WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Ecological significance of hazardous concentrations in a planktonic food web.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) are statistical distributions that are used to estimate the potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species at a given toxicant concentration, the hazardous concentration for that fraction of species (HC(PAF)). Here, we use an aquatic food web model that includes 14 phytoplankton and 6 zooplankton species to estimate the number of species experiencing a biomass reduction when the food web is exposed to the HC(PAF) and this for 1000 hypothetical toxicants and for PAF=5-30%. When choosing a 20% decrease as a cut-off to categorize a species' biomass as affected, 0-1 and 2-5 out of the 20 species were affected at the HC(5) and HC(30), respectively. From this, it can be concluded that the PAF is a relatively good estimator of the number of affected species. However, when phytoplankton species experiencing >or=20% biomass increase were also classified as affected, the number of affected species predicted by the food web model varied strongly among toxicants for PAF >5, with 2-16 out of 20 species affected at the HC(30). Phytoplankton species with extreme (both high and low) values for uptake rates and light limitation constants experienced smaller effects on their biomass than phytoplankton species with more average parameter values. We conclude that, next to measures of toxicity, ecological characteristics of species may help understanding ecological effects occurring in ecosystems also.

De Laender F; Soetaert K; De Schamphelaere KA; Middelburg JJ; Janssen CR

2010-03-01

2

A Paleocene lowland macroflora from Patagonia reveals significantly greater richness than North American analogs  

Science.gov (United States)

Few South American macrofloras of Paleocene age are known, and this limits our knowledge of diversity and composition between the end-Cretaceous event and the Eocene appearance of high floral diversity. We report new, unbiased collections of 2516 compression specimens from the Paleocene Salamanca Formation (ca. 61.7 Ma) from two localities in the Palacio de los Loros exposures in southern Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina. Our samples reveal considerably greater richness than was previously known from the Paleocene of Patagonia, including 36 species of angiosperm leaves as well as angiosperm fruits, flowers, and seeds; ferns; and conifer leaves, cones, and seeds. The floras, which are from siltstone and sandstone channel-fills deposited on low-relief floodplain landscapes in a humid, warm temperate climate, are climatically and paleoenvironmentally comparable to many quantitatively collected Paleocene floras from the Western Interior of North America. Adjusted for sample size, there are >50% more species at each Palacio de los Loros quarry than in any comparable U.S. Paleocene sample. These results indicate more vibrant terrestrial ecosystems in Patagonian than in North American floodplain environments ˜4 m.y. after the end-Cretaceous extinction, and they push back the time line 10 m.y. for the evolution of high floral diversity in South America. The cause of the dis parity is unknown but could involve reduced impact effects because of greater distance from the Chicxulub site, higher latest Cretaceous diversity, or faster recovery or immigration rates.

Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter; Johnson, Kirk R.; Zamuner, Alba B.; Rubén Cúneo, N.; Matheos, Sergio D.; Singer, Bradley S.

2007-10-01

3

Potential Significant Tsunami Hazard in the Puysegur Subduction Zone, South of New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

Subduction zone seismogenesis and related tsunami potential have recently become a significant focus; yet none of the recent global studies have considered the Puysegur subduction zone, south of New Zealand, and its hazards. While several local studies have identified the southern and southwestern (Fiordland) margins as potential tsunami hazards, those models fail to take into account the oblique nature of subduction and the impact of that obliquity on earthquake slip and tsunami wave generation. We have undertaken a comprehensive study of the Puysegur subduction zone and its earthquake and tsunami hazards by analyzing the historical seismicity over the entire plate boundary region south of New Zealand and using that data to constrain the earthquake potential for the Puysegur trench. We have identified both seismicity clearly associated with the interplate megathrust, and using these events, determined the seismic moment deficit of the subduction plate boundary over the past ~100 years. These calculations imply unreleased moment equivalent to a magnitude Mw 8.4 earthquake, and thus suggest that this subduction zone has the potential to break in a great, tsunamigenic event. We model the tsunami hazard using this moment deficit and the location of the 1979 plate interface event, and find that a tsunami caused by a great earthquake on the Puysegur subduction zone poses a significant threat to the southern and western coasts of the South Island of New Zealand, the coasts of Tasmania, and also to the southeastern coast of Australia, nearly 2000 km distant.

Hayes, G. P.; Furlong, K. P.

2009-04-01

4

Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis: a significant health hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions. (author)

2009-01-01

5

Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis: a significant health hazard  

Science.gov (United States)

Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions.

AlAnazi, Marzouqah; AlAshahrani, Mohammad; AlSalamah, Majid

2009-01-01

6

Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis : A significant health hazard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions.

Alanazi Marzouqah; Alashahrani Mohammad; Alsalamah Majid

2009-01-01

7

Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis: a significant health hazard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions.

Alsharani M; Alashahrani M; Alanazi M; Alsalamah M

2009-05-01

8

Significance of experimental design in evaluating ecological hazards of sediments/soils to amphibian species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to determine the significance of experimental design on the results of laboratory sediment toxicity studies with amphibians (Xenopus laevis), two different sample preparations were evaluated from three different contaminated waste sites. Whole sediment and aqueous sediment extracts from each site were evaluated. Site 1 soil was characterized as loamy with a relatively high total organic carbon (TOC), moisture fraction (MF), and sulfide content; and contaminated with organochlorine pesticides. Site 2 soil was characterized as silty-clay with low/moderate TOC, MF, and sulfide; and contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pentachlorophenol. Site 3 soil samples consisted of two separate subsamples, the first characterized as loamy with a relatively high TOC, MF, and sulfide content, and the second as a mixture of silty/clay and sand with relatively low TOC, MF, and sulfide content. Both sub-site samples were contaminated with heavy metals, including copper, lead, and zinc. FETAX (Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay -- Xenopus) testing of Site 1 samples indicated that substantially greater levels of developmental toxicity were induced by the aqueous extracts than the whole bulk soil. Tests with Site 2 samples suggested that both of the preparations were capable of inducing comparable rates of developmental toxicity. Tests with subsample a of Site 3 indicated that the aqueous extract of the sample induced greater levels of developmental toxicity than the whole soil.

Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L. [Stover Group, Stillwater, OK (United States)

1997-09-01

9

Significance and problems of ecotoxicity for the assessment of environmental hazards by chemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure and effects are determinative for the potential environmental hazard, i.e. a substance will endanger the environment only in the case that it rises to concentration levels which can lead to ecological harm. Any attempt to realize this concept makes clear that rough exposure estimates can be derived from simple physico-chemical data using appropriate environmental models. However, estimates of effects need for results from more sophisticated and expensive test methods. The corresponding small data base is a limiting factor, especially in view to the so-called ''problem of existing chemicals'' (80000 in the Federal Republic of Germany). When the environmental hazard potential of a large number of chemicals shall be considered and compared, only toxicological data from single-species tests are at best available. However, the harm to single populations is just one indicator for the effects on structure and function of ecosystems. It can be demonstrated with a simple model, which interrelations are neglected and which direction should be followed for improving the test methodology.

Rohleder, H.; Benz, J.

1985-01-01

10

Radioactivity measurements in Egyptian Phosphate Mines and Their Significance As a Source of Hazardous Radioactive Waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate mines that may contain radioactive traces in the composition of their ores represent source of hazardous radioactive waste in the environment. Radioactivity measurements have been conducted in nine underground phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert in order to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers in those mining sites. Measurements were carried out of airborne radon and its short- lived decay products (progeny) and thoron progeny, as well as radiation from mines walls, ceilings and floors. Conventional, well established techniques, methods and instrumentation were used to make these measurements. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions showed partial agreement between these two sets of data. This result is partly attributed to the complex layout of these mines, which causes undesirable ventilation conditions, such as recirculation airflow patterns, which could not be adequately identified or quantified. The radiation data obtained were used to estimate the maximum Annual Dose (MAD), and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. These calculations indicate that in eight out of the nine mines surveyed, the MAD exceeded (by a factor of up to 7) the maximum recommended level by ICRP 60. Numbers of suggestions are made in order to reduce the MAD in the affected mines. This study could help in the estimation of the environmental impact of these mine operations on the environment.

1999-01-01

11

Identification of hazardous road locations of traffic accidents by means of kernel density estimation and cluster significance evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper proposes a procedure which evaluates clusters of traffic accident and organizes them according to their significance. The standard kernel density estimation was extended by statistical significance testing of the resulting clusters of the traffic accidents. This allowed us to identify the most important clusters within each section. They represent places where the kernel density function exceeds the significance level corresponding to the 95th percentile level, which is estimated using the Monte Carlo simulations. To show only the most important clusters within a set of sections, we introduced the cluster strength and cluster stability evaluation procedures. The method was applied in the Southern Moravia Region of the Czech Republic.

Bíl M; Andrášik R; Janoška Z

2013-06-01

12

Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

2011-08-01

13

State taxation of hazardous materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Notwithstanding the desire of many in the petroleum and petrochemical industry to minimize the cost of complying with environmental protection regulations and their support for the deregulation of air and water pollution controls through greater reliance on economic incentives, the regulation of hazardous materials will probably become more stringent and efforts to clean up faulty hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities are bound to increase in the short term, because hazardous waste contamination represents a significant threat to public and environmental health, especially in respect to drinking water. A myriad of state permit fees and excise taxes incident to the regulation of hazardous materials and wastes is inefficient from the perspective of petroleum and petrochemical producers with multistate operations. In principle, RCRA provides for more-or-less uniform regulation of hazardous materials through either the EPA's cradle-to-grave control system or an EPA-approved state control system; however state permit fees and excise tax systems vary considerably. Paradoxically, further deregulation of hazardous materials controls by transferring more regulatory responsibility to states may increase the cost of compliance because permit fees and excise taxes will inevitably be increased. 2 tables.

Reese, C.E.

1985-03-01

14

Hazardous waste disposal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents the findings of the 8-yr. NATO/CCMS Pilot Study on Hazardous Waste Disposal, a joint study conducted by 10 leading industrialized countries. Provides important reports on hazardous waste programs conducted by the OECD and the European Economic Community, and reports on significant national programs in Denmark, Norway, and The Netherlands. Offers a synthesis of international expertise in the areas of hazardous waste policy, legislation, regulation, technology, and research. Discusses the political dimensions and implications of hazardous waste disposal, hazardous waste legislation, and hazardous waste transportation/international shipments. Recommended for professionals in the fields of environmental engineering, toxicology, and public health.

Lehman, J.P.

1983-01-01

15

A Study of the Anatomical Variations in the Position of the Greater Palatine Foramen in Adult Human Skulls and its Clinical Significance/ Variaciones Anatómicas en la Posición del Foramen Palatino Mayor en Cráneos Humanos Adultos y su Significación Clínica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El dolor es un síntoma común y preocupante en la práctica dental. Dependiendo de los casos, diferentes técnicas se utilizan para aliviar el dolor. Una de ellas es el bloqueo periférico del nervio trigémino. Esta, ha demostrado ser una forma eficaz y conveniente para anestesiar grandes regiones del complejo oral y maxilofacial. Este bloqueo puede ser intraoral o extraoral. La vía intraoral es a través del foramen palatino mayor en la cual se ingresa en la fosa pter (more) igopalatina, donde se encuentra el nervio maxilar. Las variaciones morfológicas en la posición del foramen palatino mayor puede ser de importancia clínica en la administración de anestesia local y en la cirugía del paladar. En el presente estudio, se examinó la distancia del foramen palatino mayor desde la sutura palatina mediana y el margen posterior del paladar duro, y su posición relativa a los molares superiores, así como la dirección del foramen palatino mayor. Abstract in english Pain is a common distressing symptom in dental practice. Depending upon the cases, different techniques are used to relieve pain. One of these is peripheral trigeminal nerve block. Peripheral trigeminal nerve block anaesthesia has proved to be an effective and convenient way to anaesthetise large regions of oral and maxillofacial complex. This block can be intraoral or extra oral. The intraoral route is through the greater palatine foramen in which the dental surgeons ent (more) er into the pterygopalatine fossa, where the maxillary nerve is situated. The morphological variations in the position of greater palatine foramen may be of clinical importance in the administration of local anaesthesia and in palatal surgery. In the present study, the distance of greater palatine foramen from the median palatine suture, and from the posterior border of hard palate have been noted, and the position of greater palatine foramen relative to the maxillary molars, as well as the direction of the foramen have been examined.

Dave, Mitesh R; Yagain, Vaishali Kiran; Anadkat, Samir

2013-06-01

16

Occupational hazard exposure and at risk drinking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined associations between workers' reported exposure to occupational hazards and at risk drinking. A sample of 15,907 working adults was drawn from the 1985 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (weighted sample represented 85,395,000 workers). This was the only year the NHIS included questions on both occupational hazard exposure and at risk drinking. Occupational hazard exposures included chemical/biological substances, physical hazards, injury risk, and mental stress. At risk drinking was defined as binge drinking and drinking and driving. Prevalence adjusted odds ratios were estimated. Sixty percent of workers reported exposure to one or more occupational hazards with considerable variation among and within occupations. In all, 31% reported binge drinking and 15% drove after drinking too much. In a multivariate analysis that controlled for background characteristics, workers who reported occupational hazard exposures were 1.2 to 1.4 times more likely to engage in binge drinking than workers without exposures. Similar results were found for drinking/driving. All multivariate results were statistically significant. Findings suggest workers who report occupational hazard exposures are at greater risk of both binge drinking and drinking/driving. Occupational and environmental health nurses can lead workplace initiatives to reduce occupational hazard exposure and, simultaneously, invest in health promotion efforts to curb at risk drinking among workers.

Conrad KM; Furner SE; Qian Y

1999-01-01

17

Tuberculosis in greater kudu.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) died while maintained in captivity at a zoo. Necropsy revealed tuberculous lesions in the lungs, spleen, and thoracic lymph nodes. Histopathologic findings included granulomas with Langhans' giant cells, necrosis, and mineralization. Acid-fast organisms isolated from tissues of each kudu were identified as Mycobacterium bovis.

Himes EM; LyVere DB; Thoen CO; Essey MA; Lebel JL; Freiheit CF

1976-11-01

18

Tuberculosis in greater kudu.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) died while maintained in captivity at a zoo. Necropsy revealed tuberculous lesions in the lungs, spleen, and thoracic lymph nodes. Histopathologic findings included granulomas with Langhans' giant cells, necrosis, and mineralization. Acid-fast organisms isolated from tissues of each kudu were identified as Mycobacterium bovis. PMID:789313

Himes, E M; LyVere, D B; Thoen, C O; Essey, M A; Lebel, J L; Freiheit, C F

1976-11-01

19

Hazardous Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

20

Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

Blanchard, A.

2000-02-28

 
 
 
 
21

Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

2000-01-01

22

Predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) derivation as a significant source of variability in environmental hazard assessments of chemicals in aquatic systems: An international analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Environmental hazard assessments for chemicals are performed to define an environmentally 'safe' level at which, theoretically, the chemical will not negatively affect any exposed biota. Despite this common goal, the methodologies in use are very diverse across different countries and jurisdictions. This becomes particularly obvious when international scientists work together on documents with global scope, e.g. in the WHO International Program on Chemical Safety. In this paper, we present a study that describes the extent of such variability and analyse the reasons that lead to different outcomes in deriving a 'safe level' (termed the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) throughout this paper). For this purpose, we chose five chemicals to represent well-known substances for which sufficient high-quality aquatic effects data were available: ethylene glycol, trichloroethylene, nonylphenol, hexachlorobenzene and copper. From these data, two datasets for each chemical were compiled: the full dataset, that contained all information from selected peer-review sources, and the base dataset, a sub-sample of the full set simulating limited data. Scientists from the EU, United States, Canada, Japan and Australia independently performed hazard assessments for each of these chemicals using the same datasets. Their reasoning for, e.g., key study selection, use of assessment factors or use of probabilistic methods was comprehensively documented. The observed variation in the PNECs for all chemicals was up to three orders of magnitude and this was not simply due to obvious factors such as the size of the dataset or the methodology used. Rather this was due to individual decisions of the assessors within the scope of the methodology used, especially key study selection, acute versus chronic definitions and size of assessment factors. Awareness of these factors, together with transparency of the decision-making process, would be necessary to minimise confusion and uncertainty related to different hazard assessment outcomes, particularly in international documents. The development of a 'guideline on transparency in decision-making' ensuring the decision-making process is science-based, understandable and transparent, may therefore be a promising way forward. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2013 SETAC.

Hahn T; Diamond J; Dobson S; Howe P; Kielhorn J; Koennecker G; Lee-Steere C; Mangelsdorf I; Schneider U; Sugaya Y; Taylor K; Van Dam R; Stauber JL

2013-08-01

23

Greater Yellowstone Geology  

Science.gov (United States)

This site features a collection of papers and maps about the Yellowstone hotspot by Dr. Ken Pierce of the Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, an expert in the field. Papers on this site address topics such as Yellowstone glaciation, tracking the hotspot, the Yellowstone plume head, and a seven-day field trip guide to the quaternary geology and ecology of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Each downloadable paper map is listed with a brief description and a full citation.

Institute, Mountain P.; Infrastructure, National B.

24

Three anomalies: A scythebill in the Greater Antillean Grackle (blackbird), a crown pattern in the Rock Beauty (angelfish), and a double spot in the Butter Hamlet (grouper), and their possible genetic significance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three anomalies are described: a scythebill in Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), a crown color pattern in Rock Beauty, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), and a double-spot color pattern in Butter Hamlet, Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Bill anomalies are generally thought to be genetic in origin and genetic changes in bill shape can occur rapidly in a population. The scythebill anomally demonstrates how quickly a drastic bill modification may occur. The crown color pattern anomaly is similar to distinctive markings found in other members of this genus [Queen Angelfish, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus) and hybrid Townsend Angelfish H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] in the tropical western Atlantic. It suggests how quickly this pattern could have originated in the other species, and/or some propensity of this pattern in the genus. The distinct double-spot color pattern anomaly suggests how quickly new color patterns can originate in genus Hypoplectrus. This is important because species in this genus are distinguished almost solely on the basis of color pattern and speciation may be occurring rapidly. Anomalies should be recorded because they may give us some hints at the genetic origin of species characters and some could represent potentially inheritable characters. We suggest these potentially inheritable characters could be recognized and described when they first arise in an individual and before they become inherited by a population. Following these potentially inheritable characters could help to explain how such characters enter into a population. This approach to the study of inherited characters could fill a void in our knowledge of evolution and speciation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3): 161-169. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.Se describen tres anomalías: el pico de guadaña en el chinchilín, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), un patrón de color de corona en el isabelita medioluto, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), y un patrón de color de doble mancha en el vaca blanca, Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Generalmente se piensa que las anomalías en el pico son de origen genético y que los cambios genéticos en la forma del pico pueden ocurrir rápidamente en una población. La anomalía del pico de guadaña demuestra cuan rápido puede ocurrir una modificación drástica del pico. La anomalía del patrón de color de corona es similar a otras marcas distintivas encontradas en otros miembros de este género [isabelita reina, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus) y el híbrido isabelita azul H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] en el Atlántico occidental tropical y también indica cambios rápidos. Esto es importante porque las especies de este género se distinguen casi solamente por patrones de color. Las anomalías deberían ser registradas ya que podrían darnos algunas pistas acerca del origen genético de las características de las especies. Proponemos que los caracteres potencialmente heredables pueden reconocerse y describirse cuando aparecen en un individuo, antes de que sean heredados a la población, llenando un vacío en nuestro conocimiento de la evolución y la especiación.

Ernest H Williams, Jr; Lucy Bunkley-Williams

2006-01-01

25

Three anomalies: A scythebill in the Greater Antillean Grackle (blackbird), a crown pattern in the Rock Beauty (angelfish), and a double spot in the Butter Hamlet (grouper), and their possible genetic significance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se describen tres anomalías: el pico de guadaña en el chinchilín, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), un patrón de color de corona en el isabelita medioluto, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), y un patrón de color de doble mancha en el vaca blanca, Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Generalmente se piensa que las anomalías en el pico son de origen genético y que los cambios genéticos en la for (more) ma del pico pueden ocurrir rápidamente en una población. La anomalía del pico de guadaña demuestra cuan rápido puede ocurrir una modificación drástica del pico. La anomalía del patrón de color de corona es similar a otras marcas distintivas encontradas en otros miembros de este género [isabelita reina, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus) y el híbrido isabelita azul H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] en el Atlántico occidental tropical y también indica cambios rápidos. Esto es importante porque las especies de este género se distinguen casi solamente por patrones de color. Las anomalías deberían ser registradas ya que podrían darnos algunas pistas acerca del origen genético de las características de las especies. Proponemos que los caracteres potencialmente heredables pueden reconocerse y describirse cuando aparecen en un individuo, antes de que sean heredados a la población, llenando un vacío en nuestro conocimiento de la evolución y la especiación. Abstract in english Three anomalies are described: a scythebill in Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), a crown color pattern in Rock Beauty, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), and a double-spot color pattern in Butter Hamlet, Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Bill anomalies are generally thought to be genetic in origin and genetic changes in bill shape can occur rapidly in a population. The sc (more) ythebill anomally demonstrates how quickly a drastic bill modification may occur. The crown color pattern anomaly is similar to distinctive markings found in other members of this genus [Queen Angelfish, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus) and hybrid Townsend Angelfish H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] in the tropical western Atlantic. It suggests how quickly this pattern could have originated in the other species, and/or some propensity of this pattern in the genus. The distinct double-spot color pattern anomaly suggests how quickly new color patterns can originate in genus Hypoplectrus. This is important because species in this genus are distinguished almost solely on the basis of color pattern and speciation may be occurring rapidly. Anomalies should be recorded because they may give us some hints at the genetic origin of species characters and some could represent potentially inheritable characters. We suggest these potentially inheritable characters could be recognized and described when they first arise in an individual and before they become inherited by a population. Following these potentially inheritable characters could help to explain how such characters enter into a population. This approach to the study of inherited characters could fill a void in our knowledge of evolution and speciation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3): 161-169. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.

Williams, Jr, Ernest H; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy

2006-12-01

26

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common, but often misdiagnosed cause of lateral hip pain. Recent advances in the imaging of the hip has improved the understanding of the causative mechanisms of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). The syndrome encompasses a wide spectrum of causes including tendinosis, muscle tears, iliotibial band (ITB) disorders and surrounding soft tissue pathology. Clinically GTPS presents with lateral hip tenderness and pain with resist (more) ed abduction. A positive Trendelenburg test is the most sensitive predictor of a gluteal tear. Altered lower limb biomechanics is proposed as an important predisposing factor for gluteal muscle pathology. Many conditions are associated with GTPS: some of them may predispose to GTPS, while others may mimic the symptoms. Although plain radiographs are still important for ruling out other causes of hip pain, MRI has become the imaging modality of choice in GTPS. Most cases of GTPS can be regarded as self-limiting. Conservative modalities (rest, NSAIDs, physiotherapy) are still the mainstay of treatment. Corticosteroid injections are still widely used and reported to be successful. Proven gluteal muscle tears are treated with surgical repair and bursectomy. Endoscopic techniques have become increasingly popular.

Hugo, D; de Jongh, HR

2012-01-01

27

Greater oil investment opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

1997-01-01

28

Hazardous Drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

... Highlights Washington State Department of Labor & Industries Hazardous Drugs Rule . Adopted on January 3, 2012 and will ... January 1, 2014. Work precautions for handling hazardous drugs highlighted by NIOSH, OSHA, Joint Commission . OSHA Trade ...

29

Hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a GAO report. The Department of Defense is a major generator of hazardous waste. Since 1984 all hazardous waste generators have been required to have minimization programs. GAO found that DOD's current inventory practices do not minimize the amount of unused hazardous materials that are transferred to the disposal process.

1989-12-01

30

Volcanic hazards in the Pacific Northwest  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cascade Range stretches from southwestern British Columbia to northern California; the Range consists of major composite volcanic centres, most of which have been active during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. In addition, thousands of smaller basaltic or basaltic-andesite volcanoes have been active during the past few million years. Flowage and tephra hazards associated with future eruptions of composite volcanoes in the Range will endanger communities located within about 50 km of erupting volcanoes. Significant effects will extend to still greater distances downwind from the volcanoes and along stream valleys that head at the volcanoes. Volcanic-hazard assessments and hazard-zonation maps developed for volcanoes in the Range can be used by authorities for long-range land-use planning and provide information to help mitigate the effects of future eruptions. -Author

Miller, C. D.

1990-01-01

31

Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

1985-01-01

32

Nature of technological hazard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All taxonomies are based on explicit or implicit assumptions, and this analysis is no different. The authors assume that technological hazards form a single domain, that they are defined by causal sequences, and that these are usefully measured by a few physical, biological, and social descriptors. Their picture leads to distinction between energy and materials releases and provides a method for constructing profiles of hazardousness that considerably extend the conventional concept of risk as annual human mortality. The profiles of hazardousness appear to be comprehensible to lay people and to capture a significant fraction of the subjects' concern with hazardousness. This suggests that some conflict between experts and lay people may be resolved by clarifying the definition of hazardousness. The authors expect that their approach can improve the quality and effectiveness of hazard management. In particular, it may help in comparing the hazards expected from competing technologies as well as provide a quicker, more orderly response to new hazards and offer society a rational approach to triage. Yet to be resolved is the assignment of weights to the different descriptors of hazard. 26 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

Hohenemser, C. (Clark Univ., Worcester, MA); Kates, R.W.; Slovic, P.

1983-04-22

33

Perceptions regarding workplace hazards at a veterinary teaching hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Objective: To assess perceptions of personnel working at a veterinary teaching hospital regarding risks of occupational hazards and compare those perceptions with assessments made by occupational safety experts. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. STUDY POPULATION: A representative sample of personnel (n = 90) working at the veterinary teaching hospital at Colorado State University and a panel of 3 occupational safety experts. PROCEDURES: Hospital personnel ranked perceptions of 14 physical, chemical, and biological workplace hazards and listed the injuries, illnesses, and near misses they had experienced. The expert panel provided consensus rankings of the same 14 hazards for 9 sections of the facility. Risk perceptions provided by the 2 sources were compared. RESULTS: Risk perceptions did not differ significantly between hospital personnel and the expert panel for most of the site-specific comparisons (94/126 [75%]). Personnel perceived greater risks for some physical hazards (loud noises, sharps injuries, and ionizing radiation) and some chemical or materials exposures (insecticides or pesticides and tissue digester emissions). In contrast, the expert panel perceived greater risks for physical hazards (bite or crush and restraining and moving animals), chemical exposures (anesthetic waste gas), and biological exposures (Toxoplasma gondii, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and allergens). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Participants and safety experts had similar perceptions about occupational risks, but there were important differences where hospital personnel apparently overestimated or underappreciated the risks for workplace hazards. This type of study may be useful in guiding development of optimal workplace safety programs for veterinary hospitals.

Weaver DR; Newman LS; Lezotte DC; Morley PS

2010-07-01

34

''Hazardous'' terminology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

1991-01-01

35

Hazard awareness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses shipping issues in the context of best practice codes and concludes that fire, explosion, stability and corrosion of metal structures are hazards associated with the carriage of coal by sea. 12 figs.

Mullins, C.R. [Minton Treharne and Davies Ltd. (United Kingdom)

2007-10-15

36

Holiday hazards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Presented is a selective review of the toxicities of various plants, decorations, and miscellaneous items popularly used during the holiday season. Particularly hazardous agents include mistletoe, holly, bubble lights, fireplace flame colors, alkaline batteries, and mothballs. Specific questions regarding management of exposure to these items should be referred to regional poison control centers. Avoidance is the most effective treatment.

Baker MD

1985-12-01

37

COMPUTERS HAZARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student)- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group therapy is carried out. In acute cases, pharmacology is applied as reinforcement of psychotherapy. Self-support groups are organised, in similarity to AA clubs for alcohol addicts.

Andrzej Augustynek

2007-01-01

38

Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency

1994-01-01

39

Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

1994-04-01

40

Migration, environmental hazards, and health outcomes in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

China's rapid economic growth has had a serious impact on the environment. Environmental hazards are major sources of health risk factors. The migration of over 200 million people to heavily polluted urban areas is likely to be significantly detrimental to health. Based on data from the 2009 national household survey "Chinese Attitudes toward Inequality and Distributive Injustice" (N = 2866) and various county-level and municipal indicators, we investigate the disparities in subjective exposure to environmental hazards and associated health outcomes in China. This study focuses particularly on migration-residency status and county-level socio-economic development. We employ multiple regressions that account for the complex multi-stage survey design to assess the associations between perceived environmental hazards and individual and county-level indicators and between perceived environmental hazards and health outcomes, controlling for physical and social environments at multiple levels. We find that perceived environmental hazards are associated with county-level industrialization and economic development: respondents living in more industrialized counties report greater exposure to environmental hazards. Rural-to-urban migrants are exposed to more water pollution and a higher measure of overall environmental hazard. Perceived environmental risk factors severely affect the physical and mental health of the respondents. The negative effects of perceived overall environmental hazard on physical health are more detrimental for rural-to-urban migrants than for urban residents. The research findings call for restructuring the household registration system in order to equalize access to public services and mitigate adverse environmental health effects, particularly among the migrant population.

Chen J; Chen S; Landry PF

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Migration, environmental hazards, and health outcomes in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

China's rapid economic growth has had a serious impact on the environment. Environmental hazards are major sources of health risk factors. The migration of over 200 million people to heavily polluted urban areas is likely to be significantly detrimental to health. Based on data from the 2009 national household survey "Chinese Attitudes toward Inequality and Distributive Injustice" (N = 2866) and various county-level and municipal indicators, we investigate the disparities in subjective exposure to environmental hazards and associated health outcomes in China. This study focuses particularly on migration-residency status and county-level socio-economic development. We employ multiple regressions that account for the complex multi-stage survey design to assess the associations between perceived environmental hazards and individual and county-level indicators and between perceived environmental hazards and health outcomes, controlling for physical and social environments at multiple levels. We find that perceived environmental hazards are associated with county-level industrialization and economic development: respondents living in more industrialized counties report greater exposure to environmental hazards. Rural-to-urban migrants are exposed to more water pollution and a higher measure of overall environmental hazard. Perceived environmental risk factors severely affect the physical and mental health of the respondents. The negative effects of perceived overall environmental hazard on physical health are more detrimental for rural-to-urban migrants than for urban residents. The research findings call for restructuring the household registration system in order to equalize access to public services and mitigate adverse environmental health effects, particularly among the migrant population. PMID:23273408

Chen, Juan; Chen, Shuo; Landry, Pierre F

2012-12-13

42

Planning for greater confinement disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

1985-01-01

43

Energy management: Towards greater efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cost savings and increased efficiency in the mining industry through proper energy management has been identified by the Mining Association of Canada as one of the focuses of the Association's sustainable development initiatives. As an indication of the importance of this topic, the Association is offering an energy management workshop in November 2004 entitled 'Towards Greater Efficiency'. Workshop organizers emphasize a three-tiered approach to successful energy management, namely, technical, organizational and behavioral; all these aspects need to be addressed to build a successful energy management culture. This is so, because just like quality and environmental management, at first glance energy management appears to be in opposition to productivity objectives, therefore no less than a paradigm shift in organizational culture is required for effective implementation. Suggestions are provided for formulating a plan and a case history of BHP Billiton Diamonds Inc.'s EKATI Diamond Mine is described as an illustration of a successful implementation. 3 figs.

Ednie, H.

2004-10-01

44

Industrial radiation hazards deskbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing sophistication of industrial equipment and processes has brought with it an increase in the risks of radiation in the workplace. This guide and reference provides an introduction to all significant forms and sources of radiation found in industry today-and the many materials and methods available for control, abatement and protection. The book was prepared for both technical and management personnel who are concerned with various health, labor, legal and regulatory problems that relate to radiation hazards.

Cheremisinoff, N.P.; Teresinski, M.F.; Cheremisinoff, P.N.

1987-01-01

45

Hazard classification methodology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility.

Brereton, S.J.

1996-07-22

46

Natural Disasters & Environmental Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

... Travelers Chapter 2 - Animal-Associated Hazards Chapter 2 - Scuba Diving Natural Disasters & Environmental Hazards Josephine Malilay, Dahna Batts, ... 20. Chapter 2 - Animal-Associated Hazards Chapter 2 - Scuba Diving Email page link Print page Get email updates ...

47

Household Hazards to Pets  

Science.gov (United States)

... photo of lab and lights by Paulette Braun Household Hazards Every home contains a variety of everyday ... common health hazards found in many pet-owning households. Hazards in the Kitchen Foods Many foods are ...

48

Hazard classification methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility.

1996-01-01

49

Household Hazardous Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

Household Hazardous Waste Related Links Household Hazardous Waste Publications Medical Waste Used Oil Mercury Containing Products Antifreeze Batteries Light bulbs/lamps External Links The National Library of ...

50

Hazards assessment: utilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the hazards assessment for utilities located at the Pinellas Plant. The facility-specific hazards assessment provides the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts.

1993-11-01

51

UV radiation hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is, for most people, a daily occurrence. Significant quantities of ultraviolet are present in sunlight, and this environmental exposure usually greatly exceeds that necessary for vitamin D production, the only certain benefit of UVR. In addition, occupational exposure to artificial sources of UVR is commonly encountered in commerce, industry and medicine. Exposure to UVR can present a hazard, principally to the eyes and exposed areas of the skin. The potential for any given source of UVR to cause photobiological damage depends on the spectral composition of the incident radiation, the geometry of optical coupling into the tissues at risk, the spectral sensitivity to damage of the irradiated tissue, the total accumulated exposure, and the action of any biological repair processes. In the ultraviolet region the photobiological interactions of concern are mainly photochemical. Hazard analysis and radiation protection require an appropriate framework of radiation measurement for the quantitative assessment of exposure and for the specification of safe exposure limits.

1987-01-01

52

Counterfactual Volcano Hazard Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The historical database of past disasters is a cornerstone of catastrophe risk assessment. Whereas disasters are fortunately comparatively rare, near-misses are quite common for both natural and man-made hazards. The word disaster originally means 'an unfavourable aspect of a star'. Except for astrologists, disasters are no longer perceived fatalistically as pre-determined. Nevertheless, to this day, historical disasters are treated statistically as fixed events, although in reality there is a large luck element involved in converting a near-miss crisis situation into a disaster statistic. It is possible to conceive a stochastic simulation of the past to explore the implications of this chance factor. Counterfactual history is the exercise of hypothesizing alternative paths of history from what actually happened. Exploring history from a counterfactual perspective is instructive for a variety of reasons. First, it is easy to be fooled by randomness and see regularity in event patterns which are illusory. The past is just one realization of a variety of possible evolutions of history, which may be analyzed through a stochastic simulation of an array of counterfactual scenarios. In any hazard context, there is a random component equivalent to dice being rolled to decide whether a near-miss becomes an actual disaster. The fact that there may be no observed disaster over a period of time may belie the occurrence of numerous near-misses. This may be illustrated using the simple dice paradigm. Suppose a dice is rolled every month for a year, and an event is recorded if a six is thrown. There is still an 11% chance of no events occurring during the year. A variety of perils may be used to illustrate the use of near-miss information within a counterfactual disaster analysis. In the domain of natural hazards, near-misses are a notable feature of the threat landscape. Storm surges are an obvious example. Sea defences may protect against most meteorological scenarios. However, if a major storm surge happens to arrive at a high astronomical tide, sea walls may be overtopped and flooding may ensue. In the domain of geological hazards, periods of volcanic unrest may generate precursory signals suggestive of imminent volcanic danger, but without leading to an actual eruption. Near-miss unrest periods provide vital evidence for assessing the dynamics of volcanoes close to eruption. Where the volcano catalogue has been diligently revised to include the maximum amount of information on the phenomenology of unrest periods, dynamic modelling and hazard assessment may be significantly refined. This is illustrated with some topical volcano hazard examples, including Montserrat and Santorini.

Woo, Gordon

2013-04-01

53

E-waste hazard: The impending challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India?s lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India?s current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action.

Pinto Violet

2008-01-01

54

Hazards in the process industries: Hazards IX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty papers presented at the symposium are published. Six are concerned with dispersion, ventilation and explosion hazards. Eight are concerned with fire, chemical and toxic hazards. One, on the reprocessing of zircaloy is indexed separately. Six are concerned with plant integrity and assessment. One, on the decision support systems and expert systems for risk analysis, is indexed separately. New information on the hazards associated with materials and processes and on the methods of assessment and design to improve effective control is presented. Hazards are identified, analyzed, the risks assessed and safe operating procedures defined. (UK).

1986-01-01

55

Greater occipital nerve blockade in cervicogenic headache  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cervicocogenic headache (CeH) is a relatively common disorder. Although no ideal treatment is available so far, blockades in different structures and nerves may be temporarily effective. We studied the effects of 1-2 mL 0.5% bupivacaine injection at the ipsilateral greater occipital nerve (GON) in 41 CeH patients. The pain is significantly reduced both immediately and as long as 7 days after the blockade. The improvement is less marked during the first two days, a phenomenon we called "tilde pattern". GON blockades may reduce the pool of exaggerated sensory input and antagonize a putative "wind-up-like effect" which may explain the headache improvement.

VINCENT MAURICE B.; LUNA RENATO A.; SCANDIUZZI DENISE; NOVIS SÉRGIO A. P

1998-01-01

56

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy. Our approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The dielectric-barrier discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. During the first phase of the program we demonstrated that a variety of hazardous species could be detected by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence. Species investigated included heavy metals, Hg, Cr, and Se, both chlorinated and non-chlorinated organics, and uranyl compounds. For most of these species we demonstrated sensitivity limits for their detection at parts per billion (ppb) levels. Our principal goals for this second phase of the program are to develop and breadboard test instrument components and to design a prototype instrument suitable for construction and evaluation in the final phase of the program. A secondary goal is to extend the ANET technology to encompass a greater number of hazardous species, primarily additional heavy metals and radionuclides.

Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

1995-12-01

57

Internal dosimetry hazard and risk assessments: methods and applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Routine internal dose exposures are typically (in the UK nuclear industry) less than external dose exposures: however, the costs of internal dosimetry monitoring programmes can be significantly greater than those for external dosimetry. For this reason decisions on when to apply routine monitoring programmes, and the nature of these programmes, can be more critical than for external dosimetry programmes. This paper describes various methods for performing hazard and risk assessments which are being developed by RWE NUKEM Limited Approved Dosimetry Services to provide an indication when routine internal dosimetry monitoring should be considered. (author)

Roberts, G.A. [RWE NUKEM Limited, Didcot (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

58

Periurbanisation and natural hazards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In mountainous areas in recent decades urbanisation has expanded to areas where low ground adjoins mountainsides that are unstable in a number of respects. Periurbanisation in mountain basins with unstable sides poses specific problems that local players have to address. The Lavanchon basin (southeast of Grenoble), which is subject to very rapid urban growth combined with particularly dynamic mountainsides, is representative of the way activity is being brought into closer contact with potential hazards. A diachronic study of changes in land use between 1956 and 2001 shows how valley infrastructures at the bottom of mountainsides have become increasingly dense. In this context, a survey was carried out among a number of residents in the Lavanchon basin in an attempt to evaluate the degree of awareness that the population has of the natural hazards to which it is exposed. The results show that slightly more than half of the population surveyed was aware of the problem of natural hazards being present in the area, with most inhabitants being more concerned about industrial and pollution hazards. New residents were unaware of or were unwilling to accept the reality of hazards. The low incidence of significant natural events, the effectiveness of the protective structures built, the absence of information provided by the public authorities and the division of the basin between several management bodies appear to have engendered a feeling of safety from natural phenomena. The geographical distribution of appreciation of the hazard clearly shows a distinction between those inhabitants living on the low ground and those at the bottom of the mountainsides, and this corresponds fairly closely with the historical and current location of the main potentially hazardous events that have occurred.Dans les territoires de montagne, les dernières décennies ont vu l’expansion de l’urbanisation vers les zones de contact entre la plaine et les versants, lieux d’instabilités multiples. La périurbanisation au sein de bassins montagnards aux versants instables pose des problèmes spécifiques auxquels les acteurs locaux tentent de faire face. Le bassin du Lavanchon (sud-est de Grenoble), qui combine un accroissement urbain très rapide et des versants particulièrement dynamiques est représentatif de ce rapprochement entre les aléas et les activités. L’étude diachronique de l’évolution de l’utilisation du sol entre 1956 et 2001 montre la densification des infrastructures dans la vallée et au bas des versants. Dans ce contexte, une enquête a été réalisée auprès d’un certain nombre de résidents du bassin du Lavanchon dans le but l’évaluer le degré de conscience que les populations ont des risques naturels auxquels ils sont exposés. Les résultats montrent qu’un peu plus de la moitié de la population interrogée a conscience de la problématique des risques naturels sur ce territoire, plutôt marquée selon la plupart des habitants par les risques industriels et de pollution. Les nouveaux résidants ignorent ou occultent la réalité des risques. La faible fréquence d’événements naturels marquants, l’efficacité des ouvrages de protection réalisés, l’absence d’informations de la part des pouvoirs publics et le morcellement du bassin entre plusieurs gestionnaires semble avoir généré un sentiment de sécurité par rapport aux phénomènes naturels. La répartition géographique de cette appréhension du risque montre clairement une distinction entre les habitants de la plaine et ceux des bas de versants, qui correspond assez bien à la localisation historique et actuelle des principaux aléas.

Delphine Loison; Laurent Astrade; Céline Lutoff; Rachid Nedjai; Céline Philippe; Sandrine Bottollier-Depois

2009-01-01

59

Volcanic hazards to airports  

Science.gov (United States)

Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies, Tungurahua in Ecuador, Mt. Etna in Italy, Rabaul caldera in Papua New Guinea, Mt. Spurr and Mt. St. Helens in the USA, Ruapehu in New Zealand, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Anatahan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (part of the USA). Ten countries - USA, Indonesia, Ecuador, Papua New Guinea, Italy, New Zealand, Philippines, Mexico, Japan, and United Kingdom - have the highest volcanic hazard and/or vulnerability measures for airports. The adverse impacts of volcanic eruptions on airports can be mitigated by preparedness and forewarning. Methods that have been used to forewarn airports of volcanic activity include real-time detection of explosive volcanic activity, forecasts of ash dispersion and deposition, and detection of approaching ash clouds using ground-based Doppler radar. Given the demonstrated vulnerability of airports to disruption from volcanic activity, at-risk airports should develop operational plans for ashfall events, and volcano-monitoring agencies should provide timely forewarning of imminent volcanic-ash hazards directly to airport operators. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G. C.; Casadevall, T. J.; Wunderman, R.

2009-01-01

60

Radon-hazard potential of Utah  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas formed by decay of uranium, and occurs in nearly all geologic materials. Although radon has been shown to be a significant cause of lung cancer in miners, the health hazard from accumulation of radon gas in buildings has only recently been recognized. Indoor-radon hazards depend on both geologic and non-geologic factors. Although non-geologic factors such as construction type, weather, and lifestyles are difficult to measure, geologic factors such as uranium concentration, soil permeability, and depth to ground water can be quantified. Uranium-enriched geologic materials, such as black shales, marine sandstones, and certain granitic, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks, are generally associated with a high radon-hazard potential. Impermeable soil or shallow ground water impedes radon movement and is generally associated with a low radon-hazard potential. A numerical rating system based on these geologic factors has been developed to map radon-hazard potential in Utah. A statewide map shows that the radon-hazard potential of Utah is generally moderate. Assessments of hazard potential from detailed field investigations correlate well with areas of this map. Central Utah has the highest radon-hazard potential, primarily due to uranium-enriched Tertiary volcanic rocks. The radon-hazard potential of eastern Utah is moderate to high, but is generally restricted by low uranium levels. Western Utah, where valley basins with impermeable soils and shallow ground water are common, has the lowest radon-hazard potential.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Hazard Analysis Database Report  

CERN Multimedia

The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

Grams, W H

2000-01-01

62

Chemical process hazards analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this handbook is to facilitate the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) within DOE as required under the Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (PSM) Rule. It provides basic information for the performan...

1996-01-01

63

Animal-Associated Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

... Perspectives: Terrorism Chapter 2 - Natural Disasters & Environmental Hazards Animal-Associated Hazards Nina Marano, G. Gale Galland HUMAN INTERACTION WITH ANIMALS: A RISK FACTOR FOR INJURY AND ILLNESS Animals ...

64

A hazardous wastes overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Last year municipal incinerator ash was non-hazardous. This year it may be hazardous, or it may not be. This illustrates the confusing and changing aspects of hazardous wastes analysis. EPA has listed a number of wastes as hazardous. It has also established four basic criteria for the determination of hazardous wastes: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity. Any waste material, which, when tested, meets one of these criteria, will also be classified as hazardous and must be handled according to hazardous wastes regulations. Two major hazardous wastes problems exist: What do do with new quantities generated and what to do about storage sites, the result of past generation, which present a danger to human health or the environment. This article presents an overview of the problems, the laws, the wastes, and the solutions that are now being applied.

McIlvaine, R.W.

1988-06-01

65

Hazardous waste: 1998 Regulatory and judicial developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Every year, owners and operators of facilities generating, transporting, treating, storing, or disposing of hazardous waste, or persons held liable for past hazardous waste management practice through EPA`s Superfund program, are affected by changes in the application and interpretation of hazardous waste regulation. This paper will summarize the significant 1997 hazardous waste regulatory developments, including changes and additions to land disposal restrictions and treatment standards, hazardous waste determination procedures, used oil management practices. This paper will also summarize key judicial decisions addressing expanded definitions of solid and hazardous waste, activities constituting disposal, and circumstances constituting imminent and substantial endangerment. Finally, this paper will summarize new EPA Superfund guidance documents and judicial decisions addressing issues of liability and defenses to liability under Superfund.

Henry, M.E.; Wright, W.G. Jr.

1998-12-31

66

Science of Tsunami Hazards ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Science of Tsunami Hazards published to disseminate the results of applied and theoretical research on tsunamis and to increase knowledge about their hazards. Science of Tsunami Hazards is a unique, peer-reviewed journal which has been published continuously without interruption s...

67

Practical Approach for Arc Flash Hazard Assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The exposure to hazards associated with electrical arcing phenomena, while working on energized equipment is a topic of significant interest to industrial plant personnel. This paper provides an overview of the arc flash hazard phenomena.discusses the method of carrying out arc flash assessment and reduction techniques

Priyanka K Kolankar; U.B. Sarod

2012-01-01

68

Significance Variables  

CERN Document Server

Many particle physics analyses which need to discriminate some background process from a signal ignore event-by-event resolutions of kinematic variables. Adding this information, as is done for missing momentum significance, can only improve the power of existing techniques. We therefore propose the use of significance variables which combine kinematic information with event-by-event resolutions. We begin by giving some explicit examples of constructing optimal significance variables. Then, we consider three applications: new heavy gauge bosons, Higgs to $\\tau\\tau$, and direct stop squark pair production. We find that significance variables can provide additional discriminating power over the original kinematic variables: $\\sim$ 20% improvement over $m_T$ in the case of $H\\rightarrow\\tau\\tau$ case, and $\\sim$ 30% impovement over $m_{T2}$ in the case of the direct stop search.

Nachman, Benjamin

2013-01-01

69

Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA) receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m². The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p<0.001). The number of triatomines collected largely exceeded the highest domestic infestation found in one house from rural endemic areas of Argentina. Though triatomines were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, they could acquire the parasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

P Gajate; S Pietrokovsky; L Abramo Orrego; O Pérez; A Monte; J Belmonte; C Wisnivesky-Colli

2001-01-01

70

Hazards in NDT practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the different hazards encountered in the practice of NDT techniques. The hazards may be due to the presence of ionizing radiation as in Radiographic Testing (RT) or to non-ionizing radiation, the most commonly encountered and sometimes ignored hazards being ultraviolet radiation during Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT) which could result to thermal or photochemical injuries. Electrical hazards such as sudden and accident shock can be present in the use of high voltage X-ray equipment. In the use of holiday test and Eddy current test (ET) inside flammable areas, ignition of combustible materials is evident of danger. Toxic hazards in liquid penetrant testing (PT) are also present and hazards of storage tank inspection as a result of fire and explosion are also discussed. In addition to these items, other physical human failure, and equipment hazards are also described. (Author)

1987-11-06

71

Risk management and hazardous wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book analyses the treatment of uncertainties within risk management and regulation for hazardous wastes, in five national case-studies. It is shown that, although institutional uncertainties vary between national political cultures, regulatory bureaucracies everywhere understate these more fundamental uncertainties (which are often structural conflicts, of different rationalities) and define them instead as marginal technical uncertainties or imprecision in risk-definitions. Close comparative analysis shows that technical regulatory standards depend upon their local institutional setting in systematic ways, so that conventional regulatory emphasis on technical precision or standardisation should be replaced by greater social negotiation, and educated public involvement and control.

Wynne, B.

1987-01-01

72

Nevada Test Site experience with greater confinement disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1980, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) began a project to develop an improved disposal method for high specific activity (HSA) low-level wastes (LLW), e.g. tritium wastes. Past experience with the shallow land burial (SLB) of tritium wastes showed detectable concentrations appearing at trench surfaces. In 1981, the Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was initiated to demonstrate the disposal of HSA wastes considered unsuitable for SLB. The project had two specific goals: (1) develop and demonstrate the operational technology for use of large-diameter boreholes for greater confinement disposal (GCD), and (2) conduct research necessary to quantify the effective improvement provided by GCD over SLB. While the long-term impacts may be insignificant for short-lived nuclides, the operational impacts may be a major limiting factor. For example, under 10 CFR 61 up to 700 Ci/m3 of cobalt-60 may be disposed in SLB as Class A wastes; however, an unshielded waste package containing this amount of cobalt-60 would have an external radiation level of over 5000 R/h making it impossible to dispose of without use of a remote handling systems. In developing the GCDT, the authors decided that greater confinement disposal was not to be strictly limited to a category of wastes between low- and high-level, but a variety of problem wastes that could not, or should not, be disposed of by conventional SLB methods. The paper discusses NTS waste disposal history, hazards reduction, and waste management philosophy. 3 tables.

1987-01-01

73

Fractures of the greater trochanter following total hip replacement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the incidence of greater trochanteric fractures at our department following THR. In all we examined 911 patients retrospectively and found the occurance of a greater trochanteric fracture to be 3%. Patients with fractures had significantly poorer outcome on Oxford Hip score, Pain VAS, Satisfaction VAS and EQ-5D compared to THR without fractures. Greater trochanteric fracture following THR is one of the most common complications following THR. It has previously been thought to have little impact on the overall outcome following THR, but our study suggests otherwise.

Brun OC; Maansson L

2013-03-01

74

Minimizing hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hazardous waste minimization is a broad term often associated with pollution prevention, saving the environment or protecting Mother Earth. Some associate hazardous waste minimization with saving money. Thousands of hazardous materials are used in processes every day, but when these hazardous materials become hazardous wastes, dollars must be spent for disposal. When hazardous waste is reduced, an organization will spend less money on hazardous waste disposal. In 1993, Fort Bragg reduced its hazardous waste generation by over 100,000 pounds and spent nearly $90,000 less on hazardous waste disposal costs than in 1992. Fort Bragg generates a variety of wastes: Vehicle maintenance wastes such as antifreeze, oil, grease and solvents; helicopter maintenance wastes, including solvents, adhesives, lubricants and paints; communication operation wastes such as lithium, magnesium, mercury and nickel-cadmium batteries; chemical defense wastes detection, decontamination, and protective mask filters. The Hazardous Waste Office has the responsibility to properly identify, characterize, classify and dispose of these waste items in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations.

DeClue, S.C.

1996-06-01

75

The effect of location on finding a job in the greater Paris area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are large spatial disparities in unemployment durations across the 1,300 municipalities in the Ile-de-France region (Paris Greater Area). In order to characterize these imbalances, we estimate a proportional hazard model stratified by municipality on an exhaustive dataset of all unemployment s...

Gobillon, Laurent; Magnac, Thierry; Selod, Harris

76

Hazards evaluation of plutonium metal opening and stabilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazards evaluation is the analysis of the significance of hazardous situations associated with an activity OK process. The HE used qualitative techniques of Hazard and Operability (HazOp) analysis and What-If analysis to identify those elements of handling and thermal stabilization processing that could lead to accidents

1999-01-01

77

Hazards evaluation of plutonium metal opening and stabilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hazards evaluation is the analysis of the significance of hazardous situations associated with an activity OK process. The HE used qualitative techniques of Hazard and Operability (HazOp) analysis and What-If analysis to identify those elements of handling and thermal stabilization processing that could lead to accidents.

JOHNSON, L.E.

1999-08-31

78

Software safety hazard analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-02-01

79

Software safety hazard analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

1996-01-01

80

Hazard baseline documentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This DOE limited technical standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazards baseline documents that identify and control radiological and nonradiological hazards for all EM facilities. It provides a road map to the safety and health hazard identification and control requirements contained in the Department`s orders and provides EM guidance on the applicability and integration of these requirements. This includes a definition of four classes of facilities (nuclear, non-nuclear, radiological, and other industrial); the thresholds for facility hazard classification; and applicable safety and health hazard identification, controls, and documentation. The standard applies to the classification, development, review, and approval of hazard identification and control documentation for EM facilities.

1994-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

Migration and Environmental Hazards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations.

Hunter LM

2005-03-01

82

DOE Hazardous Waste Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

1985-01-01

83

Volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii  

Science.gov (United States)

Volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii have been determined to be chiefly products of eruptions: lava flows, falling fragments, gases, and particle-and-gas clouds. Falling fragments and particle-and-gas clouds can be substantial hazards to life, but they are relatively rare. Lava flows are the chief hazard to property; they are frequent and cover broad areas. Rupture, subsidence, earthquakes, and sea waves (tsunamis) caused by eruptions are minor hazards; those same events caused by large-scale crustal movements, however, are major hazards to both life and property. Volcanic hazards are greatest on Mauna Loa and Kilauea, and the risk is highest along the rift zones of those volcanoes. The hazards are progressively less severe on Hualalai, Mauna Kea, and Kohala volcanoes. Some risk from earthquakes extends across the entire island, and the risk from tsunamis is high all along the coast. The island has been divided into geographic zones of different relative risk for each volcanic hazard, and for all those hazards combined. Each zone is assigned a relative risk for that area as a whole; the degree of risk varies within the zones, however, and in some of them the risk decreases gradationally across the entire zone. Moreover, the risk in one zone may be locally as great or greater than that at some points in the zone of next higher overall risk. Nevertheless, the zones can be highly useful for land-use planning. Planning decisions to which the report is particularly applicable include the selection of kinds of structures and kinds of land use that are appropriate for the severity and types of hazards present. For example, construction of buildings that can resist a lava flow is generally not feasible, but it is both feasible and desirable to build structures that can resist falling rock fragments, earthquakes, and tsunamis in areas where risk from those hazards is relatively high. The report can also be used to select sites where overall risk is relatively low, to identify sites where either overall risk or risk from some specific hazard is relatively high, and to identify areas in which there is a threat to lives as well as to property. The report further can serve as a basis for warning persons about hazards in areas most likely to be affected by volcanic eruptions. Perhaps most important, however, the report provides basic information needed for zoning to control future land use.

Mullineaux, Donal Ray; Peterson, Donald W.

1974-01-01

84

Handbook of hazardous waste management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities. (BLM)

Metry, A.A.

1980-01-01

85

Handbook of hazardous waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities.

1980-01-01

86

Disposal of hazardous wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

1978-01-01

87

Hazardous wastes treatment technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors present a literature review of hazardous wastes treatment technologies. Topics of discussion include the following: biological treatment; chemical and physical treatment; and thermal treatment.

Kim, Byung, J.; Gee, Chai Sung; Bandy, J.T.; Huang, Chingsan; Guzewich, D.C. (CERL/EN, Champaign, IL (United States))

1990-06-01

88

Routing hazardous materials shipments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The people who live or work near highways may be endangered by accidents which involve releases of hazardous materials. This dissertation examines two routing criteria to determine if either can reduce the threat to society from hazardous-materials releases occurring in transport. The two criteria are: routes that minimize the total length of shipment, minimizing the probability of accidents, and, routes that minimize the size of the population brought into contact with the shipment so that in the event of an accident the number of people potentially exposed to the danger are minimized. Linear programming is used to find 105 pairs of routes between 210 randomly selected points on the United States Interstate Highway System. The length and population size of each route are used in a model of accident probabilities to estimate the size of the population potentially endangered on each route. The results of the model are tested to evaluate the differences in size of the endangered populations for each route type. Minimum-population routes significantly reduce the size of the population endangered, even though these routes are longer and experience a higher probability of accidents. Multiobjective programming is then applied to the problem in order to examine a wider range of routes. The routes found using this technique are compromise routes that do not minimize either population or length. The findings of this method indicate there are routes that can reduce the size of the endangered population but do not increase the length of route to the same extent as does the absolute minimum-population route.

Robbins, J.C.

1981-01-01

89

Study on radiation hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of experiments were designed to know the influence of the teeth on the radiation hazard for mandible. The right mandible of adult dogs were irradiated by means of an x-radiation generator (total dose was 3000 R and 6000 R). Radiation hazards for the soft tissue revealed a significant difference between the dentulous and edentulous mandibles, macroscopically. The gingiva of irradiated dentulous mandible showed an ulceration after the irradiation. Necrosis of the alveolar mucosa, buccal mucosa and skin followed an ulceration, and eventually exposure of the alveolar bone of mandible occurred. The pathologic condition progressed rapidly and a loosening and an exfoliation of the teeth or a pathologic fracture of the mandible occurred eventually. In the edentulous mandible (6000 R irradiated group) an ulceration of the skin developed as the first disturbance. The tissue necrosis progressed from the skin to the buccal mucosa and gingiva. Eventually an exposure of the alveolar bone occurred but no pathologic fracture was seen in the edentulous mandible. No specific pathologic findings were seen in the 3000 R irradiated edentulous mandible. The early roentgenological findings in the irradiated dentulous mandible were resorption of the alveolar crest and widening of the periodontal membrane space. Another changes of bone were osteoporosis and cortical bone destruction. In the edentulous mandible (6000 R irradiated group) pathologic bone condition occurred later than in the dentulous mandible, and osteosclerosis and cortical bone destruction were also seen. Periosteal reaction was found roentgenologically in the 6000 R irradiated dentulous and edentulous mandibles. No roentgenological findings were seen in the 3000 R irradiated edentulous mandible. (J.P.N.).

1981-01-01

90

Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today’s waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous longterm management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by externalintrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the longterm success of the prescribed system. In fact, given that society has become more reliant on and confident of engineered controls, there may be a growing tendency to be even less concerned with institutional controls.

Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

2004-06-01

91

Carriers complain about hazardous-cargo rules  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemical shippers have accepted, with few complaints, the US Materials Transportation Bureau's (MTB) new ''super docket'' regulations governing the shipment of hazardous materials but rail and motor carriers, via the Assocation of American Railroads and the National Tank Truck Carriers, have asked for changes in the rules, and have undertaken actions that might delay the implementation of the new rules. The carriers are challenging MTB decisions to allow alternative methods of using a numcrical coding system to identify hazardous products in transit (HM-126A), a choice of MTB or U.N. shipping descriptions on certain commodities (HM-171), and some aspects of regulations related to reporting requirements for hazardous spills (HM-1458). The most controversial regulation, Hazardous Materials docket HM-126A, mandates use of the U.N. system of identifying hazardous items by a four-digit number. The carriers point to the difficulties of training their personnel to use this system and the greater possibility of errors, i.e., the attachment of the wrong four-digit code number, than in the present system, which requires an approved product description on shipping papers and the attachment of a placard with a short verbal description of the hazard. The controversies concerning HM-171 and HM-1458 are discussed.

1980-07-16

92

The case against facility hazard classification within the Department of Energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis process is increasingly becomming a documentation effort, rather than the cornerstone of risk reduction. Resources required to implement the current Safety Analysis Report (SAR) process across the DOE complex represent a huge investment SAR updating and review is becoming a continuous exercise, because the time required to update the SAR is greater than the annual update requirement. There is a sense that the SAR process has taken on a life of its own, and that the actual reduction of risk has become secondary. A SAR analyzes bounding accident scenarios that form the safety envelope and may not address control measures for lesser hazards within that envelope. Hazard classification plays a subtle but significant role in this problem. Formal documentation of a facility`s hazard class requires additional resources, provides little value added, and may add months to the safety analysis process to develop the necessary documentation and obtain the necessary reviews and approvals. The purpose of this paper is consider whether the DOE hazard classification process is necessary, and to suggest an alternative means of satisfying the objectives of the current hazard classification system.

Piatt, J.A.

1994-11-01

93

Chemical transport incidents -- Hazard to the aquatic environment. A UK perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each year many millions of tonnes of hazardous chemicals are transported safely either in bulk or packaged form with the former posing a greater risk to the environment following accidental release. In 1993 the National Rivers Authority (NRA), who have a statutory duty to respond to all pollution incidents, dealt with 25,299 incidents of which 1,498 were transport related. Such spillages are of particular concern due to possible rapid transfer from highways to surface or groundwater. The results of tardy or inappropriate action can be catastrophic in terms of the aquatic environment. The NRA have therefore exerted a significant influence on all aspects related to the transport of hazardous chemicals. These include a revision of the hazard marking for chemicals transported in bulk which gives a direct indication of the possible effects on the water environment. The marking system clearly identifies the need for containment by the emergency services. Substances approved for bulk transport were subject to an environmental hazard assessment which was compared to possible human health hazards in identifying the most appropriate emergency action to take. The NRA has worked closely with the UK chemical industry and the emergency services to ensure that all chemical incidents including those associated with transport are dealt with efficiently and that environmental impact is minimized. This includes the provision of specialist advice, equipment and training. These initiatives have resulted in enhanced environmental awareness and protection.

Killeen, S.

1995-12-31

94

HAZARDOUS WASTE TO ENERGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the 260 million metric tonnes (MMT) of hazardous waste generated in the United States in 1981, only 1.70 MMT was disposed of through incineration. In addition, 3.85 MMT of industrial wastes that could be considered hazardous were burned as fuels in industrial processes. The pa...

95

Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation).

1999-01-01

96

What are Volcano Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication contains details about the geologic and hydrologic hazards caused by volcanoes, specifically in the U.S. Information and details are provided about hazards such as eruption blasts, volcanic gases, lava and pyroclastic flows, volcano landslides and lahars.

Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley Ii., James

97

Modeling speedup (n) greater than n  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors present a simple model of parallel computation which is capable of explaining speedups greater than n on n processors. They derive necessary and sufficient conditions for these exceptional speedups from the model. Furthermore, they resolve several of the contradictory previous results relating to parallel speedup by using the model.

Helmbold, D.P.; McDowell, C.E. (Board of Studies in Computer and Information Science, Univ. of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (US))

1990-04-01

98

Occurrence of Laemobothrion maximum in Greater Coucal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

External examination of free range abandoned dead Greater Coucal in a veterinary dispensary, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India revealed presence of a large sized louse in the feathers and was identified as Laemobothrion maximum on the basis of morphology and size of the louse.

Jeyathilakan N; Latha BR; Bino Sundar ST; Abdul Basith S

2012-04-01

99

Ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections for treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome: greater trochanter bursa versus subgluteus medius bursa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of corticosteroid injections into the greater trochanteric bursa as opposed to the subgluteus medius bursa in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 183 injections (149 performed in women, 34 performed in men; age range 23-90 years; median, 53 years) performed for treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome. A 10-cm visual analog scale survey was used to assess pain level before the procedure and 14 days after the procedure. A 3-mL corticosteroid solution was injected into either the greater trochanteric bursa or the subgluteus medius bursa under direct ultrasound guidance. Procedure images were retrospectively reviewed to determine the site of injection. Diagnostic images obtained at the time of the procedure were also reviewed for findings of tendinopathy, bursitis, and enthesopathy. Statistical analysis of differences in pain reduction was performed, as was analysis for association between pain relief and demographic variables of age, sex, previous injections, and ultrasound findings. RESULTS: Sixty-five injections met the inclusion criteria; 56 performed in women and nine performed in men (age range, 30-82 years; median, 53 years). Forty-one injections were into the greater trochanteric bursa and 24 into the subgluteus medius bursa. There was a statistically significant difference in pain reduction between greater trochanteric bursa and subgluteus medius bursa injections with a median pain reduction of 3 as opposed to 0 (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant association between pain relief and demographic variables or ultrasound findings. CONCLUSION: Corticosteroid injections into the greater trochanteric bursa may be more effective than injections into the subgluteus medius bursa for treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

McEvoy JR; Lee KS; Blankenbaker DG; del Rio AM; Keene JS

2013-08-01

100

The hazardous waste scene in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India has made significant advances in the manufacture of basic organic chemicals, dyes, fertilizers, pesticides, drugs, and so forth during the last three decades, resulting in increased generation of hazardous wastes. Presently, these wastes are being indiscriminately disposed of into fallow land in the public domain. Legislation to control air and water pollution has not covered hazardous waste disposal. The magnitude of hazardous waste generation in general and the problems posed by such wastes from pesticide, dyes, and other industries are identified, and available data are presented and discussed.

Subrahmanyam, P.V.R.; Bhinde, A.D.; Sundaresan, B.B.

1983-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Resection benefits older adults with locoregional pancreatic cancer despite greater short-term morbidity and mortality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate time trends in surgical resection rates and operative mortality in older adults diagnosed with locoregional pancreatic cancer and to determine the effect of age on surgical resection rates and 2-year survival after surgical resection. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and linked Medicare claims database (1992-2005). SETTING: Secondary data analysis of population-based tumor registry and linked claims data. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 and older diagnosed with locoregional pancreatic cancer (N=9,553), followed from date of diagnosis to time of death or censorship. MEASUREMENTS: Percentage of participants undergoing surgical resection, 30-day operative mortality after resection, and 2-year survival according to age group. RESULTS: Surgical resection rates increased significantly, from 20% in 1992 to 29% in 2005, whereas 30-day operative mortality rates decreased from 9% to 5%. After controlling for multiple factors, participants were less likely to be resected with older age. Resection was associated with lower hazard of death, regardless of age, with hazard ratios of 0.46, 0.51, 0.47, 0.43, and 0.35 for resected participants younger than 70, 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and 85 and older respectively compared with unresected participants younger than 70 (P<.001). CONCLUSION: With older age, fewer people with pancreatic cancer undergo surgical resection, even after controlling for comorbidity and other factors. This study demonstrated increased resection rates over time in all age groups, along with lower surgical mortality rates. Despite previous reports of greater morbidity and mortality after pancreatic resection in older adults, the benefit of resection does not diminish with older age in selected people.

Riall TS; Sheffield KM; Kuo YF; Townsend CM Jr; Goodwin JS

2011-04-01

102

Hazardous waste to energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of the 260 million metric tonnes (MMT) of hazardous waste generated in the United States in 1981, only 1.70 MMT was disposed of through incineration. In addition, 3.85 MMT of industrial wastes that could be considered hazardous were burned as fuels in industrial processes. The paper discusses several processes that can be used to convert hazardous waste to energy, namely: combustion of waste in boilers; disposal in industrial boilers; and burning of wastes in lime kilns. Process descriptions will be presented. Projections on energy recovery that could be realized will be described. Applicable test data will be displayed.

Olexsey, R.A.; Freeman, H.M.; Mournighan, R.E.

1986-07-01

103

Hazardous substance liability insurance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study was carried out to meet requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. It considers the adequacy and feasibility of private insurance to protect owners and operators of ships covered by the Act and for post-closure financial responsibility for hazardous waste disposal facilities. The report is in three parts: Pt. 1 is an introduction to the hazardous substance insurance problem; Pt. 2 considers the adequacy of private insurance for owners and operators of vessels and facilities; Pt. 3 focuses on the problem of a private insurance alternative to the Post-Closure Liability Fund for 'inactive' hazardous waste disposal facilities.

1982-03-01

104

Alcohol use, cognitive correlates of drinking and change readiness in hazardous drinkers with high versus low social anxiety.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Prevalence data and theoretical models suggest that socially anxious individuals comprise a significant subset of college hazardous drinkers and may benefit from brief interventions for both alcohol and social anxiety problems. The present study compared hazardous drinkers who have high social anxiety (HD-HSA) with hazardous drinkers who have low social anxiety (HD-LSA) in drinking and psychological characteristics that may distinguish the two drinker groups and inform development of group-specific interventions. METHOD: After completing a self-report assessment battery, 152 hazardous drinkers (51% men, median age = 19) were selected from an undergraduate volunteer sample on the basis of their scores on an alcohol screen. HD-HSA (n = 76) and HD-LSA (n = 76) were hazardous drinkers who scored in the top third and the bottom third, respectively, of the volunteer sample on a social anxiety measure. RESULTS: HD-HSA reported greater expectancies that alcohol reduces social anxiety and lower alcohol refusal self-efficacy in social drinking situations than HD-LSA did. HD-HSA also tended to report more frequent heavy drinking in negative affect situations, but the groups did not differ in consumption quantity, heavy drinking in positive affect situations or hazardous drinking levels. HD-HSA reported greater interest in attending a social anxiety workshop and showed a trend towards having stronger interest in an alcohol workshop than HD-LSA did, although the sample's overall readiness to change alcohol behaviors was low. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings highlight the importance of situational specificity in alcohol assessment and suggest a need to develop group-specific interventions for college hazardous drinkers with high versus low social anxiety.

Tran GQ; Anthenelli RM; Smith JP; Corcoran KJ; Rofey DL

2004-11-01

105

Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI)

1993-01-01

106

Operational technology for greater confinement disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables.

1984-01-01

107

Overconfidence and Moral Hazard  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments, and thus prefers higher-powered incentives. On the other hand, if the agent is overconfident in particular about the extent to which his actions affect the likelihood of success, lower-powered incentives are sufficient to induce any given effort level. If the agent is overall moderately overconfident, the latter effect dominates; because the agent bears less risk in this case, he actually benefits from his overconfidence. If the agent is significantly overconfident, the former effect dominates; the agent is then exposed to an excessive amount of risk, which is harmful to him. An increase in overconfidence--either about the base probability of success or the extent to which effort affects it--makes it more likely that high levels of effort are implemented in equilibrium.

de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

2007-01-01

108

THE HAZARD OF HEALTH CARE WORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characterized as people committed to promoting health through treatment and care for the sick and injured, health care workers, iron i cally, confront per haps a greaterrange of significant workplace hazards than workers in any other sector. Hazards facing health care work ers in clude: biologic hazards as sociated with air borne and bloodborne exposures to infectious agents; chemicals hazards especially those found in hospitals, including waste anesthetic and sterilant gases, antineoplastic drugs and other therapeutic agents, mercury, and industrial-strength disinfectants and cleaning compounds; physical hazards including ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, safety and ergonomic hazards that can lead to a variety of acute and chronic musculoskeletal problems, violence; psychosocial and organizational factors including psychologic stress and shift work and many health consequences associated with changes in the organization and financing of health care. Yet despite high injury and illness rates, health care workers have received relatively little attention from occupational health and safety profession als compared with workers in industries tradition ally viewed as hazardous. Legislation, regulations, and even voluntary guide lines to protect health care workers have been for mulated and adopted slowly and they have been in adequate in their scope. From a public health perspective doctors represent an interesting index population. In this perspective, the health of the doctors can be seen as an indicator of the burden of disease of the culture in which they practice.

Mirjana Aran?elovi?; Jovica Jovanovi?; Saša Borisov; Sonja Stankovi?

2004-01-01

109

Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high.

Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

1994-09-19

110

Preliminary hazards analysis for the National Ignition Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In summary, it provides: a general description of the facility and its operation; identification of hazards at the facility; and details of the hazards analysis, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions. As part of the safety analysis procedure set forth by DOE, a PHA must be performed for the NIF. The PHA characterizes the level of intrinsic potential hazard associated with a facility, and provides the basis for hazard classification. The hazard classification determines the level of safety documentation required, and the DOE Order governing the safety analysis. The hazard classification also determines the level of review and approval required for the safety analysis report. The hazards of primary concern associated with NIF are radiological and toxicological in nature. The hazard classification is determined by comparing facility inventories of radionuclides and chemicals with threshold values for the various hazard classification levels and by examining postulated bounding accidents associated with the hazards of greatest significance. Such postulated bounding accidents cannot take into account active mitigative features; they must assume the unmitigated consequences of a release, taking into account only passive safety features. In this way, the intrinsic hazard level of the facility can be ascertained.

Brereton, S.J.

1993-10-01

111

Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high

1994-01-01

112

Bayesian transformation hazard models  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a class of transformation hazard models for right-censored failure time data. It includes the proportional hazards model (Cox) and the additive hazards model (Lin and Ying) as special cases. Due to the requirement of a nonnegative hazard function, multidimensional parameter constraints must be imposed in the model formulation. In the Bayesian paradigm, the nonlinear parameter constraint introduces many new computational challenges. We propose a prior through a conditional-marginal specification, in which the conditional distribution is univariate, and absorbs all of the nonlinear parameter constraints. The marginal part of the prior specification is free of any constraints. This class of prior distributions allows us to easily compute the full conditionals needed for Gibbs sampling, and hence implement the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm in a relatively straightforward fashion. Model comparison is based on the conditional predictive ordinate and the deviance information criterion. This new class...

Yin, G; Yin, Gousheng; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

2006-01-01

113

Explosives - hazard management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The management of risks of explosives are described. Administrative and procedural controls are considered. The safety management plan involves hazard identification, risk analysis, assessment and control. The current position of explosives safety is considered. 4 tabs.

Sheridan, R. [Queensland Department of Mines and Energy, Brisband, Qld. (Australia)

1998-12-31

114

OSHA regulated hazardous substances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book addresses OSHA regulated hazardous substances. Included for each substance is the following information: the Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Number; commonly used synonyms; trade names; description of the substance; common health effects caused by exposure to the substance; and toxicity/exposure limits-including the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Rating, Toxicity Hazard Rating, Immediate Danger to Life or Health (IDLH) quantity, the 1989 OSHA Permissible Exposure Levels (PELs), and the ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV) and Time Weighted Average (TWA). Also included for each substance are a description of the most common uses of the substance in industry, the engineering controls (i.e., equipment necessary for the safe manufacture and/or use of a hazardous substance); personal protective equipment that should be worn by the employee when working with hazardous substances; and storage options (ideal location, temperature, container size).

1990-01-01

115

Natural Hazards Term Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Students apply the concepts learned in the class by preparing two (2) term projects discussing two natural hazards and how they impact the area where the student lives (or an area the student might like to live in).

Phillips, Michael

116

BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated the Biosystems Technology Development Program to anticipate and address research needs in managing our nation's hazardous waste. The Agency believes that bioremediation of...

117

Liquefaction hazard evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief description of a recently developed methodology to evaluate liquefaction hazard at a site is presented. In this method uncertainty and scatter in the data are included in the analysis rigorously. The method is applied to sites located in two different seismotectonic environments to evaluate the sensitivity of the results. Foundation liquefaction hazard obtained from this method may be used in the fault tree seismic Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) for plant structures. (author)

1991-01-01

118

Hazardous waste minimization handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

How to reduce costs and liabilities of hazardous waste generation and disposal. Offers practical guidelines for waste handling, and discusses alternatives in manufacturing and purchasing to reduce the production of hazardous waste. Numerous case studies provide technical detail demonstrating capital and operating cost savings realized by a waste minimization program. Describes how to plan a minimization program and implement individual projects. Includes treatment methods to reduce the volume or toxicity of waste, sources of equipment, design data, and installation and operating costs.

Higgins, T.E.

1989-01-01

119

Natural hazards: earthquakes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main problems in seismic hazard evaluation are discussed: space and time distribution of seismic sources, attenuation of seismic waves during their propagation, local effects as surface faulting, wave amplification due to surficial geology and morphology, and induced effects on soil properties (liquefaction, landsliding). We insist on the role of fundamental knowledge in Earth Sciences in evaluating seismic hazard. Seismic microzoning is shown as an example of the use of scientific results to define prevention regulations.

Bard, P.Y.; Durville, J.L.; Mouroux, P.

1985-01-01

120

[The hazard function].  

Science.gov (United States)

In cohort studies the event occurrence is usually described by the incidence rate and the survivor function. In comparison with these estimators the plot of the hazard function has the advantage to show the variations of the occurrence of the event along the period of observation, which often are important to be highlighted. Furthermore, when comparing individuals with different characteristics, the hazard function is a valuable support to check the assumption and to interpret the results of a Cox regression model. This paper illustrates the method for estimating the hazard function and an example is given from a real case by using the survival data of the breast cancers collected in the IMPACT study, aimed to detect the efficacy of the mammographic screening program. The relationship between the usual estimators and the hazard function is shown and its role in the survival regression modelling is emphasized. In the example the estimate of the hazard function allows to point out that the mortality rate of breast cancer in the first year after the diagnosis is lower than later and that the difference between the hazards of the invited cases and those of the not invited cases is approximately constant along the whole l0 years follow up, two important remarks both demonstrating the usefulness of the application of this function in the analysis of cohort studies. PMID:18326427

Coviello, Enzo; Miccinesi, Guido; Puliti, Donella; Paci, Eugenio

 
 
 
 
121

[The hazard function].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In cohort studies the event occurrence is usually described by the incidence rate and the survivor function. In comparison with these estimators the plot of the hazard function has the advantage to show the variations of the occurrence of the event along the period of observation, which often are important to be highlighted. Furthermore, when comparing individuals with different characteristics, the hazard function is a valuable support to check the assumption and to interpret the results of a Cox regression model. This paper illustrates the method for estimating the hazard function and an example is given from a real case by using the survival data of the breast cancers collected in the IMPACT study, aimed to detect the efficacy of the mammographic screening program. The relationship between the usual estimators and the hazard function is shown and its role in the survival regression modelling is emphasized. In the example the estimate of the hazard function allows to point out that the mortality rate of breast cancer in the first year after the diagnosis is lower than later and that the difference between the hazards of the invited cases and those of the not invited cases is approximately constant along the whole l0 years follow up, two important remarks both demonstrating the usefulness of the application of this function in the analysis of cohort studies.

Coviello E; Miccinesi G; Puliti D; Paci E

2007-11-01

122

Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy  

Science.gov (United States)

The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

123

English Language Education Across Greater China  

CERN Multimedia

This volume is the first to offer a comprehensive and, at the same time, in-depth examination of the spread of English and English language education across Greater China. It consists of two parts. Part 1 presents rich sociolinguistic data for easy comparisons between Mainland China, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau, while Part 2 explores in depth the phenomena inside Mainland China to provide contrastive analysis of English language use and education in economically booming areas such as Shanghai and Guangdong and underdeveloped regions like Xinjiang and Yunnan. With the descriptive, c

Feng, Anwei

2011-01-01

124

Health hazards of nursing: identifying workplace hazards and reducing risks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nurses often work in settings in which they may be exposed to a wide array of psychosocial, chemical, biological, and physical hazards. The authors outline several ways in which occupational exposures occur and the general process for reducing or preventing workplace hazards. Several commonly encountered workplace hazards and their potential health risks are identified and discussed. Specific health hazards that are addressed include the chemical hazards of antineoplastic and antiviral drugs; the biological hazards of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, herpes viruses, rubella, and tuberculosis; and the physical hazards of noise and ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The authors suggest specific preventive measures that nurses can take to make their workplaces safer.

Hewitt JB; Misner ST; Levin PF

1993-01-01

125

Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

1985-01-01

126

Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

NONE

2009-12-15

127

Toxicological assessment of hazardous wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (SUPERFUND) calls for hazardous waste site remediations which permanently and significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants. Traditional engineering technology has concentrated on reduction in volume and mobility as assessed by chemical and geophysical measures. It was assumed that accomplishment of volume and mobility reduction would lead to reductions in toxicity. Environmental scientists long have argued that this assumption might not be the case. However, lack of consensus on how complex hazardous waste mixtures should be measured toxicologically hampered integrated assessments. Therefore, a battery of aquatic and terrestrial bioassays was assembled and evaluated comparatively against several chemicals and waste site chemical mixtures. The bioassays were then applied to a mobility reduction demonstration to assess its overall chemical, physical, and biological performance. Results indicated that, while the primary objective of mobility reduction seemed to be achieved, undesirable secondary effects (toxicity) were introduced. These trade-offs must be considered in the holistic sense when remediation measures are being implemented.

Peterson, S.A.

1992-03-01

128

Radiation hazards and their effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiation can be classified into ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on whether it is capable of ionizing atoms and breaking chemical bonds. Ultraviolet and higher frequency such as X-rays, gamma rays are ionizing. These pose their own special hazards. Non ionizing radiation is associated with two major potential hazards. i.e. electrical and biological. Additionally includes electric current caused by radiation can generate sparks and create a fire or explosive hazards. Strong radiation can induce current capable of delivering an electric shock. Extremely high power electromagnetic radiation can cause electric currents strong enough to create sparks when an induced voltage exceeds the breakdown voltage of surrounding mediums. A 2009 study at the University of Basal in Switzerland found that intermitted exposure of human cells to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field at a flux density of 10 Gy induced a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the comet assay. Mobile phones radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwaves range and some believes this may be harmful to human health. (author)

2012-01-01

129

Chemical process hazards analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

NONE

1996-02-01

130

Nuclear hazard/fire hazard: an elusive and important linkage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Brown's Ferry Fire signaled a yellow alert for nuclear safety related fire protection and showed that fire protection engineering must be regarded as a bona fide nuclear discipline. A single-failure design criteria violation resulted in fire damage to plant systems and plant instrumentation. Localized damage lead to significant consequences. Although the linkage between fire and nuclear hazard is termed subtle, effective standards and criteria development must be aimed to future plants. Combined fire protection and nuclear engineering inspections are planned

1977-05-11

131

Reactor hazard analyses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Included in this study is a listing of meteorological items pertinent to a release of airborne radioactivity which should be considered for possible inclusion in a complete reactor hazard analysis. Not all reactor hazard analyses would, or should, contain all the elements listed. The type of reactor, its design power level, the site locations, etc., must be considered in fixing the scope of a hazard analysis. Only a first presentation of a very high power reactor would require consideration and treatment of all items. Analyses for reactors at a site for which previous reports have been prepared may well refer to these reports for climatology, site description, etc., and deal only with items or hazards unique to the device under consideration. Standard computational techniques for radiation estimates can eliminate repetition of derivations and basic meteorological data. The items listed in the outline should not be considered separately but rather should be integrated to whatever extent is necessary into the entire hazard analysis. Obviously, a health physicist and a reactor engineer will have to provide much of the required information

1986-01-01

132

Identification of Aircraft Hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

2006-01-01

133

IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

K.L. Ashley

2005-03-23

134

Remediation of hazardous waste sites by heap leaching  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efforts are being made to devise technologies and treatment systems to remediate contaminated soil-on site without generating significant wastes for off-site disposal. Heap leaching, a technique used extensively in the mining industry, has been investigated as a method for remediation of hazardous chemical contamination of the vadose zone. In the mining industry, metal-bearing ore is excavated and mounded on a pad. The metals are removed by passing a special leaching solution through the ore. In this study, the removal of chromium(VI) from the New Mexico soils (sand, sandy loam, and clay) using heap leaching was evaluated at a column scale. The heap leaching study demonstrated greater than 99% removal of Cr(VI) from all three soils using tap water as the leaching agent. (author) 13 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

Samani, Z.; Hanson, A.; Dwyer, B. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States))

1994-01-01

135

Municipal Waste Management and Environmental Hazards in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Municipal solid waste becomes serious environmental hazard and social problem in Bangladesh. Currently a gigantic volume of solid waste is generated every day in the district towns of Bangladesh and unfortunately solid waste management is being deteriorated day by day due to the limited resources to handle the increasing rate of generated waste. In order to check the waste management situation, a detailed survey in different cities of Bangladesh has been done in this study. Although a significant amount of municipal waste is collected by community based organizations, conservancy wings of the cities can not dispose more than 50% of the generated wastes. This study reflects the adverse impacts of pollution through solid waste and deteriorating situation of municipal solid waste management in capital city Dhaka, divisional city Sylhet, greater district town Tangail and Rangamati and new district town Gazipur.

G. M. Jahid Hasan; Md. Aktarul Islam Chowdhury

2005-01-01

136

Hazardous materials dictionary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Parallel growth of the chemical industry of emergency response capabilities in the public and private sectors has created a new need for improved communications. A new vocabulary of important terms is emerging in each of the industries that transport, store and handle hazardous materials. This dictionary, representing a compilation of words and phrases from many relevant sources, will help document and standardize the nomenclature of hazardous materials. The authors have screened the technical discourse of the chemical, transportation, petroleum and medical fields, both governmental and private, to determine the most current expressions and their uses. The lexicographic goal has been to identify key terms, ambiguous and multiple meaning words, acronyms, symbols and even slang referring to hazardous materials reactions, storing and handling procedures.

Coleman, R.J.

1987-01-01

137

Hazardous chemicals desk reference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book supplies instant-access data on nearly 4,700 of the most dangerous chemicals and compounds used in the workplace. It alerts readers to potential short- and long-term hazards by providing for each chemical a 1 to 3 hazard rating ... CAS, NIOSH, and DOT numbers ... concise descriptions of physical properties ... synonyms ... and current standards for exposure limits. A Toxic and Hazard Review (THR) paragraph for each chemical indicates whether the chemical is poisonous, an irritant, corrosive, explosive, or carcinogenic. Special chapters on safety provide clear guidance on the safe handling and storage of chemicals, the use of respirators, the selection of chemical protective clothing, fire protection, and first aid in the workplace.

Sax, N.I.; Lewis, R.J. Sr.

1987-01-01

138

Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability.

Oloyede O

2005-06-01

139

Radiation hazard control report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of radiation hazard control in Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kinki University, for the period of April, 1983, to March, 1984, are described. In the radiation hazard control in the reactor building and the tracer and accelerator building, no problem occurred. The number of personnel involved in the radiation hazard control as of April, 1983, was 149. The reactor was operated for 703.2 hours in the fiscal year 1983, and the cumulative thermal output was 507.3 W.hr at maximum thermal output 1 watt. The contents are as follows: individual control (health examination, individual exposure dose), laboratory control (measurement of air dose rate, measurement of radioactive concentration in the air and water, measurement of surface contamination density), field control (environmental ..gamma..-ray dose rate, total ..beta.. radioactive concentration in environmental samples), personnel safety education and training. (Mori, K.).

Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Miki, Ryota; Kawai, Hiroshi; Honda, Yoshihide; Tabushi, Masaaki; Inoue, Ataru; Fukui, Toshio; Shakutsui, Kensuke

1984-12-01

140

Hazardous fluid leak detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

Gray, Harold E. (Las Vegas, NV); McLaurin, Felder M. (Las Vegas, NV); Ortiz, Monico (Las Vegas, NV); Huth, William A. (Las Vegas, NV)

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The radiological hazard of plutonium isotopes and specific plutonium mixtures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy defines the hazard categories of its nuclear facilities based upon the potential for accidents to have significant effects on specific populations and the environment. In this report, the authors consider the time dependence of hazard category 2 (significant on-site effects) for facilities with inventories of plutonium isotopes and specific weapons-grade and heat-source mixtures of plutonium isotopes. The authors also define relative hazard as the reciprocal of the hazard category 2 threshold value and determine its time dependence. The time dependence of both hazard category 2 thresholds and relative hazards are determined and plotted for 10,000 years to provide useful information for planning long-term storage or disposal facilities.

Heindel, G.; Clow, J.; Inkret, W.; Miller, G.

1995-11-01

142

Siting hazardous waste facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need for new and safer hazardous waste facilities is generally recognized by the public. Recently, however, waste disposal sites have developed unpleasant reputations, with the result that few communities wish to have such a site located nearby. In 1976, the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act was passed, mandating the construction of needed facilities and placing the responsibility for siting of these facilities with the states. In this document, the National Governors' Association recommends policies to guide governors, state legislators, local officials, citizens and industry in formulating state siting processes. On February 24, 1981, the governors unanimously approved the policy on siting hazardous waste facilities as described within this article.

1981-01-01

143

Hazard Communication Standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

1991-09-25

144

Malaria situation in the Greater Mekong Subregion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The epidemiology of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion is complex and rapidly evolving. Malaria control and elimination efforts face a daunting array of challenges including multidrug-resistant parasites. This review presents secondary data collected by the national malaria control programs in the six countries between 1998 and 2010 and examines trends over the last decade. This data has a number of limitations: it is derived exclusively from public sector health facilities; falciparum-specific and then pan-specific rapid diagnostic tests were introduced during the period under review; and, recently there has been a massive increase in case detection capability as a result of increased funding. It therefore requires cautious interpretation. A series of maps are presented showing trends in incidence, mortality and proportion of cases caused by Plasmodium falciparum over the last decade. A brief overview of institutional and implementation arrangements, historical background, demographics and key issues affecting malaria epidemiology is provided for each country. National malaria statistics for 2010 are presented and their robustness discussed in terms of the public sector's share of cases and other influencing factors such as inter-country variations in risk stratification, changes in diagnostic approach and immigration. Targets are presented for malaria control and where appropriate for elimination. Each country's artemisinin resistance status is described. The epidemiological trends presented reflect the improvement in the malaria situation, however the true malaria burden is as yet unknown. There is a need for continuing strengthening and updating of surveillance and response systems.

Hewitt S; Delacollette C; Chavez I

2013-01-01

145

Grassroots Action Research and the Greater Good  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the action research topics and topic preferences of two groups of grassroots teachers: active researchers, and potential researchers. The analysis of the topics appears to indicate that, over the past decade, action research at the teaching of English at the grassroots level to speakers of other languages has been principally understood in terms of professional development with respect to teachers’ methodologies and learners’ learning behaviours. A nascent concern for a more ample approach to professional development and issues conducive to the greater good of the profession can, it is mooted, flourish only with the collaboration of all relevant stakeholders.En este estudio se examinan los temas de investigación acción y los temas preferidos por dos grupos de profesores de base: uno de investigadores activos y otro de investigadores potenciales. El análisis sugiere que, durante la última década, la investigación acción en el aula de inglés para hablantes de otras lenguas se ha entendido principalmente en términos del desarrollo profesional con respecto a las metodologías de los profesores y las conductas estudiantiles de aprendizaje. Se considera que un incipiente interés por un enfoque más amplio y por asuntos conducentes al beneficio general de la profesión, solamente puede florecer con la colaboración de todos los actores más importantes.

Rainey Isobel

2011-01-01

146

Evaluation of passive transfer in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) calves can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study, serum samples from neonatal kudu calves were tested for immunoglobulin using different tests validated for domestic ruminants, including measurement of gamma globulin (GG) measured by protein electrophoresis, total solids (TS) measured by calibrated refractometry, total protein (TP) and globulins measured by colorimetry, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the zinc sulfate turbidity test (ZSTT). In a logistic regression model, TP, TS, globulins, and the natural log transform of GGT were the only significant parameters associated with FPT. Various historic parameters related to the dam, as well as calf weight, sex, glucose, and packed cell volume, were not significant. Based on the results, FPT in greater kudu is defined as GG of < 0.5 g/dl, a value lower than that in domestic cattle. TS measured by refractometry has an 80% sensitivity and a 100% specificity for FPT in greater kudu. With FPT defined as GG < 0.5 g/dl, kudu calves with a TS < 4.8 g/dl and a negative ZSTT have an increased probability of requiring medical intervention and additional diagnostics may be warranted.

Hammond EE; Fiorello CV

2011-12-01

147

Evaluation of passive transfer in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  

Science.gov (United States)

Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) calves can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study, serum samples from neonatal kudu calves were tested for immunoglobulin using different tests validated for domestic ruminants, including measurement of gamma globulin (GG) measured by protein electrophoresis, total solids (TS) measured by calibrated refractometry, total protein (TP) and globulins measured by colorimetry, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the zinc sulfate turbidity test (ZSTT). In a logistic regression model, TP, TS, globulins, and the natural log transform of GGT were the only significant parameters associated with FPT. Various historic parameters related to the dam, as well as calf weight, sex, glucose, and packed cell volume, were not significant. Based on the results, FPT in greater kudu is defined as GG of greater kudu. With FPT defined as GG < 0.5 g/dl, kudu calves with a TS < 4.8 g/dl and a negative ZSTT have an increased probability of requiring medical intervention and additional diagnostics may be warranted. PMID:22204060

Hammond, Elizabeth E; Fiorello, Christine V

2011-12-01

148

Assessment of the significance of quasar alignments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A systematic search has been undertaken in two fields of quasar candidates for alignments similar to those reported by Arp and Hazard (1980) in order to test the statistical significance of these associations. Comparisons with control fields generated by a Monte Carlo technique showed that when appropriate allowance has been made for clustering there is only marginal evidence for a statistically significant excess of aligned triplets over that expected by chance. It has not, however, been possible to examine the significance of the redshift patterns found by Arp and Hazard (1980) as reliable redshifts do not exist for the majority of the quasar candidates.

Trew, A.S. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK)); Clube, S.V.M.; Savage, A. (Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK)); Clowes, R.G. (Durham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics)

1982-09-01

149

Hazard classification process at LLNL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An essential part of Integrated Safety Management is the identification of hazards in the workplace and the assessment of possible consequences of accidents involving those hazards. The process of hazard classification suggested by the DOE orders on Safety Analysis is the formalization of this identification and assessment for hazards that might cause harm to the public or workers external to the operation. Possible injury to workers in the facility who are exposed to the hazard is not considered in the designation of the hazard classification for facilities at LLNL, although worker safety is discussed in facility Safety Basis documentation.

Hildum, J. S., LLNL

1998-05-01

150

Seismic hazard assessment for Adria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Adriatic region was chosen as one of the test areas in the GSHAP program and, consequently, its seismic hazard was computed. The standard hazard map chosen by GSHAP represents PGA with a 475-year return period. Some other parameters, as the spectral acceleration and the uniform hazard response spectra for the main Adriatic towns, have been computed for a better representation of the regional hazard. The most hazardous area remains identified in the Cephalonia zone, where strong earthquakes frequently occur. The Southern Apennines are characterised by a slightly lower hazard, while the Adriatic Sea itself, the Poplain and the Apulian peninsula are almost aseismic.

D. Slejko; R. Camassi; I. Cecic; D. Herak; M. Herak; S. Kociu; V. Kouskouna; J. Lapajne; K. Makropoulos; C. Meletti

1999-01-01

151

TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR NATURAL EVENT HAZARDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This technical basis document was developed to support the documented safety analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazard (NEH)-initiated accidents. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls.

KRIPPS, L.J.

2006-07-31

152

TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR NATURAL EVENT HAZARDS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This technical basis document was developed to support the documented safety analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazard (NEH)-initiated accidents. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls

2006-01-01

153

Hazardous waste processing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that in 1980 at least 57 million metric tons of the nation's total waste load could be classified as hazardous. Only 10% of the hazardous wastes are properly managed and disposed. Three kinds of treatment processes can be used to render hazardous waste less hazardous or nonhazardous: (1) physical processes, such as carbon or resin adsorption, centrifuging, flocculation, sedimentation, reverse osmosis, and ultrafiltration; (2) chemical processes, such as fixation, neutralization, ion exchange, oxidation reduction and precipitation; and (3) biological processes, such as activated sludge, composting and land application. Land disposal includes secure chemical landfilling, secure burial and deep well injection. Part 1 of this book discusses the thermal processing technologies, and Part 2 presents treatment and disposal technologies. Chapter 1 - general introduction; Chapter 2 - review of regulations, waste management and technologies governing thermal processes; Chapter 3 - evaluation of incineration systems and waste handling technologies; Chapter 4 - design of incinerator equipment; Chapter 5 - theory, design, research and development, and instrumentation, control and measurement of incineration systems; Chapter 6 - recovery of waste heat and by-products; air and water pollution aspects; Chapter 7 - catalytic incineration, wet air oxidation and pyrolysis; Chapter 8 - overview of treatment processes and disposal site selection requirements; Chapter 9 - physical treatment processes; Chapter 10 - chemical treatment processes; and Chapter 11 - biological treatment processes. (DP)

Kiang, Y.H.; Metry, A.A.

1982-01-01

154

COMBUSTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the 260 MMT of hazardous waste generated annually in the United States, 1.70 MMT are disposed of in incinerators, 3.50 MMT are burned in boilers and 0.35 MMT are burned in other industrial processes. The paper is an overview of the technologies that can be used to combust haza...

155

Coal and explosion hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When coal is being handled, there is always the danger of a gas or dust explosion. The probability of occurrence, however, largely depends on the qualities and properties of the coal and on the specific operation in which the coal is engaged. The explosion hazards are discussed and ways in which they can be avoided are outlined.

Laar, G.F.M. van; Zeeuwen, J.P.

1984-03-01

156

Hazardous and toxic materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the topics covered are: the Toxic Substances Control Act, SARA and Superfund, fires and explosions in standard and nuclear facilities, personal protective equipment and respiratory equipment, long-term toxicity, medical care and surveillance for hazardous waste workers, aqueous foams, remediation of contaminated sites, and much more. This edition also includes scenarios of mock trials designed to help train lawyers in this specialty.

Fawcett, H.

1988-01-01

157

Hazardous industrial waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The appropriate managing of hazardous wastes is a problem little dealed in the wastes management in the country. A search of available information was made about the generation and handling to internal and external level of the hazardous wastes by national industries. It was worked with eleven companies of different types of industrial activities for, by means of a questionnaire, interviews and visits, to determine the degree of integral and suitable handling of the wastes that they generate. It was concluded that exist only some isolated reports on the generation of hazardous industrial wastes and handling. The total quantity of wastes generated in the country was impossible to establish. The companies consulted were deficient in all stages of the handling of their wastes: generation, accumulation and storage, transport, treatment and final disposition. The lack of knowledge of the legislation and of the appropriate managing of the wastes is showed as the principal cause of the poor management of the residues. The lack of state or private entities entrusted to give services of storage, transport, treatment and final disposition of hazardous wastes in the country was evident. (author)

2007-01-01

158

Transportation of hazardous materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transportation of hazardous materials is occurring with increasing frequency. The central problem now is how to move these cargos with maximum safety to life and property. The selections in this study will serve as a guide to the post-1964 literature of this subject.

Cook, J.L.; Cook, E.H.

1980-01-01

159

Hazards on the Farm  

Science.gov (United States)

In this interactive activity adapted from the National Library of Medicine, explore the environmental hazards found on farms, including agricultural runoff, barns and silos, crop fields, farm animals, farm ponds, feeding operations, homes, landfills, and off-road vehicles. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

2010-10-04

160

The Impact Hazard  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout its existence, Earth has been pummelled by rocks from space. The cratered face of the Moon testifies to this continuing cosmic bombardment, and the 1908 Tunguska impact in Siberia should have been a wake-up call to the impact hazard. For most scientists, however, it was the discovery 30 years ago that the KT mass extinction was caused by an impact that opened our eyes to this important aspect of Earth history -- that some geological and biological changes have an external origin, and that the biosphere is much more sensitive to impact disturbance than was imagined. While life adapts beautifully to slow changes in the enviroment, a sudden event, like a large impact, can have catastrophic consequences. While we do not face any known hazard today for an extinction-level event, we are becoming aware that more than a million near-earth asteroids (NEAs) exist with the capacity to take out a city if they hit in the wrong place. The NASA Spaceguard Survey has begun to discover and track the larger NEAs, but we do not yet have the capability to find more than a few pecent of the objects as small as the Tunguska impactor (about 40 m diameter). This continuing impact hazard is at roughly the hazard level of volcanic eruptions, including the rare supervolcano eruptions. The differnece is that an incoming cosmic projectile can be detected and tracked, and by application of modern space technology, most impactors could be deflected. Impacts are the only natural hazard that can be eliminated. This motivates our NEA search programs such as Spaceguard and argues for extending them to smaller sizes. At the same time we realize that the most likely warning time for the next impact remains a few seconds, and we may therefore need to fall back on the more conventional responses of disaster mitigation and relief.

Morrison, D.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Tank farms hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process.

1994-01-01

162

HAZARD CATEGORIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION SITES AT HANFORD WASHINGTON  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental restoration activities, defined here as work to identify and characterize contaminated sites and then contain, treat, remove or dispose of the contamination, now comprises a significant fraction of work in the DOE complex. As with any other DOE activity, a safety analysis must be in place prior to commencing restoration. The rigor and depth of this safety analysis is in part determined by the site's hazard category. This category in turn is determined by the facility's hazardous material inventory and the consequences of its release. Progressively more complicated safety analyses are needed as a facility's hazard category increases from radiological to hazard category three (significant local releases) to hazard category two (significant on-site releases). Thus, a facility's hazard category plays a crucial early role in helping to determine the level of effort devoted to analysis of the facility's individual hazards. Improper determination of the category can result in either an inadequate safety analysis in the case of underestimation of the hazard category, or an unnecessarily cumbersome analysis in the case of overestimation. Contaminated sites have been successfully categorized and safely restored or remediated at the former DOE production site at Hanford, Washington. This paper discusses various means used to categorize former plutonium production or support sites at Hanford. Both preliminary and final hazard categorization is discussed. The importance of the preliminary (initial) hazard categorization in guiding further DOE involvement and approval of the safety analyses is discussed. Compliance to DOE direction provided in ''Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports'', DOE-STD-1027-92, is discussed. DOE recently issued 10 CFR 830, Subpart B which codifies previous DOE safety analysis guidance and orders. The impact of 10 CFR 830, Subpart B on hazard categorization is also discussed.

BISHOP, G.E.

2001-05-01

163

Radiological hazards to uranium miners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the present document is to review and assess the occupational hazards to uranium miners in Canada. Amendments to regulations set the maximum permissible dose to uranium miners at 50 mSv per year. Uranium miners are exposed to radon and thoron progeny, external gamma radiation and long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides in dust. The best estimate for the lifetime risk of inhaled radon progeny is about 3 x 10-4 lung cancers per WLM for the average miner, with a range of uncertainty from about 1 -6 x 10-4 per WLM. This central value is nearly twice as high as that recommended by the ICRP in 1981. The probability of serious biological consequences following exposure to external gamma rays is currently under review but is expected to be in the range of 3 - 6 x 10-2 Sv-1. Dosimetric calculations indicate that the stochastic risks per WLM of thoron progeny are about one-third of those for radon progeny. The annual limits on intake of inhaled ore dusts recommended by the ICRP are probably too low by at least a factor of two for the type of ore and dust normally encountered in underground uranium mines in Ontario; this is due in part to the fact that the average diameter of these dusts is five times greater than the value used by the ICRP. Radiological exposures of uranium miners in Canada were reviewed. The biological impact of these exposures were compared with those of conventional accidents on the basis of the years of normal life expectancy that are lost or seriously impaired due to occupational hazards. The objectives in considering all occupational risks are to reduce the total risk from all causes and to use funds spent for health protection as effectively as possible

1990-01-01

164

Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?  

Science.gov (United States)

Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse. PMID:23543880

Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

2013-03-18

165

Appeal for legislation on greater safety.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

Baillie J

2011-10-01

166

Appeal for legislation on greater safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports. PMID:22053362

Baillie, Jonathan

2011-10-01

167

Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

Popovici I; French MT

2013-04-01

168

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)  

Science.gov (United States)

Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

169

Seismic hazard maps for Haiti  

Science.gov (United States)

We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

2011-01-01

170

FORMED OBJECT ADSORBING HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A multifunctional formed object containing an adsorbent for hazardous substances is provided in the form of a water-soluble sheet or tablet. The formed object comprises a hazardous-substance-adsorbing formed object having a multiple function imparted thereto, and can be applied to a contaminated environment while preventing a fine powder from flying off or causing dust explosion and without necessitating much labor. After application, the formed object adsorptively fixes thereto a hazardous substance present in the contaminated environment. The hazardous

EUN HEESOO; FUKUI HIROAKI

171

Oak Ridge greater confinement disposal demonstrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Demonstrations are being conducted in association with the disposal of a high activity low-level waste (LLW) stream. The waste stream in question will result from the cement solidification of decanted liquids from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The solid waste will be produced beginning in mid summer 1988. It is anticipated to have significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90, with smaller amounts of other radionuclides and <100 nCi/gm of TRU. The solid waste forms are expected to have surface dose rates in the 1 to 2 r/hr range. The solid waste will also contain several chemical species at concentrations which are below those of concern, but which may present enhanced corrosion potential for the disposal units. 2 refs., 5 figs.

Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clapp, R.B.

1987-01-01

172

Hazards in the chemical laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contents of this book are: Preface; Introduction; Health and Safety at Work Act 1974; Safety Planning and Management; Fire Protection; Reactive Chemical Hazards; Chemical Hazards and Toxicology; Health Care and First Aid; Hazardous Chemicals; Precautions against Radiations; and An American View.

Bretherick, L.

1987-01-01

173

Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phylogeography of the bush habituated African bovid species impala (Aepyceros melampus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Combined analysis of individual lineages, relationships and population genetics suggest a colonization process from Southern Africa toward Eastern regions in the greater kudu. Results are less clear for the impala, although remaining consistent with a similar pattern of historical dispersion. The study reveals a similar pattern, that is a marked divergence of lineages from South-western Africa relative to other regions. This pattern is opposed to previously published findings in other African bovid species. In the impala, the genetically isolated region is consistent with morphology because it is recognized as the subspecies A. m. petersi, the black-faced impala. In contrast, the similar split of South-western mitochondrial lineages was not expected in the greater kudu on the basis of morphology. Both species show a significant population genetic differentiation. Beyond their phylogeographical value, our results should raise conservation concerns about South-western populations of both species. The black-faced impala is categorized as vulnerable and our data show indications of hybridization with common impala A. m. melampus. The previously unrecognized genetic status of the South-western kudus could also imply conservation regulations.

Nersting LG; Arctander P

2001-03-01

174

Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

Al-Laboun, A.A.

1987-05-01

175

Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phylogeography of the bush habituated African bovid species impala (Aepyceros melampus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Combined analysis of individual lineages, relationships and population genetics suggest a colonization process from Southern Africa toward Eastern regions in the greater kudu. Results are less clear for the impala, although remaining consistent with a similar pattern of historical dispersion. The study reveals a similar pattern, that is a marked divergence of lineages from South-western Africa relative to other regions. This pattern is opposed to previously published findings in other African bovid species. In the impala, the genetically isolated region is consistent with morphology because it is recognized as the subspecies A. m. petersi, the black-faced impala. In contrast, the similar split of South-western mitochondrial lineages was not expected in the greater kudu on the basis of morphology. Both species show a significant population genetic differentiation. Beyond their phylogeographical value, our results should raise conservation concerns about South-western populations of both species. The black-faced impala is categorized as vulnerable and our data show indications of hybridization with common impala A. m. melampus. The previously unrecognized genetic status of the South-western kudus could also imply conservation regulations. PMID:11298982

Nersting, L G; Arctander, P

2001-03-01

176

Greater saphenous vein location in a pediatric population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a landmark technique for cannulation of the greater saphenous vein (GSV) near the medial malleolus. We performed bedside ultrasound in a convenience sample of 100 children, ages 3 to 16 years, to evaluate the anatomy of the GSV at the ankle. Despite the proposed constancy of the landmark technique regardless of patient age, the GSV location varied significantly with increasing patient age and weight. In children less than 10 years old or weighing less than 40 kg, the traditional landmark rarely predicted the precise location of the GSV.

Germino KW; Gerard JM; Flood RG

2012-12-01

177

Aquatic toxicology and hazard assessment: sixth symposium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report on the sixth annual ASTM symposium on aquatic toxicology presents dissemination of ideas, new concepts, methods, and research results in both applied and theoretical aquatic toxicology and hazard assessment. Recent growth in the field has been characterized as quantitative; it has been suggested that a significant increase in the amount of available data has not produced a corresponding increase in knowledge. Current research activities in critical-need areas are reviewed. Four subsequent sessions discussed principles and application of hazard assessment to aquatic environments, and microcosm and field testing methodologies. Calibration and validation of environmental models, and extrapolation of laboratory results to field situations were also examined.

Bishop, W.E. (Ed.); Cardwell, R.D.; Heidolph, B.B.

1981-10-01

178

Immobilisation of hazardous waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazardous waste, e.g. radioactive waste, particularly that containing caesium-137, is immobilised by mixing with cement and solidifiable organic polymeric material. When first mixed, the organic material is preferably liquid and at this time can be polymerisable or already polymerised. The hardening can result from cooling or further polymerisation e.g. cross-linking. The organic material may be wax, or a polyester which may be unsaturated and cross-linkable by reaction with styrene. (author)

1981-10-20

179

Volcanic hazard studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volcanic hazards studies for the WISAP program are concerned with evaluation of risk due to future volcanism, with respect to long-term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major areas of research have been examined: (1) regional distribution of Quaternary Volcanism with respect to repository siting; (2) the consequences or disruption effects due to penetration of a repository by volcanism; and (3) probability calculations of the likelihood of disruption of a repository by volcanism.

1979-09-15

180

California's potential volcanic hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a summary of "Potential Hazards from Future Volcanic Eruptions in California' (USGS Bulletin No. 1847: price $4.75). The chief areas of danger are Lassen Peak, Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake Highland in the north; Clear Lake, Mono Lake and Long Valley in the centre; and Owen's River-Death Valley, Amboy Crater and the Saltan Butter in the south of the State. -A.Scarth

Jorgenson, P.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Comprehensive baseline hazard assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed and implemented a cost effective/value-added program/process that assists in fulfilling key elements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) voluntary Protection Program (VPP) requirements. WHC is the prime contractor for the US Department of Energy (US DOE) at the Hanford site, located in Richland, Washington. The site consists of over 560 square miles, contains over 1100 facilities and has an employment of approximately 18,000. WHC is currently in the application review phase for the US DOE equivalent of OSHA-VPP ``merit`` program status. The program involves setting up a team consisting of industrial safety and health (industrial hygienists) professionals, members of the maintenance and operations work force, and facility management. This team performs a workplace hazard characterization/analysis and then applies a risk assessment approach to prioritize observed and potential hazards in need of abatement. The process involves using checklists that serve as a guide for evaluation/inspection criteria. Forms are used to document meetings, field observations, instrument calibration and performance testing. Survey maps are generated to document quality records of measurement results. A risk assessment code matrix with a keyword index was developed to facilitate consistency. The end product is useful in communicating hazards to facility management, health and safety professionals, audit/appraisal groups, and most importantly, facility workers.

Warren, S.B.; Amundson, T.M.

1994-10-01

182

PUREX facility hazards assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

Sutton, L.N.

1994-09-23

183

PUREX facility hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

1994-01-01

184

INEL RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) permit for incineration of hazardous waste: Status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) was constructed to reduce the volume of low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). To address the problem of radioactively contaminated ignitable hazardous waste resulting from INEL activities, a development program was carried out to evaluate WERF's ability to meet the regulated criteria for incinerating liquid and solid ignitable waste. Concurrently, INEL submitted its hazardous waste Part B application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). As required, and as a major step in the permitting process, the WERF incinerator portion of the permit application included a proposed trial burn, which is a demonstration test of the incinerator's ability to destroy hazardous materials. The trial burn plan was designed to demonstrate the system performance for liquid and solid ignitable wastes at three operating conditions, using a prepared mix of materials representative of waste to be processed. EPA Region X reviewed and commented on the plan prior to the trial burn. Results of the liquid feed trial burn showed a greater than 97% probability of meeting the RCRA-dictated DRE value for chlorinated solvents and a greater than 99% probability for nonchlorinated solvents. Nonchlorinated solid waste results were calculated at a 93% probability of meeting the required DRE, with a 75% probability for chlorinated solid wastes. In addition, the incinerator DRE continued to improve long after the assumed pre-test equilibrium period had ended. The trial burn demonstrates that the WERF incinerator can safely and adequately destroy ignitable hazardous and mixed waste and provides a significant enhancement of the INEL's waste management system.

McFee, J.N.; Dalton, J.D.; Bohrer, H.A.

1987-01-01

185

US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff technical position on investigations to identify fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards at a geologic repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper outlines the guidance provided to the US DOE by the NRC staff in its Staff Technical Position (STP) on appropriate investigations that can be used to identify fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards at a geologic repository. The STP defines an acceptable approach to the identification and investigation of fault displacement hazards, which in turn leads to the identification of three types of faults: Type III faults - need not be investigated in detail; Type II faults - candidates for detailed investigation; Type I faults - should be investigated in detail because they are subject to displacement and are of sufficient length and located such that they may affect repository design and/or performance or could provide significant input into models used to assess repository performance. The STP also describes an acceptable approach to conducting investigations to provide input for the analysis of vibratory ground motion with emphasis on those earthquakes that could generate the equivalent of .1g or greater ground acceleration at the location of the controlled area

1993-01-01

186

Land Change in the Greater Antilles between 2001 and 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Land change in the Greater Antilles differs markedly among countries because of varying socioeconomic histories and global influences. We assessed land change between 2001 and 2010 in municipalities (second administrative units) of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. Our analysis used annual land-use/land-cover maps derived from MODIS satellite imagery to model linear change in woody vegetation, mixed-woody/plantations and agriculture/herbaceous vegetation. Using this approach, we focused on municipalities with significant change (p ? 0.05). Between 2001 and 2010, the Greater Antilles gained 801 km2 of woody vegetation. This increase was mainly due to the return of woody vegetation in Cuba, and smaller increases in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Despite relatively similar environments, the factors associated with these changes varied greatly between countries. In Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica, agriculture declined while mixed-woody vegetation increased, mostly in montane regions. In contrast, Cuba experienced an extensive decline in sugarcane plantations, which resulted in the spread of an invasive woody shrub species and the increase in woody vegetation in areas of high agricultural value. In Haiti, the growing population, fuelwood consumption, and increase in agriculture contributed to woody vegetation loss; however, woody vegetation loss was accompanied with a significant increase in the mixed woody and plantations class. Most regional analyses often treated the Greater Antilles as a homogeneous unit; our results suggest that historical and socio-economic differences among countries are crucial for understanding the variation in present day land change dynamics.

Nora L. Álvarez-Berríos; Daniel J. Redo; T. Mitchell Aide; Matthew L. Clark; Ricardo Grau

2013-01-01

187

Zinc research: an environmental hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A suggestion has recently been made (Golden, B., and Golden, M., 1976, Lancet, i. 1133) that since the disposal via the drains of zinc-65 used in medical or biological research could be responsible for the high levels of radiozinc found in shellfish on the Oregon shore, regulations governing such disposal are urgently needed. Such regulations already exist in Britain, the United States and many other countries, and the use of radionuclides for medical research as well as for routine diagnosis and treatment is closely controlled. The administration of the British control procedures is briefly described. The environmental levels of radionuclides resulting from medical procedures are quite low, and medical research using radioactivity is generally done in a responsible manner with minimal environmental detriment. The disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants presents greater problems, but in Britain these disposals are also closely controlled and monitored. The hazards of environmental pollution with artificial radionuclides are appreciated. (U.K.)

1976-06-05

188

A CASE STUDY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN CLASS I LANDFILLS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study documents the average concentration, estimated daily deposition, and partitioning of 17 metal species in hazardous wastes discharged to five Class I landfill sites in the greater Los Angeles area. These sites receive a combined estimated daily volume of 2.3 x 10 to the...

189

Chemical hazards in health care: high hazard, high risk, but low protection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is counter-intuitive that the healthcare industry, whose mission is the care of the sick, is itself a "high-hazard" industry for the workers it employs. Possessing every hazard class, with chemical agents in the form of pharmaceuticals, sterilants, and germicidals in frequent use, this industry sector consistently demonstrates poor injury and illness statistics, among the highest in the United States, and in the European Union (EU), 34% higher than the average work-related accident rate. In both the United States and the EU, about 10% of all workers are employed in the healthcare sector, and in developing countries as well, forecasts for the increasing need of healthcare workers (HCW) suggests a large population at potential risk of health harm. The explosion of technology growth in the healthcare sector, most obvious in pharmaceutical applications, has not been accompanied by a stepped up safety program in hospitals. Where there is hazard recognition, the remedies are often voluntary, and often poorly enforced. The wrong assumption that this industry would police itself, given its presumed knowledge base, has also been found wanting. The healthcare industry is also a significant waste generator threatening the natural environment with chemical and infectious waste and products of incineration. The ILO has recommended that occupational health goals for industrial nations focus on the hazards of new technology of which pharma and biopharma products are the leaders. This unchecked growth cannot continue without a parallel commitment to the health and safety of workers encountering these "high tech" hazards. Simple strategies to improve the present state include: (a) recognizing healthcare as a "high-hazard" employment sector; (b) fortifying voluntary safety guidelines to the level of enforceable regulation; (c) "potent" inspections; (d) treating hazardous pharmaceuticals like the chemical toxicants they are; and (e) protecting HCWs at least as well as workers in other high-hazard sectors.

McDiarmid MA

2006-09-01

190

Chemical hazards in health care: high hazard, high risk, but low protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is counter-intuitive that the healthcare industry, whose mission is the care of the sick, is itself a "high-hazard" industry for the workers it employs. Possessing every hazard class, with chemical agents in the form of pharmaceuticals, sterilants, and germicidals in frequent use, this industry sector consistently demonstrates poor injury and illness statistics, among the highest in the United States, and in the European Union (EU), 34% higher than the average work-related accident rate. In both the United States and the EU, about 10% of all workers are employed in the healthcare sector, and in developing countries as well, forecasts for the increasing need of healthcare workers (HCW) suggests a large population at potential risk of health harm. The explosion of technology growth in the healthcare sector, most obvious in pharmaceutical applications, has not been accompanied by a stepped up safety program in hospitals. Where there is hazard recognition, the remedies are often voluntary, and often poorly enforced. The wrong assumption that this industry would police itself, given its presumed knowledge base, has also been found wanting. The healthcare industry is also a significant waste generator threatening the natural environment with chemical and infectious waste and products of incineration. The ILO has recommended that occupational health goals for industrial nations focus on the hazards of new technology of which pharma and biopharma products are the leaders. This unchecked growth cannot continue without a parallel commitment to the health and safety of workers encountering these "high tech" hazards. Simple strategies to improve the present state include: (a) recognizing healthcare as a "high-hazard" employment sector; (b) fortifying voluntary safety guidelines to the level of enforceable regulation; (c) "potent" inspections; (d) treating hazardous pharmaceuticals like the chemical toxicants they are; and (e) protecting HCWs at least as well as workers in other high-hazard sectors. PMID:17119236

McDiarmid, Melissa A

2006-09-01

191

Nuclear hazards under control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns the safety systems at British Nuclear Fuels Limited Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) at Sellafield. The use of Hazop and safety protection procedures were applied to the design of control systems for Thorp, and these are briefly described. Standards for safety and hazards are outlined, including reliability of design and monitoring in the environmental area. Thorp is also equipped with independent hardware-based protective interlocks, selective back-up alarms and emergency shutdown systems, and details of these systems are briefly given, along with radiation protection procedures. (U.K.).

1988-01-01

192

Earthquake Hazards Module  

Science.gov (United States)

This learning module from the GeoTech Center provides a link to a zip file including a number of documents on earthquake hazards. The unit "focuses on ArcGIS Explorer, a free software tool that works on Microsoft operating systems. The software facilitates exploration and visualization of a broad range of geoscience datasets. ArcGIS Explorer incorporates a rich content of information for physical geography, geology, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, bathymetry, and other subjects." Two lessons are included, each of which requires approximately one to two hours of class time. The activities will give students valuable practice using ArcGIS Explorer.

2013-07-03

193

Nuclear hazards under control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper concerns the safety systems at British Nuclear Fuels Limited Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) at Sellafield. The use of Hazop and safety protection procedures were applied to the design of control systems for Thorp, and these are briefly described. Standards for safety and hazards are outlined, including reliability of design and monitoring in the environmental area. Thorp is also equipped with independent hardware-based protective interlocks, selective back-up alarms and emergency shutdown systems, and details of these systems are briefly given, along with radiation protection procedures. (U.K.).

Reeve, A.

1988-04-01

194

Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment.

Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1993-11-01

195

Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment

1993-01-01

196

Auditing hazardous waste incineration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that audit standards consisting of volatile and semivoltile organics have been established by the EPA to be provided to federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors for use in performance audits to assess the accuracy of measurement methods used during hazardous waste trial burns. The volatile organic audit standards currently total 29 gaseous organics in 5, 6, 7, 9, and 18-component mixtures at part-per-billion (ppb) levels (1 to 10 000 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders in a balance gas of nitrogen. The semivoltile organic audit standards currently total six organics which are spiked onto XAD-2 cartridges for auditing analysis procedures. Studies of all organic standards have been performed to determine the stability of the compounds and the feasibility of using them as performance audit materials. Results as of July 1987 indicate that all of the selected organic compounds are adequately stabile for use as reliable audit materials. Performance audits have been conducted with the audit materials to assess the accuracy of the measurement methods. To date, 160 performance audits have been initiated with the ppb-level audit gases. The audit results obtained with audit gases during hazardous waste trial burn tests were generally within ±50% of the audit concentrations. A limited number of audit results have been obtained with spiked XAD-2 cartridges, and the results have generally been within ±35% of the audit concentrations.

1990-01-01

197

Communication in hazardous environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radios were investigated for use in hazardous environments where protective breathing equipment such as plastic suits and respirators interfere with communication. A radio system, manufactured by Communications-Applied technology (C-AT), was identified that was designed specifically for hazardous environment communications. This equipment had been used successfully by the US Army and NASA for several years. C-AT equipment was evaluated in plantwide applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) using temporary frequencies obtained by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR). Radios performed well in all applications, which included a tritium facility, high-level caves, a nuclear reactor building, tank farm, and a canyon building interior. Permanent frequencies were obtained by DOE-SR for two complete six-man C-AT systems at SRP. Because of the relatively short range of these systems, replicates will cover all applications of this type of equipment plantwide. Twelve radio systems are currently being used successfully in plantwide applications.

Rankin, W N; Herold, T R

1986-01-01

198

Health concerns and hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses health effects of hazardous waste and emphasizes human health concerns related to establishing a hazardous waste management facility. The study reviewed world epidemiological and public health literature to identify cases of suspected or substantiated claims of public health impacts associated with hazardous waste management facilities and potential products or emissions from such facilities, and placed them into perspective, including possible routes and consequences of exposure, risk assessment, and the toxicity of selected organic and inorganic compounds.

Yassi, A.; Weeks, J.; Kraut, A.

1990-01-01

199

Is water security necessary? An empirical analysis of the effects of climate hazards on national-level economic growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of climate and the role of water security on economic growth are topics of growing interest. Few studies have investigated the potential role that climate hazards, which water security addresses, and their cumulative effects have on the growth prospects for a country. Owing to the relatively stationary spatial patterns of global climate, certain regions and countries are more prone to climate hazards and climate variability than others. For example, El Nino/Southern Oscillation patterns result in greater hydroclimatic variability in much of the tropics than that experienced at higher latitudes. In this study, we use a precipitation index that preserves the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and differentiates between precipitation maxima (e.g. floods) and minima (e.g. droughts). The index is a more precise instrument for hydroclimate hazards than that used in any previous studies. A fixed effects, for year and country, regression model was developed to test the influence of climate variables on measures of economic growth and activity. The results indicate that precipitation extremes (i.e. floods and droughts) are the dominant climate influences on economic growth and that the effects are significant and negative. The drought index was found to be associated with a highly significant negative influence on gross domestic product (GDP) growth, while the flood index was associated with a negative influence on GDP growth and lagged effects on growth. The flood index was also found to have a negative effect on industrial value added in contemporary and lagged regressions. Temperature was found to have little significant effect. These results have important implications for economic projections of climate change impacts. Perhaps more important, the results make clear that hydroclimatic hazards have measurable negative impacts, and thus lack of water security is an impediment to growth. In addition, adaptation strategies should recognize the importance of managing hazards given the identification of precipitation extremes as the key climate influence on historical GDP growth.

Brown C; Meeks R; Ghile Y; Hunu K

2013-01-01

200

Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment for solid waste management facilities in E-area not previously evaluated  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report documents the facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Solid Waste Management Department (SWMD) activities located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) within E Area that are not described in the EPHAs for Mixed Hazardous Waste storage, the TRU Waste Storage Pads or the E-Area Vaults. The hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in the SWMD operational emergency management program

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Management of hazardous occupational environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is a detailed guide to the identification, evaluation, and monitoring of workplace hazards; hazards related to dust, gas, noise, biological and infectious materials; flammable materials, chemicals, and others. It includes a review of analytical methods. This book is a guide to this area of management and details considerations and steps involved in the identification, assessment, and monitoring of a wide variety of common workplace hazards ranging from the obviously dangerous, such as explosives, to more subtly hazardous materials such as airborne irritants, noise, and vibration. Use of the information in this new professional book can lead to a safer workplace. Copies are now available for immediate delivery.

Cheremisinoff, P.N.

1984-01-01

202

Flood Hazard Recurrence Frequencies for the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Department of Energy (DOE) regulations outline the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. The NPH considered in this report is flooding. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve defines, as a function of water elevation, the annual probability of occurrence or the return period in years. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curves provide basis to avoid unnecessary facility upgrades, to establish appropriate design criteria for new facilities, and to develop emergency preparedness plans to mitigate the consequences of floods. A method based on precipitation, basin runoff and open channel hydraulics was developed to determine probabilistic flood hazard curves for the Savannah River Site. The calculated flood hazard curves show that the probabilities of flooding existing SRS major facilities are significantly less than 1.E-05 per year.

2001-07-11

203

The value of historical documents for hazard zone mapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assessment of historical data of small mountain torrents in Alpine catchment areas has shown a significant difference between the results of a regular hazard zone mapping and a thorough historical analysis. The Gemsbach in the Ostrach valley near Hinterstein (Municipality of Hindelang, southern Bavaria/Germany) serves, among others, as an example. A 'traditional' hazard zone for the Gemsbach has been mapped in the 1990s. The oldest event included in the analysis was the flood of 1954. But historical data collected and analysed by the HANG-project shows flood-prone areas around the Gemsbach differing greatly in size and location from the one shown in the hazard zone maps. The inclusion of all data available for the Gemsbach area (15 events between 1671 and 1960 collected from four different archives) leads to a completely new picture of the regional hazardous activity and demands a re-structuring of the traditional way of hazard zone mapping.

F. Barnikel

2004-01-01

204

Forecasting probabilistic seismic shaking for greater Tokyo from 400 years of intensity observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past shaking. We calculate the time-averaged (Poisson) probability of severe shaking by using more than 10,000 intensity observations recorded since AD 1600 in a 350 km-wide box centered on Tokyo. Unlike other hazard-assessment methods, source and site effects are included without modeling, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake nor the location and slip rate of any fault. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct here suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA ??? 6 shaking (??? PGA ??? 0.4 g or MMI ??? IX) is 30%-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10% 15% in Chiba and Tsukuba. This result means that there is a 30% chance that 4 million people will be subjected to IJMA ??? 6 shaking during an average 30-year period. We also produce exceedance maps of PGA for building-code regulations, and calculate short-term hazard associated with a hypothetical catastrophe bond. Our results resemble an independent assessment developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis for greater Tokyo. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Bozkurt, S. B.; Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.

2007-01-01

205

Ground subsidence geo-hazards induced by rapid urbanization: implications from InSAR observation and geological analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the convenient transportation and construction, cities are prone to be situated in areas with flat terrain and unstable sediments, resulting in the concurrence of ground subsidence and urbanization. Here the interaction between geology, anthropogenic processes and ground subsidence geo-hazards were investigated in the Greater Pearl River Delta region of China. Geological evidences and 2006–2010 persistent scatterer data indicate that anthropogenic activities are dominant, although the distribution of river system and Quaternary sediments are also highly related to significant displacements (primarily at a rate of ?15 to 15 mm a?1). The surface displacements derived by synthetic aperture radar interferometry suggest that the urbanization rhythm has to be routinely monitored. Considering analogous urbanization modes, particularly in developing countries, ground subsidence monitoring together with the analysis of its driving force are critical for geo-hazards early-warning, city planning as well as sustainable urbanization.

F. Chen; H. Lin; Y. Zhang; Z. Lu

2012-01-01

206

Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India  

Science.gov (United States)

In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the construction of cyclone shelters was being undertaken. The availability heuristics caused a perception of low probability of tsunami following an earthquake, as the last large similar event happened over a hundred years ago. Another led to a situation when decisions were taken on the basis of experience and not statistical evidence, namely, experience showed that the so-called "Ring of Fire" generates underground earthquakes and tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. This knowledge made decision-makers to neglect the numerical estimations about probability of underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean even though seismologists were warning about probability of a large underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The bounded rationality bias led to misperception of signals from the early warning center in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting limited concern resulted in risk mitigation measures that considered cyclone risks, but much less about tsunami. Under loss aversion considerations, the decision-makers perceived the losses connected with the necessary additional investment as being greater than benefits from mitigating a less probable hazard.

Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

2013-04-01

207

Danger, hazard, risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The real conditions covered by technical safety studies are described better by the term 'risk' instead of such qualitative terms as 'danger' or 'hazard'. 'Risk' incorporates not only the type of damage, the onset of damage, the probability of damage occurring, but also the extent of damage. In reliability and safety engineering, a probabilistic safety analysis is able to describe a plant most comprehensively by these three elements: What can happen? How frequently will it occur? What are the impacts to be taken into account? PSA is meaningful not only when applied to such technical areas in which there is a risk potential; the holistic analytical process optimizes any kind of system and plant in terms of availability and technical safety. (orig.)

1992-01-01

208

Radiological hazards of fusion reactors: models and comparisons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To facilitate an appraisal of the radiological hazards of fusion reactors, a comprehensive calculational scheme, referred to here as FUSEDOSE, was developed. For a given reactor configuration, FUSEDOSE calculates hazard indices for accidents, occupational exposures, and waste disposal. In the case of accident hazards, the indices calculated are the biological hazard potential (BHP), the dose at any point downwind, and the numbers of early deaths and illnesses and late cancer fatalities. For occupational hazards, the contact dose rate from several reactor components is computed. In the case of waste-disposal hazards, the maximum dose to an inadvertent intruder into a waste disposal site is calculated according to rules of 10 CFR Part 61; BHP and integrated BHP are calculated as well. The FUSEDOSE methodology was applied to reference fission- and fusion-reactor designs: a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) for fission, and the mirror advanced reactor study (MARS) design for fusion. For each class of hazard, the reference fusion design is found to have significant quantitative advantages over the reference fission design. The possibility of reducing each class of hazard through minor changes in the MARS design and major changes in reactor materials was explored.

Fetter, S.A.

1985-01-01

209

[Relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To clarify the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors is of significance to the prediction and evaluation of landslide and debris flow hazards. Base on the latitudinal and longitudinal information of 18431 landslide and debris flow hazards in China, and the 1 km x 1 km grid data of elevation, elevation difference, slope, slope aspect, vegetation type, and vegetation coverage, this paper analyzed the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards in this country to above-mentioned environmental factors by the analysis method of frequency ratio. The results showed that the landslide and debris flow hazards in China more occurred in lower elevation areas of the first and second transitional zones. When the elevation difference within a 1 km x 1 km grid cell was about 300 m and the slope was around 30 degree, there was the greatest possibility of the occurrence of landslide and debris hazards. Mountain forest land and slope cropland were the two land types the hazards most easily occurred. The occurrence frequency of the hazards was the highest when the vegetation coverage was about 80%-90%.

Zhang GP; Xu J; Bi BG

2009-03-01

210

Robotics and artificial intelligence for hazardous environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our technological society, hazardous materials including toxic chemicals, flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances, and biological agents, are used and handled routinely. Each year, many workers who handle these substances are accidently contaminated, in some cases resulting in injury, death, or chronic disabilities. If these hazardous materials could be handled remotely, either with a teleoperated robot (operated by a worker in a safe location) or by an autonomous robot, then human suffering and economic costs of accidental exposures could be dramatically reduced. At present, it is still difficult for commercial robotic technology to completely replace humans involved in performing complex work tasks in hazardous environments. The robotics efforts at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research represent a significant effort at contributing to the advancement of robotics for use in hazardous environments. While this effort is very broad-based, ranging from dextrous manipulation to mobility and integrated sensing, the technical portion of this paper will focus on machine learning and the high-level decision making needed for autonomous robotics.

1993-01-01

211

Robotics and artificial intelligence for hazardous environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In our technological society, hazardous materials including toxic chemicals, flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances, and biological agents, are used and handled routinely. Each year, many workers who handle these substances are accidently contaminated, in some cases resulting in injury, death, or chronic disabilities. If these hazardous materials could be handled remotely, either with a teleoperated robot (operated by a worker in a safe location) or by an autonomous robot, then human suffering and economic costs of accidental exposures could be dramatically reduced. At present, it is still difficult for commercial robotic technology to completely replace humans involved in performing complex work tasks in hazardous environments. The robotics efforts at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research represent a significant effort at contributing to the advancement of robotics for use in hazardous environments. While this effort is very broad-based, ranging from dextrous manipulation to mobility and integrated sensing, the technical portion of this paper will focus on machine learning and the high-level decision making needed for autonomous robotics.

Spelt, P.F.

1993-04-01

212

Greater collaboration across the disciplines: challenges and opportunities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports a panel discussion--Opportunities for and Limitations to Greater Collaboration Across the Disciplines--held at the conference. It highlights the need for greater collaboration between demographers and epidemiologists and notes the institutional and disciplinary challenges to and opportunities for promoting greater cooperation.

Weinstein M; Hermalin AI; Stoto MA; Evans VJ; Ewbank D; Haaga J; Ibrahim M; Madans J

2001-12-01

213

Greater collaboration across the disciplines: challenges and opportunities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports a panel discussion--Opportunities for and Limitations to Greater Collaboration Across the Disciplines--held at the conference. It highlights the need for greater collaboration between demographers and epidemiologists and notes the institutional and disciplinary challenges to and opportunities for promoting greater cooperation. PMID:11797863

Weinstein, M; Hermalin, A I; Stoto, M A; Evans, V J; Ewbank, D; Haaga, J; Ibrahim, M; Madans, J

2001-12-01

214

Climate change-induced impacts on urban flood risk influenced by concurrent hazards  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In coastal regions, several hazards may lead to floods, and if they occur concurrently, the damage will be higher than for the hazards individually. The paper outlines an approach for carrying out a risk analysis with several hazards and applies it on a case study in Greater Copenhagen where two hazards, rainfall and sea surge, are both important. The core in the methodology is the application of copula functions as an extension of one-dimensional risk analysis and projections of future climatic changes. The results for Greater Copenhagen indicate that the dependence between the hazards is weak and that climate change most likely will not increase the correlation. The overall change in flood return periods over a forecast horizon of 110 years are estimated to decrease by one to three orders of magnitude.

Pedersen, A. N.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

2012-01-01

215

Financial innovation and moral hazard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The key to understanding this financial crisis are the financial innovation and moral hazard concepts. Financial innovation consists of turning some non-liquid assets into liquid assets, tradable on the free market. Moral hazard refers to someone’s willingness to take excessive risks just because they know someone else will come and save them from the possible negative consequences.

Suciu, T.

2011-01-01

216

Waste Management Facilities Cost Information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, greater-than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic waste (TRU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste have been estimated previously, and a summary has been included in earlier WMFCI reports. In order to have a single source for obtaining transportation cost for all radioactive waste, the transportation costs for the contact- and remote-handled wastes are repeated in this report. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the US Department of Transportation (DOT), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations. It should be noted that the trend is toward greater restrictions on transportation of radioactive waste (e.g., truck or rail car speed, shipping route, security escort, and personnel training requirements), which may have a significant impact on future costs

1994-01-01

217

Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 microg/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlife

1995-01-01

218

Source book for volcanic hazards zonation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides the discussion of a survey of short-term and long-term volcanic hazard and risk, including types of potentially hazardous volcanic events, the information necessary for volcanic-hazards assessments. It also provides cartographic representation of volcanic hazard (with examples ranging from the French West Indies to the Philippines) and suggestions for the preparation of hazards-zonation maps.

Crandell, D.R.; Booth, B.; Kusumadinata, K.; Shimozuru, D.; Walker, G.P.L.; Westercamp, D.

1984-01-01

219

Seismic hazard assessment of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

B. Tavakoli; M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

1999-01-01

220

Tsunami Hazard in Crescent City, California from Kuril Islands earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

On November 15, Crescent City in Del Norte County, California was hit by a series of tsunami surges generated by the M = 8.3 Kuril Islands earthquake causing an estimated 9.7 million (US dollars) in damages to the small boat basin. This was the first significant tsunami loss on US territory since the 1964 Alaska tsunami. The damage occurred nearly 8 hours after the official tsunami alert bulletins had been cancelled. The tsunami caused no flooding and did not exceed the ambient high tide level. All of the damage was caused by strong currents, estimated at 12 to 15 knots, causing the floating docks to be pinned against the pilings and water to flow over them. The event highlighted problems in warning criteria and communications for a marginal event with the potential for only localized impacts, the vulnerability of harbors from a relatively modest tsunami, and the particular exposure of the Crescent City harbor area to tsunamis. It also illustrated the poor understanding of local officials of the duration of tsunami hazard. As a result of the November tsunami, interim changes were made by WCATWC to address localized hazards in areas like Crescent City. On January 13, 2007 when a M = 8.1 earthquake occurred in the Kuril Islands, a formal procedure was in place for hourly conference calls between WCATWC, California State Office of Emergency Services officials, local weather Service Offices and local emergency officials, significantly improving the decision making process and the communication among the federal, state and local officials. Kuril Island tsunamis are relatively common at Crescent City. Since 1963, five tsunamis generated by Kuril Island earthquakes have been recorded on the Crescent City tide gauge, two with amplitudes greater than 0.5 m. We use the MOST model to simulate the 2006, 2007 and 1994 events and to examine the difference between damaging and non-damaging events at Crescent City. Small changes in the angle of the rupture zone results can result in a half meter difference in water heights. We also look at the contribution of fault segments along the Kuril subduction zone using the FACTS server to look at the potentially most damaging source regions for Crescent City. A similar-sized rupture as the November 15 event located further south along the Hokkaido - Honshu area of the subduction zone, is likely to produce a slightly larger amplitude signal with and even greater delay between the first wave arrivals and the largest waves.

Dengler, L.; Uslu, B.; Barberopoulou, A.

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Prognostic and predictive significance of proliferation in 867 colorectal cancers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Recently, the Oncotype DX recurrence score, which measures a gene expression signature including markers of tumour proliferation, was validated as a prognostic signature in colorectal cancer. This study aimed to evaluate whether the Ki67 proliferation index can provide similar prognostic and predictive information. METHODS: Tissue microarrays were constructed from triplicate cores of colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemistry for Ki67 was performed with the SP6 antibody and the percentage of positive tumour cells scored. Prognostic significance was evaluated in 867 cancers (601 events) using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The Ki67 labelling index, divided at the median, was not a statistically or clinically significant prognostic factor in univariate analyses of 5-year overall survival (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.15, p=0.84). Multivariate analyses were similarly non-significant. However, in Dukes' stage C patients, the high Ki67 subgroup derived a greater 5-year overall survival benefit from chemotherapy (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.51, p<0.0001) than the low subgroup (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.89, p=0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The Ki67 proliferation index is not a useful prognostic factor in colorectal cancer, but deserves further evaluation as a predictive factor for the incremental benefit derived from adjuvant chemotherapy.

Fodor IK; Hutchins GG; Espiritu C; Quirke P; Jubb AM

2012-11-01

222

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of Babol, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Babol, one of big cities in north of Iran. Many destructive earthquakes happened in Iran in the last centuries. It comes from historical references that at least many times; Babol has been destroyed by catastrophic earthquakes. In this paper, the peak horizontal ground acceleration over the bedrock (PGA) is calculated by a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). For this reason, at first, a collected catalogue, containing both historical and instrumental events that occurred in a radius of 200 km of Babol city and covering the period from 874 to 2004 have been gathered. Then, seismic sources are modeled and recur¬rence relationship is established. After elimination of the aftershocks and foreshocks, the main earthquakes were taken into consideration to calculate the seismic parameters (SP) by Kijko method. The calculations were performed using the logic tree method and four weighted attenuation relationships Ghodrati, 0.35, Khademi, 0.25, Ambraseys and Simpson, 0.2, and Sarma and Srbulov, 0.2. Seismic hazard assessment is then carried out for 8 horizontal by 7 vertical lines grid points using SEISRISK III. Finally, two seismic hazard maps of the studied area based on Peak Horizontal Ground Acceleration (PGA) over bedrock for 2 and 10% probability of ex¬ceedance in one life cycles of 50 year are presented. These calculations have been performed by the Poisson distribution of two hazard levels. The results showed that the PGA ranges from 0.32 to 0.33 g for a return period of 475 years and from 0.507 to 0.527 g for a return period of 2475 years. Since population is very dense in Babol and vulnerability of buildings is high, the risk of future earthquakes will be very significant.

Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh; Mohsen Shahaky

2011-01-01

223

Greater diaphragm fatigability in individuals with recurrent low back pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The diaphragm plays an important role in spinal control. Increased respiratory demand compromises spinal control, especially in individuals with low back pain (LBP). The objective was to determine whether individuals with LBP exhibit greater diaphragm fatigability compared to healthy controls. Transdiaphragmatic twitch pressures (TwPdi) were recorded in 10 LBP patients and 10 controls, before and 20 and 45 min after inspiratory muscle loading (IML). Individuals with LBP showed a significantly decreased potentiated TwPdi, 20 min (-20%) (p=0.002) and 45 min (-17%) (p=0.006) after IML. No significant decline was observed in healthy individuals, 20 min (-9%) (p=0.662) and 45 min (-5%) (p=0.972) after IML. Diaphragm fatigue (TwPdi fall ? 10%) was present in 80% (20 min after IML) and 70% (45 min after IML) of the LBP patients compared to 40% (p=0.010) and 30% (p=0.005) of the controls, respectively. Individuals with LBP exhibit propensity for diaphragm fatigue, which was not observed in controls. An association with reduced spinal control warrants further study.

Janssens L; Brumagne S; McConnell AK; Hermans G; Troosters T; Gayan-Ramirez G

2013-08-01

224

Greater diaphragm fatigability in individuals with recurrent low back pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diaphragm plays an important role in spinal control. Increased respiratory demand compromises spinal control, especially in individuals with low back pain (LBP). The objective was to determine whether individuals with LBP exhibit greater diaphragm fatigability compared to healthy controls. Transdiaphragmatic twitch pressures (TwPdi) were recorded in 10 LBP patients and 10 controls, before and 20 and 45 min after inspiratory muscle loading (IML). Individuals with LBP showed a significantly decreased potentiated TwPdi, 20 min (-20%) (p=0.002) and 45 min (-17%) (p=0.006) after IML. No significant decline was observed in healthy individuals, 20 min (-9%) (p=0.662) and 45 min (-5%) (p=0.972) after IML. Diaphragm fatigue (TwPdi fall ? 10%) was present in 80% (20 min after IML) and 70% (45 min after IML) of the LBP patients compared to 40% (p=0.010) and 30% (p=0.005) of the controls, respectively. Individuals with LBP exhibit propensity for diaphragm fatigue, which was not observed in controls. An association with reduced spinal control warrants further study. PMID:23727158

Janssens, Lotte; Brumagne, Simon; McConnell, Alison K; Hermans, Greet; Troosters, Thierry; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine

2013-05-31

225

40 CFR 721.72 - Hazard communication program.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (C) A statement of environmental hazard(s) and precautionary measure... (g) Human health, environmental hazard, exposure, and precautionary...following human health and environmental hazard, exposure, and...

2010-07-01

226

Recruitment advantage of large seeds is greater in shaded habitats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large seeds are assumed to have higher probability of successful recruitment than small seeds. This is because larger seeds give rise to larger seedlings and larger seedlings better withstand environmental hazards like deep shade and drought. Biotic and abiotic limitations to seedling growth and sur...

Bruun, Hans Henrik; ten Brink, Dirk-Jan

227

Severe Pain Predicts Greater Likelihood of Subsequent Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from the 1999 Large Health Survey of Veterans, Veterans Affairs' medical records, and the National Death Index (N = 260,254), the association between self-reported pain severity and suicide among veterans as examined, after accounting for demographic variables and psychiatric diagnoses. A Cox proportional hazards regression demonstrated…

Ilgen, Mark A.; Zivin, Kara; Austin, Karen L.; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Czyz, Ewa K.; Valenstein, Marcia; Kilbourne, Amy M.

2010-01-01

228

Severe Pain Predicts Greater Likelihood of Subsequent Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

|Using data from the 1999 Large Health Survey of Veterans, Veterans Affairs' medical records, and the National Death Index (N = 260,254), the association between self-reported pain severity and suicide among veterans as examined, after accounting for demographic variables and psychiatric diagnoses. A Cox proportional hazards regression…

Ilgen, Mark A.; Zivin, Kara; Austin, Karen L.; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Czyz, Ewa K.; Valenstein, Marcia; Kilbourne, Amy M.

2010-01-01

229

Linking emerging hazardous waste technologies with the electronic information era  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In looking to the future and the development of new approaches or strategies for managing hazardous waste, it is important to understand and appreciate the factors that have contributed to current successful approaches. In the United States, several events in the last two decades have had a significant impact in advancing remediation of hazardous waste, including environmental legislation, legislative reforms on licensing federally funded research, and electronic transfer of information. Similar activities also have occurred on a global level. While each of these areas is significant, the electronic exchange of information has no national boundaries and has become an active part of major hazardous waste research and management programs. It is important to realize that any group or society that is developing a comprehensive program in hazardous waste management should be able to take advantage of this advanced approach in the dissemination of information. 6 refs., 1 tab.

Anderson, B.E.; Suk, W.A. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Blackard, B. [Technology Planning and Management Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

1996-12-31

230

Radon -- an environmental hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Humans have always been exposed throughout its period of experience to naturally occurring sources of ionizing radiation or natural background radiation, It is an established fact that even these low background doses are harmful to man and cause increased cancer risk. About half of our radiation comes from radon, a radioactive gas coming from normal materials in the ground. Several building materials such as granite, bricks, sand, cement etc., contain uranium in various amounts. The radioactive gas /sup 222/Rn produced in these materials due to decay of 226Ra is transported to indoor air through diffusion and convective flow. It seeps out of soil and rocks, well water, building materials and other sources at a varied rate. Amongst the naturally occurring radioisotopes, radon is the most harmful one that can be a cause of lung cancer. Radon isotopes are born by the decay of radium and radium production in turns comes from uranium or thorium decay. For humans the greatest importance among Radon isotopes is attributed to /sup 222/Rn because it is the longest lived of the three naturally produced isotopes. Drinking water also poses a threat. Radon gas is dissolved in water and is released into the air via water faucets, showerheads, etc. the lack of understanding has so far lead to speculative estimates of pollutant related health hazards. (author)

2005-01-01

231

Pricing hazardous substance emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

1997-12-31

232

Fire hazard lifesaving device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a fire hazard life-saving device, comprising a shell, a shell cover and a lifting ring a mandrel is arranged in the shell both ends of the mandrel are supported in the supporting seat of the shell and the shell cover a big gear wheel and a reel suspension dish with an annular recess are arranged on the mandrel a pinion which is jogged with the big gear wheel is arranged the shaft lever of the pinion is also supported in the supporting seat of the shell and the shell cover one end of the shaft lever which is near the shell is fixed with a centrifugal speed limiting device on the shaft lever of the pinion the centrifugal speed limiting device comprises two symmetrical centrifugal blocks connected through a spring the external periphery of the centrifugal speed limiting device is provided with a brake slice made of the metallic filament and the asbestos powder rope limiting slices comprising a movable sleeve and a pin post are respectively arranged at both sides of the lower part of the reel suspension dish the shell and the shell cover are made of aluminum alloy.

JIN JUNHUA

233

Analysis determines hazards in pump start-up procedure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simple and seemingly safe start-up procedure for offshore triplex condensate pumps was shown to be hazardous because of frequent automatic shutdown. An inability to start the triplex plunger pumps at high suction pressure was the reason for wanting to use the modified procedures. These procedures involved depressurizing the pumps and required several manual operations. Because start-ups and shutdowns are inherently hazardous, frequent automatic emergency shutdown is generally undesirable. Therefore, the modified start-up procedure was not recommended with the present pumping system during normal platform operations if the well pressure was greater than 65 bar (942 psi). The paper describes the condensate flow on an offshore platform, the hazard analysis using the Hazop technique, the modified start-up, and fault tree analysis.

Chary, V.; Veeranna, D.; Naik, K.A.; Yugandhar, G.V.; Khan, A.A. (Indian Inst. of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad (India))

1993-02-22

234

DETERMINISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE TSUNAMI HAZARD IN CHINA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seismic hazard analysis has reached a level of maturity in China. Such work has contributed significantly towards improvements of the national infrastructure in effecting programs of disaster preparedness and mitigation. However, the work on tsunami risk assessment is still in a preliminary stage. The present study proposes a deterministic method of tsunami hazard analysis based on coastal bathymetry and morphology, as well as on mathematical simulations, and evaluates the potential tsunami risk to China’s coastal areas.

Yefei Ren; Ruizhi Wen; Baofeng Zhou; Dacheng Shi

2010-01-01

235

Environmental hazard assessment of chemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The system developed for the ground level concerns of the Chemicals Act intends to provide an internationally acceptable, evaluable and reproducable method which for the evaluation of new chemicals can offer - a standardized and transparent frame flexible enough to be applied to exceptional cases, - comparative evaluations of the environmental hazards of any given number of chemicals using ground level test parameters, - conformity with other environmental hazard assessment practices applied by the authorities of the EC member states. The paper presents the procedure and results of the environmental hazard analysis of one substance.

Klein, W.; Koerdel, W.; Weiss, M.; Klein, A.W.

1988-01-01

236

Space debris hazard to defense systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural and man-made debris are argued to present hazards to space systems, but recent data indicate that at low altitudes, the impact rates from small particles may have been overestimated by an order of magnitude. At high altitudes, small particles only present an impact hazard to large satellites; they would not support a cascade. Large particles would apparently produce a cascade only on time scales of centuries or millennia. Radar and optical data should be capable of resolving these uncertainties, but their observations are, as yet, inconsistent. While independent analytic and numerical estimates of collision and cascade rates agree, given consistent inputs, different groups produced significantly different estimates of debris growth rates. This note examines the basis for these discrepancies.

Canavan, G.H.

1996-05-01

237

Risk management at hazardous waste sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) provided the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with additional resources and direction for the identification, evaluation, and remediation of hazardous waste sites in the United States. SARA established more stringent requirements for the Superfund program, both in terms of the pace of the program and the types of remedial alternatives selected. The central requirement is that remedial alternatives be ''protective of public health and the environment'' and ''significantly and permanently'' reduce the toxicity, mobility, or volume of contaminants. The mandate also requires that potential risk be considered in the decision-making process. This document discusses risk management at hazardous waste sites. Topics include selection of sites for placement on the National Priority List, risk assessment and the decision process, risk reduction and remedial alternative selection, and aquifer restoration. 10 refs., 2 figs

1990-01-01

238

Risk management at hazardous waste sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) provided the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with additional resources and direction for the identification, evaluation, and remediation of hazardous waste sites in the United States. SARA established more stringent requirements for the Superfund program, both in terms of the pace of the program and the types of remedial alternatives selected. The central requirement is that remedial alternatives be protective of public health and the environment'' and significantly and permanently'' reduce the toxicity, mobility, or volume of contaminants. The mandate also requires that potential risk be considered in the decision-making process. This document discusses risk management at hazardous waste sites. Topics include selection of sites for placement on the National Priority List, risk assessment and the decision process, risk reduction and remedial alternative selection, and aquifer restoration. 10 refs., 2 figs.

Travis, C.C.; Doty, C.B.

1990-01-01

239

Using fewer animals to identify chemical eye hazards: revised criteria necessary to maintain equivalent hazard classification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

U.S. Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA) regulations specify eye safety testing procedures and hazard classification criteria for substances regulated by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). Current regulations require up to three sequential 6-animal tests. Testing consistent with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline for eye irritation/corrosion, which specifies 3 animals, can also be submitted to US agencies. However, current FHSA regulations do not provide criteria to classify results from 3-animal tests. An analysis was conducted to determine criteria using results from 3-animal tests that would provide equivalent labeling to FHSA regulations. The frequency that FHSA requirements identify substances as ocular irritants was compared with the frequency that a criterion of either ? 1/3 or ? 2/3 positive animals would identify these substances. A database of rabbit eye tests was also used to estimate over- and underprediction rates for each criterion. In each instance, a criterion of ? 1/3 positive animals more closely matched the expected outcome based on FHSA requirements, while a criterion of ? 2/3 positive animals identified far fewer irritants. Using a classification criterion of ? 1/3 positive animals provided equivalent or greater eye hazard labeling as current FHSA requirements, while using 50-83% fewer animals.

Haseman JK; Allen DG; Lipscomb EA; Truax JF; Stokes WS

2011-10-01

240

Effect of hazard warning on workers' attitudes and risk taking behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Until recently, the issue of job hazards has been largely ignored as a research and theoretical topic in business and management disciplines although workers' perceptions and assessments of job hazards are of significance to managers. In this paper are reported results of an experiment conducted in Egyptian chemical firms to test the generality of an implicit rational model used to explain employees' reactions to and perceptions of job hazards. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) workers' subjective estimates of their job hazards are positively related to the objective hazard, (2) workers' subjective estimates of a prospective new job hazard will vary directly with the extent of hazard communicated by the new product label, (3) workers' demand for new hazard wage premiums will vary directly with perceived prospective new work hazards, (4) workers' intention to quit the job will vary directly with subjective and objective estimates of job hazards. All hypotheses were supported. The rational worker model appears to be a general explanation for workers' responses to hazardous jobs and information on hazards. This model not only holds for USA workers but also for those in a nonwestern culture. Implications for management and the industrial setting are discussed.

Farid MI; Lirtzman SI

1991-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effect of hazard warning on workers' attitudes and risk taking behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Until recently, the issue of job hazards has been largely ignored as a research and theoretical topic in business and management disciplines although workers' perceptions and assessments of job hazards are of significance to managers. In this paper are reported results of an experiment conducted in Egyptian chemical firms to test the generality of an implicit rational model used to explain employees' reactions to and perceptions of job hazards. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) workers' subjective estimates of their job hazards are positively related to the objective hazard, (2) workers' subjective estimates of a prospective new job hazard will vary directly with the extent of hazard communicated by the new product label, (3) workers' demand for new hazard wage premiums will vary directly with perceived prospective new work hazards, (4) workers' intention to quit the job will vary directly with subjective and objective estimates of job hazards. All hypotheses were supported. The rational worker model appears to be a general explanation for workers' responses to hazardous jobs and information on hazards. This model not only holds for USA workers but also for those in a nonwestern culture. Implications for management and the industrial setting are discussed. PMID:1862197

Farid, M I; Lirtzman, S I

1991-04-01

242

Pyroclastic flow hazard at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica: scenarios and assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work provides a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of pyroclastic flow hazard at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica, during the recent period of volcanic activity. It uses the geophysical flow model TITAN2D to analyze and summarize pyroclastic flow hazard patterns associated with the topographic development of the volcanic edifice ("radial hazard pattern") and to an observed evolution in the nature of pyroclastic flows at Arenal ("concentric hazard pattern"). In this regard, a new classification of pyroclastic flows of gravitational origin at Arenal is proposed and characterized, presenting different levels of associated hazardousness. TITAN2D has been used as a basis to produce pyroclastic flow hazard maps for two defined scenarios: a "current" hazard scenario, considered as being fairly representative of the present-day situation at Arenal; and another scenario which is thought could represent a stage in future pyroclastic flow hazard where crater C has largely engulfed crater D as a result of topographic change. These two maps show significantly different hazard distributions, and demonstrate the need for frequent updates of hazard assessments in this and other similarly dynamic volcanic settings. In the case of Arenal, this implies a need for regularly updating the topographic models of the volcano to capture topographic changes that impact the distribution of volcanic flow hazard. Furthermore, this work provides a detailed evaluation of TITAN2D regarding its suitability to form the basis of such hazard assessments.

Oramas-Dorta, Delioma; Cole, Paul D.; Wadge, Geoff; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Soto, Gerardo J.

2012-12-01

243

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to develop a field-portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection using active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence (active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen). It should provide rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map areas of greatest contamination. Results indicate that ANET is very sensitive for monitoring heavy metals (Hg, Se) and hydrocarbons; furthermore, chlorinated hydrocarbons can be distinguished from nonchlorinated ones. Sensitivity is at ppB levels for sampling in air. ANET appears ideal for on-line monitoring of toxic heavy metal levels at building sites, hazardous waste land fills, in combustor flues, and of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels at building sites and hazardous waste dumps

1994-01-01

244

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy.

Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J. [Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, MA (United States)

1995-10-01

245

Seismic Hazard Mapping for Guatemala.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seismic risk study for Guatemala includes the collection and description of geological and seismological environment and the use of that information in developing iso-acceleration maps of Guatemala. Results are given on future probable seismic hazard ...

A. S. Kiremidjian H. C. Shah L. Lubetkin

1977-01-01

246

Toxic hazards of underground excavation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

1982-09-01

247

Major hazards onshore and offshore  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author).

248

Confidence Bands under Proportional Hazards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asymptotic simultaneous confidence bands are derived for the survival function under the proportional hazards model of random right-censorship. These bands are based on the maximum likelihood estimater of the survival function, rather than the well-known ...

M. Hollander E. Pena

1986-01-01

249

FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

2001-01-22

250

Quantitative Hazard and Risk Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a quantitative method for hazard and risk analysis is discussed. The method was developed and introduced for the allocation of safety requirements to the functions of a railway signaling remote control system.

Geza Tarnai; Balazs Saghi; Izabela Krbilova

2006-01-01

251

Toxic hazards of underground excavation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

1982-01-01

252

Electrocution Hazards on the Farm  

Science.gov (United States)

... 1265k Revised March 2013 Electrocution hazards on the farm Farmstead safety Rain clouds are moving in quickly ... anything. This scenario is repeated on dozens of farms throughout the United States each year. Electrocution is ...

253

Reproductive Hazards in the Workplace  

Science.gov (United States)

... briefly with the hazards of anesthetic agents and antineoplastic drug exposures in the hospital setting. Controlling Occupational ... is processed, used or handled. Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Agents . National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( ...

254

Training nurses to support greater patient engagement in haemodialysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Evidence supports the view that people with long term conditions who are encouraged to take a greater interest in their treatment can experience a range of health benefits. Traditionally centre-based haemodialysis patients have been passive recipients whilst nurses have been deliverers of care. The Shared Haemodialysis Care (SHC) programme changes this relationship. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to initiate a programme of education in SHC across Yorkshire and Humber in North England, with its objective to support centre-based patients to take on aspects of their own treatment. DESIGN & PARTICIPANTS: A three tiered training model was designed to educate all grades of nursing staff. Central to this approach was the development of a four day competency based course aimed at training 25% of junior sisters/charge nurses, staff nurses and Level 3 health care assistants (unqualified nurses). MEASUREMENTS/APPROACH: We measured the number of staff trained and assessed staff knowledge using a pre and post course questionnaire. Individual course day evaluations and 'Light bulb moment 'sessions captured qualitative data and a census form relating to interest in and uptake of SHC captured patient engagement data. RESULTS: The pre and post delegate questionnaires from every cohort have demonstrated significant positive shifts in all the objectives of the training programme. The target of 25% of staff trained has been reached in all but one group of units. A third of all patients across Yorkshire and Humber are significantly engaged in their haemodialysis care. CONCLUSION: A nurse-led education programme can provide nurse participants with the tools to encourage and support patients to become more engaged in their haemodialysis treatment.

Barnes T; Hancock K; Dainton M

2013-09-01

255

Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action  

Science.gov (United States)

Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides insights…

Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

256

Greater saphenous venous access as an alternative in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: In children, the greater saphenous vein provides a safe, suitable alternative for venous access, particularly in very young children (<10 kg) and in a select group of older children who are not mobile. In the lower extremities, greater saphenous venous puncture and access may be a preferred initial access site in small children to preserve future venous access.

Aria DJ; Vatsky S; Kaye R; Schaefer C; Towbin R

2013-10-01

257

Occupational hazards facing orthopedic surgeons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Physicians are exposed to occupational hazards of which they are often unaware. Orthopedic surgery has a particularly hazardous work environment in which surgeons are at increased risk for exposure to infection, radiation, smoke, chemicals, excessive noise, musculoskeletal injuries, as well as emotional and psychological disturbances. Understanding these risks and the precautions that can be taken to avoid them will help protect orthopedic surgeons from potential harm.

Lester JD; Hsu S; Ahmad CS

2012-03-01

258

[Angiofibrolipoma of the greater omentum: case report and literature review].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Primary solid tumors of the greater omentum are extremely rare. Lipomas, leiomyomas, fibromas, and neurofibromas have been described as benign tumors of the greater omentum, but angiofibrolipomas have not. CLINICAL CASE: We present the case of a 39-year-old male with a 3-day evolution of right lower quadrant abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. McBurney, Psoas, Obturator and Markle signs were all positive. Laboratory analysis revealed leukocytosis and bandemia. Abdominal ultrasound showed free fluid and an undefined mass suggestive of complicated acute appendicitis. Emergency midline laparotomy demonstrated a tumor of the greater omentum with areas of ischemia, necrosis and hemorrhage. Histological exam revealed angiofibrolipoma of the greater omentum. CONCLUSIONS: Angiofibrolipoma of the greater omentum may present as a surgical emergency due to torsion. When a tumor of the omentum is found during surgery, complete excision is the treatment of choice when a definitive histology result is received.

Pérez-Navarro JV; Flores-Cardoza A; Anaya-Prado R; González-Izquierdo Jde J; Ramírez-Barba EJ

2009-05-01

259

Hazardous politics: toxic waste and American government  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study uses the case of hazardous waste facility siting to explain why the American political system is hard put to overcome the local opposition. The fragmentation of political authority gives local opponents many routes of attack, just as it gives officials many ways to avoid responsibility. Siting essentially unwanted facilities has never been easy, but the task has grown more difficult in recent years. Surveying technical literature and public opinion polls, this study describes increasing scientific knowledge and public awareness about the potential risks of hazardous waste facilities and other bile barrels. It examines development in administrative law that have given citizens greater power to act on their concerns. States have tried a number of procedures to satisfy or overrule local opposition. Nevertheless, four case studies from New York and Massachusetts indicate that such procedures are likely to fall short when a passionate local opposition enjoys a wide array of political weapons. Decision makers can and should take a number of further steps to accommodate legitimate local interests and improve intergovernmental coordination. But as long as the US retains its basic political structure, opportunities for buck passing and blockage will persist.

Pitney, J.J. Jr.

1985-01-01

260

Chrome-bearing hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

HSWA (Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments) established statutory deadlines for prohibition of land disposal of three categories of waste which EPA has labeled the first-third, second-third, and third-third. Effective November 8, 1986, the statute prohibits the land disposal (except by deep-well injection) of dioxin-containing hazardous wastes and solvent-containing hazardous wastes (first-third rule wastes). Effective July 8, 1987, the statue prohibits disposal (except deep-well injection) for the second-third listing of hazardous wastes, called the California list. The third-third listing of hazardous wastes includes other scheduled and newly identified wastes considered hazardous under 400 CFR, 268.12. Third-third wastes can be disposed if respective treatment standards established by EPA are met. The focus of this paper is one particular waste on the third-third list, that is, land disposal restrictions for D007 chrome waste. The 200-plus page Final Rule for third-third waste was approved by EPA May 8, 1990, and was published in the June 1, 1990, Federal Register.

Marvin, C.G. (Refractories Inst., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1993-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

When is statistical significance not significant?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The article provides a non-technical introduction to the p value statistics. Its main purpose is to help researchers make sense of the appropriate role of the p value statistics in empirical political science research. On methodological grounds, we use replication, simulations and observational data to show when statistical significance is not significant. We argue that: (1) scholars must always graphically analyze their data before interpreting the p value; (2) it is poi (more) ntless to estimate the p value for non-random samples; (3) the p value is highly affected by the sample size, and (4) it is pointless to estimate the p value when dealing with data on population.

Figueiredo Filho, Dalson Britto; Paranhos, Ranulfo; Rocha, Enivaldo C. da; Batista, Mariana; Silva Jr., José Alexandre da; Santos, Manoel L. Wanderley D.; Marino, Jacira Guiro

2013-01-01

262

Improving tamper detection for hazardous waste security  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide improved levels of security for the hazardous materials in their charge. Many low-level wastes that previously had minimal or no security must now be well protected, while high-level wastes require even greater levels of security than previously employed. This demand for improved security comes, in many cases, without waste managers being provided the necessary additional funding, personnel, or security expertise. Contributing to the problem is the fact that--at least in our experience--waste managers often fail to appreciate certain types of security vulnerabilities. They frequently overlook or underestimate the security risks associated with disgruntled or compromised insiders, or the potential legal and political liabilities associated with nonexistent or ineffective security. Also frequently overlooked are potential threats from waste management critics who could resort to sabotage, vandalism, or civil disobedience for purposes of discrediting a waste management program.

Johnston, R. G. (Roger G.); Garcia, A. R. E. (Anthony R. E.); Pacheco, A. N. (Adam N.); Trujillo, S. J. (Sonia J.); Martinez, R. K. (Ronald K.); Martinez, D. D. (Debbie D.); Lopez, L. N. (Leon N.)

2002-01-01

263

Hazard of recurrence and adjuvant treatment effects over time in lymph node-negative breast cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: For patients with axillary lymph node-negative breast cancer, benefits from adjuvant therapy are smaller than in node-positive disease and thus more selective use is warranted, prompting development of risk profiling to identify those most likely to benefit. Examination of the magnitude and changes in the hazard of failure over time in node-negative breast cancer may also be informative in this regard. METHODS: Among 9,444 participants from five randomized trials (accrual 1982-1998) investigating chemotherapy and tamoxifen for node-negative breast cancer, we estimated recurrence hazards over time by tumor estrogen receptor (ER) status and adjuvant treatment. RESULTS: In patients treated by surgery only, we observed the previously noted larger hazard peak followed by a rapid decrease in ER-negative patients and smaller but more persistent hazard in ER-positive patients. After approximately 48 months, the ER-positive hazard is greater. For adjuvant treatment, while tamoxifen decreases the early hazard in ER-positive patients to that of the chemotherapy-treated ER-negative group, in later follow-up (beyond 5 years) the hazard for ER-positive patients again exceeds that of ER-negative patients. Adding chemotherapy to tamoxifen in ER-positive patients results in large early hazard reduction, but in later follow-up the hazard converges with those of patients treated by surgery only or tamoxifen. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrence hazards over time reveal changes in risk that may have biologic and therapeutic strategy relevance. In ER-negative tumors, a large early chemotherapy benefit is followed by a consistently low recurrence hazard over time. In ER-positive patients, the chemotherapy benefit appears concentrated mostly in earlier follow-up, and a greater recurrence risk remains.

Dignam JJ; Dukic V; Anderson SJ; Mamounas EP; Wickerham DL; Wolmark N

2009-08-01

264

Spacecraft Charging and Hazards to Electronics in Space  

CERN Multimedia

The interaction of a space system with its orbital environment is a major consideration in the design of any space system, since a variety of hazards are associated with the operation of spacecraft in the harsh space environment. In this brief review, two types of hazards to Earth-orbiting spacecraft are discussed: spacecraft charging and radiation hazards to spacecraft electronics, with emphasis on the natural environmental factors and interactions which contribute to these hazards. Following a summary of the historical eras of spacecraft charging and some observations from experimental satellites: SCATHA, CRRES and DMSP, environmental factors significant to spacecraft charging are discussed, including plasma interactions, electric and magnetic fields and solar radiation. Spacecraft charging depends on the spacecraft geometry, as well as on the characteristics of its orbit, since the natural environment may differ for each type of orbit. Low altitude orbiting satellites (LEO) usually experience less charging...

Mikaelian, Tsoline

2009-01-01

265

Hazardous healthcare waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazardous healthcare waste has become an environmental concern for many developing countries including the Kingdom of Bahrain. There have been several significant obstacles facing the Kingdom in dealing with this issue including; limited documentation regarding generation, handling, management, and disposal of waste. This in turn hinders efforts to plan better healthcare waste management. In this paper, hazardous waste management status in the Kingdom has been investigated through an extensive survey carried out on selected public and private healthcare premises. Hazardous waste management practices including: waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal were determined. The results of this study along with key findings are discussed and summarized. In addition; several effective recommendations and improvements of hazardous waste management are suggested.

2009-01-01

266

Pediatric exposure to choking hazards is associated with parental knowledge of choking hazards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate parental knowledge regarding household food and non-food choking hazards. DESIGN: Cross Sectional Survey. SETTING: Tertiary Care Children's Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Parents presenting to a Pediatric Otolaryngology Clinic with a child <4 years old. METHODS: Parental survey asking which choking hazard foods (CHF) they allow their child to eat, previous instruction of CHF, knowledge of non-food choking hazards, and their knowledge sources. Statistics: adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and logistic regressions. RESULTS: 492 respondents. Adjusted for significant covariates associations between correct knowledge of CHF and correct parents actions of disallowing CHF: fruit chunks (prior instruction=42%; correct action=25%; AOR=3.51; P<0.0001), hot dogs (59%; 28%; 1.75; 0.0178), raw vegetables (41%; 47%; 1.28; 0.198) popcorn (67%; 49% 2.64; <0.0001), whole grapes (68%; 51%; 2.2; <0.0001), nuts (73%; 66%; 2.47; <0.0001), chunks of peanut butter (45%; 79%; 2.55; 0.0003), sticky candy (79%; 80%; 2.16; <0.0033), gum (72%; 84%; 1.75; 0.028), seeds (65%; 87%; 1.4; 0.247), 76% always supervise meals, 57% always cut food, 62% know CPR. KNOWLEDGE OF NON-FOOD HAZARDS: Coins (97%), marbles (94%), small batteries (93%), small toy parts (93%), dice (92%), pen caps (92%), safety pins (85%), balloons (84%), syringes (40%). Sources of choking hazard knowledge: physicians (67%), family/friends (52%), books/magazines (40%), and the Internet (25%). CONCLUSIONS: Parental knowledge of CHF is incomplete. The consumption of CHF in children under 4 is significantly associated with decreased parental knowledge. Therefore, more parental education is needed.

Nichols BG; Visotcky A; Aberger M; Braun NM; Shah R; Tarima S; Brown DJ

2012-02-01

267

Earthquake beliefs and adoption of seismic hazard adjustments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the prevalence of both accurate and erroneous earthquake-related beliefs among a sample of Southern California college students and the relationship between their endorsement of earthquake beliefs and adoption of seismic hazard adjustments. In addition, the study examined the effects of an experimental earthquake education program and the impact of need for cognition on this program. The data revealed a significant degree of agreement with earthquake myths, a generally low level of correlation between earthquake beliefs and the level of hazard adjustments, and a significant effect of hazard information on the endorsement of accurate earthquake beliefs and increases in hazard adjustment. Compared with the "Earthquake Facts (Only)" format, an "Earthquake Myths versus Facts" format was slightly more useful for dispelling erroneous beliefs. Further, there was a tendency for those who were high in need for cognition to have higher levels of hazard adjustment. Finally, there was weak support for the hypothesis that those who were low in need for cognition would develop more accurate earthquake beliefs and higher levels of hazard adjustment in the "Earthquake Myths versus Facts" information condition.

Whitney DJ; Lindell MK; Nguyen HH

2004-02-01

268

Earthquake beliefs and adoption of seismic hazard adjustments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the prevalence of both accurate and erroneous earthquake-related beliefs among a sample of Southern California college students and the relationship between their endorsement of earthquake beliefs and adoption of seismic hazard adjustments. In addition, the study examined the effects of an experimental earthquake education program and the impact of need for cognition on this program. The data revealed a significant degree of agreement with earthquake myths, a generally low level of correlation between earthquake beliefs and the level of hazard adjustments, and a significant effect of hazard information on the endorsement of accurate earthquake beliefs and increases in hazard adjustment. Compared with the "Earthquake Facts (Only)" format, an "Earthquake Myths versus Facts" format was slightly more useful for dispelling erroneous beliefs. Further, there was a tendency for those who were high in need for cognition to have higher levels of hazard adjustment. Finally, there was weak support for the hypothesis that those who were low in need for cognition would develop more accurate earthquake beliefs and higher levels of hazard adjustment in the "Earthquake Myths versus Facts" information condition. PMID:15028003

Whitney, David J; Lindell, Michael K; Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D

2004-02-01

269

Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Kendrick, C.M.

1990-12-01

270

Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards.

Elless, M.P. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: elless@edenspace.com; Ferguson, B.W. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: ferguson@edenspace.com; Bray, C.A. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: bray@edenspace.com; Patch, S. [Environmental Quality Institute, University of North Carolina, One University Heights, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)], E-mail: patch@unca.edu; Mielke, H. [College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States)], E-mail: hmielke@xula.edu; Blaylock, M.J. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: blaylock@edenspace.com

2008-11-15

271

Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards.

2008-01-01

272

Hazard classification or risk assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage and to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be substantial enough to be a risk. A hazard does not necessarily constitute a risk, as efforts can be done to minimize risk by reducing the exposure. Thus, the relationship between hazard and risk must be treated cautiously. Fora robust risk assessment good data on exposure to the substance is needed and exposure data for other similarly acting substances are needed for assessing the risk for mixture effects. Such data may, however, often be absent. Toxicological potency, i.e. the lowest dose found to cause adverse effects, has been proposed as one of the key characteristics when evaluating safety of a substance. However, this may be a poor substitute for a proper risk assessment as low potency substances can constitute a risk if the exposure is high enough and vice versa. Examples illustrating the strength and limitations of hazard classification, risk assessment and toxicological potency will be presented with focus on reproductive toxicants and especially endocrine disrupters. Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Hass, Ulla

2013-01-01

273

Radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated wastes are discussed in this overview in terms of two components of hazard: radiobiological hazard, and radioecological hazard. Radiobiological hazard refers to human uptake of alpha-emitters by inhalation and ingestion, and the resultant dose to critical organs of the body. Radioecological hazard refers to the processes of release from buried wastes, transport in the environment, and translocation to man through the food chain. Besides detailing the sources and magnitude of hazards, this brief review identifies the uncertainties in their estimation, and implications for the regulatory process.

Rodgers, J.C.

1982-01-01

274

Water chlorination: essential process or cancer hazard?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chlorine has been successfully used for the control of waterborne infectious disease for nearly a century. In the 1970s it was found that chlorine reacted with natural organic matter present in surface waters to produce disinfection by-products (DBP). Concern focused initially on the trihalomethanes (THM), but a wide variety of DBPs are now known to result from chlorination. Chlorination of drinking water has been one of the most effective public health measures ever undertaken. There are a number of alternatives to chlorination that are in active use in many parts of the world, but the risks associated with their by-products are even less well established than for chlorination. Moreover, the use of these alternatives vary in their effectiveness and some require greater sophistication in their application. This can mean less protection to public health as a result of inappropriate application and control. Therefore, hazards associated with the use of such a clearly beneficial process as chlorination must be carefully considered not only in an absolute sense, but also in the context of alternative approaches for producing a safe drinking water. The key question is whether the hazards associated with by-products have been sufficiently well established to warrant regulations that will undoubtedly have both positive and negative impacts on the public health. This symposium examined the toxicological and epidemiological data on chemical hazards associated with chlorination and attempted to measure this hazard against competing microbial risks. The first presentation discussed the available analytical epidemiological studies. A second presentation dealt with the importance of chlorination to the prevention of waterborne infectious disease. Pharmacokinetic, mechanistic, and modeling information on the prototypical DBP, chloroform, were discussed and contrasted with data on brominated THMs to determine if it was scientifically appropriate to regulate THMs as a single toxicological class. The fifth presentation dealt with the carcinogenic properties of a potent mutagen that is produced by chlorination. The final presentation discussed the haloacetates, carcinogenic DBPs whose concentrations approach and occasionally exceed those of the THMs. Clearly, there is a need to carefully weigh these different types and sometimes competing risks when considering the delivery of drinking water to ever-increasing populations for which there are finite sources of fresh water.

Bull RJ; Birnbaum LS; Cantor KP; Rose JB; Butterworth BE; Pegram R; Tuomisto J

1995-12-01

275

Laparoscopic greater curve plication in Asia: initial experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic greater curve plication (LGCP) for the treatment of obesity in ethnic Chinese in Hong Kong. METHODS: Twenty-seven consecutive Chinese patients (23 females; mean age 37.6?±?8.9 years) received LGCP for the treatment of obesity from September 2010 to December 2011. Mean baseline body weight (BW) and body mass index (BMI) were 84.6?±?17.5 kg and 31.2?±?4.7 kg/m(2), respectively. RESULTS: All procedures were performed laparoscopically with conversion to open surgery in one patient. There was neither mortality nor any postoperative complications. Mean follow-up was 10.6?±?6.5 months. Mean procedure time was 117.9?±?22.3 min and mean hospital stay was 2.6?±?0.7 days. Mean BMI loss was 4.1?±?1.6, 4.8?±?2.0 and 5.2?±?2.5 kg/m(2) at 3, 6 and 12 months. Mean % EBL was 67.3?±?42.1, 66.4?±?35.9 and 60.2?±?25.5 % at 3, 6 and 12 months. Mean % EBL in BMI >35 group (n?=?7) was 38.2?±?11.1, 43.5?±?14.0 and 50.6?±?21.6 % at 3, 6 and 12 months. Mean % EBL in BMI <35 group (n?=?20) was 76.5?±?44.2, 76.5?±?38.2 and 65.0?±?27.0 % at 3, 6 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: LGCP is safe and effective in achieving significant weight loss in obese ethnic Chinese patients. However, weight loss in BMI <35 is more pronounced. It is a very valid alternative to other procedures in Asian population.

Mui WL; Lee DW; Lam KK; Tsung BY

2013-02-01

276

Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

1993-10-01

277

Nurse leaders need greater support transferring from practice to academia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing school deans and faculty heads should be given greater support by universities to develop their academic leadership skills and aid transition from clinical practice, research has concluded. PMID:24107016

2013-10-01

278

Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. The authors describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum. (author).

Westenberg, A.H.; Wiggers, T.; Henzen-Logmans, S.C.; Verweij, J.; Meerwaldt, J.A.; Geel, A.N. van (Dr Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

1989-04-01

279

Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. The authors describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum. (author)

1989-01-01

280

Cost estimates for greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of greater confinement disposal is to provide an intermediate disposal method for radioactive wastes considered unsuitable for shallow land burial but not requiring the isolation of a deep geologic repository. Presented are cost estimates for various disposal facility alternatives. It is concluded that greater confinement disposal can be cost competitive with shallow land burial and is cost effective in reducing long-term care costs.

Dickman, P.T.; Boland, J.R.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

2005-01-01

282

Hazardous materials and hazardous waste management: A technical guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Technical guide begins with an overview of the different types of hazardous wastes and materials, and their definitions by the various regulatory agencies. The author presents the basic procedures for monitoring and handling these materials, methods for assessing and managing environmental contamination, and finally, a guide to hazard assessment and response. Readers will appreciate the generous use of headings and subheadings, which make the book handy for quick reference, the tables that summarize requirements and procedures, and the bibliography provided for each chapter. Appendices include a list of acronyms (an essential guide for novice readers) and an extended catalog of standards published by professional groups.

Woodside, G.

1993-01-01

283

Health hazards and electromagnetic fields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biological rhythms, physical wellbeing and mental states are dependent on our electrical brainwave system interacting with the extremely weak electromagnetic fields generated by the Earth's telluric and Cosmic radiations. In a single generation, since the evolution of humankind over millions of years, we are exposed to a wide range of powerful, artificially generated electromagnetic radiation which adversely affects the subtle balance in nature's energy fields and has become the source of so-called 'diseases of civilization'. This also includes electromagnetic sensitivity. Generally, there is a lack of awareness and understanding of the impact electromagnetic fields can have upon health and wellbeing.Our ancestors were acutely aware that certain locations, were perceived to have a positive energy field which was beneficial to health and vitality. Over time, these areas are now referred to as sacred sites for spiritual ceremony and as healing centres. In contrast, there are other geographical locations that can have a negative effect upon health and these are known as geopathic stress zones. It is believed that such zones can interfere with the brain's normal function that inhibits the release of melatonin and other endocrine secretions needed to replenish the immune system. Geopathic stress can affect animals and plant life as well as human beings and significantly contributes to sick building syndrome (SBS). Whilst there is an increasing body of opinion amongst eminent researchers and scientists who are addressing these issues, the establishment professions are slow to change. However, very gradually, modern allopathic medicine and attitudes are beginning to recognise the extraordinary wisdom and efficacy of ancient traditions such as acupuncture, light, colour and other therapies based on the understanding and treatment of the interaction of a person's electromagnetic subtle body and the immediate environment. These and many other 'complementary' therapies may soon become mainstream medical practice. In the meantime, we can help ourselves by learning how to detect the hazards and daily practise prudent avoidance.

Saunders T

2003-11-01

284

Hazardous Waste Management In India  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disasters occur due to both the natural and man-made activities. Hazards and Disasters are categorized intofour groups, viz., Natural events, Technological events, Man-made events and Region-wise events. The adverseimpacts caused due to the indiscriminate disposal of Hazardous Wastes (HWs) come under the category ofEnvironmental Disasters. Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) is a very important issue and is assumingsignificance globally. There is no proper secured landfill facility available in India to dispose of HazardousWaste (HW) till 1997. Very few industries in India, mostly in large scale and a few in medium scale, own propertreatment and disposal facilities. A common waste treatment and disposal facility such as Treatment, Storageand Disposal Facility (TSDF) for management of HWs generated from industries, is one of the useful optionsunder such conditions. Few Guidelines issued by Ministry of Environment and Forests under Hazardous Wastes(Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 promulgated under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 are available inIndia for selection of best site for TSDF. The planning for HWM comprises of several aspects ranging fromidentification and quantification of HW to development and monitoring of TSDF. This paper focuses on thebasic steps involved in the Comprehensive HWM. The physical models developed by the authors for ranking ofTSDF sites based on the Guidelines available are discussed. The current status in India pertaining to generationof HW and the TSDF sites is also addressed.

B. V. Babu

285

Building 894 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 894. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 9 chemicals were kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 130 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 130 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

1996-01-01

286

Risk - hazardous incident - communication 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terms such as 'risk', 'hazardous incident', and 'communication' have become major catchwords in discussions about present-day problems, and may be reduced to a common denominator: disaster. Such an association, however, is inappropriate, as the concept indicated by the term 'risk' for instance covers a wide scale of possible danger. Even the term 'hazardous incident' describes events or conditions that are very different in terms of possible danger, let alone disastrous effects. The discrepancy to be observed between the facts and the public perception usually is due to the fact that people have little insight into the complex of problems involved, and to insufficient communication between the world of experts and the general public. The contributions to this publication present information and discuss a variety of solution sets to improve the communication problems in the context of the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication'. (orig./CB)

1994-01-01

287

327 Building hazard baseline document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document identifies the hazards in the 327 Building at the time that a facility walk through was performed during FY99, presents a PHA of stabilization and deactivation activities, and provides a basis for the hazard evaluation and accident analysis that will be developed in the 327 Building Basis for Interim Operation (BIO). Activities addressed in this hazard baseline document include: (1) Stabilization and deactivation activities in preparation for eventual decommissioning of the 327 Building and the routine handling, processing, and shipment of waste to support these activities. (2) 324/327 Building Minimum Safe Project engineering and maintenance activities to maintain the building and systems viable--especially the Safety SSCs--to allow stabilization, deactivation, and waste handling activities with a minimum of risk to workers, the public, and the environment

1999-01-01

288

Building 6630 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 6630. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which one chemical was kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the chemical release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 76 meters. The highest emergency classification is an Alert. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 100 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

1996-01-01

289

Seismic hazard of Northern Eurasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The GSHAP Regional Centre in Moscow, UIPE, has coordinated the seismic hazard mapping for the whole territory of the former U.S.S.R. and border regions. A five-year program was conducted to assemble for the whole area, subdivided in five overlapping blocks, the unified seismic catalogue with uniform magnitude, the strong motion databank and the seismic zones model (lineament-domain-source), which form the basis of a newly developed deterministic-probabilistic computation of seismic hazard assessment. The work was conducted in close cooperation with border regions and GSHAP regional centers. The hazard was originally computed in terms of expected MSK intensity and then transformed into expected peak ground acceleration with 10% exceedance probability in 50 years.

V. I. Ulomov; . The GSHAP Region 7 Working Group

1999-01-01

290

Imaging evaluation of laparoscopic greater curvature plication: preliminary observations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to assess normal imaging findings and complications after laparoscopic greater curvature plication on luminal upper gastrointestinal studies and CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of 24 adults who underwent laparoscopic greater curvature plication between 2008 and 2011. Seventeen patients (70.8%) underwent postoperative luminal upper gastrointestinal studies, and four (16.7%) underwent postoperative CT. Normal imaging features and complications were recorded. The percentage of intraluminal gastric diameter occupied by the plicated segment and the percentage of greater curvature involved on postoperative upper gastrointestinal luminal studies were determined. RESULTS: A multilobular intraluminal filling defect reflecting the surgical plication occupied the proximal third of the greater curvature in 16 of 17 patients (94%), extending to the mid portion in 10 of 17 patients (59%) and to the distal third in one of 17 patients (6%). There was luminal narrowing of 50-75% in 14 of 17 patients (82%) and narrowing of 25-50% in two patients (12%). In 14 of 17 patients (82%), the plication involved 50-75% of the greater curvature length and 25-50% in the remaining three patients (18%). In four patients who underwent CT, a central low-attenuation stripe accompanied the plication. Five of 24 patients (21%) had complications, including extraluminal gastric leak (n = 1), gastric outlet obstruction (n = 2), and plication suture failure (n = 2). CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic greater curvature plication is seen as multilobular filling defects most commonly along the proximal greater curvature with 50-75% narrowing of the gastric lumen. A linear low-attenuation stripe accompanies the filling defect on CT.

Roesel DM; Remer EM; Brethauer SA; Schauer PR

2013-08-01

291

Influence of affective states on comprehension and hazard perception of warning pictorials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of positive and negative affective states on comprehension and hazard perception of warning pictorials. The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) was used to manipulate the affective states of sixty male undergraduate and graduate student participants. We used sixteen standard industrial warning pictorials, which were representative of a variety of industries, to assess changes in comprehension and hazard perception. Participants in the positive affect condition perceived greater hazards from the warning signs than those in the neutral affect condition or the negative affect condition. Post-hoc analyses confirmed this finding. We discuss implications for warning pictorials and future research.

Jiamsanguanwong A; Umemuro H

2013-09-01

292

Extreme seismic hazard assessment: Application to the Tibet -Himalayan region  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent disasters due to great earthquakes revealed a weakness in seismic hazard assessments: ground shaking due to the earthquakes was significantly underestimated. Large-magnitude, rare and hence extreme seismic events are not accounted in the analysis of ground shaking in the most cases due to the lack of information and unknown re-occurrence time of extremes. Our present knowledge about earthquakes is based on observed (recorded) and historical (e.g., from paleo-seismological and archaeological studies) data. We present a new approach to assess regional seismic hazard, which incorporates observed seismicity and modeled extreme events into the ground motion analysis, and apply this approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in the Tibet-Himalayan region. Initially earthquakes are simulated for several thousand years; the synthetic earthquakes occur on the modeled faults due to realistic movement of modeled lithospheric blocks, stress localization and release. The large-magnitude events from the modeled catalogs together with the observed earthquakes are used to generate a set of composite stochastic catalogs. These composite catalogs are employed for Monte-Carlo probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. The results provide information about strong shaking, which could be anticipated in the region, in terms of peak ground acceleration. The resulted seismic hazard map is compared with those modeled earlier and with observed strong-motion data. Our approach to seismic hazard assessment provides a better understanding of ground shaking due to possible large-magnitude events and could be useful for seismic risk assessment, earthquake engineering purposes, and emergency planning.

Sokolov, Vladimir; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik

2013-04-01

293

Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories' operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment

1994-01-01

294

Usable knowledge, hazardous ignorance - beyond the percentage correct score.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to the metacognitive ability of medical students. AIM: We used confidence marking to explore certainty of knowledge and ignorance. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-seven of 169 general practice trainees took part. Students sat a written multiple choice question (MCQ) test. Each answer was followed by a degree of certainty judgement. Answers attributed with a high degree of certainty were used to compute overall usable knowledge, hazardous ignorance, proportions of knowledge that is usable and of ignorance that is hazardous. The former variables were analysed according to MCQ score, year of training and gender. RESULTS: At a group level, the mean amount of usable knowledge on the MCQ was 21.13%, mean amount of hazardous ignorance on the MCQ was 5.21%, mean proportion of knowledge that was usable was 36.57%, mean proportion of ignorance that was hazardous was 14.32%. There were neither significant differences between highest and lowest quartiles of MCQ score, nor according to year of training. Men had higher levels of ignorance that is hazardous. CONCLUSION: A third of trainees' knowledge was partial. A sixth of their ignorance was hazardous. Confidence marking can aid formative assessment and could potentially be implemented into summative assessments.

Dory V; Degryse J; Roex A; Vanpee D

2010-01-01

295

Seismic hazard in the design of oil and gas pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Criteria that are adopted in earthquake resistant design of pipelines and gas lines have to take into account seismic movements and seismic generated forces that are of significantly high probability level of appearance along the length of pipeline. A choice of criteria has to include an acceptable level of seismic hazard, while design criteria should be calculated. Seismic hazard is defined as a part of natural hazard and means probability of appearance of earthquake of corresponding characteristics in certain time and place. For design needs and calculation of influences caused by seismic forces the most important is seismic hazard of maximal horizontal acceleration due to ground vibration during earthquake. The methodology of seismic hazard calculation as base for micro seismic zoning is presented in the paper. It is shown calculation of seismic hazard of maximal horizontal acceleration due to ground vibration that is applied for 985 points at the territory of Republic of Serbia, based on which maps for return periods of 50 and 200 years are drawn.

Zdravkovi? Slavko; Mladenovi? Biljana; Zlatkov Dragan

2011-01-01

296

Hazard assessment of ethylene oxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This assessment of the hazards of exposure to ethylene oxide is based on a systematic and critical analysis of the relevant chemical and biological properties of ethylene oxide. The many facets of its toxicology and the findings in epidemiological studies of groups exposed to this compound are described. By reviewing conventional approaches of interpreting the risks from ethylene oxide, common errors and fallacies are revealed to give helpful examples for hazard assessment in the workplace, environment or the home. Numerous tables and charts provide prompt and valuable data for practitioners and researchers in air pollution, industrial hygiene, public health, toxicity and community medicine.

Golberg, L.

1986-01-01

297

76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 2050-AG60 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and...the regulations for hazardous waste management under the Resource Conservation...the regulations for hazardous waste management under the Resource...

2011-09-09

298

INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

R.J. Garrett

2005-02-17

299

INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified

2005-01-01

300

An assessment of the significance of quasar alignments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have undertaken a systematic search in two fields of quasar candidates for alignments similar to those reported by Arp and Hazard (1980) in order to test the statistical significance of these associations. Comparisons with control fields generated by a Monte Carlo technique showed that when appropriate allowance has been made for clustering there is only marginal evidence for a statistically significant excess of aligned triplets over that expected by chance. It has not, however, been possible to examine the significance of the redshift patterns found by Arp and Hazard (1980) as reliable redshifts do not exist for the majority of the quasar candidates. (author)

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities.

1982-01-01

302

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  

Science.gov (United States)

Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with BSE in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), infectivity in greater kudu with BSE is distributed in as wide a range of tissues as occurs in any TSE. BSE agent was also detected in skin, conjunctiva, and salivary gland, tissues in which infectivity has not previously been reported in any naturally occurring TSE. The distribution of infectivity in greater kudu with BSE suggests possible routes for transmission of the disease and highlights the need for further research into the distribution of TSE infectious agents in other host species. PMID:15207051

Cunningham, Andrew A; Kirkwood, James K; Dawson, Michael; Spencer, Yvonne I; Green, Robert B; Wells, Gerald A H

2004-06-01

303

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with BSE in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), infectivity in greater kudu with BSE is distributed in as wide a range of tissues as occurs in any TSE. BSE agent was also detected in skin, conjunctiva, and salivary gland, tissues in which infectivity has not previously been reported in any naturally occurring TSE. The distribution of infectivity in greater kudu with BSE suggests possible routes for transmission of the disease and highlights the need for further research into the distribution of TSE infectious agents in other host species.

Cunningham AA; Kirkwood JK; Dawson M; Spencer YI; Green RB; Wells GA

2004-06-01

304

Hazard assessment of inorganics to endangered fish in the San Juan River, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acute toxicity tests were conducted with larval Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) in a constituted water quality simulating the San Juan River near Shiprock, New Mexico. Tests were conducted with arsenate, copper, selenate, selenite, zinc, and five mixtures of seven to nine inorganics simulating environmental mixtures reported for sites along the San Juan River (Ojo Amarillo Canyon, Gallegos Canyon, Hogback East Drain, Mancos River, and McElmo Creek). Razorback suckers were significantly more sensitive to arsenate, selenate, selenite, Hogback East Drain mixture, and Ojo Amarillo Canyon mixture than were Colorado squawfish. The Gallegos Canyon mixture had greater than additive, i.e., synergistic, toxicity to both species, the Ojo Amarillo Canyon mixture had less than additive, i.e., antagonistic, toxicity to both species, and the Mancos River and McElmo Creek mixtures had additive toxicity to both species. The Hogback East Drain mixture had additive toxicity to Colorado squawfish, but synergistic toxicity to razorback suckers. The major toxic component in the five mixtures was copper. Comparison of 96-hour LC50 values with a limited number of environmental water concentrations from the San Juan River revealed high hazard ratios for copper and all five environmental mixtures. The high hazard ratios suggest inorganic contaminants could adversely affect larval Colorado squawfish and razorback suckers in the San Juan River at sites receiving elevated inorganics.

Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J. [National Biological Service, Yankton, SD (United States)

1995-12-31

305

Towards a Consensus View on Understanding Nanomaterials Hazards and Managing Exposure: Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an overview of salient issues of exposure, characterisation and hazard assessment of nanomaterials as they emerged from the consensus-building of experts undertaken within the four year European Commission coordination project NanoImpactNet. The approach adopted is to consolidate and condense the findings and problem-identification in such a way as to identify knowledge-gaps and generate a set of interim recommendations of use to industry, regulators, research bodies and funders. The categories of recommendation arising from the consensual view address: significant gaps in vital factual knowledge of exposure, characterisation and hazards; the development, dissemination and standardisation of appropriate laboratory protocols; address a wide range of technical issues in establishing an adequate risk assessment platform; the more efficient and coordinated gathering of basic data; greater inter-organisational cooperation; regulatory harmonization; the wider use of the life-cycle approaches; and the wider involvement of all stakeholders in the discussion and solution-finding efforts for nanosafety.

Geoffrey Hunt; Iseult Lynch; Flemming Cassee; Richard D. Handy; Teresa F. Fernandes; Markus Berges; Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch; Maria Dusinska; Michael Riediker

2013-01-01

306

Accountability of hazardous waste transporters and brokers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most environmental managers know that hazardous waste transporters and brokers are essential to waste management plans that involve the shipping of hazardous materials off-site for treatment or disposal. Some managers know that hazardous waste brokers frequently offer services as transporters, and many hazardous waste transporters are also brokers. Despite the crucial role played by hazardous waste brokers in managing toxic wastes and hazardous substances, the profession is completely unregulated. Although the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requires treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to be permitted, there are currently no requirements for the licensing or certification of environmental brokers who arrange and transport waste for disposal.

Zodrow, J.J.

1997-02-01

307

Thermal hazard during mastoid surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Torque speed characteristics of two mastoid drills were measured. Potential temperature elevations in temporal bones were calculated from these measurements. Measured temperature elevations in temporal bones drilled without irrigation agreed well with predictions. Irrigation was demonstrated to be of critical importance in minimizing thermal hazard from mastoid drills.

Erdreich J; Keim RJ; Love TJ

1979-05-01

308

A Green Laser Pointer Hazard  

CERN Multimedia

An inexpensive green laser pointer was found to emit 20 mW of infrared radiation during normal use. This is potentially a serious hazard that would not be noticed by most users of such pointers. We find that this infrared emission derives from the design of the pointer, and describe a simple method of testing for infrared emissions using common household items.

Galang, Jemellie; Hagley, Edward W; Clark, Charles W

2010-01-01

309

Seismic hazard assessment in Iran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is described. The results here presented will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earth quake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

Tavakoli, B.; Ghafory Ashtiany, M. [International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismilogy, Teheran (Iran)

1999-12-01

310

Radiation hazards to the cardiologist  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is presented of a subcommittee of the British Cardiac Society which considered the radiation hazards to the cardiologist or radiologist performing various interventional cardiological proceedings. Aspects discussed are the voluntary registration scheme, dose monitoring, dose reduction and operators risks during various investigative and interventional procedures in adults and children. (UK)

1993-01-01

311

Hazardous substances in construction work.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most hazardous chemicals used in construction, including materials with transdermal effects, carcinogens, embryotoxins, mutagens, and neurotoxins, are discussed here. These include solvents, primers and adhesives, wood dust, plastic woods, sealing agents, wood protectants, insulation, and products used for structural engineering.

Rühl R; Kluger N

1995-04-01

312

Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components...

Reinskje Talhout; Thomas Schulz; Ewa Florek; Jan van Benthem; Piet Wester; Antoon Opperhuizen

313

Innovative hazardous waste treatment technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains technical overviews of new processes for reducing hazardous waste volume. These processes are based upon physico-chemical principles. Topics include: vacuum extraction for cleanup of soils and groundwater; catalytic hydrodechlorination; on stripping technology; and recovery and disposal of nitrate wastes.

Freeman, H.M.; Sferra, P.R. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab.)

1990-01-01

314

The large-scale impact of climate change to Mississippi flood hazard in New Orleans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe the impact of climate change on the Mississippi River flood hazard in the New Orleans area. This city has a unique flood risk management challenge, heavily influenced by climate change, since it faces flood hazards from multiple geographical locations (e.g. Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi River) and multiple sources (hurricane, river, rainfall). Also the low elevation and significant subsidence rate of the Greater New Orleans area poses a high risk and challenges the water management of this urban area. Its vulnerability to flooding became dramatically apparent during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 with huge economic losses and a large number of casualties. A SOBEK Rural 1DFLOW model was set up to simulate the general hydrodynamics. This improved model includes two important spillways that are operated during high flow conditions. Subsequently, a weighted multi-criteria calibration procedure was performed to calibrate the model for high flows. Validation for floods in 2011 indicates a very reasonable performance for high flows and clearly demonstrates the necessity of the spillways. 32 different scenarios are defined which includes the relatively large sea level rise and the changing discharge regime that is expected due to climate change. The impact of these scenarios is analysed by the hydrodynamic model. Results show that during high flows New Orleans will not be affected by varying discharge regimes, since the presence of the spillways ensures a constant discharge through the city. In contrary, sea level rise is expected to push water levels upwards. The effect of sea level rise will be noticeable even more than 470 km upstream. Climate change impacts necessitate a more frequent use of the spillways and opening strategies that are based on stages. Potential alternatives on how to cope with the flood hazard of this river in the long term, such as river widening and large-scale redistribution of the flow through diversions, are proposed.

T. L. A. Driessen; M. van Ledden

2012-01-01

315

Carcinogenic and genetic hazard from background radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Various models and predictions of the carcinogenic and genetic hazards of low-level, low-rate ionizing radiation were examined and compared with actual experience in population in the United States of America and elsewhere. All the models predicted a significant increment in malignant mortality, and mortality from genetic disorders, with increasing background. Populations were first examined for malignant mortality, for various age and geographic groups, for all malignancies (ICD 140-205). They were then re-examined for groups of malignancies (e.g. 140-159, 160-164, etc.), and for each of 56 separate malignancy types. These groups and their malignancy rates were compared with the radiation background characteristic of each geographic group. Simultaneous regressions were also performed against over 40 other geographical, social, medical, meteorological, economic, educational, ethnic and pollution parameters. Observation of the populations at risk showed not only no increment in malignant mortality with increasing background, but a consistent and continuous decrement. Similar results were obtained for mortality from congenital malformations. The question of whether low-level radiation, at rates of the order of 0.5 rem/a and below, constitutes a significant environmental hazard is discussed. (author)

1975-11-03

316

Proportional hazards and threshold regression: their theoretical and practical connections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proportional hazards (PH) regression is a standard methodology for analyzing survival and time-to-event data. The proportional hazards assumption of PH regression, however, is not always appropriate. In addition, PH regression focuses mainly on hazard ratios and thus does not offer many insights into underlying determinants of survival. These limitations have led statistical researchers to explore alternative methodologies. Threshold regression (TR) is one of these alternative methodologies (see Lee and Whitmore, Stat Sci 21:501-513, 2006, for a review). The connection between PH regression and TR has been examined in previous published work but the investigations have been limited in scope. In this article, we study the connections between these two regression methodologies in greater depth and show that PH regression is, for most purposes, a special case of TR. We show two methods of construction by which TR models can yield PH functions for survival times, one based on altering the TR time scale and the other based on varying the TR boundary. We discuss how to estimate the TR time scale and boundary, with or without the PH assumption. A case demonstration is used to highlight the greater understanding of scientific foundations that TR can offer in comparison to PH regression. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits of positioning PH regression within the first-hitting-time context of TR regression.

Lee ML; Whitmore GA

2010-04-01

317

A=D: SIGNIFICANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lacanian concept of significant is a part of the interpretation in psychoanalytic clinics. To get to this word, Lacan did a re-reading on Freud's texts and articulates it to Saussure's Linguistics. The significant is pre-existent in the subject, and its meaning of speech is directly related to the opposition relationship of a significant to another. The analytical listening aims at establishing a relationship among the significants that the subject does, as well as the own effect that it gives to its speech. Therefore, this article has the goal of th correlating the concept of significant and its expression through films, literature and linguistics, once that the many interactions of psychoanalysis with other sciences makes it more interesting and understandable

Samuel Lincoln Bezerra Lins; Flaviana Estrela Maroja

2009-01-01

318

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Our analysis approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The D-B discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. Furthermore, the discharge power requirements are quite modest, so that the unit can be powered by batteries. Thus an instrument based on ANET can readily be made portable. Our results indicate that ANET is a very sensitive technique for monitoring heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. We have demonstrated an overall detection sensitivity for most species that is at or below ppb levels. ANET alone, however, appears to be most successful in treating hazardous species that have been atomized. We are therefore developing a hybrid technique which combines a miniature, solid-state laser for sample collection and vaporization with ANET for subsequent detection. This approach requires no special sample preparation, can operate continuously, and lends itself well to compact packaging.

Piper, L.G.; Hunter, A.J.R.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

1996-12-31

319

Hazardous waste management in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the historical development of the hazardous waste management policies in Canada from a federal perspective. It also discusses the implications of the new (1995) federal Toxic Substance Management Policy on combustion sources in Canada. The control of hazardous wastes in Canada is a shared responsibility between the federal and provincial governments. Since its formation in 1971, Environment Canada has been responsible for setting standards and regulating various facets of hazardous waste management activities in Canada. Federal responsibilities cover the transportation of wastes across provincial or Canadian borders to off-site treatment and disposal facilities and the management of wastes on federal lands and undertakings. The provinces have jurisdiction over the on-site management of hazardous wastes and the movement and treatment of wastes within provincial borders. For the majority of the country, provincial regulations are in place which provide an administrative structure for documentation, operating approvals, facility approvals and enforcement. In order to harmonize the activities of these two overlapping jurisdictions, the federal and provincial governments work together in the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) to develop common guidelines on waste management that represent minimum national standards which the governments use to set their own regulatory framework within their particular jurisdiction. Recently, the federal government adopted the Toxic Substance Management Policy (TSMP) which calls for the virtual elimination of several track 1 substances including several combustion substances such as dioxin and furan and hexachlorobenzene. The history and impetus for the development of federal hazardous waste regulations and CCME guidelines will be discussed together with the implications of the TSMP on both of these control instruments.

Campbell, D. [Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (Canada). Hazardous Waste Branch

1997-12-31

320

WEST NILE VIRUS: PENDING CRISIS FOR GREATER SAGE-GROUSE  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists have feared that emerging infectious diseases could complicate efforts to conserve rare and endangered species, but quantifying impacts has proven difficult until now. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a ...

 
 
 
 
321

Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-11-01

322

External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

Beachler, Judith

323

Advancing Research on Productive Aging Activities in Greater Chinese Societies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The public discourse on productive aging as a research and policy initiative has just begun in greater China. Two conferences in Mainland China in 2009 and 2011 and subsequent conferences in Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2012 have set it in motion. Because applied social science research has just started in greater China, researchers in Chinese societies will benefit from the experience and rich literature accumulated over the last three decades in the West. In this paper, I review and reflect on the research methods used in productive aging research in both Chinese societies and in the West. I believe that to advance productive aging research in greater China, we need to (1) discuss and agree upon a definition of productive aging, (2) identify and differentiate outputs and outcomes of productive aging activities in greater China, (3) develop precise measures for productive aging involvement, (4) focus on institutional (program and public policy) factors that promote productive aging involvement, (5) use a strong research design (such as a quasi-experimental design) to establish the internal validity of productive aging programs, and (6) be theory-driven. Lastly, productive aging should be seen as a choice, not an obligation for older people; otherwise, the productive aging agenda will be seen as exploiting older people. It is important that Chinese researchers and policy-makers have this in mind when they are advocating productive engagement of older people in China.

Lum TY

2013-06-01

324

Advancing research on productive aging activities in Greater Chinese societies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The public discourse on productive aging as a research and policy initiative has just begun in greater China. Two conferences in Mainland China in 2009 and 2011 and subsequent conferences in Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2012 have set it in motion. Because applied social science research has just started ...

Lum, TYS

325

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to f...

Cunningham, Andrew A.; Kirkwood, James K.; Dawson, Michael; Spencer, Yvonne I.; Green, Robert B.; Wells, Gerald A.H.

326

Potential biological hazard of importance for HACCP plans in fresh fish processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is scientifically based and focused on problem prevention in order to assure the produced food products are safe to consume. Prerequisite programs such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices), GHP (Good Hygienic Practices) are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. One of the preliminary tasks in the development of HACCP plan is to conduct a hazard analysis. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages. The first is hazard identification and the second stage is the HACCP team decision which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. By definition, the HACCP concept covers all types of potential food safety hazards: biological, chemical and physical, whether they are naturally occurring in the food, contributed by the environment or generated by a mistake in the manufacturing process. In raw fish processing, potential significant biological hazards which are reasonably likely to cause illness of humans are parasites (Trematodae, Nematodae, Cestodae), bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphyloccocus aureus), viruses (Norwalk virus, Entero virusesi, Hepatitis A, Rotovirus) and bio-toxins. Upon completion of hazard analysis, any measure(s) that are used to control the hazard(s) should be described.

Balti? Milan Ž.; Kilibarda Nataša; Teodorovi? Vlado; Dimitrijevi? Mirjana; Karabasil Ne?eljko; Dokmanovi? Marija

2009-01-01

327

Use of process hazard analysis to control chemical process hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One objective of this project was to demonstrate how the PrHA could satisfy OSHA`s requirements. OSHA requires that the PrHA address: the hazards of the process; the identification of any previous incident which had a likely potential for catastrophic consequences in the workplace; engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards and their interrelationships; consequences of failure of engineering and administrative controls; facility siting; human factors; and a qualitative evaluation of a range of the possible safety and health effects of failure of controls on employees in the workplace. In addition, OSHA requires that the PrHA must be conducted by a team with at least one member having expertise in engineering and process operations, one having experience and knowledge specific to the process being evaluated, and a team leader knowledgeable in the specific PrHA methodology being used.

Piatt, J.A.

1994-07-01

328

77 FR 67016 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1272] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-11-08

329

78 FR 28891 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1312] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-05-16

330

78 FR 20339 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1301] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-04-04

331

78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1340] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-09

332

78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1332] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-13

333

78 FR 43910 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1339] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-07-22

334

78 FR 36222 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1326] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-06-17

335

78 FR 8177 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1293] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-02-05

336

78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1344] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-12

337

78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1330] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-07-22

338

78 FR 20343 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1304] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-04-04

339

78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1345] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-13

340

78 FR 36212 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1323] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-06-17

 
 
 
 
341

77 FR 76501 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1282] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-12-28

342

77 FR 55856 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1266] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-09-11

343

78 FR 36220 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1322] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-06-17

344

78 FR 8179 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1284] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-02-05

345

77 FR 58562 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1267] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2012-09-21

346

Flood hazards for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flooding hazards for nuclear power plants may be caused by various external geophysical events. In this paper the hydrologic hazards from flash floods, river floods and heavy rain at the plant site are considered. Depending on the mode of analysis, two types of hazard evaluation are identified: 1) design hazard which is the probability of flooding over an expected service period, and 2) operational hazard which deals with real-time forecasting of the probability of flooding of an incoming event. Hazard evaluation techniques using flood frequency analysis can only be used for type 1) design hazard. Evaluation techniques using rainfall-runoff simulation or multi-station correlation can be used for both types of hazard prediction. (orig.).

1988-01-01

347

78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1309] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-05-31

348

78 FR 36215 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1321] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-06-17

349

78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1307] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-04-09

350

Hazards assessment: Deionized (DI) Water Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Deionized (DI) Water Facility located at the Pinellas Plant. The facility-specific hazards assessment provides the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts.

1993-12-01

351

Trabecular microstructure and surface changes in the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract Objective. When planning surgery in patients with rotator cuff tear, strength of bone at the tendon insertion and trabecular bone structure in the greater tuberosity are usually taken into consideration. We investigated radiographic changes in bone structure of the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears.Design. Twenty-two human cadaveric shoulders from subjects ranging from 55 to 75 years of age were obtained. The integrity of the rotator cuff was examined by sonography to determine if it is intact without any tear, or torn partially or completely. The humeral head was sectioned in 3 mm thick coronal slab sections and microradiographed. After digitization of the microradiographs and imaging processing with in-house semi-automated image processing software tools developed using software interfaces on a Sun workstation, the trabecular histomorphometrical structural parameters and connectivity in the greater tuberosity were quantified. The degenerative changes on the surface of the greater tuberosity were interpreted blindly by 2 independent readers.Results. Among the 22 shoulder specimens, the rotator cuff was found intact in 10 shoulders, partially in 7 and fully torn in 5. Statistically significant loss in apparent trabecular bone volume fraction, number of trabecular nodes, and number of trabecular branches, and a statistically significant increase in apparent trabecular separation and number of trabecular free ends were found in the greater tuberosity of the shoulders with tears. The loss was greater in association with full tear than in partial tear. Thickening of the cortical margin of the enthesis, irregularity of its surface, and calcification beyond the tidemark were observed in 2 (20%) shoulders with intact rotator cuff, in 6 (86%) shoulders with partial tear, and in 5 (100%) shoulders with full tear.Conclusions. Rotator cuff tears are associated with degenerative changes on the bone surface and with disuse osteopenia of the greater tuberosity. Aging, degenerative enthesopathy of the supraspinatus tendon, and rotator cuff tears appear closely related. (orig.)

Jiang, Yebin; Zhao, Jenny; Ouyang, Xiaolong; Genant, Harry K. [Osteoporosis and Arthritis Research Group and Musculoskeletal Section, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); van Holsbeeck, Marnix T.; Flynn, Michael J. [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

2002-09-01

352

Trabecular microstructure and surface changes in the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Abstract Objective. When planning surgery in patients with rotator cuff tear, strength of bone at the tendon insertion and trabecular bone structure in the greater tuberosity are usually taken into consideration. We investigated radiographic changes in bone structure of the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears.Design. Twenty-two human cadaveric shoulders from subjects ranging from 55 to 75 years of age were obtained. The integrity of the rotator cuff was examined by sonography to determine if it is intact without any tear, or torn partially or completely. The humeral head was sectioned in 3 mm thick coronal slab sections and microradiographed. After digitization of the microradiographs and imaging processing with in-house semi-automated image processing software tools developed using software interfaces on a Sun workstation, the trabecular histomorphometrical structural parameters and connectivity in the greater tuberosity were quantified. The degenerative changes on the surface of the greater tuberosity were interpreted blindly by 2 independent readers.Results. Among the 22 shoulder specimens, the rotator cuff was found intact in 10 shoulders, partially in 7 and fully torn in 5. Statistically significant loss in apparent trabecular bone volume fraction, number of trabecular nodes, and number of trabecular branches, and a statistically significant increase in apparent trabecular separation and number of trabecular free ends were found in the greater tuberosity of the shoulders with tears. The loss was greater in association with full tear than in partial tear. Thickening of the cortical margin of the enthesis, irregularity of its surface, and calcification beyond the tidemark were observed in 2 (20%) shoulders with intact rotator cuff, in 6 (86%) shoulders with partial tear, and in 5 (100%) shoulders with full tear.Conclusions. Rotator cuff tears are associated with degenerative changes on the bone surface and with disuse osteopenia of the greater tuberosity. Aging, degenerative enthesopathy of the supraspinatus tendon, and rotator cuff tears appear closely related. (orig.)

2002-01-01

353

Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the Hanford 200 Areas (Non-Seismic)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this review is to assess the need for updating Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) assessments for the Hanford 200 Areas, as required by DOE Order 420.1B Chapter IV, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, based on significant changes in state-of-the-art NPH assessment methodology or site-specific information. The review includes all natural phenomena hazards with the exception of seismic/earthquake hazards, which are being addressed under a separate effort. It was determined that existing non-seismic NPH assessments are consistent with current design methodology and site specific data.

Snow, Robert L.; Ross, Steven B.; Sullivan, Robin S.

2010-09-24

354

Impacts on health and safety from transfer/consolidation of nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental restoration plans at the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Hanford Site calls for transfer/consolidation of ''targets/threats,'' namely nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals. Reductions in the health and safety hazards will depend on the plans implemented. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) estimated these potential impacts, assuming implementation of the current reference plan and employing ongoing risk and safety analyses. The results indicated the potential for ''significant'' reductions in health and safety hazards in the long term (> 25 years) and a potentially ''noteworthy'' reduction in health hazard in the short term (? 25 years)

1994-01-01

355

Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

1992-01-01

356

Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (3) in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people – the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

R. I. Tilling

2009-01-01

357

Occupational health hazards in mining: an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review article outlines the physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial occupational health hazards of mining and associated metallurgical processes. Mining remains an important industrial sector in many parts of the world and although substantial progress has been made in the control of occupational health hazards, there remains room for further risk reduction. This applies particularly to traumatic injury hazards, ergonomic hazards and noise. Vigilance is also required to ensure exposures to coal dust and crystalline silica remain effectively controlled.

Donoghue, A.M. [Alcoa World Alumina Australia, Perth, WA (Australia)

2004-08-01

358

Regulation of hazardous materials transportation and storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a growing concern over the safety of transportation and storage of hazardous materials. The volume of hazardous cargo has steadyly increased and will continue to do so. Railroad lines are major carriers of hazardous materials. It has been estimated that railroad cars alone handle 200,000 tons of hazardous materials daily, which is twice the daily volume shipped a decade ago. This monograph contains a bibliography of almost 100 references.

Moe, C.E.

1980-01-01

359

The Significance of Replication  

Science.gov (United States)

Much has been made of an apparent lack of reproducibility in so called ``cold fusion'' experiments. In this paper we will demonstrate that this failure, while real, was the result of inability to meet critical threshold criteria: a thermodynamic loading, dynamic flux and disequilibrium trigger. Recent experiments, performed independently at SRI and ENEA, have successfully replicated powerful excess heat results obtained initially by Energetics in Israel. This success and high levels of experiment reproducibility are attributed to two critical factors that allow these threshold barriers to be surpassed: i)achievement and maintenance of a high level of control of the metallurgy of the bulk palladium metal host and the cathode surface morphology, guided by initial studies at ENEA and the University of Rome,ii) use of a novel non steady-state cathode current stimulus, proposed and developed by Energetics. With simultaneous high deuterium loading and high flux, excess heat effects were measured in both Isoperibolic and Mass Flow calorimeters at factors several times greater than the electrical input power and several orders of magnitude larger than the sum of all conceivable chemical reactions.

McKrubre, Michael C. H.; Tanzella, Francis L.; Violante, Vittorio

2008-03-01

360

Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the PFP. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Higher motivation - greater control? The effect of arousal on judgement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed.

Riemer H; Viswanathan M

2013-01-01

362

Harlequin ichthyosis in two greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two greater kudu calves (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) born 7 years apart were found with fissures and thickened, scaly, cutaneous plates covering over 80% of their bodies. One was dead at presentation, and the other was euthanized shortly after birth. Both animals shared a common sire. On necropsy, chemosis, ectropion, eclabium, and bilateral valgus deformities of the tarsal joints were observed in one calf, presumed to be secondary to the plates restricting normal fetal development. The principal microscopic lesion was severe lamellar orthokeratosis, with focal mild parakeratosis. Ultrastructural epidermal lesions included the absence of normal lamellar granules, large dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and abnormal retention of organelles and vesicles. Gross, histopathologic, and electron microscopic findings in both kudu calves were consistent with those of harlequin ichthyosis, a rare dermatosis of humans believed to have an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. The underlying genetic and molecular abnormality and heritability of this condition in this greater kudu herd were not determined.

Chittick EJ; Olivry T; Dalldorf F; Wright J; Dale BA; Wolfe BA

2002-11-01

363

Harlequin ichthyosis in two greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two greater kudu calves (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) born 7 years apart were found with fissures and thickened, scaly, cutaneous plates covering over 80% of their bodies. One was dead at presentation, and the other was euthanized shortly after birth. Both animals shared a common sire. On necropsy, chemosis, ectropion, eclabium, and bilateral valgus deformities of the tarsal joints were observed in one calf, presumed to be secondary to the plates restricting normal fetal development. The principal microscopic lesion was severe lamellar orthokeratosis, with focal mild parakeratosis. Ultrastructural epidermal lesions included the absence of normal lamellar granules, large dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and abnormal retention of organelles and vesicles. Gross, histopathologic, and electron microscopic findings in both kudu calves were consistent with those of harlequin ichthyosis, a rare dermatosis of humans believed to have an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. The underlying genetic and molecular abnormality and heritability of this condition in this greater kudu herd were not determined. PMID:12450210

Chittick, E J; Olivry, T; Dalldorf, F; Wright, J; Dale, B A; Wolfe, B A

2002-11-01

364

Radiation hazards from 241Am sources used in thyroid studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The neutron and gamma photon doses corresponding to the neck and eye level from an 241AmO2 source used in thyroid studies have been theoretically estimated. The radiation hazard to the patient is found to be not significant

1976-01-01

365

Greater vulnerability to the amnestic effects of ketamine in males.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE: Gender differences both in response to ketamine in animals and general cognitive functioning in humans have been observed and suggested to be related to modulatory effects of sex hormones on N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) functioning. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to determine whether there were gender differences in response to ketamine in humans. METHODS: Behavioral data including positive and negative symptoms (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale), perceptual alterations (Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale, CADSS), and "high" and "anxiety" states (Visual Analog Scale) from 295 subjects who participated in a total of 11 placebo-controlled ketamine studies were analyzed. In a subset of subjects, memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Task: HVLT, n=108) and attention (continuous performance task, n=177) data were also analyzed. RESULTS: Male participants showed a greater performance decrement on the HVLT after ketamine administration compared to women. Men also reported a greater subjective sense of memory impairment on a CADSS subscale. No other gender differences in behavioral or cognitive measures were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Men showed a greater vulnerability to the amnestic effects of ketamine than women. Possible explanations of these findings are neuroanatomical and cognitive differences in processing of words in men and women and interactions between sex hormones and NMDA-R function.

Morgan CJ; Perry EB; Cho HS; Krystal JH; D'Souza DC

2006-09-01

366

Dietary phosphorus is associated with greater left ventricular mass.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function, which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals who were free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1167?mg/day in men and 1017?mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1?g greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1?g greater LVM compared with the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies.

Yamamoto KT; Robinson-Cohen C; de Oliveira MC; Kostina A; Nettleton JA; Ix JH; Nguyen H; Eng J; Lima JA; Siscovick DS; Weiss NS; Kestenbaum B

2013-04-01

367

Significant lexical relationships  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

368

Hazardous air emissions from incineration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incineration is now a principal method for dealing with many dangerous industrial waste products, and there is growing concern about the hazardous effects that incinerator emissions are having on the quality of the air. Hazardous Air Emissions from Incineration is a guide to understanding incinerator emissions, air-pollution control equipment, and regulatory statues and methods. This volume presents coverage of: The nature and level of air-emission discharges; the variety of incineration systems in use today; current air-emission regulations as they apply to these systems; the effects of emissions on the environment and levels of toxicity; dispersion calculations to determine worst-case ground level effects; dioxins and other highly toxic organic material.

Brunner, C.R.

1985-01-01

369

Models of volcanic eruption hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volcanic eruptions pose an ever present but poorly constrained hazard to life and property for geothermal installations in volcanic areas. Because eruptions occur sporadically and may limit field access, quantitative and systematic field studies of eruptions are difficult to complete. Circumventing this difficulty, laboratory models and numerical simulations are pivotal in building our understanding of eruptions. For example, the results of fuel-coolant interaction experiments show that magma-water interaction controls many eruption styles. Applying these results, increasing numbers of field studies now document and interpret the role of external water eruptions. Similarly, numerical simulations solve the fundamental physics of high-speed fluid flow and give quantitative predictions that elucidate the complexities of pyroclastic flows and surges. A primary goal of these models is to guide geologists in searching for critical field relationships and making their interpretations. Coupled with field work, modeling is beginning to allow more quantitative and predictive volcanic hazard assessments.

Wohletz, K.H.

1992-01-01

370

Volcanic hazards and public response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although scientific understanding of volcanoes is advancing, eruptions continue to take a substantial toll of life and property. Some of these losses could be reduced by better advance preparations, more effective flow of information between scientists and public officials, and better understanding of volcanic behaviour by all segments of the public. However, the underlying problem embraces a set of more complex issues comprising 3 pervasive factors: 1) the volcano: signals given by restless volcanoes are often ambiguous and difficult to interpret, especially at long-quiescent volcanoes; 2) people: people confront hazardous volcanoes in widely divergent ways, and many have difficulty in dealing with the uncertainties inherent in volcanic unrest; 3) the scientists: volcanologists correctly place their highest priority on monitoring and hazard assessment, but they sometimes fail to explain clearly their conclusions to responsible officials and the public, which may lead to inadequate public response.-from Author

Peterson, D. W.

1988-01-01

371

Models of volcanic eruption hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volcanic eruptions pose an ever present but poorly constrained hazard to life and property for geothermal installations in volcanic areas. Because eruptions occur sporadically and may limit field access, quantitative and systematic field studies of eruptions are difficult to complete. Circumventing this difficulty, laboratory models and numerical simulations are pivotal in building our understanding of eruptions. For example, the results of fuel-coolant interaction experiments show that magma-water interaction controls many eruption styles. Applying these results, increasing numbers of field studies now document and interpret the role of external water eruptions. Similarly, numerical simulations solve the fundamental physics of high-speed fluid flow and give quantitative predictions that elucidate the complexities of pyroclastic flows and surges. A primary goal of these models is to guide geologists in searching for critical field relationships and making their interpretations. Coupled with field work, modeling is beginning to allow more quantitative and predictive volcanic hazard assessments.

Wohletz, K.H.

1992-06-01

372

Magnetohydrodynamics and its hazard assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Potential occupational and environmental hazards of a typical combined open-cycle MHD/steam cycle power plant are critically assessed on the basis of direct/indirect research information. Among the potential occupational hazards, explosion at the coal feed system or at the superconducting magnet; combustor rupture in a confined pit; high intensity dc magnetic field exposure at the channel; and combustion products leakage from the pressurized systems are of primary concern. While environmental emissions of SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/ and fine particulates are considered under control in experimental scale, control effectiveness at high capacity operation remains uncertain. Gaseous emission of some highly toxic trace elements including radioactive species may be of concern without gas cleaning device in the MHD design. 34 refs.

Wing-to, C.

1981-01-01

373

Treatment technologies for hazardous wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is presented of a series of articles which will appear in the Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation. The first article in the series is ''A Review of Treatment Alternatives for Dioxin Wastes''. It is the first of a series that will be produced by specialists within EPA's Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory. The purpose of this series of critically reviewed articles is to present to JAPCA readers technical reviews of alternative technologies that could be used to manage wastes that will be subject to the landfill restrictions under the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The articles in this series will deal with waste streams in chronological order of their landfill restriction target dates.

Olexsey, R.A.

1986-01-01

374

Robots Working with Hazardous Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While many research and development activities take place at Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center (ISRC), where the "rubber meets the road" is in the ISRC'S delivered systems. The ISRC has delivered several systems over the last few years that handle hazardous materials on a daily basis, and allow human workers to move to a safer, supervisory role than the "hands-on" operations that they used to perform. The ISRC at Sandia performs a large range of research and development activities, including development and delivery of one-of-a-kind robotic systems for use with hazardous materials. Our mission is to create systems for operations where people can't or don't want to perform the operations by hand, and the systems described in this article are several of our first-of-a-kind deliveries to achieve that mission.

Amai, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.

1999-01-06

375

Ranking chemicals for environmental hazard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A formal approach is developed to rank chemicals for environmental hazard according to test results relevant to their fate and/or toxicity by using a vectorial approach for partial ordering. In this example, 34 chemicals have been ranked according to seven criteria related to their bioaccumulation and degradation characteristics. In addition, a smaller set of test compounds, namely, chlorobenzenes, have been also ranked according to their toxicity to fish, bacteria, and zooplankton and according to their environmental fate. The ranking is displayed by using Hasse diagrams which show that 2,4-dichlorobiphenyl, 2,4,6,2'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene are environmentally the most hazardous of the 34 chemicals on the basis of the seven criteria. By use of only five criteria, hexachlorobenzene is ranked the highest.

Halfon, E.; Reggiani, M.G.

1986-11-01

376

An assessment of future volcanic hazard at Yucca Mountain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary results and methods of a volcanic-hazards assessment for the proposed high-level nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain are given. The most significant hazards are potential intersection of the repository by a basaltic dike, or structural disruption associated with dike intrusion. Two approaches are taken, which give similar results: homogeneous volcanic-source zones and spatial smoothing. The preliminary computed probabilities of intersection of the Yucca Mountain repository by a basaltic dike are in the range 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8} per year.

Hackett, W.R. [WRH Associates, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-12-01

377

An assessment of future volcanic hazard at Yucca Mountain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary results and methods of a volcanic-hazards assessment for the proposed high-level nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain are given. The most significant hazards are potential intersection of the repository by a basaltic dike, or structural disruption associated with dike intrusion. Two approaches are taken, which give similar results: homogeneous volcanic-source zones and spatial smoothing. The preliminary computed probabilities of intersection of the Yucca Mountain repository by a basaltic dike are in the range 10-7 to 10-8 per year.

1996-05-03

378

User's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard code INVENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report constitutes the user's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard index code INVENT and provides an explanation of the mathematical basis of the code, the database used and operation of the code. INVENT was designed to facilitate the post-closure radiological assessment of land-based repositories for low and intermediate-level wastes. For those radionuclides identified to be of potential significance, it allows the calculation of time-dependent radionuclide activities, hazard indices for both inhalation and ingestion of activity, and photon spectra. (author)

1986-01-01

379

Laser welding in hazardous environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the developments of a high power Nd:YAG laser for remote welding applications in hazardous areas. Lasers are a relatively new technology, but offer substantial advantages over existing techniques in many different situations. These are discussed briefly before a description of how a laser can be used to weld two tubes together using an orbital technique, and how such a weld can be monitored remotely to ensure a high quality weld. (Author).

Montgomery, D.J.; Rider, G. [Magnox Electric plc, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

380

Health hazards from environmental pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Three examples from current research are cited in order to show the health hazards from environmental pollution and to describe methods of risk quantification: (1) The smog situation of January 1985 is analyzed on the basis of detailed morbidity and mortality statistics; (2) The current knowledge on the contribution of radon decay products to lung cancer is discussed; (3) The problem of abandoned industrial sites is illustrated by a population group living on contaminated ground. (orig.)

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Detection device for hazardous materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chcal with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

382

Introduction to hazardous waste incineration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides the fundamentals of incineration of hazardous wastes and introduces the specialized and reference materials in this and related areas. As this practice becomes more widespread, increasing numbers of maintenance personnel are being confronted with problems in this most important area, and this book, will serve this need. The book is divided into four broad categories: Introduction/Incineration Principles/Equipment/Facility Design.

Theodore, L.; Reynolds, J.

1987-01-01

383

Volcanic hazards and aviation safety  

Science.gov (United States)

An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

Casadevall, Thomas, J.; Thompson, Theodore, B.; Ewert, John, W.

1996-01-01

384

Remote techniques for hazardous environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Remote techniques are essential to many industries where hazardous environments are an inherent part of everyday operations. The latest developments in remote technologies and the practical applications of these techniques worldwide are presented in this book. Applications covered include repair and refurbishment, inspection, decommissioning, operation and maintenance, and waste management. Although concentrating on techniques developed for nuclear industry applications, much of this research and development has great relevance for non-nuclear applications, such as in the offshore, medical and petrochemical industries. (UK).

1996-01-01

385

Reproductive hazards of the workplace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concern regarding adverse effects of occupational exposures on the reproductive health of workers is increasing. Several sociopolitical and legal issues influence both the regulation of worker exposure and the ability to study exposure and possible reproductive effects. Adverse reproductive outcomes that may be related to occupational exposure are discussed and some of the possible mechanisms of action are explored. Epidemiologic approaches to the study of reproductive hazards of the workplace are considered and illustrated in this paper.

Sever, L.E.

1981-10-01

386

Detection device for hazardous material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of a detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chemical with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

Partin, J.K.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

387

Health hazards of welding fumes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Even in the twenty -first century , welding is still a common and high skilled occupation. The hazardous agents associated with welding processes are acetylene, carbomonoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, phosgene, tungsten, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, iron, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, silver,tin and zinc.All welding processes involve the potential hazards for inhalation exposures that may lead to acute or chronic respiratory diseases. According to literature described earlier it has been suggested that welding fumes cause the lung function impairment, obstructive and restrictive,lungs diseases diseases, cough, dyspnea, rhinitis, asthama, pneumoconiosis, carcinoma of the lungs. In additon,welding workers suffer from eye problems like irritation, phtokeratitis, cataract, skin irritation, erythema, petrygium, non-melanosytic skin cancer, malignant melanoma, reduced sperm count , motility and infertility. Most of the studies have been attempted previously to evaluate the effects of weldig fumes.However no cllectively effort illuminating the general effects of welding fumes on differnt organs or systems or both in humans has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of welding fumes documented by individual efforts and provides information to community on hazards of welding. (author)

2003-01-01

388

Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components with potential carcinogenic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been included, the three major smoke-related causes of death are all covered by the list. Given that the currently used Hoffmann list of hazardous smoke components is based on data from the 1990s and only includes carcinogens, it is recommended that the current list of 98 hazardous components is used for regulatory purposes instead. To enable risk assessment of components not covered by this list, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC) have been established from the inhalation risk values found: 0.0018 µg day?1 for all risks, and 1.2 µg day?1 for all risks excluding carcinogenicity, the latter being similar to previously reported inhalation TTCs.

Reinskje Talhout; Thomas Schulz; Ewa Florek; Jan van Benthem; Piet Wester; Antoon Opperhuizen

2011-01-01

389

Seismic hazard maps of Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Italian "Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti" has conducted a project in recent years for assessing seismic hazard in the national territory to be used as a basis for the revision of the current seismic zonation. In this project the data on the major earthquakes were reassessed and a new earthquake data file prepared. Definition of a seismotectonic model for the whole territory, based on a structural-kinematic analysis of Italy and the surrounding regions, led to the definition of 80 seismogenic zones, for which the geological and seismic characteristics were determined. Horizontal PGA and macroseismic intensity were used as seismicity parameters in the application of the Cornell probabilistic approach. The main aspects of the seismic hazard assessment are here described and the results obtained are presented and discussed. The maps prepared show the various aspects of seismic hazard which need to be considered for a global view of the problem. In particular, those with a 475-year return period, in agreement with the specifications of the new seismic Eurocode EC8, can be considered basic products for a revision of the present national seismic zonation.

D. Slejko; L. Peruzza; A. Rebez

1998-01-01

390

Noise hazards for the commercial diver  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exposure of workers to noise in the workplace is legally controlled in the United Kingdom by the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, and specifically under the Noise at Work Regulation 1989 (HMSO, 1989). In the case of underwater exposure of commercial divers, however, the situation has been less clear cut because there have been no well defined noise limits or hearing conservation measures, nor has any systematic survey of occupational noise exposure for an offshore diver been undertaken. Control where enforced is of a retrospective nature, and involves refusing the diver his certificate of fitness to dive if it is determined during his medical that the audiogram indicates hearing loss. This is unacceptable in that it permits a degree of auditory injury to be sustained by the diver and also, although more serious hearing loss is prevented, the diver will lose his livelihood. Clearly, action is required to prevent hazardous exposure by identifying the significant sources of noise and taking steps to limit the noise to acceptable limits. However, this previously has been rendered difficult by the lack of information concerning the effects of noise in hyperbaric gas and in water. This paper gives an example of each, and indicates preventative measures that may be taken to protect divers from each potentially hazardous noise exposure. (Author)

Nedwell, Jeremy; Parvin, S.J. [Subacoustech Ltd., Horton Heath (United Kingdom); Needham, K. [DRA, Alverstoke (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31

391

Hazardous material training for transporters and receivers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief overview is presented of the DOT`s Research and Special Programs Administration`s (RSPA) and OSHA hazardous material training program. Training requirements are compared for redundancy and differences. Specific programs include HAZMAT-DOT, Hazard Communication, HAZWOPER and PPE training. A training management program is proposed that is modular in nature. Goals of the program are to satisfy regulatory requirements in a cog effective manner. Specific areas will be covered using the training requirements in Docket HM-126 as they relate to other OSHA HAZMAT training programs. Training management programs which are not administratively complete or are not functionally relevant can be a source of liability. A non-regulated area is training for personnel conducting testing and maintenance of HAZMAT packaging meeting the requirements of Docket HM-181. The packaging standards meet performance versus construction standards. Without training of maintenance and testing personnel a liability may exist for manufacturers and transporters. A value added training module appended to HM- 126 training can significantly reduce this liability. Modular based safety training management programs reduce training costs and non-compliance liabilities. They allow management to quickly adjust their training program to satisfy changing regulations with a minimal expenditure, of resources, reduced redundancy and a reduction in unnecessary training.

Healy, D.J. [ECO Compliance, Friendswood, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

392

WIPP fire hazards and risk analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a fire hazards risk analysis of the Transuranic (TRU) contact-handled waste receipt, emplacement, and disposal activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The technical bases and safety envelope for these operations are defined in the approved WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Although the safety documentation for the initial phase of the Test Program, the dry bin scale tests, has not yet been approved by the Department of Energy (DOE), reviews of the draft to date, including those by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Facility Safety (ACNFS), have concluded that the dry bin scale tests present no significant risks in excess of those estimated in the approved WIPP FSAR. It is the opinion of the authors and reviewers of this analysis, based on sound engineering judgment and knowledge of the WIPP operations, that a Fire Hazards and Risk Analysis specific to the dry bin scale test program is not warranted prior to first waste receipt. This conclusion is further supported by the risk analysis presented in this document which demonstrates the level of risk to WIPP operations posed by fire to be extremely low. 15 refs., 41 figs., 48 tabs

1991-01-01

393

Radiological hazards following a nuclear emergency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident there was an understandable increase in public interest in nuclear accidents and emergency planning for them. It became clear that the broad nature, timing and scale of the radiological hazard presented by such accidents was, however, little understood. This Paper sets out in simple terms the basic features of the radiological hazard to persons in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant should a serious accident occur. The Paper starts by stressing the difference between faults -events that may occur relatively frequently - and accidents -unplanned releases of radioactivity that are by design extremely unlikely events. The Paper examines the significance of different exposure pathways and relates them to the protective measures (countermeasures) that may be taken. These countermeasures include sheltering, evacuation and the consumption of stable iodine tablets. The Paper illustrates the effectiveness of these countermeasures, taking as an example a severe Magnox reactor accident and explains the importance of the practical as opposed to the theoretical aspects of planning an effective response to such emergencies. (author).

Western, D.J. (Nuclear Electric, Bristol (UK))

1991-02-01

394

Radiological hazards following a nuclear emergency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident there was an understandable increase in public interest in nuclear accidents and emergency planning for them. It became clear that the broad nature, timing and scale of the radiological hazard presented by such accidents was, however, little understood. This Paper sets out in simple terms the basic features of the radiological hazard to persons in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant should a serious accident occur. The Paper starts by stressing the difference between faults -events that may occur relatively frequently - and accidents -unplanned releases of radioactivity that are by design extremely unlikely events. The Paper examines the significance of different exposure pathways and relates them to the protective measures (countermeasures) that may be taken. These countermeasures include sheltering, evacuation and the consumption of stable iodine tablets. The Paper illustrates the effectiveness of these countermeasures, taking as an example a severe Magnox reactor accident and explains the importance of the practical as opposed to the theoretical aspects of planning an effective response to such emergencies. (author)

1991-01-01

395

Geospatial and geophysical information for earthquake hazard assessment in Vrancea area, Romania  

Science.gov (United States)

Vrancea area at the sharp bend of the Southeast Carpathians in Romania is one of the highest seismogenic zones in Europe, the present-day tectonic activity in this region being characterized by a small zone of intense shallow- to intermediate-depth seismicity that is often interpreted as reflecting the late stage of intra-continental collision. Efforts to advance understanding of earthquake physics and assessing of earthquake hazard in Vrancea seismic area require detailed observations of all phases of the earthquake cycle (pre-, co-, and post-seismic), across multiple fault systems and tectonic environment. Earthquake prediction has two potentially compatible but distinctly different objectives: (a) phenomena that provide information about the future earthquake hazard useful to those who live in earthquake-prone regions and (b) phenomena causally related to the physical processes governing failure on a fault that will improve our understanding of those processes. Remote sensing and geospatial information tools and techniques, including numerical modeling, have advanced considerably in recent years, enabling a greater understanding of the Earth as a complex system of geophysical phenomena. Space-based geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System in synergy with ground-based seismological measurements, interferometric synthetic aperture radar data, high-resolution digital elevation models as well imaging spectroscopy (e.g. using ASTER, MODIS and Hyperion data) are contributing significantly to seismic hazard and risk assessment. Space-time anomalies of Earth's emitted radiation (radon in underground water and soil and surface air , thermal infrared in spectral range measured from satellite months to weeks before the occurrence of earthquakes etc.), ionospheric and electromagnetic anomalies have been interpreted, by several authors, as pre-seismic signals. For seismic hazard analysis in Vrancea area, Romania have been selected the earthquake precursors detectable from space which can also be observed by ground-based monitoring experiments: surface deformation provided by GPS and SAR imaging, land surface temperature changes as possible precursors provided by ASTER, Landsat TM and ETM, electromagnetic and ionospheric anomalies, radon gas emissions in the faults areas prior to earthquakes, as well as seismicity. Multispectral and multitemporal satellite images (LANDSAT TM, ETM , ASTER, MODIS) over 1989-2009 period have been analyzed for recognizing the continuity and regional relationships of active faults as well as for geologic and seismic hazard mapping. In spite of providing the best constraints on the rate of strain accumulation on active faults (coseismic, postseismic, and interseismic deformation; plate motion and crustal deformation at plate boundaries), GPS measurements have a low spatial resolution, and deformation in the vertical direction can not be determined very accurately. As Vrancea area has a significant regional tectonic activity in Romania and Europe, the joint analysis of geospatial and in-situ geophysical information is revealing new insights in the field of hazard assessment. For Vrancea region, observations of surface kinematics with data provided by Global Positioning System (GPS) network constitute a new and independent data source. In combination with geologic and geophysical information, surface motions may help to unravel the intriguing tectonics of the region. GPS Romanian network stations data revealed a displacement of about few millimeters (5-6 mm) per year in horizontal direction relative motion, and a (2-3 mm) per year in vertical direction. As Vrancea area is characterized by a significant regional tectonic activity, evidenced by neotectonic deformation and seismicity, future use of long-term interferometric data will be a useful tool in active tectonic investigation for this region. The joint analysis of geodetic, seismological and geological information on the spatial distribution of crustal deformations as well as the analysis of some earthquake precursors is revealing new

Zoran, Maria

2010-05-01

396

Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls

2009-01-01

397

Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls.

Beaulieu, R A

2009-05-04

398

AN ENHANCED HAZARD ANALYSIS PROCESS FOR THE HANFORD TANK FARMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., has expanded the scope and increased the formality of process hazards analyses performed on new or modified Tank Farm facilities, designs, and processes. The CH2M HILL process hazard analysis emphasis has been altered to reflect its use as a fundamental part of the engineering and change control process instead of simply being a nuclear safety analysis tool. The scope has been expanded to include identification of accidents/events that impact the environment, or require emergency response, in addition to those with significant impact to the facility worker, the offsite, and the 100-meter receptor. Also, there is now an expectation that controls will be identified to address all types of consequences. To ensure that the process has an appropriate level of rigor and formality, a new engineering standard for process hazards analysis was created. This paper discusses the role of process hazards analysis as an information source for not only nuclear safety, but also for the worker-safety management programs, emergency management, environmental programs. This paper also discusses the role of process hazards analysis in the change control process, including identifying when and how it should be applied to changes in design or process

2008-01-01

399

Seismic hazard analysis. Application of methodology, results, and sensitivity studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Site Specific Spectra Project, this report seeks to identify the sources of and minimize uncertainty in estimates of seismic hazards in the Eastern United States. Findings are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a synthesis among various methods that can be used in evaluating seismic hazard at the various plants in the Eastern United States. In this volume, one of a five-volume series, we discuss the application of the probabilistic approach using expert opinion. The seismic hazard is developed at nine sites in the Central and Northeastern United States, and both individual experts' and synthesis results are obtained. We also discuss and evaluate the ground motion models used to develop the seismic hazard at the various sites, analyzing extensive sensitivity studies to determine the important parameters and the significance of uncertainty in them. Comparisons are made between probabilistic and real spectra for a number of Eastern earthquakes. The uncertainty in the real spectra is examined as a function of the key earthquake source parameters. In our opinion, the single most important conclusion of this study is that the use of expert opinion to supplement the sparse data available on Eastern United States earthquakes is a viable approach for determining estimated seismic hazard in this region of the country. (author)

1981-01-01

400

Landslide hazard zoning at regional level – Vâlcea County case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years the severity of the extreme meteorological phenomena significantly increased,i.e. heavy rains which led to historical floods on the most part of the hydrographical basins of Romania,mostly during 2005 and 2010. These abnormal meteorological phenomena reactivated a great number oflandslides. Therefore, risk managers, in order to urge the landslide inventory at the whole country level,launched hazard maps in terms of Law no 575/2001 regarding the “Plan of the national territorydevelopment, the Fifth section – Areas of natural hazards”. This means risk maps of Romania for areasprone to natural hazards (floods, landslides and earthquakes), as well as the exact geographical andadministrative localization of these areas, including the indication of the risk level of producing thespecific hazards. The present paper presents the methodology of hazard zoning at the local and regionallevel, including the parameters used to draw down the thematic maps for inventory and representation ofthe active landslide for the whole territory. As a case study area, Vâlcea County was chosen for the largenumber of damages due to the landslide effects. Of them, the Ocnele Mari case is noteworthy as anatural reservation of diapire salts massifs, affected by collapse due to salt dissolution by runoff waterand overexploitation by water injection.

Adrian A. Mesescu; Septimius Mara

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

An ecotoxicological approach for hazard identification of energy ash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ., and the Swedish Geotechnical Inst. (SGI) have worked in projects with the main aim to improve the understanding of governing mechanisms for ecotoxicity of ash materials. With the ambition to provide recommendations on classification of ash according to H-14, we have characterised bottom and fly ash materials based on both total levels in solid materials and eluates. In addition, the eluates have been characterized with a battery of ecotoxicity tests. The most important findings from the projects are: (1) classification based on total content of substances over-estimates the ecotoxicological hazard potential as compared with ecotoxicity testing of eluates; (2) when leaching is performed at L/S <10 l/kg, components not classified as hazardous, in particular potassium, significantly influence the toxicity of the eluates, which is problematic from a hazard classification perspective, but likely negligible from a long-term environmental risk perspective.

Breitholtz, Magnus; Stiernstroem, Sara; Linde, Margareta [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)], e-mail: magnus.breitholtz@itm.su.se; Hemstroem, Kristian [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. AB (IVL), Stockholm (Sweden); Enell, Anja; Wik, Ola [Swedish Geotechnical Inst. (SGI), Linkoeping (Sweden)

2012-11-01

402

When wastewater is a hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes the procedure by which facilities must review their wastewater discharge to determine whether it meets the definition of hazardous waste under EPA's 40 CFR Part 261. Hazardous characteristics include: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity and toxicity. The most reliable way to evaluate wastewater for these characteristics involves sampling and subsequent analysis of the samples at a certified laboratory. Point of discharge wastewater that exhibits one or more of these hazardous characteristics is classified as a characteristic hazardous waste'. The facility must then certify that there is a program in place to reduce the volume and toxicity of the hazardous wastes generated.

Levy, D.L. (C.T. Male Associates, Latham, NY (United States))

1993-02-01

403

Children's Misunderstandings of Hazard Warning Signs in the New Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accidental chemical poisoning causes more than 35?000 child deaths every year across the world, and it leads to disease, disability, and suffering for many more children. Children's ignorance of dangers and their failure to interpret hazard warning signs as intended contribute significantly to this problem. A new Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling is being implemented internationally with a view to unifying the current multiple and disparate national systems. This study was designed to establish a productive, effective means of teaching the new GHS warning signs to primary school children (aged 7-11 years). A pre-test, post-test, follow-up test design was employed, with a teaching intervention informed by a Delphi survey of expert opinion. Children from one school formed the experimental group (n?=?49) and a second school provided a control group (n?=?23). Both groups showed a gain in knowledge from pre-test to post-test, the experimental group with a larger gain but which was not statistically significant. However, longer-term retention of knowledge, as shown by the follow-up test, was statistically significantly greater in the experimental group (p?=?0.001). The employment of teaching to match children's preferred learning styles, and the use of active learning were found to be related to improved retention of knowledge. Part of the study involved eliciting children's interpretation of standard hazard warning symbols, and this provoked considerable concern over the potential for dangerous misinterpretation with disastrous consequences. This article focuses on the reasons for such misconception and the action required to address this successfully in testing the intervention.

Latham G; Long T; Devitt P

2013-08-01

404

A New Revisit Evidence of Stock Markets’ Interrelationships in the Greater China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the recent stock markets’ interrelationships in Greater China (China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan). The main goal is to use more detailed and new daily stock market data from 2005/7 to 2010/5 to offer valuable and complementary insights on financial integration among these economies. From the empirical analysis, we found that China’s stock market has a positive impact on the other Greater China economies, but the reverse is not true. In addition, Hong Kong’s stock market also has a significantly positive impact on Taiwan, but not on China, and the impact of Hong Kong on Taiwan is larger than that of China on Taiwan. This result is consistent with the previous empirical findings that the segmented and integrated China stock market is mixed, and this result implies that the China stock market is still “partially integrated” with the other Greater China stock markets after the 2008 global financial crisis.

Chu-Chia Lin; Chung-Rou Fang; Hui-Pei Cheng

2011-01-01

405

Treatment and storage of radioactive wastes at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway and a short survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes in Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment and storage of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Norway is described. A survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes and planned processing methods for their treatment in Norway is given. It seems that processing methods developed for radioactive wastes to a greater extent could be adopted to hazardous wastes, and that an increased interdisciplinary waste cooperation could be a positive contribution to the solution of the hazardous waste problems.

1988-01-01

406

Hazardous materials in Fresh Kills landfill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

No environmental monitoring and corrective action programs can pinpoint multiple locations of hazardous materials the total amount of them in a large landfill. Yet the consequences of hazardous materials in MSW landfills are considerable, in terms of public health concerns, environmental damage, and cleanup costs. In this paper a rough estimation is made of how much hazardous material may have been disposed in Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, New York. The logic and methods could be used for other MSW landfills. Fresh Kills has frequently been described as the world`s largest MSW landfill. While records of hazardous waste disposal at Fresh Kills over nearly 50 years of operation certainly do not exist, no reasonable person would argue with the conclusion that large quantities of hazardous waste surely have been disposed at Fresh Kills, both legally and illegally. This study found that at least 2 million tons of hazardous wastes and substances have been disposed at Fresh Kills since 1948. Major sources are: household hazardous waste, commercial RCRA hazardous waste, incinerator ash, and commercial non-RCRA hazardous waste, governmental RCRA hazardous waste. Illegal disposal of hazardous waste surely has contributed even more. This is a sufficient amount to cause serious environmental contamination and releases, especially from such a landfill without an engineered liner system, for example. This figure is roughly 1% of the total amount of waste disposed in Fresh Kills since 1948, probably at least 200 million tons.

Hirschhorn, J.S. [Hirschhorn and Associates, Wheaton, MD (United States)

1997-12-31

407

Implementation of the hazardous debris rule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Hazardous debris includes objects contaminated with hazardous waste. Examples of debris include tree stumps, timbers, boulders, tanks, piping, crushed drums, personal protective clothing, etc. Most of the hazardous debris encountered comes from Superfund sites and other facility remediation, although generators and treaters of hazardous waste also generate hazardous debris. Major problems associated with disposal of debris includes: Inappropriateness of many waste treatments to debris; Difficulties in obtaining representative samples; Costs associated with applying waste specific treatments to debris; Subtitle C landfill space was being used for many low hazard debris types. These factors brought about the need for debris treatment technologies and regulations that addressed these issues. The goal of such regulation was to provide treatment to destroy or remove the contamination if possible and, if this is achieved, to dispose of the cleaned debris as a nonhazardous waste. EPA has accomplished this goal through promulgation of the Hazardous Debris Rule, August 18, 1992

1993-01-01

408

Smokers report greater demand for alcohol on a behavioral economic purchase task.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smokers have higher levels of alcohol consumption than nonsmokers and poorer response to alcohol treatment. It is possible that the greater severity of alcohol problems observed in smokers reflects a greater susceptibility to alcohol-related reinforcement. The present study used a behavioral economic purchase task to investigate whether heavy drinking smokers would have greater demand for alcohol than heavy drinking nonsmokers. METHOD: Participants were 207 college students who reported at least one heavy drinking episode in the past month. Of the 207 participants, 33.2% (n = 67) reported smoking cigarettes at least 1 day in the past month. Participants completed the hypothetical alcohol purchase task, a simulation task that asked them to report how many drinks they would purchase at varying price increments. RESULTS: After the participants' reported alcohol consumption, gender, alcohol problems, and depression were controlled for, analyses of covariance revealed that heavy drinking smokers had significantly greater reported maximum alcohol expenditures (Omax), greater maximum inelastic price (Pmax), and higher breakpoint values (first price suppressing consumption to zero). CONCLUSIONS: College student heavy drinkers who also smoke cigarettes exhibit increased demand for alcohol. Smokers in this high-risk developmental stage may thus be less sensitive to price and other contingencies that would otherwise serve to modulate drinking and may require more intensive intervention approaches.

Yurasek AM; Murphy JG; Clawson AH; Dennhardt AA; MacKillop J

2013-07-01

409

Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Greater Confinement disposal Test (GCDT) at the Nevada Test Site will be a full scale demonstration of intermediate depth burial for disposal of defense low-level radioactive wastes considered unsuitable for shallow land burial. The GCDT project will demonstrate that these wastes can be efficaciously disposed at a depth of approximately 30 meters where the probability of future inadvertent human intrusion and of potential waste migration are negligible. The GCDT will be instrumented to collect data on properties of the disposal madium (alluvial sediments). Tracers will be injected to assess the transport potential of wastes through the medium. Tracer data will be analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the disposal method.

1983-03-03

410

Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) at the Nevada Test Site will be a full scale demonstration of intermediate depth burial for disposal of defense low-level radioactive wastes considered unsuitable for shallow land burial. The GCDT project will demonstrate that these wastes can be efficaciously disposed at a depth of approximately 30 meters where the probabilities of future inadvertent human intrusion and of potential waste migration are negligible. The GCDT will be instrumented to collect data on properties of the disposal medium (alluvial sediments). Tracers will be injected to assess the transport potential of wastes through the medium. Tracer data will be analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the disposal method.

1983-03-03

411

Is environmental dumping greater when plants are footloose?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We address concerns that globalisation gives national governments incentives to set weak environmental policies and that these incentives are particularly strong in industries where plants are footloose. Using a simple model of imperfect competition, we compare the environmental policies that would be set by non-cooperative governments for two different move structures - where governments set environmental policies after firms decide where to locate (market share game) and where governments set environmental policies before firms decide where to locate (location game). We show that the extent of environmental dumping in the market share game can be greater than in the location game.

Ulph, A. [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom); Valentini, L. [Tilburg Univ. (Netherlands)

2001-07-01

412

Explosive volcanism: Inception, evolution, and hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One purpose of the studies is to provide assessments from the scientific community to aid policymakers in decisions on societal problems that involve geophysics. An important part of such an assessment is an evaluation of the adequacy of present geophysical knowledge and the appropriateness of present research programs to provide information required for those decisions. Some of the studies place more emphasis on assessing the present status of a field of geophysics and identifying the most promising directions for future research. This study on explosive volcanism was begun soon after the cataclysmic eruptions of Mount St. Helens. It readily became apparent to the committee that an assessment of the explosive nature of volcanoes must cover all types of volcanic activity; any volcano can be explosive. Improved understanding of the physics of volcanic eruptions is an exciting goal that is vital to progress in hazard evaluation. The study of explosive volcanism must include an appreciation of the severe social problems that are caused by erupting volcanoes. None is of greater urgency than planning for a crisis. This report considers the progress in research on these aspects of explosive volcanism and the need for additional research efforts. This volume contains 13 papers. Topics include tectonism, volcanism, volcanic periodicity, eruptive mechanics, emergency planning and recommendations. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy data base.

1984-01-01

413

Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated.

1980-11-10

414

Nucleotide diversity of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastid genome: addressing the mutational-hazard hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The mutational-hazard hypothesis argues that the noncoding-DNA content of a genome is a consequence of the mutation rate (?) and the effective number of genes per locus in the population (Ng). The hypothesis predicts that genomes with a high Ng? will be more compact than those with a small Ng?. Approximations of Ng? can be gained by measuring the nucleotide diversity at silent sites (?silent). We addressed the mutation-hazard hypothesis apropos plastid-genome evolution by measuring ?silent of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastid DNA (ptDNA), the most noncoding-DNA-dense plastid genome observed to date. The data presented here in conjunction with previously published values of ?silent for the C. reinhardtii mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, which are respectively compact and bloated, allow for a complete analysis of nucleotide diversity and genome compactness in all three genetic compartments of this model organism. Results In C. reinhardtii, the mean estimate of ?silent forthe ptDNA (14.5 × 10-3) is less than that of the nuclear DNA (32 × 10-3) and greater than that of the mitochondrial DNA (8.5 × 10-3). On average, C. reinhardtii has ~4 times more silent-site ptDNA diversity than the mean value reported for land plants, which have more compact plastid genomes. The silent-site nucleotide diversity of the different ptDNA loci that were studied varied significantly: from 0 to 71 × 10-3 for synonymous sites and from 0 to 42 × 10-3 for intergenic regions. Conclusion Our findings on silent-site ptDNA diversity are inconsistent with what would be expected under the mutational-hazard hypothesis and go against the documented trend in other systems of ?silent positively correlating with genome compactness. Overall, we highlight the lack of reliable nucleotide-diversity measurements for ptDNA and hope that the values presented here will act as sound data for future research concerning the mutational-hazard hypothesis and plastid evolution in general.

Smith David; Lee Robert W

2009-01-01

415

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

Alvarez RA; Pacala SW; Winebrake JJ; Chameides WL; Hamburg SP

2012-04-01

416

High-specific-activity waste handling for greater confinement disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1980 the DOE's National Low-Level Waste Management Program began to review alternatives to the shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. Although the majority of low-level waste is routinely and safely disposed in shallow-land burial, a portion was considered unsuitable for shallow-land burial because of its high specific activity or potential for migration into biopathways. In 1981, the Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was started at the DOE's Nevada Test Site to demonstrate the feasibility of ''greater depth'' burial in alluvial sediments. The project is designed to demonstrate the disposal of DOE low-level wastes at a depth sufficient to minimize or eliminate natural environmental intrusion processes into the waste zone. One of the primary goals of the GCDT is to develop equipment and operational procedures for handling and disposal of high-specific-activity wastes. This paper discusses the waste loading of the GCDT and presents information on the radiological aspects of handling high-specific-activity wastes.

1986-01-01

417

Expatriate job performance in Greater China: Does age matter?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As opposed to the predominant belief in the West, in Chinese dominated societies there may be a positive relationship between age and perceived possession of high quality personal resources and older people are traditionally treated with respect. This attitude towards old age may carry over to expatriates in Chinese societies. It is possible that older business expatriates will receive more respect and be treated with more deference in a Chinese cultural context than their apparently younger colleagues. This may have a positive impact on expatriates’ job performance. To empirically test this presumption, business expatriates in Greater Chine were targeted by a survey. Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive association with the age of the expatriates. This finding provides partial affirmative support to the presumption that the age of business expatriates matters in a Chinese cultural context. Implications of this result are discussed in detail.

Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

418

An endoscopic study of the greater palatine nerve.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Using an endoscopic approach, lateral sphenoid air cells and terminal branches of the internal maxillary artery often can be accessed through the pterygomaxillary fossa: however, injury to the greater palatine nerve (GPN) can occur if the anatomy of this region is not understood clearly. This study was undertaken to define the pathway of the GPN and to identify landmarks useful in preventing its injury. METHODS: Six cadaveric heads were used to endoscopically dissect and examine 11 pterygomaxillary fossae. An additional latex-injected cadaveric head was sectioned coronally and dissected bilaterally. The relationships between the vascular, neurological and bony structures and foramena were noted and described. RESULTS: All specimens studied maintained consistent relationships. The sphenopalatine and posterior nasal arteries cross nearly perpendicular and just superficial to the GPN. The GPN traveled anteriorly and inferiorly to reach the greater palatine foramen. The lateral wall of the canal ranged from a thin bony covering to complete dehiscence and was thinnest as it crossed the inferior turbinate and approached the foramen. The foramen rotundum was located lateral and superior to the sphenopalatine foramen near the roof of the maxillary sinus. CONCLUSION: When surgically approaching the pterygomaxillary fossa, injury to the GPN is avoidable by thorough knowledge of anatomy and awareness of the described landmarks.

Mellema JW; Tami TA

2004-03-01

419

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of gree