:23478434

Wang, Dong-Mei; Yang, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Lian-Feng

2013-01-01

229

Long-Term Memory for Place Learning Is Facilitated by Expression of cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein in the Dorsal Hippocampus  

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Extensive research has shown that the hippocampus is necessary for consolidation of long-term spatial memory in rodents. We reported previously that rats using a place strategy to solve a cross maze task showed sustained phosphorylation of hippocampus cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor implicated in…

Brightwell, Jennifer J.; Smith, Clayton A.; Neve, Rachael L.; Colombo, Paul J.

2007-01-01

230

One week of motor adaptation induces structural changes in primary motor cortex that predict long-term memory one year later  

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The neural bases of motor adaptation have been extensively explored in human and non-human primates. A network including the cerebellum, primary motor and the posterior parietal cortex appears to be crucial for this type of learning. Yet, to date, it is unclear whether these regions contribute directly or indirectly to the formation of motor memories. Here we trained subjects on a complex visuomotor rotation associated with long-term memory (in the order of months) to identify potential sites...

Landi, Sofia M.; Baguear, Federico; Della-maggiore, Valeria

2011-01-01

231

The Effect of Zinc Supplementation of Lactating Rats on Short-Term and Long-Term Memory of Their Male Offspring  

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Full Text Available Background: In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. Methods: We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. Results: This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats’ offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term of their offspring (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in reference (long-term memory of all groups. Conclusion: Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

Mohammad Karami

2013-12-01

232

PKA Increases in the Olfactory Bulb Act as Unconditioned Stimuli and Provide Evidence for Parallel Memory Systems: Pairing Odor with Increased PKA Creates Intermediate- and Long-Term, but Not Short-Term, Memories  

Science.gov (United States)

Neonatal odor-preference memory in rat pups is a well-defined associative mammalian memory model dependent on cAMP. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrates three phases of neonatal odor-preference memory: short-term (translation-independent), intermediate-term (translation-dependent), and long-term (transcription- and…

Grimes, Matthew T.; Harley, Carolyn W.; Darby-King, Andrea; McLean, John H.

2012-01-01

233

Measuring Workload Differences Between Short-term Memory and Long-term Memory Scenarios in a Simulated Flight Environment  

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Four highly experienced Air Force pilots each flew four simulated flight scenarios. Two scenarios required a great deal of aircraft maneuvering. The other two scenarios involved less maneuvering, but required remembering a number of items. All scenarios were designed to be equaly challenging. Pilot's Subjective Ratings for Activity-level, Complexity, Difficulty, Stress, and Workload were higher for the manuevering scenarios than the memory scenarios. At a moderate workload level, keeping the pilots active resulted in better aircraft control. When required to monitor and remember items, aircraft control tended to decrease. Pilots tended to weigh information about the spatial positioning and performance of their aircraft more heavily than other items.

Berg, S. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

1984-01-01

234

Prediction of long-term (5 years) conversion to dementia using neuropsychological tests in a memory clinic setting.  

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The use of neuropsychological tests to detect cognitive decline in the initial phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has faced significant limitations, namely the fact that most cohort studies of conversion to dementia had relatively short follow-up periods. The aim of the present study is to assess the predictive value for future conversion to dementia of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery applied to a cohort of non-demented patients followed-up for 5 years. Participants (n = 250) were selected from the Cognitive Complaints Cohort (CCC) having cognitive complaints, assessment with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and a follow-up period of 5 years (unless patients have converted to dementia earlier). During the follow-up period (2.6 ± 1.8 years for converters and 6.1 ± 2.1 years for non-converters), 162 patients (64.8%) progressed to dementia (mostly AD), and 88 (35.2%) did not. A Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model constituted by Digit Span backward, Semantic Fluency, Logical Memory (immediate recall), and Forgetting Index significantly discriminated converters from non-converters (? Wilks = 0.64; ?(2) (4) = 81.95; p accuracy values (78.8%, 79.9% and 78.6%, respectively) of the neuropsychological tests to predict long-term conversion to dementia. The present results show that it is possible to predict, on the basis of the initial clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, whether non-demented patients with cognitive complaints will probably convert to dementia, or remain stable, at a reasonably long and clinically relevant term. PMID:23263232

Silva, Dina; Guerreiro, Manuela; Santana, Isabel; Rodrigues, Ana; Cardoso, Sandra; Maroco, João; de Mendonça, Alexandre

2013-01-01

235

The effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and long-term memory in dogs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most domestic dogs are subjected to some kind of obedience training, often on a frequent basis, but the question of how often and for how long a dog should be trained has not been fully investigated. Optimizing the training as much as possible is not only an advantage in the training of working dogs such as guide dogs and police dogs, also the training of family dogs can benefit from this knowledge. We studied the effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and on long-term memory. Forty-four laboratory Beagles were divided into 4 groups and trained by means of operant conditioning and shaping to perform a traditional obedience task, each dog having a total of 18 training sessions. The training schedules of the 4 groups differentiated in frequency (1–2 times per week vs. daily) and duration (1 training session vs. 3 training sessions in a row). Acquisition was measured as achieved training level at a certain time. The dogs’ retention of the task was tested four weeks post-acquisition.Results demonstrated that dogs trained 1–2 times per week had significantly better acquisition than daily trained dogs, and that dogs trained only 1 session a day had significantly better acquisition than dogs trained 3 sessions in a row. The interaction between frequency and duration of training sessions was also significant, suggesting that the two affect acquisition differently depending on the combination of these. The combination of weekly training and one session resulted in the highest level of acquisition, whereas the combination of daily training and three sessions in a row resulted in the lowest level of acquisition. Daily training in one session produced similar results as weekly training combined with three sessions in a row. Training schedule did not affect retention of the learned task; all groups had a high level of retention after 4 weeks. The results of the study can be used to optimize training in dogs, which is important since the number of training sessions often is a limiting factor in practical dog training. The results also suggest that, once a task is learned, it is likely to be remembered for a period of at least four weeks after last practice, regardless of frequency and duration of the training sessions.

Demant, Helle; Ladewig, Jan

2011-01-01

236

Critical Role of Nitric Oxide-cGMP Cascade in the Formation of cAMP-Dependent Long-Term Memory  

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Cyclic AMP pathway plays an essential role in formation of long-term memory (LTM). In some species, the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP pathway has been found to act in parallel and complementary to the cAMP pathway for LTM formation. Here we describe a new role of the NO-cGMP pathway, namely, stimulation of the cAMP pathway to induce LTM. We have…

Aonuma, Hitoshi; Mizunami, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Unoki, Sae

2006-01-01

237

Prenatal exposure to a cannabinoid agonist produces memory deficits linked to dysfunction in hippocampal long-term potentiation and glutamate release  

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To investigate the possible long-term consequences of gestational exposure to cannabinoids on cognitive functions, pregnant rats were administered with the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN), at a dose (0.5 mg/kg) that causes neither malformations nor overt signs of toxicity. Prenatal WIN exposure induced a disruption of memory retention in 40- and 80-day-old offspring subjected to a passive avoidance task. A hyperactive behavior at the ages of 12 and 40 days was also found. The memory i...

Mereu, Giampaolo; Fa?, Mauro; Ferraro, Luca; Cagiano, Raffaele; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tattoli, Maria; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Tanganelli, Sergio; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Cuomo, Vincenzo

2003-01-01

238

Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels, Calmodulin, Adenylyl Cyclase, and Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Are Required for Late, but Not Early, Long-Term Memory Formation in the Honeybee  

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Memory is a dynamic process that allows encoding, storage, and retrieval of information acquired through individual experience. In the honeybee "Apis mellifera," olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) has shown that besides short-term memory (STM) and mid-term memory (MTM), two phases of long-term memory (LTM)…

Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Lormant, Flore; Mizunami, Makoto; Giurfa, Martin

2014-01-01

239

Spatial cognition and memory: a reversible lesion with lidocaine into the anteromedial/posterior parietal cortex (AM/PPC affects differently working and long-term memory on two foraging tasks  

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Full Text Available Place memory is relevant for exploration and forage behaviour. When food supply is dispersed, a win-shift has advantage over a win-stay strategy. In the Olton Octagonal Maze, the rat follows a win-shift strategy using working memory. However, in the Olton 4x4 version, the rat follows a win-stay strategy, using both working and long-term memories. It has been suggested that the neocortex is required for the resolution of tasks demanding long-term, but not for that demanding working memory alone. The role of anteromedial/posterior parietal cortex (AM/PPC was investigated here, using a reversible lesion induced by intracerebral lidocaine infusion. Long-Evans rats were implanted with guide cannulae into the AM/PPC and trained in an Olton 4x4 maze, counting working and long-term memory errors after a delay. Then, the animals were infused with lidocaine or saline during the delay phase and tested for three days. Another series of animals, treated as before, was tested in an Olton Octagonal Maze and subjected to the same injection schedule. In the Olton 4x4 Maze, lidocaine produced a significant increase in working and long-term memory errors, compared to saline and post-lidocaine conditions. In contrast, in the Olton Octagonal Maze, lidocaine did not induce any effect on working memory errors. Thus, AM/PPC is required when both working with previous information and long-term memories are needed, but not when only working memory is required, as it happens under ethological conditions. Whenever food supply is dispersed, a win-shift strategy is preferable

PABLO ESPINA-MARCHANT

2006-01-01

240

The Less Things Change, the More They Are Different: Contributions of Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity and Homeostasis to Memory  

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An important cellular mechanism contributing to the strength and duration of memories is activity-dependent alterations in the strength of synaptic connections within the neural circuit encoding the memory. Reversal of the memory is typically correlated with a reversal of the cellular changes to levels expressed prior to the stimulation. Thus, for…

Schacher, Samuel; Hu, Jiang-Yuan

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Olfaction, Emotion, and the Amygdala: arousal-dependent modulation of long-term autobiographical memory and its association with olfaction: beginning to unravel the Proust phenomenon?  

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Full Text Available The sense of smell is set apart from other sensory modalities. Odours possess the capacity to trigger immediately strong emotional memories. Moreover, odorous stimuli provide a higher degree of memory retention than other sensory stimuli. Odour perception, even in its most elemental form - olfaction - already involves limbic structures. This early involvement is not paralleled in other sensory modalities. Bearing in mind the considerable connectivity with limbic structures, and the fact that an activation of the amygdala is capable of instantaneously evoking emotions and facilitating the encoding of memories, it is unsurprising that the sense of smell has its characteristic nature. The aim of this review is to analyse current understanding of higher olfactory information processing as it relates to the ability of odours to spontaneously cue highly vivid, affectively toned, and often very old autobiographical memories (episodes known anecdotally as Proust phenomena. Particular emphasis is placed on the diversity of functions attributed to the amygdala. Its role in modulating the encoding and retrieval of long-term memory is investigated with reference to lesion, electrophysiological, immediate early gene, and functional imaging studies in both rodents and humans. Additionally, the influence of hormonal modulation and the adrenergic system on emotional memory storage is outlined. I finish by proposing a schematic of some of the critical neural pathways that underlie the odour-associated encoding and retrieval of emotionally toned autobiographical memories.

Mark Hughes

2004-06-01

242

Preservation of vaccine-induced long-term B cell memory and the effects of immunosuppressive treatment  

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Immune memory after vaccination is largely dependent on the combination of antibody production from long-lived plasma cells, and a supporting pool of antigen-primed memory B cells. It has been observed that individuals with certain immunosuppressive conditions or treatments have a weakened B cell memory, but the mechanisms behind remain elusive. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate B cell immunity in healthy children, and how HIV-1 infection, antineoplastic therapy, and rheum...

Ingelman-sundberg, Hanna M.

2015-01-01

243

Long-term olfactory memories are stabilised via protein synthesis in Camponotus fellah ants  

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Ants exhibit impressive olfactory learning abilities. Operant protocols in which ants freely choose between rewarded and nonrewarded odours have been used to characterise associative olfactory learning and memory. Yet, this approach precludes the use of invasive methods allowing the dissection of molecular bases of learning and memory. An open question is whether the memories formed upon olfactory learning that are retrievable several days after training are indeed based on de novo protein sy...

Guerrieri, Fernando Javier; D Ettorre, Patrizia; Deveaud, J-m; Giurfa, M.

2011-01-01

244

FXR1P limits long-term memory, long-lasting synaptic potentiation, and de novo GluA2 translation.  

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Translational control of mRNAs allows for rapid and selective changes in synaptic protein expression that are required for long-lasting plasticity and memory formation in the brain. Fragile X Related Protein 1 (FXR1P) is an RNA-binding protein that controls mRNA translation in nonneuronal cells and colocalizes with translational machinery in neurons. However, its neuronal mRNA targets and role in the brain are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that removal of FXR1P from the forebrain of postnatal mice selectively enhances long-term storage of spatial memories, hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP), and de novo GluA2 synthesis. Furthermore, FXR1P binds specifically to the 5' UTR of GluA2 mRNA to repress translation and limit the amount of GluA2 that is incorporated at potentiated synapses. This study uncovers a mechanism for regulating long-lasting synaptic plasticity and spatial memory formation and reveals an unexpected divergent role of FXR1P among Fragile X proteins in brain plasticity. PMID:25456134

Cook, Denise; Nuro, Erin; Jones, Emma V; Altimimi, Haider F; Farmer, W Todd; Gandin, Valentina; Hanna, Edith; Zong, Ruiting; Barbon, Alessandro; Nelson, David L; Topisirovic, Ivan; Rochford, Joseph; Stellwagen, David; Béïque, Jean-Claude; Murai, Keith K

2014-11-20

245

Role of constitutive calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta in hippocampo-prefrontal cortical long term potentiation and spatial working memory.  

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Calcium independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) is an 85kDa protein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 acyl ester bond of glycerophospholipids to liberate free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. In this study, we determined the role of constitutive iPLA2? in long term potentiation (LTP) of the hippocampo-prefrontal cortical pathway in vivo. We also examined the effect of iPLA2? knockdown using the rewarded alternation in T-maze task, a test of spatial working memory which is dependent on this pathway. Intracortical injection of an inhibitor to iPLA2, bromoenol lactone (BEL) or antisense oligonucleotide to iPLA2? in the prefrontal cortex abolished induction of hippocampo-prefrontal cortical LTP. Moreover, iPLA2 inhibition and antisense knockdown resulted in increased errors in the rewarded alternation in T-maze task, indicating negative effects on spatial working memory. BEL or antisense injection did not produce DNA fragmentation in the cortex as demonstrated by TUNEL assay. Results confirm a role of constitutive iPLA2? in hippocampo-prefrontal cortical synaptic plasticity in vivo, and add to previous observations of a role of iPLA2 in hippocampal LTP in vitro, and long-term memory retrieval. They may be relevant in Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative conditions that are associated with changes in iPLA2. PMID:25180675

Shalini, Suku-Maran; Chew, Wee-Siong; Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; Dawe, Gavin S; Ong, Wei-Yi

2014-12-01

246

Behavioral assessment of Alzheimer's transgenic mice following long-term Abeta vaccination: task specificity and correlations between Abeta deposition and spatial memory.  

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Long-term vaccinations with human beta-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Abeta1-42) have recently been shown to prevent or markedly reduce Abeta deposition in the PDAPP transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a similar protocol to vaccinate 7.5-month-old APP (Tg2576) and APP+PS1 transgenic mice over an 8-month period, we previously reported modest reductions in brain Abeta deposition at 16 months. In these same mice, Abeta vaccinations had no deleterious behavioral effects and, in fact, benefited the mice by providing partial protection from age-related deficits in spatial working memory in the radial arm water maze task (RAWM) at 15.5 months. By contrast, control-vaccinated transgenic mice exhibited impaired performance throughout the entire RAWM test period at 15.5 months. The present study expands on our initial report by presenting additional behavioral results following long-term Abeta vaccination, as well as correlational analyses between cognitive performance and Abeta deposition in vaccinated animals. We report that 8 months of Abeta vaccinations did not reverse an early-onset balance beam impairment in transgenic mice. Additionally, in Y-maze testing at 16 months, all mice showed comparable spontaneous alternation irrespective of genotype or vaccination status. Strong correlations were nonetheless present between RAWM performance and extent of "compact" Abeta deposition in both the hippocampus and the frontal cortex of vaccinated APP+PS1 mice. Our results suggest that the behavioral protection of long-term Abeta vaccinations is task specific, with preservation of hippocampal-associated working memory tasks most likely to occur. In view of the early short-term memory deficits exhibited by AD patients, Abeta vaccination of presymptomatic AD patients could be an effective therapeutic to protect against such cognitive impairments. PMID:11788052

Arendash, G W; Gordon, M N; Diamond, D M; Austin, L A; Hatcher, J M; Jantzen, P; DiCarlo, G; Wilcock, D; Morgan, D

2001-11-01

247

Muscle tension induced after learning enhances long-term narrative and visual memory in healthy older adults.  

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Arousing events are better remembered than mundane events. Indeed, manipulation of arousal, such as by muscle tension, can influence memory even when it occurs shortly after learning. Indeed, our founding study showed this approach can raise delayed memory performance in older adults to a level comparable to that of unaided young adults. Yet, systematic studies, especially those investigating different modalities or types of memory, have not been done. This study investigated the effects of a brief bout of isometric exercise via handgrip on narrative and visuospatial episodic memory in healthy elders. Forty-seven participants completed the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales III (LM) and the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), followed alternately by no treatment and by moderately squeezing a sand-filled latex ball for 1-min (counterbalanced order and test forms). Isometric exercise significantly increased both positive and negative affect ratings. Retention was tested 2 weeks later. Delayed recall and recognition of LM was enhanced by arousal relative to control, as was recognition of the BVRT. The results extend past findings that muscle tension induced after learning modulates memory consolidation, extending findings in elders to suggest that a simple form of isometric exercise can have practical effects, such as aiding memory for stories and images. PMID:24434768

Nielson, Kristy A; Wulff, Laura L; Arentsen, Timothy J

2014-03-01

248

A meta-synthesis of qualitative research on perceptions of people with long-term neurological conditions about group-based memory rehabilitation.  

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The effectiveness of memory rehabilitation based on randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses has been inconclusive, but patient reports based on qualitative studies have been largely positive. We conducted a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies of group-based memory rehabilitation programmes for people with neurological conditions. Based on systematic searches of electronic databases and reference lists, five papers (87 participants) were selected. Quality appraisal of papers was conducted by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Data synthesis was guided by the meta-ethnography approach. Five higher order themes were elicited. These suggested that memory rehabilitation was associated with insight and acceptance of participants' neurological condition and resultant cognitive deficits. The therapeutic effects of the groups, with social support and leisure activities, helped with participants' confidence. There were improvements in memory related to better self-awareness and learning to use new skills and strategies to compensate for memory deficits. These improvements also related to other psychological effects, in terms of positively affected mood, confidence and fatigue. Ultimately, these changes had a positive impact on daily life, with changes seen in the personal, inter-personal and professional spheres. Therefore, this synthesis of qualitative studies suggests that memory rehabilitation offers positive outcomes for people with long-term neurological conditions. PMID:25366270

das Nair, Roshan; Martin, Kristy-Jane; Sinclair, Emma J

2014-11-01

249

An exemplar-familiarity model predicts short-term and long-term probe recognition across diverse forms of memory search.  

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Experiments were conducted to test a modern exemplar-familiarity model on its ability to account for both short-term and long-term probe recognition within the same memory-search paradigm. Also, making connections to the literature on attention and visual search, the model was used to interpret differences in probe-recognition performance across diverse conditions that manipulated relations between targets and foils across trials. Subjects saw lists of from 1 to 16 items followed by a single item recognition probe. In a varied-mapping condition, targets and foils could switch roles across trials; in a consistent-mapping condition, targets and foils never switched roles; and in an all-new condition, on each trial a completely new set of items formed the memory set. In the varied-mapping and all-new conditions, mean correct response times (RTs) and error proportions were curvilinear increasing functions of memory set size, with the RT results closely resembling ones from hybrid visual-memory search experiments reported by Wolfe (2012). In the consistent-mapping condition, new-probe RTs were invariant with set size, whereas old-probe RTs increased slightly with increasing study-test lag. With appropriate choice of psychologically interpretable free parameters, the model accounted well for the complete set of results. The work provides support for the hypothesis that a common set of processes involving exemplar-based familiarity may govern long-term and short-term probe recognition across wide varieties of memory- search conditions. PMID:24749963

Nosofsky, Robert M; Cox, Gregory E; Cao, Rui; Shiffrin, Richard M

2014-11-01

250

Social Investigation and Long-Term Recognition Memory Performance in 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd Mice and Their Hybrids  

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When tested for their behavioural performance, the mixed genetic background of transgenic mice is a critical, but often ignored, issue. Such issues can arise because of the significant differences in defined behavioural parameters between embryonic stem cell donor and recipient strains. In this context, the commonly used stem cell donor strain ‘129’ shows ‘deficits’ in different paradigms for learning and long-term memory. We investigated the long-term social recognition memory perfor...

Ha?dicke, Jana; Engelmann, Mario

2013-01-01

251

Newcastle disease virotherapy induces long-term survival and tumor-specific immune memory in orthotopic glioma through the induction of immunogenic cell death.  

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The oncolytic features of several naturally oncolytic viruses have been shown on Glioblastoma Multiforme cell lines and in xenotransplant models. However, orthotopic glioma studies in immunocompetent animals are lacking. Here we investigated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in the orthotopic, syngeneic murine GL261 model. Seven days after tumor induction, mice received NDV intratumorally. Treatment significantly prolonged median survival and 50% of animals showed long-term survival. We demonstrated immunogenic cell death (ICD) induction in GL261 cells after NDV infection, comprising calreticulin surface exposure, release of HMGB1 and increased PMEL17 cancer antigen expression. Uniquely, we found absence of secreted ATP. NDV-induced ICD occurred independently of caspase signaling and was blocked by Necrostatin-1, suggesting the contribution of necroptosis. Autophagy induction following NDV infection of GL261 cells was demonstrated as well. In vivo, elevated infiltration of IFN-?(+) T cells was observed in NDV-treated tumors, along with reduced accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells. The importance of a functional adaptive immune system in this paradigm was demonstrated in immunodeficient Rag2(-/-) mice and in CD8(+) T cell depleted animals, where NDV slightly prolonged survival, but failed to induce long-term cure. Secondary tumor induction with GL261 cells or LLC cells in mice surviving long-term after NDV treatment, demonstrated the induction of a long-term, tumor-specific immunological memory response by ND virotherapy. For the first time, we describe the therapeutic activity of NDV against GL261 tumors, evidenced in an orthotopic mouse model. The therapeutic effect relies on the induction of ICD in the tumor cells, which primes adaptive antitumor immunity. PMID:25208916

Koks, Carolien A; Garg, Abhishek D; Ehrhardt, Michael; Riva, Matteo; Vandenberk, Lien; Boon, Louis; Vleeschouwer, Steven De; Agostinis, Patrizia; Graf, Norbert; Van Gool, Stefaan W

2015-03-01

252

Analysis of regulatory T-cells and of their naïve and memory-like subsets in long-term treated aviremic HIV+ patients and untreated viremic patients  

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Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Although HIV infection impacts the proportion and phenotype of regulatory T-cells (Tregs, discrepant results have been reported depending on the surface markers employed to characterize them and on the patient populations. In addition, the effects of a long-term combined antiretroviral therapy (cART on Treg cells have not been thoroughly documented. Our study investigated the frequency and number of Tregs and their phenotype in two different groups of HIV-infected patients: one aviremic undergoing long-term cART and one viremic naïve to cART showing a similar CD4+ cell count. Methods: Thirty-six HIV+ patients with sustained suppression of plasma viremia (<37 copies/mL on effective cART for more than 6 years and 22 HIV+patients naïve to cART and without clinical signs of opportunistic infections or tumors at the time of study (untreated group were included in the study. Healthy donors (HD were used as control. Flow cytometry on fresh whole blood was used to quantify total Tregs (defined as CD25+CD127low/-CD4+ cells and the following Treg subsets: naïve (CD45RA+CCR7+ Tregs, central-memory like Tregs (CD45RA-CCR7+, TregCM, effector-memory like Tregs (CD45RA-CCR7?, TregEM Statistical comparisons of the percentages and number of Tregs and Treg subpopulations were performed by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test. Analysis of covariance was employed in order to adjust for the effect of the age. The Spearman's test was used to assess correlations. Summary of results: In viremic untreated and aviremic long-term cART-treated patients the percentage and number of the total Treg cells were not different from those of HD. However, the analysis of Treg phenotype showed a marked redistribution of the Treg subpopulations: in the untreated viremic patients, both the percentage and number of the TregCM subset decreased compared to HD and cART-treated patients, whereas only the percentage of naïve Tregs increased. In particular, the percentage of TregCM was inversely correlated with the viral load (r=?0.51; p=0.016. Conclusions: In our aviremic long-term cART-treated and viremic untreated patients, the total Treg cell population seems to be unaffected by HIV infection. However, our results showed that the analysis of the naïve and memory-like Treg subsets may provide a better understanding of the real contribution of Tregs in HIV disease and therapy.

L Imberti

2012-11-01

253

Long-Term Effects of 56Fe Irradiation on Spatial Memory of Mice: Role of Sex and Apolipoprotein E Isoform  

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Purpose: To assess whether the effects of cranial 56Fe irradiation on the spatial memory of mice in the water maze are sex and apolipoprotein E (apoE) isoform dependent and whether radiation-induced changes in spatial memory are associated with changes in the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) and the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. Methods and Materials: Two-month-old male and female mice expressing human apoE3 or apoE4 received either a 3-Gy dose of cranial 56Fe irradiation (600 MeV/amu) or sham irradiation. Mice were tested in a water maze task 13 months later to assess effects of irradiation on spatial memory retention. After behavioral testing, the brain tissues of these mice were analyzed for synaptophysin and MAP-2 immunoreactivity. Results: After irradiation, spatial memory retention of apoE3 female, but not male, mice was impaired. A general genotype deficit in spatial memory was observed in sham-irradiated apoE4 mice. Strikingly, irradiation prevented this genotype deficit in apoE4 male mice. A similar but nonsignificant trend was observed in apoE4 female mice. Although there was no change in MAP-2 immunoreactivity after irradiation, synaptophysin immunoreactivity was increased in irradiated female mice, independent of genotype. Conclusions: The effects of 56Fe irradiation on the spatial memory retention of mice are critically influenced by sex, and the direction of these effects is influenced by apoEion of these effects is influenced by apoE isoform. Although in female mice synaptophysin immunoreactivity provides a sensitive marker for effects of irradiation, it cannot explain the apoE genotype-dependent effects of irradiation on the spatial memory retention of the mice.

254

Human dendritic cells sequentially matured with CD4+ T cells as a secondary signal favor CTL and long-term T memory cell responses  

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Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells involved in the control and initiation of immune responses. In vivo, DCs exposed at the periphery to maturation stimuli migrate to lymph nodes, where they receive secondary signals from CD4+ T helper cells. These DCs become able to initiate CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses. However, in vitro investigations concerning human monocyte-derived DCs have never focused on their functional properties after such sequential maturation. Here, we studied human DC phenotypes and functions according to this sequential exposure to maturation stimuli. As first signals, we used TNF-?/polyI:C mimicking inflammatory and pathogen stimuli and, as second signals, we compared activated CD4+ T helper cells to a combination of CD40-L/ IFN-?. Our results show that a sequential activation with activated CD4+ T cells dramatically increased the maturation of DCs in terms of their phenotype and cytokine secretion compared to DCs activated with maturation stimuli delivered simultaneously. Furthermore, this sequential maturation led to the induction of CTL with a long-term effector and central memory phenotypes. Thus, sequential delivery of maturation stimuli, which includes CD4+ T cells, should be considered in the future to improve the induction of long-term CTL memory in DC-based immunotherapy.

Thomas Simon

2012-01-01

255

Leishmania braziliensis-Reactive T Cells Are Down-Regulated in Long-Term Cured Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, but the Renewal Capacity of T Effector Memory Compartments Is Preserved  

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Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis control and tissue damage relate to the effector immune response, which in turn affects clinical outcome. Leishmania reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are expanded in long-term healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (hCL) patients but their functional characteristics remain to be determined. This study investigates antigen-specific recall in long-term healed CL caused by L. braziliensis infection. Healed CL subjects were grouped according to the time elapsed since the end of therapy: less than two years and two to five years. Activation phenotype (CD69+ or CD25+) and subpopulations of memory T cell phenotypes [central memory (Tcm): CD45RO+ CCR7+ or effector memory (Tem): CD45RO+ CCR7-] were quantified in ex vivo blood mononuclear cells and after Leishmania antigens stimuli. A reduction in the percentage of activated Leishmania-responder CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in hCL was associated with the time elapsed since clinical cure. Percentage of CD69+ in TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells were negatively correlated with IL-10 levels. Ex vivo analyses showed contracted Tem CD4+ and Tem CD8+ compartments from hCL with long time elapsed since clinical cure, although renewal of these compartments was observed following in vitro exposure to leishmanial stimuli. Our results show that healed L. braziliensis infected patients exhibit a recall response to Leishmania antigens with evident expansion of effector memory T cells. Regulated leishmanial-specific response seems to emerge only about two years after initial contact with the parasite antigens. PMID:24303052

Pereira-Carvalho, Regina; Mendes-Aguiar, Carolina O.; Oliveira-Neto, Manoel P.; Covas, Cláudia J. F.; Bertho, Álvaro L.; Da-Cruz, Alda M.; Gomes-Silva, Adriano

2013-01-01

256

Analyses of fear memory in Arc/Arg3.1-deficient mice: intact short-term memory and impaired long-term and remote memory  

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Full Text Available Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1 was originally identified in patients with seizures. It is densely distributed in the hip-pocampus and amygdala in particular. Because the expression of Arc/Arg3.1 is regulated by nerve in-puts, it is thought to be an immediate early gene. As shown both in vitro and in vivo, Arc/Arg3.1 is in-volved in synaptic consolidation and regulates some forms of learning and memory in rats and mice [1,2]. Furthermore, a recent study suggests that Arc/Arg3.1 may play a significant role in signal transmission via AMPA-type glutamate receptors [3-5]. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis of fear memory in Arc/Arg3.1-deficient mice. As previously reported, the knockout animals exhib-ited impaired fear memory in both contextual and cued test situations. Although Arc/Arg3.1-deficient mice showed almost the same performance as wild-type littermates 4 hr after a conditioning trial, their performance was impaired in the retention test after 24 hr or longer, either with or without reconsolidation. Immunohistochemical analyses showed an abnormal density of GluR1 in the hip-pocampus of Arc/Arg3.1-deficient mice; however, an application of AMPA potentiator did not improve memory performance in the mutant mice. Memory impairment in Arc/Arg3.1-deficient mice is so ro-bust that the mice provide a useful tool for devel-oping treatments for memory impairment.

Yoshiko Nagaoka

2011-05-01

257

The effect of intrahippocampal microinjection of Naloxone on short –term and long-term memory in adult male rats  

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Introduction:The hippocampus is one for the major centers of learning and memory. Role of the opioid system has been investigated and on the other hand receptors related to this system such as mu-opioid receptors (MOR) are extended in the hippocampus. In this study the effect of Naloxone administration as a mu opioid receptor antagonist on passive avoidance memory in adult male rats was investigated by using shuttle box instrument. Methods:Methods: In this study 45 male adult Wistar rats at r...

Hoda Parsa; Ahmad Ali moazedi; Lotfolah Khajehpour; Mehdi pourmehdi

2012-01-01

258

Deficits in memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in mice with reduced calbindin D28K expression.  

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The influx of calcium into the postsynaptic neuron is likely to be an important event in memory formation. Among the mechanisms that nerve cells may use to alter the time course or size of a spike of intracellular calcium are cytosolic calcium binding or "buffering" proteins. To consider the role in memory formation of one of these proteins, calbindin D28K, which is abundant in many neurons, including the CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, transgenic mice deficient in calbindin D28K have...

Molinari, S.; Battini, R.; Ferrari, S.; Pozzi, L.; Killcross, A. S.; Robbins, T. W.; Jouvenceau, A.; Billard, J. M.; Dutar, P.; Lamour, Y.; Baker, W. A.; Cox, H.; Emson, P. C.

1996-01-01

259

The Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 14 (USP14) Is a Critical Regulator of Long-Term Memory Formation  

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Numerous studies have suggested a role for ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated protein degradation in learning-dependent synaptic plasticity; however, very little is known about how protein degradation is regulated at the level of the proteasome during memory formation. The ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) is a proteasomal deubiquitinating enzyme…

Jarome, Timothy J.; Kwapis, Janine L.; Hallengren, Jada J.; Wilson, Scott M.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

2014-01-01

260

Activin Plays a Key Role in the Maintenance of Long-Term Memory and Late-LTP  

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A recent study has revealed that fear memory may be vulnerable following retrieval, and is then reconsolidated in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these processes. Activin [beta]A, a member of the TGF-[beta] superfamily, is increased in activated neuronal circuits and regulates…

Ageta, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Shiro; Miura, Masami; Masuda, Masao; Migishima, Rika; Hino, Toshiaki; Takashima, Noriko; Murayama, Akiko; Sugino, Hiromu; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kida, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Inokuchi, Kaoru

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Long-Term Antibody and Immune Memory Response Induced by Pulmonary Delivery of the Influenza Iscomatrix Vaccine  

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Pulmonary delivery of an influenza Iscomatrix adjuvant vaccine induces a strong systemic and mucosal antibody response. Since an influenza vaccine needs to induce immunological memory that lasts at least 1 year for utility in humans, we examined the longevity of the immune response induced by such a pulmonary vaccination, with and without antigen challenge. Sheep were vaccinated in the deep lung with an influenza Iscomatrix vaccine, and serum and lung antibody levels were quantified for up to 1 year. The immune memory response to these vaccinations was determined following antigen challenge via lung delivery of influenza antigen at 6 months and 1 year postvaccination. Pulmonary vaccination of sheep with the influenza Iscomatrix vaccine induced antigen-specific antibodies in both sera and lungs that were detectable until 6 months postimmunization. Importantly, a memory recall response following antigenic challenge was detected at 12 months post-lung vaccination, including the induction of functional antibodies with hemagglutination inhibition activity. Pulmonary delivery of an influenza Iscomatrix vaccine induces a long-lived influenza virus-specific antibody and memory response of suitable length for annual vaccination against influenza. PMID:22072721

Vujanic, Ana; Snibson, Kenneth J.; Wee, Janet L. K.; Edwards, Stirling J.; Pearse, Martin J.; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre Y.

2012-01-01

262

The effect of long term administration of ascorbic acid on the learning and memory deficits induced by diabetes in rat  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Ascorbic acid improves cognitive impairments in several experimental models. Diabetes causes learning and memory deficits. In this study we hypothesized that chronic treatment with ascorbic acid (100mg/kg, p.o would affect on the passive avoidance learning (PAL and memory in control and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats."n"nMethods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of STZ (60mg/kg. The rats were considered diabetic if plasma glucose levels exceeded 250mg/dl on three days after STZ injection. Treatment was begun at the onset of hyperglycemia. PAL was assessed 30 days later. Retention test was done 24 h after training. At the end, animals were weighted and blood samples were drawn for plasma glucose measurement."n"nResults: Diabetes caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes of PAL and memory in rats. Ascorbic acid treatment improved learning and memory in control rats and reversed learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats. Ascorbic acid administration also improved the body weight loss and hyperglycemia of diabetics. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties of the vitamin may be involved in the memory improving effects of such treatment."n"nConclusion: These results show that ascorbic acid administration to rats for 30 days from onset of diabetes alleviated the negative influence of diabetes on learning and memory. Comparing with other nootropic drugs, vitamins have fewer side effects. Therefore, this regimen may provide a new potential alternative for prevention of the impaired cognitive functions associated with diabetes after confirming by clinical trials.

Parisa Hasanein

2010-04-01

263

Memories of GAMES: Exploring the Long-Term Impacts of After-School Museum Programming on Girls' Attitudes Towards Science  

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The purpose of this study is to investigate any lasting impacts of the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History's Girls at the Museum Exploring Science (GAMES) Program. Using assessment document analysis, student focus groups, and adult interviews, this study examined whether students' positive associations with science continue after completion of the program and whether the program affects the academic and career choices of past participants. Results from the analysis suggest that GAMES has a generally positive impact on participant attitudes towards science in both the short- and long-term. These results also support existing research in identifying key factors in the success of the program including hands-on activities, exposure to diverse careers and female role models, and the incorporation of authentic objects and experiences. These factors of success can contribute to the evidence base about the role of informal education programs in increasing science participation among women, as well as ways in which schools and universities can collaborate to effectively serve populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the sciences.

Snow, Sarah Elizabeth

264

Caffeine suppresses exercise-enhanced long-term and location memory in middle-aged rats: Involvement of hippocampal Akt and CREB signaling.  

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The cognitive function decline is closely related with brain changes generated by age. The ability of caffeine and exercise to prevent memory impairment has been reported in animal models and humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether swimming exercise and caffeine administration enhance memory in middle-aged Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats (18months) received caffeine at a dose of 30mg/kg, 5days per week by a period of 4weeks. Animals were subjected to swimming training with a workload (3% of body weight, 20min per day for 4weeks). After 4weeks, the object recognition test (ORT) and the object location test (OLT) were performed. The results of this study demonstrated that caffeine suppressed exercise-enhanced long-term (ORT) and spatial (OLT) memory in middle-aged and this effect may be related to a decrease in hippocampal p-CREB signaling. This study also provided evidence that the effects of this protocol on memory were not accompanied by alterations in the levels of activated Akt. The [(3)H] glutamate uptake was reduced in hippocampus of rats administered with caffeine and submitted to swimming protocol. PMID:25260559

Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; da Rocha, Juliana T; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Gai, Bibiana M; Soares, Félix A A; Bresciani, Guilherme; Royes, Luiz F F; Zeni, Gilson

2014-09-27

265

Long-term memory traces for familiar spoken words in tonal languages as revealed by the Mismatch Negativity  

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Full Text Available Mismatch negativity (MMN, a primary response to an acoustic change and an index of sensory memory, was used to investigate the processing of the discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar Consonant-Vowel (CV speech contrasts. The MMN was elicited by rare familiar words presented among repetitive unfamiliar words. Phonetic and phonological contrasts were identical in all conditions. MMN elicited by the familiar word deviant was larger than that elicited by the unfamiliar word deviant. The presence of syllable contrast did significantly alter the word-elicited MMN in amplitude and scalp voltage field distribution. Thus, our results indicate the existence of word-related MMN enhancement largely independent of the word status of the standard stimulus. This enhancement may reflect the presence of a longterm memory trace for familiar spoken words in tonal languages.

Naiphinich Kotchabhakdi

2004-11-01

266

GluA2-dependent AMPA receptor endocytosis and the decay of early and late long-term potentiation: possible mechanisms for forgetting of short- and long-term memories  

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The molecular processes involved in establishing long-term potentiation (LTP) have been characterized well, but the decay of early and late LTP (E-LTP and L-LTP) is poorly understood. We review recent advances in describing the mechanisms involved in maintaining LTP and homeostatic plasticity. We discuss how these phenomena could relate to processes that might underpin the loss of synaptic potentiation over time, and how they might contribute to the forgetting of short-term and long-term memo...

Hardt, Oliver; Nader, Karim; Wang, Yu-tian

2014-01-01

267

Long-term superelastic cycling at nano-scale in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars  

Science.gov (United States)

Superelastic behavior at nano-scale has been studied along cycling in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars. Arrays of square micropillars were produced by focused ion beam milling, on slides of [001] oriented Cu-Al-Ni single crystals. Superelastic behavior of micropillars, due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation, has been studied by nano-compression tests during thousand cycles, and its evolution has been followed along cycling. Each pillar has undergone more than thousand cycles without any detrimental evolution. Moreover, we demonstrate that after thousand cycles they exhibit a perfectly reproducible and completely recoverable superelastic behavior.

San Juan, J.; Gómez-Cortés, J. F.; López, G. A.; Jiao, C.; Nó, M. L.

2014-01-01

268

Long-term superelastic cycling at nano-scale in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Superelastic behavior at nano-scale has been studied along cycling in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars. Arrays of square micropillars were produced by focused ion beam milling, on slides of [001] oriented Cu-Al-Ni single crystals. Superelastic behavior of micropillars, due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation, has been studied by nano-compression tests during thousand cycles, and its evolution has been followed along cycling. Each pillar has undergone more than thousand cycles without any detrimental evolution. Moreover, we demonstrate that after thousand cycles they exhibit a perfectly reproducible and completely recoverable superelastic behavior.

San Juan, J., E-mail: jose.sanjuan@ehu.es; Gómez-Cortés, J. F. [Dpto. Física Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Univ. del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); López, G. A.; Nó, M. L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Univ. del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Jiao, C. [FEI, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2014-01-06

269

Verbal working and long-term episodic memory associations with white matter microstructure in normal aging investigated using tract-based spatial statistics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reductions in the integrity of white matter microstructure are thought to be a significant cause of age-related decline in mnemonic abilities, including working memory (WM) and long-term episodic memory (LTM). This study uses tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) applied to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images to explore correlations between white matter microstructure and verbal WM and LTM in a sample of 98 normal older adults. WM performance was associated with microstructure in left fronto-parietal pathways and LTM was associated with bilateral fronto-temporal pathways. Interhemispheric-frontal pathways (genu of the corpus callosum) were associated with both types of mnemonic function. We hypothesize that in normal aging, damage to certain white matter pathways may reduce the dynamic efficiency of mnemonic abilities by disrupting the connections within multiple distributed networks. By correlating white matter with two mnemonic functions in the same analysis, we have demonstrated that regional white matter networks may share common mnemonic functions but also may be differentiated for memory types. PMID:23957226

Charlton, Rebecca A; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S; Morris, Robin G

2013-09-01

270

Management of long-term and reversible hysteroscopic sterilization: a novel device with nickel-titanium shape memory alloy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Female sterilization is the second most commonly used method of contraception in the United States. Female sterilization can now be performed through laparoscopic, abdominal, or hysteroscopic approaches. The hysteroscopic sterilization may be a safer option than sterilization through laparoscopy or laparotomy because it avoids invading the abdominal cavity and undergoing general anaesthesia. Hysteroscopic sterilization mainly includes chemical agents and mechanical devices. Common issues related to the toxicity of the chemical agents used have raised concerns regarding this kind of contraception. The difficulty of the transcervical insertion of such mechanical devices into the fallopian tubes has increased the high incidence of device displacement or dislodgment. At present, Essure® is the only commercially available hysteroscopic sterilization device being used clinically. The system is irreversible and is not effective immediately. Presentation of the hypothesis Our new hysteroscopic sterility system consists of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a waterproof membrane. The NiTi alloy is covered with two coatings to avoid toxic Ni release and to prevent stimulation of epithelial tissue growth around the oviducts. Because of the shape memory effect of the NiTi alloy, the device works like an umbrella: it stays collapsed at low temperature before placement and opens by the force of shape memory activated by the body temperature after it is inserted hysteroscopically into the interstitial tubal lumen. The rim of the open device will incise into interstitial myometrium during the process of unfolding. Once the device is fixed, it blocks the tube completely. When the patient no longer wishes for sterilization, the device can be closed by perfusing liquid with low temperature into the uterine cavity, followed by prospective hysteroscopic removal. After the device removal, the fallopian tube will revert to its physiological functions. Testing the hypothesis Currently, experimental and clinical studies are needed to attest the safety, efficiency and reversibility of the novel sterilization device. Implications of the hypothesis If our hypothesis is confirmed, appropriate and reversible contraceptive can be achieved with the device we have designed, which may have significant repercussions for numerous women worldwide. PMID:24999021

2014-01-01

271

2D Thermoluminescence imaging of dielectric surface long term charge memory of plasma surface interaction in DBD discharges  

Science.gov (United States)

The charge trapping effect due to the exposure of alumina surfaces to plasma has been studied in a volume dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in Ar and He noble gases. The long lasting charge trapping of alumina dielectric plates, used as barriers in DBDs, is evidenced by an ex situ thermoluminescence (TL) experiment performed with a standard and a custom two-dimensional (2D)-TL apparatus. The spatial density of trapped surface charges is found to be strongly correlated to the plasma morphology, and the surface spatial memory lasted for several minutes to hours after plasma exposure. In the case of Ar, the plasma channel impact signature on the surface shows a higher equivalent radiation dose with respect to the surface plasma wave and the post-discharge species signature. As a consequence, for the development of discharges, inside the dielectric surface the availability of lower energy trapped electrons is larger in the first region of plasma impact. The reported spatial memory increases the likelihood of the occurrence of plasma filaments in the same position in different runs. In He plasmas, the dielectric barrier shows an almost uniform distribution of trapped charges, meaning that there is no preferred region for the development of the discharge. In all cases a slight asymmetry was shown in the direction of the gas flow. This can be interpreted as being due to the long-living species moving in the direction of the gas flow, corresponding with the TL side experiment on the sample exposed to the plasma afterglow. The maximum values and the integral of the 2D-TL images showed a linear relation with the total charge per ac cycle, corresponding with findings for the TL glow curve. In conclusion, 2D-TL images allow the retrieval of information regarding the plasma surface interaction such as the plasma morphology, trap sites and their activation temperature.

Ambrico, Paolo F.; Ambrico, Marianna; Schiavulli, Luigi; De Benedictis, Santolo

2014-07-01

272

Behavioral perseveration and impairment of long-term memory in rats after intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid in subconvulsive dose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delayed disturbances of cognitive functions caused by intrahippocampal injection of subconvulsive dose of kainic acid were studied in rats. Animals were behaviorally tested for the presence of cognitive deterioration 1 week after bilateral injection of 0.25 microg kainic acid into the left and right hippocampi. Behavioral tests included the retrieval of a food-procuring task, its experimental extinction, and learning of a new similar task. Kainate-treated rats showed deterioration of performance of the task learned before the treatment: An impairment of the task performance occurred in the first trial of a daily session (each daily session consisted of 10 trials), and beginning from the second trial, the task was performed as rapidly as by control animals. This deterioration of retrieval in the first trial took place during several days, in spite of daily training during the retrieval test. Other disturbances of cognitive functions in kainate-treated rats were revealed in the test of experimental extinction of the response. At the initial step of this test, the rats showed active behavioral perseveration, performing habitual response with short latencies in spite of reinforcement removal. Besides, kainate-treated rats made significantly more responses before full extinction (inhibition of the previously learned response) than the control rats. In the learning test, kainate-treated rats did not exhibit any disturbances: repeated learning was the same as in the control group. Therefore, results showed that hippocampal dysfunctions induced by kainic acid resulted in the following cognitive disturbances: difficulties in memory retrieval and weakening of inhibitory control. These disturbances can be most adequately explained on the basis of the concept, according to which the hippocampus acts as a detector and comparator of new signals, thereby accomplishing selective attention. PMID:17889287

Arkhipov, Vladimir; Kulesskaja, Natalia; Lebedev, Denis

2008-01-01

273

Two inhibitors of the ubiquitin proteasome system enhance long-term memory formation upon olfactory conditioning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera).  

Science.gov (United States)

In honeybees (Apis mellifera), the proteasome inhibitor Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-CHO (MG132) enhances long-term memory (LTM) formation. Studies in vertebrates using different inhibitors of the proteasome demonstrate the opposite, namely an inhibition of memory formation. The reason for this contradiction remains unclear. MG132 is an inhibitor of the proteasome, but also blocks other proteases. Accordingly, one possible explanation might be that other proteases affected by MG132 are responsible for the enhancement of LTM formation. We test this hypothesis by comparing the effect of MG132 and the more specific proteasome inhibitor clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone (?-lactone). We show that these two inhibitors block the activity of the proteasome in honeybee brains to a similar extent, do not affect the animals' survival but do enhance LTM retention upon olfactory conditioning. Thus, the enhancement of LTM formation is not due to MG132-specific side effects, but to inhibition of a protease targeted by MG132 and ?-lactone, i.e. the proteasome. PMID:25063852

Felsenberg, Johannes; Dyck, Yan; Kloß, Alexander; Dahlmann, Burkhardt; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

2014-10-01

274

Influences of a DRD2 polymorphism on updating of long-term memory representations and caudate BOLD activity: Magnification in aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of genetic polymorphisms are related to individual differences in cognitive performance. Striatal dopamine (DA) functions, associated with cognitive performance, are linked to the TaqIA polymorphism of the DRD2/ANKK1 gene. In humans, presence of an A1 allele of the DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA polymorphism is related to reduced density of striatal DA D2 receptors. The resource-modulation hypothesis assumes that aging-related losses of neurochemical and structural brain resources modulate the extent to which genetic variations affect cognitive functioning. Here, we tested this hypothesis using functional MRI during long-term memory (LTM) updating in younger and older carriers and noncarriers of the A1-allele of the TaqIa polymorphism. We demonstrate that older A1-carriers have worse memory performance, specifically during LTM updating, compared to noncarriers. Moreover, A1-carriers exhibited less blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in left caudate nucleus, a region critical to updating. This effect was only seen in older adults, suggesting magnification of genetic effects on functional brain activity in aging. Further, a positive relationship between caudate BOLD activation and updating performance among non-A1 carriers indicated that caudate activation was behaviorally relevant. These results demonstrate a link between the DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA polymorphism and neurocognitive deficits related to LTM updating, and provide novel evidence that this effect is magnified in aging. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25486867

Persson, Jonas; Rieckmann, Anna; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Fischer, Håkan; Bäckman, Lars

2014-12-01

275

Dietary omega-3 deficiency reduces BDNF content and activation NMDA receptor and Fyn in dorsal hippocampus: implications on persistence of long-term memory in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are important for adequate brain function and cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how n-3 fatty acids influence the persistence of long-term memory (LTM) in an aversive memory task and to explore the putative mechanism involved. Female rats received isocaloric diets that included n-3 (n-3 group) or not (D group). The adult litters were subjected to an inhibitory avoidance task (0.7 mA, 1.0 seconds foot shock) to elicit persistent LTM. Twelve hours after the training session, the fatty acid profile and the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content of the dorsal hippocampus were assessed. In addition, we measured the activation of the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the SRC family protein Fyn. Despite pronounced learning in both groups, the persistence of LTM was abolished in the D group 7 days after the training session. We also observed that the D group presented reductions in hippocampal DHA (22:6 n-3) and BDNF content. Twelve hours after the training session, the D group showed decreased NR2B and Fyn phosphorylation in the dorsal hippocampus, with no change in the total content of these proteins. Further, there was a decrease in the interaction of Fyn with NR2B in the D group, as observed by co-immunoprecipitation. Taken together, these data suggest that n-3 fatty acids influence the persistence of LTM by maintaining adequate levels of DHA and BDNF as well as by influencing the activation of NR2B and Fyn during the period of memory formation. PMID:24621058

Bach, Simone Azevedo; de Siqueira, Letícia V; Müller, Alexandre P; Oses, Jean P; Quatrim, Andreia; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Vinadé, Lúcia; Souza, Diogo O; Moreira, Júlia D

2014-07-01

276

Long-term collections  

CERN Multimedia

The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

Collectes à long terme

2007-01-01

277

Long-term memory of visually cued fear conditioning: roles of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has a role in late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory (LTM) formation. Our recent studies implicated NO signaling in contextual and auditory cued fear conditioning. The present study investigated the role of NO signaling in visually cued fear conditioning. First, visually cued fear conditioning was investigated in wild-type (WT) and nNOS knockout (KO) mice. Second, the effects of pharmacological modulators of NO signaling on the acquisition of visually cued fear conditioning were investigated. Third, plasma levels of corticosterone were measured to determine a relationship between physiological and behavioral responses to fear conditioning. Fourth, levels of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2) and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, downstream of NO signaling, were determined in the amygdala as potential correlates of fear learning. Mice underwent single or multiple (4) spaced trainings that consisted of a visual cue (blinking light) paired with footshock. WT mice acquired cued and contextual LTM following single and multiple trainings. nNOS KO mice acquired neither cued nor contextual LTM following a single training; however, multiple trainings improved contextual but not cued LTM. The selective nNOS inhibitor S-methyl-thiocitrulline (SMTC) impaired cued and contextual LTM in WT mice. The NO donor molsidomine recovered contextual LTM but had no effect on cued LTM in nNOS KO mice. Re-exposure to the visual cue 24 h posttraining elicited freezing response and a marked increase in plasma corticosterone levels in WT but not nNOS KO mice. The expression of CREB phosphorylation (Ser-133) was significantly higher in naive nNOS KO mice than in WT counterparts, and pharmacological modulators of NO had significant effects on levels of CREB phosphorylation and expression. These findings suggest that visual cue-dependent LTM is impaired in nNOS KO mice, and aberrant modulation of CREB in the absence of the nNOS gene may hinder cued and contextual LTM formation. PMID:21073925

Kelley, J B; Anderson, K L; Altmann, S L; Itzhak, Y

2011-02-01

278

Effects of ethanolic extract and naphthoquinones obtained from the bulbs of Cipura paludosa on short-term and long-term memory: involvement of adenosine A? and A?A receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies from our group have indicated important biological properties of the ethanolic extract and isolated compounds from the bulbs of Cipura paludosa (Iridaceae), a native plant widely distributed in northern Brazil, including antioxidant, neuroprotective and anti-nociceptive activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract and its two naphthoquinones (eleutherine and isoeleutherine) on the short- and long-term memory of adult rodents were assessed in social recognition and inhibitory avoidance tasks. Acute pre-training oral administration of the ethanolic extract improved the short-term social memory in rats as well as facilitated the step-down inhibitory avoidance short- and long-term memory in mice. Moreover, the co-administration of 'non-effective' doses of the extract of Cipura paludosa and the adenosine receptor antagonists caffeine (non-selective), DPCPX (adenosine A1 receptor antagonist) and ZM241385 (adenosine A2A receptor antagonist) improved the social recognition memory of rats. In the inhibitory avoidance task, the co-administration of sub-effective doses of the extract with caffeine or ZM241385, but not with DPCPX, improved the short- and long-term memory of mice. Finally, the acute oral administration of eleutherine and isoeleutherine facilitated the inhibitory avoidance short- and long-term memory in mice. These results demonstrate for the first time the cognitive-enhancing properties of the extract and isolated compounds from the bulbs of Cipura paludosa in rodents and suggest a possible involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in these effects. PMID:23057724

Lucena, Greice M R S; Matheus, Filipe C; Ferreira, Vania M; Tessele, Priscila B; Azevedo, Mariangela S; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Prediger, Rui D

2013-04-01

279

Immunization of mice with the nef gene from Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1: Study of immunological memory and long-term toxicology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 regulatory protein, Nef, is an attractive vaccine target because it is involved in viral pathogenesis, is expressed early in the viral life cycle and harbors many T and B cell epitopes. Several clinical trials include gene-based vaccines encoding this protein. However, Nef has been shown to transform certain cell types in vitro. Based on these findings we performed a long-term toxicity and immunogenicity study of Nef, encoded either by Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara or by plasmid DNA. BALB/c mice were primed twice with either DNA or MVA encoding Nef and received a homologous or heterologous boost ten months later. In the meantime, the Nef-specific immune responses were monitored and at the time of sacrifice an extensive toxicological evaluation was performed, where presence of tumors and other pathological changes were assessed. Results The toxicological evaluation showed that immunization with MVAnef is safe and does not cause cellular transformation or other toxicity in somatic organs. Both DNAnef and MVAnef immunized animals developed potent Nef-specific cellular responses that declined to undetectable levels over time, and could readily be boosted after almost one year. This is of particular interest since it shows that plasmid DNA vaccine can also be used as a potent late booster of primed immune responses. We observed qualitative differences between the T cell responses induced by the two different vectors: DNA-encoded nef induced long-lasting CD8+ T cell memory responses, whereas MVA-encoded nef induced CD4+ T cell memory responses. In terms of the humoral immune responses, we show that two injections of MVAnef induce significant anti-Nef titers, while repeated injections of DNAnef do not. A single boost with MVAnef could enhance the antibody response following DNAnef prime to the same level as that observed in animals immunized repeatedly with MVAnef. We also demonstrate the possibility to boost HIV-1 Nef-specific immune responses using the MVAnef construct despite the presence of potent anti-vector immunity. Conclusion This study shows that the nef gene vectored by MVA does not induce malignancies or other adverse effects in mice. Further, we show that when the nef gene is delivered by plasmid or by a viral vector, it elicits potent and long-lasting immune responses and that these responses can be directed towards a CD4+ or a CD8+ T cell response depending on the choice of vector.

Engström Gunnel

2007-07-01

280

Long Term Evolution (LTE)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on perehtyä LTE- (Long Term Evolution) järjestelmään. LTE on 3GPP:n (3rd Generation Partnership Project) kehittämä standardi, jonka tavoitteena on taata nopea ja toimiva matkaviestinverkko käyttäjämäärien sekä siirrettävän datan määrän ja laatuvaatimusten kasvaessa jatkuvasti. LTE käyttää downlink-suunnassa OFDMA-tekniikkaa (Orthogonal frequency division multiple access) ja uplink-suunnassa SC-FDMA-tekniikkaa (single carrier frequency divi...

To?ller, Markus

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Long-Term Collections  

CERN Multimedia

It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

Comité des collectes à long terme

2011-01-01

282

Effect of modafinil on learning performance and neocortical long-term potentiation in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modafinil is a novel wake-promoting agent whose effects on cognitive performance have begun to be addressed at both preclinical and clinical level. The present study was designed to investigate in rats the effects of chronic modafinil administration on cognitive performance by evaluating: (i) working and reference memories in an Olton 4×4 maze, and (ii) learning of a complex operant conditioning task in a Skinner box. In addition, the effect of modafinil on the ability of the rat frontal cortex to develop long-term potentiation (LTP) was also studied. Chronic modafinil did not significantly modify working memory errors but decreased long-term memory errors on the Olton 4×4 maze, meaning that the drug may have a favourable profile on performance of visuo-spatial tasks (typically, a hippocampus-dependent task) when chronically administered. On the other hand, chronic modafinil resulted in a marked decrease of successful responses in a complex operant conditioning learning, which means that repeated administration of the drug influences negatively problem-solving abilities when confronting the rat to a sequencing task (typically, a prefrontal cortex-dependent task). In addition, in vivo electrophysiology showed that modafinil resulted in impaired capacity of the rat prefrontal cortex to develop LTP following tetanization. It is concluded that modafinil can improve the performance of spatial tasks that depend almost exclusively on hippocampal functioning, but not the performance in tasks including a temporal factor where the prefrontal cortex plays an important role. The fact that modafinil together with preventing operant conditioning learning was also able to block LTP induction in the prefrontal cortex, suggests that the drug could interfere some critical component required for LTP can be developed, thereby altering neuroplastic capabilities of the prefrontal cortex. PMID:20800665

Burgos, Héctor; Castillo, Amparo; Flores, Osvaldo; Puentes, Gustavo; Morgan, Carlos; Gatica, Arnaldo; Cofré, Christian; Hernández, Alejandro; Laurido, Claudio; Constandil, Luis

2010-10-30

283

Collectes à long terme  

CERN Multimedia

En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

Collectes à long terme

2014-01-01

284

Age-related defects in spatial memory are correlated with defects in the late phase of hippocampal long-term potentiation in vitro and are attenuated by drugs that enhance the cAMP signaling pathway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To study the physiological and molecular mechanisms of age-related memory loss, we assessed spatial memory in C57BL/B6 mice from different age cohorts and then measured in vitro the late phase of hippocampal long-term potentiation (L-LTP). Most young mice acquired the spatial task, whereas only a minority of aged mice did. Aged mice not only made significantly more errors but also exhibited greater individual differences. Slices from the hippocampus of aged mice exhibited significantly reduce...

Bach, Mary Elizabeth; Barad, Mark; Son, Hyeon; Zhuo, Min; Lu, Yun-fei; Shih, Robert; Mansuy, Isabelle; Hawkins, Robert D.; Kandel, Eric R.

1999-01-01

285

[Stapedectomy: long term results].  

Science.gov (United States)

Stapedectomy, with its most innovatory variations, constitutes the treatment of choice for otoesclerosis. Short term results are spectacular, getting GAP closures of less than 5 dB approximatelly in 94% patients, variations depending on the authors. Long term follow up check results show a gradual auditory deterioration. The aim of this study is to audiometric evolution of patients operated of stapedectomy 7 to 10 years ago in our department and to correlate the results with those obtained by other authors, in an attempt to unify conclusions. PMID:12185900

Hernández Montero, E; Fraile Rodrigo, J; Marín Garrido, C; Sampériz, L Carmen; Llorente Arenas, E; Naya Gálvez, M J; Ortiz García, A

2002-04-01

286

Combined meningococcal serogroup A and W135 outer-membrane vesicles activate cell-mediated immunity and long-term memory responses against non-covalent capsular polysaccharide A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) have inherent adjuvant properties, and many vaccines use OMV as vaccine components. Utilizing the adjuvant properties of OMV could lead to the formulation of vaccines that are less expensive and potentially more immunogenic than covalently conjugated polysaccharide vaccines. We evaluated the adjuvant effect in Balb/c mice of combinations of OMV from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and W135 as compared to that of the non-covalently conjugated capsular polysaccharide A. Both antigens were adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide. The mice were given a booster dose of plain polysaccharide A to stimulate an immunologic memory response. Subclasses determination and cytokine assays demonstrated the capacity of OMV to induce a IgG2a/IgG2b isotype profile and IFN-? production, suggesting the induction of a Th1 pattern immune response. Lymphoproliferative responses to OMVs were high, with affinity maturation of antibodies observed. Bactericidal titers after the booster dose were also observed. Memory B cells and long-term memory T cells were also detected. The results of this study indicate that combined meningococcal serogroup A and W135 OMV can activate cell-mediated immunity and induce a long-term memory response. PMID:23660844

Romeu, Belkis; Lastre, Miriam; García, Luis; Cedré, Bárbara; Mandariote, Aleida; Fariñas, Mildrey; Oliva, Reynaldo; Rosenqvist, Einar; Pérez, Oliver

2014-01-01

287

Cytoplasmic to nuclear localization of fatty-acid binding protein correlates with specific forms of long-term memory in Drosophila  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We recently reported evidence implicating fatty-acid binding protein (Fabp) in the control of sleep and memory formation. We used Drosophila melanogaster to examine the relationship between sleep and memory through transgenic overexpression of mouse brain-Fabp, Fabp7, or the Drosophila Fabp homolog, (dFabp). The key findings are that 1) a genetically induced increase in daytime consolidated sleep (naps) correlates with an increase in cognitive performance, and 2) a late “window” of memory...

Gerstner, Jason R.; Vanderheyden, William M.; Shaw, Paul J.; Landry, Charles F.; Yin, Jerry Cp

2011-01-01

288

LONG TERM COLLECTIONS  

CERN Multimedia

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

STAFF ASSOCIATION

2010-01-01

289

Long term morphological modelling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented, analysed and discussed with respect to the question of realistic representation, time scale and general applicability ofthe model concept.

Kristensen, Sten EsbjØrn Technical University of Denmark,

2010-01-01

290

Mice Overexpressing Type 1 Adenylyl Cyclase Show Enhanced Spatial Memory Flexibility in the Absence of Intact Synaptic Long-Term Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

There is significant interest in understanding the contribution of intracellular signaling and synaptic substrates to memory flexibility, which involves new learning and suppression of obsolete memory. Here, we report that enhancement of Ca[superscript 2+]-stimulated cAMP signaling by overexpressing type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1) facilitated…

Zhang, Ming; Wang, Hongbing

2013-01-01

291

Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects protein Kinase M zeta (PKM?), dopamine, and glutamate receptors  

Science.gov (United States)

Methamphetamine (MA) is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg) on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1), dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKM?) and protein kinase C zeta (PKC?). Within the hippocampus, PKM? and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKM? and PKC? within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKM?/PKC? in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA. PMID:25566006

Braren, Stephen H.; Drapala, Damian; Tulloch, Ingrid K.; Serrano, Peter A.

2014-01-01

292

Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects protein Kinase M zeta (PKM?), dopamine, and glutamate receptors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methamphetamine (MA) is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg) on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were...

Braren, Stephen H.; Drapala, Damian; Tulloch, Ingrid K.; Serrano, Peter A.

2014-01-01

293

Long-term testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

294

Exercise and Sodium Butyrate Transform a Subthreshold Learning Event into Long-Term Memory via a Brain-Derived Neurotrophic factor-Dependent Mechanism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We demonstrate that exercise enables hippocampal-dependent learning in conditions that are normally subthreshold for encoding and memory formation, and depends on hippocampal induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a key mechanism. Using a weak training paradigm in an object location memory (OLM) task, we show that sedentary mice are unable to discriminate 24?h later between familiar and novel object locations. In contrast, 3 weeks of prior voluntary exercise...

Intlekofer, Karlie A.; Berchtold, Nicole C.; Malvaez, Melissa; Carlos, Anthony J.; Mcquown, Susan C.; Cunningham, Michael J.; Wood, Marcelo A.; Cotman, Carl W.

2013-01-01

295

LONG TERM COLLECTIONS  

CERN Multimedia

The Committee would like to thank all those, from near and far, who kindly gave donations to the collection organized at the time of the sudden death of our friend and colleague Stephen O'NEALE The sum of 3,615 francs will be sent to the INEPE Association for the education of children in Quito, Ecuador. We are deeply grateful for this gesture from Steve's family and hope that they find comfort in knowing that Steve's memory will live on through the children whose daily lives will be improved by this gift.

2004-01-01

296

The Effect of Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factors on Hippocampus- and Amygdala-Dependent Long-Term Memory Formation  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent work has reported that the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) promotes memory enhancement. Furthermore, impaired insulin or IGF1 functions have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments, hence implicating the insulin/IGF system as an important target for cognitive enhancement and/or…

Stern, Sarah A.; Chen, Dillon Y.; Alberini, Cristina M.

2014-01-01

297

Modulation of Hippocampus-Dependent Learning and Synaptic Plasticity by Nicotine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A long-standing relationship between nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and cognition exists. Drugs that act at nAChRs can have cognitive-enhancing effects and diseases that disrupt cognition such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia are associated with altered nAChR function. Specifically, hippocampus-dependent learning is particularly sensitive to the effects of nicotine. However, the effects of nicotine on hippocampus-dependent learning vary not only with the doses of nicotin...

Kenney, Justin W.; Gould, Thomas J.

2008-01-01

298

Long-term environmental stewardship.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

Nagy, Michael David

2010-08-01

299

An evaluation of a classroom-based intervention to help overcome working memory difficulties and improve long-term academic achievement.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two contrasting forms of classroom-based intervention were implemented with 256 primary school children identified as having working memory (WM) difficulties. In one, teaching staff were trained to provide educational environments that were sensitive to the needs of identified children with WM difficulties. The second form of intervention utilized a behavioral teaching approach in which identified children were provided with regular, brief, and highly focused inputs in relevant basic skills a...

Elliott, J.; Gathercole, S. E.; Alloway, T. P.; Holmes, J.; Kirkwood, H.

2010-01-01

300

Long-term ginsenoside consumption prevents memory loss in aged SAMP8 mice by decreasing oxidative stress and up-regulating the plasticity-related proteins in hippocampus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ginsenoside, the effective component of ginseng, has been reported to have a neuron protective effect, but the preventive effect on Alzheimer's disease (AD) related memory loss and the underlying mechanisms have not been well determined. The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is a useful model of AD-related memory impairment. In the present study, SAMP8 mice aged 4 months were chronically treated with ginsenoside (3 dose groups were given ginsenoside in drinking water for 7 months). The three groups were treated with ginsenoside 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day, respectively. Placebo-treated aged mice and young ones (4 months old) were used as controls. In addition, SAMR1 mice were used as "normal aging" control. The beneficial role of ginsenoside was manifested in the prevention of memory loss in aged SAMP8 mice. The optimal dose of ginsenoside is 100 or 200 mg/kg per day. In ginsenoside treated groups, the Abeta level markedly decreased in hippocampus and antioxidase level significantly increased in serum. In addition, the plasticity-related proteins in hippocampus significantly increased in the two ginsenoside treated groups. The plasticity-related proteins were checked in the present study including postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), phosphor-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (p-NMDAR1), phospho-calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II (p-CaMKII), phospho-protein kinase A Catalyticbeta subunit (p-PKA Cbeta) and protein kinase Cgamma subunit (PKCgamma), phospho-CREB (p-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) etc. These findings suggest that the increase of antioxidation and up-regulation of plasticity-related proteins in hippocampus may be one of the mechanisms of ginsenoside on the memory loss prevention in aged SAMP8 mice. PMID:19133247

Zhao, Haifeng; Li, Qiong; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Pei, Xinrong; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

2009-02-23

 
 
 
 
301

Long-Term Central and Effector SHIV-Specific Memory T Cell Responses Elicited after a Single Immunization with a Novel Lentivector DNA Vaccine  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevention of HIV acquisition and replication requires long lasting and effective immunity. Given the state of HIV vaccine development, innovative vectors and immunization strategies are urgently needed to generate safe and efficacious HIV vaccines. Here, we developed a novel lentivirus-based DNA vector that does not integrate in the host genome and undergoes a single-cycle of replication. Viral proteins are constitutively expressed under the control of Tat-independent LTR promoter from goat lentivirus. We immunized six macaques once only with CAL-SHIV-IN? DNA using combined intramuscular and intradermal injections plus electroporation. Antigen-specific T cell responses were monitored for 47 weeks post-immunization (PI). PBMCs were assessed directly ex vivo or after 6 and 12 days of in vitro culture using antigenic and/or homeostatic proliferation. IFN-? ELISPOT was used to measure immediate cytokine secretion from antigen specific effector cells and from memory precursors with high proliferative capacity (PHPC). The memory phenotype and functions (proliferation, cytokine expression, lytic content) of specific T cells were tested using multiparametric FACS-based assays. All immunized macaques developed lasting peripheral CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses mainly against Gag and Nef antigens. During the primary expansion phase, immediate effector cells as well as increasing numbers of proliferating cells with limited effector functions were detected which expressed markers of effector (EM) and central (CM) memory phenotypes. These responses contracted but then reemerged later in absence of antigen boost. Strong PHPC responses comprising vaccine-specific CM and EM T cells that readily expanded and acquired immediate effector functions were detected at 40/47 weeks PI. Altogether, our study demonstrated that a single immunization with a replication-limited DNA vaccine elicited persistent vaccine-specific CM and EM CD8+ and CD4+ T cells with immediate and readily inducible effector functions, in the absence of ongoing antigen expression. PMID:25337803

Arrode-Brusés, Géraldine; Moussa, Maha; Baccard-Longere, Monique; Villinger, François; Chebloune, Yahia

2014-01-01

302

Long-term central and effector SHIV-specific memory T cell responses elicited after a single immunization with a novel lentivector DNA vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevention of HIV acquisition and replication requires long lasting and effective immunity. Given the state of HIV vaccine development, innovative vectors and immunization strategies are urgently needed to generate safe and efficacious HIV vaccines. Here, we developed a novel lentivirus-based DNA vector that does not integrate in the host genome and undergoes a single-cycle of replication. Viral proteins are constitutively expressed under the control of Tat-independent LTR promoter from goat lentivirus. We immunized six macaques once only with CAL-SHIV-IN- DNA using combined intramuscular and intradermal injections plus electroporation. Antigen-specific T cell responses were monitored for 47 weeks post-immunization (PI). PBMCs were assessed directly ex vivo or after 6 and 12 days of in vitro culture using antigenic and/or homeostatic proliferation. IFN-? ELISPOT was used to measure immediate cytokine secretion from antigen specific effector cells and from memory precursors with high proliferative capacity (PHPC). The memory phenotype and functions (proliferation, cytokine expression, lytic content) of specific T cells were tested using multiparametric FACS-based assays. All immunized macaques developed lasting peripheral CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses mainly against Gag and Nef antigens. During the primary expansion phase, immediate effector cells as well as increasing numbers of proliferating cells with limited effector functions were detected which expressed markers of effector (EM) and central (CM) memory phenotypes. These responses contracted but then reemerged later in absence of antigen boost. Strong PHPC responses comprising vaccine-specific CM and EM T cells that readily expanded and acquired immediate effector functions were detected at 40/47 weeks PI. Altogether, our study demonstrated that a single immunization with a replication-limited DNA vaccine elicited persistent vaccine-specific CM and EM CD8+ and CD4+ T cells with immediate and readily inducible effector functions, in the absence of ongoing antigen expression. PMID:25337803

Arrode-Brusés, Géraldine; Moussa, Maha; Baccard-Longere, Monique; Villinger, François; Chebloune, Yahia

2014-01-01

303

Influence of a combination of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners (PCB 47; PCB 77) on thyroid status, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and short- and long-term memory in 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The important role of thyroid hormones in growth and development, maintenance of body temperature, digestion, cardiac function, and normal brain development can be disrupted by environmental contaminants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Polychlorinated biphenyls are environmental contaminants that are widespread, persistent, lipophilic, and bioaccumulate through food webs, concentrating in adipose tissue. Placental and lactational PCB exposure of offspring causes metabolic and endocrine disruptions including hypothyroxinemia, spatial learning and memory deficits, neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations, and reproductive problems. Previous studies in our lab using the individual congeners PCB 47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, ortho-substituted) and PCB 77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, non-ortho-substituted) have demonstrated alterations in thyroid hormone levels, alterations in brain choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and spatial learning deficits. In the present study, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet with or without a mixture of PCB 47/77 at 1.25 ppm, 12.5 ppm or 25.0 ppm (w/w). Rat pups were swum in the Morris water maze four times a day on days 21-29 in order for the animals to learn the position of a submerged fixed platform. A probe test was run on day 24 (30 min after last swim) for short-term memory, and on day 29 (24 h after the last swim) for long-term memory after removal of the platform. Time spent in the quadrant previouslform. Time spent in the quadrant previously containing the platform was recorded. Rats were decapitated on day 30, serum collected and frozen at -20 deg. ChAT activity was measured radiometrically in basal forebrain and hippocampus. All PCB-treated animals experienced a depression in both triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The present study found that all doses of PCB depressed ChAT activity in hippocampus with no significant alteration in the basal forebrain. In PCB-treated animals, short-term memory showed a trend toward improvement and long-term memory toward depression, but these trends were not significant. The consequences likely stem from endocrine disruption, especially with regard to the thyroid

304

Efectos de la escopolamina a corto y largo plazo en la memoria y las habilidades conceptuales / Effects of Short- And Long-Term Scopolamine Intoxication on Memory and Conceptual Skills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El uso de este tóxico en Colombia con fines delincuenciales representa un problema social y de salud de proporciones inmensurables, de ahí la importancia de conocer sus efectos a corto y largo plazo en la memoria y las habilidades conceptuales. Se evaluaron los efectos de la intoxicación por escopol [...] amina sobre memoria, categorización y clasificación en 20 sujetos, entre 15 y 60 años. Se utilizó un diseño prospectivo con dos mediciones. Los sujetos fueron evaluados a los cinco días después de egresar de la clínica y a los seis meses. Los no expuestos se evaluaron paralelamente en los dos momentos de la evaluación, por medio de la prueba de memoria de Wechsler, el test de la figura de Rey-Osterrieth, el test de clasificación de tarjetas de Wisconsin y la subprueba de matrices progresivas del WAIS III. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la intoxicación por escopolamina provoca deterioro en la memoria y las habilidades conceptuales tanto a corto como a largo plazo. Abstract in english The intoxication by scopolamine is the second cause of acute intoxication in Bogotá and probably in others cities of Colombia. The use of this toxic in criminal attacks represents a social and health problem of immeasurable proportions. The knowledge of its long term effects in cognitive functions a [...] s the memory and conceptual abilities is scarce. In this investigation the effects of intoxication by scopolamine were evaluated in tow different times between a group of 20 people into the 15 and 60 years old, using categorization and classification upon memory and conceptual abilities. The first evaluation was carried out five days after clinic treatments and the second evaluation was made six months later. As the exposed group and as a non exposed group was evaluated parallelly in both moments of the evaluation with the Wechsler memory test, the figure of Rey-Osterrieth test, the Classification of Cards of Wisconsin test, and the progressive matrix of WAIS III subtest. The results suggest that the intoxication by scopolamine causes deterioration in memory and conceptual abilities in short and long term.

Sandra Milena, Camelo Roa; Alfredo, Ardila.

2013-12-01

305

Memória de longo prazo modulada pela memória de curto prazo Memoria a largo plazo modulada por la memoria a corto plazo Long term memory modulated by short term memory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quando um estímulo ocorre aleatoriamente à esquerda ou à direita, a resposta é mais rápida quando estímulo e resposta estão no mesmo lado (condição compatível do que em lados opostos (condição incompatível. Na tarefa de Simon, embora a resposta seja selecionada pela forma (ou cor do estímulo, a posição deste influencia o Tempo de Reação Manual (TRM. O efeito Simon corresponde à diferença entre as médias dos TRMs nas duas condições (incompatível e compatível. Neste trabalho, estudamos como uma tarefa prévia de compatibilidade realizada com um dedo indicador modula o efeito Simon. Vinte e oito voluntários realizaram uma tarefa de compatibilidade seguida pela tarefa de Simon. No grupo compatível (14 voluntários, encontramos um efeito Simon de 24 ms. No incompatível (14 voluntários, ocorreu um efeito Simon inverso de -16 ms. Estes resultados mostram uma modulação da memória de longo prazo por uma tarefa envolvendo a memória de curto prazo.Cuando un estimulo ocurre aleatoriamente a la izquierda o a la derecha, la respuesta es más rápida cuando el estimulo y la respuesta están del mismo lado (condición compatible, de que cuando están en lados opuestos (condición incompatible. En la prueba de Simon, el color o la forma del estímulo determina la respuesta, pero éste es más rápido cuando hay una correlación espacial entre el estímulo y la respuesta. En este trabajo, estudiamos la modulación del efecto Simon por la tarea de la compatibilidad espacial en la cual uno dedo índice respondió. Veintiocho voluntarios realizaron la prueba de compatibilidad (14 la compatible y 14 la incompatible. Después el voluntario realizó la prueba de Simon. En el grupo compatible, encontramos efecto de Simon de 21 ms. Sin embargo, en el grupo incompatibles, ocurrió un efecto de Simon inverso de -16 ms. Estos resultados demuestran una modulación de la memoria a largo plazo por la memoria a corto plazo.When a stimulus randomly occurs at left or right, the response is faster when stimulus and response are on the same side (compatible condition than on opposite sides (incompatible condition. In the Simon task, color or shape determines the correct response but it is faster when there is correspondence between stimulus and response key positions. In this research, we studied the Simon effect modulation through a previous spatial compatibility task in which just one index finger presses the keys. Twenty-eight volunteers run compatibility tasks (14 compatible and 14 incompatible. Then, they performed a Simon task in which the correct response was selected by shape. A Simon effect of 24 ms was found in the compatible group. An inverse Simon effect of -16 ms occurred in the incompatible group. These results show long-term memory modulation by task involving short-term memory.

Viviane Moreira-Aguiar

2008-01-01

306

Memória de longo prazo modulada pela memória de curto prazo / Long term memory modulated by short term memory / Memoria a largo plazo modulada por la memoria a corto plazo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Quando um estímulo ocorre aleatoriamente à esquerda ou à direita, a resposta é mais rápida quando estímulo e resposta estão no mesmo lado (condição compatível) do que em lados opostos (condição incompatível). Na tarefa de Simon, embora a resposta seja selecionada pela forma (ou cor) do estímulo, a p [...] osição deste influencia o Tempo de Reação Manual (TRM). O efeito Simon corresponde à diferença entre as médias dos TRMs nas duas condições (incompatível e compatível). Neste trabalho, estudamos como uma tarefa prévia de compatibilidade realizada com um dedo indicador modula o efeito Simon. Vinte e oito voluntários realizaram uma tarefa de compatibilidade seguida pela tarefa de Simon. No grupo compatível (14 voluntários), encontramos um efeito Simon de 24 ms. No incompatível (14 voluntários), ocorreu um efeito Simon inverso de -16 ms. Estes resultados mostram uma modulação da memória de longo prazo por uma tarefa envolvendo a memória de curto prazo. Abstract in spanish Cuando un estimulo ocurre aleatoriamente a la izquierda o a la derecha, la respuesta es más rápida cuando el estimulo y la respuesta están del mismo lado (condición compatible), de que cuando están en lados opuestos (condición incompatible). En la prueba de Simon, el color o la forma del estímulo de [...] termina la respuesta, pero éste es más rápido cuando hay una correlación espacial entre el estímulo y la respuesta. En este trabajo, estudiamos la modulación del efecto Simon por la tarea de la compatibilidad espacial en la cual uno dedo índice respondió. Veintiocho voluntarios realizaron la prueba de compatibilidad (14 la compatible y 14 la incompatible). Después el voluntario realizó la prueba de Simon. En el grupo compatible, encontramos efecto de Simon de 21 ms. Sin embargo, en el grupo incompatibles, ocurrió un efecto de Simon inverso de -16 ms. Estos resultados demuestran una modulación de la memoria a largo plazo por la memoria a corto plazo. Abstract in english When a stimulus randomly occurs at left or right, the response is faster when stimulus and response are on the same side (compatible condition) than on opposite sides (incompatible condition). In the Simon task, color or shape determines the correct response but it is faster when there is correspond [...] ence between stimulus and response key positions. In this research, we studied the Simon effect modulation through a previous spatial compatibility task in which just one index finger presses the keys. Twenty-eight volunteers run compatibility tasks (14 compatible and 14 incompatible). Then, they performed a Simon task in which the correct response was selected by shape. A Simon effect of 24 ms was found in the compatible group. An inverse Simon effect of -16 ms occurred in the incompatible group. These results show long-term memory modulation by task involving short-term memory.

Viviane, Moreira-Aguiar; Allan Pablo, Lameira; Erick Quintas, Conde; Antônio, Pereira Júnior; Carlo Arrigo, Umiltà; Luiz de Gonzaga, Gawryszewski.

307

Booster vaccination of cancer patients with MAGE-A3 protein reveals long-term immunological memory or tolerance depending on priming  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported results of a phase II trial in which recombinant MAGE-A3 protein was administered with or without adjuvant AS02B to 18 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients after tumor resection. We found that the presence of adjuvant was essential for the development of humoral and cellular responses against selected MAGE-A3 epitopes. In our current study, 14 patients that still had no evidence of disease up to 3 years after vaccination with MAGE-A3 protein with or without adjuvant received an additional four doses of MAGE-A3 protein with adjuvant AS02B. After just one boost injection, six of seven patients originally vaccinated with MAGE-A3 protein plus adjuvant reached again their peak antibody titers against MAGE-A3 attained during the first vaccination. All seven patients subsequently developed even stronger antibody responses. Furthermore, booster vaccination widened the spectrum of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells against various new and known MAGE-A3 epitopes. In contrast, only two of seven patients originally vaccinated with MAGE-A3 protein alone developed high-titer antibodies to MAGE-A3, and all these patients showed very limited CD4+ and no CD8+ T cell reactivity, despite now receiving antigen in the presence of adjuvant. Our results underscore the importance of appropriate antigen priming using an adjuvant for generating persistent B and T cell memory and allowing typical booster responses with reimmunization. In contrast, absence of adjuvant at priming compromises further immunization attempts. These data provide an immunological rationale for vaccine design in light of recently reported favorable clinical responses in NSCLC patients after vaccination with MAGE-A3 protein plus adjuvant AS02B. PMID:18216244

Atanackovic, Djordje; Altorki, Nasser K.; Cao, Yanran; Ritter, Erika; Ferrara, Cathy A.; Ritter, Gerd; Hoffman, Eric W.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Old, Lloyd J.; Gnjatic, Sacha

2008-01-01

308

Long-Term Repetition Priming of Briefly Identified Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors provide evidence that long-term memory encoding can occur for briefly viewed objects in a rapid serial visual presentation list, contrary to claims that the brief presentation and quick succession of objects prevent encoding by disrupting a memory consolidation process that requires hundreds of milliseconds of uninterrupted processing.…

Breuer, Andreas T.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Lindsay, D. Stephen

2009-01-01

309

Spine Expansion and Stabilization Associated with Long-term Potentiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stable expression of long-term synaptic plasticity is critical for the developmental refinement of neural circuits and for some forms of learning and memory. Although structural remodeling of dendritic spines is associated with the stable expression of long term potentiation (LTP), the relationship between structural and physiological plasticity remains unclear. To define whether these two processes are related or distinct, we simultaneously monitored EPSPs and dendritic spines, using combine...

Yang, Yunlei; Wang, Xiao-bin; Frerking, Matthew; Zhou, Qiang

2008-01-01

310

Comparing long term energy scenarios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems

311

Long term stability of power systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

1994-12-31

312

Modelling the dynamics of CaMKII-NMDAR complex related to memory formation in synapses: The possible roles of threonine 286 autophosphorylation of CaMKII in long term potentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A synaptic protein, Ca(2+)/Calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), has complex state transitions and facilitates the emergence of long term potentiation (LTP), which is highly correlated to memory formation. Two of the state transitions are critical for LTP: (1) threonine 286 autophosphorylation of CaMKII; and (2) binding to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the postsynaptic density (PSD) to form CaMKII-NMDAR complex. Both of these state transitions retain the activity of CaMKII when the induction signal disappears which is very important for the long-lasting characteristics of LTP. However, the possible relationships between the state transitions in the emergence of LTP are not well understood. We develop a mathematical model of the formation of CaMKII-NMDAR complex with the full state transitions of CaMKII, including the autophosphorylation, based on ordinary differential equations. In addition, we formulate a probabilistic framework for the binding between CaMKII and NMDAR. The model gives accurate predictions of the behaviours of CaMKII in comparisons to the experimental observations. Using the model, we show that: (1) the formation of CaMKII-NMDAR complex is dependent not only on the binding affinity between CaMKII and NMDAR, but also on the translocation of CaMKII into PSD; and (2) the autophosphorylation is not a requirement for the formation of CaMKII-NMDAR complex, but is important for the rapid formation of CaMKII-NMDAR complex during LTP. PMID:25446714

He, Y; Kulasiri, D; Samarasinghe, S

2015-01-21

313

Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  

Science.gov (United States)

... Claiming and Long-Term Care Ombudsman Programs The Purpose of the Program and How It Works Long- ... who wish to learn about available home and community based services (HCBS) options and available long-term care (LTC) ...

314

Long-Term Planning in Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the concepts and issues discussed at a Regional Symposium on Long-term Planning in Higher Education held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, September 21-30, 1986. Chapter 1 explores some fundamental issues about the rationale for the objectives of long-term planning. It defines long-term planning in higher education, considers its…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

315

Three-year-olds’ memory for a person met only once at the age of 12 months: Very long-term memory revealed by a late-manifesting novelty preference  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study examined three-year-olds’ verbal and non-verbal memory for a person met only once after a 28 month interval. Children in the Test group (N=50) had participated in an earlier experiment at our lab at the age of 12 months where they met one of two possible experimenters. At this past event half of the children were tested by one, the other half by the other experimenter. At the follow-up, run by a naïve experimenter, the children were shown two videos from the original experiment in a visual paired comparison task: One with the specific experimenter testing them at the original visit (the Target) and one of the other experimenter (the Foil), with whom they had no experience. When explicitly asked, the children’s responses did not differ from chance. However, eye-tracking data revealed a late-manifesting novelty preference for the “Foil” person indicating memory for the “Target” person met once before.

Kingo, Osman Skjold; Staugaard, SØren RislØv

2014-01-01

316

Long-term corrosion studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application.

Gdowski, G.

1998-05-29

317

Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by which short-term memories are permanently stored, and b) a strong foundation for continued growth of an excellent undergraduate neuroscience program.

Calin-Jageman, Robert J

2009-09-12

318

Tiagabine Improves Hippocampal Long-Term Depression in Rat Pups Subjected to Prenatal Inflammation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with the later development of cognitive and behavioral impairment in the offspring, reminiscent of the traits of schizophrenia or autism spectrum disorders. Hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term depression of glutamatergic synapses are respectively involved in memory formation and consolidation. In male rats, maternal inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to a premature loss of long-term depression, occurring between 12 ...

Rideau Batista Novais, Aline; Crouzin, Nadine; Cavalier, Me?lanie; Boubal, Mathilde; Guiramand, Janique; Cohen-solal, Catherine; Jesus Ferreira, Marie-ce?leste; Cambonie, Gilles; Vignes, Michel; Barbanel, Ge?rard

2014-01-01

319

Long-term cerebral consequences of sepsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sepsis is a potentially fatal whole-body inflammatory state caused by severe infection, in which a maladaptive, system-wide inflammatory response follows initial attempts to eliminate pathogens, leading to a dangerous and often fatal increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. These changes in the blood-brain barrier might lead to a major symptom of sepsis, sepsis-associated encephalopathy, which manifests as confusion with a rapid decline in cognitive functions, especially memory, or coma. Once presumed to be entirely reversible, research suggests that sepsis-associated encephalopathy could lead to permanent neurocognitive dysfunction and functional impairments, even after the patient has recovered. Sepsis might act as a major inflammatory hit and potentially increase the brain's susceptibility to neurodegenerative disease, further deterioration of cognitive ability, and risk of developing dementia in later life. Key opportunities for neuroprotective interventions and after-care for people who have survived sepsis might be lost because the long-term neurocognitive and functional consequences of sepsis are not fully characterised. PMID:24849863

Widmann, Catherine N; Heneka, Michael T

2014-06-01

320

Studies on long-term inflow forecasting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis aims to improve knowledge of long-term inflow and streamflow forecasts. A special focus is on the development of a new long-term forecast model and on the evaluation of long-term inflow forecasts. In the first part of the work, a new categorical long-term forecast model is developed and its performance is investigated in four case studies. The forecasts are based only on the current hydrological state of the basin and thus, weather forecasts are not utilised. By using the k-N...

Koskela, Jarkko

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Hypocretin/orexin neurons contribute to hippocampus-dependent social memory and synaptic plasticity in mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus project throughout the brain, including to the hippocampus, where Hcrt receptors are widely expressed. Hcrt neurons activate these targets to orchestrate global arousal state, wake-sleep architecture, energy homeostasis, stress adaptation, and reward behaviors. Hcrt has recently been implicated in cognitive functions and social interaction. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Hcrt neurons are critical to social interaction, particul...

Yang, Liya; Zou, Bende; Xiong, Xiaoxing; Pascual, Conrado; Xie, James; Malik, Adam; Xie, Julian; Sakurai, Takeshi; Xie, Xinmin

2013-01-01

322

Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 k...

Schott, Bjo?rn H.; Sylvia Richter; Anne Assmann; Joram Soch; Marieke Klein; Emrah Duzel

2014-01-01

323

How long will long-term potentiation last?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paramount feature of long-term potentiation (LTP) as a memory mechanism is its characteristic persistence over time. Although the basic phenomenology of LTP persistence was established 30 years ago, new insights have emerged recently about the extent of LTP persistence and its regulation by activity and experience. Thus, it is now evident that LTP, at least in the dentate gyrus, can either be decremental, lasting from hours to weeks, or stable, lasting months or longer. Although mechanism...

Abraham, Wickliffe C.

2003-01-01

324

Financing long term liabilities (Germany)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km2. Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km2, tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km2). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The implementation of the measures will cover a period of 15 to 20 years depending on the site. The necess

325

Type 1 Adenylyl Cyclase is Essential for Maintenance of Remote Contextual Fear Memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although molecular mechanisms for hippocampus-dependent memory have been extensively studied, much less is known about signaling events important for remote memory. Here we report that mice lacking type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1) are able to establish and retrieve remote contextual memory but unable to sustain it as long as wild type mice. Interestingly, mice over-expressing AC1 show superior remote contextual memory even though they exhibit normal hippocampus-dependent contextual memory. These...

Shan, Qiang; Chan, Guy C. -k; Storm, Daniel R.

2008-01-01

326

Methylphenidate amplifies long-term plasticity in the hippocampus via noradrenergic mechanisms.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methylphenidate treatment is used for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and can improve learning and memory. Previously, improvements were considered a by-product of increased attention; however, we hypothesize that methylphenidate directly alters mechanisms underlying learning and memory, and therefore examined its effects on hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term depression. Methylphenidate enhanced both mechanisms in the absence of presynaptic changes and in a noradrenalin...

Dommett, Ej; Henderson, El; Westwell, Ms; Greenfield, Sa

2008-01-01

327

A novel, rapidly acquired and persistent spatial memory task that induces immediate early gene expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Morris water maze task is a hippocampus-dependent learning and memory test that typically takes between 3 days to 2 weeks of training. This task is used to assess spatial learning and induces the expression of genes known to be crucial to learning and memory in the hippocampus. A major caveat in the protocol is the prolonged duration of training, and difficulty of assessing the time during training in which animals have learned the task. We introduce here a condensed version of the task that like traditional water maze tasks, creates lasting hippocampus-dependent spatial cognitive maps and elicits gene expression following learning. Methods This paradigm was designed for rats to quickly acquire a hippocampus-dependent spatial cognitive map and retain this memory for at least 24 hours. To accomplish this, we interspersed visible and hidden training trials, delivering them in a massed fashion so training takes a maximum of 15 minutes. Learning was assessed based on latencies to the platform during each training trial, as well as time spent in the goal quadrant during probe testing 30 minutes and 24 hours after training. Normal rats were compared to two impaired cohorts (rats with fimbria-fornix lesions and rats administered NMDA receptor antagonist (CPP. To quantitate hippocampal expression of known learning genes, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed on hippocampal cDNA. Results We show that massed training using alternating visible and hidden training trials generates robust short-term working and long-term reference memories in rats. Like the traditional Morris water maze paradigm, this task requires proper hippocampal function, as rats with fimbria-fornix lesions and rats administered CPP fail to learn the spatial component of the task. Furthermore, training in this paradigm elicits hippocampal expression of genes upregulated following learning in a variety of spatial tasks: homer1a, cfos and zif268. Conclusions We introduce here a condensed version of the Morris water maze, which is like a traditional water maze paradigm, in that it is hippocampus-dependent, and elicits hippocampal expression of learning genes. However, this task is administered in 15 minutes and induces spatial memory for at least 24 hours.

Nalbantoglu Josephine

2010-07-01

328

Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

329

Deferred tax and long-term insurers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Focuses on the new AC 102 on Income Taxes, which was issued in March 1999. Discusses several new issues regarding the provision of deferred tax that arose for enterprises in general and for long-term insurers in particular.

Stiglingh, M.; Koornhof, Carolina

2000-01-01

330

Long-term storage of solar heat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stochastic models for the simulation of global radiation are discussed. Thermal transients in the ground are analyzed. The performance of buried-pipe storage and a space heating system with long-term storage is described.

Mustacchi, C.; Cena, V.; Rocchi, M.

1981-06-01

331

Long term liquidity analysis of the firm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Liquidity control is a very difficult and important function. If the business is not liquid in the long term, it is under threatof bankruptcy, and on the other hand surplus of the cash in hand threaten its future efficiency, because the cash in hand is a sourceof only limited profitability. Long term liquidity is related to the ability of the short term and long term liabilities payment. Articleis trying to point out to the monitoring and analyzing of the long term liquidity in the concrete business, in this case the printing industrycompany. Hereby at the end of the article mentioned monitored and analyzed liquidity is evaluated in the five years time period.

Jaroslav Gonos

2009-09-01

332

Anticipating Long-Term Stock Market Volatility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the relationship between long-term U.S. stock market risks and the macroeconomic environment using a two component GARCH-MIDAS model. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of counter-cyclical behavior of long-term stock market volatility. Among the various macro variables in our dataset the term spread, housing starts, corporate profits and the unemployment rate have the highest predictive ability for stock market volatility . While the term spread and housing starts are...

Conrad, Christian; Loch, Karin

2012-01-01

333

Paying for Long-Term Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Firms, investors, and regulators around the world are now seeking to ensure that the compensation of public company executives is tied to long-term results, in part to avoid incentives for excessive risk taking. This Article examines how best to achieve this objective. Focusing on equity-based compensation, the primary component of executive pay, we identify how such compensation should best be structured to tie pay to long-term performance. We consider the optimal design of limitations on th...

Bebchuk, Lucian Arye; Fried, Jesse M.

2010-01-01

334

On the Cryptographic Long Term Security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this note we deal with the problem of long-term cryptographic security. We discuss briefly the methods of multiple encryption and signature, and the future influence of Quantum, DNA and Chaos methods in cryptography. Moreover, we propose an encryption and a signature scheme based on the problems of integer factorization and discrete logarithm suitable for applications needing long-term security.

Dimitrios Poulakis

2013-03-01

335

Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15–20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literatu...

Rimawi, B. H.; Rimawi, R. H.; Micallef, M.; Pinckney, L.; Fowler, S. L.; Dixon, T. C.

2014-01-01

336

Reversing cerebellar long-term depression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The discovery of a postsynaptically expressed form of cerebellar parallel fiber–Purkinje cell long-term potentiation (LTP) raises the question whether this is the long-sought resetting mechanism for long-term depression (LTD). Extracellular monitoring of PC spikes enables stable prolonged recordings of parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synaptic efficacy. LTD, saturated by repeated induction protocols, can be reversed by a single round of postsynaptic LTP or nitric oxide (NO), enabling LTD to b...

Lev-ram, Varda; Mehta, Samar B.; Kleinfeld, David; Tsien, Roger Y.

2003-01-01

337

Long-term e-arhiv  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With expansion of e-business and consequently with creating original electronic documents, legally compliant long-term digital preservation has become a commitment for organizations that do business electronically. Accepted legislation that equalizes the legal validity of electronic documents with their paper original, regulates the operating and preservation of documents, recommendations, existing standards and service and equipment providers for ensuring long-term digital preservation, enab...

Petkovs?ek, Bojan

2011-01-01

338

Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehen...

Gray, N.; Henningfield, J.; Benowitz, N.; Connolly, G.; Dresler, C.; Fagerstrom, K.; Jarvis, M.; Boyle, P.

2005-01-01

339

Dysfunction of the RAR/RXR signaling pathway in the forebrain impairs hippocampal memory and synaptic plasticity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinoid signaling pathways mediated by retinoic acid receptor (RAR/retinoid × receptor (RXR-mediated transcription play critical roles in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that treatment with retinoic acid alleviates age-related deficits in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP and memory performance and, furthermore, memory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. However, the roles of the RAR/RXR signaling pathway in learning and memory at the behavioral level have still not been well characterized in the adult brain. We here show essential roles for RAR/RXR in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In the current study, we generated transgenic mice in which the expression of dominant-negative RAR (dnRAR could be induced in the mature brain using a tetracycline-dependent transcription factor and examined the effects of RAR/RXR loss. Results The expression of dnRAR in the forebrain down-regulated the expression of RAR?, a target gene of RAR/RXR, indicating that dnRAR mice exhibit dysfunction of the RAR/RXR signaling pathway. Similar with previous findings, dnRAR mice displayed impaired LTP and AMPA-mediated synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. More importantly, these mutant mice displayed impaired hippocampus-dependent social recognition and spatial memory. However, these deficits of LTP and memory performance were rescued by stronger conditioning stimulation and spaced training, respectively. Finally, we found that pharmacological blockade of RAR? in the hippocampus impairs social recognition memory. Conclusions From these observations, we concluded that the RAR/RXR signaling pathway greatly contributes to learning and memory, and LTP in the hippocampus in the adult brain.

Nomoto Masanori

2012-02-01

340

Collaboration of geldanamycin-activated P70S6K and Hsp70 against beta-amyloid-induced hippocampal apoptosis: an approach to long-term memory and learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides (A?) in senile plaques. A?-induced oxidative stress is believed to be responsible for degeneration and apoptosis of neurons and consequent cognitive and memory deficits. Here, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effect of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) against amyloid pathogenesis in adult male Wistar rats. GA or vehicle was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricles of rats 24 h before injection of A? (1-42) in CA1 area of hippocampus. The learning and memory of the rats were assessed 7 days after injection of A? using passive avoidance (PA) task. As potential contributing factors in A?-induced memory decline, we evaluated apoptotic markers and also used terminal-transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique to detect apoptosis in the hippocampus of A?-injected rats. Our behavioral data suggest that GA pretreatment can significantly suppress memory deficits in A?-injected rats. There was also not only a marked increase in Hsp70 level but also upregulated 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in the hippocampus of GA-treated groups with a reduction in apoptotic factors including caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and TUNEL-positive cells as well. Thus, we conclude that GA exerts its protective effects against A? (1-42) toxicity and memory deficits, at least in part, by upregulating of Hsp70 and P70S6K. PMID:25576151

Zare, Nayereh; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Digaleh, Hadi; Khodagholi, Fariba; Maghsoudi, Nader

2015-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Explaining long-term growth in Namibia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Supply-side economics stresses the importance of analysing and modelling the long-term properties of an economy's production structures in order to investigate each factor of production's impact on final output. This helps to determine how much should be produced, how much is available for consumpti [...] on and, eventually, how an economy can improve its long-term economic growth path. This study applied the neoclassical growth model to Namibia's growth over the period from 1971 to 2005 in order to identify and develop the main supply-side components of long-term economic growth in the country. Along with a production function, behavioural equations were estimated for the factors of production labour demand and capital investment, as well as for the links between prices and wages.

Joel Hinaunye, Eita; Charlotte B, du Toit.

2009-04-01

342

Long-term alteration of cementitious materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the geological condition has been discussed for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. This paper describes the status of understanding long-term chemical alteration of cement, by reviewing some of our investigations on this issue in which we developed a thermodynamic incongruent C-S-H dissolution/precipitation model and a reactive transport calculation code. Alteration of C-S-H gel in a saline groundwater and the change of chemical barrier performance of cementitious materials due to the alteration are also discussed. Some key issues to be discussed further are given and suggested for the future studies on the long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the repository environment. (author)

343

Synapse Specificity of Long-Term Potentiation Breaks Down with Aging  

Science.gov (United States)

Memory shows age-related decline. According to the current prevailing theoretical model, encoding of memories relies on modifications in the strength of the synapses connecting the different cells within a neuronal network. The selective increases in synaptic weight are thought to be biologically implemented by long-term potentiation (LTP). Here,…

Ris, Laurence; Godaux, Emile

2007-01-01

344

Long-term outcomes after severe shock.  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ?1 ?g/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (P < 0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety, and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full-time. Early survivors of severe shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcomes to general intensive care unit survivor populations. PMID:25394248

Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

2015-02-01

345

Long-term heterosynaptic inhibition in Aplysia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Synaptic transmission between mechanosensory and motor neurons of the gill withdrawal reflex in Aplysia can undergo both short-term and long-term modulation. One form of short-term synaptic depression lasting minutes can be evoked by the peptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFamide), and is mediated by the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid. We report here using cell culture, that the same monosynaptic sensory-to-motor component of the gill withdrawal reflex can also undergo long-term synap...

Montarolo, Pier Giorgio

1988-01-01

346

Long-term Video-EEG Monitoring for Paroxysmal Events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Long term video-electroencephalography monitoring (VEM has been widelyused for the diagnosis, classification, and management of seizures. Fewstudies have systemically examined its safety issues and clinical utility. Thisprospective study investigates the general clinical application of long termVEM in the management of paroxysmal events.Methods: This study cohort consisted of patients admitted to the inpatient VEM unit atChang Gung Memorial Hospital (Lin-Kou. Standard 19 channel scalp electroencephalography(EEG, electrocardiography (ECG, and simultaneousvideo images were recorded continuously for 2 full days. Patient characteristics,and clinical, video-EEG and safety data were obtained and analyzed.The diagnosis and management of paroxysmal events before VEM werecompared with those after VEM.Results: Habitual events were recorded in 54.3% of the 129 patients, and VEM had ayield rate of 76% (events recorded or newly recorded interictal discharges indetermining the nature of the events. Eleven patients had seizure clusters, butthere was no status epilepticus or electrode-related injury. After VEM, thediagnostic categories were changed in 41.1% of the patients, and 40.3% hadrevisions in management.Conclusions: Long term VEM is a safe diagnostic tool providing a high diagnostic yieldrate and directing adjustment of management for patients with paroxysmalevents.

Ying-Ying Lee

2009-06-01

347

Long-term behavior of bituminized waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term properties of bituminized ion exchange resins were studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

348

Long-term cropping systems study  

Science.gov (United States)

This long-term study has been conducted on the Agronomy Farm at ARDC since the early 1970’s. In the beginning, the objectives were mainly related to crop production as affected by different cropping systems. The cropping systems included in the study are Continuous Corn, Soybean, and Sorghum; 2-year...

349

Who Needs Care? (Long-Term Care)  

Science.gov (United States)

... need. Share page: Who Needs Care? 70% of people turning age 65 can expect to use some form of long-term care during their lives. There are a number of factors that affect the possibility that you will need care: Age The older you are, the more likely you will need ...

350

INTELLIGENT SYSTEM FOR LONG TERM LOAD FORECASTING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long term load forecasting plays an important role in the economic optimization and secured operation of electric power systems. The plans of the electric power sector have been done and developed with the aid of statistical prediction methods. Electric utilities companies need monthly peak and yearly load forecasting for budget planning, m...

Roohi Kapoor; Gopal Krishan; Neha Kapoor

2011-01-01

351

The long term promise of fusion power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Commercial power from thermonuclear fusion is a long-term goal. Its attainment is expected to take another 50 years. But is offers the prospect of providing environmentally acceptable power stations running for profit on an almost inexhaustable fuel. The 1990 European Symposium on fusion technology was confident that, provided the funds were provided the research programme could be continued, based on the successful JET Tokamak. If research at JET was allowed to continue until 1996 more studies could be made of impurity control, plasma fuelling and helium ash content before the tritium fuelling stage is started. The next stage of the fusion programme should, it was argued, to be in three parts so that the main problems - long-term ignition, superconducting coil technology and materials testing can be studied in three separate facilities. (UK)

352

Case presentation: long-term treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term (14 years) psychodynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of a depressed, suicidal, self-mutilating female patient is described. Her diagnoses included Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Recurrent Major Depression. Treatment was punctuated with repeated hospitalizations for self-mutilation (cutting) and suicidal ideation. A major determinant for her psychopathology was sexual abuse by her father from ages 6 to 14. This resulted in feelings of guilt and rage that she repressed and acted out through self-mutilating and suicidal behavior. A prolonged negative transference gradually became ambivalent, then positive. This was associated with her internalization of the healing qualities of the therapeutic relationship. She also gained insight into the reasons for her need to punish herself. Her initial self-representation as unworthy and bad was transformed into perceiving herself as a worthwhile, loving person. This case illustrates the role of long-term treatment for a complex, life-threatening, psychiatric disorder. PMID:24001161

Glucksman, Myron L

2013-01-01

353

Quantifying Long-term Scientific Impact  

CERN Document Server

An ability to accurately assess the long-term impact of a scientific discovery has implications from science policy to individual reward. Yet, the documented lack of predictability of citation based measures frequently used to gauge impact, from impact factors to short-term citations, raises a fundamental question: is there long-term predictability in citation patterns? Here we derive a mechanistic model for the citation dynamics of individual papers, allowing us to collapse the citation histories of papers from different journals and disciplines into a single curve, indicating that all papers follow the same universal temporal pattern. The observed patterns not only help us uncover the basic mechanisms that govern scientific impact, but also offer reliable measures of influence with potential policy implications.

Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

2013-01-01

354

Prediction of long term stability by extrapolation  

CERN Document Server

This paper studies the possibility of using the survival function to predict long term stability by extrapolation. The survival function is a function of the initial coordinates and is the number of turns a particle will survive for a given set of initial coordinates. To determine the difficulties in extrapolating the survival function, tracking studies were done to compute the survival function. The survival function was found to have two properties that may cause difficulties in extrapolating the survival function. One is the existence of rapid oscillations, and the second is the existence of plateaus. It was found that it appears possible to extrapolate the survival function to estimate long term stability by taking the two difficulties into account. A model is proposed which pictures the survival function to be a series of plateaus with rapid oscillations superimposed on the plateaus. The tracking studies give results for the widths of these plateaus and for the seperation between adjacent plateaus which ...

Parzen, G

2000-01-01

355

Long-term outcomes of sports injuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participation in sports is an important way to spend spare time. Being actively involved in sports has clear advantages, like the improvement of physical endurance and the prevention of Western diseases. However, it can be questioned whether these advantages are not outweighted by the notable side effects: the occurrence and the adverse outcome of a large number of injuries. Long-term consequences are of importance in determining this outcome, since sportsmen are generally young and, conseque...

Dekker, Rienk

2004-01-01

356

Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL) materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL) materials, which are characterized by more stable har...

Grzegorz Chladek; Jaros?aw ?mudzki; Jacek Kasperski

2014-01-01

357

Dynamics of long-term statin therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Purpose Knowledge of the different usage patterns that emerge during a long-term statin therapy is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize statin use, including the rates of reinitiation after extended periods of non-use, transitions between good and poor adherence, and the effect of the length of a drug-free period on the identification of new users. Methods The study cohort comprised ...

Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Helin-salmivaara, Arja; Huupponen, Risto

2011-01-01

358

Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected to improve patient outcomes, reduce ICU admission, enhance patient comfort, and increase...

Robert, Dominique; Argaud, Laurent

2007-01-01

359

Long-term participation tax rates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Generous income support programs as provided by European welfare states have often been blamed to reduce work incentives for the lowskilled and to increase durations of unemployment. Standard studies measure work incentives based on annual income concepts. This paper analyzes work incentives inherent in the German tax-benefit system when extending the time horizon to three years (long-term). Participation tax rates are computed for 1-year and 3-year periods 1995-1997 and 2005-2007 to reveal p...

Bartels, Charlotte

2013-01-01

360

Glioblastoma multiforme with long term survival  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) Patients generally have a dismal prognosis, with median survival of 10-12 months. GBM with long-term survival (LTS) of ³ 5 years is rare, and no definite markers indicating better prognosis have been identified till date. The present study was undertaken to evaluate GBMs with LTS in order to identify additional correlates associated with favourable outcome. The cases were evaluated for relevant clinicopathological data, proliferation index and expression o...

Deb Prabal; Sharma Mehar; Mahapatra Ashok; Agarwal Deepak; Sarkar Chitra

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Long-term potentiation in the Eocene.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The first ten years of long-term potentiation (LTP) research are reviewed. Surprisingly, given the intensity of current interest, the discovery paper did not trigger a wave of follow-on experiments. Despite this, the initial work laid out what ultimately became standard questions and paradigms. The application of the then still novel hippocampal slice technique oriented LTP towards basic neuroscience, perhaps somewhat at the cost of lesser attention to its functional significance. The use of ...

Lynch, G.

2003-01-01

362

Long term nuclear programme for Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While it is difficult at this time to foreshadow a long term nuclear programme for Australia, the essential ingredients of the decision-making back-ground have been set out. The first involvement in the nuclear scene appears to be an entry as a uranium supplier in the late 1970s, though no indigenous use of uranium as a fuel is foreseen until after 1990. (J.R.)

363

Managing soils for long-term productivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated. Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that...

Syers, J. K.

1997-01-01

364

French Approach for Long Term Storage Safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IRSN presents its statement regarding long-term storage facilities; in France, the regulatory documents do not define the long term duration. The storage facility lifetime can only be appreciated according to the needs and materials stored therein. However, the magnitude of the long-term can be estimated at a few hundred years compared to a few decades for current storage. Usually, in France, construction of storage facilities is driven from the necessity various necessities, linked to the management of radioactive material (eg spent fuel) and to the management of radioactive waste. Because of the variety of 'stored materials and objects' (fission product solutions, plutonium oxide powders, activated solids, drums containing technological waste, spent fuel...), a great number of storage facility design solutions have been developed (surface, subsurface areas, dry or wet conditions...) in the World. After describing the main functions of a storage facility, IRSN displays the safety principles and the associated design principles. The specific design principles applied to particular storage (dry or wet spent fuel storage, depleted uranium or reprocessed uranium storage, plutonium storage, waste containing tritium storage, HLW and ILLW storage...) are also presented. Finally, the concerns due to the long-term duration storage and related safety assessment are developed. After discussing these issues, IRSN displays its statement. The authorization procedures governing the facility lifetime are similar to those of any basic nuclear installation, the continuation of the facility operation remaining subject to periodic safety reviews (in France, every 10 years). The applicant safety cases have to show, that the safety requirements are always met; this requires, at minimum, to take into account at the design stage, comfortable design margins. (author)

365

Long-term plant availability of actinides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental releases of actinide elements raise issues about which data are very limited. Quantitative information is required to assess the long-term behavior of actinides and their potential hazards resulting from the transport through food chains leading to man. This study provides valuable information on the effects of weathering and aging on the uptake of actinides from soil by range and crop plants grown under realistic field conditions

366

Long Term Economic Relationships From Cointegration Maps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the Sorting Points Into Neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates, monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product grow...

Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

2007-01-01

367

The long-term prognosis of epilepsy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The five studies presented in this thesis consider different aspects of the long-term prognosis of epilepsy and febrile seizures. The studies were: 1). A systemic review to examine a) how the risk of premature mortality in an individual with epilepsy changes over time and b) whether population mortality rates due to epilepsy have changed over time. (Study 1) 2). An extension of the National General Practice Study of Epilepsy (NGPSE), a prospective community-based incident co...

Neligan, A.

2011-01-01

368

Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment. PMID:23649132

Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf

2013-09-01

369

Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in r...

Bliss, Timothy V. P.; Cooke, Sam F.

2011-01-01

370

Types of Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

... f InteliHealth/Harvard Medical Content 2012-08-24 Types of Memory Memory is broken down into two types: short term and long term. Short-term memory, also known as working memory, stores information that ...

371

Long-Term Retention Explained by a Model of Short-Term Learning in the Adaptive Control of Reaching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extensive theoretical, psychophysical, and neurobiological work has focused on the mechanisms by which short-term learning develops into long-term memory. Better understanding of these mechanisms may lead to the ability to improve the efficiency of training procedures. A key phenomenon in the formation of long-term memory is the effect of over learning on retention—discovered by Ebbinghaus in 1885: when the initial training period in a task is prolonged even beyond what is necessary for goo...

Joiner, Wilsaan M.; Smith, Maurice A.

2008-01-01

372

Memory Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a new class of learning models called memory networks. Memory networks reason with inference components combined with a long-term memory component; they learn how to use these jointly. The long-term memory can be read and written to, with the goal of using it for prediction. We investigate these models in the context of question answering (QA) where the long-term memory effectively acts as a (dynamic) knowledge base, and the output is a textual response. We evalu...

Weston, Jason; Chopra, Sumit; Bordes, Antoine

2014-01-01

373

Long-term governance for sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, ublic investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

374

Long-term plant availability of actinides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental releases of actinide elements raise issues about which data are very limited. Quantitative information is required to assess the long-term behavior of actinides and their potential hazards resulting from the transport through food chains leading to man. Of special interest is the effect of time on the changes in the availability of actinide elements for uptake by plants from soil. This study provides valuable information on the effects of weathering and aging on the uptake of actinides from soil by range and crop plants grown under realistic field conditions

375

Long term thermoelectric module testing system  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period.

D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

2009-10-01

376

Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions  

Science.gov (United States)

In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

1997-01-01

377

Long-term effects of class size  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

Fredriksson, Peter; O?ckert, Bjo?rn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

2012-01-01

378

Sistemas de memoria: reseña histórica, clasificación y conceptos actuales. Primera parte: Historia, taxonomía de la memoria, sistemas de memoria de largo plazo: la memoria semántica / Memory systems: historical background, classification, and current concepts. Part one: History, taxonomy of memory, long-term memory systems: Semantic memory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La memoria es una función cerebral fascinante, mediante ella el Sistema Nervioso codifica, almacena, organiza y recupera una gran variedad de tipos de información que resultan de vital importancia para el individuo en particular. Los conocimientos actuales nos permiten conceptualizar a la memoria co [...] mo conformada por una red compleja de subsistemas de memoria que pueden trabajar en paralelo, cooperando e incluso en ocasiones funcionar de forma competitiva entre sí. La evolución de la clasificación de los sistemas de memoria se ha desarrollado en paralelo al conocimiento acerca del funcionamiento del los procesos mnésicos. Las primeras aproximaciones al estudio de la memoria estaban conformadas por métodos filosóficos que comprendían la observación, reflexión, lógica, etc. En el siglo XIX surgieron los primeros estudios científicos para el estudio experimental de la memoria. Autores como Ebbinghaus o Lashley estudiaron por primera vez la memoria humana y animal respectivamente. Los conductistas como Pavlov, Skinner, Thorndike y Watson sentaron las bases del aprendizaje asociativo que conocemos como condicionamiento clásico y condicionamiento operante. Más tarde los estudios neuropsicológicos de pacientes con lesiones quirúrgicas focales temporales arrojaron resultados contundentes acerca del sustrato anatómico de la memoria declarativa en el lóbulo temporal, lo que inició una avalancha de estudios y descripciones neuropsicológicas cada vez más finas sobre las consecuencias de las lesiones y patologías cerebrales en los distintos procesos de memoria. Más recientemente, los estudios de los procesos celulares y moleculares de las formas de aprendizaje más elementales (habituación y sensibilización) en modelos de animales invertebrados han demostrado los requerimientos celulares mínimos para el establecimiento del aprendizaje así como los mecanismos moleculares diferenciales involucrados en la memoria de corto y largo plazo. A últimas fechas, la introducción de los estudios de neuroimagen funcional en pacientes enfermos y sanos ha permitido la expansión de los conocimientos sobre el funcionamiento dinámico y en tiempo real de los diversos procesos de memoria. En la actualidad la clasificación más aceptada de los sistemas de memoria de largo plazo considera dos grandes esferas principales: la memoria declarativa y la no declarativa. La memoria declarativa se refiere a la que contiene información de la cual se tiene un registro consciente y que se puede verbalizar o transmitir fácilmente a través de algún medio a otro individuo. La memoria no declarativa comprende información que no se puede verbalizar fácilmente o cuyo aprendizaje puede ser inconsciente e incluso involuntario. La memoria declarativa se subdivide en memoria semántica y episódica. El ámbito de la memoria semántica es la información almacenada acerca de las características y atributos que definen los conceptos (hechos que carecen de un marco espacio temporal definido), así como los procesos que permiten su recuperación de forma eficiente para su utilización en el pensamiento y el lenguaje actual. Los estudios de imagen funcional han demostrado que la información sobre las características de objetos específicos que es necesaria para la generación de conceptos es almacenada dentro de los mismos sistemas neuronales que están activos durante la percepción de esos mismos estímulos. El rol del lóbulo temporal en esta variedad de memoria está comprobado por estudios experimentales y clínicos, pero los estudios de imagen funcional han demostrado otras áreas asociadas a la codificación y recuperación semántica cuyo papel aún no ha sido comprendido por completo. Abstract in english Memory is a fascinating brain function by means of which the nervous system can codify, store, organize, and recover a variety of information relevant to the subject. The formal study of memory started more than a century ago, providing in this time a c

Paul, Carrillo-Mora.

2010-02-01

379

Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by 15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands. PMID:24906501

Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

2014-07-01

380

Amyloid osteoarthropathy in long term hemodialysis patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accumulation of amyloid in the bone and joint system has recently been recognized as a peculiar disease in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis (5 years at least), especially in those who use cuprophan membranes. The pathology of amyloidosis is characterized by deposits of amyloid (? microglobulin mainly) in the bone, in the synovia, and in pericapsular soft tissues. The skeleton of 46 long-term hemodialysis patients (19 males and 27 females) was studied by X-ray; bone and joint abnormalities due to amyloid deposition were observed in 45% of cases. The shoulder, hip, and wrist were the most frequently involved joints. Destructive spondyloarthorapathy was present in 15% of cases. The radiographic patterns of AOD are generally divided into axial and peripheral lesions. In the appendicular skeleton abnormalities include: well-defined lytic areas (geodes), pathologic fractures, marginal erosions, and particular soft tissue swelling. Destructive spondyloarthropathy is frequently present in the cervical spine (85% of our cases) and is characterized by narrowing of the invertebral space, marginal erosion, and subchondral bone sclerosis of the vertebral body

 
 
 
 
381

Long term creep behavior of concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the findings of an experimental investigation to evaluate the long term creep behavior of concrete subjected to sustained uniaxial loads for an extended period of time at 750F. The factors investigated were (1) curing time (90, 183, and 365 days); (2) curing history (as-cast and air-dried); and (3) uniaxial stress (600 and 2400 psi). The experimental investigation applied uniaxial compressive loads to cylindrical concrete specimens and measured strains with vibrating wire strain gages that were cast in the concrete specimen along the axial and radial axes. Specimens cured for 90 days prior to loading were subjected to a sustained load for a period of one year, at which time the loads were removed; the specimens which were cured for 183 or 365 days, however, were not unloaded and have been under load for 5 and 4.5 years, respectively. The effect of each of the above factors on the instantaneous and creep behavior is discussed and the long term creep behavior of the specimens cured for 183 or 365 days is evaluated. The findings of these evaluations are summarized. (17 figures, 10 tables) (U.S.)

382

Long term testing of PSI-membranes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

Huslage, J.; Brack, H.P.; Geiger, F.; Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

1999-08-01

383

States of curiosity modulate hippocampus-dependent learning via the dopaminergic circuit.  

Science.gov (United States)

People find it easier to learn about topics that interest them, but little is known about the mechanisms by which intrinsic motivational states affect learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how curiosity (intrinsic motivation to learn) influences memory. In both immediate and one-day-delayed memory tests, participants showed improved memory for information that they were curious about and for incidental material learned during states of high curiosity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that activity in the midbrain and the nucleus accumbens was enhanced during states of high curiosity. Importantly, individual variability in curiosity-driven memory benefits for incidental material was supported by anticipatory activity in the midbrain and hippocampus and by functional connectivity between these regions. These findings suggest a link between the mechanisms supporting extrinsic reward motivation and intrinsic curiosity and highlight the importance of stimulating curiosity to create more effective learning experiences. PMID:25284006

Gruber, Matthias J; Gelman, Bernard D; Ranganath, Charan

2014-10-22

384

Opposing actions of chronic ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinoid antagonists on hippocampal long-term potentiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Memory deficits produced by marijuana arise partly via interaction of the psychoactive component, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), with cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus. Although cannabinoids acutely reduce glutamate release and block hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a potential substrate for learning and memory, the consequences of prolonged exposure to ?9-THC for hippocampal function are poorly understood. Rats were injected with ?9-THC (10 mg/kg, i.p., q.d.) for 1, 3,...

Hoffman, Alexander F.; Oz, Murat; Yang, Ruiqin; Lichtman, Aron H.; Lupica, Carl R.

2007-01-01

385

Seasonal variation of long-term potentiation at a central synapse in the medicinal leech  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent increase in synaptic transmission that is thought to contribute to a variety of adaptive processes including learning and memory. Although learning is known to undergo circannual variations, it is not known whether LTP undergoes similar changes despite the importance of LTP in learning and memory. Here we report that synapses in the CNS of the medicinal leech demonstrate seasonal variation in the capacity to undergo LTP following paired presynaptic...

Grey, Kathryn B.; Burrell, Brian D.

2011-01-01

386

Reversal of Long-Term Potentiation-Like Plasticity Processes after Motor Learning Disrupts Skill Retention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plasticity of synaptic connections in the primary motor cortex (M1) is thought to play an essential role in learning and memory. Human and animal studies have shown that motor learning results in long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity processes, namely potentiation of M1 and a temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, biochemical processes essential for LTP are also crucial for certain types of motor learning and memory. Thus, it has been speculated that the occlu...

Cantarero, Gabriela; Lloyd, Ashley; Celnik, Pablo

2013-01-01

387

Long-Term Stability of Horseshoe Orbits  

CERN Document Server

Unlike Trojans, horseshoe coorbitals are not generally considered to be long-term stable (Dermott and Murray, 1981; Murray and Dermott, 1999). As the lifetime of Earth's and Venus's horseshoe coorbitals is expected to be about a Gyr, we investigated the possible contribution of late-escaping inner planet coorbitals to the lunar Late Heavy Bombardment. Contrary to analytical estimates, we do not find many horseshoe objects escaping after first 100 Myr. In order to understand this behaviour, we ran a second set of simulations featuring idealized planets on circular orbits with a range of masses. We find that horseshoe coorbitals are generally long lived (and potentially stable) for systems with primary-to-secondary mass ratios larger than about 1200. This is consistent with results of Laughlin and Chambers (2002) for equal-mass pairs or coorbital planets and the instability of Jupiter's horseshoe companions (Stacey and Connors, 2008). Horseshoe orbits at smaller mass ratios are unstable because they must approa...

?uk, Matija; Holman, Matthew J

2012-01-01

388

Technology for long-term care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe staff shortages in long-term care (LTC) make it difficult to meet the demands of the growing aging population. Further, technology-savvy Baby Boomers are expected to reshape the current institutional environments toward gaining more freedom and control in their care and lives. Voices from business, academia, research, advocacy organizations, and government bodies suggest that innovative technological approaches are the linchpin that may prepare society to cope with these projected demands. In this article, we review the current state of aging-related technology, identify potential areas for efficacy testing on improving the quality of life of LTC residents in future research, and discuss barriers to implementation of LTC technology. Finally, we present a vision of future technology use that could transform current care practices. PMID:20128544

Tak, Sunghee H; Benefield, Lazelle E; Mahoney, Diane Feeney

2010-01-01

389

Long-term monitoring for closed sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The initial task in this procedure is to collect the available information on the legal/regulatory requirements, site and area characteristics, source term, pathway analysis, and prior monitoring results. This information is coupled with parameters such as half-life and retardation factors to develop a monitoring program. As examples, programs are presented for a site that has had little or no waste migration, and for sites where waste has been moved by suface water, by ground water, and by air. Sampling techniques and practices are discussed relative to how a current program would be structured and projections are made on techniques and practices expected to be available in the future. 8 refs., 2 figs

390

Long-term behaviour of photovoltaic installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents and discusses the results obtained from the long-term monitoring of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) installations that has been carried out since 1992 by the University of Applied Science in Burgdorf, Switzerland. Most of the 42 installations monitored were located near Burgdorf, but plant located in alpine regions, the 'Mont Soleil' PV plant in the Jura mountains and three more recent installations using thin-film cells were also monitored. The article discusses inverter reliability and presents failure statistics in table form. The evolution of specific energy yield for the various installations is examined. Also, the degradation of the photovoltaic laboratory's own PV installation caused by soiling and ageing of the panels is discussed

391

Estimating long-term health effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term health effects from iodine 131 and cesium 137 as a result of the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the USSR are discussed. Computer-generated radiation exposure distributions to the population in Europe have resulted in the following estimates: 2000-40,000 thyroid tumor cases from iodine 131 inhalation of which a few percent might be fatal; 10,000-250,000 potential thyroid tumor cases from iodine 131 absorbed via the grass-cow-milk route in the absence of actions by the public health authorities to block this exposure route; 3500-70,000 cancer cases from whole-body doses of cesium 137 (external and internal), of which approximately half might be fatal. Although there are uncertainties in these estimates they serve to indicate the magnitude of the problem

392

Long term risks of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear fission reactors are the source of radionuclides which can affect public health and the environment. For instance the volatile iodine radionuclides are either the aggressive short-lived 131 I or the long-lived 129 I (T1/2 = 1.59 x 107 y) with long term effects. The paper reports the results of a global analysis of the radioactive pollution due to nuclear power, which taking, into account the fraction of population exposed to the radiation action, yielded a group of 10 nuclides with highest collective doses. The most significant are: 129 I, 14 C, 241 Am, 239 Pu, 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Hence, the warning that the environment and public health should be carefully monitored for these radionuclides as potentially the most dangerous among the long lived nuclides produced in nuclear reactors

393

Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Created in 1992 by the Kentucky General Assembly, the Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center is dedicated to helping the Bluegrass State "act as a catalyst to change the way decisions are made in government." Their research has proved seminal to the state's advancement, and interested parties can learn about their publications, conferences, and other work on this site. First-time visitors should start by looking over some of their work in the "Publications" area. Here they will find full-length reports, their "Policy Notes" series, and PowerPoint presentations created by staff members. There are several hundred publications here, which can be viewed by topics, which range from "aging population" to "workforce development". The "Videos" section is quite good as well, and it features talks with 43 persons of interest from across the state, including journalist Betty Winston Baye and the mayor of Madisonville, Karen Cunningham.

394

Long term problems of energy supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When considering the energy supply situation, long term aspects of the requirement and the ways of meeting it are now being taken into account much more strongly than a few years ago. Although forecasts extending over fifty years require rather broad general assumptions., they clearly reveal trends which are hardly influenced by variations in the parameters determining the short term development. Thus, the author's comparison of three widely discussed world energy studies carried out by different international study groups and published very recently (WAES, Conservation Commission, IIASA) has shown important common qualitative and quantitative findings to exist, despite differences in the basic approaches and the objectives of these studies. The findings demonstrate that there is not much time left for experiments with energy programmes from a national and international point of view. (orig./UA)

395

Long-term dynamics of Typha populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

1998-01-01

396

Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

397

Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy Management will keep records management as a high priority. (authors)

398

Long-term reductions in tinnitus severity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to assess long-term changes in tinnitus severity exhibited by patients who completed a comprehensive tinnitus management program; to identify factors that contributed to changes in tinnitus severity within this population; to contribute to the development and refinement of effective assessment and management procedures for tinnitus. Methods Detailed questionnaires were mailed to 300 consecutive patients prior to their initial appointment at the Oregon Health & Science University Tinnitus Clinic. All patients were then evaluated and treated within a comprehensive tinnitus management program. Follow-up questionnaires were mailed to the same 300 patients 6 to 36 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. Results One hundred ninety patients (133 males, 57 females; mean age 57 years returned follow-up questionnaires 6 to 36 months (mean = 22 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. This group of patients exhibited significant long-term reductions in self-rated tinnitus loudness, Tinnitus Severity Index scores, tinnitus-related anxiety and prevalence of current depression. Patients who improved their sleep patterns or Beck Depression Inventory scores exhibited greater reductions of tinnitus severity scores than patients who continued to experience insomnia and depression at follow-up. Conclusions Individualized tinnitus management programs that were designed for each patient contributed to overall reductions in tinnitus severity exhibited on follow-up questionnaires. Identification and treatment of patients experiencing anxiety, insomnia or depression are vital components of an effective tinnitus management program. Utilization of acoustic therapy also contributed to improvements exhibited by these patients.

Folmer Robert L

2002-09-01

399

Long term results of pneumatic retinopexy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amin F EllakwaMenoufiya University, Shibin el Kom, Al-Menoufiya, EgyptBackground: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a commonly encountered retinal problem where rapid treatment can prevent irreversible vision loss. Pneumatic retinopexy (PR is a simple, minimally invasive procedure for retinal reattachment.Purpose: This study aimed to assess the long-term anatomical and functional outcome of pneumatic retinopexy in primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.Patients and methods: A prospective interventional study was performed. Subjects with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent pneumatic retinopexy from May 2006 to May 2007 at Menoufiya University Hospital were included in this study with at least 3 years follow-up.Results: A total of 40 cases were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 44.25 ± 10.85 years. Reattachment of the retina was achieved in 100% of cases. In 75% of cases, the primary intervention was successful. However, the retina redetached in 20% of these during the first 6 months, requiring reinjection or another procedure. Three years after the first intervention, follow-up measurement of the mean visual acuity of the eyes without reoperation was 0.40 ± 0.21 while the mean visual acuity of the eyes which needed additional operations was 0.22 ± 0.13.Conclusion: Sixty percent of the cases obtained long-term retinal reattachment with a single operation success (SOS, with good visual recovery and less morbidity than other more invasive procedures like scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy, translating to higher productivity for the patient. This procedure, being quicker than the alternatives, also saves the surgeon's time, making PR a good choice for managing primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in developing countries.Keywords: pneumatic, retinopexy, rhegmatogenous, retinal detachment

Ellakwa AF

2012-01-01

400

Visual Imagery: Effects of Short- and Long-Term Memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual imagery and perception share several functional properties and apparently share common underlying brain structures. A main approach to the scientific study of visual imagery is exploring the effects of mental imagery on perceptual processes. Previous studies have shown that visual imagery interferes with perception (Perky effect). Recently we have shown a direct facilitatory effect of visual imagery on visual perception. In an attempt to differentiate the conditions under which visual ...

Ishai, A.; Sagi, D.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Long-term memory of individual identity in ant queens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Remembering individual identities is part of our own everyday social life. Surprisingly, this ability has recently been shown in two social insects. While paper wasps recognize each other individually through their facial markings, the ant, Pachycondyla villosa, uses chemical cues. In both species, individual recognition is adaptive since it facilitates the maintenance of stable dominance hierarchies among individuals, and thus reduces the cost of conflict within these small societies. Here, ...

Dreier, Stephanie; Zweden, Jelle S.; D Ettorre, Patrizia

2007-01-01

402

Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

Timothy V.P. Bliss

2011-01-01

403

Tiagabine improves hippocampal long-term depression in rat pups subjected to prenatal inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with the later development of cognitive and behavioral impairment in the offspring, reminiscent of the traits of schizophrenia or autism spectrum disorders. Hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term depression of glutamatergic synapses are respectively involved in memory formation and consolidation. In male rats, maternal inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to a premature loss of long-term depression, occurring between 12 and 25 postnatal days instead of after the first postnatal month, and aberrant occurrence of long-term potentiation. We hypothesized this would be related to GABAergic system impairment. Sprague Dawley rats received either LPS or isotonic saline ip on gestational day 19. Male offspring's hippocampus was studied between 12 and 25 postnatal days. Morphological and functional analyses demonstrated that prenatal LPS triggered a deficit of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons, associated with presynaptic GABAergic transmission deficiency in male offspring. Increasing ambient GABA by impairing GABA reuptake with tiagabine did not interact with the low frequency-induced long-term depression in control animals but fully prevented its impairment in male offspring of LPS-challenged dams. Tiagabine furthermore prevented the aberrant occurrence of paired-pulse triggered long-term potentiation in these rats. Deficiency in GABA seems to be central to the dysregulation of synaptic plasticity observed in juvenile in utero LPS-challenged rats. Modulating GABAergic tone may be a possible therapeutic strategy at this developmental stage. PMID:25184226

Rideau Batista Novais, Aline; Crouzin, Nadine; Cavalier, Mélanie; Boubal, Mathilde; Guiramand, Janique; Cohen-Solal, Catherine; de Jesus Ferreira, Marie-Céleste; Cambonie, Gilles; Vignes, Michel; Barbanel, Gérard

2014-01-01

404

26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Similarly, if a single long-term contract requires a taxpayer to perform a non-long-term contract activity that is not incident to or necessary for the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of the subject matter of the...

2010-04-01

405

Office of Disability, Aging and Long-Term Care Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Services Long-Term Care Insurance Medical Litigation Reform Nursing Home Financing and Quality Paraprofessional Long-Term Care Workforce Other Helpful Information: About DALTCP Contact DALTCP Acronyms Glossary ASPE Home | HHS Home | Questions? | ...

406

Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type te to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh-environment surveyor (RHES) is a robotic platform with SCADA capabilities equipped with a sonar-imaging scanner, a high-resolution color CCD camera, and various combinations of sensors. The RHES is controlled remotely via a PC. This paper will discuss the development and application of this system. (authors)

407

Structural basis of long-term potentiation in single dendritic spines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex undergo activity-dependent structural remodelling1–5 that has been proposed to be a cellular basis of learning and memory6. How structural remodelling supports synaptic plasticity4,5, such as long-term potentiation7, and whether such plasticity is input- specific at the level of the individual spine has remained unknown. We investigated the structural basis of long-term potentiation using two-photon photolysis of caged glutamate a...

Matsuzaki, Masanori; Honkura, Naoki; Ellis-davies, Graham C. R.; Kasai, Haruo

2004-01-01

408

“Silent” Metaplasticity of the Late Phase of Long-Term Potentiation Requires Protein Phosphatases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The late phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP) is correlated with some types of long-term memory, but the mechanisms by which L-LTP is modulated by prior synaptic activity are undefined. Activation of protein phosphatases by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) given before induction of L-LTP may significantly modify L-LTP. Using cellular electrophysiological recording methods in mouse hippocampal slices, we show that LFS given before induction of L-LTP inhibited L-LTP in an activity-dependent m...

Woo, Newton H.; Nguyen, Peter V.

2002-01-01

409

NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression in the anterior cingulate cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurons and synapses in the mammalian brain exhibit plastic changes, which occur not only during development and under physiological conditions, but also under pathological conditions. One major cellular hypothesis is that activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength may contribute to the formation of memory and the expression of persistent inflammatory pain. Recently, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been proposed to play an important role for learning, memory and chronic pain. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are well-studied phenomena which may be related to learning and memory. NMDA receptors are the most important trigger for LTP and LTD of synaptic strength. Here, we review recent studies and present new experimental data on the roles of NMDA receptors during synaptic depression in the ACC. Furthermore, we consider the physiological and pathological significance of LTD in the ACC. PMID:17139841

Toyoda, Hiroki; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Zhuo, Min

2006-01-01

410

Long Term Evolution of Plasma Wakefields  

CERN Document Server

We study the long-term evolution (LTE) of plasma wakefields over multiple plasma-electron periods and few plasma-ion periods, much less than a recombination time. The evolution and relaxation of such a wakefield-perturbed plasma over these timescales has important implications for the upper limits of repetition-rates in plasma colliders. Intense fields in relativistic lasers (or intense beams) create plasma wakefields (modes around {\\omega}pe) by transferring energy to the plasma electrons. Charged-particle beams in the right phase may be accelerated with acceleration/focusing gradients of tens of GeV/m. However, wakefields leave behind a plasma not in equilibrium, with a relaxation time of multiple plasma-electron periods. Ion motion over ion timescales, caused by energy transfer from the driven plasma-electrons to the plasma-ions can create interesting plasma states. Eventually during LTE, the dynamics of plasma de-coheres (multiple modes through instability driven mixing), thermalizing into random motion (...

Sahai, Aakash A; Tsung, F S; Mori, W B

2014-01-01

411

The long term macroeconomic role for energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arguments about the role of energy in economic systems are incomplete without analysis of the effects of changes in the price of energy. It may be true (because energy can substitute for so many other things) that we can continue to increase energy output per capita as long as we are prepared to increase energy consumption per unit of output, but if the price of energy is higher than consumers are prepared to pay the process will come to a stop. It follows that the output at any point in time is the result of an equilibrium between a great many factors in the economy one of which is the price of energy. The question that I now pose is whether the price of energy is an especially important factor. The subject is analyzed under the headings: the economics of energy price; a first attempt to model long-term effects; what is a price hike; modelling energy price hikes; implications and lessons for nuclear energy; the present reality. (author)

412

Transuranic waste: long-term planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig

413

[Long-term stability of orthodontic treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this study was to assess long-term stability of orthodontic treatment in a sample of 1016 patients until