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Sample records for hazard significantly greater

  1. Assessing Flood Hazard in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh Using SAR Imageries with GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mahmmood Dewan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the development of a flood hazard map and assessment of flood hazard are described using RADARSAT SAR and GIS data for the historical flood event of 1998. A flood hazard map was developed on the basis of ranking matrix in two dimensional multiplication mode which was calculated using the digital elevation and land-cover data. Flood-affected frequency estimated from multi-temporal SAR imageries was considered as a hydraulic component for the evaluation of flood hazard. Assessment of flood hazard was performed by overlaying thematic data onto derived hazard map. It is demonstrated that the evaluation of flood risk can be done efficiently using GIS and RS data. It is expected that the developed flood hazard map will be useful to mitigate losses of lives and property from future flood disasters in third world cities, particularly in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  2. Modelling of seismic hazard at the northeastern part of greater Cairo metropolitan area, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the northeastern part of the greater Cairo metropolitan area is due to the presence of a nuclear power plant and the dense population and its extent towards seismic sources. This paper reviews the likely ground acceleration related to the effective seismic events initiated from the closest seismic sources to the area. For this purpose, a deterministic seismic hazard approach followed by ground stochastic simulation was performed to assess the seismic hazard in the area. Seismic sources of hazardous effects were defined. A controlling earthquake was determined, based upon an empirical relationship between the seismic moment and the rupture length of the fault during the earthquake. The soil amplification characteristics in the area were obtained by in situ ambient noise measurements with great precautions. An H/V technique has been used to estimate the fundamental frequency and amplification factors at the sites of ambient noise measurements. The values of the fundamental frequency and the corresponding amplification factor were estimated at the investigated sites within the area of interest. The maximum possible earthquake magnitude Mmax was estimated for the effective seismic sources surrounding the study area and the hazard parameter peak ground acceleration (PGA) calculated for given zones. The work on the estimation of PGAs will contribute to the determination of national seismic codes, giving guidance on which buildings must take seisguidance on which buildings must take seismic risk into consideration and the necessity to re-appraise the seismic risk for existing buildings

  3. Seismic ground motion and hazard assessment of the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, southeastern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic ground motion of the Greater Accra Metropolitan area has been computed and the hazard zones assessed using a deterministic hybrid approach based on the modal summation and finite difference methods. The seismic ground motion along four profiles located in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area has been modelled using the 1939 earthquake of magnitude 6.5(ML) as the scenario earthquake. Synthetic seismic waveforms from which parameters for engineering design such as peak ground acceleration, velocity and spectral amplifications have been produced along the geological cross sections. From the seismograms computed, the seismic hazard of the metropolis, expressed in terms of peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity have been estimated. The peak ground acceleration estimated in the study ranges from 0.14 - 0.57 g and the peak ground velocity from 9.2 - 37.1cms-1. The presence of low velocity sediments gave rise to high peak values and amplifications. The maximum peak ground accelerations estimated are located in areas with low velocity formations such as colluvium, continental and marine deposits. Areas in the metropolis underlain by unconsolidated sediments have been classified as the maximum damage potential zone and those underlain by highly consolidated geological materials are classified as low damage potential zone. The results of the numerical simulation have been extended to all areas in the metropolis with similar geological formation. (author)

  4. Seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area was undertaken. The research was aimed at employing a methematical model to estimate the seismic stress for the study area by generating a complete, unified and harmonized earthquake catalogue spanning 1615 to 2012. Seismic events were souced from Leydecker, G. and P. Amponsah, (1986), Ambraseys and Adams, (1986), Amponsah (2008), Geological Survey Department, Accra, Ghana, Amponsah (2002), National Earthquake Information Service, United States Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA, the International Seismological Centre and the National Data Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Events occurring in the study area were used to create and Epicentral Intensity Map and a seismicity map of the study area after interpolation of missing seismic magnitudes. The least square method and the maximum likelihood estimation method were employed to evaluate b-values of 0.6 and 0.9 respectively for the study area. A thematic map of epicentral intensity superimposed on the geology of the study area was also developed to help understand the relationship between the virtually fractured, jointed and sheared geology and the seismic events. The results obtained are indicative of the fact that the stress level of GAMA has a telling effect on its seismicity and also the events are prevalents at fractured, jointed and sheared zones. (au)

  5. Kappa-opioids produce significantly greater analgesia in women than in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, R W; Miaskowski, C; Gordon, N C; Paul, S M; Heller, P H; Levine, J D

    1996-11-01

    Sex differences in human responses to nociceptive stimuli and painful pathological conditions have generally indicated that women report higher pain levels or exhibit less tolerance than men for given stimulus intensities (reviewed in ref. 1 and 2). However, studies have not evaluated sex differences in analgesic responses. We recently reported that the opioid agonist-antagonist pentazocine, which acts predominantly at kappa-receptors, produced significantly better postoperative analgesia in females than in males in patients who underwent surgery for the removal of their third molars (wisdom teeth). In the current study, we evaluated the hypothesis that this sex difference is a characteristic of kappa-opioid agonism. In order to determine whether there are sex differences associated with kappa-opioid agonism, the analgesic efficacy of two other predominantly kappa-opioid analgesics, nalbuphine and butorphanol; was compared in males and females who underwent surgery for the removal of third molar teeth. We found that both nalbuphine and butorphanol produced significantly greater analgesia in females as compared with males. Considering our earlier findings, we conclude that kappa-opioid analgesia is greater in females than in males, probably reflecting a difference in kappa-opioid-activated endogenous pain modulating circuits. PMID:8898754

  6. Graphene oxide nanoribbons exhibit significantly greater toxicity than graphene oxide nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim Chng, Elaine Lay; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Graphene oxide (GOs) has emerged in recent years as a versatile nanomaterial, demonstrating tremendous potential for multifunctional biomedical applications. GOs can be prepared by the top-down or bottom-up approach, which leads to a great variability of GOs being produced due to the different procedures and starting carbon sources adopted. This will have an effect on the physiochemical properties of GOs and their resultant toxic behavior. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of graphene-oxide nanoribbons (GONRs; ~310 × 5000 nm) and graphene-oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs; 100 × 100 nm), prepared from the oxidative treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs; ~100 × 5000 nm) and stacked graphene nanofibers (SGNFs; 100 × 5000 nm), respectively. In vitro assessments revealed that the GONRs exhibited a much stronger cytotoxicity over the GONPs, and we correlated that observation with characterization data that showed GONRs to have a greater amount of carbonyl groups as well as greater length. Therefore, we put forward that the stronger toxic behavior of GONRs is a result of the synergistic effect between these two factors, and the type of carbon source used to prepare GOs should be carefully considered in any future bioapplications.

  7. Inheritance of earthquake hazard from suturing: the Himalayas as an analogue for the structural architecture and seismic potential of the Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, C.; Cowgill, E.; Forte, A. M.; Mumladze, T.; Sokhadze, G.; Elashvili, M.; Niemi, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The nascent collision between the Arabian and Eurasian continents has created the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate how structures formed during initial suturing influence and even control the subsequent first-order structural architecture of the evolving orogen. Between the Caspian and Black Seas, the Greater Caucasus Mountains form both the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the main locus of orogen-perpendicular shortening, despite being located some 700 km north of the Bitlis suture. A better understanding of active structures in the range is critical for understanding the mechanics and evolution of this collisional orogen. Developing such a structural model of the Greater Caucasus is also essential for assessing earthquake hazards. Here we begin to address these problems by using geologic maps, digital topographic data, and structural measurements to create preliminary geologic cross sections across the southern flank of the central and western Greater Caucasus. These sections span both a low-elevation foreland fold-thrust belt in the south and the main topographic front of the range ~15-40 km to the north. In addition, we investigate active deformation using topographic surveys of river terraces in the foreland south of the western Greater Caucasus range front near the city of Zugdidi. Based on these observations, we suggest that the neotectonic architecture of the range is broadly analogous to that of the Himalayas, where active deformation is not focused along a range-front-defining fault but instead is localized tens of kilometers to the south, along the south edge of a low-elevation, low-relief foreland fold-thrust belt. We infer that active faults within the fold-thrust belt sole into a shallow (~5-10 km deep), north-dipping basal decollement that roots into a crustal-scale ramp which lies beneath the main topography of the Greater Caucasus. Based on prior work on the regional geology of the range, we hypothesize that this geometry results from the Cenozoic closure of a relict Mesozoic ocean basin within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, broadly similar to the eastern Black Sea and South Caspian Basins to which it was connected. A new compilation of earthquake records from local seismic networks shows that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus Mountains are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab, likely resulting from closure of this relict back-arc basin. Himalayan-style tectonism along the northern edge of the Arabia-Eurasia collision could potentially dictate the location, magnitude, and recurrence of seismicity in the Caucasus region, and as such has significant potential for seismic hazard assessment here. Rather than solely occurring on the main thrust within the range, this model suggests that significant earthquakes may occur within the fold-thrust belt and on a basal decollement that connects them to structures within the main range. Much of the region's population, including the Georgian capital city of Tbilisi, is found within or near the foreland fold-thrust belt.

  8. Crustal Faults in the Chilean Andes: Tectonic significance and implications for geologic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibanez, I.; Cembrano, J. M.; Gonzalez, G.; Aron, F.; Yanez, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean Andes is one of the best natural laboratories to unravel the geologic nature of seismic hazards. It has recorded both great subduction earthquakes (e.g. Mw 9.5, Valdivia, 1960) and moderate magnitude crustal earthquakes (e.g., Mw 6.2, Aysen, 2007). At the Nazca-South America subduction zone, hundred-kilometer-long segmented megathrust faults can produce earthquakes of magnitudes greater than 7.5, with recurrence times between 80 to 120 years, and earthquakes of magnitudes greater than 8.5 every 250 to 500 years. Thus, megathrust-type earthquakes represent the first order seismic hazard in the Chilean Andes, causing the most damage to population and economy. Crustal intra-plate faults, in turn, have longer recurrence times, but can also cause great destruction at local scale because of their shallower hipocentral depth. However, the nature, timing and slip rates of crustal faults in the Chilean Andes remain poorly constrained. Recent studies have suggested a link between the subduction seismic cycle and activity on crustal faults, but this remains as an open question. Some crustal faults -especially those in the outer forearc- have the potential to reactivate co-seismically, when optimally oriented with respect to the instantaneous extension direction arising from elastic rebound of mega-earthquakes. Other faults may activate during the subduction interseismic period. Among these, are the regional strike-slip faults and thrusts in the main cordillera (e.g. Liquiñe-Ofqui fault, LOF). Although sparse and limited, current structural, paleo-seismological and geodetic data suggests that slip rates in Chilean crustal faults range from 0.2 mm/year in the forearc to up to 6.5 mm/year for the LOF. This implies recurrence times in the range of 50.000 to 200 years for Mw 7 earthquakes, respectively. The main implication of these very different tectonic modes for fault reactivation and the wide range of slip rates is that geologic hazard assessment of crustal faults is far from trivial: many structures considered active in the traditional sense will not generate earthquakes in thousands of years according to their recurrence times, whereas other less-well-known Quaternary faults, that have no instrumentally recorded seismicity, could trigger Mw 7 earthquakes. Furthermore, fault segments that have generated earthquakes independently, may eventually be capable to merge together into a single rupture zone and generate an earthquake of greater magnitude. Our current neotectonic and paleoseismological investigations in Chile are focused into unraveling the spatial distribution, precise geometry, and slip-rates of these faults and their potential link with short and long-term subduction zone rupture segments. A rigorous seismic hazard assessment must then consider the widely different nature, timing and slip rates of Andean faults. Understanding the nature of crustal faults will help us not only to better assessing the geological hazard associated to them, but also to understand and constrain their link with the subduction zone seismic cycle.

  9. Radioactivity measurements in Egyptian Phosphate Mines and Their Significance As a Source of Hazardous Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate mines that may contain radioactive traces in the composition of their ores represent source of hazardous radioactive waste in the environment. Radioactivity measurements have been conducted in nine underground phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert in order to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers in those mining sites. Measurements were carried out of airborne radon and its short- lived decay products (progeny) and thoron progeny, as well as radiation from mines walls, ceilings and floors. Conventional, well established techniques, methods and instrumentation were used to make these measurements. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions showed partial agreement between these two sets of data. This result is partly attributed to the complex layout of these mines, which causes undesirable ventilation conditions, such as recirculation airflow patterns, which could not be adequately identified or quantified. The radiation data obtained were used to estimate the maximum Annual Dose (MAD), and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. These calculations indicate that in eight out of the nine mines surveyed, the MAD exceeded (by a factor of up to 7) the maximum recommended level by ICRP 60. Numbers of suggestions are made in order to reduce the MAD in the affected mines. This study could help in the estimation of the environmental impact of these mine operations on the environment

  10. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Expansion of the Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2002-11-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy needs to provide additional cost-effective personal protection and public safety through expanding training and equipment testing facilities at the Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) on the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1412, for expanding training and equipment testing facilities at the Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) on the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Based on the analysis in the EA, and considering tribal and agency comments, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required.

  11. Hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although land disposal of hazardous waste has resulted in major environmental contamination and serious health consequences, this practice continues. Under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, GAO is required to study options for a program to manage liabilities associated with nuclear waste disposal facilities after closure. This report discusses the likelihood that permitted hazardous waste disposal facilities will leak after closure, magnitude of liabilities that requirements, and feasibility of other mechanisms that could provide greater postclosure funding assurances

  12. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  13. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  14. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90?%. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases. PMID:24414233

  15. Fault zone regulation, seismic hazard, and social vulnerability in Los Angeles, California: Hazard or urban amenity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toké, Nathan A.; Boone, Christopher G.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón

    2014-09-01

    Public perception and regulation of environmental hazards are important factors in the development and configuration of cities. Throughout California, probabilistic seismic hazard mapping and geologic investigations of active faults have spatially quantified earthquake hazard. In Los Angeles, these analyses have informed earthquake engineering, public awareness, the insurance industry, and the government regulation of developments near faults. Understanding the impact of natural hazards regulation on the social and built geography of cities is vital for informing future science and policy directions. We constructed a relative social vulnerability index classification for Los Angeles to examine the social condition within regions of significant seismic hazard, including areas regulated as Alquist-Priolo (AP) Act earthquake fault zones. Despite hazard disclosures, social vulnerability is lowest within AP regulatory zones and vulnerability increases with distance from them. Because the AP Act requires building setbacks from active faults, newer developments in these zones are bisected by parks. Parcel-level analysis demonstrates that homes adjacent to these fault zone parks are the most valuable in their neighborhoods. At a broad scale, a Landsat-based normalized difference vegetation index shows that greenness near AP zones is greater than the rest of the metropolitan area. In the parks-poor city of Los Angeles, fault zone regulation has contributed to the construction of park space within areas of earthquake hazard, thus transforming zones of natural hazard into amenities, attracting populations of relatively high social status, and demonstrating that the distribution of social vulnerability is sometimes more strongly tied to amenities than hazards.

  16. A Study of the Anatomical Variations in the Position of the Greater Palatine Foramen in Adult Human Skulls and its Clinical Significance / Variaciones Anatómicas en la Posición del Foramen Palatino Mayor en Cráneos Humanos Adultos y su Significación Clínica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mitesh R, Dave; Vaishali Kiran, Yagain; Samir, Anadkat.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El dolor es un síntoma común y preocupante en la práctica dental. Dependiendo de los casos, diferentes técnicas se utilizan para aliviar el dolor. Una de ellas es el bloqueo periférico del nervio trigémino. Esta, ha demostrado ser una forma eficaz y conveniente para anestesiar grandes regiones del c [...] omplejo oral y maxilofacial. Este bloqueo puede ser intraoral o extraoral. La vía intraoral es a través del foramen palatino mayor en la cual se ingresa en la fosa pterigopalatina, donde se encuentra el nervio maxilar. Las variaciones morfológicas en la posición del foramen palatino mayor puede ser de importancia clínica en la administración de anestesia local y en la cirugía del paladar. En el presente estudio, se examinó la distancia del foramen palatino mayor desde la sutura palatina mediana y el margen posterior del paladar duro, y su posición relativa a los molares superiores, así como la dirección del foramen palatino mayor. Abstract in english Pain is a common distressing symptom in dental practice. Depending upon the cases, different techniques are used to relieve pain. One of these is peripheral trigeminal nerve block. Peripheral trigeminal nerve block anaesthesia has proved to be an effective and convenient way to anaesthetise large re [...] gions of oral and maxillofacial complex. This block can be intraoral or extra oral. The intraoral route is through the greater palatine foramen in which the dental surgeons enter into the pterygopalatine fossa, where the maxillary nerve is situated. The morphological variations in the position of greater palatine foramen may be of clinical importance in the administration of local anaesthesia and in palatal surgery. In the present study, the distance of greater palatine foramen from the median palatine suture, and from the posterior border of hard palate have been noted, and the position of greater palatine foramen relative to the maxillary molars, as well as the direction of the foramen have been examined.

  17. Greater Yellowstone Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Arsdale William

    The Greater Yellowstone Bibliography is a database with over 28,900 bibliographic citations to scholarly, popular, professional, and creative literature about the greater Yellowstone region. It includes citations for journal, magazine, and newspaper articles, as well as books, book chapters, conference papers, government documents, theses, maps, CDs, and other materials. Citations can be searched by author, subject keyword, and geographic location.

  18. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  19. Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  20. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  1. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    HazCom; Hazard communication; Material Safety Data Sheet; MSDS ... Hazardous materials are substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must ...

  2. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  3. Three anomalies: A scythebill in the Greater Antillean Grackle (blackbird), a crown pattern in the Rock Beauty (angelfish), and a double spot in the Butter Hamlet (grouper), and their possible genetic significance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernest H, Williams, Jr; Lucy, Bunkley-Williams.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen tres anomalías: el pico de guadaña en el chinchilín, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), un patrón de color de corona en el isabelita medioluto, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), y un patrón de color de doble mancha en el vaca blanca, Hypopl [...] ectrus unicolor (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Generalmente se piensa que las anomalías en el pico son de origen genético y que los cambios genéticos en la forma del pico pueden ocurrir rápidamente en una población. La anomalía del pico de guadaña demuestra cuan rápido puede ocurrir una modificación drástica del pico. La anomalía del patrón de color de corona es similar a otras marcas distintivas encontradas en otros miembros de este género [isabelita reina, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus) y el híbrido isabelita azul H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] en el Atlántico occidental tropical y también indica cambios rápidos. Esto es importante porque las especies de este género se distinguen casi solamente por patrones de color. Las anomalías deberían ser registradas ya que podrían darnos algunas pistas acerca del origen genético de las características de las especies. Proponemos que los caracteres potencialmente heredables pueden reconocerse y describirse cuando aparecen en un individuo, antes de que sean heredados a la población, llenando un vacío en nuestro conocimiento de la evolución y la especiación. Abstract in english Three anomalies are described: a scythebill in Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), a crown color pattern in Rock Beauty, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), and a double-spot color pattern in Butter Hamlet, Hypoplectrus unicolor [...] (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Bill anomalies are generally thought to be genetic in origin and genetic changes in bill shape can occur rapidly in a population. The scythebill anomally demonstrates how quickly a drastic bill modification may occur. The crown color pattern anomaly is similar to distinctive markings found in other members of this genus [Queen Angelfish, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus) and hybrid Townsend Angelfish H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] in the tropical western Atlantic. It suggests how quickly this pattern could have originated in the other species, and/or some propensity of this pattern in the genus. The distinct double-spot color pattern anomaly suggests how quickly new color patterns can originate in genus Hypoplectrus. This is important because species in this genus are distinguished almost solely on the basis of color pattern and speciation may be occurring rapidly. Anomalies should be recorded because they may give us some hints at the genetic origin of species characters and some could represent potentially inheritable characters. We suggest these potentially inheritable characters could be recognized and described when they first arise in an individual and before they become inherited by a population. Following these potentially inheritable characters could help to explain how such characters enter into a population. This approach to the study of inherited characters could fill a void in our knowledge of evolution and speciation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3): 161-169. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.

  4. Greater Good Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Housed at the University of California, Berkeley, the Greater Good Science Center (GGSC) is "devoted to the scientific understanding of happy and compassionate individuals, strong social bonds, and altruistic behavior." To achieve this goal, the GGSC enlists a broad range of scholars from various disciplines, publishes a quarterly magazine ("Greater Good"), and maintains an outreach program that includes a website designed for parents who wish to foster emotional intelligence in their children. On their homepage, visitors can look over the "Most Recent" area to learn about recent findings, view webcasts with experts from the Center, and also read about their latest publications. Visitors can also view the Greater Good tip of the week on the homepage to read a highlighted article.

  5. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-11-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  6. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, M J; Genevay, S

    2015-03-11

    Trochanteric bursitis, also known as "greater trochanter pain syndrome", is a frequent and often under-diagnosed cause of pain in the lateral hip region. The diagnosis is essentially based on the clinical examination; however various forms of imaging may be useful to confirm the diagnosis and particularly to ex- clude other aetiologies. The different therapeutic options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, physiotherapy, local injections of cortisone and local anaesthetic, and extra-corporeal shock wave therapy. Surgical intervention is only indicated in rare cases. PMID:25946869

  7. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, Hugo; HR, de Jongh.

    Full Text Available Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common, but often misdiagnosed cause of lateral hip pain. Recent advances in the imaging of the hip has improved the understanding of the causative mechanisms of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). The syndrome encompasses a wide spectrum of causes incl [...] uding tendinosis, muscle tears, iliotibial band (ITB) disorders and surrounding soft tissue pathology. Clinically GTPS presents with lateral hip tenderness and pain with resisted abduction. A positive Trendelenburg test is the most sensitive predictor of a gluteal tear. Altered lower limb biomechanics is proposed as an important predisposing factor for gluteal muscle pathology. Many conditions are associated with GTPS: some of them may predispose to GTPS, while others may mimic the symptoms. Although plain radiographs are still important for ruling out other causes of hip pain, MRI has become the imaging modality of choice in GTPS. Most cases of GTPS can be regarded as self-limiting. Conservative modalities (rest, NSAIDs, physiotherapy) are still the mainstay of treatment. Corticosteroid injections are still widely used and reported to be successful. Proven gluteal muscle tears are treated with surgical repair and bursectomy. Endoscopic techniques have become increasingly popular.

  8. Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals, finding less hazardous alternatives, and using innovative treatment technologies . What are the dangers of hazardous waste management? ... Probably the most common type of exposure is drinking contaminated water. Dermal exposure - a substance can come into direct ...

  9. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  10. The large-scale impact of climate change to Mississippi flood hazard in New Orleans

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, T.L.A.; M. Van Ledden

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the impact of climate change on the Mississippi River flood hazard in the New Orleans area. This city has a unique flood risk management challenge, heavily influenced by climate change, since it faces flood hazards from multiple geographical locations (e.g. Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi River) and multiple sources (hurricane, river, rainfall). Also the low elevation and significant subsidence rate of the Greater New Orleans area poses a high ris...

  11. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K East (KE)/K West (KW) Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site have been used for storage of irradiated N Reactor and single-pass reactor fuel. Remaining spent fuel is continuing to be stored underwater in racks and canisters in the basins while fuel retrieval activities proceed to remove the fuel from the basins. The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project is adding equipment to the facility in preparation for removing the fuel and sludge from the basins In preparing this hazard analysis, a variety of hazard analysis techniques were used by the K Basins hazard analysis team, including hazard and operability studies, preliminary hazard analyses, and ''what if'' analyses (WHC-SD-SNF-PHA-001, HNF-2032, HNF-2456, and HNF-SD-SNF-SAD-002). This document summarizes the hazard analyses performed as part of the safety evaluations for the various modification projects and combines them with the original hazard analyses to create a living hazard analysis document. As additional operational activities and modifications are developed, this document will be updated as needed to ensure it covers all the hazards at the K Basins in a summary form and to ensure the subsequent safety analysis is bounding. This hazard analysis also identifies the preliminary set of design features and controls that the facility could rely on to prevent or reduce the frequency or mitigate consequences of identified accident conditions based on their importance and significance to safety. The operation and significance to safety. The operational controls and institutional programs relied on for prevention or mitigation of an uncontrolled release are identified as potential technical safety requirements. All operational activities and energy sources at the K Basins are evaluated in this hazard analysis. Using a systematic approach, this document identifies hazards created by abnormal operating conditions and external events (e.g., earthquakes) that have the potential for causing undesirable consequences to the facility worker, the onsite individual, or the public. This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and complies with the requirements of 10 CFR 830

  12. Hazardous Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Home Workers Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Hazardous ...

  13. Long term (2004-2013) correlation analysis among SSTAs (Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies) and Earthquakes (M>4) occurrence over Greece: examples of application within a multi-parametric system for continuous seismic hazard monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramutoli, Valerio; Coviello, Irina; Eleftheriou, Alexander; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Mariano; Makris, John P.; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Satriano, Valeria; vallianatos, filippos

    2015-04-01

    Real-time integration of multi-parametric observations is expected to significantly contribute to the development of operational systems for time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH) and earthquake short term (from days to weeks) forecast. However a very preliminary step in this direction is the identification of those parameters (chemical, physical, biological, etc.) whose anomalous variations can be, to some extent, associated to the complex process of preparation of major earthquakes. In this paper one of these parameter (the Earth's emitted radiation in the Thermal Infra-Red spectral region) is considered for its possible correlation with M?4 earthquakes occurred in Greece in between 2004 and 2013. The RST (Robust Satellite Technique) data analysis approach and RETIRA (Robust Estimator of TIR Anomalies) index were used to preliminarily define, and then to identify, Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) in 10 years (2004-2013) of daily TIR images acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. Taking into account physical models proposed for justifying the existence of a correlation among TIR anomalies and earthquakes occurrence, specific validation rules (in line with the ones used by the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability - CSEP - Project) have been defined to drive the correlation analysis process. The analysis shows that more than 93% of all identified SSTAs occur in the pre-fixed space-time window around (M?4) earthquakes time and location of occurrence with a false positive rate smaller than 7%. Achieved results, and particularly the very low rate of false positives registered on a so long testing period, seems already sufficient (at least) to qualify TIR anomalies (identified by RST approach and RETIRA index) among the parameters to be considered in the framework of a multi-parametric approach to time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH). The added value of real-time integration of such observations with others, independently performed from ground and satellite sensors, is also shown in the case of recent events occurred in Greece.

  14. Secondary impact hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated critical energy. A key assumption in these calculations is that above a certain critical energy, significant damage will be done. This is not true for all structures. Double-walled, bumpered structures are an example for which damage may be reduced as energy goes up. The critical energy assumption is probably conservative, however, in terms of secondary damage. To understand why the secondary impacts seem to, in general, contribute less than 10 percent of the flux above a given critical energy, consider the case of a meteoroid impact of a given energy on a fixed, large surface. This impact results in a variety of secondary particles, all of which have much less energy than the original impact. Conservation of energy prohibits any other situation. Thus if damage is linked to a critical energy of a particle, the primary flux will always deliver particles of much greater energy. Even if all the secondary particles impacted other Space Station structures, none would have a kinetic energy more than a fraction of the primary impact energy.

  15. A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  16. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  17. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  18. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathryn Louise.

    Given media attention to the US Navy's recent problems with the disposal of a large amount of napalm, an incendiary compound, this week's In the News examines the issue of hazardous waste and materials. The eight resources discussed provide information on various aspects of the topic. Due to the large number of companies specializing in the management and remediation of hazardous waste contamination, private firms will not be noted.

  19. HAZARD ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington Safety Management Solutions, LLC developed web-based software to improve the efficiency and consistency of hazard identification and analysis, control selection and classification, and to standardize analysis reporting at Savannah River Site. In the new nuclear age, information technology provides methods to improve the efficiency of the documented safety analysis development process which includes hazard analysis activities. This software provides a web interface that interacts with a relational database to support analysis, record data, and to ensure reporting consistency. A team of subject matter experts participated in a series of meetings to review the associated processes and procedures for requirements and standard practices. Through these meetings, a set of software requirements were developed and compiled into a requirements traceability matrix from which software could be developed. The software was tested to ensure compliance with the requirements. Training was provided to the hazard analysis leads. Hazard analysis teams using the software have verified its operability. The software has been classified as NQA-1, Level D, as it supports the analysis team but does not perform the analysis. The software can be transported to other sites with alternate risk schemes. The software is being used to support the development of 14 hazard analyses. User responses have been positive with a number of suggestions for improvement which are being incorporated asmprovement which are being incorporated as time permits. The software has enforced a uniform implementation of the site procedures. The software has significantly improved the efficiency and standardization of the hazard analysis process

  20. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  1. The reconstruction of a glacial lake outburst flood using HEC-RAS and its significance for future hazard assessments: an example from Lake 513 in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Jan; Benešová, M.; Vilímek, V.; Bouška, P.; Rapre, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 71, ?. 3 (2014), s. 1617-1638. ISSN 0921-030X R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP209/11/1000 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : GLOFs * debris flow * natural hazard * HEC-RAS * Cordillera Blanca Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.958, year: 2013

  2. Estudio comparativo de las normas relevantes a nivel internacional para la definición, clasificación, exclusión, desclasificación e identificación de residuos peligrosos / Comparative study of the international significant standards for the definition, exclusion, declassification and identification of hazardous wastes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David, Orjuela Yepes.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo realiza una comparación de las normas relevantes a nivel internacional para la definición, clasificación, exclusión, desclasificación e identificación de residuos peligrosos. Dentro de los principales sistemas de clasificación de residuos peligrosos se encuentran: La Convención [...] de Basilea sobre el control de los movimientos transfronterizos de los desechos peligrosos y su eliminación, El Listado Europeo de Residuos (LER) y el Código de Regulación Federal de los Estados Unidos 40 CFR 261. Las tres normas, presentan grandes diferencias en relación a los criterios de clasificación e identificación de un residuo peligroso y, por tanto, frente a sus propios listados de clasificación. Por esta razón, el presente trabajo pretende realizar un análisis crítico comparativo entre las tres regulaciones con el objeto de analizar las ventajas e inconvenientes en relación a la definición, identificación, clasificación, exclusión y desclasificación de residuos peligrosos. Abstract in english In this article the international important standards of hazardous wastes are compared including definition, exclusion, declassification and identification. Some of the main hazardous wastes classification systems are: Basel convention about the control of cross-border movement of hazardous waste an [...] d its elimination, the European list of wastes (LER) and the U.S code of federal regulations 40 CFR 261. The three standards have big differences regarding the classification criteria and identification of hazardous waste therefore about their own classification lists. For this reason, this article aims to make a critical and comparative analysis between the three regulations to analyze the advantages and disadvantages in regard to different aspects related to this problematic (definition, exclusion, declassification and identification of hazardous wastes).

  3. USGS Earthquake Hazards Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the homepage of the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This page points to information on earthquakes in Northern California, the United States, and the world. Topics include reports on recent large earthquakes, real-time earthquake maps, real-time shaking maps, real-time seismograms, earthquake network reports and updates, recent and significant earthquakes, and earthquake news releases. Users will be able to view maps and click on them. The EHP is part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) lead by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  4. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency

  5. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

  6. Vision guided landing of an an autonomous helicopter in hazardous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Montgomery, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Future robotic space missions will employ a precision soft-landing capability that will enable exploration of previously inaccessible sites that have strong scientific significance. To enable this capability, a fully autonomous onboard system that identifies and avoids hazardous features such as steep slopes and large rocks is required. Such a system will also provide greater functionality in unstructured terrain to unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper describes an algorithm for landing hazard avoidance based on images from a single moving camera. The core of the algorithm is an efficient application of structure from motion to generate a dense elevation map of the landing area. Hazards are then detected in this map and a safe landing site is selected. The algorithm has been implemented on an autonomous helicopter testbed and demonstrated four times resulting in the first autonomous landing of an unmanned helicopter in unknown and hazardous terrain.

  7. Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA's Earth Observatory Web site's newest addition, Natural Hazards, is a continually updated resource of remarkable photography taken from the satellite MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) of visible natural disasters around the globe of things such as the thick cloud of pollution currently over India and the dozen ravaging bush fires in Australia. Each page contains a high-resolution image of the event, a description of what is taking place, and links to any related images.

  8. Greater collagen-induced platelet aggregation following cyclooxygenase 1 inhibition predicts incident acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Rehan; Becker, Diane M; Yanek, Lisa R; Faraday, Nauder; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Mathias, Rasika; Kral, Brian G; Becker, Lewis C

    2015-02-01

    Greater ex vivo platelet aggregation to agonists may identify individuals at risk of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, increased aggregation to a specific agonist may be masked by inherent variability in other activation pathways. In this study, we inhibited the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1) pathway with 2-week aspirin therapy and measured residual aggregation to collagen and ADP to determine whether increased aggregation in a non-COX1 pathway is associated with incident ACS. We assessed ex vivo whole blood platelet aggregation in 1,699 healthy individuals with a family history of early-onset coronary artery disease followed for 6±1.2 years. Incident ACS events were observed in 22 subjects. Baseline aggregation was not associated with ACS. After COX1 pathway inhibition, collagen-induced aggregation was significantly greater in participants with ACS compared with those without (29.0 vs. 23.6 ohms, p < 0.001). In Cox proportional hazards models, this association remained significant after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (HR = 1.10, 95%CI = 1.06-1.15; p < 0.001). In contrast, ADP-induced aggregation after COX1 inhibition was not associated with ACS. After COX1 pathway inhibition, subjects with greater collagen-induced platelet aggregation demonstrated a significant excess risk of incident ACS. These data suggest that platelet activation related to collagen may play an important role in the risk of ACS. PMID:25066685

  9. The metallogenic evolution of the Greater Antilles

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Antilles host some of the world’s most important deposits of bauxite and lateritic nickel as well as significant resources of gold and silver, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt and chromium. Beginning in Jurassic time, sedimentary exhalative base metal deposits accumulated in marine sedimentary rift basins as North and South America drifted apart. With the onset of intraoceanic subduction during the Early Cretaceous, a primitive (tholeiitic) island arc formed above a southwesterly...

  10. NASA LaRC Hazardous Material Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenet, Remy

    1995-01-01

    In 1993-1994 the Office of Environmental Engineering contracted SAIC to develop NASA Langley's Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. One of the priority projects identified in this contract was the development of a hazardous waste minimization (HAZMIN)/hazardous materials reutilization (HAZMART) program in the form of a Hazardous Materials Pharmacy. A hazardous materials pharmacy is designed to reduce hazardous material procurement costs and hazardous waste disposal costs. This is accomplished through the collection and reissue of excess hazardous material. Currently, a rarely used hazardous material may be stored in a shop area, unused, until it passes its expiration date. The material is then usually disposed of as a hazardous waste, often at a greater expense than the original cost of the material. While this material was on the shelf expiring, other shop areas may have ordered new supplies of the same material. The hazardous material pharmacy would act as a clearinghouse for such materials. Material that is not going to be used would be turned in to the pharmacy. Other users could then be issued this material free of charge, thereby reducing procurement costs. The use of this material by another shop prevents it from expiring, thereby reducing hazardous waste disposal costs.

  11. Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal quakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  12. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  13. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries.The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years'' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  14. E-waste hazard: The impending challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Violet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India?s lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India?s current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action.

  15. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

  16. The hazard to man of accidental releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the atmospheric dispersion of tritium are discussed, followed by consideration of the dosimetric pathways. In order to assess the significance of a tritium release the doses from various pathways are estimated and compared with the doses estimated from a similar release of iodine-131. The major hazard from tritium is the ingestion of contaminated food products. For similar releases of tritium and I131 the ingestion hazard can be comparable if the release occurs near and before the end of the harvest season. However, in the tritium release case the agricultural season influences the consequences markedly and, at other times during the year, the ingestion hazard from tritium may be approximately 20 times less. The dose from inhalation of tritium is sensitive to its chemical form and for similar releases of tritiated water and tritium gas then the dose from tritiated water is approximately 104 greater than the dose from tritium gas. For similar releases of tritiated water and iodine-131 then a comparison of the inhalation shows that the dose from the iodine is approximately 300 times greater. (author)

  17. Internal dosimetry hazard and risk assessments: methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine internal dose exposures are typically (in the UK nuclear industry) less than external dose exposures: however, the costs of internal dosimetry monitoring programmes can be significantly greater than those for external dosimetry. For this reason decisions on when to apply routine monitoring programmes, and the nature of these programmes, can be more critical than for external dosimetry programmes. This paper describes various methods for performing hazard and risk assessments which are being developed by RWE NUKEM Limited Approved Dosimetry Services to provide an indication when routine internal dosimetry monitoring should be considered. (author)

  18. Turbine building hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of the turbine overspeed event and the ensuing fires and explosions in the turbine building at Salem Unit 2 on November 9, 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) initiated studies on turbine overspeed events and turbine building hazards. The turbine overspeed study has been discussed in an article previously published, and the results were also published in an AEOD special study which was issued recently. This paper discusses additional activities that were pursued in the study of U.S. turbine building hazards. It also presents information about significant international turbine building events, including one that resulted in the permanent shutdown and decommissioning of a reactor due to collateral flooding damage

  19. Subducted, detached, and torn slabs beneath the Greater Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Mumladze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Caucasus Mountains contain the highest peaks in Europe and define, for over 850 km along strike, the leading edge of the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth. However, the mechanisms by which this range is being constructed remain disputed. Using a new database of earthquake records from local networks in Georgia, Russia, and Azerbaijan, together with previously published hypocenter locations, we show that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus Mountains are underlain by a northeast-dipping zone of mantle seismicity that we interpret as a subducted slab. Beneath the central Greater Caucasus (east of 45°E, the zone of seismicity extends to a depth of at least 158 km with a dip of ?40°NE and a slab length of ?130–280 km. In contrast, beneath the western GC (west of 45°E there is a pronounced lack of events below ?50 km, which we infer to reflect slab breakoff and detachment. We also observe a gap in intermediate-depth seismicity (45–75 km at the western end of the subducted slab beneath the central Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as an eastward-propagating tear. This tear coincides with a region of minimum horizontal convergence rates between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus, as expected in a region of active slab breakoff. Active subduction beneath the eastern Greater Caucasus presents a potentially larger seismic hazard than previously recognized and may explain historical records of large magnitude (M 8 seismicity in this region.

  20. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment. PMID:24942622

  1. Household Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazardous Waste Related Links Household Hazardous Waste Publications Medical Waste Used Oil Mercury Containing Products Antifreeze Batteries Light bulbs/lamps External Links The National Library of Medicine?s Household Products Database Household Hazardous ...

  2. Seismic hazard

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Why do earthquakes occur? Earthquakes are a natural result of living on a dynamic planet. The greater part of the Earth’s interior is made up of the semi-molten mantle, which slowly turns over in vast convection currents caused by interior heating. The thin, mostly rigid crust of the planet on which we live is carried about on these currents, and the resulting stresses cause rocks to break along lines of weakness known as faults. Rocks bend, break and snap back re...

  3. Volcanic hazard assessment in western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David K.; Dibben, Christopher J. L.; Duncan, Angus M.

    2002-06-01

    Volcanology has been in the past and in many respects remains a subject dominated by pure research grounded in the earth sciences. Over the past 30 years a paradigm shift has occurred in hazard assessment which has been aided by significant changes in the social theory of natural hazards and the first-hand experience gained in the 1990s by volcanologists working on projects conceived during the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). Today much greater stress is placed on human vulnerability, the potential for marginalisation of disadvantaged individuals and social groups, and the requirement to make applied volcanology sensitive to the characteristics of local demography, economy, culture and politics. During the IDNDR a methodology, broadly similar to environmental impact analysis, has emerged as the preferred method for studying human vulnerability and risk assessment in volcanically active regions. The characteristics of this new methodology are discussed and the progress which has been made in innovating it on the European Union laboratory volcanoes located in western Europe is reviewed. Furnas (São Miguel, Azores) and Vesuvius in Italy are used as detailed case studies.

  4. Development of Visualisations for Multi-Hazard Environments in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present an adaptation of global interacting hazard matrices for the purpose of improving disaster risk reduction in multi-hazard environments of Guatemala. Guatemala is associated with multiple natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, mass movements and floods. These processes are often not independent and it is therefore important to consider and understand the ways by which they interact to generate cascades or networks of natural hazard events. We first present a review of such hazard interactions and hazard chains in Guatemala, focusing on the volcanic environments around Pacaya, Fuego and Santiaguito. Interactions discussed are those where a primary hazard triggers or increases the probability of secondary hazards. Consideration is also given to interactions where two hazards combine to trigger a third hazard, or two concurring hazards result in impacts greater than the sum of components. Second, we utilise and adapt global interacting hazard matrices designed to understand and communicate information about interactions. We explore the use of this hazard visualisation framework within the more regional Guatemalan context. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews, and a workshop with 16 participants, were held with hazard and civil protection professionals in Guatemala to solicit feedback on: (i) how visualisations with a global focus can be modified for use in Guatemala, (ii) possible end users for such visualisations, and (iii) participants' understanding of hazard interactions and their opinion of community understanding of these themes. Core ideas that emerged from these interviews were (i) the importance of such tools in rapid response, preparedness and community education, (ii) the appropriate scales for visualisation development, in order to have maximum impact, and (iii) the need to integrate anthropic factors to fully understand hazard cascades. It is hoped that the development of improved tools to understand natural hazard interactions and networks of interactions can support multi-hazard approaches to monitoring and responding to hazard events.

  5. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  6. 29 CFR 1910.120 - Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...hazardous substances. Those skilled support personnel, such...or actual exposure. These skilled support personnel, who have...can itself create significant worker hazards, such as heat stress...Medical surveillance programs. Workers handling hazardous...

  7. Sandflies in the Greater Athens region, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, B; Tselentis, Y

    1994-06-01

    During the period from May to October 1992, a survey of phlebotomine sandflies was conducted in the Greater Athens region where cases of human and canine leishmaniasis occur. Using castor-oil paper traps, a total of 3015 sandflies were caught. Of the identified specimens, 1002 (34.1%) were Phlebotomus neglectus, 541 (18.4%) were P. papatasi, 182 (6.2%) were P. tobbi, 50 (1.7%) were P. simici, 30 (1.0%) were P. alexandri, 3(0.4%) were P. sergenti and 1122 (38.2%) were Sergentomyia minuta. The seasonal activity of most Phlebotomus species was bimodal, while that of S. minuta was unimodal. The population density of sandflies varied significantly in different localities; it was low in most of the stations and high in some stations in the outskirts. Among the potential vectors of Leishmania spp., P. neglectus and P. Papatasi were the most widespread species. The former species showed high density in 12 of the 70 sampled stations, while the latter in only 4. Hence, the risk of transmission of sandfly-borne diseases is still present in the Greater Athens region. PMID:9140480

  8. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive waste in borehole facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Security experts are now very concerned that a sealed radioactive source (SRS) could be used in a radiological dispersion device to terrorize and disrupt society. The most vulnerable SRSs are the unwanted SRSs that owners must hold indefinitely because there are no disposal facilities. Near surface facilities are not safe for long lived wastes and deep geological repositories will never be available in most countries. Sandia National Laboratories recently demonstrated that intermediate depth greater confinement disposal boreholes sited in thick arid alluvium can safely isolate long lived radioactive waste. The Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, with Sandia National Laboratories, is conducting a preliminary safety assessment of intermediate depth borehole disposal in thick arid alluvium in Egypt based on experience with greater confinement disposal boreholes in the United States of America. Such intermediate depth boreholes can be used to remove unwanted SRSs from the biosphere, thus eliminating both the security and safety hazards associated with unwanted and highly radioactive materials. (author)

  9. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  10. Radiation hazards in fission fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of radiation hazards from all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle is given in terms of the UNSCEAR estimates of the collective dose commitment. The author notes that at present time this radiation hazard is negligible (less than background fluctuations); however, he warns that by the year 2000, the dose will become significant

  11. Periurbanisation and natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Loison

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous areas in recent decades urbanisation has expanded to areas where low ground adjoins mountainsides that are unstable in a number of respects. Periurbanisation in mountain basins with unstable sides poses specific problems that local players have to address. The Lavanchon basin (southeast of Grenoble, which is subject to very rapid urban growth combined with particularly dynamic mountainsides, is representative of the way activity is being brought into closer contact with potential hazards. A diachronic study of changes in land use between 1956 and 2001 shows how valley infrastructures at the bottom of mountainsides have become increasingly dense. In this context, a survey was carried out among a number of residents in the Lavanchon basin in an attempt to evaluate the degree of awareness that the population has of the natural hazards to which it is exposed. The results show that slightly more than half of the population surveyed was aware of the problem of natural hazards being present in the area, with most inhabitants being more concerned about industrial and pollution hazards. New residents were unaware of or were unwilling to accept the reality of hazards. The low incidence of significant natural events, the effectiveness of the protective structures built, the absence of information provided by the public authorities and the division of the basin between several management bodies appear to have engendered a feeling of safety from natural phenomena. The geographical distribution of appreciation of the hazard clearly shows a distinction between those inhabitants living on the low ground and those at the bottom of the mountainsides, and this corresponds fairly closely with the historical and current location of the main potentially hazardous events that have occurred.Dans les territoires de montagne, les dernières décennies ont vu l’expansion de l’urbanisation vers les zones de contact entre la plaine et les versants, lieux d’instabilités multiples. La périurbanisation au sein de bassins montagnards aux versants instables pose des problèmes spécifiques auxquels les acteurs locaux tentent de faire face. Le bassin du Lavanchon (sud-est de Grenoble, qui combine un accroissement urbain très rapide et des versants particulièrement dynamiques est représentatif de ce rapprochement entre les aléas et les activités. L’étude diachronique de l’évolution de l’utilisation du sol entre 1956 et 2001 montre la densification des infrastructures dans la vallée et au bas des versants. Dans ce contexte, une enquête a été réalisée auprès d’un certain nombre de résidents du bassin du Lavanchon dans le but l’évaluer le degré de conscience que les populations ont des risques naturels auxquels ils sont exposés. Les résultats montrent qu’un peu plus de la moitié de la population interrogée a conscience de la problématique des risques naturels sur ce territoire, plutôt marquée selon la plupart des habitants par les risques industriels et de pollution. Les nouveaux résidants ignorent ou occultent la réalité des risques. La faible fréquence d’événements naturels marquants, l’efficacité des ouvrages de protection réalisés, l’absence d’informations de la part des pouvoirs publics et le morcellement du bassin entre plusieurs gestionnaires semble avoir généré un sentiment de sécurité par rapport aux phénomènes naturels. La répartition géographique de cette appréhension du risque montre clairement une distinction entre les habitants de la plaine et ceux des bas de versants, qui correspond assez bien à la localisation historique et actuelle des principaux aléas.

  12. KSC VAB Aeroacoustic Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Justin M.; Yedo, Sabrina; Campbell, Michael D.; Atkinson, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) carried out an analysis of the effects of aeroacoustics produced by stationary solid rocket motors in processing areas at KSC. In the current paper, attention is directed toward the acoustic effects of a motor burning within the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The analysis was carried out with support from ASRC Aerospace who modeled transmission effects into surrounding facilities. Calculations were done using semi-analytical models for both aeroacoustics and transmission. From the results it was concluded that acoustic hazards in proximity to the source of ignition and plume can be severe; acoustic hazards in the far-field are significantly lower.

  13. Digging Our Own Holes: Institutional Perspectives on Seismic Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Tomasello, J.

    2005-12-01

    It has been observed that there are no true students of the earth; instead, we each dig our own holes and sit in them. A similar situation arises in attempts to assess the hazards of earthquakes and other natural disasters and to develop strategies to mitigate them. Ideally, we would like to look at the interests of society as a whole and develop strategies that best balance hazard mitigation with alternative uses of resources. Doing so, however, is difficult for several reasons. First, estimating seismic hazards requires assumptions about the size, recurrence, and shaking from future earthquakes, none of which are well known. Second, we have to chose a definition of seismic hazard, which is even more arbitrary and at least as significant about future earthquakes. Third, mitigating the risks involves economic and policy issues as well as the scientific one of estimating the hazard itself and the engineering one of designing safe structures. As a result, different public and private organizations with different institutional perspectives naturally adopt different approaches. Most organizations have a single focus. For example, those focusing on economic development tend to discount hazards, whereas emergency management groups tend to accentuate them. Organizations with quasi-regulatory duties (BSSC, FEMA, USGS) focus on reducing losses in future earthquakes without considering the cost of mitigation measures or how this use of resources should be balanced with alternative uses of resources that could mitigate other losses. Some organizations, however, must confront these tradeoffs directly because they allocate resources internally. Hence hospitals implicitly trade off more earthquake resistant construction with treating uninsured patients, highway departments balance stronger bridges with other safety improvements, and schools balance safer buildings with after school programs. These choices are complicated by the fact that such infrastructure typically has longer life than normal commercial or residential buildings, and the direct and indirect losses resulting from their failure can be much larger. Hence the issue is balancing mitigating large losses in infrequent disasters with smaller but steady losses that may over time be greater. Finally, there has been little investigation of the benefits of mitigation regulations on the private sector relative to their consequences, which may significantly increase building costs, require seismic retrofits, and cause difficulties in securing loans and insurance. Possible outcomes include reduced economic activity (firms don't build or build elsewhere), job loss (or reduced growth), and the resulting reduction in tax revenue and thus public services. Given these complexities, organizations should be encouraged to examine broader societal issues beyond their institutional perspectives, and significant efforts should be made to develop a more integrated approach.

  14. SIGWX Charts - Low Level Significant Weather

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The low-level significant weather (SIGWX) graphical product is a forecast of aviation weather hazards, primarily intended to be used as a guidance product for...

  15. Hazardous Materials Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemical accidents in plants. Before Before a Hazardous Materials Incident Many communities have Local Emergency Planning Committees ( ... case of an emergency. During During a Hazardous Materials Incident Listen to local radio or television stations ...

  16. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  17. Evaluation of volatile organic emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedman, R M; Esparza, J R

    1991-01-01

    Conventional methods of risk assessment typically employed to evaluate the impact of hazardous waste incinerators on public health must rely on somewhat speculative emissions estimates or on complicated and expensive sampling and analytical methods. The limited amount of toxicological information concerning many of the compounds detected in stack emissions also complicates the evaluation of the public health impacts of these facilities. An alternative approach aimed at evaluating the public health impacts associated with volatile organic stack emissions is presented that relies on a screening criterion to evaluate total stack hydrocarbon emissions. If the concentration of hydrocarbons in ambient air is below the screening criterion, volatile emissions from the incinerator are judged not to pose a significant threat to public health. Both the screening criterion and a conventional method of risk assessment were employed to evaluate the emissions from 20 incinerators. Use of the screening criterion always yielded a substantially greater estimate of risk than that derived by the conventional method. Since the use of the screening criterion always yielded estimates of risk that were greater than that determined by conventional methods and measuring total hydrocarbon emissions is a relatively simple analytical procedure, the use of the screening criterion would appear to facilitate the evaluation of operating hazardous waste incinerators. PMID:1954928

  18. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments, and thus prefers higher-powered incentives. On the other hand, if the agent overestimates the extent to which his actions affect outcomes, lower-powered incentives are sufficient to induce any given effort level. If the agent is moderately overconfident, the latter effect dominates. Because the agent bears less risk in this case, there are efficiency gains stemming from his overconfidence. If the agent is significantly overconfident, the former effect dominates; the agent is then exposed to an excessive amount of risk, and any gains arise only from risk-sharing under disagreement. An increase in optimism or overconfidence increases the effort level implemented in equilibrium.

  19. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification

  20. Hazard Detection Software for Lunar Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Johnson, Andrew E.; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing a system for safe and precise manned lunar landing that involves novel sensors, but also specific algorithms. ALHAT has selected imaging LIDAR (light detection and ranging) as the sensing modality for onboard hazard detection because imaging LIDARs can rapidly generate direct measurements of the lunar surface elevation from high altitude. Then, starting with the LIDAR-based Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) algorithm developed for Mars Landing, JPL has developed a mature set of HDA software for the manned lunar landing problem. Landing hazards exist everywhere on the Moon, and many of the more desirable landing sites are near the most hazardous terrain, so HDA is needed to autonomously and safely land payloads over much of the lunar surface. The HDA requirements used in the ALHAT project are to detect hazards that are 0.3 m tall or higher and slopes that are 5 or greater. Steep slopes, rocks, cliffs, and gullies are all hazards for landing and, by computing the local slope and roughness in an elevation map, all of these hazards can be detected. The algorithm in this innovation is used to measure slope and roughness hazards. In addition to detecting these hazards, the HDA capability also is able to find a safe landing site free of these hazards for a lunar lander with diameter .15 m over most of the lunar surface. This software includes an implementation of the HDA algorithm, software for generating simulated lunar terrain maps for testing, hazard detection performance analysis tools, and associated documentation. The HDA software has been deployed to Langley Research Center and integrated into the POST II Monte Carlo simulation environment. The high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations determine the required ground spacing between LIDAR samples (ground sample distances) and the noise on the LIDAR range measurement. This simulation has also been used to determine the effect of viewing on hazard detection performance. The software has also been deployed to Johnson Space Center and integrated into the ALHAT real-time Hardware-in-the-Loop testbed.

  1. 75 FR 52057 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...Applications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...and is of significant impact or precedent-setting...L.L.C., Little Rock, AR....

  2. Prevalence of hazardous exposures in veterinary practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate erinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects

  3. Prevalence of hazardous exposures in veterinary practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.

    1989-01-01

    All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects.

  4. Software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper

  5. Nevada Test Site Greater Confinement Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Greater Confinement Disposal Facility (GCDF) Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is presented in four phases. Phase one discusses why the NTS chose to study greater confinement disposal (GCD) and why an augered shaft was selected from among alternatives. The GY-82 accomplishments of the project are also highlighted. Phase two represents the actual implementation of the project by explaining the six steps required to construct the GCDF. Phase three provides an overview of projected FY-83 activities. Phase four compares confinement and costing for various methods of waste disposal to illustrate why greater confinement is effective. The shallow test plot/GCDF relationship is also introduced

  6. Building Bridges : Pathways to a Greater Societal Significance for Audience Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience research. Altogether, the 14 contributions in the report provide insights and feed the debate on the stakeholders’ respective “inhabited worlds” (the academia being one stakeholder among others), the different modes of researcher-stakeholder interaction, and possible (and desirable) areas of joint interest and collaboration. With contributions by: Jakob Bjur, Mélanie Bourdaa, Göran Bolin, Nico Carpentier, Paula Cordeiro, Peter Dahlgren, Alexander Dhoest, Manuel José Damasio, J. Ignacio Gallego, Dafna Lemish, Jakob Linaa Jensen, Peter Lunt, Maria Francesca Murru, Francesca Pasquali, José-Manuel Noguera Vivo, Lars Nyre, Brian O’Neill, Andra Siibak, Sascha Trültzsch-Wijnen, Nicoletta Vittadini, Igor Vobi? and Frauke Zeller. Stakeholder feedback from: Michelle Arlotta (DeAgostini), Andreea M. Costache (Association of Consumers of Audiovisual Media in Catalonia/TAC), Francesco Diasio (AMARC Europe), Marius Dragomir (Open Society Foundations), Sara Elias (BBC Media Action), Dragan Kremer (Open Society Foundations), Muriel Hanot (High Authority for Audiovisual Media/CSA Belgium), Stefan Lazarevi? (Serbian Ministry of Foreign and Internal Trade and Telecommunications), Karol Ma?cu?y?ski (TVP), Jadranka Milanovi? (UNICEF Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe).

  7. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  8. Undersea Natural Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kappel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Oceanography takes a look at a variety of undersea natural hazards—hazards resulting from natural processes such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. These undersea natural hazards are generally more difficult to assess than those on land because of the challenges and expense of working in the ocean. Seafloor monitoring networks, deep drilling of fault zones, new computational methods, high-resolution sonar imaging, and paleoseismology, among other technologies and strategies, are all shedding new light on hazard risk and assessment around the globe.

  9. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  10. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-10-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes.

  11. Geodetic Constraints on Fault Slip Rates and Seismic Hazard in the Greater Las Vegas Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.; Broermann, J.; Bennett, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    We address fundamental questions about how contemporary tectonic deformation of the crust in the southern Great Basin occurs in the region around Las Vegas (LV) Nevada, western Arizona and eastern California. This area lies in the intersection of the eastern Walker Lane Belt, southern Great Basin and western Colorado Plateau (CP), sharing features of transtensional and extensional deformation associated with Pacific/North America relative motion. We use GPS data collected from 48 stations of the MAGNET semi-continuous network and 77 stations from continuous networks including BARGEN and EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory. MAGNET stations have been observed for a minimum of 7 years, while most continuous stations have longer records. From these data we estimate the velocity of crustal motion for all stations with respect to the stable North America reference frame NA12. To correct for transients from recent large earthquakes including the 1999 Hector Mine and 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah events we use models of co- and post-seismic deformation, subtracting the predicted motions from the time series before estimating interseismic stain rates. We find approximately 2 mm/yr of relative motion distributed over 200 km centered on Las Vegas, with a mean strain accumulation rate of 10 × 10-9 yr-1, with lower rates of predominantly extensional strain to the east and higher rates of predominantly shear deformation to the west. The mean strain rate is lower than that of the western Walker Lane but about twice that of eastern Nevada where e.g., the Wells, NV MW 6.0 earthquake occurred in 2008. From this new velocity field we generated a horizontal tensor strain rate map and a crustal block motion model to portray the transition of active strain from the CP into the Walker Lane. For faults in the Las Vegas Valley, including the Eglington Fault and Frenchman Mountain Fault, the observed velocity gradients and model results are consistent with normal slip rates of 0.2 mm/yr, which are typical for the region. The Stateline Fault system experiences dextral slip of at least 0.4 mm/yr while normal faults south of LV collectively accommodate 0.9 mm/yr of east-west extension across a zone ~150 km wide. We see no evidence for concentrations of deformation or isolated rigid microplates within this zone.

  12. Human exposure, health hazards, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States environmental regulations, intended to protect human health, generally fail to address major sources of pollutants that endanger human health. These sources are surprisingly close to us and within our control, such as consumer products and building materials that we use within our homes, workplaces, schools, and other indoor environments. Even though these indoor sources account for nearly 90% of our pollutant exposure, they are virtually unregulated by existing laws. Even pollutant levels found in typical homes, if found outdoors, would often violate federal environmental standards. This article examines the importance of human exposure as a way to understand and reduce effects of pollutants on human health. Results from exposure studies challenge traditional thinking about pollutant hazards, and reveal deficiencies in our patchwork of laws. And results from epidemiological studies, showing increases in exposure-related diseases, underscore the need for new protections. Because we cannot rely solely on regulations to protect us, and because health effects from exposures can develop insidiously, greater efforts are needed to reduce and prevent significant exposures before they occur. Recommendations include the development and use of safer alternatives to common products, public education on ways to reduce exposure, systematic monitoring of human exposure to pollutants, and a precautionary approach in decision-makingking

  13. Radon-hazard potential of Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas formed by decay of uranium, and occurs in nearly all geologic materials. Although radon has been shown to be a significant cause of lung cancer in miners, the health hazard from accumulation of radon gas in buildings has only recently been recognized. Indoor-radon hazards depend on both geologic and non-geologic factors. Although non-geologic factors such as construction type, weather, and lifestyles are difficult to measure, geologic factors such as uranium concentration, soil permeability, and depth to ground water can be quantified. Uranium-enriched geologic materials, such as black shales, marine sandstones, and certain granitic, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks, are generally associated with a high radon-hazard potential. Impermeable soil or shallow ground water impedes radon movement and is generally associated with a low radon-hazard potential. A numerical rating system based on these geologic factors has been developed to map radon-hazard potential in Utah. A statewide map shows that the radon-hazard potential of Utah is generally moderate. Assessments of hazard potential from detailed field investigations correlate well with areas of this map. Central Utah has the highest radon-hazard potential, primarily due to uranium-enriched Tertiary volcanic rocks. The radon-hazard potential of eastern Utah is moderate to high, but is generally restricted by low uranium levels. Western Utah, where valley basins with impermeabn Utah, where valley basins with impermeable soils and shallow ground water are common, has the lowest radon-hazard potential

  14. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, R.

    2010-01-01

    GREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on ideological grounds as undesirable. As a result the principle is marginal in policy making. In this paper I consider these classic philosophical qualms in the light of recent empirical research on life- satisf...

  15. Local Subsidence in Greater Mahala, Egypt, Detected by Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, M. H.; Giardino, J. R.; Klein, A. G.

    2005-12-01

    Land subsidence is a major geomorphic problem in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Long-term subsidence monitoring is needed for sustainable development of the Nile Delta. Satellite radar interferometry is a powerful tool for monitoring land subsidence. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) provides more cost-effective and higher spatial resolution subsidence measurements than traditional survey tools. Several challenges exist for the application of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) to subsidence measurement in the Nile Delta because it is densely vegetated with high soil moisture and water vapor contents. Limitations in DInSAR as a result of temporal and geometrical decorrelations and atmospheric artifacts are overcome by carrying out the analysis on urban areas in the delta using thirty nine descending scenes acquired by the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS1 and 2) in the 1993-2000 period. Greater Mahala is one of the biggest cities in the delta and it is a home for approximately 500,000 people. Interferometric measurements of urban subsidence in Greater Mahala as well as in other cities in the delta will provide a good understanding of the pattern and magnitude of land subsidence in the entire delta. This, in turn, will help mitigate the impacts of geomorphic hazards associated with the land subsidence in the Nile Delta.

  16. Tephra fallout hazards at Quito International Airport (Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volentik, Alain C. M.; Houghton, Bruce F.

    2015-06-01

    Tephra fallout is the most widespread hazard posed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The 2010 explosive eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland significantly exposed the vulnerability of aviation operations to volcanic ash. The presence of fine ash in the atmosphere forced authorities to close most of European airspace for almost a week. A worldwide study of airport operations disrupted by volcanic eruptions (Guffanti et al., Nat Hazards 51:287-302, 2009) showed significant past exposure to tephra fall of the old international airport (OUIO) in Quito, Ecuador. A new international airport, Mariscal Sucre International Airport (UIO), located 15 km due east to OUIO, started operations on February 20, 2013. Given its location close to the old airport, UIO is also at risk for tephra fallout in the future. We identified five volcanoes capable of producing tephra hazard at UIO. Three (Guagua Pichincha, Reventador, and Tungurahua) are currently active and have recently disrupted aviation operations in Ecuador. The other two (Cotopaxi and Pululagua) are not currently active, but any future eruption from these two volcanoes would probably be explosive, hence capable of producing tephra hazard to UIO. As eruption parameters and wind profiles cannot be forecast in advance, we used a probabilistic approach to quantify the probability of tephra accumulation exceeding 1 mm and 1 cm (regarded as non-conservative and conservative bounds for airport disruption) following an explosive eruption from each volcano. Each eruptive parameter was randomly sampled within a predefined distribution, and wind profiles are randomly sampled within a 5-year dataset. The probability of tephra accumulation reaching 1 mm and 1 cm at UIO is 14.3-19.9 and 2.5-5.8 %, respectively, for Cotopaxi; 17.5-19.9 and 7-7.7 %, respectively, for Guagua Pichincha; and 44.3-44.8 and 18.8-24.9 %, respectively, for Pululagua. According to our results, Reventador and Tungurahua are not likely to yield tephra accumulations of 1 cm or greater, and the probability of tephra accumulation reaching 1 mm at UIO is 3.8-8.2 and 0.2 %, respectively. Our results show that the probabilities of tephra accumulation are mostly reduced at the new airport site with respect to OUIO (except for Reventador). The use of our probabilistic approach is not restricted to UIO, but it can certainly be applied to quantify tephra fall hazards at other airports worldwide, especially those identified as being potentially affected by future volcanic eruptions (e.g., Catania, Italy; Anchorage, USA; Kokopo, Papua New Guinea). Finally, the probabilistic method presented here can also be applied to other critical facilities (e.g., nuclear power plants) or to urban areas.

  17. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  18. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  19. Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high

  20. Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

    1994-09-19

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high.

  1. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rasuly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs. The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2–11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1–5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability and future climate change have been briefly discussed.

  2. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability and future climate change have been briefly discussed.

  3. Current status and issues of external event PSA for extreme natural hazards after Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extreme external events is emerged as significant risk contributor to the nuclear power plants after Fukushima Daiichi accident due to the catastrophic earthquake followed by great tsunami greater than a design basis. This accident shows that the extreme external events have the potential to simultaneously affect redundant and diverse safety systems and thereby induce common cause failure or common cause initiators. The probabilistic risk assessment methodology has been used for the risk assessment and safety improvement against the extreme natural hazards. The earthquake and tsunami hazard is an important issue for the nuclear industry in Korea. In this paper, the role and application of probabilistic safety assessment for the post Fukushima action will be introduced. For the evaluation of the extreme natural hazard, probabilistic seismic and tsunami hazard analysis is being performed for the safety enhancement. The research activity on the external event PSA and its interim results will be introduced with the issues to be solved in the future for the reliability enhancement of the risk analysis results. (authors)

  4. Radiation hazards and their effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation can be classified into ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on whether it is capable of ionizing atoms and breaking chemical bonds. Ultraviolet and higher frequency such as X-rays, gamma rays are ionizing. These pose their own special hazards. Non ionizing radiation is associated with two major potential hazards. i.e. electrical and biological. Additionally includes electric current caused by radiation can generate sparks and create a fire or explosive hazards. Strong radiation can induce current capable of delivering an electric shock. Extremely high power electromagnetic radiation can cause electric currents strong enough to create sparks when an induced voltage exceeds the breakdown voltage of surrounding mediums. A 2009 study at the University of Basal in Switzerland found that intermitted exposure of human cells to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field at a flux density of 10 Gy induced a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the comet assay. Mobile phones radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwaves range and some believes this may be harmful to human health. (author)

  5. Control of biological hazards in cold smoked salmon production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben

    1995-01-01

    An outline of the common processing technology for cold smoked salmon in Denmark is presented. The safety hazards related to pathogenic bacteria, parasites and biogenic amines are discussed with special emphasis on hazards related to Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. Critical control points are identified for all hazards except growth of L. monocytogenes. For this reason a limitation of shelf life to three weeks at +5 degrees C far cold smoked vacuum-packed salmon having greater than or equal to 3% water phase salt is recommended

  6. The radiological hazard of plutonium isotopes and specific plutonium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy defines the hazard categories of its nuclear facilities based upon the potential for accidents to have significant effects on specific populations and the environment. In this report, the authors consider the time dependence of hazard category 2 (significant on-site effects) for facilities with inventories of plutonium isotopes and specific weapons-grade and heat-source mixtures of plutonium isotopes. The authors also define relative hazard as the reciprocal of the hazard category 2 threshold value and determine its time dependence. The time dependence of both hazard category 2 thresholds and relative hazards are determined and plotted for 10,000 years to provide useful information for planning long-term storage or disposal facilities

  7. BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated the Biosystems Technology Development Program to anticipate and address research needs in managing our nation's hazardous waste. The Agency believes that bioremediation of...

  8. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  9. Volcano Hazards Program Webcams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcano Hazards Program Webcams Below is a list of webcams of U.S. volcanoes. All webcams are operated ... the webcam. Pu`u `O`o vent, Kilauea Volcano (HVO) Halema`uma`u from HVO, Kilauea Volcano ( ...

  10. Hazardous dust control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous particles or dusts, for purposes of the paper, are considered to be those whose size or chemical species cause harm to the population through deposition in the lungs and other portions of the pulmonary tract. A small number of pollutants, some of which are particles, have been designated under the program from the Clean Air Act for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP); a larger number are being considered for NESHAP. Several RandD needs are listed including: sensing of excess emission of hazardous dust from control equipment; need to retrofit for improved capture of small particles; improved collection of fine condensable aerosols; and modeling of control technology for hazardous particles. Indoor air particles and dusts are discussed with emphasis on characterization, indoor air cleaners, and asbestos in residences. Radon in the indoor environment is discussed as an emerging problem. Finally, an indoor air/radon model is discussed linking indoor air dusts to lung deposition

  11. Household Hazards to Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for children, it can be hazardous to pets. Halloween treats such as chocolate or candy sweetened with xylitol can make a harmful snack. Certain Halloween and Christmas decorations (especially tinsel, ribbons and ornaments) ...

  12. Flood Hazard Area

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  13. Bayesian transformation hazard models

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, G; Yin, Gousheng; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a class of transformation hazard models for right-censored failure time data. It includes the proportional hazards model (Cox) and the additive hazards model (Lin and Ying) as special cases. Due to the requirement of a nonnegative hazard function, multidimensional parameter constraints must be imposed in the model formulation. In the Bayesian paradigm, the nonlinear parameter constraint introduces many new computational challenges. We propose a prior through a conditional-marginal specification, in which the conditional distribution is univariate, and absorbs all of the nonlinear parameter constraints. The marginal part of the prior specification is free of any constraints. This class of prior distributions allows us to easily compute the full conditionals needed for Gibbs sampling, and hence implement the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm in a relatively straightforward fashion. Model comparison is based on the conditional predictive ordinate and the deviance information criterion. This new class...

  14. Developing hazardous waste programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  15. Safety assessment - hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an approach which can be used to carry out a comprehensive hazard analysis as a result of which it is possible to establish compliance or non-compliance with a defined safety criterion

  16. Uranium Deposits Radioactive Hazards

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Assessment of Radioactive Hazard of Developed Jilskiy (Kyrgyzstan), Adrasman and Taboshar (Tajikistan) Uranium Deposits, Development and Typification of Actions on Rehabilitation of the Areas and Facilities for the Central Asia Region

  17. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  18. Natural Hazards Image Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  19. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  20. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  1. Glacier Hazards from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    This "Science Now" feature from the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television program "Nova" shows students how remote sensing by satellites can be used to monitor and evaluate hazards presented by glaciers as the climate becomes warmer, causing the glaciers to melt. The feature, which can be presented as a slide show, consists of 11 satellite images with brief written descriptions that explain such hazards as ice collapses and avalanches, flooding by meltwater, and bursting glacier lakes.

  2. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  3. GASTRIC DIVERTICULA ON THE GREATER CURVATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cotea

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric diverticula are extremely rare in the surgical pathology and is usually asymptomatic. Their discovery is in most cases incidentally, on radiographic examination or autopsy. The most frequent localization is on the posterior wall of the cardia and on the lesser curvature of the stomach. Symptomatic gastric diverticula are rare, mainly occurring in patients between 20 and 60 years of age. We present a rare case of gastric diverticula on the greater curvature in a 46- year- old female from urban area. Intraoperatory, the diverticula was discovered on the greater gastric curvature after endoscopic exploration and gastrotomy, next to splenic root. The diverticul was resected with an linear stapler device. Surgical intervention effectively relieves symptoms. In adults, laparoscopic resection seems to be an attractive alternative to conventional surgery, although some authors experienced problems in identifying the diverticulum intraoperatively.

  4. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI)

  5. Primary tumours of the greater omentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary tumours of the greater omentum are very rare. Ultrasound allows the detection and characterization of such lesions, but determination of their precise anatomical location is usually difficult by US. Computed tomography determines the omental origin of the tumour. Thus,when US reveals an abdominal tumour of unknown origin, the possibility of an omental tumour, although rare, must be kept in mind and CT should be performed. (orig.)

  6. Time course for the hazard of radiation-induced pneumonitis death in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of this study suggest that there are multiple distinct peaks in the hazard function for murine radiation pneumonitis, corresponding to distinct waves of death separated by an average interval of 33 days. The times of the peak hazards are dose dependent, with peak hazards occurring earlier after larger doses, and the values of the hazards at the peaks are also dose dependent, with larger doses corresponding to a greater risk of death. The implications of a multiply-peaked hazard function for the possible mechanisms of response to whole-lung irradiation are discussed. (Author)

  7. Hazard estimation deduced from GPS and seismic data of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Mohamed, Abdel-Monem

    Egypt rapidly growing development is accompanied by increasing levels of standard living particular in its urban areas. However, there is a limited experience in quantifying the sources of risk management in Egypt and in designing efficient strategies to keep away serious impacts of earthquakes. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai Peninsula regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the recent crustal movements, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications. This work will serve a basis for the development of so-called catastrophic models and can be further used for catastrophic risk management. Also, this work is trying to evaluate risk of large catastrophic losses within the important regions including the High Dam, strategic buildings and archeological sites. Studies on possible scenarios of earthquakes and losses are a critical issue for decision making in insurance as a part of mitigation measures.

  8. The Many Hazards of Trend Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, G. M.; de Beurs, K.; Zhang, X.; Kimball, J. S.; Small, C.

    2014-12-01

    Given the awareness in the scientific community of global scale drivers such as population growth, globalization, and climatic variation and change, many studies seek to identify temporal patterns in data that may be plausibly related to one or more aspect of global change. Here we explore two questions: "What constitutes a trend in a time series?" and "How can a trend be misinterpreted?" There are manifold hazards—both methodological and psychological—in detecting a trend, quantifying its magnitude, assessing its significance, identifying probable causes, and evaluating the implications of the trend. These hazards can combine to elevate the risk of misinterpreting the trend. In contrast, evaluation of multiple trends within a biogeophysical framework can attenuate the risk of misinterpretation. We review and illustrate these hazards and demonstrate the efficacy of an approach using multiple indicators detecting significant trends (MIDST) applied to time series of remote sensing data products.

  9. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR NATURAL EVENT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2006-07-31

    This technical basis document was developed to support the documented safety analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazard (NEH)-initiated accidents. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls.

  10. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff technical position on investigations to identify fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards at a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the guidance provided to the US DOE by the NRC staff in its Staff Technical Position (STP) on appropriate investigations that can be used to identify fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards at a geologic repository. The STP defines an acceptable approach to the identification and investigation of fault displacement hazards, which in turn leads to the identification of three types of faults: Type III faults - need not be investigated in detail; Type II faults - candidates for detailed investigation; Type I faults - should be investigated in detail because they are subject to displacement and are of sufficient length and located such that they may affect repository design and/or performance or could provide significant input into models used to assess repository performance. The STP also describes an acceptable approach to conducting investigations to provide input for the analysis of vibratory ground motion with emphasis on those earthquakes that could generate the equivalent of .1g or greater ground acceleration at the location of the controlled area

  11. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Stefan C.; Boer, Hugo J.; Dermody, Brian J.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we first present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy data sets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene, (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL, and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the nonlinear processes involved in peat production and decomposition. The model results suggest that RSL rise could explain the onset of peatland initiation and imply that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr B.P. The two-phased character of peatland initiation maybe explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly nonlinear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleoecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  12. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile. PMID:24906427

  13. Is UV-induced DNA damage greater at higher elevation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Wei; Hidema, Jun; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2014-04-18

    • Premise of the study: Although ultraviolet radiation (UV) is known to have negative effects on plant growth, there has been no direct evidence that plants growing at higher elevations are more severely affected by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, which is known to increase with elevation. We examined damage to DNA, a primary target of UV-B, in the widespread species Polygonum sachalinense (Fallopia sachalinensis) and Plantago asiatica at two elevations.• Methods: We sampled leaves of both species at 300 and 1700 m above sea level every 2 h for 11 d across the growing season and determined the level of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), a major product of UV damage to DNA.• Key results: The CPD level was significantly influenced by the time of day, date, elevation, and their interactions in both species. The CPD level tended to be higher at noon or on sunny days. DNA damage was more severe at 1700 m than at 300 m: on average, 8.7% greater at high elevation in P. asiatica and 7.8% greater in P. sachalinense. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the CPD level was explained mainly by UV-B and had no significant relationship with other environmental factors such as temperature and photosynthetically active radiation.• Conclusions: UV-induced DNA damage in plants is greater at higher elevations. PMID:24748608

  14. Exploring the influence of vent location and eruption style on tephra fall hazard from the Okataina Volcanic Centre, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary Anne; Lindsay, Jan M.; Sandri, Laura; Biass, Sébastien; Bonadonna, Costanza; Jolly, Gill; Marzocchi, Warner

    2015-05-01

    Uncertainties in modelling volcanic hazards are often amplified in geographically large systems which have a diverse eruption history that comprises variable eruption styles from many different vent locations. The ~700 km2 Okataina Volcanic Centre (OVC) is a caldera complex in New Zealand which has displayed a range of eruption styles and compositions over its current phase of activity (26 ka-present), including one basaltic maar-forming eruption, one basaltic Plinian eruption and nine rhyolitic Plinian eruptions. All three of these eruption styles occurred within the past 3.5 ky, and any of these styles could occur in the event of a future eruption. The location of a future eruption is also unknown. Future vents could potentially open in one of three different areas which have been activated in the past 26 ky at the OVC: the Tarawera linear vent zone (LVZ) (five eruptions), the Haroharo LVZ (five eruptions) or outside of these LVZs (one eruption). A future rhyolitic or basaltic Plinian eruption from the OVC is likely to generate widespread tephra fall in loads that will cause significant disruption and have severe socio-economic impacts. Past OVC tephra hazard studies have focused on evaluating hazard from a rhyolitic Plinian eruption at select vent locations in the OVC's Tarawera LVZ. Here, we expand upon past studies by evaluating tephra hazard for all possible OVC eruption vent areas and for both rhyolitic and basaltic Plinian eruption styles, and explore how these parameters influence tephra hazard forecasts. Probabilistic volcanic hazard model BET_VH and advection-diffusion model TEPHRA2 were used to assess the hazard of accumulating ?10 kg m-2 of tephra from both basaltic Plinian and rhyolitic Plinian eruption styles, occurring from within the Tarawera LVZ, the Haroharo LVZ or other potential vent areas within the caldera. Our results highlight the importance of considering all the potential vent locations of a volcanic system, in order to capture the full eruption catalogue in analyses (e.g. 11 eruptions over 26 ky for the OVC versus only five eruptions over 26 ky for the Tarawera LVZ), as well as the full spatial distribution of tephra hazard. Although the Tarawera LVZ has been prominently discussed in studies of OVC hazard because of its recent activity (1886 and ~1315 ad), we find that in the event of a future eruption, the estimated likelihood of a vent opening within the Haroharo LVZ (last eruption 5.6 ka) is equivalent (styles, as well as multiple vent location areas, we present a hazard assessment which aims to reduce bias through incorporating a greater range of eruption variables.

  15. The California Hazards Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for leaders, managers, stakeholders, policy makers, educators and the public to effectively and comprehensively combat the problems caused by the natural hazards that threaten California. During this first year of operation, UC faculty involved in the CHI will identify the science and technology research priorities of the Institute, followed by the solicitation of participation by other important stakeholders within California. The CHI is founded upon the idea that the hazards associated with events such as earthquakes and floods need not become great disasters such as the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 and 2005 Hurricane Katrina if these hazards can be anticipated proactively, before they must be dealt with reactively.

  16. Barrow hazards survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a series of public meetings at which PERG presented the results of a literature review and site specific accident study of the hazards of the maritime transport of spent nuclear reactor fuel to Barrow (en route to the Windscale reprocessing works), PERG was requested by the Planning Committee of Barrow Town Council to prepare an assessment of the interaction of the hazards arising from the concentration of nuclear activities in the area with those of a proposed gas-terminal. This report presents a preliminary review of the Environmental Impact Assessments prepared by the Borough Surveyor and a critical appraisal of the hazard analyses undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive, and the consultants to Cumbria County Council on this matter, the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. After a general and historical introduction, the document continues under the following headings: a description of the hazards (BNFL spent fuel shipments; the gas terminal; gas condensate storage; the Vickers shipyard (involving nuclear powered submarines)); the interaction of hazards; planning implications and democratic decisions; recommendations. (U.K.)

  17. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  19. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  20. Six lessons learned for greater success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, W J

    1993-01-01

    These six lessons learned for greater success with your Patient Focused communications can help keep your cultural change process in sync with your operational change process. Of course, there are other key elements of the former, including: formal Patient Focused educational programs; restructured Human Resources "systems" (e.g., job descriptions and compensation programs); and migration toward greater organizational empowerment and more self-directed work teams. Still, your Patient Focused communications campaign will spearhead the cultural change process. As such, it will have the opportunity to make the very first impact. Basically, your communications can make or break your Patient Focused Care program from Day One. It's up to you--learn the lessons learned by others and your organization may follow the words of Marx rather than those of Brand: "Workers of the world, unite (on behalf of your Patient Focused Care program)!" Karl Marx.p6 "Workers of the world, fan out (in formation against your Patient Focused Care program)!" Stewart Brand. PMID:10133393

  1. Safety approaches in hazardous non-nuclear industries and their relation to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several industries present major accident hazards: nuclear, chemical, explosive, natural gas, and the various forms of transportation of their product and waste. Natural events present similar or greater potential for disaster. When the sizes and likelihoods of the accidents in question are compared there is often found to be a large gap between the public perception and political acceptability of the hazards in question, and their relative real significance or probability. A variety of regulatory agencies have developed, in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, to control such hazards. The UK chemical industry uses a variety of techniques including simple hazard identification, engineering codes and standards, HAZOP, event and fault-tree analysis, consequence or risk quantification. The multistage safety acceptance procedures used by a few chemical companies are similar in concept to the stages of the licensing procedure used in the UK for nuclear power stations. UK regulatory regimes for the nuclear and chemical industry are compared. The advantages and disadvantages of licensing are discussed. The need for sample inspection is noted. The question of performance targets is considered. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is currently under scrutiny. PSA is a useful tool, which enables comparisons to be made between levels of safety achievable by different means or in different situations. It assumes assurance of reasonable standards of operation and care. Isonable standards of operation and care. It may seem attractive as a basis for regulatory control, but it should be applied only as an aid to judgement. An example is given of the use by the Health and Safety Executive of quantitative risk criteria for advice on the siting of buildings near chemical major hazards. The presentation of risk information to the public is discussed. The Health and Safety Commission's general policy on access to information is described. 11 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  2. Geoethics: the responsibility of geoscientists in making society more aware of natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppoloni, S.; Matteucci, R.; Piacente, S.; Wasowski, J.

    2012-04-01

    The damage due to geological hazards, with frequent loss of human lives, is not entirely avoidable, but can be greatly reduced through the correct land use that respects the natural processes, through prevention and mitigation efforts, through an effective and correct information to the population. Often not responsible behaviors by politicians, as well as the need for heavy investments and the lack of information make difficult the solution of problems and slow the path to a proper management of the environment, the only way to provide a significant mitigation of damages of the geological disasters. In many countries (including Italy) the importance of the Geoscientists's role is not yet sufficiently recognized, despite it is evident the necessity of a greater attention to geological problems by policy makers and public opinion, as well as a more adequate information about natural risks to the society. The commitment to ensure prevention and mitigation of geological hazards must be considered an ethical value and duty for those who possess the appropriate knowledge and skills. Within the above context, Geoscientists have a key role to play as experts in analyzing and managing the territory's vulnerability: they must take responsibility to share and communicate their knowledge more effectively with all private and public stakeholders involved, paying attention to providing balanced information about risks and addressing inevitable uncertainties in natural hazard mapping, assessment, warning, and forecasting. But Geoscientists need to be more aware of their ethical responsibility, of their social duty to serve the society, care about and protect territory, and to facilitate the desirable shift from a culture of emergency to a culture of prevention. The search for balance between short-term economic issues and wider social impacts from natural hazards is an increasingly urgent need. Geoethics must be central to society's responses to natural hazard threats.

  3. SiZer for Censored Density and Hazard Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Jiancheng

    2008-01-01

    The SiZer method is extended to nonparametric hazard estimation and also to censored density and hazard estimation. The new method allows quick, visual statistical inference about the important issue of statistically significant increases and decreases in the smooth curve estimate. This extension has required the opening of a new avenue of research on the interface between statistical inference and scale space.

  4. Treatment of hazardous metals by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils contaminated with hazardous metals are a significant problem to many Defense Program sites. Contaminated soils have ranked high in assessments of research and development needs conducted by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program (HAZWRAP) in FY 1988 and FY 1989. In situ vitrification (ISV) is an innovative technology suitable for stabilizing soils contaminated with radionuclides and hazardous materials. Since ISV treats the material in place, it avoids costly and hazardous preprocessing exhumation of waste. In situ vitrification was originally developed for immobilizing radioactive (primarily transuranic) soil constituents. Tests indicate that it is highly useful also for treating other soil contaminants, including hazardous metals. The ISV process produces an environmentally acceptable, highly durable glasslike product. In addition, ISV includes an efficient off-gas treatment system that eliminates noxious gaseous emissions and generates minimal hazardous byproducts. This document reviews the Technical Basis of this technology. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Hazard management at the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failure to ensure health and safety environment at workplace will cause an accident involving loss to the time, human resource, finance and for the worse case effect the moral value of an organization. If we go through to the cause of the accident, it is impossible to have a totally safety workplace. It is because every process in work activities has it own hazard elements. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the best action to prevent from the hazard with a comprehensive and effectiveness hazard management. Hazard management is the one of the pro-active hazard control. With this we manage to identify and evaluate the hazard and control the hazard risk. Therefore, hazard management should be screened constantly and continuously to make sure work hazard always in control. (Author)

  6. Acceptance of radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether radiation hazards due to medical treatment can be accepted depends on the information provided about the risk and benefit assessed, as well as on the patient's subjective impressions, need for the investigation and state of the disease, and on the patient being aware that the measure is a necessary one and informed about what is actually going to happen. Furthermore, acceptance relies on the confidence between doctor and patient, rather than on the level of education of the respective patient. Fear of hazards due to the irradiation sustained was frequently voiced in connection with possible harmful repercursions of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. These fears were disproved in the majority of cases. (TRV)

  7. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  8. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  9. Hazard Communication Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

  10. Radiological hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present document is to review and assess the occupational hazards to uranium miners in Canada. Amendments to regulations set the maximum permissible dose to uranium miners at 50 mSv per year. Uranium miners are exposed to radon and thoron progeny, external gamma radiation and long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides in dust. The best estimate for the lifetime risk of inhaled radon progeny is about 3 x 10-4 lung cancers per WLM for the average miner, with a range of uncertainty from about 1 -6 x 10-4 per WLM. This central value is nearly twice as high as that recommended by the ICRP in 1981. The probability of serious biological consequences following exposure to external gamma rays is currently under review but is expected to be in the range of 3 - 6 x 10-2 Sv-1. Dosimetric calculations indicate that the stochastic risks per WLM of thoron progeny are about one-third of those for radon progeny. The annual limits on intake of inhaled ore dusts recommended by the ICRP are probably too low by at least a factor of two for the type of ore and dust normally encountered in underground uranium mines in Ontario; this is due in part to the fact that the average diameter of these dusts is five times greater than the value used by the ICRP. Radiological exposures of uranium miners in Canada were reviewed. The biological impact of these exposures were compared with those of conventional accidents on the basis of the years of normal life expectancy that are lost or seriously impaired due to occupational hazards. The objectives in considering all occupational risks are to reduce the total risk from all causes and to use funds spent for health protection as effectively as possible

  11. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  12. Towards greater harmonization of decommissioning cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the format, content and practice of cost estimation vary considerably both within and between countries, which makes it very difficult to compare estimates, even for similar types of facilities. The reasons are largely due to different legal requirements in different countries and to historical custom and practice, leading to variations in basic assumptions such as the anticipated decommissioning strategy and end state of the site, and to different approaches to dealing with uncertainties. While attaining harmonization across national approaches to cost estimation may be difficult to achieve, standardizing the way decommissioning cost estimates are structured and reported will give greater transparency to the decommissioning process and will help build regulator and stakeholder confidence in the cost estimates and schedules. This booklet highlights the findings of the NEA Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG) which recently studied cost estimation practices in 12 countries

  13. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given

  14. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents technical information and planning methods for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radio-active waste (LLW). The planning objective is to develop a disposal facility that will provide adequate protection of public health and safety by: (1) ensuring compliance with basic radiation protection criteria and (2) reducing detrimental effects from LLW -- primarily health effects from exposure to ionizing radiation -- to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The objective of the report is to provide general information and methods for selecting a site and disposal technology that will best realize the planning objective. Volume I contains summary descriptions of the GCD alternatives and of the methods for selecting an optimum alternative. Volume II consists of appendices containing more detailed descriptions of the alternative and discussions of the selection methodology. 12 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    As Boston was once known as the "Athens of America", it will probably not be a surprise to learn that the metropolitan area has more arts and cultural organizations per capita than any other place in the United States. One organization that is dedicated to strengthen this vibrant arts community is the Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston. They provide pro bono legal services for artists, training workshops to serve artists and art administrators, and they also train business professionals to serve on nonprofit boards of directors. The Council is also a chapter of the American for the Arts organization, and their homepage provides an event calendar, announcements, and talks. Along the right-hand side of the page visitors will find easy-to-use links such as "I need legal help" and "I want to be a more successful artist." Also, the site contains links to sign up for their Twitter feed and to join their Facebook network.

  16. A CASE STUDY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN CLASS I LANDFILLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study documents the average concentration, estimated daily deposition, and partitioning of 17 metal species in hazardous wastes discharged to five Class I landfill sites in the greater Los Angeles area. These sites receive a combined estimated daily volume of 2.3 x 10 to the...

  17. 76 FR 36363 - Hazardous Waste Manifest Printing Specifications Correction Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...will afford authorized manifest form printers greater flexibility in complying with...action are the hazardous waste manifest printers subject to 40 CFR 262.21(f) of the...Registry system to ensure that authorized printers: (1) Produced the manifest form...

  18. Hazardous materials management and compliance training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSHA training for hazardous waste site workers is required by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). In December 1986, a series of regulations was promulgated by OSHA on an interim basis calling for the training of workers engaged in hazardous waste operations. Subsequent to these interim regulations, final rules were promulgated and these final rules on hazardous waste operations and emergency response became effective on March 6, 1990. OSHA has conducted hearings on the accreditation of training programs. OSHA would like to follow the accreditation process under the AHERA regulations for asbestos, in which the model plan for accreditation of asbestos abatement training was included in Section 206 of Title 11 of the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). OSHA proposed on January 26, 1990, to perform the accreditation of training programs for hazardous waste operations and that proposal suggested that they follow the model plan similar to the one used for AHERA. They did not propose to accredited training programs for workers engaged in emergency response. These new regulations pose a significant problem to the various contractors and emergency responders who deal with hazardous materials spill response, cleanup and site remediation since these programs have expanded so quickly that many people are not familiar with what particular segment of the training they are required to have and whether or not programs that have yet to be accredited are sarams that have yet to be accredited are satisfactory for this type of training. Title III of SARA stipulates a training program for first responders which includes local emergency response organizations such as firemen and policemen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the needs of workers at hazardous waste site remediation projects and workers who are dealing with hazardous substances, spill response and cleanup

  19. Cables and fire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanelli, C.; Philbrick, S.; Beretta, G.

    1986-01-01

    Besides describing the experiments conducted to develop a nonflammable cable, this article discusses several considerations regarding other hazards which might result from cable fires, particularly the toxicity and opacity of the fumes emitted by the burning cable. In addition, this article examines the effects of using the Oxygen Index as a gauge of quality control during manufacture.

  20. Volcano Hazards Program Webcams

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Volcano Hazards Program Webcams Below is a list of webcams of U.S. volcanoes. All webcams are operated ... the webcam. Pu`u `O`o vent, Kilauea Volcano (HVO) Halema`uma`u from HVO, Kilauea Volcano ( ...

  1. HAZARDOUS DUST CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazardous particles or dusts, for purposes of the paper, are considered to be those whose size or chemical species cause harm to the population through deposition in the lungs and other portions of the pulmonary tract. A small number of pollutants, some of which are particles, ha...

  2. Moral hazard in ecology.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fayle, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 3, Article no. 3 (2015), s. 1-2 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA14-32302S Grant ostatní: Australian Research Council Discovery Grant(AU) DP140101541 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : economic crisis * moral hazard * power asymmetry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fevo.2015.00003/full

  3. Hazardous waste management handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine chapters cover various aspects of hazardous waste management, including: legal control and transport; hydrogeological assessment and selection of disposal sites; leachate management; solidification; water quality; recycling and reclamation; radioactive waste disposal. The chapter on radioactive waste disposal is indexed separately. (U.K.)

  4. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

  5. Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersting, L G; Arctander, P

    2001-03-01

    The phylogeography of the bush habituated African bovid species impala (Aepyceros melampus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Combined analysis of individual lineages, relationships and population genetics suggest a colonization process from Southern Africa toward Eastern regions in the greater kudu. Results are less clear for the impala, although remaining consistent with a similar pattern of historical dispersion. The study reveals a similar pattern, that is a marked divergence of lineages from South-western Africa relative to other regions. This pattern is opposed to previously published findings in other African bovid species. In the impala, the genetically isolated region is consistent with morphology because it is recognized as the subspecies A. m. petersi, the black-faced impala. In contrast, the similar split of South-western mitochondrial lineages was not expected in the greater kudu on the basis of morphology. Both species show a significant population genetic differentiation. Beyond their phylogeographical value, our results should raise conservation concerns about South-western populations of both species. The black-faced impala is categorized as vulnerable and our data show indications of hybridization with common impala A. m. melampus. The previously unrecognized genetic status of the South-western kudus could also imply conservation regulations. PMID:11298982

  6. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that approximate each other sufficiently closely to constitute a majority for the purpose of quantifying reliability. This criterion is, simply, that if there do not exist at least three sensors having weights greater than a prescribed minimum acceptable value, then the array as a whole is deemed to have failed.

  7. Volcanic Risk Perception and Preparedness in Communities within the Mount Baker and Glacier Peak Lahar Hazard Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, K.; Brand, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    A community's ability to effectively respond to and recover from natural hazards depends on both the physical characteristics of the hazard and the community's inherent resilience. Resilience is shaped by a number of factors including the residents' perception of and preparedness for a natural hazard as well as the level of institutional preparedness. This study examines perception of and preparedness for lahar hazards from Mount Baker and Glacier Peak in Washington's Skagit Valley. Through an online survey, this study isolates the influence of specific variables (e.g., knowledge, past experience, scientific background, trust in various information sources, occupation, self-efficacy, sense of community) on risk perception and explores reasons behind the frequent disconnect between perception and preparedness. We anticipate that individuals with more extensive education in the sciences, especially geology or earth science, foster greater trust in scientists and a more accurate knowledge, understanding, and perception of the volcanic hazards in their community. Additionally, little research exists examining the extent to which first responders and leaders in response-related institutions prepare on a personal level. Since these individuals work toward community preparedness professionally, we hypothesize that they will be more prepared at home than members of the general public. Finally, the Skagit Valley has a significant history of flooding. We expect that the need to respond to and recover from frequent flooding creates a community with an inherently higher level of preparedness for other hazards such as lahars. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of what controls risk perception and the interplay between perception and preparedness. At a broader level, this study provides local and state-level emergency managers information to evaluate and improve response capabilities and communication with the public and key institutions in order to more effectively protect communities during future crises.

  8. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  9. Seismic Hazard of Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, L.; Arvidsson, R.

    2003-04-01

    The method of spatially smoothed seismicity developed by Frankel(1995) and later extended by Lapajne et al.(1997) , is applied to estimate the seismic hazard of Eritrea. The extended method unlike the original one involves the delineation of the whole region into subregions with statistically determined directions of seismogenic faults pertaining to the respective tectonic regions (Poljak, 2000). Fault-rupture oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing results in spatial models of expected seismicity. Seismic catalogue was compiled from ISC, NEIC, and Turyomurgyendo(1996) and homogenized to Ms. Three seismicity models suggested by Frankel(1995) which are based on different time and magnitude intervals are used in this approach, and a fourth model suggested by Lapajne et al.(2000), which is based on the seismic energy release is also used to enhance the influence of historical events on the hazard computation. Activity rates and maximum likelihood estimates of b- values for the different models are computed using the OHAZ program. The western part of the region shows no seismic activity. b -value for models 1-3 is estimated to be 0.91. Mmax has been estimated to be 7.0. Correlation distances are obtained objectively from the location error in the seismic catalogue. The attenuation relationship by Ambraseys et al .(1996) was found suitable for the region under study. PGA values for 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years (return period of 475 years) are computed for each model and a combined seismic hazard map was produced by subjectively assigning weights to each of the models. A worst case map is also obtained showing the highest PGA values at each location from the four hazard maps. The map indicates a higher hazard along the main tectonic features of the East African and the Red sea rift systems, with its highest PGA values within Eritrea exceeding 25% of g being located north of the red sea port of Massawa. In areas around Asmara PGA values exceed 10% of g.

  10. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  11. HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

  12. Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hazards. In addition to chemicals, anesthetic gases and heavy metals, workplace hazards may include: ionizing radiation, loud noise, heat or cold stress, strenuous physical exertion, repetitive movements, whole body vibration, ...

  13. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  14. The Nature of US Natural Hazards Research, 1988-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelman, R., III

    2009-04-01

    Numerous academic disciplines have contributed to the body of published research on natural hazards and disasters. Geologists, engineers, geographers, and sociologists have participated since the topic first emerged as a formal research agenda in the early 1950s. In more recent decades, psychologists, political scientists, economists, historians, archeologists, anthropologists, architects, computer scientists, and artists have added to our understanding of environmental risk, hazard, and disaster. When examined in-print, what are the discipline-demographics of natural hazards? Who contributes and who tends to have the greater influence on scholarly discourse related to the topic? Are there clear trends in methods, techniques, or paradigmatic approaches? To what degree does this inherently interdisciplinary topic render interdisciplinary research? This paper will present initial findings from a larger data set on natural hazards and social science research. We will describe the discipline-demographics of natural hazards scholarship by examining college-level texts, peer-reviewed journal publications, federally-funded reports, and federally-funded research grants relating to natural hazards or disasters from 1988 to 2008. The citation frequency of sampled references will also be examined as a surrogate for influence on the scholarly discourse of natural hazards. In this paper, we will focus attention on the contributions of social scientists during this period, including an assessment of temporal trends relative to specific disaster events.

  15. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany; B Tavakoli

    1999-01-01

    The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) for the return pe...

  16. SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. T2) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The primary reasons for this difference is the greater activity rate used in contemporary models for the Charleston source zone and proper incorporation of uncertainty and randomness in GMAMs

  17. Emergency planning for industrial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Communities have produced a Directive on the Major Accident Hazards of Certain Industrial Activities which sets out standards for the control and mitigation of the hazards presented by sites and storages which contain significant quantities of dangerous substances. An essential element of these controls is the provision of effective on-and off-site emergency plans. This conference explores the considerable research effort which is going on throughout the world in the improvement of systems for emergency planning. Attention was also drawn to areas where difficulties still exist, for example in predicting the consequences of an accident, the complexities of communication problems and the difficulties arising from involvement of the public. The proceedings are in six parts which deal with organizations implementing emergency planning: on- and off-site emergency planning and design; techniques for emergency plans; expenses and auditing of emergency plans; lessons learnt from the emergency management of major accidents; information to the public to and during emergencies. (author)

  18. Risk factors for the hazard of lameness in Danish Standardbred trotters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Chriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    A follow-up study focusing on health problems interfering with optimal training of Danish Standardbred trotters was conducted with the participation of seven professional trainers. Our aim was to estimate the incidence of health problems that cause interruptions of optimal training, and to identify associations between the hazard of lameness and selected risk factors. The study population was dynamic and contained data of 265 Standardbred trotters monitored during 5 months in 1997 and 1998. The horses were greater than or equal to2 years old. Optimal training was defined as when the horse followed scheduled training including fast-speed trotting. Interruption of optimal training could only be caused by health problems and castration. A total of 123 new events of interruption of optimal training caused by health problems were reported. Lameness (injury located to joints and tendons) was the most-frequent cause of interruption of optimal training: 84 events in 69 horses (0.09 events per horse-month). Respiratory diseases (16 events) and muscular problems (seven events) were the second and third most-frequent causes of interrupted training. The effects of trainer, gender, age-group, time with a trainer, participation in races and current month on the hazard of lameness were estimated in a multivariable Cox proportional-hazard model. The effects of trainer, gender and age-group were modelled as time-independent. The effects of time with a trainer, participation in races and the current month were modelled as time-dependent variables. Trainer affected the hazard of lameness. Geldings had higher hazard than mares, as did 3-year olds (compared to >4-year olds). Compared to the period where horses. had been trained by the same trainer for >3 months, horses in the period 1.5-2.5 months after they had entered the training regime had higher risk of lameness (hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% Cl: 1.1-9.9). Participation in races increased the hazard of lameness significantly in the 5 days after a races. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hazards in the chemical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this book are: Preface; Introduction; Health and Safety at Work Act 1974; Safety Planning and Management; Fire Protection; Reactive Chemical Hazards; Chemical Hazards and Toxicology; Health Care and First Aid; Hazardous Chemicals; Precautions against Radiations; and An American View

  20. Land Change in the Greater Antilles between 2001 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora L. Álvarez-Berríos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Land change in the Greater Antilles differs markedly among countries because of varying socioeconomic histories and global influences. We assessed land change between 2001 and 2010 in municipalities (second administrative units of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. Our analysis used annual land-use/land-cover maps derived from MODIS satellite imagery to model linear change in woody vegetation, mixed-woody/plantations and agriculture/herbaceous vegetation. Using this approach, we focused on municipalities with significant change (p ? 0.05. Between 2001 and 2010, the Greater Antilles gained 801 km2 of woody vegetation. This increase was mainly due to the return of woody vegetation in Cuba, and smaller increases in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Despite relatively similar environments, the factors associated with these changes varied greatly between countries. In Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica, agriculture declined while mixed-woody vegetation increased, mostly in montane regions. In contrast, Cuba experienced an extensive decline in sugarcane plantations, which resulted in the spread of an invasive woody shrub species and the increase in woody vegetation in areas of high agricultural value. In Haiti, the growing population, fuelwood consumption, and increase in agriculture contributed to woody vegetation loss; however, woody vegetation loss was accompanied with a significant increase in the mixed woody and plantations class. Most regional analyses often treated the Greater Antilles as a homogeneous unit; our results suggest that historical and socio-economic differences among countries are crucial for understanding the variation in present day land change dynamics.

  1. Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 microg/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlifedlife

  2. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, greater-than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic waste (TRU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste have been estimated previously, and a summary has been included in earlier WMFCI reports. In order to have a single source for obtaining transportation cost for all radioactive waste, the transportation costs for the contact- and remote-handled wastes are repeated in this report. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the US Department of Transportation (DOT), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations. It should be noted that the trend is toward greater restrictions on transportation of radioactive waste (e.g., truck or rail car speed, shipping route, security escort, and personnel training requirements), which may have a significant impact on future costs

  3. Evaluation of passive transfer in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Elizabeth E; Fiorello, Christine V

    2011-12-01

    Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) calves can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study, serum samples from neonatal kudu calves were tested for immunoglobulin using different tests validated for domestic ruminants, including measurement of gamma globulin (GG) measured by protein electrophoresis, total solids (TS) measured by calibrated refractometry, total protein (TP) and globulins measured by colorimetry, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the zinc sulfate turbidity test (ZSTT). In a logistic regression model, TP, TS, globulins, and the natural log transform of GGT were the only significant parameters associated with FPT. Various historic parameters related to the dam, as well as calf weight, sex, glucose, and packed cell volume, were not significant. Based on the results, FPT in greater kudu is defined as GG of kudu. With FPT defined as GG kudu calves with a TS < 4.8 g/dl and a negative ZSTT have an increased probability of requiring medical intervention and additional diagnostics may be warranted. PMID:22204060

  4. Zinc research: an environmental hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suggestion has recently been made (Golden, B., and Golden, M., 1976, Lancet, i. 1133) that since the disposal via the drains of zinc-65 used in medical or biological research could be responsible for the high levels of radiozinc found in shellfish on the Oregon shore, regulations governing such disposal are urgently needed. Such regulations already exist in Britain, the United States and many other countries, and the use of radionuclides for medical research as well as for routine diagnosis and treatment is closely controlled. The administration of the British control procedures is briefly described. The environmental levels of radionuclides resulting from medical procedures are quite low, and medical research using radioactivity is generally done in a responsible manner with minimal environmental detriment. The disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants presents greater problems, but in Britain these disposals are also closely controlled and monitored. The hazards of environmental pollution with artificial radionuclides are appreciated. (U.K.)

  5. Hazardous Waste Cleanup Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This activity helps students understand some of the reasoning and science involved in choosing technologies for cleaning up Superfund hazardous waste sites. They discover that the responsibility for selecting the most appropriate cleanup method for a specific site rests with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Remedial Project Manager (RPM) or On-Scene Coordinator (OSC), with input from the affected community. An important step in this selection process is narrowing the field of alternatives and developing a list of options that make sense for dealing with the contamination at the site. The students analyze the pros and cons of using various technologies for cleaning up specific hazardous waste problems, weighing factors such as contaminant-specific requirements, technological limitations, reliability, cleanup time, and cost.

  6. Tracking World Aerosol Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide patterns and sources of aerosols are analyzed and evaluated for potential hazards to aircraft safety. Using aerosol index maps created from data gathered by the TOMS instrument, student groups will analyze and compare aerosol data from either eight consecutive or eight random days. Each group will graph the data, rank the hazard level of their study area and analyze the patterns and probable causes of those aerosols. Directions and materials are included for classes with computer access and for those without computer access. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. Note that this is the last of three investigations found in the Grades 5-8 Module 1 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the three investigations in Module 1, while related, can be done independently.

  7. Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment for solid waste management facilities in E-area not previously evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Solid Waste Management Department (SWMD) activities located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) within E Area that are not described in the EPHAs for Mixed Hazardous Waste storage, the TRU Waste Storage Pads or the E-Area Vaults. The hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in the SWMD operational emergency management program

  8. Immobilisation of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous waste, e.g. radioactive waste, particularly that containing caesium-137, is immobilised by mixing with cement and solidifiable organic polymeric material. When first mixed, the organic material is preferably liquid and at this time can be polymerisable or already polymerised. The hardening can result from cooling or further polymerisation e.g. cross-linking. The organic material may be wax, or a polyester which may be unsaturated and cross-linkable by reaction with styrene. (author)

  9. Moral hazard and ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Weinschenk, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We consider a principal-agent model with moral hazard where the agent's knowledge about the performance measure is ambiguous and he is averse towards ambiguity. We show that the principal may optimally provide no incentives or contract only on a subset of all informative performance measures. That is, the Informativeness Principle does not hold in our model. These results stand in stark contrast to the ones of the orthodox theory, but are empirically of high relevance.

  10. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities

  11. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  12. Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the construction of cyclone shelters was being undertaken. The availability heuristics caused a perception of low probability of tsunami following an earthquake, as the last large similar event happened over a hundred years ago. Another led to a situation when decisions were taken on the basis of experience and not statistical evidence, namely, experience showed that the so-called "Ring of Fire" generates underground earthquakes and tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. This knowledge made decision-makers to neglect the numerical estimations about probability of underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean even though seismologists were warning about probability of a large underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The bounded rationality bias led to misperception of signals from the early warning center in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting limited concern resulted in risk mitigation measures that considered cyclone risks, but much less about tsunami. Under loss aversion considerations, the decision-makers perceived the losses connected with the necessary additional investment as being greater than benefits from mitigating a less probable hazard.

  13. Climate change-induced impacts on urban flood risk influenced by concurrent hazards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. N.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2012-01-01

    In coastal regions, several hazards may lead to floods, and if they occur concurrently, the damage will be higher than for the hazards individually. The paper outlines an approach for carrying out a risk analysis with several hazards and applies it on a case study in Greater Copenhagen where two hazards, rainfall and sea surge, are both important. The core in the methodology is the application of copula functions as an extension of one-dimensional risk analysis and projections of future climatic changes. The results for Greater Copenhagen indicate that the dependence between the hazards is weak and that climate change most likely will not increase the correlation. The overall change in flood return periods over a forecast horizon of 110 years are estimated to decrease by one to three orders of magnitude.

  14. Earthquake hazard assessment and small earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance of small earthquakes and their treatment in nuclear power plant seismic hazard assessment is an issue which has received increased attention over the past few years. In probabilistic studies, sensitivity studies showed that the choice of the lower bound magnitude used in hazard calculations can have a larger than expected effect on the calculated hazard. Of particular interest is the fact that some of the difference in seismic hazard calculations between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies can be attributed to this choice. The LLNL study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 3.75 while the EPRI study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 5.0. The magnitudes used were assumed to be body wave magnitudes or their equivalents. In deterministic studies recent ground motion recordings of small to moderate earthquakes at or near nuclear power plants have shown that the high frequencies of design response spectra may be exceeded. These exceedances became important issues in the licensing of the Summer and Perry nuclear power plants. At various times in the past particular concerns have been raised with respect to the hazard and damage potential of small to moderate earthquakes occurring at very shallow depths. In this paper a closer look is taken at these issues. Emphasis is given to the impact of lower bound magnitude on probabilistic hazard calculations and the historical record of damage from smad the historical record of damage from small to moderate earthquakes. Limited recommendations are made as to how these issues should be viewed

  15. Emergency Assessment of Postfire Debris-Flow Hazards for the 2009 Station Fire, San Gabriel Mountains, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.; Staley, Dennis M.; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an emergency assessment of potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2009 Station fire in Los Angeles County, southern California. Statistical-empirical models developed for postfire debris flows are used to estimate the probability and volume of debris-flow production from 678 drainage basins within the burned area and to generate maps of areas that may be inundated along the San Gabriel mountain front by the estimated volume of material. Debris-flow probabilities and volumes are estimated as combined functions of different measures of basin burned extent, gradient, and material properties in response to both a 3-hour-duration, 1-year-recurrence thunderstorm and to a 12-hour-duration, 2-year recurrence storm. Debris-flow inundation areas are mapped for scenarios where all sediment-retention basins are empty and where the basins are all completely full. This assessment provides critical information for issuing warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning evacuation timing and routes within the first two winters following the fire. Tributary basins that drain into Pacoima Canyon, Big Tujunga Canyon, Arroyo Seco, West Fork of the San Gabriel River, and Devils Canyon were identified as having probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, the potential to produce debris flows with volumes greater than 100,000 m3, and the highest Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking in response to both storms. The predicted high probability and large magnitude of the response to such short-recurrence storms indicates the potential for significant debris-flow impacts to any buildings, roads, bridges, culverts, and reservoirs located both within these drainages and downstream from the burned area. These areas will require appropriate debris-flow mitigation and warning efforts. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 m3, and high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings were estimated in response to both short recurrence-interval (1- and 2-year) storms for all but the smallest basins along the San Gabriel mountain front between Big Tujunga Canyon and Arroyo Seco. The combination of high probabilities and large magnitudes determined for these basins indicates significant debris-flow hazards for neighborhoods along the mountain front. When the capacity of sediment-retention basins is exceeded, debris flows may be deposited in neighborhoods and streets and impact infrastructure between the mountain front and Foothill Boulevard. In addition, debris flows may be deposited in neighborhoods immediately below unprotected basins. Hazards to neighborhoods and structures at risk from these events will require appropriate debris-flow mitigation and warning efforts.

  16. The value of historical documents for hazard zone mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Barnikel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of historical data of small mountain torrents in Alpine catchment areas has shown a significant difference between the results of a regular hazard zone mapping and a thorough historical analysis. The Gemsbach in the Ostrach valley near Hinterstein (Municipality of Hindelang, southern Bavaria/Germany serves, among others, as an example. A 'traditional' hazard zone for the Gemsbach has been mapped in the 1990s. The oldest event included in the analysis was the flood of 1954. But historical data collected and analysed by the HANG-project shows flood-prone areas around the Gemsbach differing greatly in size and location from the one shown in the hazard zone maps. The inclusion of all data available for the Gemsbach area (15 events between 1671 and 1960 collected from four different archives leads to a completely new picture of the regional hazardous activity and demands a re-structuring of the traditional way of hazard zone mapping.

  17. Flood Hazard Recurrence Frequencies for the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE) regulations outline the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. The NPH considered in this report is flooding. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve defines, as a function of water elevation, the annual probability of occurrence or the return period in years. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curves provide basis to avoid unnecessary facility upgrades, to establish appropriate design criteria for new facilities, and to develop emergency preparedness plans to mitigate the consequences of floods. A method based on precipitation, basin runoff and open channel hydraulics was developed to determine probabilistic flood hazard curves for the Savannah River Site. The calculated flood hazard curves show that the probabilities of flooding existing SRS major facilities are significantly less than 1.E-05 per year

  18. Hydrologic versus geomorphic drivers of trends in flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Louise J.; Singer, Michael Bliss; Kirchner, James W.

    2015-01-01

    is a major hazard to lives and infrastructure, but trends in flood hazard are poorly understood. The capacity of river channels to convey flood flows is typically assumed to be stationary, so changes in flood frequency are thought to be driven primarily by trends in streamflow. We have developed new methods for separately quantifying how trends in both streamflow and channel capacity have affected flood frequency at gauging sites across the United States Flood frequency was generally nonstationary, with increasing flood hazard at a statistically significant majority of sites. Changes in flood hazard driven by channel capacity were smaller, but more numerous, than those driven by streamflow. Our results demonstrate that accurately quantifying changes in flood hazard requires accounting separately for trends in both streamflow and channel capacity. They also show that channel capacity trends may have unforeseen consequences for flood management and for estimating flood insurance costs.

  19. Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates incorporating site effects - An example from Indiana, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, J.S.; Park, C.H.; Nowack, R.L.; Hill, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published probabilistic earthquake hazard maps for the United States based on current knowledge of past earthquake activity and geological constraints on earthquake potential. These maps for the central and eastern United States assume standard site conditions with Swave velocities of 760 m/s in the top 30 m. For urban and infrastructure planning and long-term budgeting, the public is interested in similar probabilistic seismic hazard maps that take into account near-surface geological materials. We have implemented a probabilistic method for incorporating site effects into the USGS seismic hazard analysis that takes into account the first-order effects of the surface geologic conditions. The thicknesses of sediments, which play a large role in amplification, were derived from a P-wave refraction database with over 13, 000 profiles, and a preliminary geology-based velocity model was constructed from available information on S-wave velocities. An interesting feature of the preliminary hazard maps incorporating site effects is the approximate factor of two increases in the 1-Hz spectral acceleration with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for parts of the greater Indianapolis metropolitan region and surrounding parts of central Indiana. This effect is primarily due to the relatively thick sequence of sediments infilling ancient bedrock topography that has been deposited since the Pleistocene Epoch. As expected, the Late Pleistocene and Holocene depositional systems of the Wabash and Ohio Rivers produce additional amplification in the southwestern part of Indiana. Ground motions decrease, as would be expected, toward the bedrock units in south-central Indiana, where motions are significantly lower than the values on the USGS maps.

  20. Hazardous Environment Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed video overlay calibration and demonstration techniques for ground-based telerobotics. Through a technology sharing agreement with JPL, Deneb Robotics added this as an option to its robotics software, TELEGRIP. The software is used for remotely operating robots in nuclear and hazardous environments in industries including automotive and medical. The option allows the operator to utilize video to calibrate 3-D computer models with the actual environment, and thus plan and optimize robot trajectories before the program is automatically generated.

  1. [Occupational bio hazards: current issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, there was noted a large advancement of knowledge on living organisms and their products posing a potential occupational risk. Novel risk factors, often new to science, were identified, the role and significance of already known factors better comprehended, and occupational groups endangered by biological hazards more thoroughly recognized. Novel viruses and prions, emerging in different parts of the world, may pose a particular threat to health and life of health care workers, agriculture workers and veterinarians. A new coronavirus (SCoV) that evoked a rapid outbreak of disease described as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the first half of 2003 may serve as an example. The disease was particularly common among health care workers. Previously discovered zoonotic viruses, Nipah virus in pigs and Hendra virus in horses, may be a cause of fatal encephalitis in animal farmers. Hantaviruses (Puumala, Hantaan, Sin Nombre and others) infecting field rodents may be a cause of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in farmers and laboratory workers. Prions responsible for inducing a zoonotic variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) are considered to be a potential cause of work-related infections in agricultural and health care workers, however, this assumption has not as yet been supported by any conclusive evidence. In many countries, blood-borne occupational infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major epidemiological problem among health care workers, mostly because no vaccine against this virus has been produced to date. Vaccinations effectively restricted the number of occupational infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and work-related infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are very rare. Hazardous bioserosols, occurring in many work environments, pose an occupational health hazard of particular importance. Many new biological factors present in organic dusts that may induce work-related allergic and immunotoxic diseases among farmers and workers of the agricultural and wood industries have been identified. Droplet aerosols, which are generated from water, oils, oil-water emulsions and other liquids in various work environments, may contain infectious agents (Legionella spp.) as well as allergic and/or toxic agents. It has been shown that allergens and endotoxins produced by Gram-negative bacteria occurring in oil mist from metalworking fluids may cause occupational respiratory diseases in workers of the metallurgic industry. PMID:15156765

  2. Regulatory barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary federal regulatory programs that influence the development of new technology for hazardous waste are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, also commonly known as Superfund). Two important aspects of RCRA that can create barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation are technology-based waste pre-treatment standards and a cumbersome permitting program. By choosing a technology-based approach to the RCRA land disposal restrictions program, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has simultaneously created tremendous demand for the technologies specified in its regulations, while at the same time significantly reduced incentives for technology innovation that might have otherwise existed. Also, the RCRA hazardous waste permitting process can take years and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The natural tendency of permit writers to be cautious of unproven (i.e., innovative) technology also can create a barrier to deployment of new technologies. EPA has created several permitting innovations, however, to attempt to mitigate this latter barrier. Understanding the constraints of these permitting innovations can be important to the success of hazardous waste technology development programs. 3 refs

  3. Robotics and artificial intelligence for hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our technological society, hazardous materials including toxic chemicals, flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances, and biological agents, are used and handled routinely. Each year, many workers who handle these substances are accidently contaminated, in some cases resulting in injury, death, or chronic disabilities. If these hazardous materials could be handled remotely, either with a teleoperated robot (operated by a worker in a safe location) or by an autonomous robot, then human suffering and economic costs of accidental exposures could be dramatically reduced. At present, it is still difficult for commercial robotic technology to completely replace humans involved in performing complex work tasks in hazardous environments. The robotics efforts at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research represent a significant effort at contributing to the advancement of robotics for use in hazardous environments. While this effort is very broad-based, ranging from dextrous manipulation to mobility and integrated sensing, the technical portion of this paper will focus on machine learning and the high-level decision making needed for autonomous robotics

  4. Market Transparency, Adverse Selection, and Moral Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Tobias J.; Lambertz, Christian; Stahl, Konrad O.

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of improvements in market transparency on eBay on seller exit and continuing sellers' behavior. An improvement in market transparency by reducing strategic bias in buyer ratings led to a significant increase in buyer valuation especially of sellers rated poorly prior to the change, but not to an increase in seller exit. When sellers had the choice between exiting'??a reduction in adverse selection'??and improved behavior'??a reduction in moral hazard'??, they pref...

  5. Volatile organic migration from hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatile organics in hazardous waste piles and organic liquid spills generate gaseous vapors that can have a significant negative environmental impact. Present methods for calculating organic vapor migration through soils neglect many important phenomena that influence the magnitude of the migration rate. This paper presents a methodology for predicting organic vapor migration that involves two-phase flow, absorption in soil moisture, and transport by diffusive and advective mechanisms

  6. Seismic hazard assessment of the Province of Murcia (SE Spain): analysis of source contribution to hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mayordomo, J.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2007-10-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Province of Murcia in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral accelerations [SA( T)] is presented in this paper. In contrast to most of the previous studies in the region, which were performed for PGA making use of intensity-to-PGA relationships, hazard is here calculated in terms of magnitude and using European spectral ground-motion models. Moreover, we have considered the most important faults in the region as specific seismic sources, and also comprehensively reviewed the earthquake catalogue. Hazard calculations are performed following the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology using a logic tree, which accounts for three different seismic source zonings and three different ground-motion models. Hazard maps in terms of PGA and SA(0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 s) and coefficient of variation (COV) for the 475-year return period are shown. Subsequent analysis is focused on three sites of the province, namely, the cities of Murcia, Lorca and Cartagena, which are important industrial and tourism centres. Results at these sites have been analysed to evaluate the influence of the different input options. The most important factor affecting the results is the choice of the attenuation relationship, whereas the influence of the selected seismic source zonings appears strongly site dependant. Finally, we have performed an analysis of source contribution to hazard at each of these cities to provide preliminary guidance in devising specific risk scenarios. We have found that local source zones control the hazard for PGA and SA( T ? 1.0 s), although contribution from specific fault sources and long-distance north Algerian sources becomes significant from SA(0.5 s) onwards.

  7. Statistical issues of hazardous agents

    OpenAIRE

    Urfer, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of hazards associated with exposure to chemicals, understanding of relationships between dose and adverse effect, extrapolation of effects from high experimental doses to low doses associated with actual exposures, and extrapolation from effects observed in animals to effects expected in humans are the main issues of statistical research in risk assessment of hazardous agents. We discuss statistical aspects of inhalation toxicology, proof of hazard, genetic toxicology and the role ...

  8. Forecasting probabilistic seismic shaking for greater Tokyo from 400 years of intensity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, S.B.; Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.

    2007-01-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past shaking. We calculate the time-averaged (Poisson) probability of severe shaking by using more than 10,000 intensity observations recorded since AD 1600 in a 350 km-wide box centered on Tokyo. Unlike other hazard-assessment methods, source and site effects are included without modeling, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake nor the location and slip rate of any fault. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct here suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA ??? 6 shaking (??? PGA ??? 0.4 g or MMI ??? IX) is 30%-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10% 15% in Chiba and Tsukuba. This result means that there is a 30% chance that 4 million people will be subjected to IJMA ??? 6 shaking during an average 30-year period. We also produce exceedance maps of PGA for building-code regulations, and calculate short-term hazard associated with a hypothetical catastrophe bond. Our results resemble an independent assessment developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis for greater Tokyo. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  9. Auditing hazardous waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that audit standards consisting of volatile and semivoltile organics have been established by the EPA to be provided to federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors for use in performance audits to assess the accuracy of measurement methods used during hazardous waste trial burns. The volatile organic audit standards currently total 29 gaseous organics in 5, 6, 7, 9, and 18-component mixtures at part-per-billion (ppb) levels (1 to 10 000 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders in a balance gas of nitrogen. The semivoltile organic audit standards currently total six organics which are spiked onto XAD-2 cartridges for auditing analysis procedures. Studies of all organic standards have been performed to determine the stability of the compounds and the feasibility of using them as performance audit materials. Results as of July 1987 indicate that all of the selected organic compounds are adequately stabile for use as reliable audit materials. Performance audits have been conducted with the audit materials to assess the accuracy of the measurement methods. To date, 160 performance audits have been initiated with the ppb-level audit gases. The audit results obtained with audit gases during hazardous waste trial burn tests were generally within ±50% of the audit concentrations. A limited number of audit results have been obtained with spiked XAD-2 cartridges, and the results have generally been within ±35% of the audit concentrationshe audit concentrations

  10. Communication in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radios were investigated for use in hazardous environments where protective breathing equipment such as plastic suits and respirators interfere with communication. A radio system, manufactured by Communications-Applied technology (C-AT), was identified that was designed specifically for hazardous environment communications. This equipment had been used successfully by the US Army and NASA for several years. C-AT equipment was evaluated in plantwide applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) using temporary frequencies obtained by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR). Radios performed well in all applications, which included a tritium facility, high-level caves, a nuclear reactor building, tank farm, and a canyon building interior. Permanent frequencies were obtained by DOE-SR for two complete six-man C-AT systems at SRP. Because of the relatively short range of these systems, replicates will cover all applications of this type of equipment plantwide. Twelve radio systems are currently being used successfully in plantwide applications

  11. Microbiological quality of food in relation to hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training in UK catering and retail premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Lock, D; Barnes, J; Mitchell, R T

    2003-09-01

    A meta-analysis of eight UK food studies was carried out to determine the microbiological quality of food and its relationship with the presence in food businesses of hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training. Of the 19,022 premises visited to collect food samples in these studies between 1997 and 2002, two thirds (66%) were catering premises and one third (34%) were retail premises. Comparison with PHLS Microbiological Guidelines revealed that significantly more ready-to-eat food samples from catering premises (20%; 2,511/12,703) were of unsatisfactory or unacceptable microbiological quality compared to samples from retail premises (12%; 1,039/8,462) (p systems in place compared with 59% of catering premises (p food hygiene training compared with 80% of catering premises (p food hygiene training a greater proportion of samples were of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (20% retail, 27% catering) compared with premises where the manager had received food hygiene training (11% retail, 19% catering) (p food hygiene training, documented hazard analysis systems were more likely to be in place (p system in place compared to premises that had a documented hazard analysis system in place (10% retail, 18% catering) (p foods from catering premises compared with those collected from retail premises may reflect differences in management food hygiene training and the presence of a hazard analysis system. The importance of adequate training for food handlers and their managers as a pre-requisite for effective hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) based controls is therefore emphasised. PMID:14708277

  12. Guidance on new DOT training requirements for Hazardous Materials employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May of 1992, the US Department of Transportation issued new regulations which significantly enhanced the training requirements of the DOT Hazardous Materials Regulations. The new training requirements apply to persons involved with almost any aspect of the transportation of hazardous materials. The new regulations have a definite impact on nuclear utility management by requiring employers to provide certain employees with specific training and testing prior to working with hazardous materials. This report explains the impact of the new regulations on nuclear utilities. It also provides guidance on implementing the new requirements and achieving compliance

  13. Linking emerging hazardous waste technologies with the electronic information era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.E.; Suk, W.A. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Blackard, B. [Technology Planning and Management Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In looking to the future and the development of new approaches or strategies for managing hazardous waste, it is important to understand and appreciate the factors that have contributed to current successful approaches. In the United States, several events in the last two decades have had a significant impact in advancing remediation of hazardous waste, including environmental legislation, legislative reforms on licensing federally funded research, and electronic transfer of information. Similar activities also have occurred on a global level. While each of these areas is significant, the electronic exchange of information has no national boundaries and has become an active part of major hazardous waste research and management programs. It is important to realize that any group or society that is developing a comprehensive program in hazardous waste management should be able to take advantage of this advanced approach in the dissemination of information. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste...

  15. The value of historical documents for hazard zone mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Barnikel, F.

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of historical data of small mountain torrents in Alpine catchment areas has shown a significant difference between the results of a regular hazard zone mapping and a thorough historical analysis. The Gemsbach in the Ostrach valley near Hinterstein (Municipality of Hindelang, southern Bavaria/Germany) serves, among others, as an example. A 'traditional' hazard zone for the Gemsbach has been mapped in the 1990s. The oldest event included in the analysis was the flood of 1954. But...

  16. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of Babol, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Babol, one of big cities in north of Iran. Many destructive earthquakes happened in Iran in the last centuries. It comes from historical references that at least many times; Babol has been destroyed by catastrophic earthquakes. In this paper, the peak horizontal ground acceleration over the bedrock (PGA is calculated by a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA. For this reason, at first, a collected catalogue, containing both historical and instrumental events that occurred in a radius of 200 km of Babol city and covering the period from 874 to 2004 have been gathered. Then, seismic sources are modeled and recur¬rence relationship is established. After elimination of the aftershocks and foreshocks, the main earthquakes were taken into consideration to calculate the seismic parameters (SP by Kijko method. The calculations were performed using the logic tree method and four weighted attenuation relationships Ghodrati, 0.35, Khademi, 0.25, Ambraseys and Simpson, 0.2, and Sarma and Srbulov, 0.2. Seismic hazard assessment is then carried out for 8 horizontal by 7 vertical lines grid points using SEISRISK III. Finally, two seismic hazard maps of the studied area based on Peak Horizontal Ground Acceleration (PGA over bedrock for 2 and 10% probability of ex¬ceedance in one life cycles of 50 year are presented. These calculations have been performed by the Poisson distribution of two hazard levels. The results showed that the PGA ranges from 0.32 to 0.33 g for a return period of 475 years and from 0.507 to 0.527 g for a return period of 2475 years. Since population is very dense in Babol and vulnerability of buildings is high, the risk of future earthquakes will be very significant.

  17. HAPs-Rx: Precombustion Removal of Hazardous Air Pollutant Precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Clifford E. Raleigh

    1998-03-16

    CQ Inc. and its project team members--Howard University, PrepTech Inc., Fossil Fuel Sciences, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and industry advisors--are applying mature coal cleaning and scientific principles to the new purpose of removing potentially hazardous air pollutants from coal. The team uniquely combines mineral processing, chemical engineering, and geochemical expertise. This project meets more than 11 goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Energy Strategy, and the 1993 Climate Change Action Plan. During this project: (1) Equations were developed to predict the concentration of trace elements in as-mined and cleaned coals. These equations, which address both conventional and advanced cleaning processes, can be used to increase the removal of hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPs) by existing cleaning plants and to improve the design of new cleaning plants. (2) A promising chemical method of removing mercury and other HAPs was developed. At bench-scale, mercury reductions of over 50 percent were achieved on coal that had already been cleaned by froth flotation. The processing cost of this technology is projected to be less than $3.00 per ton ($3.30 per tonne). (3) Projections were made of the average trace element concentration in cleaning plant solid waste streams from individual states. Average concentrations were found to be highly variable. (4) A significantly improved understanding of how trace elements occur in coal was gained, primarily through work at the USGS during the first systematic development of semiquantitative data for mode of occurrence. In addition, significant improvement was made in the laboratory protocol for mode of occurrence determination. (5) Team members developed a high-quality trace element washability database. For example, the poorest mass balance closure for the uncrushed size and washability data for mercury on all four coals is 8.44 percent and the best is 0.46 percent. This indicates an extremely high level of reproducibility of the data. In addition, a series of ''round-robin'' tests involving various laboratories was performed to assure analytical accuracy. (6) A comparison of the cost of lowering mercury emissions through the use of coal cleaning technologies versus the use of post-combustion control methods such as activated carbon injection indicates that, in many cases, coal cleaning may prove to be the lower-cost option. The most significant disadvantage for using coal cleaning for control of mercury emissions is that a reduction of 90 percent or greater from as-fired coal has not yet been demonstrated, even at laboratory-scale.

  18. Radiation hazard control report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radiation hazard control at the Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kinki University, are described for the one year period from April, 1979, to March, 1980. The personnel engaged in radiation works totaled 97. The nuclear reactor in the institute was operated for total 985.7 hours at heat output up to 1 watt during the year, and the total thermal output was 873.6 W.hr. In the year, there was no instance of any problem. However, as for surface contamination, there is the possibility of rise in future due to the increasing works in the RI tracer building. The following matters are described: personnel monitoring (health examination, personal exposure dose control), laboratory monitoring (also including the measurements of radioactive concentrations in air and water and of surface contamination density), and field monitoring. (J.P.N.)

  19. Liability for hazardous technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liability for hazardous technologies is discussed using the atomic energy law as an example which reveals an individual system with components such as unlimited, absolute liability, financial security and indemnification, and 'deficiency guarantee' by the state in case of nuclear accidents abroad. Following chapters deal with liability under civil law or industrial injuries insurance, the problem of the causality that cannot be proved, and the resulting consequences, and with large-scale damage and transfrontier damage, and the claim for damages. The results of the review of this system are then used to draw conclusions and derive information with regard to handling the liability problems with risks in other fields of technology. Finally, a proposal is discussed that suggests the causality problem to be solved by establishing a fund: Damages could be paid from a fund, with contributions to this fund coming primarily from all potential risk sources and/or the general public. (orig./HSCH)

  20. Hydrogen microsphere hazard evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalosh, R. G.; Bajpai, S. N.

    1981-03-01

    Progress on a preliminary hazard evaluation of hollow glass microspheres for hydrogen transport and storage is reported. The flammability and explosibility of representative hydrogen filled microspheres was assessed. The tests include dust cloud explosion; flame propagation; impact sensitivity; spark ignition; and autoignition furnace. The microspheres can be ignited and propagate flame either in the quiescent bulk form or as a suspended cloud. A preliminary comparison with flammability data for gaseous hydrogen and iron titanium hydride powder indicate that the autoignition temperature of hydrogen filled microspheres is comparable to that or the other forms of hydrogen, but suspended clouds of microspheres produce lower explosion pressures than hydride dust or hydrogen gas. Safety codes and government regulations pertinent to hydrogen filled microspheres are also reviewed.

  1. Hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risks to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. There is scant data on somatic and genetic risks at environmental and occupational levels of radiation exposure. The available data on radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis are for high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Risk assessments for low level radiation are obtained using these data, assuming a linear dose-response relationship. During uranium mining the chief source of radiation hazard is inhalation of radon daughters. The correlation between radon daughter exposure and the increased incidence of lung cancer has been well documented. For radiation exposures at and below occupational limits, the associated risk of radiation induced cancers and genetic abnormalities is small and should not lead to a detectable increase over naturally occurring rates

  2. The transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vehicle Safety Group of the National Institute for Transport and Road Research investigated the problem of transportation of hazardous materials. The roles of the driver; vehicle; container; routing and labelling are discussed. The term hazardous materials is defined, and safety services are discussed

  3. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    1997-01-01

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated further.

  4. Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Toxicology/chemical hazards, safety policy, legal responsibilities, adequacy of ventilation, chemical storage, evaluating experimental hazards, waste disposal, and laws governing chemical safety were among topics discussed in 10 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Several topics…

  5. Takula oil field and the Greater Takula area, Cabinda, Angola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, C.T.; Lopes, J.R. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (USA)); Abilio, S.

    1990-09-01

    The Greater Takula area comprises three fields that produce oil predominantly from Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. They are located approximately 40 km west-northwest of the Malongo terminal, offshore Cabinda, Angola, in water depths of 50-75 m. Current production levels are approximately 200,000 bbl/day of 320 API oil. The first well in the Takula area, drilled in 1971, tested 5,600 bbl/day of 32{degrees} API oil from Lower Cretaceous pre-salt Toca carbonates. The prospect was initially defined as a horst structure in the lower Congo presalt sedimentary section. Subsequent delineation drilling indicated updip potential for much more significant hydrocarbon accumulations in younger Cenomanian clastic sediments of the Vermelha Formation. The Vermelha pool, structurally a large rollover anticline bounded by growth faults with an areal closure of 4,856 ha (12,000 ac), was discovered in 1980. Appraisal drilling confirmed the existence of a major oil accumulation in multiple reservoirs within the Vermelha. Additional accumulations were found in the underlying Pinda Formation. In May 1982, the 44-5x well was drilled on a separate structure, immediately north of Takula. This well also tested oil from the Vermelha Formation and is now known as the Wamba field. In August 1982, the 57-5x well uncovered another large oil accumulation immediately southeast of the Takula field. This discovery, separated from Takula by a structural saddle, is in pressure communication with the Takula accumulation and is known as the Numbi field. This complex of structures, known as the Greater Takula area, is now in a mature stage of development, having produced over 250 MMSTB from an original oil in place estimate of 3,300 MMSTB. The integration of geology, geophysics, and reservoir engineering-has led to a progressive development, including both primary and waterflood secondary recovery, of this giant oil field complex.

  6. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

  7. SRL process hazards review manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective of the Process Hazards Management Program is to provide a regular, systematic review of each process at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to eliminate injuries and to minimize property damage resulting from process hazards of catastrophic potential. Management effort is directed, through the Du Pont Safety Program, toward those controls and practices that ensure this objective. The Process Hazards Management Program provides an additional dimension to further ensure the health and safety of employees and the public. Du Pont has concluded that an organized approach is essential to obtain an effective and efficient process hazards review. The intent of this manual is to provide guidance in creating such an organized approach to performing process hazards reviews on a continuing basis

  8. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  9. Accuracy of hazardous waste project estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HAZRATE system has been developed to appraise the current state of definition of hazardous waste remedial projects. This is shown to have a high degree of correlation to the financial risk of such projects. The method employs a weighted checklist indicating the current degree of definition of some 150 significant project elements. It is based on the author's experience with a similar system for establishing the risk characteristics of process plant projects (Hackney, 1965 and 1989; 1985). In this paper definition ratings for 15 hazardous waste remedial projects have been correlated with the excesses of their actual costs over their base estimates, excluding any allowances for contingencies. Equations are presented, based on this study, for computation of the contingency allowance needed and estimate accuracy possible at a given stage of project development

  10. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-Peak Ground Acceleration is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard...

  11. Natural Hazards on the Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Greene

    In this jigsaw activity, students discover four different aspects of natural hazards on the Island of Hawaii. The goal for students is to design a hazard zone map that combines these four topics and that could be used for making land-use decisions before future natural hazards occur. Students will first be assigned to one of four Hazard Specialties (lava flows, explosive eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami), where they complete an exercise and make a preliminary hazard zone map with their specialty group from a single hazard map. Then the students will reorganize into Hazard Assessment Teams, with one student from each of the four Hazard Specialties, to develop a final hazard zone map based on information on all four hazards. Each Hazard Assessment Team will make a recommendation about the risks of natural hazards to existing and future development in Hilo, Kailua-Kona, and Kalapana on the Island of Hawaii.

  12. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  13. Rainfall-induced landslide cataloging for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y.; Kirschbaum, D. B.; Adler, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslide hazards only represent a portion of the total fatalities associated with hydrometerological disasters; however, the economic losses and casualties caused by these hazards are greater than generally acknowledged and result in higher annual property losses than any other natural disaster. Most of the victims of landslide disasters occur in the developing world, where increased building on unstable hillslopes and poor or nonexistent mitigation activities escalate disaster risk. This research explores two landslide inventories at the global and regional scales and examines their potential applicability and validation capabilities for landslide hazard and risk assessment. The global analysis develops a methodology for compiling rainfall-triggered landslide events, drawing upon news reports, scholarly articles and other hazard databases to develop catalog at the global scale. The events cataloged in the inventory include information on the nominal and geographic location, date, affected population, information source, and a qualitative measure of the landslide event’s size and location accuracy. This global inventory differs from other landslide catalogs by providing a publicly available database of information on rainfall-triggered landslide events globally, which can be compared to other sources. The global catalog is used to evaluate preliminary landslide forecasting work as well as to assess landslide distribution and frequency worldwide. This research presents a discussion on the scientific and socio-economic implications of such a database and its utility in evaluating natural and anthropogenic triggers to hydrometeorological hazards in a changing world.

  14. Improving tamper detection for hazardous waste security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R. G. (Roger G.); Garcia, A. R. E. (Anthony R. E.); Pacheco, A. N. (Adam N.); Trujillo, S. J. (Sonia J.); Martinez, R. K. (Ronald K.); Martinez, D. D. (Debbie D.); Lopez, L. N. (Leon N.)

    2002-01-01

    After September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide improved levels of security for the hazardous materials in their charge. Many low-level wastes that previously had minimal or no security must now be well protected, while high-level wastes require even greater levels of security than previously employed. This demand for improved security comes, in many cases, without waste managers being provided the necessary additional funding, personnel, or security expertise. Contributing to the problem is the fact that--at least in our experience--waste managers often fail to appreciate certain types of security vulnerabilities. They frequently overlook or underestimate the security risks associated with disgruntled or compromised insiders, or the potential legal and political liabilities associated with nonexistent or ineffective security. Also frequently overlooked are potential threats from waste management critics who could resort to sabotage, vandalism, or civil disobedience for purposes of discrediting a waste management program.

  15. Male gamblers have significantly greater salivary cortisol before and after betting on a horse race, than do female gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, C.; Paris, J.J.; Wulfert, E.; Frye, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence rates of gambling are influenced by gender. Among normative populations, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress is affected by gender. However, pathological, compared to recreational, gamblers demonstrate perturbations in HPA activation in response to gambling stimuli. We examined whether there were gender differences in HPA response to gambling in a naturalistic setting among horse-race bettors and scratch-off lottery bettors. Salivary cortisol was collected ...

  16. La48Br81Os8: isolated clusters in an unusual superstructure with significantly greater intercluster bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S T; Hoistad, L M; Corbett, J D

    2000-01-10

    Exploration of reactions in the La-Br-Z system for Z = Fe, Ru, and Os in welded Nb containers at 900-950 degrees C resulted in only the title phase. The La48Br81Os8 stoichiometry is very close to that of known triclinic Pr6Br10Os but with an approximately 32-times larger cell, 138 independent atoms, and completely different intercluster connectivities in a complex monoclinic superstructure (a = 33.076(5) A, b = 23.466(3) A, c = 23.537(2) A, beta = 110.701(4) degrees, P2(1)/c (No. 14), Z = 4, 23 degrees C). Tetragonally compressed, approximately 16 e- lanthanum octahedra centered by Os are heavily interbridged by Br, including Br(f-a) (f = face) and Br(i-a-a) functions, to increase coordination numbers about some Br (to 4) and La (to 6) and to give an average of 19.63 bonded Br/La6Os vs the usual 18. These result in a cell volume 10% less than for an equivalent (hypothetical) La6Br10Os and Br-Br contacts as short as 3.30 A. Increased polar La-Br interactions presumably drive these changes. Optimal atom sizes for this structure have been found so far only in this novel compound. PMID:11229040

  17. Natural Hazards Monitoring and Risk Mitigation

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Principles of Monitoring of Hazardous Geodynamic and Glaciohydrometeorological Processes in the Areas of Strategically Important for Economics of Georgia Objects and Recommendations on Hazard Mitigation

  18. Hazardous healthcare waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous healthcare waste has become an environmental concern for many developing countries including the Kingdom of Bahrain. There have been several significant obstacles facing the Kingdom in dealing with this issue including; limited documentation regarding generation, handling, management, and disposal of waste. This in turn hinders efforts to plan better healthcare waste management. In this paper, hazardous waste management status in the Kingdom has been investigated through an extensive survey carried out on selected public and private healthcare premises. Hazardous waste management practices including: waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal were determined. The results of this study along with key findings are discussed and summarized. In addition; several effective recommendations and improvements of hazardous waste management are suggested.

  19. MOS OF CANADA: A FOODSERVICE INDUSTRY ANALYSIS OF GREATER VANCOUVER

    OpenAIRE

    Ryomoto, Craig

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Greater Vancouver commercial food industry and whether the market is ideal for MOS Food Services to fulfil its “MOS of the World” strategy by opening a MOS Burger restaurant in Greater Vancouver. To assess the future viability of MOS Burger opening in Greater Vancouver, this paper identifies and analyzes market size, drivers of demand, various customer segments, key competitors, the strength of key industry forces, and the key sources of advantage for the foodservi...

  20. Streambank erosion hazard mapping: concepts, methodology and application on the Venoge River (Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, John Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Streambank erosion hazard mapping has received much less attention than flood inundation mapping in the past due to the complexity of the task as well as bank protection works that have reduced bank erosion and unfortunately, the ecological functions of our watercourses at the same time. Damages due to streambank erosion in some flooding contexts are greater than the flood water damages (Loat and Petrasheck, 1997). For these reasons, streambank erosion hazard mapping should be an integral par...

  1. On the Statistical Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yongsheng

    2005-01-01

    A definition for the statistical significance by constructing a correlation between the normal distribution integral probability and the p-value observed in an experiment is proposed, which is suitable for both counting experiment and continuous test statistics.

  2. Flood hazard probability mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Lyon, Steve; Folkeson, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    In Sweden, spatially explicit approaches have been applied in various disciplines such as landslide modelling based on soil type data and flood risk modelling for large rivers. Regarding flood mapping, most previous studies have focused on complex hydrological modelling on a small scale whereas just a few studies have used a robust GIS-based approach integrating most physical catchment descriptor (PCD) aspects on a larger scale. The aim of the present study was to develop methodology for predicting the spatial probability of flooding on a general large scale. Factors such as topography, land use, soil data and other PCDs were analysed in terms of their relative importance for flood generation. The specific objective was to test the methodology using statistical methods to identify factors having a significant role on controlling flooding. A second objective was to generate an index quantifying flood probability value for each cell, based on different weighted factors, in order to provide a more accurate analysis of potential high flood hazards than can be obtained using just a single variable. The ability of indicator covariance to capture flooding probability was determined for different watersheds in central Sweden. Using data from this initial investigation, a method to subtract spatial data for multiple catchments and to produce soft data for statistical analysis was developed. It allowed flood probability to be predicted from spatially sparse data without compromising the significant hydrological features on the landscape. By using PCD data, realistic representations of high probability flood regions was made, despite the magnitude of rain events. This in turn allowed objective quantification of the probability of floods at the field scale for future model development and watershed management.

  3. [Synthetic cannabinoids: spread, addiction biology & current perspective of personal health hazard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, U; Mahler, H

    2015-04-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances (NPS), most frequently synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) have been found in Europe. These are sold as active compounds in e.?g. so-called "herbal blends". When inhaled or ingested, besides intoxication symptoms, as they occur with heavy cannabis use (e.?g., tachycardia, myocardial infarction, confusion, hallucinations, panic attacks, and paranoia), harmful effects (severe agitation, coma, catatonic stupor, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, dyspnoea, seizures, myoclonus, rhabdomyolysis, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, acute kidney injury, vomiting, headache, and hypokalemia) arise, which are mostly unusual about cannabis use. In addition, the first cases of addiction and death related to SCBs have been reported. Taking into account the newest literature and using an algorithm with two main criteria (addiction potential, toxicity), the authors made a first attempt to rank the personal health hazard of SCBs in comparison to that of other psychoactive drugs. Accordingly, the relative health hazard of SCBs is found to be somewhat higher than that of cannabis and lower than that of synthetic cathinones ("bath salts"). However, the toxicity of SCBs, is significantly greater than the toxicity of cannabis, thus being similar to that of synthetic cathinones and benzodiazepines. The addiction potential appears to be lower than that of synthetic cathinones, benzodiazepines, or cannabis. Due to the fluctuation of substances and the availability in internet resources, legislation is facing a serious "hare-hedgehog" problem to control the manufacture, trade and possession of SCBs. PMID:25893495

  4. Earthquakes Pose a Serious Hazard in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    This report is USGS Afghanistan Project No. 155. This study was funded by an Interagency Agreement between the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Geological Survey. Afghanistan is located in the geologically active part of the world where the northward-moving Indian plate is colliding with the southern part of the Eurasian plate at a rate of about 1.7 inches per year. This collision has created the world's highest mountains and causes slips on major faults that generate large, often devastating earthquakes. Every few years a powerful earthquake causes significant damage or fatalities. New construction needs to be designed to accommodate the hazards posed by strong earthquakes. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a preliminary seismic-hazard map of Afghanistan. Although the map is generalized, it provides government officials, engineers, and private companies who are interested in participating in Afghanistan's growth with crucial information about the location and nature of seismic hazards.

  5. Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  6. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  7. Quantitative Hazard and Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Tarnai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a quantitative method for hazard and risk analysis is discussed. The method was developed and introduced for the allocation of safety requirements to the functions of a railway signaling remote control system.

  8. Quantitative hazard and risk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Geza Tarnai; Balazs Saghi; Izabela Krbilova

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a quantitative method for hazard and risk analysis is discussed. The method was developed and introduced for the allocation of safety requirements to the functions of a railway signaling remote control system.

  9. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  10. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  11. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J. [Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy.

  12. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to develop a field-portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection using active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence (active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen). It should provide rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map areas of greatest contamination. Results indicate that ANET is very sensitive for monitoring heavy metals (Hg, Se) and hydrocarbons; furthermore, chlorinated hydrocarbons can be distinguished from nonchlorinated ones. Sensitivity is at ppB levels for sampling in air. ANET appears ideal for on-line monitoring of toxic heavy metal levels at building sites, hazardous waste land fills, in combustor flues, and of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels at building sites and hazardous waste dumps

  13. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  14. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  15. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

  16. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  17. Hazardous Fuels Reduction Treatment Activities

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting select activities that help reduce hazardous fuels on the landscape. This includes features representing Rx Fire, Wildfire,...

  18. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being shipped, and will otherwise maintain it as nearly as possible in its original condition.The recommendations provided are short-term solutions to the problems of shipping evidence, and have considered only currently commercially available containers. These containers may not be appropriate for all cases. Design, testing, and certification of new transportation containers would be necessary to provide a container appropriate for all cases.Table 1 provides a summary of the recommendations for each class of hazardous material.Table 1: Summary of RecommendationsContainerCost1-quart paint can with ArmlockTM seal ringLabelMaster(r)%242.90 eachHazard Class 3, 4, 5, 8, or 9 Small ContainersTC Hazardous Material Transport ContainerCurrently in Use4 DraftDraftDraftTable 1: Summary of Recommendations (continued)ContainerCost55-gallon open or closed-head steel drumsAll-Pak, Inc.%2458.28 - %2473.62 eachHazard Class 3, 4, 5, 8, or 9 Large Containers95-gallon poly overpack LabelMaster(r)%24194.50 each1-liter glass container with plastic coatingLabelMaster(r)%243.35 - %243.70 eachHazard Class 6 Division 6.1 Poisonous by Inhalation (PIH) Small ContainersTC Hazardous Material Transport ContainerCurrently in Use20 to 55-gallon PIH overpacksLabelMaster(r)%24142.50 - %24170.50 eachHazard Class 6 Division 6.1 Poisonous by Inhalation (PIH) Large Containers65 to 95-gallon poly overpacksLabelMaster(r)%24163.30 - %24194.50 each1-liter transparent containerCurrently in UseHazard Class 6 Division 6.2 Infectious Material Small ContainersInfectious Substance ShipperSource Packaging of NE, Inc.%24336.00 eachNone Commercially AvailableN/AHazard Class 6 Division 6.2 Infectious Material Large ContainersNone Commercially Available N/A5

  19. Utilization of wind energy in Greater Hannover - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt with energy and ecopolitical questions since the Eighties, the utilization of regenerative energy sources has remained a step-child for a long time. According to an expertise, wind energy has gained the greatest importance for Greater Hanover, since the potential is very high and the operational results can be assessed as favorable. (BWI)

  20. The large-scale impact of climate change to Mississippi flood hazard in New Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. A. Driessen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe the impact of climate change on the Mississippi River flood hazard in the New Orleans area. This city has a unique flood risk management challenge, heavily influenced by climate change, since it faces flood hazards from multiple geographical locations (e.g. Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi River and multiple sources (hurricane, river, rainfall. Also the low elevation and significant subsidence rate of the Greater New Orleans area poses a high risk and challenges the water management of this urban area. Its vulnerability to flooding became dramatically apparent during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 with huge economic losses and a large number of casualties.
    A SOBEK Rural 1DFLOW model was set up to simulate the general hydrodynamics. This improved model includes two important spillways that are operated during high flow conditions. Subsequently, a weighted multi-criteria calibration procedure was performed to calibrate the model for high flows. Validation for floods in 2011 indicates a very reasonable performance for high flows and clearly demonstrates the necessity of the spillways.
    32 different scenarios are defined which includes the relatively large sea level rise and the changing discharge regime that is expected due to climate change. The impact of these scenarios is analysed by the hydrodynamic model. Results show that during high flows New Orleans will not be affected by varying discharge regimes, since the presence of the spillways ensures a constant discharge through the city. In contrary, sea level rise is expected to push water levels upwards. The effect of sea level rise will be noticeable even more than 470 km upstream. Climate change impacts necessitate a more frequent use of the spillways and opening strategies that are based on stages. Potential alternatives on how to cope with the flood hazard of this river in the long term, such as river widening and large-scale redistribution of the flow through diversions, are proposed.

  1. Communicating Pacific Rim Risk: A GIS Analysis of Hazard, Vulnerability, Population, and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkovich, E. S.; Howell, D. G.

    2002-12-01

    Exploding population and unprecedented urban development within the last century helped fuel an increase in the severity of natural disasters. Not only has the world become more populated, but people, information and commodities now travel greater distances to service larger concentrations of people. While many of the earth's natural hazards remain relatively constant, understanding the risk to increasingly interconnected and large populations requires an expanded analysis. To improve mitigation planning we propose a model that is accessible to planners and implemented with public domain data and industry standard GIS software. The model comprises 1) the potential impact of five significant natural hazards: earthquake, flood, tropical storm, tsunami and volcanic eruption assessed by a comparative index of risk, 2) population density, 3) infrastructure distribution represented by a proxy, 4) the vulnerability of the elements at risk (population density and infrastructure distribution) and 5) the connections and dependencies of our increasingly 'globalized' world, portrayed by a relative linkage index. We depict this model with the equation, Risk = f(H, E, V, I) Where H is an index normalizing the impact of five major categories of natural hazards; E is one element at risk, population or infrastructure; V is a measure of the vulnerability for of the elements at risk; and I pertains to a measure of interconnectivity of the elements at risk as a result of economic and social globalization. We propose that future risk analysis include the variable I to better define and quantify risk. Each assessment reflects different repercussions from natural disasters: losses of life or economic activity. Because population and infrastructure are distributed heterogeneously across the Pacific region, two contrasting representations of risk emerge from this study.

  2. Health hazards of welding fumes.

    OpenAIRE

    Meo, Sultan A.; Thamir Al-Khlaiwi

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Even in the twenty-first century, welding is still a common and a highly skilled occupation. The hazardous agents associated with welding processes are acetylene, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, phosgene, tungsten, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, silver, tin, and zinc. All welding processes involve the potential hazards for inhalation exposures that may lead to acute or chronic respiratory diseases. According to lit...

  3. Hamburger hazards and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. PMID:24656947

  4. Hamburger hazards and emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; RØssvoll, Elin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior.With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers’ willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done,well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating.We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer’s willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer’s likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies.

  5. Development of District-Based Mineral-Hazards Maps for Highways in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Fonseca, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    The California Geological Survey (CGS) currently is developing a series of unpublished maps for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that shows potential for mineral hazards within each of the twelve highway districts administered by that agency. Where present along or near highway corridors, such hazards may pose problems for human health and safety or the environment. Prepared at a scale of 1:250,000, the maps are designed as initial screening tools for Caltrans staff to use to improve planning of activities that involve new construction projects, routine maintenance of highways, and emergency removal of debris deposited on roads by natural processes. Although the basic presentation of each type of thematic map in the series is the same, some customization and focus are allowed for each district because each has unique issues concerning potential for mineral hazards. The maps display many natural and man-made features that may be potential sources of mineral hazards within each district. Features compiled and evaluated under our definition of "mineral hazards" are: 1) naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA); 2) natural occurrences of various regulated metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se) as well as other pertinent metals, such as Mn and U; 3) faults, which can be sites of increased potential for certain types of mineralization, such as NOA; 4) mines and prospects, which can be sources of anomalous concentrations of metals as well as ore-processing chemicals; 5) natural petroleum features, such as oil and natural-gas seeps; 6) natural geothermal features, such as thermal springs and fumaroles; and 7) oil, natural-gas, and geothermal wells. Because of their greater potential as sources of mineral hazards, localities designated on the maps as "areas of potential mineralogical concern" are of particular interest to Caltrans. Examples include significant mining districts, such as New Almaden (Hg) near San Jose, and bedrock units such as serpentinite (NOA, Cr, Ni) and the Monterey Formation (Cd) and similar organic-carbon-rich and phosphate-rich Cenozoic marine sedimentary rocks (Cd, Se), all of which are common in the southern Coast Ranges. Some areas, present mainly in the Mojave Desert and east of the Sierra Nevada, comprise dry lake beds that can be sources of wind-blown dust, which may contain mineral hazards (e.g., As). Watershed boundaries and streams, superimposed on shaded topographic relief, are also shown on the maps to help Caltrans staff determine if drainages that intersect highway corridors may contain deleterious materials eroded and transported from upstream geologic features or mining areas. Besides the 1:250,000-scale maps, which are prepared as both paper copies and .pdf files, individual digital thematic layers of the features described above are prepared for use in GIS software and in-house image-viewers (CT Earth) employed by Caltrans. These layers provide additional information not displayed on the maps (e.g., directions of stream flow; characteristics of individual mines), which allows more-sophisticated analysis for possible mineral hazards.

  6. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    This set of resources provides seismic hazard assessments and information on design values and mitigation for the U.S. and areas around the world. Map resources include the U.S. National and Regional probabilistic ground motion map collection, which covers the 50 states, Puerto Rico, and selected countries. These maps display peak ground acceleration (PGA) values, and are used as the basis for seismic provisions in building codes and for new construction. There is also a custom mapping and analysis tool, which enables users to re-plot these maps for area of interest, get hazard values using latitude/longitude or zip code, find predominant magnitudes and distances, and map the probability of given magnitude within a certain distance from a site. The ground motion calculator, a Java application, determines hazard curves, uniform hazard response spectra, and design parameters for sites in the 50 states and most territories. There is also a two-part earthquake hazards 'primer', which provides links to hazard maps and frequently-asked-questions, and more detailed information for building and safety planners.

  7. Risk reduction approach to decommissioning hazards of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Risk reduction approach to decommissioning hazards of nuclear facilities. • Radiological and non-radiological hazards of decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities. • Risk assessment for decommissioning hazards. • Countermeasures to radiological hazards and non-radiological hazards. - Abstract: Decommissioning activities include radiological hazards and non-radiological hazards. Radiological hazards are mainly due to radiation exposure whereas non-radiological hazards are mainly due to industrial hazards such as fire, explosions, toxic materials, and electrical and physical hazards. Based on characteristics of decommissioning activities, risk calculation method of decommissioning hazards and countermeasures of radiological hazards and non-radiological hazards were suggested

  8. Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abdul Wajid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.

  9. Personnel hazards from medical electron accelerator photoneutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For medical accelerators, neutron penetration through the room entry door is the major personnel hazard. Most therapy accelerator rooms are designed with at least a rudimentary maze to avoid the use of massive doors. Often, however, the maze may be similar to those shown in scale outline drawings of some medical electron accelerator rooms where the authors have made neutron measurements outside the doors which were of different thicknesses and compositions. The results are tabulated. It should be noted that there can be significant dose equivalents (H) at the door when a maze is inadequate, and that all three components - fast neutron, thermal neutron, and neutron capture ? rays - can be equally important

  10. External hazards. In focus after the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Matias; Berg, Heinz-Peter [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    International experience has shown that external hazards can be safety significant contributors to the risk of industrial plants with a high potential of damage to the environment; this has become evident after the Fukushima accident. As a consequence main focus has been set on adequate design measures against external hazards and appropriate assessment methods. Possible methods to analyse existing plants systematically regarding the adequacy of their existing protection equipment against hazards can be deterministic as well as probabilistic. On international level, new recommendations regarding external hazards are recently issued. In that context, in particular earthquakes and flooding scenarios have been re-evaluated to some extent. Also in Germany, a revised guideline on probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) and corresponding technical documents are issued in 2005 addressing external hazards. As a reaction to the accidents in Japan in March 2011, the German Reactor Safety Commission has issued a catalogue of requirements for plant-specific reviews of German nuclear power plants, and the status of the plants have been evaluated with respect to these requirements. The results of these investigations have been the basis for the German report in the frame of the European stress tests; the results with respect to natural external hazards are presented. (orig.)

  11. Innovative technologies for the treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes incur significant costs for Department of Energy (DOE) installations. These wastes must be managed under strict environmental controls and regulations to prevent the possibility of migration of hazardous materials to the biosphere. Through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program, the DOE is seeking to develop innovative ways of improving current treatment technologies to eliminate the hazardous components of wastes, reduce waste management costs, and minimize the volume requiring disposal as hazardous or mixed waste. Sponsored projects progress from research and development to field demonstration. Among the innovative technologies under development are supercritical water oxidation of hazardous chemicals, microwave-assisted destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons, paramagnetic separation of metals from waste, detoxification and reclamation of waste acid, nitrate destruction through calcination, treatment/disposal of reactive metals, and methodologies for encapsulation. Technologies at a demonstration phase include detoxification of mixed waste sludge, microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil, and the remediation process for a hydrocarbon spill. 14 refs

  12. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories' operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment

  13. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  14. Seismic hazard in the design of oil and gas pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkovi? Slavko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Criteria that are adopted in earthquake resistant design of pipelines and gas lines have to take into account seismic movements and seismic generated forces that are of significantly high probability level of appearance along the length of pipeline. A choice of criteria has to include an acceptable level of seismic hazard, while design criteria should be calculated. Seismic hazard is defined as a part of natural hazard and means probability of appearance of earthquake of corresponding characteristics in certain time and place. For design needs and calculation of influences caused by seismic forces the most important is seismic hazard of maximal horizontal acceleration due to ground vibration during earthquake. The methodology of seismic hazard calculation as base for micro seismic zoning is presented in the paper. It is shown calculation of seismic hazard of maximal horizontal acceleration due to ground vibration that is applied for 985 points at the territory of Republic of Serbia, based on which maps for return periods of 50 and 200 years are drawn.

  15. Ocular hazards of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The eye is protected against bright light by the natural aversion response to viewing bright light sources. The aversion response normally protects the eye against injury from viewing bright light sources such as the sun, arc lamps and welding arcs, since this aversion limits the duration of exposure to a fraction of a second (about 0.25 s). The principal retinal hazard resulting from viewing bright light sources is photoretinitis, e.g., solar retinitis with an accompanying scotoma which results from staring at the sun. Solar retinitis was once referred to as 'eclipse blindness' and associated 'retinal burn'. Only in recent years has it become clear that photoretinitis results from a photochemical injury mechanism following exposure of the retina to shorter wavelengths in the visible spectrum, i.e., violet and blue light. Prior to conclusive animal experiments at that time, it was thought to be a thermal injury mechanism. However, it has been shown conclusively that an intense exposure to short-wavelength light (hereafter referred to as 'blue light') can cause retinal injury. The product of the dose-rate and the exposure duration always must result in the same exposure dose (in joules-per-square centimeter at the retina) to produce a threshold injury. Blue-light retinal injury (photoretinitis) can result from viewing either an extremely bright light for a short time, or a less bright light for longer exposure periods. This characteristic of photochemical injury mechanisms is termed reciprocity and helps to distinguish these effects from thermal burns, where heat conduction requires a very intense exposure within seconds to cause a retinal coagulation otherwise, surrounding tissue conducts the heat away from the retinal image. Injury thresholds for acute injury in experimental animals for both corneal and retinal effects have been corroborated for the human eye from accident data. Occupational safety limits for exposure to UVR and bright light are based upon this knowledge. As with any photochemical injury mechanism must consider the action spectrum, which describes the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths in causing a photobiological effect. The action spectrum for photochemical retinal injury peaks at approximately 440 nm.

  16. Role of environmental hazards in fall of community dwelling elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence linking home hazards to falls has not been well established. Falls and fall injury are a major public health concern for the elderly. Fall of elderly is very much affected by environmental hazards. Falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in persons older than 60. There is a greater-than-linear increase in the rate of falls with environmental hazards. This cross section survey will not only lay the foundation for further study on this topic but also provide the basis for the development of preventive program of falls for the elders of Pakistan. Objective: To explore the role of environmental hazards of fall in the community dwelling elders is the area which is lacking in research. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from October to December 2010 in Lahore and its peripheries and also the patients in hospital settings come after fractures or fall injuries. The total number of people included was 100. Community dwelling Elders above 60 years having recent history of at least one fall were included regardless of gender. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 11.5. Results: There were 71 people out of 100 who fell inside the home, 10 fell outside the home and 18 were not applicable to this question. There were 19% people, who fell repeatedly at one place, 31 people replied about hazard environment where fallen that contribute to fall. According to 24 people they had Safety checks of their home yard and/ or neighborhood which will assist to avoid future fall. Conclusion: Most elderly persons live in a risky home setting. It is vital that environmental hazard be recognized and removed for wellbeing of elderly. (author)

  17. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage and to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be substantial enough to be a risk. A hazard does not necessarily constitute a risk, as efforts can be done to minimize risk by reducing the exposure. Thus, the relationship between hazard and risk must be treated cautiously. Fora robust risk assessment good data on exposure to the substance is needed and exposure data for other similarly acting substances are needed for assessing the risk for mixture effects. Such data may, however, often be absent. Toxicological potency, i.e. the lowest dose found to cause adverse effects, has been proposed as one of the key characteristics when evaluating safety of a substance. However, this may be a poor substitute for a proper risk assessment as low potency substances can constitute a risk if the exposure is high enough and vice versa. Examples illustrating the strength and limitations of hazard classification, risk assessment and toxicological potency will be presented with focus on reproductive toxicants and especially endocrine disrupters. Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  19. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  20. Malaria research in the Greater Mekong Subregion: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Walter R J

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has low transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax and is a prime region for malaria elimination based on evidence. The extent of GMS based research is unknown. Pub Med-identified research articles from the GMS were selected based on defined criteria and classified into 24 research areas. A research questionnaire was sent to WHO country offices, national malaria control programs (NMCPs), national research institutes and non governmental organizations (NGOs). Two thousand eight hundred ninety of 3,319 identified publications were included, dating from 1933 to June 2012; 1,485 (51.8%) of 2,890 since 2000. Ten research areas accounted for 2,264 (78.3%) publications: drug resistance 12.8% (n=371), entomology 11.42% (n=330), clinical trials 10.45% (n=302), pathophysiology 9.34% (n=270), epidemiology 8.96% (n=259), pharmacology 6.06% (n=175), parasite biology 5.19% (n=150), malaria control 4.88% (n=141), diagnosis/diagnostics 4.6% (n=133) and clinical studies 4.6% (n=133). Thailand produced most publications, 1,684 (58.27%), followed by Viet Nam (365, 12.63%), Cambodia (139, 4.81%), Myanmar (132, 4.57%), Yunnan Province, China (124, 4.3%) and Lao PDR (79, 2.73%). Other publications were multicountry, including >or=1 GMS country (n=269), or reviews (n=98). Publication numbers increased significantly over time. Eleven questionnaires were received. Principal research areas were treatment seeking behavior, knowledge, attitude and practice surveys, bed net use, access to treatment by migrants, and malaria diagnostics. Research in GMS is broad. Biomedical research dominates peer reviewed publications. NMCP and NGOs focus more on downstream malaria implementation issues. The challenge is to engage GMS research capacity to build quality evidence for malaria elimination. PMID:24159834

  1. Significance of brown dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific interest in objects that are not massive enough to qualify as stars has, until recently, not been high. However, the advent of powerful and clever new observational techniques, as well as of new instrumentation, signals the dawn of a new era in research related to sub-stellar mass bodies. The significance of these bodies in terms of their role in furthering our understanding of major problems in astronomy is discussed. The discussion centers on two themes; brown dwarfs in their own right, and brown dwarfs and their relationship to planetary systems. (author)

  2. Young, Rural Americans At Greater Risk of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Young, Rural Americans at Greater Risk of Suicide: Study Isolation, dearth of mental health services and ... rural areas of the United States die by suicide nearly twice as often as those who live ...

  3. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros)

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Andrew A.; Kirkwood, James K.; Dawson, Michael; Spencer, Yvonne I.; Green, Robert B.; Wells, Gerald A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with BSE in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), infectivity in greater kudu w...

  4. Cooled Radiofrequency Ablation for Bilateral Greater Occipital Neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffany Vu; Akhil Chhatre

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the subocci...

  5. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  6. UNESCO World Heritage Site Hallstatt: Rockfall hazard and risk assessment as basis for a sustainable land-use planning- a case study from the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzner, Sandra; Mölk, Michael; Schiffer, Michael; Gasperl, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    In times of decreasing financial resources, the demand for the investment in protection measures with a positive return on investment is of high importance. Hazard and risk assessments are essential tools in order to ensure an economically justifiable application of money in the implementation of preventive measures. Many areas in the Eastern Alps are recurrently affected by rockfall processes which pose a significant hazard to settlements and infrastructures. Complex tectonic, lithological and geomorphologic settings require a sufficient amount of effort to map and collect high quality data to perform a reliable hazard and risk analysis. The present work summarizes the results of a detailed hazard and risk assessment performed in a community in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Upper Austroalpine Unit). The community Hallstatt is exposed to very steep limestone cliffs, which are highly susceptible towards future, in many parts high magnitude rock failures. The analysis of the record of former events shows that since 1652 several rockfall events damaged or destroyed houses and killed or injured some people. Hallstatt as a Unesco World Heritage Site represents a very vulnerable settlement, the risk being elevated by a high frequency tourism with greater one million visitors per year. Discussion will focus on the applied methods to identify and map the rockfall hazard and risk, including a magnitude-frequency analysis of events in the past and an extrapolation in the future as well as a vulnerability analysis for the existing infrastructure under the assumed events for the determined magnitude-frequency scenarios. Furthermore challenges for a decision making in terms of a sustainable land use planning and implementation of preventive measures will be discussed.

  7. Impacts on health and safety from transfer/consolidation of nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental restoration plans at the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Hanford Site calls for transfer/consolidation of ''targets/threats,'' namely nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals. Reductions in the health and safety hazards will depend on the plans implemented. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) estimated these potential impacts, assuming implementation of the current reference plan and employing ongoing risk and safety analyses. The results indicated the potential for ''significant'' reductions in health and safety hazards in the long term (> 25 years) and a potentially ''noteworthy'' reduction in health hazard in the short term (? 25 years)

  8. Reactivity of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Hazardous Metal/Actinide Loading During Low Curie Salt Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in its engineered form (IONSIV (registered) IE-911) continues to be studied for possible use for removing radioactive cesium from several types of waste solutions at the Savannah River Site. This study involved deriving information about spent CST that assists in determining possible disposition alternatives. Results for this work include: After passing 3000 column volumes of a dissolved saltcake simulant containing RCRA hazardous metals, the spent CST passed a TCLP test and is RCRA nonhazardous. The spent CST was found to have transuranic concentrations greater than the TRU limit of 100 nCi/g. The triplicate measurement showed TRU levels greater than 4000 nCi/g. Studies involving simulating storage of ground CST in sludge slurries indicated no detrimental effects on the measured yield stress or viscosity of the slurries when stored for up to 4 months at 50 degrees C. During the storage testing, there was no indication of significant degradation of the C ST as measured by in growth of CST-specific elements in the liquid phase of the slurry. Also, during storage tests minor desorption of cesium from the ground CST material was observed

  9. Potential biological hazard of importance for HACCP plans in fresh fish processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balti? Milan Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP system is scientifically based and focused on problem prevention in order to assure the produced food products are safe to consume. Prerequisite programs such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices, GHP (Good Hygienic Practices are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. One of the preliminary tasks in the development of HACCP plan is to conduct a hazard analysis. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages. The first is hazard identification and the second stage is the HACCP team decision which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. By definition, the HACCP concept covers all types of potential food safety hazards: biological, chemical and physical, whether they are naturally occurring in the food, contributed by the environment or generated by a mistake in the manufacturing process. In raw fish processing, potential significant biological hazards which are reasonably likely to cause illness of humans are parasites (Trematodae, Nematodae, Cestodae, bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphyloccocus aureus, viruses (Norwalk virus, Entero virusesi, Hepatitis A, Rotovirus and bio-toxins. Upon completion of hazard analysis, any measure(s that are used to control the hazard(s should be described.

  10. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ...RIN 2050-AG60 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and...the regulations for hazardous waste management under the Resource Conservation...the regulations for hazardous waste management under the Resource...

  11. LAV@HAZARD: a Web-GIS Framework for Real-Time Forecasting of Lava Flow Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Negro, C.; Bilotta, G.; Cappello, A.; Ganci, G.; Herault, A.

    2014-12-01

    Crucial to lava flow hazard assessment is the development of tools for real-time prediction of flow paths, flow advance rates, and final flow lengths. Accurate prediction of flow paths and advance rates requires not only rapid assessment of eruption conditions (especially effusion rate) but also improved models of lava flow emplacement. Here we present the LAV@HAZARD web-GIS framework, which combines spaceborne remote sensing techniques and numerical simulations for real-time forecasting of lava flow hazards. By using satellite-derived discharge rates to drive a lava flow emplacement model, LAV@HAZARD allows timely definition of parameters and maps essential for hazard assessment, including the propagation time of lava flows and the maximum run-out distance. We take advantage of the flexibility of the HOTSAT thermal monitoring system to process satellite images coming from sensors with different spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions. HOTSAT was designed to ingest infrared satellite data acquired by the MODIS and SEVIRI sensors to output hot spot location, lava thermal flux and discharge rate. We use LAV@HAZARD to merge this output with the MAGFLOW physics-based model to simulate lava flow paths and to update, in a timely manner, flow simulations. Thus, any significant changes in lava discharge rate are included in the predictions. A significant benefit in terms of computational speed was obtained thanks to the parallel implementation of MAGFLOW on graphic processing units (GPUs). All this useful information has been gathered into the LAV@HAZARD platform which, due to the high degree of interactivity, allows generation of easily readable maps and a fast way to explore alternative scenarios. We will describe and demonstrate the operation of this framework using a variety of case studies pertaining to Mt Etna, Sicily. Although this study was conducted on Mt Etna, the approach used is designed to be applicable to other volcanic areas around the world.

  12. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is difficult to develop an objective approach to risks and effects of a hazardous incident that would be acceptable to the community at large. It is a matter of fact that there is great dissimilarity in the way various social groups perceive and define the risks of a particular technology, or the effects of hazardous incidents, sometimes they have even contrary opinions. Hence, open communication is seriously hampered, which in turn aggravates the problems encountered in this context. This second volume of the publication dealing with the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication' is intended to reveal patterns of the recurrent process which impedes communication, and to bridge the gaps between the various 'styles' of risk perception and definition. (orig./CB)

  13. How to control chemical hazards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: cern.ch/regles-securite The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: safety-general@cern.ch The HSE Unit

  14. Building 6630 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 6630. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which one chemical was kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the chemical release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 76 meters. The highest emergency classification is an Alert. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 100 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

  15. Asteriod and Comet Impact Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asteroid and Comet Impact Hazards is a NASA Ames Research Center site containing information on near Earth objects (NEOs). There is an asteroid and comet fact sheet; information on NASA programs such as the NASA-US Air Force Near Earth Objects (NEO) Search Program, the Spaceguard program, and the plan to establish a NEO Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A catalog of near Earth objects provides lists with orbital elements, future passages of NEOs, and potentially hazardous asteroids. Government studies, including US Congressional hearings and statements, NASA studies, and the UK NEO study are provided. There is a bibliography of publications on asteroid and comet impact hazards and planetary defense, as well as a news archive.

  16. Lessons learned from external hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinador, Miguel; Zerger, Benoit [European Commisison Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Ramos, Manuel Martin [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Safety and Security Coordination; Wattrelos, Didier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

  17. Building 894 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 894. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 9 chemicals were kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 130 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 130 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

  18. Hazards of solar blue light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations

  19. 327 Building hazard baseline document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document identifies the hazards in the 327 Building at the time that a facility walk through was performed during FY99, presents a PHA of stabilization and deactivation activities, and provides a basis for the hazard evaluation and accident analysis that will be developed in the 327 Building Basis for Interim Operation (BIO). Activities addressed in this hazard baseline document include: (1) Stabilization and deactivation activities in preparation for eventual decommissioning of the 327 Building and the routine handling, processing, and shipment of waste to support these activities. (2) 324/327 Building Minimum Safe Project engineering and maintenance activities to maintain the building and systems viable--especially the Safety SSCs--to allow stabilization, deactivation, and waste handling activities with a minimum of risk to workers, the public, and the environment

  20. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation. They include application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  1. Hazards to Effective Due Diligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benoliel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is not surprising that many business deals fail to realize their expected future value because some deal makers fail to perform effective due diligence. Successful deal makers, however, know that due diligence is one of the most important tasks in successful deal making. Thus, they avoid the psychological and contextual traps that cause poor due diligence. In this article, I describe the hazards – the psychological biases and contextual factors – that might affect the due diligence task. These hazards include information availability bias; confirmation bias; overconfidence bias; time pressure; self-interested agents; deal fever; narrow focus; and complexity. Following this review, I provide a number of suggestions to help deal makers and organizations overcome these hazards.

  2. Lessons learned from external hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

  3. Hazardous waste minimization tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under RCRA section 3002 9(b) and 3005f(h), hazardous waste generators and owners/operators of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are required to certify that they have a program in place to reduce the volume or quantity and toxicity of hazardous waste to the degree determined to be economically practicable. In many cases, there are environmental, as well as, economic benefits, for agencies that pursue pollution prevention options. Several state governments have already enacted waste minimization legislation (e.g., Massachusetts Toxic Use Reduction Act of 1989, and Oregon Toxic Use Reduction Act and Hazardous Waste Reduction Act, July 2, 1989). About twenty six other states have established legislation that will mandate some type of waste minimization program and/or facility planning. The need to address the HAZMIN (Hazardous Waste Minimization) Program at government agencies and private industries has prompted us to identify the importance of managing The HAZMIN Program, and tracking various aspects of the program, as well as the progress made in this area. The open-quotes WASTEclose quotes is a tracking system, which can be used and modified in maintaining the information related to Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, in a manageable fashion. This program maintains, modifies, and retrieves information related to hazardous waste minimization and recycling, and provides automated report generating capabilities. It has a built-in menu, which can be prs. It has a built-in menu, which can be printed either in part or in full. There are instructions on preparing The Annual Waste Report, and The Annual Recycling Report. The program is very user friendly. This program is available in 3.5 inch or 5 1/4 inch floppy disks. A computer with 640K memory is required

  4. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified

  5. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  6. Treatment and storage of radioactive wastes at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway and a short survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment and storage of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Norway is described. A survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes and planned processing methods for their treatment in Norway is given. It seems that processing methods developed for radioactive wastes to a greater extent could be adopted to hazardous wastes, and that an increased interdisciplinary waste cooperation could be a positive contribution to the solution of the hazardous waste problems

  7. Assessment of airborne hazards in the thorium processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrappa, P; Bhanti, D P; Menon, V B; Dhandayutham, R; Gohel, C O; Nambiar, P P

    1976-11-01

    Airborne thorium thoron and its decay products contribute significantly to the hazards in the thorium industry. These have been assessed and compared with the standards. Assessment also included the unattached fractions of the decay products, the thoron working levels and the aerodynamic particle size distribution of airborne thorium. PMID:998494

  8. Hazardous Waste Management: A View to the New Century, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Gwen

    Like many parts of the United States, Colorado is facing a significant hazardous waste problem. Radioactive and chemical wastes generated by the Rocky Flats Nuclear Plant, the toxic Lowry Land Fill Site, industrial dumps, and heavy land and air traffic contribute to water, land, and air pollution in the state. As part of a statewide response…

  9. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These dn the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  10. Towards the Seismic Hazard Reassessment of Paks NPP (Hungary) Site: Seismicity and Sensitivity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Laszlo; Monus, Peter; Gyori, Erzsebet; Grenerczy, Gyula; Janos Katona, Tamas; Kiszely, Marta

    2015-04-01

    In context of extension of Paks Nuclear Power Plant by new units, a comprehensive site seismic hazard evaluation program has been developed that is already approved by the Hungarian Authorities. This includes a 3D seismic survey, drilling of several deep boreholes, extensive geological mapping, and geophysical investigations at the site and its vicinity, as well as on near regional, and regional scale. Furthermore, all relevant techniques of modern space geodesy (GPS, PSInSAR) will be also utilized to construct a new seismotectonic model. The implementation of the project is still in progress. In the presentation, some important elements of the new seismic hazard assessment are highlighted, and some results obtained in the preliminary phase of the program are presented and discussed. The first and most important component of the program is the compilation of the seismological database that is developed on different time scale zooming on different event recurrence rates such as paleo-earthquakes (10-1/a). In 1995, Paks NPP installed and started to operate a sensitive microseismic monitoring network capable for locating earthquakes as small as magnitude 2.0 within about 100 km of the NPP site. During the two decades of operation, the microseismic monitoring network located some 2,000 earthquakes within the region of latitude 45.5 - 49 N and longitude 16 - 23 E. Out of the total number of events, 130 earthquakes were reported as 'felt events'. The largest earthquake was an event of ML 4.8, causing significant damage in the epicenter area. The results of microseismic monitoring provide valuable data for seismotectonic modelling and results in more accurate earthquake recurrence equations. The first modern PSHA of Paks NPP site was carried out in 1995. Complex site characterization project was implemented and hazard curves had been evaluated for 10-3 - 10-5 annual frequency. As a follow-up, PSHA results have been reviewed and updated in the frame of periodic safety reviews, and hazard characterization of the site has been confirmed. The hazard curves have been extended to lower probability events, as it is required by the probabilistic safety analysis. These earlier projects resulted in 0.22-0.26 g and 0.43-0.54 g mean PGA at 104 and 105 return periods. The site effect and liquefaction probability have also been evaluated. As it is expected for the site of soft soil conditions, the amplification is greater at shorter periods for the lower amplitude ground motion of 104 return period compared to the longer periods for the higher amplitude of the 105 year level ground motion. Further studies will be based on the improved regional seismotectonic model, state-of-the-art hazard evaluation software, and better knowledge of the local soil conditions. The presented preliminary results can demonstrate the adequacy of the planned program and highlight the progress in the hazard assessment.

  11. Hazardous cloud imaging: a new way of using passive infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, D F

    1997-09-20

    A modeling and simulation study of the limits of remote detection by passive IR has led to a new concept for the remote detection of hazardous clouds. A passive IR signature model was developed with the Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center IR spectral data bases used as input for chemicals and biologicals and with the atmospheric transmittance model used for MODTRAN. The cloud travel and dispersion model, VLSTRACK, was used to simulate chemical and biological clouds. An easily applied spectral discrimination technique was developed with a standard Mathematica version of linear programming. All these were melded with Mathematica to produce images of three threat clouds: Sarin, mustard, and an unnamed biological. The hazardous cloud imager is a spatially scanning Fourier transform IR on the same level of complexity as conventional remote detectors, but is capable of greater sensitivity and moving operation. PMID:18259578

  12. [A discourse on female nurse job stress and reproductive hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Chuan; Chuang, Chao-Hua

    2011-12-01

    The negative effects of job stress on female reproduction have been receiving greater attention due to rapidly falling fertility rates in recent years. Nurses represent the greatest number of workers in the healthcare system. Nearly all are female and most are of reproductive age. Over half of nurses perceive nursing as a high-pressure occupation, making job stress an important issue. Long-term job stress affects mental and reproductive health. The International Nursing Association's advocacy of high quality, positive medical environments in 2007 highlighted the importance of improving workplace quality. This article reviews references and discusses job stress and its relationship to reproductive hazards for female nurses. We hope it provides valuable information and encourages government and related organizations to improve the medical working environment, recognize job stress in a timely manner, and provide health promotion strategies to reduce reproductive hazards and promote nurse health. PMID:22113640

  13. Development of tsunami hazard maps for the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia, using heterogeneous slip models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J.; Pranantyo, I. R.; Kongko, W.; Haunan, A.; Horspool, N.; Maemunah, I.; Natawidjaja, D.; Latief, H.; Cummins, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Heterogeneous distribution of slip during megathrust earthquakes has been shown to significantly affect the spatial distribution of tsunami height in both numerical studies and field observations. This means that tsunami hazard maps generated using uniform slip distributions in their tsunami source models may underestimate tsunami inundation in some locations compared with real events of the same magnitude in the same location. In order to more completely define areas that may be inundated during a tsunami it is important to consider how different possible distributions of slip will impact different parts of the coastline. We generate tsunami inundation maps for the Mentawai Islands, West Sumatra, Indonesia, from a composite suite of possible source models that are consistent with current knowledge of the source region. First, a suite of earthquake source models with randomly distributed slip along the Mentawai Segment of the Sunda Subduction Zone are generated. From this suite we select source models that generate vertical deformation consistent with that observed in coral palaeogeodetic records of previous ruptures of the Mentawai Segment. Tsunami inundation is modelled using high resolution elevation data for selected source models and the results compiled to generate a maximum tsunami inundation zone. This allows us to constrain the slip distribution beneath the Mentawai Islands, where coral palaeogeodetic data is available, while allowing greater variation in the slip distribution away from the islands, in particular near the trench where large slip events can generate large tsunami. This method also allows us to consider high slip events on deeper portions of the megathrust between the Mentawai Islands and the Sumatran Mainland, which give greater tsunami inundation on the eastern part of the Mentawai Islands and the west coast of Sumatra compared with near-trench events. By accounting for uncertainty in slip distribution, the resulting hazard maps give a more complete picture of the areas that may be inundated compared with hazard maps derived from a single ';worst case' source model. These maps allow for more robust tsunami evacuation plans to be developed to support immediate community evacuation in response to strong or long-lasting earthquake ground shaking.

  14. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M and O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''

  15. Simulations of Tsunami Hazard from Regional Sources in the South China and Adjoining Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalligeris, N.; Synolakis, C. E.; Okal, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    We examine the tsunami potential from sources located in the South China Sea and its adjoining basins, the Sulu and Sulawezi Seas, by running simulations using the MOST code for a number of scenarios of possible earthquakes at the various local subduction zones. In the Sulawezi Sea, we consider the events of 1918 at the Mindanao subduction zone, and 1996 at the Northern end of the Makassar Strait. In the Sulu Sea, we consider a scenario inspired by the 1948 Panay earthquake (because of the fractured nature of the plate system in those areas, it is not feasible to consider much larger earthquakes). In all three cases, we find that the tsunami is contained within the relevant marginal sea and does not penetrate significantly the greater South China Basin, but could cause significant damage to the Eastern coast of Borneo. Farther North, we consider as worst case scenarios events reaching 10**29 dyn*cm with rupture lengths of 400 km, both off Luzon Island and, under a slightly different geometry, off the Luzon Straits separating the Philippines and Taiwan. Such scenarios carry very significant hazard to all coastlines bordering the South China Sea, including Indochina and Borneo. We will also present models of landslide-generated tsunamis, inspired from the event of 14 February 1934 off the Luzon Strait, and the presumably Holocene Brunei mega-slide.

  16. Multidisciplinary Approach to Identify and Mitigate the Hazard from Induced Seismicity in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A. A.; Keller, G. R., Jr.; Darold, A. P.; Murray, K. E.; Holloway, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Oklahoma has experienced a very significant increase in seismicity rates over the last 5 years with the greatest increase occurring in 2014. The observed rate increase indicates that the seismic hazard for at least some parts of Oklahoma has increased significantly. Many seismologists consider the large number of salt-water disposal wells operating in Oklahoma as the largest contributing factor to this increase. However, unlike many cases of seismicity induced by injection, the greatest increase is occurring over a very large area, about 15% of the state. There are more than 3,000 disposal wells currently operating within Oklahoma along with injection volumes greater than 2010 rates. These factors add many significant challenges to identifying potential cases of induced seismicity and understanding the contributing factors well enough to mitigate such occurrences. In response to a clear need for a better geotechnical understanding of what is occurring in Oklahoma, a multi-year multidisciplinary study some of the most active areas has begun at the University of Oklahoma. This study includes additional seismic monitoring, better geological and geophysical characterization of the subsurface, hydrological and reservoir modeling, and geomechanical studies to better understand the rise in seismicity rates. The Oklahoma Corporation Commission has added new rules regarding reporting and monitoring of salt-water disposal wells, and continue to work with the Oklahoma Geological Survey and other researchers.

  17. Travel and urban form in the Greater Copenhagen region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    Research into the associations between urban form and travel in the capital areal has focussed on subcenters and the stability of urban form correlates over time. A trend towards de-concentration and formation of subcenters in metropolitan areas has been acknowledged for decades. Studies have analyzed the new urban structure by identifying subcenters and their land value impacts. Others have focused on subcenters as a location attribute or ‘intervention’ that affects travel patterns and therefore may be employed in the context of urban and transportation demand management. The research has aimed to identify subcenters in the Greater Copenhagen area and analyze their importance for property values as well as on travel demand. Subcenters are identified by applying spatial statistics to on available spatially explicit datasets representing jobs in general and retail jobs. Home price appreciation rates are available from the Danish property registers sales databases. Travel data are available from the Danish National Travel survey. Properties and travel patterns have been analysed for the effects of access to subcenters a different levels to support conclusions on which subcenters matter and how much. Analysis of the stability of urban form correlates of travel over time has exploited the possibilities offered by the most recent and consistent data series produced by the Danish National Travel Survey. Data allows for a comparison of the urban form correlates of travel at the peak of the economic upturn – with a later point in time where the financial crisis had radically changed the economic climate. It follows from the specificity of the historical events that an analysis of what happened to urban form and transport over the financial crisis is to be seen as a case study into the adaption’s that occurred and the conditioning properties of the urban fabric. However, this will still make a new contribution to our understanding of the relations between urban form, location and travel. The results indicated that some changes in the location dependencies of transport took place between 2006 and 2011 – especially with respect to the role of subcenters that seem to have increased in significance by the addition of an extra level of ‘centrality’ which again most likely reflect travel-saving behavioural changes.

  18. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

  19. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Andrew A; Kirkwood, James K; Dawson, Michael; Spencer, Yvonne I; Green, Robert B; Wells, Gerald A H

    2004-06-01

    Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with BSE in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), infectivity in greater kudu with BSE is distributed in as wide a range of tissues as occurs in any TSE. BSE agent was also detected in skin, conjunctiva, and salivary gland, tissues in which infectivity has not previously been reported in any naturally occurring TSE. The distribution of infectivity in greater kudu with BSE suggests possible routes for transmission of the disease and highlights the need for further research into the distribution of TSE infectious agents in other host species. PMID:15207051

  20. A UAV System for Observing Volcanoes and Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggiani, G.; Persiani, F.; Ceruti, A.; Tortora, P.; Troiani, E.; Giuletti, F.; Amici, S.; Buongiorno, M.; Distefano, G.; Bentini, G.; Bianconi, M.; Cerutti, A.; Nubile, A.; Sugliani, S.; Chiarini, M.; Pennestri, G.; Petrini, S.; Pieri, D.

    2007-12-01

    Fixed or rotary wing manned aircraft are currently the most commonly used platforms for airborne reconnaissance in response to natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, oil spills, wild fires, earthquakes. Such flights are very often undertaken in hazardous flying conditions (e.g., turbulence, downdrafts, reduced visibility, close proximity to dangerous terrain) and can be expensive. To mitigate these two fundamental issues-- safety and cost--we are exploring the use of small (less than 100kg), relatively inexpensive, but effective, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for this purpose. As an operational test, in 2004 we flew a small autonomous UAV in the airspace above and around Stromboli Volcano. Based in part on this experience, we are adapting the RAVEN UAV system for such natural hazard surveillance missions. RAVEN has a 50km range, with a 3.5m wingspan, main fuselage length of 4.60m, and maximum weight of 56kg. It has autonomous flight capability and a ground control Station for the mission planning and control. It will carry a variety of imaging devices, including a visible camera, and an IR camera. It will also carry an experimental Fourier micro-interferometer based on MOEMS technology, (developed by IMM Institute of CNR), to detect atmospheric trace gases. Such flexible, capable, and easy-to-deploy UAV systems may significantly shorten the time necessary to characterize the nature and scale of the natural hazard threats if used from the outset of, and systematically during, natural hazard events. When appropriately utilized, such UAVs can provide a powerful new hazard mitigation and documentation tool for civil protection hazard responders. This research was carried out under the auspices of the Italian government, and, in part, under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  1. Instrumental variable additive hazards models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialiang; Fine, Jason; Brookhart, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Instrumental variable (IV) methods are popular in non-experimental studies to estimate the causal effects of medical interventions. These approaches allow for the consistent estimation of treatment effects even if important confounding factors are unobserved. Despite the increasing use of these methods, there have been few extensions of IV methods to censored data problems. In this article, we discuss challenges in applying IV techniques to the proportional hazards model and demonstrate the utility of the additive hazards formulation for IV analyses with censored data. Assuming linear structural equation models for the hazard function, we develop a closed-form, two-stage estimator for the causal effect in the additive hazard model. The methods permit both continuous and discrete exposures, and enable the estimation of causal relative survival measures. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are derived and the resulting inferences are shown to perform well in simulation studies and in an application to a data set on the effectiveness of a novel chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer. PMID:25298257

  2. Proportional Hazards Models of Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimka, Justin R.; Reed-Rhoads, Teri; Barker, Kash

    2008-01-01

    Survival analysis is a statistical tool used to describe the duration between events. Many processes in medical research, engineering, and economics can be described using survival analysis techniques. This research involves studying engineering college student graduation using Cox proportional hazards models. Among male students with American…

  3. Chemical hazards in the organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The use of hazardous chemicals in organisations represents a substantial risk to occupational health, safety and the environment (OHSE). Organisational directors and managers have a responsibility to provide and maintain organisational management systems that manage these risks. The risk management approach of establishing organisational considerations, identifying chemical hazards (health and environmental), assessing and controlling risks and evaluating management activities has become the de facto means of managing organisational hazards in general and may be satisfactorily applied to the management of chemicals in the organisation. The Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is now at the forefront of major regulatory issues facing the chemicals manufacturing industry and downstream users of chemicals. The GHS offers one system for the classification of all dangerous, toxic and environmental (ecotoxic) effects of chemicals. Organisations should develop occupational health, safety and environment (OHSE) management systems which contain programs and procedures that contain systems for inventory control, hazard communication, competency training, risk assessment and control, transport and storage, monitoring and health surveillance, chemical emergencies (including accident investigation), waste minimisation and disposal, record keeping and management system review. PMID:22945564

  4. 77 FR 17573 - Hazard Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ...Pictograms also serve to attract attention to the hazard warnings on...therefore key to attracting attention and informing risk perception...pictorials aided understanding and memory more than labels with pictorials...of the warning, grab the attention of the user faster, and...

  5. 49 CFR 177.848 - Segregation of hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Segregation of hazardous materials. 177.848 Section 177.848...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC...

  6. 49 CFR 174.81 - Segregation of hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Segregation of hazardous materials. 174.81 Section 174.81 ...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL...

  7. 75 FR 12989 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ...transportation, Hazardous waste, Imports, Labeling, Packaging and containers, Reporting...control, Hazardous waste, Insurance, Packaging and containers, Reporting...control, Hazardous waste, Insurance, Packaging and containers,...

  8. 75 FR 13066 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ...transportation, Hazardous waste, Imports, Labeling, Packaging and containers, Reporting...control, Hazardous waste, Insurance, Packaging and containers, Reporting...control, Hazardous waste, Insurance, Packaging and containers,...

  9. 75 FR 31716 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...transportation, Hazardous waste, Imports, Labeling, Packaging and containers, Reporting...control, Hazardous waste, Insurance, Packaging and containers, Reporting...control, Hazardous waste, Insurance, Packaging and containers,...

  10. Monogenetic volcanic hazards and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C.; Connor, L. J.; Richardson, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many of the Earth's major cities are build on the products of monogenetic volcanic eruptions and within geologically active basaltic volcanic fields. These cities include Mexico City (Mexico), Auckland (New Zealand), Melbourne (Australia), and Portland (USA) to name a few. Volcanic hazards in these areas are complex, and involve the potential formation of new volcanic vents and associated hazards, such as lava flows, tephra fallout, and ballistic hazards. Hazard assessment is complicated by the low recurrence rate of volcanism in most volcanic fields. We have developed a two-stage process for probabilistic modeling monogenetic volcanic hazards. The first step is an estimation of the possible locations of future eruptive vents based on kernel density estimation and recurrence rate of volcanism using Monte Carlo simulation and accounting for uncertainties in age determinations. The second step is convolution of this spatial density / recurrence rate model with hazard codes for modeling lava inundation, tephra fallout, and ballistic impacts. A methodology is presented using this two-stage approach to estimate lava flow hazard in several monogenetic volcanic fields, including at a nuclear power plant site near the Shamiram Plateau, a Quaternary volcanic field in Armenia. The location of possible future vents is determined by estimating spatial density from a distribution of 18 mapped vents using a 2-D elliptical Gaussian kernel function. The SAMSE method, a modified asymptotic mean squared error approach, uses the distribution of known eruptive vents to optimally determine a smoothing bandwidth for the Gaussian kernel function. The result is a probability map of vent density. A large random sample (N=10000) of vent locations is drawn from this probability map. For each randomly sampled vent location, a lava flow inundation model is executed. Lava flow input parameters (volume and average thickness) are determined from distributions fit to field observations of the low viscosity trachy-basalt to -dacite lava flows of the area. The areas and flow extents (a quantitative measure of lava flow length) of these simulated lava flows compare quite well with mapped lava flow areas and extents. This approach yields a conditional probability of lava flow inundation, given the opening of a new vent, and provides a map of the possible vent locations that lead to site inundation. Such models are generally applicable to any monogenetic volcanic field.

  11. The EMS and the international monetary system: towards greater stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SARCINELLI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Monetary System (EMS is an attempt to achieve greater stability of monetary relationships between member states of the European Community. The author examines the theoretical foundations of such a scheme before discussing the experience of the EMS since its establishment in 1978. Particular attention is paid to the problem of harmonising the different monetary objectives of member states within the EMS and the role of the European Currency Unit in achieving harmonisation. This leads to an analysis of how greater stability may be achieved between the EMS and other currency areas and of how international monetary stability may be improved.

  12. Utah Flooding Hazard: Raising Public Awareness through the Creation of Multidisciplinary Web-Based Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleton, J.; Erickson, B.; Bowman, S. D.; Unger, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Utah Geological Survey's (UGS) Geologic Hazards Program has partnered with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to create geologically derived web-based flood hazard maps. Flooding in Utah communities has historically been one of the most damaging geologic hazards. The most serious floods in Utah have generally occurred in the Great Salt Lake basin, particularly in the Weber River drainage on the western slopes of the Wasatch Range, in areas of high population density. With a growing population of 2.9 million, the state of Utah is motivated to raise awareness about the potential for flooding. The process of increasing community resiliency to flooding begins with identification and characterization of flood hazards. Many small communities in areas experiencing rapid growth have not been mapped completely by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM). Existing FIRM maps typically only consider drainage areas that are greater than one square mile in determining flood zones and do not incorporate geologic data, such as the presence of young, geologically active alluvial fans that indicate a high potential for debris flows and sheet flooding. Our new flood hazard mapping combines and expands on FEMA data by incorporating mapping derived from 1:24,000-scale UGS geologic maps, LiDAR data, digital elevation models, and historical aerial photography. Our flood hazard maps are intended to supplement the FIRM maps to provide local governments and the public with additional flood hazard information so they may make informed decisions, ultimately reducing the risk to life and property from flooding hazards. Flooding information must be widely available and easily accessed. One of the most effective ways to inform the public is through web-based maps. Web-based flood hazard maps will not only supply the public with the flood information they need, but also provides a platform to add additional geologic hazards to an easily accessible format.

  13. Effects of data sparsity and spatiotemporal variability on hazard maps of workplace noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Kirk; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Haonan; Volckens, John; Koehler, Kirsten A

    2015-01-01

    Personal sampling, considered a state-of-the-art technique to assess worker exposures to occupational hazards, is often conducted for the duration of a work shift so that time-weighted average (TWA) exposures may be evaluated relative to published occupational exposure limits (OELs). Such cross-shift measurements, however, provide little information on the spatial variability of exposures, except after a very large number of samples. Hazard maps, contour plots (or similar depiction) of hazard intensity throughout the workplace, have gained popularity as a way to locate sources and to visualize spatial variability of physical and chemical hazards within a facility. However, these maps are often generated from short duration measures and have little ability to assess temporal variability. To assess the potential bias that results from the use of short-duration measurements to represent the TWA in a hazard map, noise intensity measurements were collected at high spatial and temporal resolution in two facilities. Static monitors were distributed throughout the facility and used to capture the temporal variability at these locations. Roving monitors (typical of the hazard mapping process) captured spatial variability over multiple traverses through the facility. The differences in hazards maps generated with different sampling techniques were evaluated. Hazard maps produced from sparse, roving monitor data were in good agreement with the TWA hazard maps at the facility with low temporal variability. Estimated values were within 5 dB of the TWA over approximately 90% of the facility. However, at the facility with higher temporal variability, large differences between hazard maps were observed for different traverses through the facility. On the second day of sampling, estimates were at least 5 dB different than the TWA for more than half of the locations within the facility. The temporal variability of noise was found to have a greater influence on map accuracy than the spatial sampling resolution. PMID:25437137

  14. Transportation training: Focusing on movement of hazardous substances and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, are developing and implementing a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hcontrols for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls

  16. Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-05-04

    Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls.

  17. AN ENHANCED HAZARD ANALYSIS PROCESS FOR THE HANFORD TANK FARMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., has expanded the scope and increased the formality of process hazards analyses performed on new or modified Tank Farm facilities, designs, and processes. The CH2M HILL process hazard analysis emphasis has been altered to reflect its use as a fundamental part of the engineering and change control process instead of simply being a nuclear safety analysis tool. The scope has been expanded to include identification of accidents/events that impact the environment, or require emergency response, in addition to those with significant impact to the facility worker, the offsite, and the 100-meter receptor. Also, there is now an expectation that controls will be identified to address all types of consequences. To ensure that the process has an appropriate level of rigor and formality, a new engineering standard for process hazards analysis was created. This paper discusses the role of process hazards analysis as an information source for not only nuclear safety, but also for the worker-safety management programs, emergency management, environmental programs. This paper also discusses the role of process hazards analysis in the change control process, including identifying when and how it should be applied to changes in design or process

  18. Seismic hazard analysis. Application of methodology, results, and sensitivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Site Specific Spectra Project, this report seeks to identify the sources of and minimize uncertainty in estimates of seismic hazards in the Eastern United States. Findings are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a synthesis among various methods that can be used in evaluating seismic hazard at the various plants in the Eastern United States. In this volume, one of a five-volume series, we discuss the application of the probabilistic approach using expert opinion. The seismic hazard is developed at nine sites in the Central and Northeastern United States, and both individual experts' and synthesis results are obtained. We also discuss and evaluate the ground motion models used to develop the seismic hazard at the various sites, analyzing extensive sensitivity studies to determine the important parameters and the significance of uncertainty in them. Comparisons are made between probabilistic and real spectra for a number of Eastern earthquakes. The uncertainty in the real spectra is examined as a function of the key earthquake source parameters. In our opinion, the single most important conclusion of this study is that the use of expert opinion to supplement the sparse data available on Eastern United States earthquakes is a viable approach for determining estimated seismic hazard in this region of the country. (author)

  19. Documentation for the Southeast Asia seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Haller, Kathleen; Dewey, James; Luco, Nicolas; Crone, Anthony; Lidke, David; Rukstales, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project originated in response to the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M9.2) and the resulting tsunami that caused significant casualties and economic losses in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. During the course of this project, several great earthquakes ruptured subduction zones along the southern coast of Indonesia (fig. 1) causing additional structural damage and casualties in nearby communities. Future structural damage and societal losses from large earthquakes can be mitigated by providing an advance warning of tsunamis and introducing seismic hazard provisions in building codes that allow buildings and structures to withstand strong ground shaking associated with anticipated earthquakes. The Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project was funded through a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)—Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System to develop seismic hazard maps that would assist engineers in designing buildings that will resist earthquake strong ground shaking. An important objective of this project was to discuss regional hazard issues with building code officials, scientists, and engineers in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The code communities have been receptive to these discussions and are considering updating the Thailand and Indonesia building codes to incorporate new information (for example, see notes from Professor Panitan Lukkunaprasit, Chulalongkorn University in Appendix A).

  20. ANALYSIS OF GEOTHERMAL WASTES FOR HAZARDOUS COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulations governing the disposal of hazardous wastes led to an assessment for geothermal solid wastes for potentially hazardous properties. Samples were collected from three active geothermal sites in the western United States: The Geysers, Imperial Valley, and northwestern Nev...

  1. Loss experience from natural phenomena hazards in the Department of Energy (50 years of natural phenomena hazard losses)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a historical prespective on losses due to natural hazard incidents (1943-1993) at Department of Energy (DOE) and predecessor agencies including the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA). This paper also demonstrates how an existing DOE resource can be used to gain valuable insight into injury or property damage incidents. That resource is the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) module of DOE's Safety Performance Measurement System. CAIRS data selected the 1981-1991 DOE injury/illness reports, from all the accident reports of the AEC that cited a natural phenomena hazard as either the direct or indirect cause of the injury/property damage. Specifically, injury or property damage reports were selected for analysis if they had a causal factor link to severe weather or natural phenomena hazard categories. Natural phenomena hazard categories are injury/property damage caused by hurricane/tornado, earthquake, lightning, or flood. Severe weather categories are injury/property damage associated with other than normal weather conditions. The lessons learned, as a result of reviewing case histories, are presented, as are suggestions on how to reduce the likelihood of future injuries/property damage as a result of similar events. A significant finding, is that most injuries and property damage were the result of an indirect causal link to a natural phenomena hazard and thus, may be more prevennomena hazard and thus, may be more preventable than previously thought possible. The primary message, however, is that CAIRS and other incident data bases are valuable resources and should be considered for use by those interested in identifying new ways of protecting the health and safety of the worker and for reducing building losses due to the effects of natural phenomena hazards

  2. Age and Expatriate Job Performance in Greater China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - As opposed to the predominant belief in the West, in Chinese dominated societies theremay be a positive relationship between age and perceived possession of high quality personalresources. That attitude towards old age may carry over to expatriates in Chinese societies. This mayhave a positive impact on expatriates' job performance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is toexamine the association between the age of business expatriates and their work performance in a Chinese cultural setting. Design/methodology/approach - Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, data collected from business expatriates in Greater China were analyzed by means ofhierarchical regression. Findings - Results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive association with the age of the expatriates. This finding provides partial affirmative support to the presumption that the age of business expatriates matters in a Chinese cultural context. Practical implications - Companies sending expatriates to Greater China could introduce age among other selection criteria. At least, companies should not discriminate against older candidatesin expatriate selection for Greater China. Furthermore, older expatriates destined for a Chinesecultural context could be trained how to exploit their age advantage. Originality/value - In contrast to previous studies, this investigation attempts to match a certain personal characteristic of expatriates with a specific host culture. The results have implications for and contribute to the literature on expatriate selection as well as to the body of research on crosscultural training.

  3. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  4. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  5. Advancing Research on Productive Aging Activities in Greater Chinese Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Terry Yat-Sang

    2013-06-01

    The public discourse on productive aging as a research and policy initiative has just begun in greater China. Two conferences in Mainland China in 2009 and 2011 and subsequent conferences in Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2012 have set it in motion. Because applied social science research has just started in greater China, researchers in Chinese societies will benefit from the experience and rich literature accumulated over the last three decades in the West. In this paper, I review and reflect on the research methods used in productive aging research in both Chinese societies and in the West. I believe that to advance productive aging research in greater China, we need to (1) discuss and agree upon a definition of productive aging, (2) identify and differentiate outputs and outcomes of productive aging activities in greater China, (3) develop precise measures for productive aging involvement, (4) focus on institutional (program and public policy) factors that promote productive aging involvement, (5) use a strong research design (such as a quasi-experimental design) to establish the internal validity of productive aging programs, and (6) be theory-driven. Lastly, productive aging should be seen as a choice, not an obligation for older people; otherwise, the productive aging agenda will be seen as exploiting older people. It is important that Chinese researchers and policy-makers have this in mind when they are advocating productive engagement of older people in China. PMID:23645946

  6. SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (NOEMAIL), R

    2005-12-14

    This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The primary reasons for this difference is the greater activity rate used in contemporary models for the Charleston source zone and proper incorporation of uncertainty and randomness in GMAMs.

  7. WIPP fire hazards and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a fire hazards risk analysis of the Transuranic (TRU) contact-handled waste receipt, emplacement, and disposal activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The technical bases and safety envelope for these operations are defined in the approved WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Although the safety documentation for the initial phase of the Test Program, the dry bin scale tests, has not yet been approved by the Department of Energy (DOE), reviews of the draft to date, including those by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Facility Safety (ACNFS), have concluded that the dry bin scale tests present no significant risks in excess of those estimated in the approved WIPP FSAR. It is the opinion of the authors and reviewers of this analysis, based on sound engineering judgment and knowledge of the WIPP operations, that a Fire Hazards and Risk Analysis specific to the dry bin scale test program is not warranted prior to first waste receipt. This conclusion is further supported by the risk analysis presented in this document which demonstrates the level of risk to WIPP operations posed by fire to be extremely low. 15 refs., 41 figs., 48 tabs

  8. Social networking patterns/hazards among teenagers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Machold, C

    2012-05-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have grown substantially, posing new hazards to teenagers. This study aimed to determine general patterns of Internet usage among Irish teenagers aged 11-16 years, and to identify potential hazards, including; bullying, inappropriate contact, overuse, addiction and invasion of users\\' privacy. A cross-sectional study design was employed to survey students at three Irish secondary schools, with a sample of 474 completing a questionnaire. 202 (44%) (n = 460) accessed the Internet using a shared home computer. Two hours or less were spent online daily by 285(62%), of whom 450 (98%) were unsupervised. 306 (72%) (n = 425) reported frequent usage of SNSs, 403 (95%) of whom were Facebook users. 42 (10%) males and 51 (12%) females experienced bullying online, while 114 (27%) reported inappropriate contact from others. Concerning overuse and the risk of addiction, 140 (33%) felt they accessed SNSs too often. These patterns among Irish teenagers suggest that SNS usage poses significant dangers, which are going largely unaddressed.

  9. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is possible to determinate environments and scenarios where the seismic hazard is a function of distance and magnitude and also the principal seismic sources that contribute to the seismic hazard at each site (dissagregation). This project was conducted by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (Colombian Geological Survey) and the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (National University of Colombia), with the collaboration of national and foreign experts and the National System of Prevention and Attention of Disaster (SNPAD). It is important to stand out that this new seismic hazard map was used in the updated national building code (NSR-10). A new process is ongoing in order to improve and present the Seismic Hazard Map in terms of intensity. This require new knowledge in site effects, in both local and regional scales, checking the existing and develop new acceleration to intensity relationships, in order to obtain results more understandable and useful for a wider range of users, not only in the engineering field, but also all the risk assessment and management institutions, research and general community.

  10. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the PFP. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  11. PHAZE, Parametric Hazard Function Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking of the model assumptions. 2 - Methods: PHAZE assumes that the failures of a component follow a time-dependent (or non-homogenous) Poisson process and that the failure counts in non-overlapping time intervals are independent. Implicit in the independence property is the assumption that the component is restored to service immediately after any failure, with negligible repair time. The failures of one component are assumed to be independent of those of another component; a proportional hazards model is used. Data for a component are called time censored if the component is observed for a fixed time-period, or plant records covering a fixed time-period are examined, and the failure times are recorded. The number of these failures is random. Data are called failure censored if the component is kept in service until a predetermined number of failures has occurred, at which time the component is removed from service. In this case, theis removed from service. In this case, the number of failures is fixed, but the end of the observation period equals the final failure time and is random. A typical PHAZE session consists of reading failure data from a file prepared previously, selecting one of the three models, and performing data analysis (i.e., performing the usual statistical inference about the parameters of the model, with special emphasis on the parameter(s) that determine whether the hazard function is increasing). The final goals of the inference are a point estimate and a confidence interval for the hazard function at any time. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: PHAZE is limited to a maxima of 100 components and 40 failures per component

  12. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-06-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there is currently an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk-reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does not, however, make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard and flood fatality hazard.

  13. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-01-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there currently is an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does, however, not make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard respectively flood fatality hazard.

  14. The Greater India beneath Tibet: A detailed new seismic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Agius, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    The Greater India is a continent that existed before the India-Asia collision and comprised today's Indian subcontinent and its extension to the north, by now consumed in the collision. The size, shape, and evolution of the Greater India are a matter of a heated debate, from its place in the make-up of Gondwana to its rapid northward drift and evolution following the break-up of the supercontinent and to its eventual collision with Eurasia. How the India-Asia collision has been accommodated (how much of the continental Indian lithosphere has been consumed and what happened to it) is an important unresolved problem in itself, the proposed solutions including: underthrusting of India beneath Tibet; northward subduction of India; viscous thickening of the Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath Tibet; viscous thickening followed by convective removal; lateral extrusion of chunks of Greater India eastwards; slicing and sinking of the Greater India's lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Body-wave seismic tomography shows the remnants of the subducted lithosphere of the ancient Tethys Ocean, now in the lower mantle, and the more recently subducted lithosphere of the Indian Plate around the transition-zone depths. In the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range, however, the properties and even the presence of Indian lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Tibet are debated. Whereas surface-wave tomographic models typically show a high-velocity anomaly beneath much of Tibet at around 200 km depth, many body-wave models do not show high-velocity anomalies under most of the plateau, prompting very different interpretations. Here we determine the morphology of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet using a combination of large-scale waveform tomography (based on a new, unprecedentedly large global dataset) and of surface-wave array analysis in Tibet. The Greater Indian lithosphere is present (underthrusting or subducting) beneath much of Tibet. There are marked differences in the properties of the Greater Indian lithosphere and in the mechanism of its descent beneath different parts of the plateau. In the west, cratonic Indian lithosphere underthrusts the Tibetan crust and collides with the Tarim Craton to the north of it. In the central part of the plateau, Indian lithosphere underthrusts Tibet form the Himalayas up to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture and then, further north, subducts at a relatively steep angle. Indian lithosphere now under the east-central Himalayas is not cratonic (not as thick and cold as in the west). Beneath eastern Tibet, the Indian lithosphere has subducted, at a shallow angle, hundreds of kilometers northwards to under the Qiangtang and Songpan-Ganzi Terranes. The detailed new seismic images provide new constraints on the size of the Greater India continent and on lateral variations in the properties of its lithosphere. The size and shape of the Greater India as evidenced by the seismic data are consistent with the recent plate-tectonic models in which the India-Asia hard continental collision commences more recently than previously thought. References Agius, M. R., S. Lebedev. Tibetan and Indian lithospheres in the upper mantle beneath Tibet: Evidence from broadband surface-wave dispersion. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, doi:10.1002/ggge.20274, 2013. Schaeffer, A. J., S. Lebedev. Global shear-speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophys. J. Int. 194, 417-449, 2013. Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., et al., Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 7659-64, 2012. Zahirovic, S., et al., Insights on the kinematics of the India-Eurasia collision from global geodynamic models, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13, doi:10.1029/2011GC003883, 2012.

  15. 40 CFR 68.67 - Process hazard analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Process hazard analysis. 68.67 Section 68...Prevention Program § 68.67 Process hazard analysis. (a) The owner or operator shall perform an initial process hazard analysis (hazard evaluation)...

  16. A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF TSUNAMI HAZARD AND RISK IN THE INDONESIAN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Rynn

    2002-01-01

    The natural hazard of tsunami has, for too long, been underrated as a potential cause of major disasters. However, several devastating tsunamis in and around the Pacific Ocean Basin over the last decade - all claiming significant loss of life, major property and environmental damage and severe socio-economic losses - have heightened the awareness of this natural hazard. As a consequence, significant mitigation strategies and measures in tsunami-prone regions of the world (such as the Pacific ...

  17. Accident analysis for aircraft crash into hazardous facilities: DOE standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard provides the user with sufficient information to evaluate and assess the significance of aircraft crash risk on facility safety without expending excessive effort where it is not required. It establishes an approach for performing a conservative analysis of the risk posed by a release of hazardous radioactive or chemical material resulting from an aircraft crash into a facility containing significant quantities of such material. This can establish whether a facility has a significant potential for an aircraft impact and whether this has the potential for producing significant offsite or onsite consequences. General implementation guidance, screening and evaluation guidelines, and methodologies for the evaluations are included

  18. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS, T.B.

    2000-03-16

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis to support the final CSB Safety Analysis Report and documents the results. This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis process identified hazardous conditions and material-at-risk, determined causes for potential accidents, identified preventive and mitigative features, and qualitatively estimated the frequencies and consequences of specific occurrences. The hazard analysis was performed by a team of cognizant CSB operations and design personnel, safety analysts familiar with the CSB, and technical experts in specialty areas. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process. Attachment A provides two lists of hazard analysis team members and describes the background and experience of each. The first list is a complete list of the hazard analysis team members that have been involved over the two-year long process. The second list is a subset of the first list and consists of those hazard analysis team members that reviewed and agreed to the final hazard analysis documentation. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process involving formal facilitated group sessions and independent hazard and accident analysis work. The hazard analysis process led to the selection of candidate accidents for further quantitative analysis. New information relative to the hazards, discovered during the accident analysis, was incorporated into the hazard analysis data in order to compile a complete profile of facility hazards. Through this process, the results of the hazard and accident analyses led directly to the identification of safety structures, systems, and components, technical safety requirements, and other controls required to protect the public, workers, and environment.

  19. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis to support the final CSB Safety Analysis Report and documents the results. This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis process identified hazardous conditions and material-at-risk, determined causes for potential accidents, identified preventive and mitigative features, and qualitatively estimated the frequencies and consequences of specific occurrences. The hazard analysis was performed by a team of cognizant CSB operations and design personnel, safety analysts familiar with the CSB, and technical experts in specialty areas. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process. Attachment A provides two lists of hazard analysis team members and describes the background and experience of each. The first list is a complete list of the hazard analysis team members that have been involved over the two-year long process. The second list is a subset of the first list and consists of those hazard analysis team members that reviewed and agreed to the final hazard analysis documentation. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process involving formal facilitated group sessions and independent hazard and accident analysis work. The hazard analysis process led to the selection of candidate accidents for further quantitative analysis. New information relative to the hazards, discovered during the accident analysis, was incorporated into the hazard analysis data in order to compile a complete profile of facility hazards. Through this process, the results of the hazard and accident analyses led directly to the identification of safety structures, systems, and components, technical safety requirements, and other controls required to protect the public, workers, and environment

  20. How Can Asian Snack FuLoi Plan Successful Entering to Greater Helsinki Area? : Market research

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Loc

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces the significant factors of market research and its importance when considering doing international business. Furthermore, it could be useful for investors who have same favour to enter Finnish market. The case company is Asian Snack FuLoi- a German food industry company looking for new market. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility for a company to enter Finland in general and Greater Helsinki in particular. The thesis was structured with theor...

  1. Natural hazard and disaster tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruci?ska Dorota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An observed trend, which can be defined as tourist interest in natural hazards and disasters, has persuaded the authors to attempt to research several issues, including tourist motivations and specific tourism properties and functions of this form of activity. The objective also covered the allocation of this social and natural process in the general structure of tourism. This interest has a long history, and a new stage is currently forming, which partly results from factors affecting society, such as information and education, which provoke antagonistic reactions. Extreme natural phenomena entail a common reduction of tourist interest in the destination which hosted the event; however, it never drops to zero. Differences are visible depending on the type of phenomenon. On the other hand, natural hazards and disasters are considered to hold a specific tourism value. This article discusses the allocation of this human activity in the tourism forms known to scientists, accounting for its diversity and relating to ethics.

  2. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-2: Mixed GTCC LLW assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (mixed GTCC LLW) is waste that combines two characteristics: it is radioactive, and it is hazardous. This report uses information compiled from Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW 1 14, Revision 1), and applies it to the question of how much and what types of mixed GTCC LLW are generated and are likely to require disposal in facilities jointly regulated by the DOE and the NRC. The report describes how to classify a RCRA hazardous waste, and then applies that classification process to the 41 GTCC LLW waste types identified in the DOE/LLW-114 (Revision 1). Of the 41 GTCC LLW categories identified, only six were identified in this study as potentially requiring regulation as hazardous waste under RCRA. These wastes can be combined into the following three groups: fuel-in decontamination resins, organic liquids, and process waste consisting of lead scrap/shielding from a sealed source manufacturer. For the base case, no mixed GTCC LLW is expected from nuclear utilities or sealed source licensees, whereas only 177 ml of mixed GTCC LLW are expected to be produced by other generators through the year 2035. This relatively small volume represents approximately 40% of the base case estimate for GTCC wastes from other generators. For these other generators, volume estimates for mixed GTCC LLW ranged from less than 1 m3 to 187 m3, depending on assumptions and treatments applied to the wastes

  3. Threshold limit values of hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the effects of various hazardous materials in the working environment. Some of these may be detrimental to the safety and health of the worker. The absorption of hazardous substances by the human body is discussed, as well as the effects of toxic substances. The hazardous substances are classified into the following categories: irritants, asphyxiants, anaesthetics and narcotics, carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens, systemic poisons, hazardous particulate matter and the biotransformation of toxic substances. Examples of hazardous substances include: industrial solvents, fumes and vapours, lead, mercury and uranium

  4. Health hazards from environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three examples from current research are cited in order to show the health hazards from environmental pollution and to describe methods of risk quantification: (1) The smog situation of January 1985 is analyzed on the basis of detailed morbidity and mortality statistics; (2) The current knowledge on the contribution of radon decay products to lung cancer is discussed; (3) The problem of abandoned industrial sites is illustrated by a population group living on contaminated ground. (orig.)

  5. Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global and regional maps found at the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program show the chances of seismic activity over the globe for the next 50 years. The maps, recently made available on the Internet through the Swiss Seismological Service, were created through the collaboration of hundreds of researchers worldwide. Available here are global and continental maps (Americas, Europe/ Africa/ Middle East, Asia, and Southwest Pacific) as well as other maps for more localized regions. Each map comes with an accompanying report.

  6. Magnetic Storms and Induction Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Joshua Rigler, E.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher C.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Québec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

  7. Computer Model Locates Environmental Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Catherine Huybrechts Burton founded San Francisco-based Endpoint Environmental (2E) LLC in 2005 while she was a student intern and project manager at Ames Research Center with NASA's DEVELOP program. The 2E team created the Tire Identification from Reflectance model, which algorithmically processes satellite images using turnkey technology to retain only the darkest parts of an image. This model allows 2E to locate piles of rubber tires, which often are stockpiled illegally and cause hazardous environmental conditions and fires.

  8. Hazard Estimation under Generalized Censoring

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, Alberto Carabarin

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problem of the estimation of the cumulative hazard function of a distribution on a general complete separable metric space when the data points are subject to censoring by an arbitrary adapted random set. A problem involving observability of the estimator proposed in [8] and [9] is resolved and a functional central limit theorem is proven for the revised estimator. Several examples and applications are discussed, and the validity of bootstrap methods is established in each case.

  9. Harlequin ichthyosis in two greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittick, E J; Olivry, T; Dalldorf, F; Wright, J; Dale, B A; Wolfe, B A

    2002-11-01

    Two greater kudu calves (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) born 7 years apart were found with fissures and thickened, scaly, cutaneous plates covering over 80% of their bodies. One was dead at presentation, and the other was euthanized shortly after birth. Both animals shared a common sire. On necropsy, chemosis, ectropion, eclabium, and bilateral valgus deformities of the tarsal joints were observed in one calf, presumed to be secondary to the plates restricting normal fetal development. The principal microscopic lesion was severe lamellar orthokeratosis, with focal mild parakeratosis. Ultrastructural epidermal lesions included the absence of normal lamellar granules, large dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and abnormal retention of organelles and vesicles. Gross, histopathologic, and electron microscopic findings in both kudu calves were consistent with those of harlequin ichthyosis, a rare dermatosis of humans believed to have an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. The underlying genetic and molecular abnormality and heritability of this condition in this greater kudu herd were not determined. PMID:12450210

  10. Hazards Control Department 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, J.

    1997-06-30

    This annual report on the activities of the Hazards Control Department (HCD) in 1996 is part of the department's continuing effort to foster a working environment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where every person has the means, ability, and desire to work safely. The significant accomplishments and activities, the various services provided, and research into Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) issues by HCD would not have been possible without the many and ongoing contributions by its employees and support personnel. The HCD Leadership Team thanks each and every one in the department for their efforts and work in 1996 and for their personal commitment to keeping one of the premier research and scientific institutions in the world today a safe and healthy place.

  11. Automatic Hazard Detection for Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry H.

    2008-01-01

    Unmanned planetary landers to date have landed 'blind'; that is, without the benefit of onboard landing hazard detection and avoidance systems. This constrains landing site selection to very benign terrain,which in turn constrains the scientific agenda of missions. The state of the art Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) technology can land a spacecraft on Mars somewhere within a 20-100km landing ellipse.Landing ellipses are very likely to contain hazards such as craters, discontinuities, steep slopes, and large rocks, than can cause mission-fatal damage. We briefly review sensor options for landing hazard detection and identify a perception approach based on stereo vision and shadow analysis that addresses the broadest set of missions. Our approach fuses stereo vision and monocular shadow-based rock detection to maximize spacecraft safety. We summarize performance models for slope estimation and rock detection within this approach and validate those models experimentally. Instantiating our model of rock detection reliability for Mars predicts that this approach can reduce the probability of failed landing by at least a factor of 4 in any given terrain. We also describe a rock detector/mapper applied to large-high-resolution images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for landing site characterization and selection for Mars missions.

  12. Pre-Jurassic Basement of the Greater Caucasus: Brief Overview

    OpenAIRE

    SOMIN, MARK L.

    2011-01-01

    The main units of the Greater Caucasus pre-Jurassic basement are represented by Svanetian and North-Caucasian domains brought together tectonically. The former includes continuous Devonian to Upper Triassic marine sequence devoid of any manifestation of Variscan orogenic activity. In contrast, within the limits of the North-Caucasian domain the Variscan events are expressed in classical form. This domain is very heterogeneous and contains both metamorphosed and unmetamorphosed formations. Til...

  13. Multiple Task Interference is Greater in Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Ewen, Joshua B.; Moher, Jeffrey S.; Lakshmanan, Balaji M.; Ryan, Matthew; Xavier, Priya; Crone, Nathan E.; Denckla, Martha B.; Egeth, Howard; Mahone, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable lay discussion that children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have increased difficult with multitasking, but there are few experimental data. In the current study, we examine the simultaneous processing of two stimulus-response tasks using the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect. We hypothesized that children with ADHD would show a greater PRP effect, suggesting a prolonged “bottleneck” in stimulus-response processing. A total of 19 scho...

  14. Land Change in the Greater Antilles between 2001 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    A?lvarez-berri?os, Nora L.; Redo, Daniel J.; Mitchell Aide, T.; Clark, Matthew L.; Ricardo Grau

    2013-01-01

    Land change in the Greater Antilles differs markedly among countries because of varying socioeconomic histories and global influences. We assessed land change between 2001 and 2010 in municipalities (second administrative units) of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. Our analysis used annual land-use/land-cover maps derived from MODIS satellite imagery to model linear change in woody vegetation, mixed-woody/plantations and agriculture/herbaceous vegetation. Using this a...

  15. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  16. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face gre...

  17. Rock avalanches: significance and progress (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    1. The probability distribution of landslide volumes follows a power-law indicating that large rock avalanches dominate the terrestrial sediment supply from mountains, and that their source area morphologies dominate mountain topography. 2. Large rock slope failures (~ 106 m3 or greater) often mobilise into rock avalanches, which can travel extraordinarily long distances with devastating effect. This hypermobility has been the subject of many investigations; we have demonstrated that it can be explained quantitatively and accurately by considering the energetics of the intense rock fragmentation that always occurs during motion of a large rock mass. 3. Study of rock avalanche debris psd shows that the energy used in creating new rock surface area during fragmentation is not lost to surface energy, but is recycled generating a high-frequency elastic energy field that reduces the frictional resistance to motion during runout. 4. Rock avalanches that deposit on glaciers can eventually form large terminal moraines that have no connection with any climatic event; unless these are identified as rock-avalanche-influenced they can confuse palaeoclimatic inferences drawn from moraine ages. Rock-avalanche-derived fines, however, can be identified in moraine debris up to ten thousand years old by the characteristic micron-scale agglomerates that form during intense fragmentation, and which are absent from purely climatically-induced moraines; there is thus a strong case for re-examining existing palaeoclimatic databases to eliminate potentially rock-avalanche-influenced moraine ages. 5. Rock avalanches (especially coseismic ones) are a serious hazard, being very destructive in their own right; they also block river valleys, forming landslide dams and potentially devastating dambreak floods, and subsequent severe decade-scale aggradation of downstream fans and floodplains. Rock avalanches falling into lakes or fiords can cause catastrophic tsunami that pose a serious risk to waterside developments. Lake tsunami risk assessments can be derived from submarine landslide deposits. 6. Delineating hazard zones for these phenomena depends entirely on identifying the sites of future coseismic slope failures; in some cases this appears possible by identifying precursory coseismic displacements accumulated during previous earthquakes.

  18. Implementation of the hazardous debris rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous debris includes objects contaminated with hazardous waste. Examples of debris include tree stumps, timbers, boulders, tanks, piping, crushed drums, personal protective clothing, etc. Most of the hazardous debris encountered comes from Superfund sites and other facility remediation, although generators and treaters of hazardous waste also generate hazardous debris. Major problems associated with disposal of debris includes: Inappropriateness of many waste treatments to debris; Difficulties in obtaining representative samples; Costs associated with applying waste specific treatments to debris; Subtitle C landfill space was being used for many low hazard debris types. These factors brought about the need for debris treatment technologies and regulations that addressed these issues. The goal of such regulation was to provide treatment to destroy or remove the contamination if possible and, if this is achieved, to dispose of the cleaned debris as a nonhazardous waste. EPA has accomplished this goal through promulgation of the Hazardous Debris Rule, August 18, 1992

  19. Implementation of the hazardous debris rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, J.E.

    1993-01-05

    Hazardous debris includes objects contaminated with hazardous waste. Examples of debris include tree stumps, timbers, boulders, tanks, piping, crushed drums, personal protective clothing, etc. Most of the hazardous debris encountered comes from Superfund sites and other facility remediation, although generators and treaters of hazardous waste also generate hazardous debris. Major problems associated with disposal of debris includes: Inappropriateness of many waste treatments to debris; Difficulties in obtaining representative samples; Costs associated with applying waste specific treatments to debris; Subtitle C landfill space was being used for many low hazard debris types. These factors brought about the need for debris treatment technologies and regulations that addressed these issues. The goal of such regulation was to provide treatment to destroy or remove the contamination if possible and, if this is achieved, to dispose of the cleaned debris as a nonhazardous waste. EPA has accomplished this goal through promulgation of the Hazardous Debris Rule, August 18, 1992.

  20. Prognostic significance of selected lifestyle factors in urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, K; Ohno, Y; Obata, K; Aoki, K

    1993-12-01

    To examine the prognostic significance of lifestyle factors in urinary bladder cancer, we conducted a follow-up study of 258 incident bladder cancer patients, who were originally recruited in a case-control study in metropolitan Nagoya. Information on individual survivals was obtained from the computer data-file of the tumor registry of the Nagoya Bladder Cancer Research Group. Univariate analyses revealed significant associations of 5-year survivorship with educational attainment, marital status, drinking habits and consumption of green tea in males, and age at first consultation, histological type and grade of tumor, stage and distant metastasis in both sexes. After adjustment for age, stage, histology (histological type and grade) and distant metastasis by means of a proportional hazards model, drinking of alcoholic beverages was significantly associated with the prognosis of bladder cancer in males. Its adjusted hazard ratio was 0.46 (95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.79), favoring patients who had taken alcoholic beverages. In detailed analysis, ex-drinkers and all levels of current drinkers demonstrated hazard ratios smaller than unity, although no clear dose-response relationship was detected. No prognostic significance was found for such lifestyle factors as smoking habit, uses of artificial sweeteners and hairdye, and consumption of coffee, black tea, matcha (powdered green tea) and cola. PMID:8294212

  1. Identifying hazards associated with lava deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Orr, Tim R.

    2014-12-01

    Lava deltas, formed where lava enters the ocean and builds a shelf of new land extending from the coastline, represent a significant local hazard, especially on populated ocean island volcanoes. Such structures are unstable and prone to collapse—events that are often accompanied by small explosions that can deposit boulders and cobbles hundreds of meters inland. Explosions that coincide with collapses of the East Lae `Apuki lava delta at K?lauea Volcano, Hawai`i, during 2005-2007 followed an evolutionary progression mirroring that of the delta itself. A collapse that occurred when the lava-ocean entry was active was associated with a blast of lithic blocks and dispersal of spatter and fine, glassy tephra. Shortly after delta growth ceased, a collapse exposed hot rock to cold ocean water, resulting in an explosion composed entirely of lithic blocks and lapilli. Further collapse of the delta after several months of inactivity, by which time it had cooled significantly, resulted in no recognizable explosion deposit. Seaward displacement and subsidence of the coastline immediately inland of the delta was measured by both satellite and ground-based sensors and occurred at rates of several centimeters per month even after the lava-ocean entry had ceased. The anomalous deformation ended only after complete collapse of the delta. Monitoring of ground deformation may therefore provide an indication of the potential for delta collapse, while the hazard associated with collapse can be inferred from the level of activity, or the time since the last activity, on the delta.

  2. Aeolian dust as a transport hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddock, M. C.; Strong, C. L.; Murray, P. S.; McTainsh, G. H.

    2013-06-01

    The effects of blowing dust on transport operations are often mentioned as one of the significant impacts of aeolian processes on human welfare. However, few studies have been presented to demonstrate this impact. This research examined official air traffic incident reports in Australia for inclusively 1969-2010 to characterise the hazard of blowing dust to aviation in the country, the first such study of its kind. For the 42 year record, 61 incidents were identified (mean 1.4 per annum), with the large majority occurring in the first half of the 1970s. Only 20% of incidents occurred from 1984 onwards. Australian dust activity has not decreased over time, and the reduction in incidents is partly explained by improvements in aviation technology. The centralisation of Air Traffic Control operations to major coastal cities may however have reduced pilot reporting of dust-induced aviation incidents. By type of dust activity, dust storms were associated with nearly half of the reported incidents and dust hazes produced around a quarter. Only 5% of incidents resulted in any physical damage to aircraft and only one case involving personal injury was reported. The majority of the adverse effects on aviation due to dust (nearly 60% of reported incidents) were related to difficulties for navigation and completion of scheduled journey. Since aircraft damage and bodily harm were rare, the impact of dust in Australia is mostly that of inconvenience and associated raised economic costs. From 1990, the temporal pattern of incidents does not show any significant increase despite several intensely dusty years associated with recent droughts. This suggests that Australian aviation safety may be relatively resistant to the adverse effects of atmospheric dust as a hazard.

  3. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Rim Fire, Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. In this report, empirical models are used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Rim fire in Yosemite National Park and the Stanislaus National Forest, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–80 percent) of debris flow for 28 of the 1,238 drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Predictions of debris-flow volume suggest that debris flows may entrain a significant volume of material, with 901 of the 1,238 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 10,000 cubic meters. These results of the relative combined hazard analysis suggest there is a moderate likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, wildlife, and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  4. 78 FR 42113 - Application and Amendment to Facility Operating License Involving Proposed No Significant Hazards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...requirements, to allow the licensee to use AREVA 16x16 reactor fuel on a permanent basis...to support the core design with the new AREVA fuel; revising TS 4.2.1, Fuel Assemblies...fuel centerline melt safety limit for the AREVA fuel with corresponding adjustments...

  5. Geosmin occurrence in riverine cyanobacterial mats: is it causing a significant health hazard?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, Lud?k; Sabater, S.; Babica, Pavel; Vitalta, E.; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 49, ?. 9 (2004), s. 307-312. ISSN 0273-1223 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK6005114; GA ?R GA525/00/D101 Grant ostatní: 5.FW EU(XE) EVK1-CT-1999-00001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : biofilm * cyanobacteria * geosmin Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.586, year: 2004

  6. 61 FR 42274 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-14

    ...that stipulates membership qualification and experience requirements...Units 1 and 2 to delete the seismic qualification requirement for the Containment...regarding Operations Manager qualifications. Date of issuance:...

  7. 60 FR 493 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-04

    ...Appendix A, with regards to seismic qualification. Except for the requirement...Alternate Treatment Method Seismic Evaluation,'' the design...Appendix A requirement for seismic qualification. Therefore, the...

  8. 60 FR 35058 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-05

    ...new RTD/thermowell system meets the equipment seismic and environmental qualification requirements of IEEE standards 344-1975 and...condition that required the licensee to maintain a seismic monitoring network around the Monticello...

  9. 62 FR 30629 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-04

    ...concluded that the environmental qualifications for the LGS equipment are sufficient...The proposed changes do not affect seismic specifications, separation criteria or environmental qualifications. The proposed changes do not...

  10. 60 FR 56361 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating LicensesInvolving No Significant Hazards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-08

    ...term are maintained. Also, the Environmental Qualification (EQ) and seismic requirements have been verified to be adequate...Organization,'' and 15.6.3, ``Facility Staff Qualifications.'' The requirement for the Operations...

  11. 75 FR 39975 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...electronic storage media. Participants...gov. Duke Energy Carolinas...through a porous medium via...activity during thermal power changes...2010. Duke Energy Carolinas...No. Duke Energy Carolinas...refueling water storage tank....

  12. 75 FR 29587 - Notice of Availability of Revised Model Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ...Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler...proposed NSHCD. Technical Specifications Task Force (TSTF...Access and Management System (ADAMS) under Accession...Standard Technical Specifications (STS) was announced...way any structure, system, or component...

  13. Significance of epidemiological studies for estimating the genetic radiation hazards of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a brief presentation of the fundamentals of epidemiological studies, the problems associated with such studies are discussed. Epidemiological investigations on survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and also on the population of Kerala, a state in south west India with a high natural radiation load, are then discussed. Consideration was given to the question whether the Down-Syndrom is a valid indicator for proving a causal relationship between radiation dose and genetic effects. (MG)

  14. 78 FR 22576 - Application and Amendment to Facility Operating License Involving Proposed No Significant Hazards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...2 will operate at or below 70% Rated Thermal Power, the change will continue to ensure...The effect of operation at 70% Rated Thermal Power does not result in SONGS Unit...Help Desk through the ``Contact Us'' link located on the NRC's public Web...

  15. A decade of extraordinary progress: biosciences in the Greater Kansas City region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, Daniel P

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Kansas City region has made significant progress as a national center for animal health and the biosciences. Each of our stakeholder institutions have continued to make significant advances in key programs, which collectively have elevated the region's bioscience effort, with total R&D expenditures approaching $500M. In considering the future, through collaborative efforts the region will continue to advance and build upon the major successes, while seeking additional opportunities to leverage regional and institutional strengths. Further progress will be reported at the KCALSI website. PMID:21736070

  16. Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

  17. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and consequences.

  18. Evaluation and Application of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K.

    2014-12-01

    The California Geological Survey (CGS) and URS Corporation are in the process of generating tsunami hazard map products for land-use planning and construction through the California Seismic Hazard Mapping Act (Public Resources Code, sec 2690 et seq.). Similar to seismic hazard zonation, these products for land-use and development decision-making are typically based on a probabilistic analysis, and require information on the frequency of occurrence through a probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). In Phase 1 of CGS's work, the California PTHA Work Group was established to evaluate the results of PTHA demonstration projects in Crescent City and Huntington Beach. The results of this Phase 1 review of the two independent analyses indicate PTHA's can be developed with recommended improvements in source characterization, PTHA methods, and numerical model use. An immediate significant improvement is to align the characterization of the Cascadia Subduction Zone PTHA with the seismic characterization of the National Seismic Hazard Map Program of the USGS. In addition to applying PTHA to land-use planning and the two demonstration projects, CGS and the CA-PTHA Work Group identified other potential applications for various PTHA risk levels (ARP = Average Return Period), including flood insurance (100 and 500 year ARP), building codes (2,500 year ARP), and emergency response planning (1000 year ARP or larger). CGS is working with URS Corp., the California Office of Emergency Services, and FEMA on a Phase 2 plan to produce a single set of reliable and consistent PTHA maps for multiple risk levels and work with various end-users to determine how to use the maps. The California PTHA and the results of the Work Group review are also proposed to be used by the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program to develop guidelines for production in other coastal states.

  19. Egyptian Environmental Activities and Regulations for Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner

  20. The Unintended Significance of Race: Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit*

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, Liam

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses shortcomings in the literature on environmental inequality by (a) setting forth and testing four models of environmental inequality and (b) explicitly linking environmental inequality research to spatial mismatch theory and to the debate on the declining significance of race. The explanatory models ask whether the distribution of blacks and whites around environmental hazards is the result of black/white income inequality, racist siting practices, or residential segrega...

  1. Controlled air incineration of hazardous chemical waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An incineration system, originally demonstrated as a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process, is described. The production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology was modified for solid radioactive waste service. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system has been modified further for use in evaluating the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood. Results of a PCP-treated wood incineration test show a PCP destruction efficiency of greater than 99.99% in the primary chamber for the operating conditions investigated. Conditions and results for this test are described

  2. Greater Vancouver regional district air quality management plan : implementation status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 1994, an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) was adopted by the Greater Vancouver Regional District. The AQMP included ways to improve air quality in the region, leading to reduced emissions from commercial and industrial operations. This Plan encourages cooperation with the various communities affected to achieve clean air lifestyles and manage emissions from human activity to enhance human health and the integrity of the environment. The reduction of total emissions of the common air contaminants sulphur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds by 38 per cent is the stated aim of the AQMP. Five years of planning resulted in the formulation of the AQMP. The issues addressed were assigned one of four priorities as follows: priority 1 deals with ground level ozone and fine particulate, priority 2 looks at visibility, hazardous air pollutants, and global climate change, priority 3 concerns odour, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, acidic deposition, and nitrogen dioxide, and priority 4 contains total suspended particulate matter and volatile organic compounds. A total of 54 Emission Reduction Measures were established, and the document reviewed them. Progress is being made in all areas. 2 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste transportation regulations and requirements study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to identify the regulations and requirements for transporting greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and to identify planning activities that need to be accomplished in preparation for transporting GTCC LLW. The regulations and requirements for transporting hazardous materials, of which GTCC LLW is included, are complex and include several Federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes. This report is divided into five sections and three appendices. Section 1 introduces the report. Section 2 identifies and discusses the transportation regulations and requirements. The regulations and requirements are divided into Federal, state, local government, and Indian tribes subsections. This report does not identify the regulations or requirements of specific state, local government, and Indian tribes, since the storage, treatment, and disposal facility locations and transportation routes have not been specifically identified. Section 3 identifies the planning needed to ensure that all transportation activities are in compliance with the regulations and requirements. It is divided into (a) transportation packaging; (b) transportation operations; (c) system safety and risk analysis, (d) route selection; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (f) safeguards and security. This section does not provide actual planning since the details of the Department of Energy (DOE) GTCC LLW Program have not been finalized, e.g., waste characterization and quantity, storage, treatment and disposal facility locations, and acceptance criteria. Sections 4 and 5 provide conclusions and referenced documents, respectively

  4. Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Safar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP, which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA, started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010, along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS conducted in 1999, 2002, and 2010. Due to EEAA/CAIP efforts, a remarkable decrease in more than 90% in lead emissions was attained for 2007.

  5. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-08-25

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities. A hazard evaluation for the Hanford Site 244-AR Vault Facility was performed. The process and results of the hazard evaluation are provided in this document. A previous hazard evaluation was performed for the 244-AR Vault Facility in 1996 in support of the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The results of that evaluation are provided in the BIO. Upon review of those results it was determined that hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the 244-AR vaults due to flooding was not addressed in the original hazards evaluation. This supplemental hazard evaluation addresses this oversight of the original hazard evaluation. The results of the hazard evaluation were compared to the current TWRS BIO to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting changes to the AB. It is only intended to provide information about hazardous conditions associated with the condition and configuration of the 244-AR vault facility. The AB Control Decision process could be used to determine the applicability and adequacy of existing AB controls as well as any new controls that may be needed for the identified hazardous conditions associated with 244-AR vault flooding. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  6. How Can the Science Community Support Reality Based Policies to Reducing the Escalating Toll of Natural Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, the toll of disaster damage caused by foreseeable natural hazards is growing, despite the fact that science is increasingly able to quantify the risk and foresee the likely location of natural events (NCDC 2012; NHC 2010). Those events can cause disastrous consequences if human built infrastructure is not properly designed for both the current state and future events (IBHS, 2012). Our existing approaches are not working at reducing the mounting toll of disasters which follow foreseeable natural events. Rather, even if the climate were not changing, current land use decisions coupled with development, engineering, design, and construction practices are significantly contributing to further increasing an unsustainable toll from disasters (Pielke, Gratz et al. 2007). Safe and proper construction practices developed to reduce flood losses (e.g. Design for Flooding, Watson, Adams et al., 2010) are all too often thought of as a zero sum situation where the community wins and the developer loses. In reality, the United States and the rest of the world often can find win-win solutions based on sound economics, law, ethics, and environmental sustainability that will benefit communities, developers, and natural hazard risk mitigation practitioners. While such solutions are being implemented in a fragmentary manner throughout the United States, communities implementing these solutions are increasingly working together in peer networks, such as the Natural Hazard Mitigation Association (NHMA)'s Resilient Neighbors Network. Examples include the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District that covers the metropolitan Denver area and recent work in Tulsa, Oklahoma. This presentation will set forth the scientific, ethical, and legal basis of higher development standards which, when combined with good negotiations techniques, can significantly decrease the terrible misery from wildfires, tornadoes, floods, and other natural disasters. Communities clearly have the legal right to implement safe design standards (Thomas, Riley Medlock 2008); yet all too often do not (NOAA, 2010). The required negotiations techniques must include outreach even to those who believe the topics of climate change and sustainability are some sort of plot against property rights and the free enterprise system. The presentation will also challenge the scientific community to support reasoned efforts to better prepare society for the even greater challenges posed by climate variability, uncertainty, and change: to work with practitioners who seek to build a safe and sustainable future to identify gaps in scientific knowledge and help develop workable solutions at the local level. Edward A. Thomas Esq. President Natural Hazard Mitigation Association

  7. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinai experienced the largest Egyptian earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) 7.2 in 1995 in the Gulf of Aqaba, 350 km from Cairo. It is characterized by the presence of many tourist projects in addition to different natural resources. The aim of the current study is to present, for the first time, the probabilistic spectral hazard maps for Sinai. Revised earthquake catalogues for Sinai and its surroundings, from 112 BC to 2006 AD with magnitude equal or greater than 3.0, are used to calculate seismic hazard in the region of interest between 27°N and 31.5°N and 32°E and 36°E. We declustered these catalogues to include only independent events. The catalogues were tested for the completeness of different magnitude ranges. 28 seismic source zones are used to define the seismicity. The recurrence rates and the maximum earthquakes across these zones were also determined from these modified catalogues. Strong ground motion relations for rock are used to produce 5% damped spectral acceleration values for four different periods (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 s) to define the uniform response spectra at each site (grid of 0.2° × 0.2° all over the area). Maps showing spectral acceleration values at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 s periods as well as peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the return period of 475 years (equivalent to 90% probability on non-exceedence in 50 years) are presented. In addition, Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) at 25 different periods for the four main cities (Hurghda, for the four main cities (Hurghda, Sharm El-Sheikh, Nuweibaa and Suez) are graphed. The highest hazard is found in the Gulf of Aqaba with maximum spectral accelerations 356 cm s?2 at a period of 0.22 s for a return period of 475 years

  8. Moderate Versus Light Pressure Massage Therapy Leads to Greater Weight Gain in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel A.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Figuereido, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-eight preterm infants (M GA=3Owks.) were randomly assigned to a moderate or to a light pressure massage therapy group to receive 15 massages 3 times per day for 5 days. Behavior state, stress behaviors and heart rate were recorded for 15 minutes before and during the first 15-minute therapy session. Weight gain was recorded over the 5 day therapy period. The moderate versus light pressure massage group gained significantly more weight per day. During the behavior observations the moderate versus light pressure massage group showed significantly lower increases from the pre-session to the session recording on: 1) active sleep; 2) fussing; 3) crying; 4) movement; and 5) stress behavior (hiccupping). They also showed a smaller decrease in deep sleep, a greater decrease in heart rate and a greater increase in vagal tone. Thus, the moderate pressure massage therapy group appeared to be more relaxed and less aroused than the light pressure massage group which may have contributed to the greater weight gain of the moderate pressure massage therapy group. PMID:17138310

  9. NGNP SITE 2 HAZARDS ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2011-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project initiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the U.S. Department of Energy pursuant to the 2005 Energy Policy Act, is based on research and development activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is a helium-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor that can operate at temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. Accordingly, it can be applied in many industrial applications as a substitute for burning fossil fuels, such as natural gas, to generate process heat in addition to producing electricity, which is the principal application of current LWRs. Nuclear energy in the form of LWRs has been used in the U.S. and internationally principally for the generation of electricity. However, because the HTGR operates at higher temperatures than LWRs, it can be used to displace the use of fossil fuels in many industrial applications. It also provides a carbon emission-free energy supply. For example, the energy needs for the recovery and refining of petroleum, for the petrochemical industry and for production of transportation fuels and feedstocks using coal conversion processes require process heat provided at temperatures approaching 800 C. This temperature range is readily achieved by the HTGR technology. This report summarizes a site assessment authorized by INL under the NGNP Project to determine hazards and potential challenges that site owners and HTGR designers need to be aware of when developing the HTGR design for co-location at industrial facilities, and to evaluate the site for suitability considering certain site characteristics. The objectives of the NGNP site hazard assessments are to do an initial screening of representative sites in order to identify potential challenges and restraints to be addressed in design and licensing processes; assure the HTGR technology can be deployed at variety of sites for a range of applications; evaluate potential sites for potential hazards and describe some of the actions necessary to mitigate impacts of hazards; and, provide key insights that can inform the plant design process. The report presents a summary of the process methodology and the results of an assessment of hazards typical of a class of candidate sites for the potential deployment of HTGR reactor technology. The assessment considered health and safety, and other important siting characteristics to determine the potential impact of identified hazards and potential challenges presented by the location for this technology. A four reactor module nuclear plant (2000 to 2400 MW thermal), that co-generates steam, electricity for general use in the plant, and hot gas for use in a nearby chemical processing facility, to provide the requisite performance and reliability was assumed for the assessment.

  10. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance

  11. National information network and database system of hazardous waste management in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongchang [National Environmental Protection Agency, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Industries in China generate large volumes of hazardous waste, which makes it essential for the nation to pay more attention to hazardous waste management. National laws and regulations, waste surveys, and manifest tracking and permission systems have been initiated. Some centralized hazardous waste disposal facilities are under construction. China`s National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) has also obtained valuable information on hazardous waste management from developed countries. To effectively share this information with local environmental protection bureaus, NEPA developed a national information network and database system for hazardous waste management. This information network will have such functions as information collection, inquiry, and connection. The long-term objective is to establish and develop a national and local hazardous waste management information network. This network will significantly help decision makers and researchers because it will be easy to obtain information (e.g., experiences of developed countries in hazardous waste management) to enhance hazardous waste management in China. The information network consists of five parts: technology consulting, import-export management, regulation inquiry, waste survey, and literature inquiry.

  12. E-waste hazard: The impending challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Violet

    2008-01-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India?s lack of appropriate infrastru...

  13. Occupational hazards of interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex catheter-based interventions and rising case volumes confer occupational risks to interventional cardiologists. Despite advances in technology, modern interventional procedures are performed in a manner remarkably similar to the techniques pioneered decades ago. Percutaneous interventions are associated with operator orthopedic injuries, exposures to blood borne pathogens, and the effects of chronic radiation exposure from fluoroscopy. This review highlights the occupational hazards of interventional procedures and provides a glimpse at the technologies and techniques that may reduce risks to operators in the catheterization laboratory

  14. Radiological hazards of narghile smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narghile smoking pastes, known as jurak and moassel, are not standardized manufacture. This study aims at drawing the first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in relation to moassel-narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range of variations in the natural radioactivity. The distribution pattern of these natural radio-nuclides, during smoking, between smoke, ash and water filter is unknown, except for 210Po. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of 210Po was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radio-nuclides is discussed. Further research in this direction is needed. (author)(tk)

  15. Seismic Hazard Assessment: Conditional Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Nicholas

    In this exercise, students investigate the use of conditional probability (the likelihood that a given event will occur within a specified time period) in assessing earthquake hazards. Introductory materials explain that conditional probability is based on the past history of earthquakes in a region and on how and when earthquakes recur; and discuss the different types of models that can be developed to predict recurrences. Using a table of probability values, students will calculate probabilities for earthquakes along the San Andreas and Wasatch Fault zones, and calculate probabilities that they will exceed a given acceleration (ground shaking) value. Example problems and a bibliography are provided.

  16. Occupational hazards of interventional cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Balter, Stephen; Weisz, Giora, E-mail: gw2128@columbia.edu

    2013-07-15

    Complex catheter-based interventions and rising case volumes confer occupational risks to interventional cardiologists. Despite advances in technology, modern interventional procedures are performed in a manner remarkably similar to the techniques pioneered decades ago. Percutaneous interventions are associated with operator orthopedic injuries, exposures to blood borne pathogens, and the effects of chronic radiation exposure from fluoroscopy. This review highlights the occupational hazards of interventional procedures and provides a glimpse at the technologies and techniques that may reduce risks to operators in the catheterization laboratory.

  17. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA, which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions" recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene.

    The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru. The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (<0.05 km3 in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia killed about 25 000 people – the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

  18. Alternatives to Statistical Significance Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Ronald S.

    Researchers increasingly recognize that significance tests are limited in their ability to inform scientific practice. Common errors in interpreting significance tests and three strategies for augmenting the interpretation of significance test results are illustrated. The first strategy for augmenting the interpretation of significance tests…

  19. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths

  20. Greater inequalities in dental treatment than in disease experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, G; Jamieson, L M; Ha, D; Spencer, A J

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to (1) describe social gradients in dental caries in a population-level survey and (2) examine whether inequalities are greater in disease experience or in its treatment. Using data from Australia's National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-2006, we examined absolute and relative income inequalities for DMFT and its separate components (DT, MT, FT) using adjusted proportions, means, and health disparity indices [Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII)]. Approximately 90% of Australian adults had experienced caries, with prevalence ranging from 89.7% in the highest to 96.6% in the lowest income group. Social gradients in caries were evident across all components of DMFT, but particularly notable in Missing (SII = -15.5, RII = -0.3) and untreated Decay (SII = -23.7, RII = -0.9). Analysis of age- and gender-adjusted data indicated less variation in levels of disease experienced (DMFT) than in the health outcomes of its management (missing teeth). The findings indicate that social gradients for dental caries have a greater effect on how the disease was treated than on lifetime disease experience. PMID:25081039

  1. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials

  2. A scoring test on probabilistic seismic hazard estimates in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarello, D.; Peruzza, L.; D'Amico, V.

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic estimates of seismic hazard represent a basic element for seismic risk reduction strategies and they are a key element of seismic regulation. Thus, it is important to select the most effective estimates among the available ones. An empirical scoring strategy is described here and is applied to a number of time-independent hazard estimates available in Italy both at national and regional scale. The scoring test is based on the comparison of outcomes provided by available computational models at a number of accelerometric sites where observations are available for 25 years. This comparison also allows identifying computational models that, providing outcomes that are in contrast with observations, should thus be discarded. The analysis shows that most of the hazard estimates proposed for Italy are not in contrast with observations and some computational models perform significantly better than others do. Furthermore, one can see that, at least locally, older estimates can perform better than the most recent ones. Finally, since the same computational model can perform differently depending on the region considered and on average return time of concern, no single model can be considered as the best-performing one. This implies that, moving along the hazard curve, the most suitable model should be selected by considering the specific problem of concern.

  3. Severe wind hazard using dynamically downscaled climate simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropical cyclones, thunderstorms and sub-tropical storms can generate extreme winds that can cause significant economic loss. Severe wind is one of the major natural hazards in Australia. In this study, regional return period gust wind hazard (10 meter height over open terrain) is determined using a new methodology developed by Geoscience Australia. The methodology involves a combination of three models: A Statistical Model (ie. data-based model) to quantify wind hazard using extreme value distributions. A methodology to extract gridded hourly maximum mean (time-step) wind speed and direction fields from a high-resolution regional climate model (RCM). Area-averaged measurements from the RCM are 'corrected' for point measurement exposure by applying a regional factor to the RCM values. And a Monte Carlo method to calculate gust wind from RCM mean wind, the former is the value of interest in wind hazard. To assess accuracy, model results were compared against three wind recording stations in Tasmania. These sites were selected because their weather stations and anemometer measurements are located at airports, avoiding the problem of houses or trees affecting the instruments, and also due to these sites having wind gust records. The model works only with synoptic gust wind speeds. A methodology to calculate severe wind gusts associated with thunderstorm down-burst winds is under development.

  4. Radiation - it's not the mother of all hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public, the media, and even many in the technically educated community, have an inordinate dread of things radioactive. Any radioactive material or contamination in the environment, even in trivial amounts, can be seen and feared as a human and environmental catastrophe. And yet other, significant hazards and risks that are encountered in life, are either accepted resignedly or are confidently tackled with sensible protection strategies. Australian Radiation Protection Society (ARPS) should develop and undertake deliberate strategies of its own, to foster protection of the population not only from genuine radiation hazards, but also, via an education campaign, from exaggerated perceptions of risk. Data on relative risks of some common life hazards are presented and compared to risks from a variety of radiation-related activities and scenarios. The comparison is not reflected in the public perspective. ARPS should firstly convince its own membership that radiation risk management is a mature and successful technology. Then ARPS should break out from its relatively closeted practices and address a deliberate program to educate the public, and combat the sensation-mongering media, concerning their eccentric attitudes to this class of hazard

  5. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented

  6. Landslide hazard zoning at regional level – Vâlcea County case study

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian A. Mesescu; Septimius Mara

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the severity of the extreme meteorological phenomena significantly increased,i.e. heavy rains which led to historical floods on the most part of the hydrographical basins of Romania,mostly during 2005 and 2010. These abnormal meteorological phenomena reactivated a great number oflandslides. Therefore, risk managers, in order to urge the landslide inventory at the whole country level,launched hazard maps in terms of Law no 575/2001 regarding the “Plan of the national territoryd...

  7. Lava flow hazard at Nyiragongo Volcano, DRC. 2. Hazard reduction in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Giuseppe D.; Favalli, Massimiliano; Papale, Paolo; Boschi, Enzo; Pareschi, Maria Teresa; Mamou-Mani, Arthur

    2009-05-01

    Mt. Nyiragongo is one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world for the risk associated with the propagation of lava flows. In 2002 several vents opened along a huge system of fractures, pouring out lava which reached and destroyed a considerable part of Goma, a town of about 500,000 inhabitants on the shore of Lake Kivu. In a companion paper (Favalli et al. in Bull Volcanol, this issue, 2008) we employed numerical simulations of probable lava flow paths to evaluate the lava flow hazard on the flanks of the volcano, including the neighbouring towns of Goma (DRC) and Gisenyi (Rwanda). In this paper we use numerical simulations to investigate the possibility of significantly reducing the lava flow hazard in the city through the construction of protective barriers. These barriers are added to the DEM of the area as additional morphological elements, and their effect is evaluated by repeating numerical simulations with and without the presence of barriers. A parametric study on barrier location, size, shape and orientation led to the identification of barriers which maximize protection while minimizing their impact. This study shows that the highest hazard area corresponding to eastern Goma, which was largely destroyed by lava flows in 2002, cannot be effectively protected from future lava flows towards Lake Kivu and should be abandoned. On the contrary, the rest of the town can be sheltered from lava flows by means of two barriers that deviate or contain the lava within the East Goma sector. A proposal for the future development of the town is formulated, whereby “new” Goma is completely safe from the arrival of lava flows originating from vents outside its boundaries. The proposal minimizes the risk of further destruction in town due to future lava flows.

  8. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  9. Federal and State Laws on Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-17

    This activity familiarizes students with legislation on hazardous waste, how it is developed, enacted, implemented, and enforced in the United States. Students discover that hazardous waste comes from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. They also learn that years ago, before we understood the dangers of hazardous waste, there were no laws controlling its disposal and many businesses simply threw out their hazardous waste with the rest of their trash, into landfills, rivers or lakes. Congress created the Superfund Program to investigate and clean up hazardous waste sites nationwide. Students gain an understanding of how hazardous waste cleanup laws are enacted and intended to function by creating a statute and set of regulations that parallel the issues covered by Superfund.

  10. Unexpected radiation hazard in dyes of textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghany, Hayam A; Ibrahim, Eman M

    2014-01-01

    Textile dyes are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. Many of the chemicals used in the textile industry may represent some health concerns. The determination of the radioactivity in textile dyes is therefore very important for both human health and environment. The study was designated to determine, for the first time, the values of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in nine different dyes employed in the textile industry using gamma spectrometry with a Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were 29.37?±?4.48, 1.15?±?0.13 and 565?±?4 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated radium equivalents for all samples were lower than the maximum admissible value (370 Bq/kg). The absorbed dose rates due to the natural radioactivity of the investigated samples ranged from 2.94?±?0.05 to 166?±?3 nGy/h. So, the absorbed dose rates for all samples of textile dyes were lower than the international recommended value (55 nGy/h) except the yellow dye (166?±?3 nGy/h), which recorded a significant radiological hazard. The external hazard index was also calculated. Conclusively, the results have indicated that the textile dyes may possess a measurable amount of radioactivity that should be taken into account. Therefore, safety rules and precautions should be applied for dyes used in the textile industry and for people working in this field. PMID:25322918

  11. Apophis: complex rotation and hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnocchia, Davide; Chesley, Steven R.; Vokrouhlicky, David; Mueller, Thomas G.

    2014-11-01

    (99942) Apophis is one of the most remarkable near-Earth asteroids in terms of impact hazard. In 2004 the probability of an impact in 2029 reached a peak of 2.7%. With the data available today we know that Apophis will pass Earth safely in 2029 at about 38,000 km. However, despite the availability of a well observed arc and three radar apparitions, the 2029 Earth encounter has such a strong scattering effect on the trajectory of Apophis that post-2029 predictions are only possible in a statistical sense and impacts in the following decades are hard to rule out.To predict the future ephemerides of Apophis the dominant source of uncertainty is the Yarkovsky effect, a small nongravitational perturbation that arises from the anisotropic re-emission at thermal wavelengths of absorbed solar radiation. Modeling the Yarkovsky effect acting on an asteroid is generally challenging, as we need a good knowledge of the asteroid’s physical model or observable deviations from a purely gravitational trajectory. A further complication comes from the complex rotation state of Apophis. We use the available information on the physical properties of Apophis, e.g., shape, size, thermal inertia, and rotation state, to estimate the Yarkovsky effect acting on Apophis by solving the nonlinear heat transfer equation on a finite-element mesh of facets model of the shape of Apophis.We find that the Yarkovsky perturbation significantly affects the trajectory of Apophis despite the complex rotation. We analyze the implications on the hazard assessment by mapping the orbital uncertainty to the 2029 close approach and computing the keyholes, i.e., the locations at the 2029 Earth encounter leading to a resonant impact at a future close approach. Whereas collisions with Earth before 2060 are ruled out, impacts are still possible after 2060.

  12. Development of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for international sites, challenges and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Ares, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.fernandez@rizzoassoc.com [Paul C. Rizzo Associates, Inc., 500 Penn Center Boulevard, Penn Center East, Suite 100, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States); Fatehi, Ali, E-mail: ali.fatehi@rizzoassoc.com [Paul C. Rizzo Associates, Inc., 500 Penn Center Boulevard, Penn Center East, Suite 100, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Research highlights: ? Site-specific seismic hazard study and suggestions for overcoming those challenges that are inherent to the significant amounts of epistemic uncertainty for sites at remote locations. ? Main aspects of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). ? Regional and site geology in the context of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), including state-of-the-art ground motion estimation methods, and geophysical conditions. ? Senior seismic hazard analysis (SSHAC) as a mean to incorporate the opinions and contributions of the informed scientific community. -- Abstract: This article provides guidance to conduct a site-specific seismic hazard study, giving suggestions for overcoming those challenges that are inherent to the significant amounts of epistemic uncertainty for sites at remote locations. The text follows the general process of a seismic hazard study, describing both the deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Key and controversial items are identified in the areas of recorded seismicity, seismic sources, magnitude, ground motion models, and local site effects. A case history corresponding to a seismic hazard study in the Middle East for a Greenfield site in a remote location is incorporated along the development of the recommendations. Other examples of analysis case histories throughout the World are presented as well.

  13. Development of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for international sites, challenges and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Site-specific seismic hazard study and suggestions for overcoming those challenges that are inherent to the significant amounts of epistemic uncertainty for sites at remote locations. ? Main aspects of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). ? Regional and site geology in the context of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), including state-of-the-art ground motion estimation methods, and geophysical conditions. ? Senior seismic hazard analysis (SSHAC) as a mean to incorporate the opinions and contributions of the informed scientific community. -- Abstract: This article provides guidance to conduct a site-specific seismic hazard study, giving suggestions for overcoming those challenges that are inherent to the significant amounts of epistemic uncertainty for sites at remote locations. The text follows the general process of a seismic hazard study, describing both the deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Key and controversial items are identified in the areas of recorded seismicity, seismic sources, magnitude, ground motion models, and local site effects. A case history corresponding to a seismic hazard study in the Middle East for a Greenfield site in a remote location is incorporated along the development of the recommendations. Other examples of analysis case histories throughout the World are presented as well

  14. Selection on Moral Hazard in Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Ryan, Stephen; Schrimpf, Paul; Cullen, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    We use employee-level panel data from a single rm to explore the possibility that individuals may select insurance coverage in part based on their anticipated behavioral ( moral hazard ) response to insurance, a phenomenon we label selection on moral hazard. Using a model of plan choice and medical utilization, we present evidence of heterogeneous moral hazard as well as selection on it, and explore some of its implica- tions. For example, we show that, at least in our conte...

  15. Reproductive and developmental hazards and employment policies.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, J.D.; Jamieson, G G; Wright, S.

    1992-01-01

    The task of informing workers of hazards in the workplace is seldom more difficult than with the subject of reproductive and developmental hazards. Occupational health staff and physicians are faced with a paucity of relevant medical information. Workers, kept aware of the thalidomide spectre with every media report of the latest descriptive epidemiology study, are anxious to know more. Employers, knowing that few agents are regulated on the basis of reproductive hazards, are encouraged to le...

  16. 222 S Laboratory complex hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the 222-S Analytical Laboratory located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of the laboratory is the responsibility of Waste Management Federal Services, Inc. (WMFS). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the 222-S Facility. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  17. Diesel particles - a health hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ege, C.

    2004-08-15

    To all appearances, small particles belong to the pollutants presenting the biggest health hazards. Particles come especially from diesel-powered vehicles. According to researchers, particles cause thousands of early deaths each year in the big cities in Denmark alone, and up to 1,250 of these deaths could be prevented by fitting particle filters on diesel-powered vehicles. That is more than deaths caused by traffic accidents. Especially the elderly are affected. In addition, the small particles seem to aggravate asthma incidences, including the many children with asthma. What makes the small particles so very dangerous is that they can enter the smallest of vessels of the lungs. There is a solution within sight to this grave health hazard. The solution is called particle filters, but they will not come automatically. It requires initiatives in the form of legislation, green taxes and subsidies. The EU is introducing stricter regulations regarding particle emission from heavy vehicles from 2006, though only for new vehicles. It will therefore take many years to abate the problem this way. In the present pamphlet, the Danish Ecological Council offers a number of specific proposals on how to further the introduction of filters on diesel vehicles. The Danish government has taken a small step in the right direction by establishing a subsidy scheme for particle filters. Yet the amount allocated is too small and, because it is not followed up by setting taxes on polluting vehicles, it will have little effect. (au)

  18. Health hazards of cement dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ven in the 21st century, millions of people are working daily in a dusty environment. They are exposed to different types of health hazards such as fume, gases and dust, which are risk factors in developing occupational disease. Cement industry is involved in the development of structure of this advanced and modern world but generates dust during its production. Cement dust causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon. Other studies have shown that cement dust may enter into the systemic circulation and thereby reach the essentially all the organs of body and affects the different tissues including heart, liver, spleen, bone, muscles and hairs and ultimately affecting their micro-structure and physiological performance. Most of the studies have been previously attempted to evaluate the effects of cement dust exposure on the basis of spirometry or radiology, or both. However, collective effort describing the general effects of cement dust on different organ and systems in humans or animals, or both has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of cement dust and to minimize the health risks in cement mill workers by providing them with information regarding the hazards of cement dust. (author)

  19. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-11-05

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity.

  20. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M andO) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity

  1. 40 CFR 264.93 - Hazardous constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units ...and their cumulative impact on the...

  2. Canister storage building hazard analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', and meets the intent of HNF-PRO-704, ''Hazard and Accident Analysis Process''. This hazard analysis implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''

  3. Hazard analysis in uranium hexafluoride production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work provides a method for preliminary hazard analysis of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The proposed method identify both chemical and radiological hazards, as well as the consequences associated with accident scenarios. To illustrate the application of the method, a uranium hexafluoride production facility was selected. The main hazards are identified and the potential consequences are quantified. It was found that, although the facility handles radioactive material, the main hazards as associated with releases of toxic chemical substances such as hydrogen fluoride, anhydrous ammonia and nitric acid. It was shown that a contention bung can effectively reduce the consequences of atmospheric release of toxic materials. (author)

  4. Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Robert L.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-09-15

    The purpose of this review is to assess the need for updating Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) assessments for the DOE's Hanford Site, as required by DOE Order 420.1B Chapter IV, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, based on significant changes in state-of-the-art NPH assessment methodology or site-specific information. This review is an update and expansion to the September 2010 review of PNNL-19751, Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the Hanford 200 Areas (Non-Seismic).

  5. Exploratory study of burn time, duty factor, and fluence on ITER activation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety analyses for the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were based on the simplifying assumption that the activation of materials occurs continuously. Since the analyses showed a significant hazard, it is appropriate to examine how much hazard reduction might occur if this conservative assumption were relaxed. This report explores how much reduction might be gained by considering non-continuous operation, that is, by considering plasma burn time, duty factor, and integrated fluence. Other factors impacting activation hazards - material choice, flux, and size - are not considered here

  6. Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the DOE Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this review is to assess the need for updating Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) assessments for the DOE's Hanford Site, as required by DOE Order 420.1B Chapter IV, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, based on significant changes in state-of-the-art NPH assessment methodology or site-specific information. This review is an update and expansion to the September 2010 review of PNNL-19751, Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the Hanford 200 Areas (Non-Seismic).

  7. Natural radioactivity and radiation hazards of building materials in Anhui Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radioactivity and potential radiological hazards of commonly used construction materials in Anhui, China were studied. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined by high-purity germanium gamma ray spectrometer. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the construction materials range from 12.4 to 66.4, 19.3 to 87.7 and 185 to 921 Bq kg-1, respectively. The study on distribution characteristics of radionuclides showed a significant variation of activity among different materials. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and annual effective dose were calculated to evaluate the potential radiological hazards. (author)

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory offsite hazardous waste shipment data validation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters requested this report to verify that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) properly categorized hazardous waste shipped offsite from 1984 to 1991. LLNL categorized the waste shipments by the new guidelines provided on the definition of radioactive waste. For this validation, waste that has had no radioactivity added by DOE operations is nonradioactive. Waste to which DOE operations has added or concentrated any radioactivity is radioactive. This report documents findings from the review of available LLNL hazardous waste shipment information and summarizes the data validation strategy. The report discusses administrative and radiological control procedures in place at LLNL during the data validation period. It also describes sampling and analysis and surface survey procedures used in determining radionuclide concentrations for offsite release of hazardous waste shipments. The evaluation team reviewed individual items on offsite hazardous waste shipments and classified them, using the DOE-HQ waste category definitions. LLNL relied primarily on generator knowledge to classify wastes. Very little radioanalytical information exists on hazardous wastes shipped from LLNL. Slightly greater than one-half of those hazardous waste items for which the documentation included radioanalytical data showed concentrations of radioactivity higher than the LLNL release criteria used from 1989 to 1991. Based on this small amount of available radioanalytical data, very little (less than one percent) of the hazardous waste generated at the LLNL main site can be shown to contain DOE added radioactivity. LLNL based the criteria on the limit of analytical sensitivity for gross alpha and gross beta measurements and the background levels of tritium. Findings in this report are based on information and documentation on the waste handling procedures in place before the start of the hazardous waste shipping moratorium in May 1991

  9. Radiation oncology greater area database (ROGAD). Clinical analysis of breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Yutaka [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Inamura, Kiyonari; Harauchi, Hajime [and others

    2000-12-01

    We developed the Radiation Oncology Greater Area Database (ROGAD) that contained the patient records concerning the radiation therapy. We selected the patients with breast cancer from the ROGAD from November 1992 to November 1998. From the analysis of the database, the increase of the operation and radiation treatment is not clear. The blank rate or error rate of each field of database are decreasing, but acute response and follow up fields contain 16-20% blank data. We had to decrease the blank ratio of these fields in future. The merit of such as ROGAD, one is the educational effect to inexperienced radiation oncologist, and the other is political effect to the academic society (JASTRO). (author)

  10. Radiation oncology greater area database (ROGAD). Clinical analysis of breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed the Radiation Oncology Greater Area Database (ROGAD) that contained the patient records concerning the radiation therapy. We selected the patients with breast cancer from the ROGAD from November 1992 to November 1998. From the analysis of the database, the increase of the operation and radiation treatment is not clear. The blank rate or error rate of each field of database are decreasing, but acute response and follow up fields contain 16-20% blank data. We had to decrease the blank ratio of these fields in future. The merit of such as ROGAD, one is the educational effect to inexperienced radiation oncologist, and the other is political effect to the academic society (JASTRO). (author)

  11. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author)

  12. Unsaturated zone transport modeling of the Greater Confinement Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsaturated zone transport modeling is being conducted as part of the performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility which is located on the Nevada Test Site. This performance assessment is based on an iterative process of modeling and data collection to assess the likelihood the site will meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's containment, individual protection and groundwater protection requirements for the disposal of transuranic wastes, high-level wastes and spent fuel. The current iteration of the performance assessment evaluates the potential impact of future events on the transport system. The future events included in this analysis are subsidence, bioturbation, erosion, climate change, irrigated farming and drilling. This paper presents the unsaturated transport model, how it fits into the performance assessment and how the future events are incorporated in the model

  13. Haemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumour of the greater omentum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J H R, Becker; M Z, Koto; O Y, Matsevych; N M, Bida.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of haemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumour of the greater omentum in a 41-year-old woman. It presented as a large mobile abdominal mass measuring 30 ? 24 ? 8 cm. A computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of a large vascular tumour, and biochemical tumour markers wer [...] e non-contributory. The tumour was removed through a conventional laparotomy incision with the aid of a Ligasure dissector. There were no macroscopic metastases, and histologically it was benign. The size of >5 cm, however, suggests that it may have been malignant. In the absence of visible metastases and in view of the favourable histological features, it was decided to follow up the patient very closely and give further treatment if necessary.

  14. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) in a humid environment in the United States has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on a study of SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10CFR61. The first disposal units to be constructed are 9-foot diameter, thirty-foot deep boreholes which will be used to dispose of wastes from production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from off-site. In 1984 an engineered GCD trench will be constructed for disposal of boxed wastes and large bulky items. 2 figures, 1 table

  15. Greater Confinement Disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) in a humid environment in the United States has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on a study of SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10CFR61. The first disposal units to be constructed are 9-foot diameter, thirty-foot deep boreholes which will be used to dispose of wastes from production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from off-site. In 1984 an engineered GCD trench will be constructed for disposal of boxed wastes and large bulky items

  16. Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, W.J.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-04-01

    Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient.

  17. ROSAT observations of z greater than 3 quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, T. E.; Impey, C. D.; Foltz, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    Successful pointed observations using the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) were made of seven z greater than 3 optically selected quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS). Four detections and three 3 sigma upper limits resulted. Combining these data with the heterogeneous sample of Avni & Tananbaum (1986) confirms their conclusion that the ratio of x-ray to optical luminosity is correlated with optical luminosity and probably not correlated with redshift. This suggests that x-ray luminosity evolves more slowly than optical luminosity. These results are then used in conjunction with the LBQS database to estimate the contribution to the 2 keV x-ray background of bright, optically selected quasars with m(sub B(sub J)) less than 18.85; the result is about 5%.

  18. Mutant gene frequencies in cats of the greater London area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R

    1987-09-01

    The frequencies of seven mutant genes of the domestic cat have been estimated by sampling the population of greater London, specific areas of the capital and adjoining counties. An attempt was made to diversify the method of sampling by concentrating upon certain categories of cats. In addition to the usual sightings of cats in streets and open spaces, surveys were made of cats attending a veterinary clinic, those staying at a boarding cattery, those exhibited in the household pet classes at a cat show and those in rescue centres. Although there are inconsistencies, the general impression from frequencies in present and earlier observations is that the lighter phenotypes (mackerel tabby, blue dilution and orange) are favoured by human preference, as opposed to the darker phenotypes (blotched tabby, black and non-orange). Reasons are discussed for thinking that, while human preference may be a factor in the evolution of the feline polymorphism, it is not the fundamental cause. PMID:24240212

  19. Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

    CERN Document Server

    Batty, Michael; Hudson-Smith, Andy; Milton, Richard; Smith, Duncan; Steadman, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings, in analogy to city-size distributions which have been widely studied as rank-size and lognormal distributions following Zipf and Gibrat. We then extend this analysis to allometric relationships between buildings in terms of their different geometric size properties. We present some preliminary analysis of building heights from the Emporis database which suggests very strong scaling in world cities. The data base for Greater London is then introduced from which we extract 3.6 million buildings whose scaling properties we explore. We exa...

  20. Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient

  1. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a demonstrated and sufficient justification of hazard assessment protocols; (b) a more complete learning of the actual range of earthquake hazards to local communities and populations, and (c) a more ethically responsible control over how seismic hazard and seismic risk is implemented to protect public safety. It follows that the international project GEM is on the wrong track, if it continues to base seismic risk estimates on the standard method to assess seismic hazard. The situation is not hopeless and could be improved dramatically due to available geological, geomorphologic, seismic, and tectonic evidences and data combined with deterministic pattern recognition methodologies, specifically, when intending to PREDICT PREDICTABLE, but not the exact size, site, date, and probability of a target event. Understanding the complexity of non-linear dynamics of hierarchically organized systems of blocks-and-faults has led already to methodologies of neo-deterministic seismic hazard analysis and intermediate-term middle- to narrow-range earthquake prediction algorithms tested in real-time applications over the last decades. It proves that Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such info in advance extreme catastrophes, which are LOW PROBABILITY EVENTS THAT HAPPEN WITH CERTAINTY. Geoscientists must initiate shifting the minds of community from pessimistic disbelieve to optimistic challenging issues of neo-deterministic Hazard Predictability.

  2. Risk Governance of Multiple Natural Hazards: Centralized versus Decentralized Approach in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    The multi-risk approach is a relatively new field and its definition includes the need to consider multiple hazards and vulnerabilities in their interdependency (Selva, 2013) and the current multi-hazards disasters, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe, showed the need for a multi-risk approach in hazard mitigation and management. Our knowledge about multi-risk assessment, including studies from different scientific disciplines and developed assessment tools, is constantly growing (White et al., 2001). However, the link between scientific knowledge, its implementation and the results in terms of improved governance and decision-making have gained significantly less attention (IRGC, 2005; Kappes et al., 2012), even though the interest to risk governance, in general, has increased significantly during the last years (Verweiy and Thompson, 2006). Therefore, the key research question is how risk assessment is implemented and what is the potential for the implementation of a multi-risk approach in different governance systems across Europe. More precisely, how do the characteristics of risk governance, such as the degree of centralization versus decentralization, influence the implementation of a multi-risk approach. The methodology of this research includes comparative case study analysis of top-down and bottom-up interactions in governance in the city of Naples, (Italy), where the institutional landscape is marked by significant autonomy of Italian regions in decision-making processes for assessing the majority of natural risks, excluding volcanic, and in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, an overseas department of France, where the decision-making process is marked by greater centralization in decision making associated with a well established state governance within regions, delegated to the prefect and decentralised services of central ministries. The research design included documentary analysis and extensive empirical work involving policy makers, private sector actors and practitioners in risk and emergency management. This work was informed by 36 semi-structured interviews, three workshops with over seventy participants from eleven different countries, feedback from questionnaires and focus group discussions (Scolobig et al., 2013). The results show that both governance systems have their own strengths and weaknesses (Komendantova et al., 2013). Elements of the centralized multi-risk governance system could lead to improvements in interagency communication and the creation of an inter-agency environment, where the different departments at the national level can exchange information, identify the communities that are most exposed to multiple risks and set priorities, while providing consistent information about and responses to multi-risk to the relevant stakeholders at the local level. A decentralised multi-risk governance system by contrast can instead favour the creation of local multi-risk commissions to conduct discussions between experts in meteorological, geological and technological risks and practitioners, to elaborate risk and hazard maps, and to develop local capacities which would include educational and training activities. Both governance systems suffer from common deficiencies, the most important being the frequent lack of capacities at the local level, especially financial, but sometimes also technical and institutional ones, as the responsibilities for disaster risk management are often transferred from the national to local levels without sufficient resources for implementation of programs on risk management (UNISDR, 2013). The difficulty in balancing available resources between short-term and medium-term priorities often complicates the issue. Our recommendations are that the implementation of multi-risk approach can be facilitated through knowledge exchange and dialogue between different disciplinary communities, such as geological and meteorological, and between the natural and social sciences. The implementation of a multi-risk approach can be strengthened through the

  3. GIS-based River Flood Hazard Mapping in Urban Area (A Case Study in Kayu Ara River Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdokht Vosoogh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, thousands of lives have been lost, directly or indirectly, by flooding. In fact, of all natural hazards, floods pose the most widely distributed natural hazard to life today. Sungai Kayu Ara river basin which is located in the west part of the Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia was the case study of this research. In order to perform river flood hazard mapping HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS were utilized as hydrologic and hydraulic models, respectively. The generated river flood hazard was based on water depth and flow velocity maps whichwere prepared according to hydraulic model results in GIS environment. The results show that, magnitude of rainfall event (ARI and river basin land-use development condition have significant influences on the river flood hazard maps pattern. Moreover, magnitude of rainfall event caused more influences on the river flood hazard map in comparison with land-use development condition for Sungai Kayu Ara river basin.

  4. Planning for hazardous campus waste collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun-Hsing; Shih, Shao-Yang; Kao, Jehng-Jung

    2011-05-15

    This study examines a procedure developed for planning a nation-wide hazardous campus waste (HCW) collection system. Alternative HCW plans were designed for different collection frequencies, truckloads, storage limits, and also for establishing an additional transfer station. Two clustering methods were applied to group adjacent campuses into clusters based on their locations, HCW quantities, the type of vehicles used and collection frequencies. Transportation risk, storage risk, and collection cost are the major criteria used to evaluate the feasibility of each alternative. Transportation risk is determined based on the accident rates for each road type and collection distance, while storage risk is calculated by estimating the annual average HCW quantity stored on campus. Alternatives with large trucks can reduce both transportation risk and collection cost, but their storage risks would be significantly increased. Alternatives that collect neighboring campuses simultaneously can effectively reduce storage risks as well as collection cost if the minimum quantity to collect for each group of neighboring campuses can be properly set. The three transfer station alternatives evaluated for northern Taiwan are cost effective and involve significantly lower transportation risk. The procedure proposed is expected to facilitate decision making and to support analyses for formulating a proper nation-wide HCW collection plan. PMID:21397394

  5. Hazard assessment for a pharmaceutical mixture detected in the upper Tennessee River using Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wolfe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread use of pharmaceuticals has resulted in mixture concentrations ranging from mg/L in effluent to µg/L concentrations in surface water. In a 2008 study, 13 pharmaceuticals, ranging in amounts from 0.0028 to 0.1757 µg/l, were identified in the Tennessee River, USA and its tributaries. In order to address the need for risk assessment of environmentally relevant pharmaceutical mixtures, Daphnia magna 21-d life cycle tests were performed on a mixture of 11 of the 13 pharmaceuticals as well as on the individual components of the mixture. Mixture exposures were based on the same initial ratios of individual compounds, up to 1000x the initial mixture concentrations.  The endpoints of mortality, time to first brood, size, and fecundity were the assessed.  The LOEC of the 11- pharmaceutical mixture was determined to be 100x greater than the measured mixture concentration detected in the Tennessee River, with the NOEC being 75x that of the measured mixture.  Single concentrations of pharmaceuticals within the mixture up to the 100x LOEC were not statistically different from control for any of the assessed endpoints.  Thus, no single pharmaceutical was deemed predominately responsible for the mixture toxicity at the concentrations tested. While mixtures of pharmaceuticals are common in many systems, based on the findings of the present study, they may not pose a significant acute or chronic hazard to aquatic invertebrates at current concentrations.

  6. Heavy metal ions in wines: meta-analysis of target hazard quotients reveal health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petróczi Andrea

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal ions such as iron and copper are among the key nutrients that must be provided by dietary sources. Numerous foodstuffs have been evaluated for their contributions to the recommended daily allowance both to guide for satisfactory intake and also to prevent over exposure. In the case of heavy metal ions, the focus is often on exposure to potentially toxic levels of ions such as lead and mercury. The aim of this study is to determine target hazard quotients (THQ from literature reports giving empirical levels of metal ions in table wines using the reference upper safe limit value. Contributions to the THQ value were calculated for seven metal ions along with total values for each wine. Results The THQ values were determined as ranges from previously reported ranges of metal ion concentrations and were frequently concerningly high. Apart from the wines selected from Italy, Brazil and Argentina, all other wines exhibited THQ values significantly greater than one indicating levels of risk. The levels of vanadium, copper and manganese had the highest impact on THQ measures. Typical potential maximum THQ values ranged from 50 to 200 with Hungarian and Slovakian wines reaching 300. THQ values for a sample of red and white wines were high for both having values ranging from 30 to 80 for females based on a 250 mL glass per day. Conclusion The THQ values calculated are concerning in that they are mainly above the safe level of THQ

  7. Assessment of External Hazards at Radioactive Waste and Used Fuel Management Facilities - 13505

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key lessons from the Fukushima accident is the importance of having a comprehensive identification and evaluation of risks posed by external events to nuclear facilities. While the primary focus has been on nuclear power plants, the Canadian nuclear industry has also been updating hazard assessments for radioactive waste and used fuel management facilities to ensure that lessons learnt from Fukushima are addressed. External events are events that originate either physically outside the nuclear site or outside its control. They include natural events, such as high winds, lightning, earthquakes or flood due to extreme rainfall. The approaches that have been applied to the identification and assessment of external hazards in Canada are presented and analyzed. Specific aspects and considerations concerning hazards posed to radioactive waste and used fuel management operations are identified. Relevant hazard identification techniques are described, which draw upon available regulatory guidance and standard assessment techniques such as Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOPs) and 'What-if' analysis. Consideration is given to ensuring that hazard combinations (for example: high winds and flooding due to rainfall) are properly taken into account. Approaches that can be used to screen out external hazards, through a combination of frequency and impact assessments, are summarized. For those hazards that cannot be screened out, a brief overview of methods that can be used to conduct more detailed hazard assessments is also provided. The lessons learnt from the Fukushima accident have had a significant impact on specific aspects of the approaches used to hazard assessment for waste management. Practical examples of the effect of these impacts are provided. (authors)

  8. Seismic Hazard in Haiti: A Geologic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, C. S.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Narcisse, R.

    2012-12-01

    The catastrophic M 7.0 earthquake that occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010 highlighted the hazard associated with the Caribbean-North American plate boundary in Hispaniola. Detailed analysis and modeling of geologic, geodetic, and seismologic data showed that most of the moment release occurred on a previously unidentified, north-dipping, blind thrust fault (now named the Léogâne fault), which is north of the plate-bounding, left-lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF). The result that the Léogâne fault was the source of the 2010 earthquake implies that the EPGF remains a significant hazard and raises the question of other potential seismic sources near Port-au-Prince (PaP). Following the earthquake, we mapped Quaternary traces of the EPGF in the field using satellite imagery, aerial photography, and LiDAR data. We identified three paleoseismic study sites along the EPGF: the Jean-Jean and Marianne sites southwest of PaP along the Momance section of the EPGF and the Riviére Grise site southeast of PaP along the Dumay section. Trenches at the Jean-Jean site show fault strands breaking nearly to the ground surface, but that did not move in the 2010 earthquake. We collected radiocarbon samples from faulted strata that we anticipate will provide constraints on the age of the most recent surface rupture. We also identified a buried channel deposit that is left-laterally offset a minimum of 3 m, and collected radiocarbon samples to constrain its age. In a natural stream cut at the Marianne site, we documented three colluvial wedges, and collected samples for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating that we anticipate will provide age constraints on the three most recent earthquakes. At Riviére Grise we documented evidence for three surface ruptures in a fluvial terrace deposit, and collected OSL samples to constrain their ages. Our preliminary geomorphic analysis of a belt of low hills north of the EPGF and east of PaP suggests that these hills are young folds likely underlain by blind thrust faults. Reconnaissance field observations show that the hills are cored by folded alluvial-fan deposits of probable Quaternary age and that the folding defeated north-flowing drainages and ponded lacustrine sediment on the south flank of the folds. Radiocarbon analyses of charcoal samples collected from ponded sediments will help to constrain the age of recent deformation. These blind thrust faults are potentially additional earthquake sources that should be included in seismic hazard assessments for PaP. In our reconnaissance along the Matheux-Neiba fault north of PaP we found only weak evidence of recent deformation, and while this fault system may also be a potential earthquake source, its rate of activity is much lower than the rate on the EPGF. Because the EPGF adjacent to PaP did not rupture in 2010, and has not ruptured in at least 240 years, considerable strain remains to be released in a future earthquake, and this fault still poses a major hazard to densely populated parts of Haiti, including Port-au-Prince.

  9. 76 FR 16534 - Hazardous Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ...definition of hazardous waste on a one-time...wastewater treatment sludge generated at its...would cause the waste to be hazardous. This sludge was derived in part...as EPA Hazardous Waste No. F006 (wastewater treatment sludge from...

  10. Determination of the action spectrum of the blue-light hazard for different intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Alicia; Delgado, Diego; Campos, Joaquín

    2007-06-01

    The spectral transmittance of various models of intraocular lenses (IOLs) has been studied. Significant differences among them were found, primarily regarding the cutoff wavelength. Based on these findings, modifications of the action spectrum for the blue-light hazard photobiological effect are proposed for each type of IOL. Moreover, the potential hazard of a representative range of radiation sources to subjects implanted with those IOLs has been calculated based on the corrected action spectra.

  11. Plan for Prevention of Natural Hazards in Urban Areas. Case of the City of Constantine (Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Ykhlef Boubakeur; Belouar Abdelghani; Boubidi Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Natural hazards are caused by different phenomena: landslides, earthquakes, floods etc. All the manifestations of forces of nature are called phenomena. We are speaking then of natural risks when these problems are threatening, with varying degrees, human activities, causing significant damage to human life, property and the environment. The need to consider natural hazards in land use planning tasks has become a major concern. During these past years, Algeria has been hit by frequent natural...

  12. Incorporating natural hazard assessments into municipal master-plans; case-studies from Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Oded

    2010-05-01

    The active Dead Sea Rift (DSR) runs along the length of Israel, making the entire state susceptible to earthquake-related hazards. Current building codes generally acknowledge seismic hazards and direct engineers towards earthquake-resistant structures. However, hazard mapping on a scale fit for municipal/governmental planning is subject to local initiative and is currently not mandatory as seems necessary. In the following, a few cases of seismic-hazard evaluation made by the Geological Survey of Israel are presented, emphasizing the reasons for their initiation and the way results were incorporated (or not). The first case is a seismic hazard qualitative micro-zonation invited by the municipality of Jerusalem as part of a new master plan. This work resulted in maps (1:50,000; GIS format) identifying areas prone to (1) amplification of seismic shaking due to site characteristics (outcrops of soft rocks or steep topography) and (2) sites with earthquake induced landslide (EILS) hazard. Results were validated using reports from the 1927, M=6.2 earthquake that originated along the DSR about 30km east of Jerusalem. Although the hazard maps were accepted by municipal authorities, practical use by geotechnical engineers working within the frame of the new master-plan was not significant. The main reason for that is apparently a difference of opinion between the city-engineers responsible for implementing the new master-plan and the geologists responsible of the hazard evaluation. The second case involves evaluation of EILS hazard for two towns located further north along the DSR, Zefat and Tiberias. Both were heavily damaged more than once by strong earthquakes in past centuries. Work was carried out as part of a governmental seismic-hazard reduction program. The results include maps (1:10,000 scales) of sites with high EILS hazard identified within city limits. Maps (in GIS format) were sent to city engineers with reports explaining the methods and results. As far as we know, widespread implementation of the maps within municipal master plans never came about, and there was no open discussion between city engineers and the Geological Survey. The main reasons apparently are (1) a lack, until recently, of mandatory building codes requiring incorporation of EILS hazard; (2) budget priorities; (3) failure to involve municipality personnel in planning and executing the EILS hazard evaluation. These cases demonstrate that for seismic hazard data to be incorporated and implemented within municipal master-plans there needs to be (1) active involvement of municipal officials and engineers from the early planning stages of the evaluation campaign, and (2) a-priori dedication of funds towards implementation of evaluation results.

  13. Assessing volcanic hazards with Vhub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, J. L.; Charbonnier, S.; Courtland, L.; Valentine, G.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.

    2012-04-01

    Vhub (online at vhub.org) is a virtual organization and community cyberinfrastructure designed for collaboration in volcanology research, education, and outreach. One of the core objectives of this project is to accelerate the transfer of research tools to organizations and stakeholders charged with volcano hazard and risk mitigation (such as volcano observatories). Vhub offers a clearinghouse for computational models of volcanic processes and data analysis, documentation of those models, and capabilities for online collaborative groups focused on issues such as code development, configuration management, benchmarking, and validation. Vhub supports computer simulations and numerical modeling at two levels: (1) some models can be executed online via Vhub, without needing to download code and compile on the user's local machine; (2) other models are not available for online execution but for offline use in the user's computer. VHub also has wikis, blogs and group functions around specific topics to encourage collaboration, communication and discussion. Some of the simulation tools currently available to Vhub users are: Energy Cone (rapid delineation of the impact zone by pyroclastic density currents), Tephra2 (tephra dispersion forecast tool), Bent (atmospheric plume analysis), Hazmap (simulate sedimentation of volcanic particles) and TITAN2D (mass flow simulation tool). The list of online simulations available on Vhub is expected to expand considerably as the volcanological community becomes more involved in the project. This presentation focuses on the implementation of online simulation tools, and other Vhub's features, for assessing volcanic hazards following approaches similar to those reported in the literature. Attention is drawn to the minimum computational resources needed by the user to carry out such analyses, and to the tools and media provided to facilitate the effective use of Vhub's infrastructure for hazard and risk assessment. Currently the project is funded by the US National Science Foundation and includes a core development team at University at Buffalo, Michigan Technological University, and University of South Florida, along with a group of collaborators from the international community. The VHub servers reside at Purdue University and the basic software infrastructure (see hubzero.org) is also maintained there. We invite the volcanological community to get involved with improving and enlarging Vhub's capabilities through the use Vhub's resources and contribution of models, datasets, and any other items that authors would like to share.

  14. Minimum technical criteria and public involvement in siting hazardous waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research suggests that certain regions of the US will face shortages of hazardous waste disposal facilities within the next decade. Two primary factors that interfere with state officials ability to develop an effective hazardous waste disposal facility siting program are inconsistencies in federal regulations and public opposition. This paper examines the technical and political inputs to the siting process. Specifically, it targets inconsistencies in federal regulations and the issue of reducing public opposition by deriving minimum site location standards from a review of standards of thirty-two states that are greater than existing federal regulations. The authors conclude that neither technical site-specific criteria nor public involvement alone can assure facility location approval. However, a combination of considerable host community involvement and technical site-specific criteria may increase the probability of site approval. A decision methodology based on these conclusions is proposed to aid developers in selecting sites for hazardous waste disposal facilities

  15. Defining and Measuring Coastal Vulnerability and Resilience to Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M. K.; Hoagland, P.

    2014-12-01

    Accounting for an estimated 23 percent of the world's population, coastal communities face many types of natural hazards. In particular, they may be vulnerable to the effects of tropical cyclones, flooding due to tsunamis or storm surges, erosion, saltwater intrusion, and subsidence. These coastal hazards are further exacerbated by population growth and climate change. There is a lack of consensus in the literature about what constitutes vulnerability (negative impacts) and resilience (recovery from negative impacts) and how to measure these phenomena. While some important work has focused on the long-term effects of coastal hazards on economic growth, little has been done to understand, in quantitative terms, the extent to which coastal communities may be vulnerable to such hazards and, if so, whether they can be resilient. We surveyed nine indicators of human well-being in order to determine their potential suitability as measures of coastal vulnerability or resilience. Some measures, such as the Gross Domestic Product, the Human Development Index, and the Gini coefficient, comprise economic or distributional indicators of human welfare; others, such as the Social Vulnerability Index, are more complex and difficult to interpret. We selected per capita personal income as the most viable indicator, due largely to its simplicity and its availability over several decades. We used it to examine human community vulnerability and resilience to a specific coastal hazard—significant storm surges from major coastal hurricanes—in several US coastal metropolitan areas. We compiled data on per capita personal income from the US Bureau of Economic Analysis for 15 to 20 years prior and subsequent to four major hurricanes: Hugo, which hit the Charleston, South Carolina, metropolitan area in 1989; Bob, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in 1991; Andrew, Miami, Florida, in 1992; and Opal, Pensacola, Florida, in 1995. Intervention analysis using linear regression suggests that these coastal areas exhibited the full range of possible combinations of vulnerability and resilience.

  16. 340 Waste handling Facility Hazard Categorization and Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis presented in this document provides the basis for categorizing the facility as less than Hazard Category 3. The final hazard categorization for the deactivated 340 Waste Handling Facility (340 Facility) is presented in this document. This hazard categorization was prepared in accordance with DOE-STD-1 027-92, Change Notice 1, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with Doe Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The analysis presented in this document provides the basis for categorizing the facility as less than Hazard Category (HC) 3. Routine nuclear waste receiving, storage, handling, and shipping operations at the 340 Facility have been deactivated, however, the facility contains a small amount of radioactive liquid and/or dry saltcake in two underground vault tanks. A seismic event and hydrogen deflagration were selected as bounding accidents. The generation of hydrogen in the vault tanks without active ventilation was determined to achieve a steady state volume of 0.33%, which is significantly less than the lower flammability limit of 4%. Therefore, a hydrogen deflagration is not possible in these tanks. The unmitigated release from a seismic event was used to categorize the facility consistent with the process defined in Nuclear Safety Technical Position (NSTP) 2002-2. The final sum-of-fractions calculation concluded that the facility is less than HC 3. The analysis did not identify any required engineered controls or design features. The Administrative Controls that were derived from the analysis are: (1) radiological inventory control, (2) facility change control, and (3) Safety Management Programs (SMPs). The facility configuration and radiological inventory shall be controlled to ensure that the assumptions in the analysis remain valid. The facility commitment to SMPs protects the integrity of the facility and environment by ensuring training, emergency response, and radiation protection. The full scale decommissioning or pumping of radioactive materials from the vault tanks is prohibited. The Criticality Safety Program, HNF-7098, currently classifies an Exempt facility as one that is less than HC 3 per DOE STD 1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, therefore the 340 Facility is classified as Exempt. Exempt facilities are not required to comply with most of the requirements specified in the Criticality Safety Program. The exceptions, with regards to the 340 Facility, include maintaining an accounting of the facility source term to ensure that the facility hazard category is not changed and ensuring that fissionable materials are appropriately labeled.

  17. Presenteeism: a public health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Eric; Chang, Anna; Chen, Helen L

    2010-11-01

    "Presenteeism" occurs when an employee goes to work despite a medical illness that will prevent him or her from fully functioning at work. This problem has been well studied in the business and social science literature, and carries increased importance in the health care setting due to the risk of infectious disease transmission in vulnerable patient populations. In this manuscript, we discuss an outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in a long-term care facility and the role presenteeism played in disease transmission and extension of the outbreak. We use existing literature to point out the hazards of presenteeism in the health care sector. We will also discuss factors that may be involved in the decision to work while ill and propose policy changes that may reduce the incidence of presenteeism in health care organizations. PMID:20549378

  18. The transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of dangerous chemicals and petroleum products by S.A. industry makes it necessary for some form of control to be introduced to regulate the transport of these materials before a major disaster occurs, such as has occurred overseas. This report examines all the aspects that could increase the likelihood of such a disaster occurring, including the preparedness of emergency services. It also recommends the improvements or changes required to minimize this possibility. It is apparent that the training and ability of vehicle drivers are key areas in this respect and they are discussed at length. Forthcoming regulations under the Hazardous Substances Act No. 15 of 1973 are examined and the effects of over-restrictive legislation considered. The report concludes that legislation promulgated gradually to reinforce voluntary industrial practices will ultimately restrict this type of transport to the safety-conscious and competent operator, therefore minimizing the risk as much as possible

  19. Cadmium hazard in silver brazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, S L; Tan, S H; Pinnagoda, J; Tan, K T

    1995-03-01

    This study evaluates the usage of cadmium-containing silver brazing alloys in Singapore and the potential cadmium hazard from its use. Of the 137 factories which responded to the survey questionnaire, only 28 (20.4%) carried out brazing. Of these, only 7 factories used cadmium-containing filler alloys. One hundred and six out of 123 workers from one of these factories had cadmium-in-blood concentrations exceeding 10 mcg/l. Thirty-one (29.2%) of the workers with excessive cadmium absorption had urinary beta-2 microglobulin levels exceeding 28 mcg/g creat. Workers in the other factories who were intermittently exposed had cadmium-in-blood concentrations of 10 mcg/l and below. PMID:7653980

  20. Hazardous waste at federal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ubiquitous hazardous and radioactive waste problems at US Government facilities - especially US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons plants - raise difficult technical, legal, and public relations issues. Because contamination problems are so widespread and complex, it is impossible for the government to reassure the public effectively that the situation is under control. Moreover, continued embarrassing public disclosures about the scope and potential health effects of contamination are inevitable. Under these circumstances, there are understandable temptations to downplay problems - and take other steps to avoid negative publicity - in order to buy time for development and implementation of technical solutions. If, however, DOE and other federal agencies are to regain public trust, they must avoid this temptation and approach their environmental problems with candor even at the cost of fostering public criticism and lawsuits

  1. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the climate change. Extra maintenance activity is needed for existence infrastructure to stay operable. Engineers should run climate models under the most pessimistic scenarios when planning new infrastructure projects. That would allow reducing the potential shortcomings related to the permafrost thawing.

  2. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag2+ or Ce+4 are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs

  3. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  5. California Geological Survey: Seismic Hazards Zonation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Users can access interactive mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data, and view or download maps and reports on California's most prominent earthquake hazards. These maps are intended to help avoid damage resulting from earthquakes and are used by cities and counties to regulate development and by property owners selling property within areas where seismic hazards have been identified.

  6. Probability seismic hazard maps of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinda Sutiwanich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seismic hazard maps of southern Thailand were obtained from the integration of crustal fault, areal and subductionsource models using probability seismic hazard analysis and the application of a logic tree approach. The hazard maps showthe mean peak ground and spectral accelerations at 0.2, 0.3 and 1.0 second periods with a 10%, 5%, 2% and 0.5% probabilityof exceedance in 50-year hazard levels. The highest hazard areas were revealed to be in the Muang, Phanom, and Viphavadidistricts of Surat Thani province, the Thap Put district of Phang Nga province, and the Plai Phraya district of Krabi province.The lowest hazard areas are in the southernmost part of Thailand e.g. Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat provinces. The maximumvalues of the mean peak ground acceleration for the 475–9,975 yr return period are 0.28-0.52 g and the maximum spectralaccelerations at 0.2 seconds for the same return period are 0.52-0.80 g. Similar hazard is also obtained for different returnperiods. Presented seismic hazard maps are useful as a guideline for the future design of buildings, bridges or dams, for rocksites to resist earthquake forces.

  7. Storage of hazardous substances in bonded warehouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of special regulations exist in Costa Rica for registration and transport of hazardous substances; these set the requirements for entry into the country and the security of transport units. However, the regulations mentioned no specific rules for storing hazardous substances. Tax deposits have been the initial place where are stored the substances that enter the country.The creation of basic rules that would be regulating the storage of hazardous substances has taken place through the analysis of regulations and national and international laws governing hazardous substances. The regulatory domain that currently exists will be established with a field research in fiscal deposits in the metropolitan area. The storage and security measures that have been used by the personnel handling the substances will be identified to be putting the reality with that the hazardous substances have been handled in tax deposits. A rule base for the storage of hazardous substances in tax deposits can be made, protecting the safety of the environment in which are manipulated and avoiding a possible accident causing a mess around. The rule will have the characteristics of the storage warehouses hazardous substances, such as safety standards, labeling standards, infrastructure features, common storage and transitional measures that must possess and meet all bonded warehouses to store hazardous substances. (author)

  8. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included

  9. Relative Hazard and Risk Measure Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RHRM equations, as represented in methodology and code presented in this report, are primarily a collection of key factors normally used in risk assessment that are relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected mitigation, cleanup, and risk management activities. The RHRM code has broad application potential. For example, it can be used to compare one mitigation, cleanup, or risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to just the fixed baseline. If the appropriate source term data are available, it can be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated controlling hazards and risks. These estimated values of controlling hazards and risks can then be examined to help understand which mitigation, cleanup, or risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions and risk reduction potential at a site. Graphics can be generated from these absolute controlling hazard and risk values to graphically compare these high hazard and risk reduction potential conditions. If the RHRM code is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard and risk estimates) the resultant absolute controlling hazard and risk values

  10. Benefits and hazards of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compilation of a seminar at the KFA Juelich on topical problems of nuclear power. Subjects: Energy demand, its expected development and possibilities of coverage; physical fundamentals and technical realisation of power generation by nuclear fission; fuel cycle problems and solutions; effects of radioactive radiation; safety of nuclear power plants and the nuclear hazard as compared with other hazards. (orig./RW)

  11. Hazardous goods manual. Vol. 1. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first of the eight volumes of the 5th edition of the 'Hazardous goods manual' published as a loose-leaf collection presents: table of contents, keyword index; acronyms and terminology; list of instructions; supplements; family of instructions pertaining to the transport of hazardous goods; danger classification; packaging; danger labels and symbols. (HP)

  12. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-09-29

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

  13. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity

  14. Region 9: Solid Waste: Household Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's site on household hazardous waste stresses the importance of household waste awareness. Household waste may come from single or multiple family dwellings, hotels and motels, and other types of residences. This site answers frequently asked questions about the problem of discarding potentially hazardous wastes.

  15. The Nature of Natural Hazards Communication (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the many issues of interest to natural hazards professionals include the analysis of proactive approaches to the governance of risk from natural hazards and approaches to broaden the scope of public policies related to the management of risks from natural hazards, as well as including emergency and environmental management, community development and spatial planning related to natural hazards. During the talk we will present results of scientific review, analysis and synthesis, which emphasize same new trends in communication of the natural hazards theories and practices within an up-to-the-minute context of new environmental and climate change issues, new technologies, and a new focus on resiliency. The presentation is divided into five sections that focus on natural hazards communication in terms of education, risk management, public discourse, engaging the public, theoretical perspectives, and new media. It includes results of case studies and best practices. It delves into natural hazards communication theories, including diffusion, argumentation, and constructivism, to name a few. The presentation will provide information about: (1) A manual of natural hazards communication for scientists, policymakers, and media; (2) An up-to-the-minute context of environmental hazards, new technologies & political landscape; (3) A work by natural hazards scientists for geoscientists working with social scientists and communication principles; (4) A work underpinned by key natural hazards communication theories and interspersed with pragmatic solutions; (5) A work that crosses traditional natural hazards boundaries: international, interdisciplinary, theoretical/applied. We will further explore how spatial planning can contribute to risk governance by influencing the occupation of natural hazard-prone areas, and review the central role of emergency management in risk policy. The goal of this presentation is to contribute to the augmentation of the conceptual framework of risk governance and increase the awareness of practitioners and decision-makers to the need to adopt proactive policies, leading to a more integrated, participative, and adaptive governance that can respond more efficiently to the increasing uncertainty resulting from escalating natural hazards risk exposure.

  16. Incineration of hazardous waste: A critical review update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 15 years, concern over improper disposal practices of the past has manifested itself in the passage of a series of federal and state-level hazardous waste cleanup and control statutes of unprecedented scope. As a result, there has been a significant modification of waste management practices. The more traditional and lowest-cost methods of direct landfilling, storage in surface impoundments and deep-well injection are being replaced in large measure by waste minimization at the source of generation, waste reuse, physical/chemical/biological treatment, incineration and chemical stabilization/solidification methods. Of all of the permanent treatment technologies, properly designed incineration systems are capable of the highest overall degree of destruction and control for the broadest range of hazardous waste streams. Substantial design and operational experience exists in this area and a wide variety of commercial systems are available. Consequently, significant growth is anticipated in the use of incineration and other thermal destruction methods. The objective of this review is to examine the current state of knowledge regarding hazardous waste incineration in an effort to put these technological and environmental issues into perspective. 279 refs., 8 figs., 27 tabs

  17. Circumpolar variation in morphological characteristics of Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, C.R.; Fox, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Andreev, A.; Bromley, R.G.; Degtyarev, A.G.; Ebbinge, B.; Gurtovaya, E.N.; Kerbes, R.; Kondratyev, A.V.; Kostin, I.; Krechmar, A.V.; Litvin, K.E.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Moou, J.H.; Oates, R.M.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Sabano, Y.; Simpson, S.G.; Solovieva, D.V.; Spindler, M.A.; Syroechkovsky, Y.V.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Walsh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Capsule: Greater White-fronted Geese show significant variation in body size from sampling locations throughout their circumpolar breeding range. Aims: To determine the degree of geographical variation in body size of Greater White-fronted Geese and identify factors contributing to any apparent patterns in variation. Methods: Structural measures of >3000 geese from 16 breeding areas throughout the Holarctic breeding range of the species were compared statistically. Results: Palearctic forms varied clinally, and increased in size from the smallest forms on the Kanin and Taimyr peninsulas in western Eurasia to the largest forms breeding in the Anadyr Lowlands of eastern Chukotka. Clinal variation was less apparent in the Nearctic, as both the smallest form in the Nearctic and the largest form overall (the Tule Goose) were from different breeding areas in Alaska. The Tule Goose was 25% larger than the smallest form. Birds from Greenland (A. a. flavirostris) were the second largest, although only slightly larger than geese from several North American populations. Body size was not correlated with breeding latitude but was positively correlated with temperature on the breeding grounds, breeding habitat, and migration distance. Body mass of Greater White-fronted Geese from all populations remained relatively constant during the period of wing moult. Morphological distinctness of eastern and western Palearctic forms concurs with earlier findings of complete range disjunction. Conclusions: Patterns of morphological variation in Greater White-fronted Geese across the Holarctic can be generally attributed to adaptation to variable breeding environments, migration requirements, and phylo-geographical histories. ?? 2005 British Trust for Ornithology.

  18. Greater lean tissue and skeletal muscle mass are associated with higher bone mineral content in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton John C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the relationship of skeletal muscle mass with bone mineral content in an ethnically diverse group of 6 to 18 year old boys and girls. Methods 175 healthy children (103 boys; 72 girls had assessments of body mass, height, and Tanner stage. Whole body bone mineral content, non-bone lean body mass (nbLBM, skeletal muscle mass, and fat mass were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Muscle mass was estimated from an equation using appendicular lean soft tissue measured by DXA, weight and height. Estimates of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue were also assessed by whole body multi-slice magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Linear regression was used to determine whether skeletal muscle mass assessed by DXA or by MRI were better predictors of bone mineral content compared with nbLBM after adjusting for sex, age, race or ethnicity, and Tanner stage. Results Greater skeletal muscle mass was associated with greater bone mineral content (p 2 statistic compared with assessment by DXA for predicting bone mineral content. The proportion of skeletal muscle mass in nbLBM was significantly associated with greater bone mineral content adjusted for total nbLBM. Conclusions This study is among the first to describe and compare the relationship of skeletal muscle to bone using both MRI and DXA estimates. The results demonstrate that the use of MRI provides a modestly better fitting model for the relationship of skeletal muscle to bone compared with DXA. Skeletal muscle had an impact on bone mineral content independent of total non-bone lean body mass. In addition, Hispanics had greater bone mineral content compared to other race and ethnic groups after adjusting for sex, age, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle mass, and height.

  19. Hazardous waste management in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous waste management in research laboratories benefits from a fundamentally different approach to the hazardous waste determination from industry's. This paper introduces new, statue-based criteria for identifying hazardous wastes (such as radiological mixed wastes and waste oils) and links them to a forward-looking compliance of laboratories, the overall system integrates hazardous waste management activities with other environmental and hazard communication initiatives. It is generalizable to other waste generators, including industry. Although only the waste identification and classification aspects of the system are outlined in detail here, four other components are defined or supported, namely: routine and contingency practices; waste treatment/disposal option definition and selection; waste minimization, recycling, reuse, and substitution opportunities; and key interfaces with other systems, including pollution prevention

  20. Giant solitary fibrous tumor arising from greater omentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun-Shan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs have been described at almost every anatomic location of human body, but reports of SFT in the abdominal cavity are rare. We herein present a rare case of SFT originating from greater omentum. Computed tomography revealed a 15.8 cm × 21.0 cm solid mass located at superior aspect of stomach. Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin. Microscopically, its tissue was composed of non-organized and spindle-shaped cells exhibiting atypical nuclei, which were divided up by branching vessel and collagen bundles. Immunohistochemical staining showed that this tumor was negative for CD117, CD99, CD68, cytokeratin, calretinin, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, F8 and S-100, but positive for CD34, bcl-2, ?-smooth muscle actin and vimentin. The patient presented no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. SFT arising from abdominal cavity can be diagnosed by histological findings and immunohistochemical markers, especially for CD34 and bcl-2 positive cases.