WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Significantly greater reduction in breast cancer mortality from post-diagnosis running than walking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of these analyses is to test prospectively whether post-diagnosis running and walking differ significantly in their association with breast cancer mortality. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to compare breast cancer mortality to baseline exercise energy expenditure (METs, 1 MET-hour ?1 km run) in 272 runners and 714 walkers previously diagnosed with breast cancer from the National Runners' and Walkers' Health Studies when adjusted for age, race, menopause, family history, breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use. Diagnosis occurred (mean ± SD) 7.9 ± 7.3 years before baseline. Forty-six women (13 runners and 33 walkers) died from breast cancer during 9.1-year mortality surveillance. For the 986 runners and walkers combined, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 23.9% MET-hours/day [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-38.3%; p = 0.004]. There was a significantly greater decrease in risk for running than walking (risk per MET-hours/day run vs. walked: p = 0.03). For the 272 runners analyzed separately, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 40.9% per MET-hours/day run (95% CI: 19.3-60.0%, p = 0.0004). When analyzed by categories of running energy expenditure, breast cancer mortality was 87.4% lower for the 1.8-3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 41.3-98.2% lower, p = 0.008) and 95.4% lower for the ?3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 71.9-100% lower, p = 0.0004) compared to the breast cancer mortality per MET-hours/day walked (95% CI: 27.3% decreased risk to 21.3% increased risk, p = 0.71). These results suggest that post-diagnosis running is associated with significantly lower breast cancer mortality than post-diagnosis walking. PMID:24470442

Williams, Paul T

2014-09-01

2

Modelling of seismic hazard at the northeastern part of greater Cairo metropolitan area, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of the northeastern part of the greater Cairo metropolitan area is due to the presence of a nuclear power plant and the dense population and its extent towards seismic sources. This paper reviews the likely ground acceleration related to the effective seismic events initiated from the closest seismic sources to the area. For this purpose, a deterministic seismic hazard approach followed by ground stochastic simulation was performed to assess the seismic hazard in the area. Seismic sources of hazardous effects were defined. A controlling earthquake was determined, based upon an empirical relationship between the seismic moment and the rupture length of the fault during the earthquake. The soil amplification characteristics in the area were obtained by in situ ambient noise measurements with great precautions. An H/V technique has been used to estimate the fundamental frequency and amplification factors at the sites of ambient noise measurements. The values of the fundamental frequency and the corresponding amplification factor were estimated at the investigated sites within the area of interest. The maximum possible earthquake magnitude Mmax was estimated for the effective seismic sources surrounding the study area and the hazard parameter peak ground acceleration (PGA) calculated for given zones. The work on the estimation of PGAs will contribute to the determination of national seismic codes, giving guidance on which buildings must take seismic risk into consideration and the necessity to re-appraise the seismic risk for existing buildings

2010-03-01

3

Seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area was undertaken. The research was aimed at employing a methematical model to estimate the seismic stress for the study area by generating a complete, unified and harmonized earthquake catalogue spanning 1615 to 2012. Seismic events were souced from Leydecker, G. and P. Amponsah, (1986), Ambraseys and Adams, (1986), Amponsah (2008), Geological Survey Department, Accra, Ghana, Amponsah (2002), National Earthquake Information Service, United States Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA, the International Seismological Centre and the National Data Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Events occurring in the study area were used to create and Epicentral Intensity Map and a seismicity map of the study area after interpolation of missing seismic magnitudes. The least square method and the maximum likelihood estimation method were employed to evaluate b-values of 0.6 and 0.9 respectively for the study area. A thematic map of epicentral intensity superimposed on the geology of the study area was also developed to help understand the relationship between the virtually fractured, jointed and sheared geology and the seismic events. The results obtained are indicative of the fact that the stress level of GAMA has a telling effect on its seismicity and also the events are prevalents at fractured, jointed and sheared zones. (au)

2013-01-01

4

Liquefaction hazard mapping with LPI in the Greater Oakland, California, area  

Science.gov (United States)

Cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) of surficial geologic units were used to define the liquefaction hazard in a 140-km2 area along the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay near Oakland, California. LPI values were computed for 202 cone penetration tests conducted in surficial geologic units in the study area. The hazard of each unit was defined by the cumulative frequency at LPI = 5. The distributions predict that 73% and 3%, respectively, of the area underlain by artificial fill and Holocene alluvial fan deposits will show surface manifestations of liquefaction during a M7.1 earthquake on the nearby Hayward Fault. The predictions are consistent with recent earthquakes in other areas where similar types of deposits experienced near-field ground motion. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Holzer, T. L.; Bennett, M. J.; Noce, T. E.; Padovani, A. C.; Tinsley, III, J. C.

2006-01-01

5

A Paleocene lowland macroflora from Patagonia reveals significantly greater richness than North American analogs  

Science.gov (United States)

Few South American macrofloras of Paleocene age are known, and this limits our knowledge of diversity and composition between the end-Cretaceous event and the Eocene appearance of high floral diversity. We report new, unbiased collections of 2516 compression specimens from the Paleocene Salamanca Formation (ca. 61.7 Ma) from two localities in the Palacio de los Loros exposures in southern Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina. Our samples reveal considerably greater richness than was previously known from the Paleocene of Patagonia, including 36 species of angiosperm leaves as well as angiosperm fruits, flowers, and seeds; ferns; and conifer leaves, cones, and seeds. The floras, which are from siltstone and sandstone channel-fills deposited on low-relief floodplain landscapes in a humid, warm temperate climate, are climatically and paleoenvironmentally comparable to many quantitatively collected Paleocene floras from the Western Interior of North America. Adjusted for sample size, there are >50% more species at each Palacio de los Loros quarry than in any comparable U.S. Paleocene sample. These results indicate more vibrant terrestrial ecosystems in Patagonian than in North American floodplain environments ˜4 m.y. after the end-Cretaceous extinction, and they push back the time line 10 m.y. for the evolution of high floral diversity in South America. The cause of the dis parity is unknown but could involve reduced impact effects because of greater distance from the Chicxulub site, higher latest Cretaceous diversity, or faster recovery or immigration rates.

Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter; Johnson, Kirk R.; Zamuner, Alba B.; Rubén Cúneo, N.; Matheos, Sergio D.; Singer, Bradley S.

2007-10-01

6

[Drowsiness--greater traffic hazard than alcohol. Causes, risks and treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Stress and shortage of sleep may cause daytime somnolence and impaired vigilance at the wheel, especially among those suffering from sleep disturbances. According to the international consensus meeting in Stockholm in May of 2000 on "The sleepy driver and pilot--causes, risks and countermeasures", drowsy driving is an underestimated risk factor in official statistics, and as many as 15-30 percent of today's traffic accidents are related to drowsiness; thus it is an even greater risk factor than alcohol. Drowsy drivers suffer from inattention, impaired concentration and may even fall asleep at the wheel. Accidents during dozing result in three times as many fatalities as other accidents. There are a number of reasons for habitual drowsiness at the wheel aside from sleep deprivation, including rhonchopathy, shift work and jet lag, mental depression, insomnia, narcolepsy, endocrinological diseases, periodic limb movement disorder, medication, pain-disordered sleep, and heart disease. Among the most active drivers, i.e. middle aged men, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been found to be the most common reason for habitually drowsy driving. OSAS causes a 2-3 fold increased risk of traffic accidents, and it impairs simulated driving. Palatoplasty as well as nasal CPAP have been shown to improve vigilance and driving performance to an extent that the increase in risk is eliminated. Drivers suffering from habitual drowsiness and micro-sleep attacks forcing them to take repeated rests are at special risk. Even if they are as dangerous as drivers with unlawful blood alcohol levels they cannot be caught in a police checkpoint. However they often seek medial advice, and properly treated they may often return safely to traffic. If not, there could be a need to report them to the authorities so as to limit or prohibit their driving. PMID:11462875

Haraldsson, P O; Akerstedt, T

2001-06-20

7

Inheritance of earthquake hazard from suturing: the Himalayas as an analogue for the structural architecture and seismic potential of the Greater Caucasus  

Science.gov (United States)

The nascent collision between the Arabian and Eurasian continents has created the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate how structures formed during initial suturing influence and even control the subsequent first-order structural architecture of the evolving orogen. Between the Caspian and Black Seas, the Greater Caucasus Mountains form both the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the main locus of orogen-perpendicular shortening, despite being located some 700 km north of the Bitlis suture. A better understanding of active structures in the range is critical for understanding the mechanics and evolution of this collisional orogen. Developing such a structural model of the Greater Caucasus is also essential for assessing earthquake hazards. Here we begin to address these problems by using geologic maps, digital topographic data, and structural measurements to create preliminary geologic cross sections across the southern flank of the central and western Greater Caucasus. These sections span both a low-elevation foreland fold-thrust belt in the south and the main topographic front of the range ~15-40 km to the north. In addition, we investigate active deformation using topographic surveys of river terraces in the foreland south of the western Greater Caucasus range front near the city of Zugdidi. Based on these observations, we suggest that the neotectonic architecture of the range is broadly analogous to that of the Himalayas, where active deformation is not focused along a range-front-defining fault but instead is localized tens of kilometers to the south, along the south edge of a low-elevation, low-relief foreland fold-thrust belt. We infer that active faults within the fold-thrust belt sole into a shallow (~5-10 km deep), north-dipping basal decollement that roots into a crustal-scale ramp which lies beneath the main topography of the Greater Caucasus. Based on prior work on the regional geology of the range, we hypothesize that this geometry results from the Cenozoic closure of a relict Mesozoic ocean basin within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, broadly similar to the eastern Black Sea and South Caspian Basins to which it was connected. A new compilation of earthquake records from local seismic networks shows that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus Mountains are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab, likely resulting from closure of this relict back-arc basin. Himalayan-style tectonism along the northern edge of the Arabia-Eurasia collision could potentially dictate the location, magnitude, and recurrence of seismicity in the Caucasus region, and as such has significant potential for seismic hazard assessment here. Rather than solely occurring on the main thrust within the range, this model suggests that significant earthquakes may occur within the fold-thrust belt and on a basal decollement that connects them to structures within the main range. Much of the region's population, including the Georgian capital city of Tbilisi, is found within or near the foreland fold-thrust belt.

Trexler, C.; Cowgill, E.; Forte, A. M.; Mumladze, T.; Sokhadze, G.; Elashvili, M.; Niemi, N. A.

2013-12-01

8

Clobazam and its active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam display significantly greater affinities for ??- versus ??-GABA(A)-receptor complexes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clobazam (CLB), a 1,5-benzodiazepine (BZD), was FDA-approved in October 2011 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years and older. BZDs exert various CNS effects through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. The structurally distinct, 1,4-BZD clonazepam (CLN) is also approved to treat LGS. The precise mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of both are unknown. Data show that the GABAA ??-subunit-selective compound zolpidem [ZOL] exhibits hypnotic/sedative effects. Conversely, data from knock-in mice carrying BZD binding site mutations suggest that the ?? subunit mediates anticonvulsant effects, without sedative actions. Hence, the specific pattern of interactions across the GABAA receptor complexes of BZDs might be reflected in their clinical efficacies and adverse effect profiles. In this study, GABAA-receptor binding affinities of CLB, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB, the major metabolite of CLB), CLN, and ZOL were characterized with native receptors from rat-brain homogenates and on cloned receptors from HEK293 cells transfected with combinations of ? (??, ??, ??, or ??), ??, and ?? subtypes. Our results demonstrate that CLB and N-CLB have significantly greater binding affinities for ??- vs. ??-receptor complexes, a difference not observed for CLN, for which no distinction between ?? and ?? receptors was observed. Our experiments with ZOL confirmed the high preference for ?? receptors. These results provide potential clues to a new understanding of the pharmacologic modes of action of CLB and N-CLB. PMID:24533090

Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Nichol, Kathryn; Lee, Deborah; Ebert, Bjarke

2014-01-01

9

Clobazam and Its Active Metabolite N-desmethylclobazam Display Significantly Greater Affinities for ?2- versus ?1-GABAA-Receptor Complexes  

Science.gov (United States)

Clobazam (CLB), a 1,5-benzodiazepine (BZD), was FDA-approved in October 2011 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years and older. BZDs exert various CNS effects through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. The structurally distinct, 1,4-BZD clonazepam (CLN) is also approved to treat LGS. The precise mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of both are unknown. Data show that the GABAA ?1-subunit–selective compound zolpidem [ZOL] exhibits hypnotic/sedative effects. Conversely, data from knock-in mice carrying BZD binding site mutations suggest that the ?2 subunit mediates anticonvulsant effects, without sedative actions. Hence, the specific pattern of interactions across the GABAA receptor complexes of BZDs might be reflected in their clinical efficacies and adverse effect profiles. In this study, GABAA-receptor binding affinities of CLB, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB, the major metabolite of CLB), CLN, and ZOL were characterized with native receptors from rat-brain homogenates and on cloned receptors from HEK293 cells transfected with combinations of ? (?1, ?2, ?3, or ?5), ?2, and ?2 subtypes. Our results demonstrate that CLB and N-CLB have significantly greater binding affinities for ?2- vs. ?1-receptor complexes, a difference not observed for CLN, for which no distinction between ?2 and ?1 receptors was observed. Our experiments with ZOL confirmed the high preference for ?1 receptors. These results provide potential clues to a new understanding of the pharmacologic modes of action of CLB and N-CLB.

Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Nichol, Kathryn; Lee, Deborah; Ebert, Bjarke

2014-01-01

10

Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis : A significant health hazard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis. Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions.

Alanazi Marzouqah

2009-01-01

11

Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis: a significant health hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions. (author)

2009-01-01

12

75 FR 29587 - Notice of Availability of Revised Model Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration...  

Science.gov (United States)

...amendment involve a significant reduction in a margin of safety? Response: No. The margin of safety is associated with the confidence in the...not involve a significant reduction in a margin of safety. [[Page 29588

2010-05-26

13

Stress field around the Coloumbo magma chamber, southern Aegean: Its significance for assessing volcanic and seismic hazard in Santorini  

Science.gov (United States)

Coloumbo submarine volcano lies 6.5 km offshore the NE part of the Santorini island complex and exhibits high seismicity along with vigorous hydrothermal activity. This study models the local stress field around Coloumbo's magma chamber and investigates its influence on intrusion emplacement and geometry. The two components of the stress field, hoop and radial stress, are calculated using analytical formulas that take into account the depth and radius of the magma chamber as these are determined from seismological and other observations. These calculations indicate that hoop stress at the chamber walls is maximum at an angle of 74° thus favouring flank intrusions, while the radial stress switches from tensile to compressive at a critical distance of 5.7 km from the center of the magma chamber. Such estimates agree well with neotectonic and seismological observations that describe the local/regional stress field in the area. We analyse in detail the case where a flank intrusion reaches the surface very near the NE coast of Thera as this is the worst-case eruption scenario. The geometrical features of such a feeder dyke point to an average volumetric flow rate of 9.93 m 3 s -1 which corresponds to a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 3 if a future eruption lasts about 70 days. Hazards associated with such an eruption include ashfall, ballistic ejecta and base surges due to explosive mixing of magma with seawater. Previous studies have shown that areas near erupting vents are also foci of moderate to large earthquakes that precede or accompany an eruption. Our calculations show that a shallow event (3-5 km) of moment magnitude 5.9 near the eruptive vent may cause Peak Ground Acceleration in the range 122-177 cm s -2 at different locations around Santorini. These values indicate that seismic hazard even due to a moderate earthquake near Coloumbo, is not trivial and may have a significant impact especially on older buildings at Thera island.

Konstantinou, K. I.; Yeh, Te-Yang

2012-03-01

14

PRESENCE OF ARCOBACTER SPP. IN IN-LINE MILK FILTERS: AN EMERGING AND SIGNIFICANT MICROBIOLOGICAL HAZARD IN FOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While a study on the presence of foodborne pathogens in in-line milk filters of Italian dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk was in progress, we fortuitously detected and isolated some Arcobacter spp. during routine analysis for thermotolerant Campylobacter. This observation suggested that extraordinary and non-standardized growth conditions for detection and identification were needed to provide more information and data on this poorly known emergent zoonotic pathogen. The presence of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacacter cryaerophilus in milk filters of dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk poses a risk for public health and rather suggests that raw milk samples should also be examined for Arcobacter contamination. While the role of Arcobacter spp. in human disease awaits further evaluation, a precautionary approach is advisable and control measures to prevent or to eliminate the hazard of Arcobacter spp. in food and from the human food chain should be encouraged as well as more epidemiological studies. With this article, we review the literature of this organism in order to focus the relevant information to food safety.

R. Zanoni

2011-04-01

15

Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

2011-08-01

16

[Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90?%. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases. PMID:24414233

Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

2014-01-01

17

State taxation of hazardous materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Notwithstanding the desire of many in the petroleum and petrochemical industry to minimize the cost of complying with environmental protection regulations and their support for the deregulation of air and water pollution controls through greater reliance on economic incentives, the regulation of hazardous materials will probably become more stringent and efforts to clean up faulty hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities are bound to increase in the short term, because hazardous waste contamination represents a significant threat to public and environmental health, especially in respect to drinking water. A myriad of state permit fees and excise taxes incident to the regulation of hazardous materials and wastes is inefficient from the perspective of petroleum and petrochemical producers with multistate operations. In principle, RCRA provides for more-or-less uniform regulation of hazardous materials through either the EPA's cradle-to-grave control system or an EPA-approved state control system; however state permit fees and excise tax systems vary considerably. Paradoxically, further deregulation of hazardous materials controls by transferring more regulatory responsibility to states may increase the cost of compliance because permit fees and excise taxes will inevitably be increased. 2 tables.

Reese, C.E.

1985-03-01

18

A Study of the Anatomical Variations in the Position of the Greater Palatine Foramen in Adult Human Skulls and its Clinical Significance / Variaciones Anatómicas en la Posición del Foramen Palatino Mayor en Cráneos Humanos Adultos y su Significación Clínica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El dolor es un síntoma común y preocupante en la práctica dental. Dependiendo de los casos, diferentes técnicas se utilizan para aliviar el dolor. Una de ellas es el bloqueo periférico del nervio trigémino. Esta, ha demostrado ser una forma eficaz y conveniente para anestesiar grandes regiones del c [...] omplejo oral y maxilofacial. Este bloqueo puede ser intraoral o extraoral. La vía intraoral es a través del foramen palatino mayor en la cual se ingresa en la fosa pterigopalatina, donde se encuentra el nervio maxilar. Las variaciones morfológicas en la posición del foramen palatino mayor puede ser de importancia clínica en la administración de anestesia local y en la cirugía del paladar. En el presente estudio, se examinó la distancia del foramen palatino mayor desde la sutura palatina mediana y el margen posterior del paladar duro, y su posición relativa a los molares superiores, así como la dirección del foramen palatino mayor. Abstract in english Pain is a common distressing symptom in dental practice. Depending upon the cases, different techniques are used to relieve pain. One of these is peripheral trigeminal nerve block. Peripheral trigeminal nerve block anaesthesia has proved to be an effective and convenient way to anaesthetise large re [...] gions of oral and maxillofacial complex. This block can be intraoral or extra oral. The intraoral route is through the greater palatine foramen in which the dental surgeons enter into the pterygopalatine fossa, where the maxillary nerve is situated. The morphological variations in the position of greater palatine foramen may be of clinical importance in the administration of local anaesthesia and in palatal surgery. In the present study, the distance of greater palatine foramen from the median palatine suture, and from the posterior border of hard palate have been noted, and the position of greater palatine foramen relative to the maxillary molars, as well as the direction of the foramen have been examined.

Mitesh R, Dave; Vaishali Kiran, Yagain; Samir, Anadkat.

19

Greater Good Science Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Housed at the University of California, Berkeley, the Greater Good Science Center (GGSC) is "devoted to the scientific understanding of happy and compassionate individuals, strong social bonds, and altruistic behavior." To achieve this goal, the GGSC enlists a broad range of scholars from various disciplines, publishes a quarterly magazine ("Greater Good"), and maintains an outreach program that includes a website designed for parents who wish to foster emotional intelligence in their children. On their homepage, visitors can look over the "Most Recent" area to learn about recent findings, view webcasts with experts from the Center, and also read about their latest publications. Visitors can also view the Greater Good tip of the week on the homepage to read a highlighted article.

2008-01-01

20

Predicted no effect concentration derivation as a significant source of variability in environmental hazard assessments of chemicals in aquatic systems: an international analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental hazard assessments for chemicals are carried out to define an environmentally "safe" level at which, theoretically, the chemical will not negatively affect any exposed biota. Despite this common goal, the methodologies in use are very diverse across different countries and jurisdictions. This becomes particularly obvious when international scientists work together on documents with global scope, e.g., in the World Health Organization (WHO) International Program on Chemical Safety. In this article, we present a study that describes the extent of such variability and analyze the reasons that lead to different outcomes in deriving a "safe level" (termed the predicted no effect concentration [PNEC] throughout this article). For this purpose, we chose 5 chemicals to represent well-known substances for which sufficient high-quality aquatic effects data were available: ethylene glycol, trichloroethylene, nonylphenol, hexachlorobenzene, and copper (Cu). From these data, 2 data sets for each chemical were compiled: the full data set, that contained all information from selected peer-review sources, and the base data set, a subsample of the full set simulating limited data. Scientists from the European Union (EU), United States, Canada, Japan, and Australia independently carried out hazard assessments for each of these chemicals using the same data sets. Their reasoning for key study selection, use of assessment factors, or use of probabilistic methods was comprehensively documented. The observed variation in the PNECs for all chemicals was up to 3 orders of magnitude, and this was not simply due to obvious factors such as the size of the data set or the methodology used. Rather, this was due to individual decisions of the assessors within the scope of the methodology used, especially key study selection, acute versus chronic definitions, and size of assessment factors. Awareness of these factors, together with transparency of the decision-making process, would be necessary to minimize confusion and uncertainty related to different hazard assessment outcomes, particularly in international documents. The development of a "guideline on transparency in decision-making" ensuring the decision-making process is science-based, understandable, and transparent, may therefore be a promising way forward. PMID:23913910

Hahn, Thorsten; Diamond, Jerry; Dobson, Stuart; Howe, Paul; Kielhorn, Janet; Koennecker, Gustav; Lee-Steere, Chris; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Schneider, Uwe; Sugaya, Yoshio; Taylor, Ken; Dam, Rick Van; Stauber, Jenny L

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Greater Dhaka power project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1973, the power system of the Greater Dhaka area of Bangladesh has undergone major expansion. Gives details of a three-stage project covering the period to 1995 aimed at upgrading and extending the power transmission and distribution networks in the area. Covers historical background; programs for each of Phases 1, 2 and 3 of the project; 132 kV, 33 kV, 11 kV and 400 V lines; substations and switchgear.

Roff, R.

1987-01-01

22

Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

2000-01-01

23

Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

Blanchard, A.

2000-02-28

24

Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

2000-01-01

25

The Hazard Evaluation System and Information Service: A Physician's Resource in Toxicology and Occupational Medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hazard evaluation is an emerging science. The Hazard Evaluation System and Information Service (HESIS), part of California's program in preventive occupational health, is a resource for clinicians who wish to stay abreast of the relationship between toxicology and occupational health. For example, advances in assays for cancer or reproductive effects in test animals enable us to identify with greater confidence significant cancer or reproductive hazards among the increasing variety of workpla...

Hooper, Kim

1982-01-01

26

Historical and geological evidence for seismic origin of newly recognized landslides in southeastern Sicily, and its significance in terms of hazard.  

Science.gov (United States)

Old, large, and dormant landslides were unexpectedly found in southeastern Sicily, a territory of known seismicity but commonly considered as landslide-free or almost so. Purposely undertaken investigations revealed that: (1) these landslides are scarcely compatible with the local geoclimatic environment; (2) they usually show low-angle basal shear surfaces, despite the fact that the properties of the forming material are generally good; (3) they fulfill the known relationships between earthquake magnitude and epicenter-landslide distance; (4) sources coeval with high-energy historical earthquakes occurred in 1169, 1542 and 1693 testify to the occurrence of earthquake-triggered landsliding; and (5) documentary material (presented here for the first time) correlates with certainty a specific landslide to the 1693 earthquake. This geological and historical evidence, accompanied by the absence of contrasting elements, leads us to conclude that these landslides are earthquake-triggered. Because of their typological and geometrical characteristics, nearly all landslides can be reactivated, which has serious implications in terms of hazard, particularly with respect to lines of communication. Obviously, every action aimed at preventing or mitigating risks must start from the awareness of the causative processes, a condition substantially unsatisfied at the moment in SE Sicily. The paper concludes by emphasizing the opportunity not to trust excessively beliefs that, although shared, have never been really checked. PMID:11740628

Pantano, Francesca Gringeri; Nicoletti, Pier Giorgio; Parise, Mario

2002-01-01

27

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common, but often misdiagnosed cause of lateral hip pain. Recent advances in the imaging of the hip has improved the understanding of the causative mechanisms of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). The syndrome encompasses a wide spectrum of causes incl [...] uding tendinosis, muscle tears, iliotibial band (ITB) disorders and surrounding soft tissue pathology. Clinically GTPS presents with lateral hip tenderness and pain with resisted abduction. A positive Trendelenburg test is the most sensitive predictor of a gluteal tear. Altered lower limb biomechanics is proposed as an important predisposing factor for gluteal muscle pathology. Many conditions are associated with GTPS: some of them may predispose to GTPS, while others may mimic the symptoms. Although plain radiographs are still important for ruling out other causes of hip pain, MRI has become the imaging modality of choice in GTPS. Most cases of GTPS can be regarded as self-limiting. Conservative modalities (rest, NSAIDs, physiotherapy) are still the mainstay of treatment. Corticosteroid injections are still widely used and reported to be successful. Proven gluteal muscle tears are treated with surgical repair and bursectomy. Endoscopic techniques have become increasingly popular.

D, Hugo; HR, de Jongh.

28

Hazardous Drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

... coverage of drugs and pharmaceuticals in the non-manufacturing sector. Requires any drugs posing a health hazard (with the exception of those in solid, final form for direct administration to the patient, i.e., tablets or pills) be included on lists of hazardous ...

29

Radiation hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On a scientific basis and with the aid of realistic examples, the author gives a popular introduction to an understanding and judgment of the public discussion over radiation hazards: Uses and hazards of X-ray examinations, biological radiation effects, civilisation risks in comparison, origins and explanation of radiation protection regulations. (orig.)

1979-01-01

30

The large-scale impact of climate change to Mississippi flood hazard in New Orleans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this paper is to describe the impact of climate change on the Mississippi River flood hazard in the New Orleans area. This city has a unique flood risk management challenge, heavily influenced by climate change, since it faces flood hazards from multiple geographical locations (e.g. Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi River) and multiple sources (hurricane, river, rainfall). Also the low elevation and significant subsidence rate of the Greater New Orleans area poses a high ris...

Driessen, T. L. A.; Ledden, M.

2012-01-01

31

Construction of a New Fire Station, Demolition of Buildings 530 and 606 and Relocation of the Hazardous Cargo Area at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Finding of No Significant Impact (FOSNI). Finding of No Practical Alternative(FONPA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Grand Forks AFB is proposing to construct a new fire station, demolish buildings 530 and 606 and relocate the Hazardous Cargo Area (HCA). The purposes of the project are to consolidate fire protection activities to provide effective base fire protection, ...

D. Strom

2009-01-01

32

Hazard awareness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses shipping issues in the context of best practice codes and concludes that fire, explosion, stability and corrosion of metal structures are hazards associated with the carriage of coal by sea. 12 figs.

Mullins, C.R. [Minton Treharne and Davies Ltd. (United Kingdom)

2007-10-15

33

Hazards analysis of laser fusion targets containing tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazards analysis indicates that intact microballoons filled with D--T present only a negligible hazard. The ingestion of the microballoon is considered. The hazard associated with broken glass microballoons appears to be greater from the glass standpoint than from the tritium hazard

1977-04-30

34

The hazard in using probabilistic seismic hazard analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthquake experts rely on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for everything from emergency-response planning to development of building codes. Unfortunately, says the author, the analysis is defective for the large earthquakes that pose the greater risks. Structures have short lifetimes and the distance over which earthquakes cause damage are relatively small. Exceptions serve to prove the rule. To be useful in engineering, earthquakes hazard assessment must focus narrowly in both time and space

1993-11-01

35

Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

... and plastics to medicines and food to gasoline, steel, and electronic equipment. More than 70,000 chemicals ... can burst into flames easily. It poses a fire hazard; can irritate the skin, eyes, and lungs; ...

36

A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

2014-05-01

37

A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500–2500 years, the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1–10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1–1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

N. Horspool

2014-05-01

38

Reinterpreting New Source Review: greater clarity or greater confusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aimed at improving the effectiveness of environmental regulation by providing clearer definitions and greater operating flexibility to electric generators, on Nov. 22, 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced changes to its New Source Review (NSR) program. A major objective was to help generators modernize power plant facilities in ways that will reduce energy use and air emissions, provide incentives to install modern emission-control equipment, and more accurately report air emissions. Coming after considerable internal study and public comment, the release of these changes was delayed by more than one year. The paper analyses the good and down side of the New Source Review. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Morey, M. [RDI, Boulder, CO (United States)

2003-04-01

39

Landslide Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

This fact sheet provides an overview of the hazards presented by landslides and debris flows, particluarly in wet weather conditions in landslide-prone areas. Topics include a discussion of the characteristics of debris flows, and suggestions for residents who live in steep, hilly terrain which is subject to periodic heavy rains.

2011-06-23

40

COMPUTERS HAZARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group therapy is carried out. In acute cases, pharmacology is applied as reinforcement of psychotherapy. Self-support groups are organised, in similarity to AA clubs for alcohol addicts.

Andrzej Augustynek

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Hazards to Agricultural Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the text that follows, the major hazards to residents of the farm community will be presented. Farm accidents, toxic chemicals, gaseous hazards, physical and environmental hazards, zoonoses, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, other respiratory hazards, and ...

S. Shapiro D. Foster

1982-01-01

42

Planning for greater confinement disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

1985-09-10

43

[Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].  

Science.gov (United States)

Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

44

Landslides Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

At this USGS educational web site, the public can find out about the nature and problems of landslides. Individuals can learn how wildfires can induce debris flows and other types of landslides. Within the National Landslide Information Center link, students and educators can find landslide fact sheets, numerous images of landslides, an interactive module on debris flows, and materials about current USGS landslide projects. The website features a searchable bibliographic database, lists of publications, and links to local organizations dealing with this natural hazard.

45

Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

1995-01-01

46

Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir–Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards.

Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent; Bauer, Denise H.

2010-01-01

47

Radiation hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation hazards to infants in the treatment of malignant tumor were discussed. Late effects of radiotherapy in infants became an important problem in an increasing number of cases with prolonged survival periods. Late effects of radiotherapy included tumor and leukemia induction, as well as disturbance of growth in the eyes, bone, etc. In order to avoid iatrogenic disorders, physicians should be required to have adequate knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of normal tissue, and variations with age. Pathology of tumors and the condition of patients before and after resection should be thoroughly understood. To determine normal tissue tolerance dose, various function tests, especially radiological examinations, are required. Suspected tissue should be frequently biopsied, and clinical observations should also be frequent. Postoperative irradiation should be selected depending on the kind of lesion. In treatment, the younger the patient is, the less should be the dose applied, and the longer the overall time of application. Fields should be limited to an area somewhat larger than the tumor lesion except in the case of malignant lymphoma, when anticancer drugs are combined with radiotherapy. It is difficult to determine the normal tissue tolerance dose, and tolerance dose of normal infant tissue differs considerably by age. Based on the author's experience, tolerance doses for skin, brain, spinal cord, eyes, face, cervical area, and extremities were demonstrated. (S. MUKOHATA)

1974-01-01

48

Electrical hazards of lasers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nonfatal and fatal accidents (four electrocutions to date) in work with lasers are reviewed, accompanied by a discussion of preventive safety measures and remedial measures. The presence of unshielded high-voltage capacitors and power supplies creates greater hazards than the eye and skin injuries emphasized in earlier laser safety training. Preventive safety measures, both common-sense and technical (interlocking, proper grounding, use of capacitor bleeder resistors and grounding rods), are listed, along with first aid and resuscitation techniques. The physiologic effects on the human body of various dc and pulsed current levels are tabulated, and attention is given to the effect of different current paths through the body and of the relative phase of the cardiac cycle and the received shock.

Franks, J.K.; Sliney, D.H.

1975-12-01

49

E-waste hazard: The impending challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India?s lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India?s current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action.

Pinto Violet

2008-01-01

50

E-waste hazard: The impending challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India's lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India's current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action.

Pinto, Violet N.

2008-01-01

51

Evaluation of radiation hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a critical 20-year review of the evaluation and control of radiation hazards in the Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales. Within the electricity supply industry it has long been realized that the availability of any plant is governed by the acceptability of its impact on the health and environment of its workers and the general public. Stringent control of radiation and radioactivity from nuclear plant was therefore imposed from the beginning of the gas-cooled reactor programme, bearing in mind that new knowledge and techniques acquired during the decades between design and decommissioning would improve the understanding of hazards leading to expensive modifications if these hazards had been wrongly judged. Central to the system of design and control was the prediction and measurement of environmental quantities such as exposure rate and activity release. During the past twenty years the sensitivity, reliability and accuracy of predictive and monitoring techniques have improved, leading to increased confidence in their use. The paper includes examples relating to reactor inventories, shielding calculations, gamma-ray measurements at high energies and low exposure rates, neutron measurements and simplified methods of off-site monitoring. Other than in areas concerned with detriment to health, cost-benefit analysis has not played a significant role in setting standards for a variety of reasons, including recognition of the lack of numerical precision in dose-risk relationships and the importance of economic and social factors. The paper includes statistics on operator dose and station discharges, and refers to current epidemiological studies. It is concluded that the radiation hazards of nuclear power stations have been successfully controlled for twenty years and that they will not impose a future limitation on nuclear power. (author)

1982-09-13

52

Warning human populations of technological hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Warning people of an impending hazard seeks to make them aware of the threat and to elicit actions that would minimize the dangers to life and property. Because technological and natural hazards differ in important ways, the alerting and notification process for technological and natural hazards is also different. One of the differences rests in the ability of people to detect many natural hazards in a direct sensory manner; technological hazards often make such detection more difficult. For example, detection of radiological releases without instrumentation is nearly impossible, but even with tornadoes where warning is notoriously difficult, people are at least able to use their senses to detect the potential for hazard. Hence, warning for technological hazards is in some ways more problematic, generally representing a rather rapid shift from normalcy to emergency. This paper builds on the significant foundation of natural hazard warning research in developing a model of warning suitable for technological hazards. This model specifically examines immediate cascading, or networking, of the warning signal and message, so often reported in the natural hazard literature. The implications for technological and natural hazard warnings systems are examined

1987-03-01

53

Migration and Environmental Hazards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies b...

Hunter, Lori M.

2005-01-01

54

Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility's construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment

1994-01-01

55

Reflection on the comparison between nuclear and other industrial hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Any human activity presents hazards which can be classified in three categories, concerning workers, public and environment, catastrophes. Studies have been undertaken in France and other countries to calculate the hazards relating to the necessary operations for electricity production. It results that for the same production of electricity, the hazards for workers are more or less the same as regards nuclear and petroleum and higher concerning coal. Nuclear presents less greater hazards for the public and environment than those from other sources of energy. Catastrophe hazards have been investigated in U.S.A. and appear to be fewer than those from installations operating under normal conditions

1980-01-01

56

Volcanic hazards to airports  

Science.gov (United States)

Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies, Tungurahua in Ecuador, Mt. Etna in Italy, Rabaul caldera in Papua New Guinea, Mt. Spurr and Mt. St. Helens in the USA, Ruapehu in New Zealand, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Anatahan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (part of the USA). Ten countries - USA, Indonesia, Ecuador, Papua New Guinea, Italy, New Zealand, Philippines, Mexico, Japan, and United Kingdom - have the highest volcanic hazard and/or vulnerability measures for airports. The adverse impacts of volcanic eruptions on airports can be mitigated by preparedness and forewarning. Methods that have been used to forewarn airports of volcanic activity include real-time detection of explosive volcanic activity, forecasts of ash dispersion and deposition, and detection of approaching ash clouds using ground-based Doppler radar. Given the demonstrated vulnerability of airports to disruption from volcanic activity, at-risk airports should develop operational plans for ashfall events, and volcano-monitoring agencies should provide timely forewarning of imminent volcanic-ash hazards directly to airport operators. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G. C.; Casadevall, T. J.; Wunderman, R.

2009-01-01

57

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program website. You'll find information on worldwide earthquake activity, earthquake science, and earthquake hazard reduction. This website offers several techniques from which to measure the strength of soil.

2008-02-07

58

Hazardous Waste.pdf  

Hazardous Waste in Northern Ireland An Action Plan for its Environmentally Sound Management Northern Ireland Hazardous Waste Forum, June 2004 Executive Summary The Waste Management Strategy for Northern Ireland, ...

59

Nevada Test Site experience with greater confinement disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1980, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) began a project to develop an improved disposal method for high specific activity (HSA) low-level wastes (LLW), e.g. tritium wastes. Past experience with the shallow land burial (SLB) of tritium wastes showed detectable concentrations appearing at trench surfaces. In 1981, the Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was initiated to demonstrate the disposal of HSA wastes considered unsuitable for SLB. The project had two specific goals: (1) develop and demonstrate the operational technology for use of large-diameter boreholes for greater confinement disposal (GCD), and (2) conduct research necessary to quantify the effective improvement provided by GCD over SLB. While the long-term impacts may be insignificant for short-lived nuclides, the operational impacts may be a major limiting factor. For example, under 10 CFR 61 up to 700 Ci/m3 of cobalt-60 may be disposed in SLB as Class A wastes; however, an unshielded waste package containing this amount of cobalt-60 would have an external radiation level of over 5000 R/h making it impossible to dispose of without use of a remote handling systems. In developing the GCDT, the authors decided that greater confinement disposal was not to be strictly limited to a category of wastes between low- and high-level, but a variety of problem wastes that could not, or should not, be disposed of by conventional SLB methods. The paper discusses NTS waste disposal history, hazards reduction, and waste management philosophy. 3 tables

1987-02-01

60

KSC VAB Aeroacoustic Hazard Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) carried out an analysis of the effects of aeroacoustics produced by stationary solid rocket motors in processing areas at KSC. In the current paper, attention is directed toward the acoustic effects of a motor burning within the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The analysis was carried out with support from ASRC Aerospace who modeled transmission effects into surrounding facilities. Calculations were done using semi-analytical models for both aeroacoustics and transmission. From the results it was concluded that acoustic hazards in proximity to the source of ignition and plume can be severe; acoustic hazards in the far-field are significantly lower.

Oliveira, Justin M.; Yedo, Sabrina; Campbell, Michael D.; Atkinson, Joseph P.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Runoff inundation hazard cartography  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1998 and 2004, Europe suffered from more than hundred major inundations, responsible for some 700 deaths, for the moving of about half a million of people and the economic losses of at least 25 billions Euros covered by the insurance policies. Within this context, EU launched the 2007/60/CE directive. The inundations are natural phenomenon. They cannot be avoided. Nevertheless this directive permits to better evaluate the risks and to coordinate the management measures taken at member states level. In most countries, inundation maps only include rivers' overflowing. In Wallonia, overland flows and mudflows also cause huge damages, and must be included in the flood hazard map. Indeed, the cleaning operations for a village can lead to an estimated cost of 11 000 €. Average construction cost of retention dams to control off-site damage caused by floods and muddy flows was valued at 380 000€, and yearly dredging costs associated with these retention ponds at 15 000€. For a small city for which a study was done in a more specific way (Gembloux), the mean annual cost for the damages that can generate the runoff is about 20 000€. This cost consists of the physical damages caused to the real estate and movable properties of the residents as well as the emergency operations of the firemen and the city. On top of damages to public infrastructure (clogging of trenches, silting up of retention ponds) and to private property by muddy flows, runoff generates a significant loss of arable land. Yet, the soil resource is not an unlimited commodity. Moreover, sediments' transfer to watercourses alters their physical and chemical quality. And that is not to mention the increased psychological stress for people. But to map overland flood and mud flow hazard is a real challenge. This poster will present the methodology used to in Wallonia. The methodology is based on 3 project rainfalls: 25, 50 and 100 years return period (consistency with the cartography of the overflowing hazard map), with a rain duration set at 1h. The arable lands are considered as bare, except for the permanent meadows. The worst situation is envisaged, the hydrologic effect of the soil cover in the farming area being variable from a year to another according to the vegetative development and to the cultural operations. The peak discharge is chosen as the more critic parameter because it synthesizes the watershed propensity to stream, its size, and its flow network. The cartographic representation is done in a linear way along the concentrated runoff axes. Whereas this first approach at regional scale includes uncertainties, the aim of this map is currently to prompt consideration of the runoff inundation hazard during the design of urban development projects.

Pineux, N.; Degré, A.

2012-04-01

62

Natural phenomena hazards modeling project: extreme wind/tornado hazard models for Department of Energy sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed wind hazard models for the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS), Department of Energy (DOE). The work is part of a three-phase effort aimed at establishing uniform building design criteria for seismic and wind hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. In Phase 1, LLNL gathered information on the sites and their critical facilities, including nuclear reactors, fuel-reprocessing plants, high-level waste storage and treatment facilities, and special nuclear material facilities. In Phase 2, development of seismic and wind hazard models, was initiated. These hazard models express the annual probability that the site will experience an earthquake or wind speed greater than some specified magnitude. This report summarizes the final wind/tornado hazard models recommended for each site and the methodology used to develop these models. 19 references, 29 figures, 9 tables.

Coats, D.W.

1984-02-01

63

Public concern with hazardous waste disposal sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is focused on finding a methodology to obtain greater public acceptance in siting hazardous waste disposal facilities throughout the country. A primary objective of the research, therefore, is to identify the criteria that leads to public acceptance of a hazardous waste disosal site. Three different types of sites (landfills and treatment facilities) were investigated and compared: (1) an ongoing facility that has a relative amount of public approval; (2) an ongoing facility that is under constant fire from the public; (3) a site that has been attempted and has failed to open because of adverse public sentiment. Different categories of public reaction, issues, concerns, and needs are analyzed and discussed. Public feelings, candor, and openness are described. The various kinds of communication channels which are set up between the facility representatives, government representatives, and local residents are examined. Criteria for gaining greater public acceptance in siting hazardous waste disposal facilities, as drawn from this investigation, are specified and discussed.

Kramer, L.H.

1981-01-01

64

Waste classification and hazardous waste  

Find out how to register as a hazardous waste producer, what paperwork you need to complete and how you should deal with your hazardous waste under the Hazardous Waste Regulations. Related Searches: waste hazardous waste returns

65

Transposition of the Greater Arteries (TGA)  

Science.gov (United States)

... MD Copyright © 2012 STS Transposition of Greater Arteries (TGA) is the most common form of congenital heart ... appears blue. Why do the surgery? Infants with TGA need surgery within the first few weeks of ...

66

Hazard Analysis Database Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

GRAMS, W.H.

2000-12-28

67

Hazards in NDT practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the different hazards encountered in the practice of NDT techniques. The hazards may be due to the presence of ionizing radiation as in Radiographic Testing (RT) or to non-ionizing radiation, the most commonly encountered and sometimes ignored hazards being ultraviolet radiation during Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT) which could result to thermal or photochemical injuries. Electrical hazards such as sudden and accident shock can be present in the use of high voltage X-ray equipment. In the use of holiday test and Eddy current test (ET) inside flammable areas, ignition of combustible materials is evident of danger. Toxic hazards in liquid penetrant testing (PT) are also present and hazards of storage tank inspection as a result of fire and explosion are also discussed. In addition to these items, other physical human failure, and equipment hazards are also described. (Author)

1988-05-01

68

Building Bridges. Pathways to a Greater Societal Significance for Audience Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies â?? â??New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust in the Mediaâ?, â??Audience Interactivity and Participationâ?, â??The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationshipsâ? and â??Audience Transformations and Social Integrationâ?. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience research. Altogether, the 14 contributions in the report provide insights and feed the debate on the stakeholdersâ?? respective â??inhabited worldsâ? (the academia being one stakeholder among others), the different modes of researcher-stakeholder interaction, and possible (and desirable) areas of joint interest and collaboration. With contributions by: Jakob Bjur, Mélanie Bourdaa, Göran Bolin, Nico Carpentier, Paula Cordeiro, Peter Dahlgren, Alexander Dhoest, Manuel José Damasio, J. Ignacio Gallego, Dafna Lemish, Jakob Linaa Jensen, Peter Lunt, Maria Francesca Murru, Francesca Pasquali, José-Manuel Noguera Vivo, Lars Nyre, Brian Oâ??Neill, Andra Siibak, Sascha Trültzsch-Wijnen, Nicoletta Vittadini, Igor Vobič and Frauke Zeller. Stakeholder feedback from: Michelle Arlotta (DeAgostini), Andreea M. Costache (Association of Consumers of Audiovisual Media in Catalonia/TAC), Francesco Diasio (AMARC Europe), Marius Dragomir (Open Society Foundations), Sara Elias (BBC Media Action), Dragan Kremer (Open Society Foundations), Muriel Hanot (High Authority for Audiovisual Media/CSA Belgium), Stefan LazareviÄ? (Serbian Ministry of Foreign and Internal Trade and Telecommunications), Karol MaÅ?cużyÅ?ski (TVP), Jadranka MilanoviÄ? (UNICEF Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe).

2014-01-01

69

Overconfidence and Moral Hazard  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments, and thus prefers higher-powered incentives. On the other hand, if the agent overestimates the extent to which his actions affect outcomes, lower-powered incentives are sufficient to induce any given effort level. If the agent is moderately overconfident, the latter effect dominates. Because the agent bears less risk in this case, there are efficiency gains stemming from his overconfidence. If the agent is significantly overconfident, the former effect dominates; the agent is then exposed to an excessive amount of risk, and any gains arise only from risk-sharing under disagreement. An increase in optimism or overconfidence increases the effort level implemented in equilibrium.

de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

2011-01-01

70

Hazards evaluation of plutonium metal opening and stabilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hazards evaluation is the analysis of the significance of hazardous situations associated with an activity OK process. The HE used qualitative techniques of Hazard and Operability (HazOp) analysis and What-If analysis to identify those elements of handling and thermal stabilization processing that could lead to accidents.

JOHNSON, L.E.

1999-08-31

71

Hazards evaluation of plutonium metal opening and stabilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazards evaluation is the analysis of the significance of hazardous situations associated with an activity OK process. The HE used qualitative techniques of Hazard and Operability (HazOp) analysis and What-If analysis to identify those elements of handling and thermal stabilization processing that could lead to accidents

1999-01-01

72

Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

2012-12-01

73

The State of Lithospheric Stress in Greater Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Thailand and its surrounding regions occupy an important, but often overlooked, location in terms of plate tectonics and lithospheric deformation. The lateral extrusion of Tibet southeastward and eastward along deep strike slip faults to the north and the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone to the south and west bound the region of greater Thailand. While it is adjacent to some of the most seismically active plate boundaries and intra-plate regions on Earth, this region has experienced only a low level of background seismicity. Thus, the long-term seismic potential of greater Thailand remains highly uncertain. Although historic seismicity is one indicator for future seismicity it is not the only tool we have for determining seismic hazard; we can assess the state of lithospheric stress. The stress conditions in this apparent aseismic region will be controlled by the forces acting on it boundaries. We can analyze those conditions through a study of fault structure, earthquake activity, and kinematics in the boundary area. Using Global Seismic Network (GSN) data augmented with Thai seismic network data to constrain the kinematics, and numerical finite element modeling of crustal and lithospheric deformation of the region, we are able to determine to overall stress conditions. This stress model can be compared to the known fault states in Thailand to assess the potential for earthquake activity.

Meyers, B.; Furlong, K. P.; Pananont, P.; Pornsopin, P.

2013-12-01

74

Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

1985-09-15

75

MEP advocates greater role for cogeneration in '  

...MEP advocates greater role for cogeneration in 'energy showdown' | EurActiv A secret weapon against global warming? Little is known about cogeneration ... climate-change,energy,climate change,cogeneration,energy efficiency EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click here for EU news ... VIDEOS Home › Energy › News MEP advocates greater role for cogeneration in 'energy showdown' -A + A Published 10 May 2007, updated ...May 2012 Tags climate change, cogeneration, energy efficiency Speaking at a 9 May stakeholder conference on cogeneration, Green MEP Claude Turmes called on ...

76

Handbook of hazardous waste management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities. (BLM)

Metry, A.A.

1980-01-01

77

Earthquake hazard in Britain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes how seismic design specifications have evolved from studies of earthquake hazard and risk carried out by CEGB with the assistance of specialist consultants engaged to acquire and assess historical and seismological data. The results of hazard analyses are described and examples are given of associated topics including long period ground motions, the reliability of electrical grid systems, and the quantification of the statistical uncertainties associated with probabilistic estimates of earthquake hazard in Britain. (author)

1985-04-18

78

The Integrated Hazard Analysis Integrator  

Science.gov (United States)

Hazard analysis addresses hazards that arise in the design, development, manufacturing, construction, facilities, transportation, operations and disposal activities associated with hardware, software, maintenance, operations and environments. An integrated hazard is an event or condition that is caused by or controlled by multiple systems, elements, or subsystems. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is especially daunting and ambitious for large, complex systems such as NASA s Constellation program which incorporates program, systems and element components that impact others (International Space Station, public, International Partners, etc.). An appropriate IHA should identify all hazards, causes, controls and verifications used to mitigate the risk of catastrophic loss of crew, vehicle and/or mission. Unfortunately, in the current age of increased technology dependence, there is the tendency to sometimes overlook the necessary and sufficient qualifications of the integrator, that is, the person/team that identifies the parts, analyzes the architectural structure, aligns the analysis with the program plan and then communicates/coordinates with large and small components, each contributing necessary hardware, software and/or information to prevent catastrophic loss. As viewed from both Challenger and Columbia accidents, lack of appropriate communication, management errors and lack of resources dedicated to safety were cited as major contributors to these fatalities. From the accident reports, it would appear that the organizational impact of managers, integrators and safety personnel contributes more significantly to mission success and mission failure than purely technological components. If this is so, then organizations who sincerely desire mission success must put as much effort in selecting managers and integrators as they do when designing the hardware, writing the software code and analyzing competitive proposals. This paper will discuss the necessary and sufficient requirements of one of the significant contributors to mission success, the IHA integrator. Discussions will be provided to describe both the mindset required as well as deleterious assumptions/behaviors to avoid when integrating within a large scale system.

Morris, A. Terry; Massie, Michael J.

2009-01-01

79

Treatment of hazardous wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Special problems of treatment of hazardous wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany are discussed (i.e., evaluation of the manifest system, hazardous-waste processes , control). Special processes (incineration at sea, dumping, deep-well injection) are presented. The second part is a report about the congress of the American Chemical Society in Honolulu in April 1979, i.e., about the U.S. EPA Hazardous-Waste Program, about the abandoned hazardous-waste disposal sites and about several stabilization and solidification processes.

Schmitt-Tegge, J.D. (Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

1980-04-01

80

Hazardous materials transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the transportation of {open_quotes}hazardous materials{close_quotes} by highway, railcar, pipeline, and vessel. As defined by the U.S. Department of Transportation, {open_quotes}hazardous materials{close_quotes} are substances or materials capable of posing a unreasonable risk to health, safety and property when transported in commerce. After a brief discussion of the general federal framework of hazardous materials transportation regulation, the paper will offer more detailed discussion of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Authorization Act of 1994, followed by a brief overview of pipeline and bulk vessel transportation regulations.

Wyman, C. [Liskow & Lewis, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
81

Occurrence of Laemobothrion maximum in Greater Coucal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

External examination of free range abandoned dead Greater Coucal in a veterinary dispensary, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India revealed presence of a large sized louse in the feathers and was identified as Laemobothrion maximum on the basis of morphology and size of the louse.

Jeyathilakan, N.; Latha, B. R.; Bino Sundar, S. T.; Abdul Basith, S.

2012-01-01

82

Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

Rahman, M. H.

1993-01-01

83

Spread of English across Greater China  

Science.gov (United States)

Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

Feng, Anwei

2012-01-01

84

Seismic hazard assessment of Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Earthquake activity in Greenland has been registered and mapped since 1907 (Larsen et al. 2006) and thus a long (albeit relatively sparse) record of seismic activity is available for evaluation of seismic hazard and risk. Seismic hazard assessment is carried out by judging the probability of future earthquakes in a given region and is based on statistic treatment of earthquake data. The determination of the seismic hazard is the first step in an evaluation of seismic risk, i.e. the possible economic costs and loss of human life after an earthquake. The motivation for this seismic hazard study is the registration of four significant earthquakes in Greenland in 2005. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) received reports of all four earthquakes from residents who had felt the shaking. The 2005 earthquakes were located at or near Qeqertarsuaq on 30 March, Sisimiut on 23 July, Station Nord on 30 August and Attu on 23 October (Fig. 1), with magnitudes on the Richter scale of 4.3, 4.1, 5.1 and 2.5,respectively. The earthquake in Attu led to the inhabitants fleeing in their boats.

Voss, Peter; Kildegaard Rose, Stine

2007-01-01

85

Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI)

1993-02-01

86

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Greater Sandhill Crane  

Science.gov (United States)

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Armbruster, Michael J.

1987-01-01

87

Hazardous waste management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents a review of important approaches to hazardous waste management. It deals with major technical areas in this field and takes a historical view of the evaluation of U.S. regulations and policy. It also includes information on ways hazardous waste problems are addressed in foreign countries.

Dawson, G.W.

1985-01-01

88

HAZARDOUS WASTE TO ENERGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the 260 million metric tonnes (MMT) of hazardous waste generated in the United States in 1981, only 1.70 MMT was disposed of through incineration. In addition, 3.85 MMT of industrial wastes that could be considered hazardous were burned as fuels in industrial processes. The pa...

89

Hazardous Waste Management Needs Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A market-oriented survey of hazardous waste generation and management in the TVA region was conducted, and a conceptual design for the kinds of hazardous waste technologies, facilities, and systems to manage anticipated amounts and types of hazardous wast...

1984-01-01

90

Waste classification and hazardous waste  

Find out how to register as a hazardous waste producer, what paperwork you need to complete and how you should deal with your hazardous waste under the Hazardous Waste Regulations. Related Searches: waste

91

Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy  

Science.gov (United States)

The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

92

Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile. PMID:24906427

Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

2014-06-01

93

Hospital design to support greater operating efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the new imperative on cost containment and particular emphasis on prospective payment, hospital design must support greater productivity. It is incumbent on architects and engineers to reduce construction costs; but more importantly, to design facilities that improve personnel productivity. Several approaches to designing for efficiency are discussed including improving the development process; systems building, ease of maintenance, and conserving energy; developing the model hospital; minimizing travel throughout the hospital; centralization vs. decentralization; automating support systems; designing for growth and change; analyzing workflow; utilizing swing space; and emphasizing consumer centered care. PMID:10268971

Skaggs, R L

1984-12-01

94

Earthquake Hazards - A National Threat  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquakes are one of the most costly natural hazards faced by the Nation, posing a significant risk to 75 million Americans in 39 States. The risks that earthquakes pose to society, including death, injury, and economic loss, can be greatly reduced by (1) better planning, construction, and mitigation practices before earthquakes happen, and (2) providing critical and timely information to improve response after they occur. As part of the multi-agency National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the lead Federal responsibility to provide notification of earthquakes in order to enhance public safety and to reduce losses through effective forecasts based on the best possible scientific information.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2006-01-01

95

Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high

1994-01-01

96

Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high.

Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

1994-09-19

97

Women at greater risk of HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed. PMID:12292992

Mahathir, M

1997-04-01

98

Hazardous substance liability insurance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study was carried out to meet requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. It considers the adequacy and feasibility of private insurance to protect owners and operators of ships covered by the Act and for post-closure financial responsibility for hazardous waste disposal facilities. The report is in three parts: Pt. 1 is an introduction to the hazardous substance insurance problem; Pt. 2 considers the adequacy of private insurance for owners and operators of vessels and facilities; Pt. 3 focuses on the problem of a private insurance alternative to the Post-Closure Liability Fund for 'inactive' hazardous waste disposal facilities.

1982-03-01

99

Recruitment advantage of large seeds is greater in shaded habitats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Large seeds are assumed to have higher probability of successful recruitment than small seeds. This is because larger seeds give rise to larger seedlings and larger seedlings better withstand environmental hazards like deep shade and drought. Biotic and abiotic limitations to seedling growth and survival, and conversely availability of safe sites for recruitment, vary along environmental gradients and between habitat types. Thus, the value to plant species of possessing large seeds may differ between plant communities. We analyzed the relationship between seed mass and per-seed recruitment success (seedlings established per number of seeds produced) along an environmental gradient from open grassland to closed-canopy forest using data collected by Uuno Perttula in southern Finland in 1934. We found that larger seeds have greater recruitment success relative to smaller seeds in all investigated communities. However, the recruitment success of large seeds relative to small seeds strongly increased from grassland and open forest to closed-canopy forest. Of the measured environmental variables, canopy closure most strongly explained this increase. This indicates a strong direct effect of deep shade on seedling survival in natural plant communities. Additional explanatory power was associated with soil moisture. Litter cover, moss cover, and soil pH did not contribute to explaining the variation in relative recruitment success of larger seeds. Thus, the advantage of large seeds in recruitment success is pronounced in deeply shaded forest but may be insignificant in open vegetation Udgivelsesdato: 2008

Bruun, Hans Henrik; Brink, Dirk-Jan ten

2008-01-01

100

The wind energy potential in Greater Hannover  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to its location, Greater Hanover offers a big potential for wind energy utilization. Due to restrictions regarding natural space, settlement structure and regional planning, the utilization of wind energy on a large surface area, however, is not possible or only relatively possible. The investigation shows that with small-area systems and wind parks, only the development of site quality class 1 (of 7 possible classes) and a fraction of the site quality class for the production of 15-20% of electric power consumption is necessary. The second part of this report deals with the costs of development as well as with the profits which can be gained, considering especially small-area systems. (BWI)

1993-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

[Greater trochanteric pain syndrome of the hip].  

Science.gov (United States)

Lateral pain of the hip with point tenderness at the Greater Trochanter is a common musculoskeletal complaint. It is frequently diagnosed as trochanteric bursitis; however, this term is inaccurate because of evident non-inflammatory pathologies, particularly of the abductor tendons of the hip. It is important to differentiate this extra-articular source from an intra-articular or a lower back source of pain. Imaging is useful in cases of trauma, prolonged pain or uncertain diagnosis. Non-operative treatment that involves modifying activities, physiotherapy, analgesics, steroid injections and shock wave therapy is usually helpful. Nevertheless, despite the above treatments, about one third of the patients suffer from chronic pain and disability. These patients may be candidates for operative intervention. Currently, there are endoscopic surgical techniques for local decompression, bursectomy and suture of torn tendons similar to surgery used in the shoulder. PMID:24716427

Haviv, Barak; Bronak, Shlomo; Thein, Rafael

2014-02-01

102

hazardous waste 2005 online  

...require you to notify the Regulator in advance of moving hazardous...you may obtain from the Regulator. The Regulator must receive the form at...waste moved. Who is the Regulator? The Regulator is the Northern Ireland Environment...

103

hazardous waste regulations 2009  

...require you to notify the Regulator in advance of moving hazardous...you may obtain from the Regulator. The Regulator must receive the form at...waste moved. Who is the Regulator? The Regulator is the Northern Ireland Environment...

104

Hazardous Waste amended .indd  

...require you to notify the Regulator in advance of moving hazardous...you may obtain from the Regulator. The Regulator must receive the form at...waste moved. Who is the Regulator? The Regulator is the Environment and Heritage...

105

Bayesian transformation hazard models  

CERN Document Server

We propose a class of transformation hazard models for right-censored failure time data. It includes the proportional hazards model (Cox) and the additive hazards model (Lin and Ying) as special cases. Due to the requirement of a nonnegative hazard function, multidimensional parameter constraints must be imposed in the model formulation. In the Bayesian paradigm, the nonlinear parameter constraint introduces many new computational challenges. We propose a prior through a conditional-marginal specification, in which the conditional distribution is univariate, and absorbs all of the nonlinear parameter constraints. The marginal part of the prior specification is free of any constraints. This class of prior distributions allows us to easily compute the full conditionals needed for Gibbs sampling, and hence implement the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm in a relatively straightforward fashion. Model comparison is based on the conditional predictive ordinate and the deviance information criterion. This new class...

Yin, G; Yin, Gousheng; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

2006-01-01

106

BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated the Biosystems Technology Development Program to anticipate and address research needs in managing our nation's hazardous waste. The Agency believes that bioremediation of...

107

Volcano Hazards Program Webcams  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Volcano Hazards Program Webcams Below is a list of webcams of U.S. volcanoes. All webcams are operated by the USGS, unless otherwise noted. The images below are not the webcams but ...

108

Uranium Deposits Radioactive Hazards  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Assessment of Radioactive Hazard of Developed Jilskiy (Kyrgyzstan), Adrasman and Taboshar (Tajikistan) Uranium Deposits, Development and Typification of Actions on Rehabilitation of the Areas and Facilities for the Central Asia Region

109

Approaches to hazard identification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ambion Consultants were appointed by the HSE to carry out a pilot study to determine the range of hazard identification techniques actually applied in Offshore Safety Cases. From the discussions a ``snap-shot`` review of the current position with regard to Hazard Identification (HAZID) has been developed, highlighting: the techniques used (including combinations of techniques); typical depth and time of study, duration of study; the type of follow-up of HAZID into Quantitative Risk Analysis and risk management; typical team compositions, personnel make-up and competency; and difficulties experienced and ideas on how to improve technique. HAZID is seen as an important element of the Safety Case Regulations in the UKCS. The review shows that a relatively small number of HAZID techniques are actually in use in industry, the dominant methods being the generic hazard checklist approach and Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP). (author)

NONE

1998-01-01

110

Youth & Labor: Hazardous Jobs  

Science.gov (United States)

... Jobs Youth & Labor Subtopics Age Requirements Agricultural Employment Child Labor Statistics DOL Kids' Pages Door-to-door Sales ... Employment Exemptions to the FLSA Hazardous Jobs International Child Labor Newspaper Delivery Nonagricultural Employment Posting Requirements Recordkeeping Resources ...

111

Hazards from aircraft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

1975-04-13

112

K Basin Hazard Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

2000-01-01

113

Asymptotics for posterior hazards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important issue in survival analysis is the investigation and the modeling of hazard rates. Within a Bayesian nonparametric framework, a natural and popular approach is to model hazard rates as kernel mixtures with respect to a completely random measure. In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the asymptotic behaviour of such models. We investigate consistency of the posterior distribution and derive fixed sample size central limit theorems for both linear and quadratic functi...

2009-01-01

114

K Basins Hazard Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

1999-01-01

115

(M)oral hazard?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Would you go to the dentist more often if it were free? Observational data is here used to analyze the impact of full-coverage insurance on dental care utilization using different identification strategies. The challenge of assessing the bite of moral hazard without an experimental study design is to separate it from adverse selection, as agents act on private and generally unobservable information. By utilizing a quasi-experimental feature of the insurance scheme the moral hazard effect is i...

Gro?nqvist, Erik

2006-01-01

116

Radiation hazards and their effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation can be classified into ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on whether it is capable of ionizing atoms and breaking chemical bonds. Ultraviolet and higher frequency such as X-rays, gamma rays are ionizing. These pose their own special hazards. Non ionizing radiation is associated with two major potential hazards. i.e. electrical and biological. Additionally includes electric current caused by radiation can generate sparks and create a fire or explosive hazards. Strong radiation can induce current capable of delivering an electric shock. Extremely high power electromagnetic radiation can cause electric currents strong enough to create sparks when an induced voltage exceeds the breakdown voltage of surrounding mediums. A 2009 study at the University of Basal in Switzerland found that intermitted exposure of human cells to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field at a flux density of 10 Gy induced a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the comet assay. Mobile phones radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwaves range and some believes this may be harmful to human health. (author)

2012-01-01

117

Reducing people's vulnerability to natural hazards communities and resilience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concepts vulnerability, resilience and community are widely used and abused in the literature on natural hazards and disaster risk reduction. This paper seeks to bring greater rigour in their use. In particular, vulnerability must be understood as a set of socioeconomic conditions that are identifiable in relation to particular hazard risks, and therefore perform a predictive role that can assist in risk reduction. Resilience is often confused as a concept, sometimes seen as the inverse o...

Cannon, Terry

2008-01-01

118

In situ vitrification of a mixed radioactive and hazardous waste site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large-scale test of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process was performed on a mixed radioactive and hazardous-chemical contaminated waste site on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. A mixed-waste site was selected for this large-scale test to demonstrate the applicability of ISV to mixed wastes common to many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In situ vitrification is a thermal process that converts contaminated soil into a durable, leach-resistant product. Electrodes are inserted into the ground. The goals of the test are to demonstrate at least 99% retention of fission products and hazardous metals in the ISV glass during the test; demonstrate the ability of the ISV off-gas treatment system to process a waste site containing significant quantities of combustible material and demonstrate the ability of ISV to vitrify the site to a depth of 20 ft or greater. The test was completed in April 1990. 5 figs

1990-11-11

119

Natural phenomena hazards project for Department of Energy sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed seismic and wind hazard models for the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS), Department of Energy (DOE). The work is part of a three-phase effort aimed at establishing uniform building design criteria for seismic and wind hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. In Phase 1, LLNL gathered information on the sites and their critical facilities, including nuclear reactors, fuel-reprocessing plants, high-level waste storage and treatment facilities, and special nuclear material facilities. In Phase 2, development of seismic and wind hazard models, was initiated. These hazard models express the annual probability that the site will experience an earthquake or wind speed greater than some specified magnitude. In the final phase, it is anticipated that the DOE will use the hazard models to establish uniform criteria for the design and evaluation of critical facilities. 13 references, 2 figures, 1 table

1985-10-01

120

Grassroots Action Research and the Greater Good  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study examines the action research topics and topic preferences of two groups of grassroots teachers: active researchers, and potential researchers. The analysis of the topics appears to indicate that, over the past decade, action research at the teaching of English at the grassroots level to speakers of other languages has been principally understood in terms of professional development with respect to teachers’ methodologies and learners’ learning behaviours. A nascent concern for a more ample approach to professional development and issues conducive to the greater good of the profession can, it is mooted, flourish only with the collaboration of all relevant stakeholders.

En este estudio se examinan los temas de investigación acción y los temas preferidos por dos grupos de profesores de base: uno de investigadores activos y otro de investigadores potenciales. El análisis sugiere que, durante la última década, la investigación acción en el aula de inglés para hablantes de otras lenguas se ha entendido principalmente en términos del desarrollo profesional con respecto a las metodologías de los profesores y las conductas estudiantiles de aprendizaje. Se considera que un incipiente interés por un enfoque más amplio y por asuntos conducentes al beneficio general de la profesión, solamente puede florecer con la colaboración de todos los actores más importantes.

Rainey Isobel

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Control of biological hazards in cold smoked salmon production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An outline of the common processing technology for cold smoked salmon in Denmark is presented. The safety hazards related to pathogenic bacteria, parasites and biogenic amines are discussed with special emphasis on hazards related to Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. Critical control points are identified for all hazards except growth of L. monocytogenes. For this reason a limitation of shelf life to three weeks at +5 degrees C far cold smoked vacuum-packed salmon having greater than or equal to 3% water phase salt is recommended

Huss, Hans Henrik; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben

1995-01-01

122

Updating Seismic Hazard at Parkfield  

CERN Document Server

The occurrence of the September 28, 2004 M = 6.0 earthquake at Parkfield, California, has significantly modified the mean and aperiodicity of the series of time intervals between the big events in this segment of the San Andreas fault. Using the Minimalist Model of characteristic earthquakes, the Brownian Passage Time Model and other, standard, statistical schemes as renewal models, we fit the new data series and recalculate the hazard parameters for the new seismic cycle. The differences resulting from these various renewal models are emphasized.

González, A; Pacheco, A F; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Gomez, Javier B.; Pacheco, Amalio F.

2004-01-01

123

IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

K.L. Ashley

2005-03-23

124

Radiation and hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lecture printed in this brochure gives a complete roundup on radiation and hazards related thereto. It deals with different kinds and effects of radiation injuries as well as the relationship between dose and radiation hazard. It furthermore gives an account of today's radiation dose to inhabitants, and an evaluation of radiation hazards related thereto as compared to other hazards of modern life. This includes topical questions and problems that are also discussed in public, e.g. reviewing the data of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, radiation sensitivity of the thyroid gland, natural radiation exposure from structural materials of the building industry, and the risk of lung cancer due to inhalation of radioactive matter. The statistic survey of the Federal Home Secretary on radiation exposure from emissions of radioactive matter of nuclear facilities such as nuclear power plants, nuclear experimental plants and nuclear fuel fabrication plants in the Federal Republic of Germany gives figures on the actual radiation hazards in this country. (orig./HSCH)

1983-01-01

125

IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

2005-01-01

126

Identification of Aircraft Hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

2006-01-01

127

Barrow hazards survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a series of public meetings at which PERG presented the results of a literature review and site specific accident study of the hazards of the maritime transport of spent nuclear reactor fuel to Barrow (en route to the Windscale reprocessing works), PERG was requested by the Planning Committee of Barrow Town Council to prepare an assessment of the interaction of the hazards arising from the concentration of nuclear activities in the area with those of a proposed gas-terminal. This report presents a preliminary review of the Environmental Impact Assessments prepared by the Borough Surveyor and a critical appraisal of the hazard analyses undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive, and the consultants to Cumbria County Council on this matter, the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. After a general and historical introduction, the document continues under the following headings: a description of the hazards (BNFL spent fuel shipments; the gas terminal; gas condensate storage; the Vickers shipyard (involving nuclear powered submarines)); the interaction of hazards; planning implications and democratic decisions; recommendations. (U.K.)

1980-01-01

128

Prediction of Strong Ground Motion and Hazard Uncertainties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis is to provide a detailed description of recent methods and scientific basis for characterizing earthquake sources within a certain region with distinct tectonic environments. The focus will be on those characteristics that are most significant to the ground-shaking hazard and on how we can incorporate our current knowledge into hazard analyses for engineering design purposes. I treat two particular geographical areas where I think current hazard analysis methods are...

Tavakoli, Behrooz

2003-01-01

129

Seismic hazard in the design of oil and gas pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Criteria that are adopted in earthquake resistant design of pipelines and gas lines have to take into account seismic movements and seismic generated forces that are of significantly high probability level of appearance along the length of pipeline. A choice of criteria has to include an acceptable level of seismic hazard, while design criteria should be calculated. Seismic hazard is defined as a part of natural hazard and means probability of appearance of earthquake of corresponding c...

Zdravkovi? Slavko; Mladenovi? Biljana; Zlatkov Dragan

2011-01-01

130

The perception of hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fourth chapter deals with the profusion of factors determining the differing assessment of hazards by our society. Subjective factors influencing risk perception comprise, among others, general knowledge and recognition of a hazard; the degree of voluntariness when taking the risk and its influencibility; the problem of large scale accidents; immediate and delayed results. Next to the objective and the subjective risks, the individual and the social or collective risks are assessed differently. The author dicusses in detail recent investigations into and study methods for the determination of risk perception, while eliminating systematic trends from subjective perception since common assessments are shared by whole groups of individuals time and again which allow a better understanding of today's handling of hazards. (HSCH)

1986-01-01

131

Hazard Communication Standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

1991-09-25

132

Transportation of hazardous goods  

CERN Multimedia

A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

TS Department

2008-01-01

133

Geothermal hazards - Mercury emission  

Science.gov (United States)

Enthusiasm for intensified geothermal exploration may induce many participants to overlook a long-term potential toxicity hazard possibly associated with the tapping of magmatic steam. The association of high atmospheric Hg levels with geothermal activity has been established both in Hawaii and Iceland, and it has been shown that mercury can be introduced into the atmosphere from fumaroles, hot springs, and magmatic sources. These arguments, extended to thallium, selenium, and other hazardous elements, underscore the need for environmental monitoring in conjunction with the delivery of magmatic steam to the surface.

Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

1975-01-01

134

Onsite transportation hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

1998-01-01

135

Hazard management at the workplace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Failure to ensure health and safety environment at workplace will cause an accident involving loss to the time, human resource, finance and for the worse case effect the moral value of an organization. If we go through to the cause of the accident, it is impossible to have a totally safety workplace. It is because every process in work activities has it own hazard elements. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the best action to prevent from the hazard with a comprehensive and effectiveness hazard management. Hazard management is the one of the pro-active hazard control. With this we manage to identify and evaluate the hazard and control the hazard risk. Therefore, hazard management should be screened constantly and continuously to make sure work hazard always in control. (Author)

2003-07-22

136

Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

2003-03-05

137

TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR NATURAL EVENT HAZARDS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This technical basis document was developed to support the documented safety analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazard (NEH)-initiated accidents. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls

2006-01-01

138

Oak Ridge greater confinement disposal demonstrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Demonstrations are being conducted in association with the disposal of a high activity low-level waste (LLW) stream. The waste stream in question will result from the cement solidification of decanted liquids from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The solid waste will be produced beginning in mid summer 1988. It is anticipated to have significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90, with smaller amounts of other radionuclides and <100 nCi/gm of TRU. The solid waste forms are expected to have surface dose rates in the 1 to 2 r/hr range. The solid waste will also contain several chemical species at concentrations which are below those of concern, but which may present enhanced corrosion potential for the disposal units. 2 refs., 5 figs

1987-10-13

139

Oak Ridge greater confinement disposal demonstrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Demonstrations are being conducted in association with the disposal of a high activity low-level waste (LLW) stream. The waste stream in question will result from the cement solidification of decanted liquids from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The solid waste will be produced beginning in mid summer 1988. It is anticipated to have significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90, with smaller amounts of other radionuclides and <100 nCi/gm of TRU. The solid waste forms are expected to have surface dose rates in the 1 to 2 r/hr range. The solid waste will also contain several chemical species at concentrations which are below those of concern, but which may present enhanced corrosion potential for the disposal units. 2 refs., 5 figs.

Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clapp, R.B.

1987-01-01

140

Hazardous waste management handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine chapters cover various aspects of hazardous waste management, including: legal control and transport; hydrogeological assessment and selection of disposal sites; leachate management; solidification; water quality; recycling and reclamation; radioactive waste disposal. The chapter on radioactive waste disposal is indexed separately. (U.K.)

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Hazardous waste processing technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that in 1980 at least 57 million metric tons of the nation's total waste load could be classified as hazardous. Only 10% of the hazardous wastes are properly managed and disposed. Three kinds of treatment processes can be used to render hazardous waste less hazardous or nonhazardous: (1) physical processes, such as carbon or resin adsorption, centrifuging, flocculation, sedimentation, reverse osmosis, and ultrafiltration; (2) chemical processes, such as fixation, neutralization, ion exchange, oxidation reduction and precipitation; and (3) biological processes, such as activated sludge, composting and land application. Land disposal includes secure chemical landfilling, secure burial and deep well injection. Part 1 of this book discusses the thermal processing technologies, and Part 2 presents treatment and disposal technologies. Chapter 1 - general introduction; Chapter 2 - review of regulations, waste management and technologies governing thermal processes; Chapter 3 - evaluation of incineration systems and waste handling technologies; Chapter 4 - design of incinerator equipment; Chapter 5 - theory, design, research and development, and instrumentation, control and measurement of incineration systems; Chapter 6 - recovery of waste heat and by-products; air and water pollution aspects; Chapter 7 - catalytic incineration, wet air oxidation and pyrolysis; Chapter 8 - overview of treatment processes and disposal site selection requirements; Chapter 9 - physical treatment processes; Chapter 10 - chemical treatment processes; and Chapter 11 - biological treatment processes. (DP)

Kiang, Y.H.; Metry, A.A.

1982-01-01

142

Hazardous solvent substitution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

1995-07-14

143

Hazardous Materials Incidents  

Science.gov (United States)

... If you have time, minimize contamination in the house by closing all windows, shutting all vents, and ... Stay away from accident victims until the hazardous material has been identified. In a motor vehicle Stop and seek shelter in a permanent building. If you must remain in your car, keep ...

144

SCI Hazard Report Methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

Mitchell, Michael S.

2010-01-01

145

Transportation of hazardous materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transportation of hazardous materials is occurring with increasing frequency. The central problem now is how to move these cargos with maximum safety to life and property. The selections in this study will serve as a guide to the post-1964 literature of this subject.

Cook, J.L.; Cook, E.H.

1980-01-01

146

HAZARDOUS WASTE REGULATIONS 2005  

Please see page 6 below for ... What happens if my waste is ... hazardous waste \\from your premises. ... If I want to get rid of waste? .... the Regulations, you could \\face a .... l. ISBN 92-1-139097-4, available from the TSO price approx £110. 10 ...

147

Hazardous industrial waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The appropriate managing of hazardous wastes is a problem little dealed in the wastes management in the country. A search of available information was made about the generation and handling to internal and external level of the hazardous wastes by national industries. It was worked with eleven companies of different types of industrial activities for, by means of a questionnaire, interviews and visits, to determine the degree of integral and suitable handling of the wastes that they generate. It was concluded that exist only some isolated reports on the generation of hazardous industrial wastes and handling. The total quantity of wastes generated in the country was impossible to establish. The companies consulted were deficient in all stages of the handling of their wastes: generation, accumulation and storage, transport, treatment and final disposition. The lack of knowledge of the legislation and of the appropriate managing of the wastes is showed as the principal cause of the poor management of the residues. The lack of state or private entities entrusted to give services of storage, transport, treatment and final disposition of hazardous wastes in the country was evident. (author)

2007-01-01

148

Radiological hazards to uranium miners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the present document is to review and assess the occupational hazards to uranium miners in Canada. Amendments to regulations set the maximum permissible dose to uranium miners at 50 mSv per year. Uranium miners are exposed to radon and thoron progeny, external gamma radiation and long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides in dust. The best estimate for the lifetime risk of inhaled radon progeny is about 3 x 10"-"4 lung cancers per WLM for the average miner, with a range of uncertainty from about 1 -6 x 10"-"4 per WLM. This central value is nearly twice as high as that recommended by the ICRP in 1981. The probability of serious biological consequences following exposure to external gamma rays is currently under review but is expected to be in the range of 3 - 6 x 10"-"2 Sv"-"1. Dosimetric calculations indicate that the stochastic risks per WLM of thoron progeny are about one-third of those for radon progeny. The annual limits on intake of inhaled ore dusts recommended by the ICRP are probably too low by at least a factor of two for the type of ore and dust normally encountered in underground uranium mines in Ontario; this is due in part to the fact that the average diameter of these dusts is five times greater than the value used by the ICRP. Radiological exposures of uranium miners in Canada were reviewed. The biological impact of these exposures were compared with those of conventional accidents on the basis of the years of normal life expectancy that are lost or seriously impaired due to occupational hazards. The objectives in considering all occupational risks are to reduce the total risk from all causes and to use funds spent for health protection as effectively as possible

1990-01-01

149

Tank farms hazards assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ``Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001`` as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process.

Broz, R.E.

1994-09-30

150

Land Change in the Greater Antilles between 2001 and 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Land change in the Greater Antilles differs markedly among countries because of varying socioeconomic histories and global influences. We assessed land change between 2001 and 2010 in municipalities (second administrative units of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. Our analysis used annual land-use/land-cover maps derived from MODIS satellite imagery to model linear change in woody vegetation, mixed-woody/plantations and agriculture/herbaceous vegetation. Using this approach, we focused on municipalities with significant change (p ? 0.05. Between 2001 and 2010, the Greater Antilles gained 801 km2 of woody vegetation. This increase was mainly due to the return of woody vegetation in Cuba, and smaller increases in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Despite relatively similar environments, the factors associated with these changes varied greatly between countries. In Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica, agriculture declined while mixed-woody vegetation increased, mostly in montane regions. In contrast, Cuba experienced an extensive decline in sugarcane plantations, which resulted in the spread of an invasive woody shrub species and the increase in woody vegetation in areas of high agricultural value. In Haiti, the growing population, fuelwood consumption, and increase in agriculture contributed to woody vegetation loss; however, woody vegetation loss was accompanied with a significant increase in the mixed woody and plantations class. Most regional analyses often treated the Greater Antilles as a homogeneous unit; our results suggest that historical and socio-economic differences among countries are crucial for understanding the variation in present day land change dynamics.

Nora L. Álvarez-Berríos

2013-03-01

151

Remote sensing and landslide hazard assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Remotely acquired multispectral data are used to improve landslide hazard assessments at all scales of investigation. A vegetation map produced from automated interpretation of TM data is used in a GIS context to explore the effect of vegetation type on debris flow occurrence in preparation for inclusion in debris flow hazard modeling. Spectral vegetation indices map spatial patterns of grass senescence which are found to be correlated with soil thickness variations on hillslopes. Grassland senescence is delayed over deeper, wetter soils that are likely debris flow source areas. Prediction of actual soil depths using vegetation indices may be possible up to some limiting depth greater than the grass rooting zone. On forested earthflows, the slow slide movement disrupts the overhead timber canopy, exposes understory vegetation and soils, and alters site spectral characteristics. Both spectral and textural measures from broad band multispectral data are successful at detecting an earthflow within an undisturbed old-growth forest.

Mckean, J.; Buechel, S.; Gaydos, L.

1991-01-01

152

Chemical Hazards to Human Reproduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is an evaluation and documentation of the current evidence for reproductive hazards of chemicals, an evaluation of the policy implications of the state of knowledge about chemical hazards to human reproduction, a review of occupational exposur...

1981-01-01

153

Radiation hazards of diagnostic radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given concerning radiation hazards to patients and staff in diagnostic radiology. Topics covered include the nature of radiation hazards, risk levels, individual organ radiosensitivities, the principle of justification for radiological examinations and ways of reducing radiation hazards by ensuring that equipment operates at a high level of efficiency and by maintaining high professional standards and practices. Finally radiation hazards to women of reproductive age are discussed. (UK)

1987-01-01

154

Estimating volcanic ash hazard in European airspace  

Science.gov (United States)

The wide spread disruption of European air traffic in late April 2010, during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, showed the importance of early assessment of volcanic hazard from explosive eruptions. In this study we look at the short term hazard of airborne ash through a climatological perspective, focusing on eruptions on Iceland. By studying eruptions of different magnitude and frequency we attempt to estimate the overall probability that ash concentrations considered hazardous to aviation are exceeded over different parts of Europe. The method involves setting up a range of eruption scenarios based on the eruptive history of Icelandic volcanoes, and repeated simulation of these scenarios for several years' worth of weather data. Simulations are conducted using meteorological data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis set which is downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The weather data is then used to drive the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF, which is set up appropriately for each eruption scenario. We see that the dispersion of ash is highly dominated by the mid-latitude westerlies and mainly affect northern UK and the Scandinavian peninsula. The occurrence of high ash levels from Icelandic volcanoes is lower over continental Europe but should not be neglected for eruptions of volcanic explosivity index (VEI) 5 or greater, which have a recurrence interval of about 120-150 years. There is a clear seasonal variation in the ash hazard. During the summer months there is no single dominating dispersion direction and high concentrations are restricted to a relatively small area around Iceland with some plumes extending to the northwest and Greenland. In contrast, during the winter months the strong westerly winds will transport most of the emissions eastwards. The affected area of a winter-time eruption will be larger as high concentrations can be found at a further distance downwind from the volcano, effectively increasing the probability of hazardous levels of ash reaching the European continent.

Dingwell, Adam; Rutgersson, Anna

2014-05-01

155

Solitary waves as aviation hazard  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists at the Australian National University in Canberra have found that wind shear produced by solitary atmospheric waves is a potentially serious hazard to aircraft operating at low altitudes. In recent years a significant number of aircraft accidents have been attributed to a sudden, unexpected encounter with low-level wind shear during the landing or takeoff stage. In many cases it has been possible to associate the hazardous shear with one of a variety of well known meteorological wind shear conditions including intense thunderstorm down drafts, down-draft-produced density currents, cold frontal systems, and sea breezes. These sources are easily recognized and are usually predictable in the airport environment. In some instances, however, the identity of the wind shear source has been uncertain. Studies of the properties of large amplitude solitary waves in the boundary layer have shown that they produce intense, transient, horizontal and vertical wind shears which are comparable with the well known types of shear. Solitary wave activity may therefore account for some hitherto unexplained aircraft accidents.

Christie, D. R.

156

Moral hazard and ambiguity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider a principal-agent model with moral hazard where the agent's knowledge about the performance measure is ambiguous and he is averse towards ambiguity. We show that the principal may optimally provide no incentives or contract only on a subset of all informative performance measures. That is, the Informativeness Principle does not hold in our model. These results stand in stark contrast to the ones of the orthodox theory, but are empirically of high relevance.

Weinschenk, Philipp

2010-01-01

157

Hazards Of Cytotoxic Drugs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cytotoxic drugs include any drug that inhibits or prevents the function of cells. Cytotoxic drugs are increasingly being used in a variety of healthcare settings, laboratories and veterinary clinics for the treatment of cancer and other medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and auto-immune disorders. Occupational exposure to hazardous drugs and the resulting potential health risk to healthcare workers first became a recognized safety concern in the 1970s. Publish...

2009-01-01

158

Immobilisation of hazardous waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazardous waste, e.g. radioactive waste, particularly that containing caesium-137, is immobilised by mixing with cement and solidifiable organic polymeric material. When first mixed, the organic material is preferably liquid and at this time can be polymerisable or already polymerised. The hardening can result from cooling or further polymerisation e.g. cross-linking. The organic material may be wax, or a polyester which may be unsaturated and cross-linkable by reaction with styrene. (author)

1981-10-20

159

Environmental radiation hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rise in the level of environmental radiation resulting from man's activities has been relatively small in relation to naturally occurring background radiation. (One exception to this is microwave radiations.) There are no quantitative data on the effects of low levels of radiation on man, and the possible health consequences remain unclear. The risks of hazardous amounts from x-rays can be minimized by careful use.

Steinfeld, A.D.

1980-10-01

160

Hazardous waste data: 2007  

…operator in 2006 of 600,000 tonnes. Taking account of reporting errors there was an actual decrease of 2.5 per cent in 2007. The amount of hazardous waste sent to landfill fell marginally by 2.5 per cent to around 850,000 tonnes, with recycling and reuse also showing a decrease of seven per cent in… Related Searches: asbestos

 
 
 
 
161

Regular moral hazard economies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

That paper formalizes the idea that when the magnitude of the moral hazard phenomenon is not important, the distortions like equilibria multiplicity or equilibrium discontinuity relative to the economic fundamentals disappear. We study a two state of nature insurance model, with a risk neutral principal, a risk averse agent and separable costs. Typically, in such economies, non convexities imply that the set of Pareto optimal allocations is not connected. Surprisingly, we prove that it is nev...

Chassagnon, Arnold

2007-01-01

162

A CASE STUDY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN CLASS I LANDFILLS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study documents the average concentration, estimated daily deposition, and partitioning of 17 metal species in hazardous wastes discharged to five Class I landfill sites in the greater Los Angeles area. These sites receive a combined estimated daily volume of 2.3 x 10 to the...

163

Do older adults experience greater thermal strain during heat waves?  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat waves are the cause of many preventable deaths around the world, especially among older adults and in countries with more temperate climates. In the present study, we examined the effects of age on whole-body heat loss and heat storage during passive exposure to environmental conditions representative of the upper temperature extremes experienced in Canada. Direct and indirect calorimetry measured whole-body evaporative heat loss and dry heat exchange, as well as the change in body heat content. Twelve younger (21 ± 3 years) and 12 older (65 ± 5 years) adults with similar body weight (younger: 72.0 ± 4.4 kg; older: 80.1 ± 4.2 kg) and body surface area (younger: 1.8 ± 0.1 m(2); older: 2.0 ± 0.1 m(2)) rested for 2 h in a hot-dry [36.5 °C, 20% relative humidity (RH)] or hot-humid (36.5 °C, 60% RH) environment. In both conditions, evaporative heat loss was not significantly different between groups (dry: p = 0.758; humid: p = 0.814). However, the rate of dry heat gain was significantly greater (by approx. 10 W) for older adults relative to younger adults during the hot-dry (p = 0.032) and hot-humid exposure (p = 0.019). Consequently, the cumulative change in body heat content after 2 h of rest was significantly greater in older adults in the hot-dry (older: 212 ± 25 kJ; younger: 131 ± 27 kJ, p = 0.018) as well as the hot-humid condition (older: 426 ± 37 kJ; younger: 317 ± 45 kJ, p = 0.037). These findings demonstrate that older individuals store more heat during short exposures to dry and humid heat, suggesting that they may experience increased levels of thermal strain in such conditions than people of younger age. PMID:24552369

Stapleton, Jill M; Larose, Joanie; Simpson, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

2014-03-01

164

Comprehensive baseline hazard assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed and implemented a cost effective/value-added program/process that assists in fulfilling key elements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) voluntary Protection Program (VPP) requirements. WHC is the prime contractor for the US Department of Energy (US DOE) at the Hanford site, located in Richland, Washington. The site consists of over 560 square miles, contains over 1100 facilities and has an employment of approximately 18,000. WHC is currently in the application review phase for the US DOE equivalent of OSHA-VPP ``merit`` program status. The program involves setting up a team consisting of industrial safety and health (industrial hygienists) professionals, members of the maintenance and operations work force, and facility management. This team performs a workplace hazard characterization/analysis and then applies a risk assessment approach to prioritize observed and potential hazards in need of abatement. The process involves using checklists that serve as a guide for evaluation/inspection criteria. Forms are used to document meetings, field observations, instrument calibration and performance testing. Survey maps are generated to document quality records of measurement results. A risk assessment code matrix with a keyword index was developed to facilitate consistency. The end product is useful in communicating hazards to facility management, health and safety professionals, audit/appraisal groups, and most importantly, facility workers.

Warren, S.B.; Amundson, T.M.

1994-10-01

165

PUREX facility hazards assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

Sutton, L.N.

1994-09-23

166

Hazard waste risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory continued to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in the area of risk assessment for hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste management. The overall objective is to provide technical assistance to OOS in developing cost-effective risk assessment tools and strategies for bringing DOE facilities into compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Major efforts during FY 1985 included (1) completing the modification of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and developing training manuals and courses to assist in field office implementation of the modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS); (2) initiating the development of a system for reviewing field office HRS/mHRS evaluations for appropriate use of data and appropriate application of the methodology; (3) initiating the development of a data base management system to maintain all field office HRS/mHRS scoring sheets and to support the master OOS environmental data base system; (4) developing implementation guidance for Phase I of the DOE CERCLA Program, Installation Assessment; (5) continuing to develop an objective, scientifically based methodology for DOE management to use in establishing priorities for conducting site assessments under Phase II of the DOE CERCLA Program, Confirmation; and (6) participating in developing the DOE response to EPA on the proposed listing of three sites on the National Priorities List

1986-02-01

167

Hazardous material information network ``HAZMIN``  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hazardous Materials Information Network (HAZMIN), is a tracking system that controls and monitors hazardous materials/wastes for Watervliet Arsenal, Department of the Army. The system, which was developed by Logical Technology, Inc., of Peoria, Illinois, established a real time database of applications/usage of hazardous materials at the Arsenal. This information will allow the arsenal to remain compliant with all current and pending environmental laws and regulations (state and federal) addressing the use of hazardous material and the generation of hazardous waste. This system will serve as the core for the Environmental Management Information Systems currently being developed for the Arsenal.

Pond, T.; Falcetta, R.; Trombley, J. [Army Watervliet Arsenal, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

168

Ground motion prediction from nearest seismogenic zones in and around Greater Cairo Area, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the likely source characteristics, focal source mechanism and fault patterns of the nearest effective seismogenic zones to Greater Cairo Area. Furthermore, Mmax and ground accelerations related to the effective seismic events expected in future from those seismogenic zones are well evaluated. For this purpose, the digital waveform of earthquakes than ML=3 that occurred in and around Greater Cairo Area from 1997 to 2008 which have been recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network, are used to study source characterization, focal mechanism and fault pattern of the seismogenic zones around Greater Cairo Area. The ground motions are predicted from seismogenic zones to assess seismic hazard in the northeastern part of Greater Cairo, where three effective seismogenic zones, namely Abou Zabul, southeast Cairo trend and Dahshour area, have the largest effect to the Greater Cairo Area. The Mmax was determined, based upon an empirical relationship between the seismic moment and the rupture length of the fault during the earthquake. The estimated Mmax expected from Abou Zabul, southeast Cairo trend, Dahshour seismic sources are of Mw magnitudes equal to 5.4, 5.1, and 6.5, respectively. The predominant fundamental frequency and soil amplification characteristics at the area were obtained using boreholes data and in-situ ambient noise measurement.

Abd El-Aziz Khairy Abd El-Aal

2010-07-01

169

SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The primary reasons for this difference is the greater activity rate used in contemporary models for the Charleston source zone and proper incorporation of uncertainty and randomness in GMAMs

2005-01-01

170

Seasonal distribution of Culicini larvae in Greater Cairo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five species of mosquito larvae were encountered in Greater Cairo, Culex pipiens, Cx. pusillus, Cx. perexiguus, Aedes caspius and Culiseta longiareolata. In parts of Qualyoubia G. Cx. pipiens was the most dominant and the least was Cx. perexiguus. In parts of Giza G. Cx. pipiens was the most dominant and the least was Cs. longiareolata. In Cairo G. Cx. pipiens was the most dominant and the least was Ae. caspius. The overall abundance in a descending order was Cx. pipiens (61.74%), Cs. longiareolata (15.56%), Ae. caspius (15.3%), Cx. pusillus (4.0%) and Cx. perexiguus (3.16%). However, in all sites Cx. pipiens were more in December than in August. The difference in number of Cx. pipiens in one hand and all number of larvae collected on the other hand was non significant. PMID:15125522

Morsy, Tosson A; Khalil, Nabawia M; Habib, Faiza S M; El-Laboudy, Noha A

2004-04-01

171

Risk assessment for hazardous installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examines the techniques that can be used to assess the significance of risk in quantitative terms and compares how these techniques are used in practice in the nuclear industry with the way they are used in those parts of the process industry that can be classified as having a major hazard potential. A proposal is made to develop the concept of ranking plants in a quantified way in terms of their potential risk. The acceptability of a project would be ranked in a comprehensive non-dimensional way which takes account of all the factors related to acceptability. There are seven chapters, one of which, on the way risks are quantified in the nuclear industry, is indexed separately. (UK)

1986-01-01

172

Risk factors for the hazard of lameness in Danish Standardbred trotters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A follow-up study focusing on health problems interfering with optimal training of Danish Standardbred trotters was conducted with the participation of seven professional trainers. Our aim was to estimate the incidence of health problems that cause interruptions of optimal training, and to identify associations between the hazard of lameness and selected risk factors. The study population was dynamic and contained data of 265 Standardbred trotters monitored during 5 months in 1997 and 1998. The horses were greater than or equal to2 years old. Optimal training was defined as when the horse followed scheduled training including fast-speed trotting. Interruption of optimal training could only be caused by health problems and castration. A total of 123 new events of interruption of optimal training caused by health problems were reported. Lameness (injury located to joints and tendons) was the most-frequent cause of interruption of optimal training: 84 events in 69 horses (0.09 events per horse-month). Respiratory diseases (16 events) and muscular problems (seven events) were the second and third most-frequent causes of interrupted training. The effects of trainer, gender, age-group, time with a trainer, participation in races and current month on the hazard of lameness were estimated in a multivariable Cox proportional-hazard model. The effects of trainer, gender and age-group were modelled as time-independent. The effects of time with a trainer, participation in races and the current month were modelled as time-dependent variables. Trainer affected the hazard of lameness. Geldings had higher hazard than mares, as did 3-year olds (compared to >4-year olds). Compared to the period where horses. had been trained by the same trainer for >3 months, horses in the period 1.5-2.5 months after they had entered the training regime had higher risk of lameness (hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% Cl: 1.1-9.9). Participation in races increased the hazard of lameness significantly in the 5 days after a races. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Vigre, HÃ¥kan; Chriel, M.

2002-01-01

173

Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

2010-01-01

174

Radiation Hazard Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA technology has made commercially available a new, inexpensive, conveniently-carried device for protection, of people exposed to potentially dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Microwaves are radio emissions of extremely high frequency. They can be hazardous but the degree of hazard is not yet well understood. Generally, it is believed that low intensity radiation of short duration is not harmful but that exposure to high levels can induce deep internal burns, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems, and particularly the eyes. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an allowable safe threshold of exposure. However, people working near high intensity sources of microwave energy-for example, radar antennas and television transmitters-may be unknowingly exposed to radiation levels beyond the safe limit. This poses not only a personal safety problem but also a problem for employers in terms of productivity loss, workman's compensation claims and possible liability litigation. Earlier-developed monitoring devices which warn personnel of dangerous radiation levels have their shortcomings. They can be cumbersome and awkward to use while working. They also require continual visual monitoring to determine if a person is in a dangerous area of radiation, and they are relatively expensive, another deterrent to their widespread adoption. In response to the need for a cheaper and more effective warning system, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed, under NASA auspices, a new, battery-powered Microwave Radiation Hazard Detector. To bring the product to the commercial market, California Institute Research Foundation, the patent holder, granted an exclusive license to Cicoil Corporation, Chatsworth, California, an electronic components manufacturer.

1978-01-01

175

Nuclear hazards under control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns the safety systems at British Nuclear Fuels Limited Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) at Sellafield. The use of Hazop and safety protection procedures were applied to the design of control systems for Thorp, and these are briefly described. Standards for safety and hazards are outlined, including reliability of design and monitoring in the environmental area. Thorp is also equipped with independent hardware-based protective interlocks, selective back-up alarms and emergency shutdown systems, and details of these systems are briefly given, along with radiation protection procedures. (U.K.)

1988-01-01

176

Seismic hazard uncertainty and its effects on design decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of uncertainty in seimic hazard on decisions for seimic design levels and seismic retrofit strategies is investigated. The issue of uncertainty in seismic hazard is of particular importance in intraplate tectonic environments, because the uncertainty in seismic hazard is typically rather large in these regions as a result of uncertainties in tectonic models, maximum magnitudes, and ground motions during earthquakes. Also, the state-of-the-art in tectonic interpretations and ground motion estimation in intraplate regions is growing rapidly, and will continue to do so. This implies that the uncertainty in seismic hazard will be reduced in the future, and the seismic hazard will also change at many sites, often by significant factors. (orig./HP)

1987-01-01

177

Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India  

Science.gov (United States)

In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the construction of cyclone shelters was being undertaken. The availability heuristics caused a perception of low probability of tsunami following an earthquake, as the last large similar event happened over a hundred years ago. Another led to a situation when decisions were taken on the basis of experience and not statistical evidence, namely, experience showed that the so-called "Ring of Fire" generates underground earthquakes and tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. This knowledge made decision-makers to neglect the numerical estimations about probability of underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean even though seismologists were warning about probability of a large underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The bounded rationality bias led to misperception of signals from the early warning center in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting limited concern resulted in risk mitigation measures that considered cyclone risks, but much less about tsunami. Under loss aversion considerations, the decision-makers perceived the losses connected with the necessary additional investment as being greater than benefits from mitigating a less probable hazard.

Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

2013-04-01

178

Communication in hazardous environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radios were investigated for use in hazardous environments where protective breathing equipment such as plastic suits and respirators interfere with communication. A radio system, manufactured by Communications-Applied technology (C-AT), was identified that was designed specifically for hazardous environment communications. This equipment had been used successfully by the US Army and NASA for several years. C-AT equipment was evaluated in plantwide applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) using temporary frequencies obtained by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR). Radios performed well in all applications, which included a tritium facility, high-level caves, a nuclear reactor building, tank farm, and a canyon building interior. Permanent frequencies were obtained by DOE-SR for two complete six-man C-AT systems at SRP. Because of the relatively short range of these systems, replicates will cover all applications of this type of equipment plantwide. Twelve radio systems are currently being used successfully in plantwide applications

1986-09-14

179

Health concerns and hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses health effects of hazardous waste and emphasizes human health concerns related to establishing a hazardous waste management facility. The study reviewed world epidemiological and public health literature to identify cases of suspected or substantiated claims of public health impacts associated with hazardous waste management facilities and potential products or emissions from such facilities, and placed them into perspective, including possible routes and consequences of exposure, risk assessment, and the toxicity of selected organic and inorganic compounds.

Yassi, A.; Weeks, J.; Kraut, A.

1990-01-01

180

Limited risk assessment and some cost/benefit considerations for greater confinement disposal compared to shallow land burial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A limited risk assessment and some cost/benefit considerations of greater confinement disposal (GCD) compared to shallow land burial (SLB) are presented. This study is limited to an analysis of the postclosure phase of hypothetical GCD and SLB facilities. Selected release scenarios are used which bound the range of risks to a maximally exposed individual and a hypothetical population. Based on the scenario assessments, GCD had a significant risk advantage over SLB for normal exposure pathways at both humid and arid sites, particularly for the human intrusion scenario. Since GCD costs are somewhat higher than SLB, it is necessary to weigh the higher costs of GCD against the higher risks of SLB. In this regard, GCD should be pursued as an alternative to SLB for certain types of low-level waste, and as an alternative to processing for wastes requiring improved stabilization or higher integrity packaging to be compatible with SLB. There are two reasons for this conclusion. First, GCD might diminish public apprehension regarding the disposal of wastes perceived to be too hazardous for SLB. Second, GCD may be a relatively cost-effective alternative to various stabilization and packaging schemes required to meet 10 CFR 61 near-surface requirements as well as being a cost-effective alternative to deep geologic disposal. Radionuclide transport through the biosphere and resultant dose consequences were determined using the RADTRAN radionuclide transport code. 19 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Limited risk assessment and some cost/benefit considerations for greater confinement disposal compared to shallow land burial  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A limited risk assessment and some cost/benefit considerations of greater confinement disposal (GCD) compared to shallow land burial (SLB) are presented. This study is limited to an analysis of the postclosure phase of hypothetical GCD and SLB facilities. Selected release scenarios are used which bound the range of risks to a maximally exposed individual and a hypothetical population. Based on the scenario assessments, GCD had a significant risk advantage over SLB for normal exposure pathways at both humid and arid sites, particularly for the human intrusion scenario. Since GCD costs are somewhat higher than SLB, it is necessary to weigh the higher costs of GCD against the higher risks of SLB. In this regard, GCD should be pursued as an alternative to SLB for certain types of low-level waste, and as an alternative to processing for wastes requiring improved stabilization or higher integrity packaging to be compatible with SLB. There are two reasons for this conclusion. First, GCD might diminish public apprehension regarding the disposal of wastes perceived to be too hazardous for SLB. Second, GCD may be a relatively cost-effective alternative to various stabilization and packaging schemes required to meet 10 CFR 61 near-surface requirements as well as being a cost-effective alternative to deep geologic disposal. Radionuclide transport through the biosphere and resultant dose consequences were determined using the RADTRAN radionuclide transport code. 19 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

Hunter, P.H.; Lester, D.H.; Robertson, L.D.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stoddard, J.A.; Dickman, P.T.

1984-09-01

182

Waste Management Facilities Cost Information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, greater-than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic waste (TRU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste have been estimated previously, and a summary has been included in earlier WMFCI reports. In order to have a single source for obtaining transportation cost for all radioactive waste, the transportation costs for the contact- and remote-handled wastes are repeated in this report. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the US Department of Transportation (DOT), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations. It should be noted that the trend is toward greater restrictions on transportation of radioactive waste (e.g., truck or rail car speed, shipping route, security escort, and personnel training requirements), which may have a significant impact on future costs

1994-01-01

183

Coupling seismic and GPS data for hazard estimation in some active regions in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinia regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the seismic events, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The active crustal deformation field in active regions in Egypt are examined, as obtained from both seismological and GPS data. The results from data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications.

Sayed Mohamed, Abdel-Monem

2010-05-01

184

Spatial patterns of natural hazards mortality in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on natural hazard mortality are most often hazard-specific (e.g. floods, earthquakes, heat, event specific (e.g. Hurricane Katrina, or lack adequate temporal or geographic coverage. This makes it difficult to assess mortality from natural hazards in any systematic way. This paper examines the spatial patterns of natural hazard mortality at the county-level for the U.S. from 1970–2004 using a combination of geographical and epidemiological methods. Results Chronic everyday hazards such as severe weather (summer and winter and heat account for the majority of natural hazard fatalities. The regions most prone to deaths from natural hazards are the South and intermountain west, but sub-regional county-level mortality patterns show more variability. There is a distinct urban/rural component to the county patterns as well as a coastal trend. Significant clusters of high mortality are in the lower Mississippi Valley, upper Great Plains, and Mountain West, with additional areas in west Texas, and the panhandle of Florida, Significant clusters of low mortality are in the Midwest and urbanized Northeast. Conclusion There is no consistent source of hazard mortality data, yet improvements in existing databases can produce quality data that can be incorporated into spatial epidemiological studies as demonstrated in this paper. It is important to view natural hazard mortality through a geographic lens so as to better inform the public living in such hazard prone areas, but more importantly to inform local emergency practitioners who must plan for and respond to disasters in their community.

Cutter Susan L

2008-12-01

185

Takula oil field and the Greater Takula area, Cabinda, Angola  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Greater Takula area comprises three fields that produce oil predominantly from Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. They are located approximately 40 km west-northwest of the Malongo terminal, offshore Cabinda, Angola, in water depths of 50-75 m. Current production levels are approximately 200,000 bbl/day of 320 API oil. The first well in the Takula area, drilled in 1971, tested 5,600 bbl/day of 32{degrees} API oil from Lower Cretaceous pre-salt Toca carbonates. The prospect was initially defined as a horst structure in the lower Congo presalt sedimentary section. Subsequent delineation drilling indicated updip potential for much more significant hydrocarbon accumulations in younger Cenomanian clastic sediments of the Vermelha Formation. The Vermelha pool, structurally a large rollover anticline bounded by growth faults with an areal closure of 4,856 ha (12,000 ac), was discovered in 1980. Appraisal drilling confirmed the existence of a major oil accumulation in multiple reservoirs within the Vermelha. Additional accumulations were found in the underlying Pinda Formation. In May 1982, the 44-5x well was drilled on a separate structure, immediately north of Takula. This well also tested oil from the Vermelha Formation and is now known as the Wamba field. In August 1982, the 57-5x well uncovered another large oil accumulation immediately southeast of the Takula field. This discovery, separated from Takula by a structural saddle, is in pressure communication with the Takula accumulation and is known as the Numbi field. This complex of structures, known as the Greater Takula area, is now in a mature stage of development, having produced over 250 MMSTB from an original oil in place estimate of 3,300 MMSTB. The integration of geology, geophysics, and reservoir engineering-has led to a progressive development, including both primary and waterflood secondary recovery, of this giant oil field complex.

Dale, C.T.; Lopes, J.R. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (USA)); Abilio, S.

1990-09-01

186

Enzootic reticuloendotheliosis in the endangered Attwater's and greater prairie chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in captive greater prairie chickens (GPC, Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's prairie chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was first reported in 1998. RE is caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an oncogenic and immunosuppressive retrovirus infecting multiple species of wild and domestic birds. During August 2004 through May 2006 a captive population of prairie chickens was affected simultaneously with a neoplastic condition and also avian pox, the latter being detected in 7.4% (2 of 27) of all birds submitted for histopathology. A survey for REV was conducted in order to examine its possible role in mortality observed primarily in juvenile and adult specimens of prairie chickens. The investigative procedures included postmortem examinations, histopathology, molecular detection, and virus isolation. In total, 57 Attwater's prairie chickens and two greater prairie chickens were included in the study. REV infection was diagnosed using virus isolation or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or both in 59.5% (28 of 47) of blood samples and/or tumors from suspect birds. Lymphosarcomas were detected in the tissues of 37% (10 of 27) of the birds submitted for histopathology. Such lymphosarcomas suggestive of RE represented the most frequent morphologic diagnosis on histopathology among 27 separate submissions of naturally dead prairie chickens. Overall, REV was detected or RE diagnosed in 34 of 59 prairie chickens (57.62%). The average death age of all birds diagnosed with lymphosarcomas on histopathology was 2.2 yr, ranging from virus was confirmed as a significant cause of mortality in captive prairie chickens. PMID:17274288

Zavala, Guillermo; Cheng, Sunny; Barbosa, Taylor; Haefele, Holly

2006-12-01

187

[Relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors].  

Science.gov (United States)

To clarify the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors is of significance to the prediction and evaluation of landslide and debris flow hazards. Base on the latitudinal and longitudinal information of 18431 landslide and debris flow hazards in China, and the 1 km x 1 km grid data of elevation, elevation difference, slope, slope aspect, vegetation type, and vegetation coverage, this paper analyzed the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards in this country to above-mentioned environmental factors by the analysis method of frequency ratio. The results showed that the landslide and debris flow hazards in China more occurred in lower elevation areas of the first and second transitional zones. When the elevation difference within a 1 km x 1 km grid cell was about 300 m and the slope was around 30 degree, there was the greatest possibility of the occurrence of landslide and debris hazards. Mountain forest land and slope cropland were the two land types the hazards most easily occurred. The occurrence frequency of the hazards was the highest when the vegetation coverage was about 80%-90%. PMID:19637606

Zhang, Guo-ping; Xu, Jing; Bi, Bao-gui

2009-03-01

188

Hazards to nuclear plants from surface traffic accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytic models have been developed for evaluating hazards to nuclear plants from hazardous-materials accidents in the vicinity of the plant. In particular, these models permit the evaluation of hazards from such accidents occurring on surface traffic routes near the plant. The analysis uses statistical information on accident rates, traffic frequency, and cargo-size distribution along with parameters describing properties of the hazardous cargo, plant design, and atmospheric conditions, to arrive at a conservative estimate of the annual probability of a catastrophic event. Two of the major effects associated with hazardous-materials accidents, explosion and release of toxic vapors, are treated by a common formalism which can be readily applied to any given case by means of a graphic procedure. As an example, for a typical case it is found that railroad shipments of chlorine in 55-ton tank cars constitute a greater hazard to a nearby nuclear plant than equally frequent rail shipments of explosives in amounts of 10 tons. 11 references. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

189

Bayesian updating in natural hazard risk assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Probabilistic models are typically implemented into risk management systems using whatever relevant information is available prior to the implementation. However, in the course of time more information becomes available and it is of significant practical importance to be able to update the probabilistic models based on the new information. The present paper investigates a Bayesian approach for the updating of probabilistic models in the context of risk management of natural hazards. Bayesian probabilistic networks are proposed to form the basic tool for the probabilistic representation of knowledge and uncertainties. Updating of models is performed by instantiating the variables of the Bayesian probabilistic networks corresponding to observations from events of natural hazards. This approach, however, necessitates that large Bayesian probabilistic networks can be efficiently handled and for that purpose a compact object based representation of Bayesian probabilistic networks is suggested. The proposed methodology is applied to three illustrative examples considering updating of fragility model parameters. It is illustrated how commonly applied techniques for model updating in natural hazards risk assessments may lead to somewhat biased model parameter estimates. Furthermore, it is shown how available information on hazard intensities as well as on damages of structures can be utilised at the same time for the updating of the fragility model parameters in a consistent and efficient way. © Institution of Engineers Australia, 2009.

Graf, M.; Nishijima, K.

2009-01-01

190

Robotics and artificial intelligence for hazardous environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our technological society, hazardous materials including toxic chemicals, flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances, and biological agents, are used and handled routinely. Each year, many workers who handle these substances are accidently contaminated, in some cases resulting in injury, death, or chronic disabilities. If these hazardous materials could be handled remotely, either with a teleoperated robot (operated by a worker in a safe location) or by an autonomous robot, then human suffering and economic costs of accidental exposures could be dramatically reduced. At present, it is still difficult for commercial robotic technology to completely replace humans involved in performing complex work tasks in hazardous environments. The robotics efforts at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research represent a significant effort at contributing to the advancement of robotics for use in hazardous environments. While this effort is very broad-based, ranging from dextrous manipulation to mobility and integrated sensing, the technical portion of this paper will focus on machine learning and the high-level decision making needed for autonomous robotics

1993-02-11

191

Regulatory barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary federal regulatory programs that influence the development of new technology for hazardous waste are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, also commonly known as Superfund). Two important aspects of RCRA that can create barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation are technology-based waste pre-treatment standards and a cumbersome permitting program. By choosing a technology-based approach to the RCRA land disposal restrictions program, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has simultaneously created tremendous demand for the technologies specified in its regulations, while at the same time significantly reduced incentives for technology innovation that might have otherwise existed. Also, the RCRA hazardous waste permitting process can take years and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The natural tendency of permit writers to be cautious of unproven (i.e., innovative) technology also can create a barrier to deployment of new technologies. EPA has created several permitting innovations, however, to attempt to mitigate this latter barrier. Understanding the constraints of these permitting innovations can be important to the success of hazardous waste technology development programs. 3 refs.

Kuusinen, T.L.; Siegel, M.R.

1991-02-01

192

When is statistical significance not significant?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The article provides a non-technical introduction to the p value statistics. Its main purpose is to help researchers make sense of the appropriate role of the p value statistics in empirical political science research. On methodological grounds, we use replication, simulations and observational data [...] to show when statistical significance is not significant. We argue that: (1) scholars must always graphically analyze their data before interpreting the p value; (2) it is pointless to estimate the p value for non-random samples; (3) the p value is highly affected by the sample size, and (4) it is pointless to estimate the p value when dealing with data on population.

Figueiredo Filho, Dalson Britto; Paranhos, Ranulfo; Rocha, Enivaldo C. da; Batista, Mariana; Silva Jr., José Alexandre da; Santos, Manoel L. Wanderley D.; Marino, Jacira Guiro.

193

Volatile organic migration from hazardous waste sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volatile organics in hazardous waste piles and organic liquid spills generate gaseous vapors that can have a significant negative environmental impact. Present methods for calculating organic vapor migration through soils neglect many important phenomena that influence the magnitude of the migration rate. This paper presents a methodology for predicting organic vapor migration that involves two-phase flow, absorption in soil moisture, and transport by diffusive and advective mechanisms

1985-01-01

194

Liability for hazardous technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liability for hazardous technologies is discussed using the atomic energy law as an example which reveals an individual system with components such as unlimited, absolute liability, financial security and indemnification, and 'deficiency guarantee' by the state in case of nuclear accidents abroad. Following chapters deal with liability under civil law or industrial injuries insurance, the problem of the causality that cannot be proved, and the resulting consequences, and with large-scale damage and transfrontier damage, and the claim for damages. The results of the review of this system are then used to draw conclusions and derive information with regard to handling the liability problems with risks in other fields of technology. Finally, a proposal is discussed that suggests the causality problem to be solved by establishing a fund: Damages could be paid from a fund, with contributions to this fund coming primarily from all potential risk sources and/or the general public. (orig./HSCH)

1988-01-01

195

Landslide Hazard in Georgia  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decades of the XX century, protect the population from geological hazards, to maintain land and safe operation of the engineering facilities has become the most important social - economic, demographic, political and environmental problems for the whole world. Georgia, with its scales of origination of the natural-catastrophic processes (landslide, mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.), their re-occurrence and with the negative results inflicted by these processes to the population, agricultural lands and engineering objects, is one of the most complex mountainous region. The extremely sensitive conditions were conditioned by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Activation of the negative meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic changes and their abnormally frequent occurrence (mostly increased atmospheric precipitations, temperature and humidity); 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. Following the problem urgency, a number of departmental and research institutions have made their operations more intense in the given direction within the limits of their competence. First of all, the activity of the Department of Geology of Georgia (which is at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection), which mapped, identified and cataloged the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and developmental regularities of these processes for tens of years. The increased risk of Geological catastrophes in Georgia first of all is caused by insufficient information between society and responsible persons toward this event. The existed situation needs the base assessment of natural disasters level, the identification of events, to determine their caused reasons, to develop special maps in GIS system, and continuous functioning of geo monitoring researches for develop safety early warning system.

Gaprindashvili, George; Tsereteli, Emil; Gaprindashvili, Merab

2014-05-01

196

Landslide Hazard in Georgia  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decades of the XX century, protect the population from geological hazards, to maintain land and safe operation of the engineering facilities has become the most important social - economic, demographic, political and environmental problems for the whole world. Georgia, with its scales of origination of the natural-catastrophic processes (landslide, mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.), their re-occurrence and with the negative results inflicted by these processes to the population, agricultural lands and engineering objects, is one of the most complex mountainous region. The extremely sensitive conditions were conditioned by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Activation of the negative meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic changes and their abnormally frequent occurrence (mostly increased atmospheric precipitations, temperature and humidity); 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. Following the problem urgency, a number of departmental and research institutions have made their operations more intense in the given direction within the limits of their competence. First of all, the activity of the Department of Geology of Georgia (which is at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection), which mapped, identified and cataloged the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and developmental regularities of these processes for tens of years. The increased risk of Geological catastrophes in Georgia first of all is caused by insufficient information between society and responsible persons toward this event. The existed situation needs the base assessment of natural disasters level, the identification of events, to determine their caused reasons, to develop special maps in GIS system, and continuous functioning of geo monitoring researches for develop safety early warning system.

Gaprindashvili, G.; Tsereteli, E.; Gaprindashvili, M.

2013-12-01

197

SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmentally sound management of hazardous substances is a key challenge before policy makers, regulators, implementers, industry workers, and the affected people. The toxic pollution unleashed in Bhopal, Bichri, Patencheru, Kanpur, and many more such toxic hotspots in India led to the strengthening of legal regime for the "Regulation of Environmental Pollution Caused by Hazardous Substances in India"

Anudeep Kaur

2014-06-01

198

[Rapid experimental rationale for a waste hazard class by cytotoxicity].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies substantiating a classification of waste hazard by the cytotoxicity indices. The authors have established a significant correlation between the substance toxicity values obtained in vivo and in vitro and show it possible to make an approximate forecast of the average lethal concentration of substances by the estimates made on cell cultures. The criteria for toxicological waste hazard, which are adequate to those for the hazards of chemicals by DL50, are given. PMID:18050706

Rusakov, N V; Kriatov, I A; Pirtakhiia, N V; Es'kov, A P; Kaiumov, R I

2007-01-01

199

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of Babol, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Babol, one of big cities in north of Iran. Many destructive earthquakes happened in Iran in the last centuries. It comes from historical references that at least many times; Babol has been destroyed by catastrophic earthquakes. In this paper, the peak horizontal ground acceleration over the bedrock (PGA is calculated by a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA. For this reason, at first, a collected catalogue, containing both historical and instrumental events that occurred in a radius of 200 km of Babol city and covering the period from 874 to 2004 have been gathered. Then, seismic sources are modeled and recur¬rence relationship is established. After elimination of the aftershocks and foreshocks, the main earthquakes were taken into consideration to calculate the seismic parameters (SP by Kijko method. The calculations were performed using the logic tree method and four weighted attenuation relationships Ghodrati, 0.35, Khademi, 0.25, Ambraseys and Simpson, 0.2, and Sarma and Srbulov, 0.2. Seismic hazard assessment is then carried out for 8 horizontal by 7 vertical lines grid points using SEISRISK III. Finally, two seismic hazard maps of the studied area based on Peak Horizontal Ground Acceleration (PGA over bedrock for 2 and 10% probability of ex¬ceedance in one life cycles of 50 year are presented. These calculations have been performed by the Poisson distribution of two hazard levels. The results showed that the PGA ranges from 0.32 to 0.33 g for a return period of 475 years and from 0.507 to 0.527 g for a return period of 2475 years. Since population is very dense in Babol and vulnerability of buildings is high, the risk of future earthquakes will be very significant.

Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

2011-01-01

200

SRL process hazards review manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objective of the Process Hazards Management Program is to provide a regular, systematic review of each process at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to eliminate injuries and to minimize property damage resulting from process hazards of catastrophic potential. Management effort is directed, through the Du Pont Safety Program, toward those controls and practices that ensure this objective. The Process Hazards Management Program provides an additional dimension to further ensure the health and safety of employees and the public. Du Pont has concluded that an organized approach is essential to obtain an effective and efficient process hazards review. The intent of this manual is to provide guidance in creating such an organized approach to performing process hazards reviews on a continuing basis.

1980-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Seismic hazard assessment of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

1999-06-01

202

SRL process hazards review manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal objective of the Process Hazards Management Program is to provide a regular, systematic review of each process at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to eliminate injuries and to minimize property damage resulting from process hazards of catastrophic potential. Management effort is directed, through the Du Pont Safety Program, toward those controls and practices that ensure this objective. The Process Hazards Management Program provides an additional dimension to further ensure the health and safety of employees and the public. Du Pont has concluded that an organized approach is essential to obtain an effective and efficient process hazards review. The intent of this manual is to provide guidance in creating such an organized approach to performing process hazards reviews on a continuing basis

1980-01-01

203

Linking emerging hazardous waste technologies with the electronic information era  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In looking to the future and the development of new approaches or strategies for managing hazardous waste, it is important to understand and appreciate the factors that have contributed to current successful approaches. In the United States, several events in the last two decades have had a significant impact in advancing remediation of hazardous waste, including environmental legislation, legislative reforms on licensing federally funded research, and electronic transfer of information. Similar activities also have occurred on a global level. While each of these areas is significant, the electronic exchange of information has no national boundaries and has become an active part of major hazardous waste research and management programs. It is important to realize that any group or society that is developing a comprehensive program in hazardous waste management should be able to take advantage of this advanced approach in the dissemination of information. 6 refs., 1 tab.

Anderson, B.E.; Suk, W.A. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Blackard, B. [Technology Planning and Management Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

1996-12-31

204

Torsion of the greater omentum with inguinal hernia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Torsion of the greater omentum is an uncommon cause of acute abdomen, often diagnosed only intraoperatively. We report a 30-year-old man with torsion of the greater omentum in association with inguinal hernia, diagnosed on CT scan and managed conservatively. PMID:14658542

Xavier, Saju; John, Priya

2003-01-01

205

Utilization of wind energy in Greater Hannover - an introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt with energy and ecopolitical questions since the Eighties, the utilization of regenerative energy sources has remained a step-child for a long time. According to an expertise, wind energy has gained the greatest importance for Greater Hanover, since the potential is very high and the operational results can be assessed as favorable. (BWI)

1993-02-01

206

Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action  

Science.gov (United States)

Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides insights…

Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

207

Preliminary Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Canadian Coastlines  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a preliminary probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment of Canadian coastlines from local and far-field, earthquake and large landslide sources. Our multifaceted analysis is based on published historical, paleotsunami and paleoseismic data, modelling, and empirical relations between fault area, earthquake magnitude and tsunami runup. We consider geological sources with known tsunami impacts on Canadian coasts (e.g., Cascadia and other Pacific subduction zones; the 1755 Lisbon tsunami source; Atlantic continental slope failures) as well as potential sources with previously unknown impact (e.g., Explorer plate subduction; Caribbean subduction zones; crustal faults). The cumulative estimated tsunami hazard for potentially damaging runup (? 1.5 m) of the outer Canadian Pacific coastline is ~40-80% in 50 y, respectively one and two orders of magnitude greater than the outer Atlantic (~1-15%) and the Arctic (River delta requires further study. We highlight areas susceptible to locally-damaging landslide-generated tsunamis, but do not quantify the hazard.

Leonard, L. J.; Rogers, G. C.; Mazzotti, S.

2012-12-01

208

The value of historical documents for hazard zone mapping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The assessment of historical data of small mountain torrents in Alpine catchment areas has shown a significant difference between the results of a regular hazard zone mapping and a thorough historical analysis. The Gemsbach in the Ostrach valley near Hinterstein (Municipality of Hindelang, southern Bavaria/Germany) serves, among others, as an example. A 'traditional' hazard zone for the Gemsbach has been mapped in the 1990s. The oldest event included in the analysis was the flood of 1954. But...

Barnikel, F.

2004-01-01

209

Process development accomplishments: Waste and hazard minimization, FY 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes significant technical accomplishments of the Mound Waste and Hazard Minimization Program for FY 1991. The accomplishments are in one of eight major areas: environmentally responsive cleaning program; nonhalogenated solvent trials; substitutes for volatile organic compounds; hazardous material exposure minimization; nonhazardous plating development; explosive processing waste reduction; tritium capture without conversion to water; and robotic assembly. Program costs have been higher than planned.

Homan, D.A.

1991-11-04

210

Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste...

Barnes, Richard L.

2011-01-01

211

Bayesian Analysis of Semiparametric Proportional Hazards Models.  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider the usual proportional hazards model in the case where the baseline hazard, the covariate link and the covariate coefficients are all unknown. Both the baseline hazard and the covariate link are monotone functions and are characterized nonpara...

A. E. Gelfand B. K. Mallick

1994-01-01

212

Incineration of hazardous waste: a critical review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review examines the current state of knowledge regarding hazardous waste incineration in an effort to put these technological and environmental issues into perspective. Over the last ten years, concern over improper disposal practices of the past has manifested itself in the passage of a series of federal and state-level hazardous waste clean-up and control statutes of unprecedented scope. The impact of these various statutes will be a significant modification of waste management practices. The more traditional and lowest cost methods of direct landfilling, storage in surface impoundments and deep-well injection will be replaced, in large measure, by waste minimization at the source of generation, waste reuse, physical/chemical/biological treatment, incineration and chemical stabilization/solidification methods. Of all the terminal treatment technologies, properly-designed incineration systems are capable of the highest overall degree of destruction and control for the broadest range of hazardous waste streams. Substantial design and operational experience exists and a wide variety of commercial systems are available. Consequently, significant growth is anticipated in the use of incineration and other thermal destruction methods.

Oppelt, E.T.

1987-05-01

213

Risk management at hazardous waste sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) provided the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with additional resources and direction for the identification, evaluation, and remediation of hazardous waste sites in the United States. SARA established more stringent requirements for the Superfund program, both in terms of the pace of the program and the types of remedial alternatives selected. The central requirement is that remedial alternatives be protective of public health and the environment'' and significantly and permanently'' reduce the toxicity, mobility, or volume of contaminants. The mandate also requires that potential risk be considered in the decision-making process. This document discusses risk management at hazardous waste sites. Topics include selection of sites for placement on the National Priority List, risk assessment and the decision process, risk reduction and remedial alternative selection, and aquifer restoration. 10 refs., 2 figs.

Travis, C.C.; Doty, C.B.

1990-01-01

214

Radioactivity in mushrooms: a health hazard?  

Science.gov (United States)

Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer. Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms, which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms, almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it. Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored. PMID:24518310

Guillén, J; Baeza, A

2014-07-01

215

An overview of external hazard assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four external hazards are discussed: earthquakes, aircraft crashes, fires, and gas cloud explosions. Historically the assessments have been hampered by different factors. For earthquakes, the difficulty lies in estimating the probability of a damaging earthquake in a seismically 'passive' region of the earth's surface. For aircraft crashes, the main uncertainty lies in assessing the effect on the functioning of the plant of an aircraft crash. For fires and gas cloud explosions, both the physics and the assessment methodology were not well developed; this has to a large extent been rectified and realistic risk assessments are feasible. The assessment of external hazards fits easily into the framework of probabilistic methods. Its use may result in a significant feedback from PRA to the design process; such a coupling, in a major way, would be a new departure. (author)

1985-01-01

216

Geologic hazards of the Wasatch Front, Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of recent and ongoing research into six significant geologic hazards of the Wasatch Front region will be summarized on this field trip, including: (1) surface fault rupture on the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault zone; (2) seismic site response in the Salt Lake Valley, including ground shaking and liquefaction; (3) liquefaction-induced landsliding at the Farmington Siding landslide complex; (4) lake flooding along the shores of Great Salt Lake; (5) debris-flow deposition on alluvial fans at the base of the Wasatch Range; and (6) landsliding in the Ogden area. The trip will provide an opportunity to discuss the scientific, engineering, and administrative aspects involved in geologic-hazard evaluation in this rapidly growing region.

Hylland, M. D.; Black, B. D.; Lowe, M.

1997-01-01

217

Geological hazards investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation on geologic hazard was carried out in the study area, which includes the topographic maps of Kumsan, Iwon, Youngdong, Kwanki and Boun, all at a scale of 1:50,000 and encompasses approximately 3,060 km{sup 2}, to provide information on many aspects of slope stability. In the Boun area, about 160 landslides occurred due to the heavy rainfall on August 12, 1998, not only killing lives but also damaging properties. According to the available information, it was found out that the most common type of landslides in the study area was debris flow induced by heavy rainfall during the rainy season. It was also found out that the flows mostly occurred in the slopes having an angle between 30-45 deg. Based on the results of physical and direct shear tests on disturbed and undisturbed samples, the soils occurring in the landslide areas were generally classified as SP-SM and SM. The shear strength was determined at 0-5 kPa(Cohesion) and 22-35 deg.(internal friction angle). (author). 23 refs., 15 tabs., 18 figs.

Han, Dae Suk; Yu, Il Hyon; Kim, Kyeong Su; Choi, Young Sup; Lee, Sa Ro [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

1998-12-01

218

On the radon hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief survey is presented, covering the occurrence of radon and its daughter products in the environment, their health hazard, provisions to reduce the concentration of radon in dwellings, and the role of physics in this. Radon and its progeny contribute about 55% to the exposure of man to ionizing radiation, which is about 2.4 mSv/yr worldwide and about 3 mSv/yr in the Czech Republic. The average equilibrium volume activity of radon and its short-lived daughters in Czech dwellings is at the level of 50 Bq/m3, in air the activity lies within 1 to 10 Bq/m3. Antiradon provisions should be made where radon concentration exceeds 200 Bq/m3, corresponding roughly to the effective dose of 15 mSv per year. It is estimated that about 10% lung cancer cases are somehow related to radon, smoking being the principal factor causing this disease. It is not clear whether a limit exists below which inhalation of radon is harmless or even beneficial. Physics is engaged in the radon topic with respect to its measurement and antiradon provisions. The Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering in Prague is involved in a project entitled ''New methods for the determination of radon and its daughter products in air''. (P.A.). 2 figs., 5 refs

1995-01-01

219

Hazard communication and hazardous waste management: A university approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In general, a university is subject to the same environmental laws as industry. The 1980 decade has seen a revolution in changes in, and additions to, these laws. The paper describes how a medium-sized university, which is a Small Quantity Generator, has complied with the Hazard Communication Laws and the Hazardous Waste Regulations. An administrative structure is described which enables the dissemination of operating procedures to all persons who handle hazardous materials and generate waste. A program of waste minimization, initial cleanup and a computer-aided inventory of hazardous material flow through the system is detailed. It is hoped that the paper will promote discussion on this important aspect of environmental auditing

1991-04-24

220

Natural Hazards Monitoring and Risk Mitigation  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Principles of Monitoring of Hazardous Geodynamic and Glaciohydrometeorological Processes in the Areas of Strategically Important for Economics of Georgia Objects and Recommendations on Hazard Mitigation

 
 
 
 
221

Recruitment advantage of large seeds is greater in shaded habitats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large seeds are assumed to have higher probability of successful recruitment than small seeds. This is because larger seeds give rise to larger seedlings and larger seedlings better withstand environmental hazards like deep shade and drought. Biotic and abiotic limitations to seedling growth and survival, and conversely availability of safe sites for recruitment, vary along environmental gradients and between habitat types. Thus, the value to plant species of possessing large seeds may differ...

Bruun, Hans Henrik; Ten Brink, Dirk-jan

2008-01-01

222

Safe Handling of Hazardous Drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recommendations for the safe handling of hazardous drugs have been available for more than twenty years. Evidence for continued risk of occupational exposure is abundant; however, nurses' use of the recommended precautions is not universal. This may be related to a lack of information or to a lack of serious concern for the potential hazards. This article includes a discussion of current issues related to handling hazardous drugs in the workplace and a review of the history of safe handling guidelines, current recommendations, and barriers to implementing guidelines in health care settings.

Polovich, M

2004-09-01

223

Carcinogenic hazards in aquatic ecosystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical characterization of contaminants in bottom sediments from the Great Lakes in western New York (Lake Erie) was carried out by applying reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to fractions derived by routine organic extraction and separation methods. A comparison of the chromatograms from the sediments with those from analogous fractions isolated from tissue samples of aquatic biota showed correlations in the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition. In the HPLC analysis of fractions isolated from sediment, Tubifex worms, aquatic snails, and fish tissue samples clearly indicated a characteristic PAH ''fingerprint' in all segments of the aquatic food chain. The patterns of horizontal distribution of the relative PAH levels indicated a point source of the pollution in the Buffalo River. Feral fish population samples showed several kinds of lesions that appear to be neoplasms. The histology of these lesions is described, and the significance of the data in terms of a possible human health hazard is discussed.

Black, J.J.

1979-01-01

224

HAPs-Rx: Precombustion Removal of Hazardous Air Pollutant Precursors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CQ Inc. and its project team members--Howard University, PrepTech Inc., Fossil Fuel Sciences, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and industry advisors--are applying mature coal cleaning and scientific principles to the new purpose of removing potentially hazardous air pollutants from coal. The team uniquely combines mineral processing, chemical engineering, and geochemical expertise. This project meets more than 11 goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Energy Strategy, and the 1993 Climate Change Action Plan. During this project: (1) Equations were developed to predict the concentration of trace elements in as-mined and cleaned coals. These equations, which address both conventional and advanced cleaning processes, can be used to increase the removal of hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPs) by existing cleaning plants and to improve the design of new cleaning plants. (2) A promising chemical method of removing mercury and other HAPs was developed. At bench-scale, mercury reductions of over 50 percent were achieved on coal that had already been cleaned by froth flotation. The processing cost of this technology is projected to be less than $3.00 per ton ($3.30 per tonne). (3) Projections were made of the average trace element concentration in cleaning plant solid waste streams from individual states. Average concentrations were found to be highly variable. (4) A significantly improved understanding of how trace elements occur in coal was gained, primarily through work at the USGS during the first systematic development of semiquantitative data for mode of occurrence. In addition, significant improvement was made in the laboratory protocol for mode of occurrence determination. (5) Team members developed a high-quality trace element washability database. For example, the poorest mass balance closure for the uncrushed size and washability data for mercury on all four coals is 8.44 percent and the best is 0.46 percent. This indicates an extremely high level of reproducibility of the data. In addition, a series of ''round-robin'' tests involving various laboratories was performed to assure analytical accuracy. (6) A comparison of the cost of lowering mercury emissions through the use of coal cleaning technologies versus the use of post-combustion control methods such as activated carbon injection indicates that, in many cases, coal cleaning may prove to be the lower-cost option. The most significant disadvantage for using coal cleaning for control of mercury emissions is that a reduction of 90 percent or greater from as-fired coal has not yet been demonstrated, even at laboratory-scale.

David J. Akers; Clifford E. Raleigh

1998-03-16

225

Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

1993-10-01

226

Hazardous waste site investigations: Towards better decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Life Sciences Symposia series is conducted under the Associate Director for Environmental, Life, and Social Sciences. This series began in 1978 and it provides a forum to discuss subjects of interest to the US Department of Energy, the scientific community, and the public. The Tenth ORNL Life Sciences Symposium focused on key aspects of measurements made at hazardous waste sites and their impact on the decision-making process. In particular, the symposium was concerned with how field measurements could be improved to provide greater quality and quantity of data at less cost and in less time. Presentations and papers presented in this publication provide a critical review of the current status in their respective areas of interest. An effort has been made to identify existing deficiencies, future directions, and needed research. Experts were brought together to present data on the state-of-the-art hazardous waste site investigations in four major areas: Individual projects are processed separately for the databases

1990-05-21

227

Hamburger hazards and emotions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. PMID:24656947

Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

2014-07-01

228

Hamburger hazards and emotions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior.With this study we aim to investigate whether consumersâ?? willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done,well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating.We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumerâ??s willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumerâ??s likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies.

Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin

2014-01-01

229

Natural Hazard Assessment and Communication in the Central United States  

Science.gov (United States)

In the central United States, natural hazards, such as floods, tornados, ice storms, droughts, and earthquakes, result in significant damages and losses of life every year. For example, the February 5-6, 2008 tornado touched down in nine states (Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee), killing 57, injuring 350, and causing more than 1.0 billion in damages. The January 2009 ice storm struck Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, and West Virginia, killing 36 and causing more than 1.0 billion in damages. It is a great challenge for the society to develop an effective policy for mitigating these natural hazards in the central United States. However, the development of an effective policy starts with a good assessment of the natural hazards. Scientists play a key role in assessing the natural hazards. Therefore, scientists play an important role in the development of an effective policy for the natural hazard mitigation. It is critical for scientists to clearly define, quantify, and communicate the hazard assessments, including the associated uncertainties which are a key factor in policy decision making, to end-users. Otherwise, end-users will have difficulty understanding and using the information provided. For example, ground motion hazard maps with 2, 5, and 10 percent probabilities of exceedance (PE) in 50 years in the central United States have been produced for seismic hazard mitigation purpose. End-users have difficulty understanding and using the maps, however, which has led to either indecision or ineffective policy for seismic hazard mitigation in many communities in the central United States.

Wang, Z.; Lynch, M. J.

2009-12-01

230

COPD Patients Face Greater Risk of Heart Failure, Study Says  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. COPD Patients Face Greater Risk of Heart Failure, Study ... 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages African American Health COPD Heart Failure WEDNESDAY, May 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

231

Conservation assessment of greater sage-grouse and sagebrush habitats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An unbiased assessment from an ecological perspective of the current status and the potential factors that influenced the long-term conservation of greater sage-grouse populations and the sagebrush ecosystems on which they depend.

2004-01-01

232

MGR External Events Hazards Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

1999-01-01

233

MGR External Events Hazards Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

L. Booth

1999-11-06

234

Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being shipped, and will otherwise maintain it as nearly as possible in its original condition.The recommendations provided are short-term solutions to the problems of shipping evidence, and have considered only currently commercially available containers. These containers may not be appropriate for all cases. Design, testing, and certification of new transportation containers would be necessary to provide a container appropriate for all cases.Table 1 provides a summary of the recommendations for each class of hazardous material.Table 1: Summary of RecommendationsContainerCost1-quart paint can with ArmlockTM seal ringLabelMaster(r)%242.90 eachHazard Class 3, 4, 5, 8, or 9 Small ContainersTC Hazardous Material Transport ContainerCurrently in Use4 DraftDraftDraftTable 1: Summary of Recommendations (continued)ContainerCost55-gallon open or closed-head steel drumsAll-Pak, Inc.%2458.28 - %2473.62 eachHazard Class 3, 4, 5, 8, or 9 Large Containers95-gallon poly overpack LabelMaster(r)%24194.50 each1-liter glass container with plastic coatingLabelMaster(r)%243.35 - %243.70 eachHazard Class 6 Division 6.1 Poisonous by Inhalation (PIH) Small ContainersTC Hazardous Material Transport ContainerCurrently in Use20 to 55-gallon PIH overpacksLabelMaster(r)%24142.50 - %24170.50 eachHazard Class 6 Division 6.1 Poisonous by Inhalation (PIH) Large Containers65 to 95-gallon poly overpacksLabelMaster(r)%24163.30 - %24194.50 each1-liter transparent containerCurrently in UseHazard Class 6 Division 6.2 Infectious Material Small ContainersInfectious Substance ShipperSource Packaging of NE, Inc.%24336.00 eachNone Commercially AvailableN/AHazard Class 6 Division 6.2 Infectious Material Large ContainersNone Commercially Available N/A5

Osborn, Douglas.

2005-06-01

235

Natural Hazards - A National Threat  

Science.gov (United States)

The USGS Role in Reducing Disaster Losses -- In the United States each year, natural hazards cause hundreds of deaths and cost billions of dollars in disaster aid, disruption of commerce, and destruction of homes and critical infrastructure. Although the number of lives lost to natural hazards each year generally has declined, the economic cost of major disaster response and recovery continues to rise. Each decade, property damage from natural hazards events doubles or triples. The United States is second only to Japan in economic damages resulting from natural disasters. A major goal of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to reduce the vulnerability of the people and areas most at risk from natural hazards. Working with partners throughout all sectors of society, the USGS provides information, products, and knowledge to help build more resilient communities.

Geological Survey, U.S.

2007-01-01

236

Toxic hazards of underground excavation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

1982-09-01

237

Toxic hazards of underground excavation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

1982-01-01

238

Exporting hazards to developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources. PMID:10050169

Menkes, D B

1998-01-01

239

WTO and the Greater China: Economic integration and dispute resolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book illustrates how the constitutional feature of the WTO – allowing separate customs territories to become a Member – brings about the coexistence of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau (the Greater China) in the WTO. It examines the economic integration and the dispute settlement systems within Greater China. It explores their interactions within the multilateral WTO framework, their practices under the new genre of FTA, and their policies in adopting trade defence measures against...

Wu, Chien-huei

2012-01-01

240

Tectonics of the Eastern Greater Caucasus in Azerbaijan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Le Grand Caucase est la plus haute et la plus longue chaîne de montagne en Europe. Elle est le résultat de l’inversion suite à la collision de la plaque arabique et eurasienne d’un ancien bassin d’arrière arc mésozoïque, le « Greater Caucasus Basin ». La formation de l’actuel Grand Caucase a commencé au début du Tertiaire avec une accélération des mouvements au Pliocène-Pléistocène. Elle est encore active actuellement. Le Grand Caucase Oriental (EGC : « Eastern Greater...

Bochud, Martin; Mosar, Jon

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Prevalence of strong bottom currents in the greater Agulhas system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deep current meter data and output from two high-resolution global ocean circulation models are used to determine the prevalence and location of strong bottom currents in the greater Agulhas Current system. The two models and current meter data are remarkably consistent, showing that benthic storms, with bottom currents greater than 0.2 m s(-1), occur throughout the Agulhas retroflection region south of Africa more than 20% of the time. Furthermore, beneath the mean Agulhas Current core and t...

Cronin, Meghan F.; Tozuka, Tomoki; Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Beal, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

242

Hemangiopericytoma of greater omentum presenting as a huge abdominal lump  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hemangiopericytoma is a rare neoplasm that can occur in any part of the human body, but it rarely develops in the greater omentum. We report a case of a patient who presented with a huge abdominal lump. At laparotomy, a huge vascular tumor, which was observed originating from the greater omentum, was resected. Histopathology investigation revealed this tumor as a benign hemangiopericytoma with a malignant potential.

2008-01-01

243

Hazard Assessments of Manufactured Nanomaterials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: It has been difficult to make reliable hazard assessments of manufactured nanomaterials, because the nanomaterials form large agglomerations in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Objective: A project by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan has succeeded in ensuring the stability of dispersion (nanoscale installation studies overseas, and together with the findings made in the NEDO project, and also assess the hazards presented by manufactured nanoparticles. PMID:20543525

Morimoto, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Shinohara, Naohido; Myojo, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Isamu; Nakanishi, Junko

2010-06-10

244

Rock Physics and Natural Hazards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natural hazards events such as earthquakes or volcanic eruptions involve activation of coupled thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical processes in rocks. The present book assembles unpublished contributions to the 7th Euro-Conference on Rock Physics and Geomechanics, held in 2007 in Erice, Italy. It presents new laboratory data, theoretical and numerical rock physics models and field observations relevant to the study of natural hazards. In particular, several papers are devoted to rock failure an...

Vinciguerra, Sergio Carmelo

2009-01-01

245

Hazardous healthcare waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazardous healthcare waste has become an environmental concern for many developing countries including the Kingdom of Bahrain. There have been several significant obstacles facing the Kingdom in dealing with this issue including; limited documentation regarding generation, handling, management, and disposal of waste. This in turn hinders efforts to plan better healthcare waste management. In this paper, hazardous waste management status in the Kingdom has been investigated through an extensive survey carried out on selected public and private healthcare premises. Hazardous waste management practices including: waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal were determined. The results of this study along with key findings are discussed and summarized. In addition; several effective recommendations and improvements of hazardous waste management are suggested.

2009-08-01

246

Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

2005-01-01

247

Arthroscopic findings of coexisting lesions with greater tuberosity fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proximal humerus fractures comprise approximately 5% of all fractures, with isolated greater tuberosity fractures accounting for approximately 20% of proximal humerus fractures. Although performing shoulder arthroscopy in situations including a fracture is technically demanding, it allows surgeons the opportunity to identify and treat other coexisting lesions that could have otherwise been missed. The incidence of these pathologies in combination with greater tuberosity fractures has not been established. This study aimed to identify the various types of pathologies that may coexist with greater tuberosity fractures but not be detected before fixation. Displaced 2-part greater tuberosity fractures were treated arthroscopically in the authors' department. All patients initially underwent diagnostic arthroscopy during which other coexisting pathologies were detected and assessed, including rotator cuff tears, labral tears (Bankart or superior labral anterior posterior lesions), or long head of the biceps pathologies. Twenty-four patients underwent arthroscopic (n=10) or arthroscopic-assisted (n=14) greater tuberosity reduction and fixation. Thirteen (54.2%) fragments were fully displaced. Four (16.7%) patients had fracture dislocation of the glenohumeral joint. The concomitant soft-tissue pathologies were identified and treated arthroscopically in 22 (92%) patients. Arthroscopic evaluation before greater tuberosity fracture fixation revealed a high percentage of concomitant soft tissue pathologies. These pathologies may be overlooked otherwise, but they are easily detected arthroscopically, enabling their treatment during the same procedure. PMID:24762155

Maman, Eran; Dolkart, Oleg; Chechik, Ofir; Amar, Eyal; Rak, Ofer; Rath, Ehud; Mozes, Gavriel

2014-03-01

248

Chrome-bearing hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

HSWA (Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments) established statutory deadlines for prohibition of land disposal of three categories of waste which EPA has labeled the first-third, second-third, and third-third. Effective November 8, 1986, the statute prohibits the land disposal (except by deep-well injection) of dioxin-containing hazardous wastes and solvent-containing hazardous wastes (first-third rule wastes). Effective July 8, 1987, the statue prohibits disposal (except deep-well injection) for the second-third listing of hazardous wastes, called the California list. The third-third listing of hazardous wastes includes other scheduled and newly identified wastes considered hazardous under 400 CFR, 268.12. Third-third wastes can be disposed if respective treatment standards established by EPA are met. The focus of this paper is one particular waste on the third-third list, that is, land disposal restrictions for D007 chrome waste. The 200-plus page Final Rule for third-third waste was approved by EPA May 8, 1990, and was published in the June 1, 1990, Federal Register.

Marvin, C.G. (Refractories Inst., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1993-06-01

249

Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

1990-01-01

250

Shallow landslide hazard map of Seattle, Washington  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslides, particularly debris flows, have long been a significant cause of damage and destruction to people and property in the Puget Sound region. Following the years of 1996 and 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency designated Seattle as a “Project Impact” city with the goal of encouraging the city to become more disaster resistant to landslides and other natural hazards. A major recommendation of the Project Impact council was that the city and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborate to produce a landslide hazard map. An exceptional data set archived by the city containing more than 100 yr of landslide data from severe storm events allowed comparison of actual landslide locations with those predicted by slope-stability modeling. We used an infinite-slope analysis, which models slope segments as rigid friction blocks, to estimate the susceptibility of slopes to debris flows, which are water-laden slurries that can form from shallow failures of soil and weathered bedrock and can travel at high velocities down steep slopes. Data used for the analysis consisted of a digital slope map derived from recent light detection and ranging (LiDAR) imagery of Seattle, recent digital geologic mapping of the city, and shear-strength test data for the geologic units found in the surrounding area. The combination of these data layers within a geographic information system (GIS) platform allowed us to create a shallow landslide hazard map for Seattle.

Harp, Edwin L.; Michael, John A.; Laprade, William T.

2008-01-01

251

Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Kendrick, C.M.

1990-12-01

252

Hazards Analysis Report Addendum Buildign 518/518A Industrial Gases & Chemtrack Receiving & Barcoding Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the Hazards Analysis Report (HAR) Addendum for Buildings 518 and 518A. In summary, the description of the facility and the operations given in the 1995 PHA are the same as the present in this year 2000. The hazards description also remains the same. The hazards analysis in this HAR Addendum is different in that it needs to be compared to operations routinely ''performed'' by the public. The HAR Addendum characterizes the level of intrinsic potential hazards associated with a facility and provides the basis for hazard classification. The hazard classification determines the level of safety documentation required and the DOE order governing the safety analysis. The hazard classification also determines the level of review and approval required for the safety analysis. This facility does not contain any safety class systems or systems important to safety as defined in Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3009-94. The hazards of primary concern associated with B518 and B518A are chemical in nature. The hazard classification is determined by comparing facility inventories of chemicals with threshold values for the various hazard classification levels. In this way, the hazard level of the facility can be ascertained. The most significant hazards that could affect people in the local area of B518 and B518A, elsewhere on the LLNL site, and off site, are associated with hazardous and toxic materials. These hazards are the focus of this report and are the basis for the facility hazard classification.

Hickman, R D

2000-02-04

253

Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards

2008-11-01

254

On the Statistical Significance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A definition for the statistical significance by constructing a correlation between the normal distribution integral probability and the p-value observed in an experiment is proposed, which is suitable for both counting experiment and continuous test statistics.

Zhu, Yongsheng

2005-01-01

255

Significant Water Management Issues  

...essential because these will determine what will be incorporated into the...A link to the NS SHARE Facilitators Report on Significant Water...independent facilitators through the NS SHARE project. As well as clarifying...

256

Streambank erosion hazard mapping: concepts, methodology and application on the Venoge River (Switzerland)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streambank erosion hazard mapping has received much less attention than flood inundation mapping in the past due to the complexity of the task as well as bank protection works that have reduced bank erosion and unfortunately, the ecological functions of our watercourses at the same time. Damages due to streambank erosion in some flooding contexts are greater than the flood water damages (Loat and Petrasheck, 1997). For these reasons, streambank erosion hazard mapping should be an integral par...

Beck, John Raymond

2006-01-01

257

Hazard-consistent response spectra in the Region of Murcia (Southeast Spain): comparison to earthquake-resistant provisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hazard-consistent ground-motion characterisations of three representative sites located in the Region of Murcia (southeast Spain) are presented. This is the area where the last three damaging events in Spain occurred and there is a significant amount of data for comparing them with seismic hazard estimates and earthquake-resistant provisions. Results of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis are used to derive uniform hazard spectra (UHS) for the 475-year return period, on rock and soil cond...

Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Benito Oterino, Belen; Garcia Mayordomo, Julian

2008-01-01

258

Influence of affective states on comprehension and hazard perception of warning pictorials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of positive and negative affective states on comprehension and hazard perception of warning pictorials. The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) was used to manipulate the affective states of sixty male undergraduate and graduate student participants. We used sixteen standard industrial warning pictorials, which were representative of a variety of industries, to assess changes in comprehension and hazard perception. Participants in the positive affect condition perceived greater hazards from the warning signs than those in the neutral affect condition or the negative affect condition. Post-hoc analyses confirmed this finding. We discuss implications for warning pictorials and future research. PMID:24045098

Jiamsanguanwong, Arisara; Umemuro, Hiroyuki

2014-09-01

259

Significant lexical relationships  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

260

Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A demonstration Greater Confinement Disposal facility, consisting of twenty GCD boreholes, began accepting solid low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant in 1984. Three of the boreholes have been filled with the higher activity fraction of SRP solid waste. They have been stabilized with grout to prevent subsidence and reduce water infiltration. Closure will take place when all twenty boreholes have been filled. A Greater Confinement Disposal trench project is underway, with construction scheduled to begin in November 1985. Trench volume will be 10,000 cubic feet. 2 figs

1985-09-10

 
 
 
 
261

Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A demonstration Greater Confinement Disposal facility, consisting of twenty GCD boreholes, began accepting solid low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River plant in 1984. Three of the boreholes have been filled with the higher activity fraction of SRP solid waste. They have been stabilized with grout to prevent subsidence and reduce water infiltration. Closure will take place when all twenty boreholes have been filled. A Greater Confinement Disposal trench project is underway, with construction scheduled to begin in November 1985. Trench volume will be 100,000 cubic feet

1986-02-01

262

Personnel hazards from medical electron accelerator photoneutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For medical accelerators, neutron penetration through the room entry door is the major personnel hazard. Most therapy accelerator rooms are designed with at least a rudimentary maze to avoid the use of massive doors. Often, however, the maze may be similar to those shown in scale outline drawings of some medical electron accelerator rooms where the authors have made neutron measurements outside the doors which were of different thicknesses and compositions. The results are tabulated. It should be noted that there can be significant dose equivalents (H) at the door when a maze is inadequate, and that all three components - fast neutron, thermal neutron, and neutron capture ? rays - can be equally important

1980-03-14

263

Innovative technologies for the treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes incur significant costs for Department of Energy (DOE) installations. These wastes must be managed under strict environmental controls and regulations to prevent the possibility of migration of hazardous materials to the biosphere. Through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program, the DOE is seeking to develop innovative ways of improving current treatment technologies to eliminate the hazardous components of wastes, reduce waste management costs, and minimize the volume requiring disposal as hazardous or mixed waste. Sponsored projects progress from research and development to field demonstration. Among the innovative technologies under development are supercritical water oxidation of hazardous chemicals, microwave-assisted destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons, paramagnetic separation of metals from waste, detoxification and reclamation of waste acid, nitrate destruction through calcination, treatment/disposal of reactive metals, and methodologies for encapsulation. Technologies at a demonstration phase include detoxification of mixed waste sludge, microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil, and the remediation process for a hydrocarbon spill. 14 refs

1988-05-16

264

Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

1994-07-01

265

Seismic hazard in the design of oil and gas pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Criteria that are adopted in earthquake resistant design of pipelines and gas lines have to take into account seismic movements and seismic generated forces that are of significantly high probability level of appearance along the length of pipeline. A choice of criteria has to include an acceptable level of seismic hazard, while design criteria should be calculated. Seismic hazard is defined as a part of natural hazard and means probability of appearance of earthquake of corresponding characteristics in certain time and place. For design needs and calculation of influences caused by seismic forces the most important is seismic hazard of maximal horizontal acceleration due to ground vibration during earthquake. The methodology of seismic hazard calculation as base for micro seismic zoning is presented in the paper. It is shown calculation of seismic hazard of maximal horizontal acceleration due to ground vibration that is applied for 985 points at the territory of Republic of Serbia, based on which maps for return periods of 50 and 200 years are drawn.

Zdravkovi? Slavko

2011-01-01

266

Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories' operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment

1994-01-01

267

Flood hazard in Hungary: a re-assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Some decades ago the concept of flood hazard in the Carpathian Basin was interpreted solely as riverine flood hazard, mostly restricted to the Tisza and Danube Rivers, and was closely associated with the impacts of river flow regulation in the second half of the 19th century. Recent assessments, however, allow us to outline a more diverse picture. Climate change is predicted to bring about both an increase in the frequency of droughts and excessive rainfall events, resulting in irregulaties in the water regimes of rivers in Hungary. Excess water hazard from raised groundwater levels is found to affect much larger areas than previously thought. Recent strongly localized cloudbursts, point to the increasing significance of flash floods.Riverine flooding and excess water hazard are more common in lowlands, whereas flash flood hazards are primarily, but not exclusively, affect the mountainous and hilly regions of the country. This paper intends to assess the relative importance of the three types of inundation hazard analyzed and to illustrate their overall spatial occurrences by microregions on a map series.

Lóczy, Dénes

2010-12-01

268

External hazards. In focus after the Fukushima accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International experience has shown that external hazards can be safety significant contributors to the risk of industrial plants with a high potential of damage to the environment; this has become evident after the Fukushima accident. As a consequence main focus has been set on adequate design measures against external hazards and appropriate assessment methods. Possible methods to analyse existing plants systematically regarding the adequacy of their existing protection equipment against hazards can be deterministic as well as probabilistic. On international level, new recommendations regarding external hazards are recently issued. In that context, in particular earthquakes and flooding scenarios have been re-evaluated to some extent. Also in Germany, a revised guideline on probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) and corresponding technical documents are issued in 2005 addressing external hazards. As a reaction to the accidents in Japan in March 2011, the German Reactor Safety Commission has issued a catalogue of requirements for plant-specific reviews of German nuclear power plants, and the status of the plants have been evaluated with respect to these requirements. The results of these investigations have been the basis for the German report in the frame of the European stress tests; the results with respect to natural external hazards are presented. (orig.)

Krauss, Matias; Berg, Heinz-Peter [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

2013-05-15

269

Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

Eicher, R.W.

1992-12-01

270

Constraints on the Rates and Timing of Exhumation of the Greater Caucasus from Low- Temperature Thermochronology  

Science.gov (United States)

Constraining the timing of onset and rates of deformation within the Greater Caucasus mountains is key to understanding the role of this orogen in accommodating total deformation across the Arabia-Eurasia plate boundary, as well as for comparison with modern observations of geodetic shortening and seismic strain release. Bedrock maps of the Greater Caucasus display two geologically distinct domains, separated at the longitude of Mt. Kazbek, possibly by the transverse Borjomi-Kazbek fault. West of Kazbek, Paleozoic amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks are thrust southward over highly deformed Mesozoic shelf and continental slope sediments. East of Kazbek, no rocks older than Jurassic are exposed, although Mesozoic and early Cenozoic strata are also deformed in a primarily south vergent sense. We present new low-temperature thermochronologic (apatite (U-Th)/He and fission track (AFT)) data from the western Greater Caucasus in Russia, and from the eastern Greater Caucasus in Azerbaijan. Cooling ages derived from thermochronology were combined with geologic constraints and fission-track length modeling to develop thermal histories for these regions. Samples from the western Greater Caucasus were collected from Permo-Triassic granitoids. Along the northern flank of the range, a sample from the Bezengi Valley yields AFT and (U-Th)/He ages of 22 and 11 Ma, respectively. Thermal modeling of fission-track length distributions from this sample suggest slow cooling, at rates of ~3°C/Myr, from 30--5 Ma. Cooling rates increase significantly at 5 Ma, to ~11°C/Myr. Samples collected closer to the southern range front, around Baksan Valley, yield AFT ages of ~5 Ma, with cooling rates of ~20°C/Myr. In contrast, (U-Th)/He ages on detrital apatite grains from Jurassic sandstones along the northern edge of the eastern Greater Caucasus are consistent with geologic relations indicating exhumation no greater than ~2 km since Early Cretaceous time. A sample from Early Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones of the Vandam zone on the southern flank of the range yields AFT and (U-Th)/He age of 88 and 2.8 Ma, respectively. Fission-track length modeling indicates that this sample remained at ~90°C from 20--5 Ma, when it was exhumed to the surface at ~15°C/Myr. These data bear on several issues regarding the tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus. First, modern rates of deformation can account for the observed deformation across the range if extrapolated back 5--7 Ma. Our thermochronologic data suggest that exhumation of the eastern Greater Caucasus has occurred within this time, but that the western Greater Caucasus was subject to an earlier exhumational history. This is consistent with geologic observations indicating Oligocene onset of exhumation in the western Greater Caucasus. Our data question lateral propagation of the Greater Caucasus, suggesting instead that the range may have had two distinct stages of growth, an Oligocene to Late Miocene stage in the western Greater Caucasus, and a post-Miocene stage across the modern range as a whole. Interestingly, the dividing line between these two zones roughly corresponds with a change in geodetic shortening and seismic moment release rates. The western Greater Caucasus are historically aseismic, with modern GPS shortening rates near zero, while significant seismicity and geodetic shortening rates of ~12 mm/yr are observed across the eastern Greater Caucasus. Whether this indicates a recent cessation of tectonic activity in the western Greater Caucasus remains an area of ongoing research.

Avdeev, B.; Niemi, N. A.

2008-12-01

271

The Relative Severity of Single Hazards within a Multi-Hazard Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we present a description of the relative severity of single hazards within a multi-hazard framework, compiled through examining, quantifying and ranking the extent to which individual hazards trigger or increase the probability of other hazards. Hazards are broken up into six major groupings (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space), with the interactions for 21 different hazard types examined. These interactions include both one primary hazard triggering a secondary hazard, and one primary hazard increasing the probability of a secondary hazard occurring. We identify, through a wide-ranging review of grey- and peer-review literature, >90 interactions. The number of hazard-type linkages are then summed for each hazard in terms of their influence (the number of times one hazard type triggers another type of hazard, or itself) and their sensitivity (the number of times one hazard type is triggered by other hazard types, or itself). The 21 different hazards are then ranked based on (i) influence and (ii) sensitivity. We found, by quantification and ranking of these hazards, that: (i) The strongest influencers (those triggering the most secondary hazards) are volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and storms, which when taken together trigger almost a third of the possible hazard interactions identified; (ii) The most sensitive hazards (those being triggered by the most primary hazards) are identified to be landslides, volcanic eruptions and floods; (iii) When sensitivity rankings are adjusted to take into account the differential likelihoods of different secondary hazards being triggered, the most sensitive hazards are found to be landslides, floods, earthquakes and ground heave. We believe that by determining the strongest influencing and the most sensitive hazards for specific spatial areas, the allocation of resources for mitigation measures might be done more effectively.

Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

2013-04-01

272

Trabecular microstructure and surface changes in the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abstract Objective. When planning surgery in patients with rotator cuff tear, strength of bone at the tendon insertion and trabecular bone structure in the greater tuberosity are usually taken into consideration. We investigated radiographic changes in bone structure of the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears.Design. Twenty-two human cadaveric shoulders from subjects ranging from 55 to 75 years of age were obtained. The integrity of the rotator cuff was examined by sonography to determine if it is intact without any tear, or torn partially or completely. The humeral head was sectioned in 3 mm thick coronal slab sections and microradiographed. After digitization of the microradiographs and imaging processing with in-house semi-automated image processing software tools developed using software interfaces on a Sun workstation, the trabecular histomorphometrical structural parameters and connectivity in the greater tuberosity were quantified. The degenerative changes on the surface of the greater tuberosity were interpreted blindly by 2 independent readers.Results. Among the 22 shoulder specimens, the rotator cuff was found intact in 10 shoulders, partially in 7 and fully torn in 5. Statistically significant loss in apparent trabecular bone volume fraction, number of trabecular nodes, and number of trabecular branches, and a statistically significant increase in apparent trabecular separation and number of trabecular free ends were found in the greater tuberosity of the shoulders with tears. The loss was greater in association with full tear than in partial tear. Thickening of the cortical margin of the enthesis, irregularity of its surface, and calcification beyond the tidemark were observed in 2 (20%) shoulders with intact rotator cuff, in 6 (86%) shoulders with partial tear, and in 5 (100%) shoulders with full tear.Conclusions. Rotator cuff tears are associated with degenerative changes on the bone surface and with disuse osteopenia of the greater tuberosity. Aging, degenerative enthesopathy of the supraspinatus tendon, and rotator cuff tears appear closely related. (orig.)

2002-09-01

273

An ovarian adenocarcinoma in a greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus).  

Science.gov (United States)

An ovarian adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in a greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) which had been maintained in captivity for over 32 years. Neoplastic epithelial cells showed both solid and tubular patterns of growth. Metastases were found in the lung, liver and on the peritoneal surface of the pancreas. PMID:18770127

Wadsworth, P F; Jones, D M

1981-01-01

274

Report Urges Greater Coordination of European Doctoral Education  

Science.gov (United States)

A new report assessing the state of doctoral education in Europe says that, even as 47 European nations enter the final phase of harmonizing their degree programs, Ph.D.-level education across Europe suffers from a lack of coordination and cooperation. "There is an urgent need for greater consultation and coordination at the regional, national,…

Labi, Aisha

2007-01-01

275

ICU Patients At Much Greater Risk for PTSD  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript. ICU Patients at Much Greater Risk for PTSD: Study Stay in intensive care can be traumatic ... May 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Critical Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder MONDAY, May 19, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- After being ...

276

Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis

1996-11-01

277

Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-11-01

278

Building 6630 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 6630. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which one chemical was kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the chemical release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 76 meters. The highest emergency classification is an Alert. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 100 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

1996-01-01

279

Radioactive contamination hazard from patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is stated that the hazard of contamination and cross contamination associated with in-patients who have been injected with radioactive material for diagnostic purposes (such as imaging) is sometimes not fully appreciated. The quantity of activity appearing in the 24-hour urine from a patient initially injected with 10 mCi of 99Tcsup(m), for example, may be 0.5 mCi so that spillage or incontinence can easily produce a contamination hazard. It is urged that patients who have received such levels of radioactivity should be easily identifiable to enable nursing staff to appreciate that a hazard exists in the event of incontinence and that instructions should be available to the Nursing Officer in charge of wards summarizing the precautions to be taken in such circumstances, and indicating the length of time for which these special provisions should apply. (U.K.)

1976-01-01

280

Building 894 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 894. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 9 chemicals were kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 130 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 130 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Lessons learned from external hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

Peinador, Miguel; Zerger, Benoit [European Commisison Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Ramos, Manuel Martin [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Safety and Security Coordination; Wattrelos, Didier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

2014-01-15

282

Hazard evaluation and risk management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The eigth chapter deals with the actual handling of hazards. The principal issue concerns man's behaviour towards hazards as an individual formerly and today; the evaluation of expected results of both a positive and a negative kind as determined by the individual's values which may differ and vary greatly from one individual to the next. The evaluation of benefit and hazard as well as the risk management resulting from decision-taking are political processes in the democratic state. Formal decision-taking tools play a major role in this process which concerns such central issues like who will participate; how the decision is arrived at; the participation of citizens; specialist knowledge and participation of the general public. (HSCH)

1986-01-01

283

Building 891 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 891. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 33 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 50 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

1995-01-01

284

Building 869 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DOE Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 869. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 and Early Severe Health Effects thresholds are 64 and 45 meters, respectively. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 75 meters

1995-01-01

285

Building 983 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 983. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 3 chemical sources were kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 49 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

1996-01-01

286

Building 960 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 960. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 2 chemical sources were kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 34 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

1996-01-01

287

Building 961 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 961. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 1 chemical source was kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 16 meters. The highest emergency classification is an Alert. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

1996-01-01

288

Buildings 823 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 823. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 274 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a minimum of 275 meters and conforms to natural and jurisdictional boundaries where practical. This is consistent with DOE's Emergency Management Guide

1995-01-01

289

Lessons learned from external hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

2014-01-01

290

Seismic hazard of Northern Eurasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The GSHAP Regional Centre in Moscow, UIPE, has coordinated the seismic hazard mapping for the whole territory of the former U.S.S.R. and border regions. A five-year program was conducted to assemble for the whole area, subdivided in five overlapping blocks, the unified seismic catalogue with uniform magnitude, the strong motion databank and the seismic zones model (lineament-domain-source, which form the basis of a newly developed deterministic-probabilistic computation of seismic hazard assessment. The work was conducted in close cooperation with border regions and GSHAP regional centers. The hazard was originally computed in terms of expected MSK intensity and then transformed into expected peak ground acceleration with 10% exceedance probability in 50 years.

. The GSHAP Region 7 Working Group

1999-06-01

291

Household hazardous waste in Massachusetts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Household wastes, when disposed of improperly, are hazardous to health. This paper reports a random digit dial telephone survey of Massachusetts households concerning household hazardous waste (HHW) disposal with a 54% response. Of the automotive oil disposed of by 33% of survey households, 57% was deposited in the ground, sewer, or landfill. Annually by household oil disposal in Massachusetts is estimated to be 8.8 million quarts. Four percent of hazardous waste generated in Massachusetts is from households. Improper disposal makes it a major environmental contaminant. More households (41.5%) in smaller communities disposed of oil compared with 26% of households in larger communities. Paint and pesticides were disposed of by 10% of the households, but were dumped on the ground sewer or landfills more than 90% of the time.

Stanek, E.J. 3d.; Tuthill, R.W.; Willis, C.; Moore, G.S.

1987-03-01

292

How to control chemical hazards  

CERN Multimedia

Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: cern.ch/regles-securite The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: safety-general@cern.ch The HSE Unit

2012-01-01

293

The large-scale impact of climate change to Mississippi flood hazard in New Orleans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe the impact of climate change on the Mississippi River flood hazard in the New Orleans area. This city has a unique flood risk management challenge, heavily influenced by climate change, since it faces flood hazards from multiple geographical locations (e.g. Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi River and multiple sources (hurricane, river, rainfall. Also the low elevation and significant subsidence rate of the Greater New Orleans area poses a high risk and challenges the water management of this urban area. Its vulnerability to flooding became dramatically apparent during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 with huge economic losses and a large number of casualties.
A SOBEK Rural 1DFLOW model was set up to simulate the general hydrodynamics. This improved model includes two important spillways that are operated during high flow conditions. Subsequently, a weighted multi-criteria calibration procedure was performed to calibrate the model for high flows. Validation for floods in 2011 indicates a very reasonable performance for high flows and clearly demonstrates the necessity of the spillways.
32 different scenarios are defined which includes the relatively large sea level rise and the changing discharge regime that is expected due to climate change. The impact of these scenarios is analysed by the hydrodynamic model. Results show that during high flows New Orleans will not be affected by varying discharge regimes, since the presence of the spillways ensures a constant discharge through the city. In contrary, sea level rise is expected to push water levels upwards. The effect of sea level rise will be noticeable even more than 470 km upstream. Climate change impacts necessitate a more frequent use of the spillways and opening strategies that are based on stages. Potential alternatives on how to cope with the flood hazard of this river in the long term, such as river widening and large-scale redistribution of the flow through diversions, are proposed.

T. L. A. Driessen

2012-07-01

294

Significances of Multimedia Technologies Training  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of multimedia technologies in education has enabled teachers to simulate final outcomes and assist s-tudents in applying knowledge learned from textbooks, thereby compensating for the deficiency of traditional teach- ing methods. It is important to examine how effective these technologies are in practical use. This study developed online learning-teaching resource platforms using Flash multimedia, providing interactive and integrated features in an easy-to-use user interface, in order to discuss Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD). The study utilized a teaching experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design to test and discuss students’ professional cognition, operating skill cognition, and level of learning satisfaction during the learning process. No significant differences emerged between the groups in regards to professional cognition or operation skills cognition. However, a significant difference in learning satisfaction was noted, indicating that the coursework with multimedia Flash produced greater satisfaction than with traditional learning methods. Results are explained in detail and recommendations for further research provided.

Zhang, Fulei

295

Biological significance of selenium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Until a few years ago, selenium was exclusively thought of as a toxic substance which was applied mainly in the optical and electrical industries. By now, many biological reactions have been detected which cannot take place without the catalytic effect of selenium. The majority of these processes was found and clarified in microorganisms; however, the anticarcinogenic properties of this trace element may well have some significance for man in future.

Duerre, P.; Andreesen, J.R.

1986-02-01

296

Teleoperation with significant dynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subject of this thesis is teleoperation, and especially teleoperation with demanding time constraints due to significant dynamics inherent in the task. A comprehensive background is given, describing many aspects of teleoperation, from history and applications to operator interface hardware and relevant control theory concepts. Then follows a presentation of the research done by the author. Two prototypical highly dynamic teleoperation tasks have been attempted: high speed driving, and ba...

Bratt, Mattias

2009-01-01

297

Hazard assessment of ethylene oxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This assessment of the hazards of exposure to ethylene oxide is based on a systematic and critical analysis of the relevant chemical and biological properties of ethylene oxide. The many facets of its toxicology and the findings in epidemiological studies of groups exposed to this compound are described. By reviewing conventional approaches of interpreting the risks from ethylene oxide, common errors and fallacies are revealed to give helpful examples for hazard assessment in the workplace, environment or the home. Numerous tables and charts provide prompt and valuable data for practitioners and researchers in air pollution, industrial hygiene, public health, toxicity and community medicine.

Golberg, L.

1986-01-01

298

INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

R.J. Garrett

2005-02-17

299

The Greater India beneath Tibet: A detailed new seismic mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greater India is a continent that existed before the India-Asia collision and comprised today's Indian subcontinent and its extension to the north, by now consumed in the collision. The size, shape, and evolution of the Greater India are a matter of a heated debate, from its place in the make-up of Gondwana to its rapid northward drift and evolution following the break-up of the supercontinent and to its eventual collision with Eurasia. How the India-Asia collision has been accommodated (how much of the continental Indian lithosphere has been consumed and what happened to it) is an important unresolved problem in itself, the proposed solutions including: underthrusting of India beneath Tibet; northward subduction of India; viscous thickening of the Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath Tibet; viscous thickening followed by convective removal; lateral extrusion of chunks of Greater India eastwards; slicing and sinking of the Greater India's lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Body-wave seismic tomography shows the remnants of the subducted lithosphere of the ancient Tethys Ocean, now in the lower mantle, and the more recently subducted lithosphere of the Indian Plate around the transition-zone depths. In the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range, however, the properties and even the presence of Indian lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Tibet are debated. Whereas surface-wave tomographic models typically show a high-velocity anomaly beneath much of Tibet at around 200 km depth, many body-wave models do not show high-velocity anomalies under most of the plateau, prompting very different interpretations. Here we determine the morphology of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet using a combination of large-scale waveform tomography (based on a new, unprecedentedly large global dataset) and of surface-wave array analysis in Tibet. The Greater Indian lithosphere is present (underthrusting or subducting) beneath much of Tibet. There are marked differences in the properties of the Greater Indian lithosphere and in the mechanism of its descent beneath different parts of the plateau. In the west, cratonic Indian lithosphere underthrusts the Tibetan crust and collides with the Tarim Craton to the north of it. In the central part of the plateau, Indian lithosphere underthrusts Tibet form the Himalayas up to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture and then, further north, subducts at a relatively steep angle. Indian lithosphere now under the east-central Himalayas is not cratonic (not as thick and cold as in the west). Beneath eastern Tibet, the Indian lithosphere has subducted, at a shallow angle, hundreds of kilometers northwards to under the Qiangtang and Songpan-Ganzi Terranes. The detailed new seismic images provide new constraints on the size of the Greater India continent and on lateral variations in the properties of its lithosphere. The size and shape of the Greater India as evidenced by the seismic data are consistent with the recent plate-tectonic models in which the India-Asia hard continental collision commences more recently than previously thought. References Agius, M. R., S. Lebedev. Tibetan and Indian lithospheres in the upper mantle beneath Tibet: Evidence from broadband surface-wave dispersion. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, doi:10.1002/ggge.20274, 2013. Schaeffer, A. J., S. Lebedev. Global shear-speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophys. J. Int. 194, 417-449, 2013. Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., et al., Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 7659-64, 2012. Zahirovic, S., et al., Insights on the kinematics of the India-Eurasia collision from global geodynamic models, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13, doi:10.1029/2011GC003883, 2012.

Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Agius, Matthew

2014-05-01

300

Significance of brown dwarfs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientific interest in objects that are not massive enough to qualify as stars has, until recently, not been high. However, the advent of powerful and clever new observational techniques, as well as of new instrumentation, signals the dawn of a new era in research related to sub-stellar mass bodies. The significance of these bodies in terms of their role in furthering our understanding of major problems in astronomy is discussed. The discussion centers on two themes; brown dwarfs in their own right, and brown dwarfs and their relationship to planetary systems. (author)

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Carcinogenic and genetic hazard from background radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various models and predictions of the carcinogenic and genetic hazards of low-level, low-rate ionizing radiation were examined and compared with actual experience in population in the United States of America and elsewhere. All the models predicted a significant increment in malignant mortality, and mortality from genetic disorders, with increasing background. Populations were first examined for malignant mortality, for various age and geographic groups, for all malignancies (ICD 140-205). They were then re-examined for groups of malignancies (e.g. 140-159, 160-164, etc.), and for each of 56 separate malignancy types. These groups and their malignancy rates were compared with the radiation background characteristic of each geographic group. Simultaneous regressions were also performed against over 40 other geographical, social, medical, meteorological, economic, educational, ethnic and pollution parameters. Observation of the populations at risk showed not only no increment in malignant mortality with increasing background, but a consistent and continuous decrement. Similar results were obtained for mortality from congenital malformations. The question of whether low-level radiation, at rates of the order of 0.5 rem/a and below, constitutes a significant environmental hazard is discussed. (author)

1975-11-03

302

Higher motivation - greater control? The effect of arousal on judgement.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:23126677

Riemer, Hila; Viswanathan, Madhu

2013-01-01

303

Greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus are partial capital breeders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Capital breeding refers to a strategy in which birds use body stores for egg formation, whereas income breeders obtain all resources for egg formation at breeding sites. Capital breeding should occur more in large-bodied species because the relative cost of carrying stores for egg formation becomes smaller with increasing body size. Based on a comparison between stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in potential prey at wintering sites and eggs, we examined whether greater flamingos use nutr...

2011-01-01

304

Three decades of research on the greater Agulhas Current  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The greater Agulhas Current has been shown to be a key link in the global thermohaline circulation and an increased understanding of this current system is therefore of more than just local interest. Knowledge on the Agulhas Current system has in fact increased enormously over the past 30 years. This review covers some aspects of what has been learnt on the northern and the southern parts of the Agulhas Current proper and their influence on the waters and circulation of the adjoining continen...

Lutjeharms, J. R. E.

2006-01-01

305

Three decades of research on the greater Agulhas Current  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The greater Agulhas Current has been shown to be a key link in the global thermohaline circulation and an increased understanding of this current system is therefore of more than just local interest. Knowledge on the Agulhas Current system has in fact increased enormously over the past 30 years. This review covers some aspects of what has been learnt on the northern and the southern parts of the Agulhas Current proper and their influence on the waters and circulation of the adjoining continen...

Lutjeharms, J. R. E.

2007-01-01

306

Multiple Task Interference is Greater in Children with ADHD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is considerable lay discussion that children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have increased difficult with multitasking, but there are few experimental data. In the current study, we examine the simultaneous processing of two stimulus-response tasks using the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect. We hypothesized that children with ADHD would show a greater PRP effect, suggesting a prolonged “bottleneck” in stimulus-response processing. A total of 19 scho...

Ewen, Joshua B.; Moher, Jeffrey S.; Lakshmanan, Balaji M.; Ryan, Matthew; Xavier, Priya; Crone, Nathan E.; Denckla, Martha B.; Egeth, Howard; Mahone, E. Mark

2012-01-01

307

Nevada test site experience with greater confinement disposal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the NTS, we consider Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) to be a good waste management practice rather than a disposal technology. This is an important distinction because it redefines the nature of GCD. All disposal facilities operate under the principal of ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) in reducing personnel and public exposures. ALARA is not a technology or method but a principal put into practice. We view GCD in the same manner.

Dickman, P.T.; Boland, J.R.

1986-01-01

308

Nevada test site experience with greater confinement disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the NTS, we consider Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) to be a good waste management practice rather than a disposal technology. This is an important distinction because it redefines the nature of GCD. All disposal facilities operate under the principal of ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) in reducing personnel and public exposures. ALARA is not a technology or method but a principal put into practice. We view GCD in the same manner

1986-09-22

309

Seismic hazard assessment in Iran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is described. The results here presented will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earth quake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

Tavakoli, B.; Ghafory Ashtiany, M. [International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismilogy, Teheran (Iran)

1999-12-01

310

Chemical hazards in the organisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of hazardous chemicals in organisations represents a substantial risk to occupational health, safety and the environment (OHSE). Organisational directors and managers have a responsibility to provide and maintain organisational management systems that manage these risks. The risk management approach of establishing organisational considerations, identifying chemical hazards (health and environmental), assessing and controlling risks and evaluating management activities has become the de facto means of managing organisational hazards in general and may be satisfactorily applied to the management of chemicals in the organisation. The Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is now at the forefront of major regulatory issues facing the chemicals manufacturing industry and downstream users of chemicals. The GHS offers one system for the classification of all dangerous, toxic and environmental (ecotoxic) effects of chemicals. Organisations should develop occupational health, safety and environment (OHSE) management systems which contain programs and procedures that contain systems for inventory control, hazard communication, competency training, risk assessment and control, transport and storage, monitoring and health surveillance, chemical emergencies (including accident investigation), waste minimisation and disposal, record keeping and management system review. PMID:22945564

Winder, Chris

2012-01-01

311

A Green Laser Pointer Hazard  

CERN Document Server

An inexpensive green laser pointer was found to emit 20 mW of infrared radiation during normal use. This is potentially a serious hazard that would not be noticed by most users of such pointers. We find that this infrared emission derives from the design of the pointer, and describe a simple method of testing for infrared emissions using common household items.

Galang, Jemellie; Hagley, Edward W; Clark, Charles W

2010-01-01

312

Components off the shelf selection for nuclear industry environment greater than 100 kGy(Si)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents total dose test results of components off the shelf (COTS), greater than 100 kGy(Si), for nuclear industry applications. Tested components are bipolar analog integrated circuits (operational amplifiers, regulators) and bipolar logic integrated circuits (TTL-LS and ECL technology). The components were submitted to 60Co gamma radiation with dose rates from 100 Gy(Si)/h to 2 kGy(Si)/h, the components were maintained at 25 and 70 degrees Celsius during irradiation. The results show that a set of amplifiers and regulators can operate even with a cumulated dose greater than 100 kGy(Si), while others are limited to 4.5 kGy(Si). As for bipolar logic integrated circuits, they can sustain cumulated doses greater than 100 kGy(Si). The temperature seems to play no significant role. (A.C.)

1999-09-13

313

Tephra transport, sedimentation and hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Tephra deposits are one of the possible outcomes of explosive volcanic eruptions and are the result of vertical settling of volcanic particles that have been expelled from the volcanic vent into the atmosphere, following magma fragmentation within the volcanic conduit. Tephra fallout represents the main volcanic hazard to populated areas and critical facilities. Therefore, it is crucial to better understand processes that lead to tephra transport, sedimentation and hazards. In this study, and based on detailed mapping and sampling of the tephra deposit of the 2450BP Plinian eruption of Pululagua volcano (Ecuador), I investigate tephra deposits through a variety of approaches, including empirical and analytical modeling of tephra thickness and grain size data to infer important eruption source parameters (e.g. column height, total mass ejected, total grain size distribution of the deposit). I also use a statistical approach (smoothed bootstrap with replacement method) to assess the uncertainty in the eruptive parameters. The 2450BP Pululagua volcanic plume dynamics were also explored through detailed grain size analysis and 1D modeling of tephra accumulation. Finally, I investigate the influence of particle shape on tephra accumulation on the ground through a quantitative and comprehensive study of the shape of volcanic ash. As the global need for energy is expected to grow in the future, many future natural hazard studies will likely involve the assessment of volcanic hazards at critical facilities, including nuclear power plants. I address the potential hazards from tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows and lahars for the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (Philippines) posed by three nearby volcanoes capable of impacting the site during an explosive eruption. I stress the need for good constraints (stratigraphic analysis and events dating) on past eruptive events to better quantify the probability of future events at potentially active volcanoes, the need for probabilistic approaches in such volcanic hazard assessments to address a broad range of potential eruption scenarios, and the importance of considering coupled volcanic processes (e.g. tephra fallout leading to lahars) in volcanic hazard assessments.

Volentik, Alain C. M.

314

Subducted, detached, and torn slabs during early orogeny: evidence from deep earthquakes under the Greater Caucasus  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arabia-Eurasian collision is the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate the role that pre-suturing tectonism plays in defining the deformational response of the upper plate to continental collision and suturing. The Greater Caucasus Mountains, which define the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone between the Black and Caspian seas, result from late Cenozoic closure of the Greater Caucasus basin, a Mesozoic back-arc basin that opened during northward subduction of Neotethys beneath the Lesser Caucasus island arc. However, both the extent to which the basin closed by subduction and its original width remain controversial. Many previous estimates suggest that the basin was very narrow and that no subduction occurred during the formation of the Greater Caucasus. However, newly compiled earthquake locations show that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab. We assembled the new catalog of earthquake locations by combining earthquake records from local networks in Georgia, Russia, and Azerbaijan with previously published data. Our dataset includes records from 3820 events with magnitudes M>2. Visualization of the final catalogue in an immersive visualization environment at the UC Davis Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES) provides a clear image of a northeast-dipping zone of seismicity beneath the Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as the remnant of a subducted slab. Beneath the central Greater Caucasus (45°E), the zone of seismicity extends to a depth of at least 158 km and dips to the northeast at ~40°. In contrast, beneath the western GC (i.e., west of 45°E) there is a pronounced lack of events below 25 km, which we infer to reflect slab breakoff. We also observe a gap in intermediate-depth seismicity (30 to 60 km) at the western end of the subducted slab beneath the central Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as an eastward-propagating tear. This tear coincides with a region of minimum horizontal GPS convergence rates between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus, as expected in a region of active slab breakoff. Evidence of subduction beneath the Greater Caucasus suggests that the relict back-arc basin was significantly wider than previously estimated. This further suggests that closure of this basin may have been an important mechanism for accommodating plate convergence in this nascent orogen and that the Greater Caucasus may represent a form of cryptic suture. Such relict-basin closure may also be an important, but overlooked process in the early stages of other orogens where it has proven difficult to reconcile total crustal shortening with estimates of total plate convergence.

Mumladze, T.; Forte, A. M.; Cowgill, E.; Trexler, C.; Niemi, N. A.; Kellogg, L. H.; Yikilmaz, M.

2013-12-01

315

Tumor significant dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

1983-01-01

316

Tumor significant dose  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/.

Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

1983-01-01

317

Autogenous greater omentum, as a free nonvascularized graft, enhances bone healing: an experimental nonunion model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstruction of vascularity is an early event in fracture healing and upregulation of angiogenesis may therefore promote the formation of bone. We have investigated the potentiality of autogenous free nonvascularized greater omentum to stimulate the formation of bone in an experimental hypertrophic nonunion model. Twelve dogs assigned into two identical groups underwent a standard nonunion operation. In the experimental group, this was followed by application of autogenous greater omentum as a free nonvascularized graft around the osteotomy gap. Radiographic assessments were conducted time-sequentially until euthanasia 16 weeks after surgery. Histological analysis was performed on the mid-radial diaphysis containing the 4-month-old osteotomy site. Radiological and histological properties of the group treated with free transplant of the greater omentum revealed complete union. In contrast, there was no evidence indicating union in the control group. Analyses of the radiological and histological scores confirmed that osteotomies treated with free transplant of the autogenous greater omentum had united, whereas the osteotomies of the control group failed to unite. Significant differences between the mean values for radiological and histological-grading score in the control and experimental groups were detected (p < 0.05). We showed that free graft of autogenous greater omentum could stimulate the formation of competent bone in an environment deprived of its normal vascularization. Hence, it could be recommended to enhance healing when the fractures are at risk of nonunion. PMID:19283616

Saifzadeh, Siamak; Pourreza, Behzad; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Naghadeh, Bahram Dalir; Kazemi, Siamak

2009-01-01

318

Meaning and significance of  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

2011-05-01

319

Natural Hazards and the press in the western Mediterranean region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyses press articles published between 1982 and 2005 in an attempt to describe the social perception of natural hazards in Catalonia. The articles included in the database have been classified according to different types of risk. In addition, the study examines the evolution of each type of risk in the press coverage during the study period. Finally, the results have been compared to data provided by insurance companies with respect to compensations paid out for damages. Conclusions show that floods are the most important natural hazard in the region, but that the number of headlines for each event is greater in the case of snowfalls and forest fires. Factors such as the season of the year, the proximity of the affected region to the capital, the topical issues at the time, and the presence of other important news must be considered when the impact in the press is analysed.

M. Llasat-Botija

2007-07-01

320

Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising.

Guloy, A.

1992-01-28

 
 
 
 
321

Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

1992-01-01

322

Hydrothermal Oxidation Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is fabricating a Hydrothermal Oxidation (HTO) Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed to evaluate and test various HTO reactor concepts for initial processing of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. If the HTO process is successful it will significantly reduce the volume of DOE mixed wastes by destroying the organic constituents

1995-02-06

323

Hazardous Waste Management: A View to the New Century, 2001.  

Science.gov (United States)

Like many parts of the United States, Colorado is facing a significant hazardous waste problem. Radioactive and chemical wastes generated by the Rocky Flats Nuclear Plant, the toxic Lowry Land Fill Site, industrial dumps, and heavy land and air traffic contribute to water, land, and air pollution in the state. As part of a statewide response…

Burton, Gwen

324

Hazardous Waste Management at Rockwell Hanford Operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The control of hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site is a complex task and one that requires cooperation from each of the site operating contractors. The Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) Hazardous Waste Management Program being conducted at the Hanfo...

D. L. McCall

1984-01-01

325

Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management: An Achievable Goal.  

Science.gov (United States)

This white paper was prepared for 'Challenges and Opportunities: Managing Hazardous Waste in the Pacific Northwest,' a hazardous waste management symposium. It discusses the elements of a comprehensive waste management system and the response of Federal a...

1987-01-01

326

78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1332] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-13

327

78 FR 72920 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1351] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-12-04

328

78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1330] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-07-22

329

78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1340] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-09

330

78 FR 57646 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1343] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-09-19

331

78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1344] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-12

332

78 FR 43910 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1339] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-07-22

333

78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1345] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

2013-08-13

334

Healthcare-Wide Hazards: Surgical Suite  

Science.gov (United States)

... extremities. Standing on hard work surfaces such as concrete creates trauma and pain to the feet. Awkward ... Equipment Hazards Potential Hazard Exposure to burns or shocks from poorly maintained equipment (e.g., autoclaves, warming ...

335

Evaluation and Mitigation of Industrial Fire Hazards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A tool suitable for conducting industrial fire and explosion hazard analysis is presented, together with an identification of weak links in the hazard evaluation chain. For some of the weak links additional research has been carried out.

Andersson, Petra

1997-01-01

336

Method for Rock Fissure Hazard Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A stochastic rock fissure hazard model is presented based on geological characterization of the occurrence and propagation of fissures. The hazard model is developed in two steps: (1) fissure propagation model and (2) fissure occurrence model. For the fis...

M. Noda A. S. Kiremidjian

1991-01-01

337

Seismic Hazard and Risk in Central America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1999 Seismic Hazard In Guatemala 2001 Post-Event Mision 2006 Resis Ii Project Norad 2007 Workshop Seismic Hazard 2010 Book Amenaza Sísmica En América Central 2011 Cooperation Haití, República Dominicana, Puerto Rico

Benito Oterino, Belen

2011-01-01

338

2006 Hazardous Waste Tables for English regions  

Workbooks of excel tables for English regions containing information on amounts of hazardous waste produced and deposited, methods of disposal and recovery used, and movements of hazardous waste. Includes trend data from 2000 to 2006. Data for Wales ca

339

Priority Substances (and Priority Hazardous Substances)  

…Hazardous Substances) To protect human health and the environment the concentration of Priority Substances must be limited. Priority Substances are harmful substances. Priority Hazardous Substances are a subset of these and are considered extremely harmful. Compliance with Priority Substance standards…

340

ANALYSIS OF GEOTHERMAL WASTES FOR HAZARDOUS COMPONENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Regulations governing the disposal of hazardous wastes led to an assessment for geothermal solid wastes for potentially hazardous properties. Samples were collected from three active geothermal sites in the western United States: The Geysers, Imperial Valley, and northwestern Nev...

 
 
 
 
341

Geospatial and geophysical information for earthquake hazard assessment in Vrancea area, Romania  

Science.gov (United States)

Vrancea area at the sharp bend of the Southeast Carpathians in Romania is one of the highest seismogenic zones in Europe, the present-day tectonic activity in this region being characterized by a small zone of intense shallow- to intermediate-depth seismicity that is often interpreted as reflecting the late stage of intra-continental collision. Efforts to advance understanding of earthquake physics and assessing of earthquake hazard in Vrancea seismic area require detailed observations of all phases of the earthquake cycle (pre-, co-, and post-seismic), across multiple fault systems and tectonic environment. Earthquake prediction has two potentially compatible but distinctly different objectives: (a) phenomena that provide information about the future earthquake hazard useful to those who live in earthquake-prone regions and (b) phenomena causally related to the physical processes governing failure on a fault that will improve our understanding of those processes. Remote sensing and geospatial information tools and techniques, including numerical modeling, have advanced considerably in recent years, enabling a greater understanding of the Earth as a complex system of geophysical phenomena. Space-based geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System in synergy with ground-based seismological measurements, interferometric synthetic aperture radar data, high-resolution digital elevation models as well imaging spectroscopy (e.g. using ASTER, MODIS and Hyperion data) are contributing significantly to seismic hazard and risk assessment. Space-time anomalies of Earth's emitted radiation (radon in underground water and soil and surface air , thermal infrared in spectral range measured from satellite months to weeks before the occurrence of earthquakes etc.), ionospheric and electromagnetic anomalies have been interpreted, by several authors, as pre-seismic signals. For seismic hazard analysis in Vrancea area, Romania have been selected the earthquake precursors detectable from space which can also be observed by ground-based monitoring experiments: surface deformation provided by GPS and SAR imaging, land surface temperature changes as possible precursors provided by ASTER, Landsat TM and ETM, electromagnetic and ionospheric anomalies, radon gas emissions in the faults areas prior to earthquakes, as well as seismicity. Multispectral and multitemporal satellite images (LANDSAT TM, ETM , ASTER, MODIS) over 1989-2009 period have been analyzed for recognizing the continuity and regional relationships of active faults as well as for geologic and seismic hazard mapping. In spite of providing the best constraints on the rate of strain accumulation on active faults (coseismic, postseismic, and interseismic deformation; plate motion and crustal deformation at plate boundaries), GPS measurements have a low spatial resolution, and deformation in the vertical direction can not be determined very accurately. As Vrancea area has a significant regional tectonic activity in Romania and Europe, the joint analysis of geospatial and in-situ geophysical information is revealing new insights in the field of hazard assessment. For Vrancea region, observations of surface kinematics with data provided by Global Positioning System (GPS) network constitute a new and independent data source. In combination with geologic and geophysical information, surface motions may help to unravel the intriguing tectonics of the region. GPS Romanian network stations data revealed a displacement of about few millimeters (5-6 mm) per year in horizontal direction relative motion, and a (2-3 mm) per year in vertical direction. As Vrancea area is characterized by a significant regional tectonic activity, evidenced by neotectonic deformation and seismicity, future use of long-term interferometric data will be a useful tool in active tectonic investigation for this region. The joint analysis of geodetic, seismological and geological information on the spatial distribution of crustal deformations as well as the analysis of some earthquake precursors is revealing new

Zoran, Maria

2010-05-01

342

Children's misunderstandings of hazard warning signs in the new globally harmonized system for classification and labeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accidental chemical poisoning causes more than 35?000 child deaths every year across the world, and it leads to disease, disability, and suffering for many more children. Children's ignorance of dangers and their failure to interpret hazard warning signs as intended contribute significantly to this problem. A new Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling is being implemented internationally with a view to unifying the current multiple and disparate national systems. This study was designed to establish a productive, effective means of teaching the new GHS warning signs to primary school children (aged 7-11 years). A pre-test, post-test, follow-up test design was employed, with a teaching intervention informed by a Delphi survey of expert opinion. Children from one school formed the experimental group (n?=?49) and a second school provided a control group (n?=?23). Both groups showed a gain in knowledge from pre-test to post-test, the experimental group with a larger gain but which was not statistically significant. However, longer-term retention of knowledge, as shown by the follow-up test, was statistically significantly greater in the experimental group (p?=?0.001). The employment of teaching to match children's preferred learning styles, and the use of active learning were found to be related to improved retention of knowledge. Part of the study involved eliciting children's interpretation of standard hazard warning symbols, and this provoked considerable concern over the potential for dangerous misinterpretation with disastrous consequences. This article focuses on the reasons for such misconception and the action required to address this successfully in testing the intervention. PMID:23964825

Latham, Garry; Long, Tony; Devitt, Patric

2013-12-01

343

Evaluating hazardous-waste education and training  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document presents the results of a comprehensive investigation of hazardous waste education and training in the United States. The objectives of the study were to: identify educational and training programs in hazardous waste management (both degree and non-credit), develop a model criteria for hazardous waste management graduate level degree programs and non-degree short courses (training) with input from an advisory panel, and evaluate existing hazardous waste management programs and recommend improvements.

1991-01-01

344

Dynamic regression hazards models for relative survival  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A natural way of modelling relative survival through regression analysis is to assume an additive form between the expected population hazard and the excess hazard due to the presence of an additional cause of mortality. Within this context, the existing approaches in the parametric, semiparametric and non-parametric setting are compared and discussed. We study the additive excess hazards models, where the excess hazard is on additive form. This makes it possible to assess the importance of t...

Cortese, Giuliana; Scheike, Thomas H.

2008-01-01

345

Regulation of hazardous materials transportation and storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a growing concern over the safety of transportation and storage of hazardous materials. The volume of hazardous cargo has steadyly increased and will continue to do so. Railroad lines are major carriers of hazardous materials. It has been estimated that railroad cars alone handle 200,000 tons of hazardous materials daily, which is twice the daily volume shipped a decade ago. This monograph contains a bibliography of almost 100 references.

Moe, C.E.

1980-01-01

346

Safety risk analysis and hazard prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mining is a hazardous operation and involves a considerable safety and health risk to miners. This paper briefly discusses the various concepts of risk analysis namely failure mode and effects analysis, HAZOP, human error analysis. TOR and fault free analysis and the hazard prevention measures. Use of FMEA, HDZOP, HEA, TOR, FTA techniques can help in systematically identifying hazards and devising appropriate hazard control measure to minimise risk. 4 refs., 2 figs.

Tripathy, D.P. [Rourkela Engineering College, Rourkela (India)

1999-11-01

347

GREATER STRIATAL DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER DENSITY MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODE  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We examined striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) distribution volume ratio (DVR) values in subjects with unipolar or bipolar major depressive episode (versus non-depressed healthy volunteers) using the selective DAT radioligand [99mTc]TRODAT-1 and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We hypothesized that striatal DVR values would be greater in depressed versus non-depressed subjects, and that greater DVR values may represent a possible clinical biomarker of depression. Methods [99mTc]TRODAT-1 SPECT images were acquired from 39 depressed and 103 non-depressed drug-free subjects. The primary outcome measure was the DVR value of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 binding for the putamen region and the combined putamen plus caudate region. Results DVR values were significantly correlated across all striatal regions within both subject groups (p<0.005). Depressed subjects had significantly greater DVR values (versus non-depressed subjects) in the putamen (p<0.0005) and the combined putamen plus caudate (p<0.0005) regions. There was no difference in DVR values between unipolar (n=24) and bipolar (n=15) depressed subjects, and no difference in DVR values for depressed subjects with or without prior antidepressant exposure. The predictive probability of the putamen or combined putamen plus caudate DVR value to distinguish depressed from non-depressed subjects was significant (p<0.0005). Limitations – DAT values could potentially be influenced by age, gender, diagnosis, prior psychotropic dug exposure, illness length, or symptom severity. Conclusion – Results confirm prior observations of greater striatal DAT density in depressed versus non-depressed subjects, and suggest that greater DVR values may possibly represent a potential diagnostic biomarker for distinguish depressed from non-depressed individuals.

Amsterdam, Jay D.; Newberg, Andrew B.; Soeller, Irene; Shults, Justine

2012-01-01

348

CCD/CID Processors Would Offer Greater Precision  

Science.gov (United States)

Charge-coupled-device/charge-injection-device (CCD/CID) data processors of proposed type offer advantages of massively parallel computational architecture and high computational speed typical of older CCD/CID data processors, but with increased precision. Useful in performing matrix vector multiplications in variety of applications, including solving partial differential equations, processing signal and image data, control computations, and neural-network simulations. Greater precision of proposed devices help to ensure accuracy in CCD/CID implementations of pseudospectral neural networks - particular class of artificial neural networks especially suited to solving nonlinear differential equations.

Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad; Fijany, Amir

1995-01-01

349

Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Greater Confinement disposal Test (GCDT) at the Nevada Test Site will be a full scale demonstration of intermediate depth burial for disposal of defense low-level radioactive wastes considered unsuitable for shallow land burial. The GCDT project will demonstrate that these wastes can be efficaciously disposed at a depth of approximately 30 meters where the probability of future inadvertent human intrusion and of potential waste migration are negligible. The GCDT will be instrumented to collect data on properties of the disposal madium (alluvial sediments). Tracers will be injected to assess the transport potential of wastes through the medium. Tracer data will be analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the disposal method

1983-03-03

350

Greater coke strength through reactive additives to coking coal blends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earlier work on the effect of adding carbon- or oil-derived pitches and bitumens to coking charges has shown that they improve the carbonising properties. This paper deals with operational results obtained at the Prosper experimental coking plant with reactive additives in the coal blends. Results showed that the addition of both carbon and petroleum bitumens to weakly coking coals gave greater coke strength. The disadvantages of the lower bulk density in the charge and the higher total shrinkage were eliminated by using coarser steam coal and/or the addition of light fuel oil.

Weskamp, W.

1985-07-25

351

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-2: Mixed GTCC LLW assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mixed greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (mixed GTCC LLW) is waste that combines two characteristics: it is radioactive, and it is hazardous. This report uses information compiled from Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW 1 14, Revision 1), and applies it to the question of how much and what types of mixed GTCC LLW are generated and are likely to require disposal in facilities jointly regulated by the DOE and the NRC. The report describes how to classify a RCRA hazardous waste, and then applies that classification process to the 41 GTCC LLW waste types identified in the DOE/LLW-114 (Revision 1). Of the 41 GTCC LLW categories identified, only six were identified in this study as potentially requiring regulation as hazardous waste under RCRA. These wastes can be combined into the following three groups: fuel-in decontamination resins, organic liquids, and process waste consisting of lead scrap/shielding from a sealed source manufacturer. For the base case, no mixed GTCC LLW is expected from nuclear utilities or sealed source licensees, whereas only 177 ml of mixed GTCC LLW are expected to be produced by other generators through the year 2035. This relatively small volume represents approximately 40% of the base case estimate for GTCC wastes from other generators. For these other generators, volume estimates for mixed GTCC LLW ranged from less than 1 m{sup 3} to 187 m{sup 3}, depending on assumptions and treatments applied to the wastes.

Kirner, N.P. [Ebasco Environmental, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-09-01

352

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-2: Mixed GTCC LLW assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mixed greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (mixed GTCC LLW) is waste that combines two characteristics: it is radioactive, and it is hazardous. This report uses information compiled from Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW 1 14, Revision 1), and applies it to the question of how much and what types of mixed GTCC LLW are generated and are likely to require disposal in facilities jointly regulated by the DOE and the NRC. The report describes how to classify a RCRA hazardous waste, and then applies that classification process to the 41 GTCC LLW waste types identified in the DOE/LLW-114 (Revision 1). Of the 41 GTCC LLW categories identified, only six were identified in this study as potentially requiring regulation as hazardous waste under RCRA. These wastes can be combined into the following three groups: fuel-in decontamination resins, organic liquids, and process waste consisting of lead scrap/shielding from a sealed source manufacturer. For the base case, no mixed GTCC LLW is expected from nuclear utilities or sealed source licensees, whereas only 177 ml of mixed GTCC LLW are expected to be produced by other generators through the year 2035. This relatively small volume represents approximately 40% of the base case estimate for GTCC wastes from other generators. For these other generators, volume estimates for mixed GTCC LLW ranged from less than 1 m3 to 187 m3, depending on assumptions and treatments applied to the wastes

1994-01-01

353

Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

1999-01-01

354

Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the PFP. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

1998-01-01

355

Transportation training: Focusing on movement of hazardous substances and wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, are developing and implementing a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Jones, E.; Moreland, W.M.

1988-01-01

356

Investigations on natural hazards which trigger technological disasters in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romania faces the challenges of a developing country preparing to cope with disasters, be they natural or technological. The paper entails comprehensive research on technological accidents triggered by natural hazards (so-called Natech accidents. The research is based on a survey conducted by the competent authorities on the Seveso II Directive in 2009. This survey enabled the identification of Natech hazards and their correlation with the vulnerability of local communities and infrastructures. The Natech hazards were analyzed also in terms of their inclusion in the emergency planning process, starting from the current legislation. The results indicate that the number of incidents (including Natech events has significantly decreased subsequent to the appropriate implementation of emergency plans and safety reports.

A. Ozunu

2011-05-01

357

An ecotoxicological approach for hazard identification of energy ash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ., and the Swedish Geotechnical Inst. (SGI) have worked in projects with the main aim to improve the understanding of governing mechanisms for ecotoxicity of ash materials. With the ambition to provide recommendations on classification of ash according to H-14, we have characterised bottom and fly ash materials based on both total levels in solid materials and eluates. In addition, the eluates have been characterized with a battery of ecotoxicity tests. The most important findings from the projects are: (1) classification based on total content of substances over-estimates the ecotoxicological hazard potential as compared with ecotoxicity testing of eluates; (2) when leaching is performed at L/S <10 l/kg, components not classified as hazardous, in particular potassium, significantly influence the toxicity of the eluates, which is problematic from a hazard classification perspective, but likely negligible from a long-term environmental risk perspective.

Breitholtz, Magnus; Stiernstroem, Sara; Linde, Margareta [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)], e-mail: magnus.breitholtz@itm.su.se; Hemstroem, Kristian [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. AB (IVL), Stockholm (Sweden); Enell, Anja; Wik, Ola [Swedish Geotechnical Inst. (SGI), Linkoeping (Sweden)

2012-11-01

358

Landslide hazard zoning at regional level – Vâlcea County case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years the severity of the extreme meteorological phenomena significantly increased,i.e. heavy rains which led to historical floods on the most part of the hydrographical basins of Romania,mostly during 2005 and 2010. These abnormal meteorological phenomena reactivated a great number oflandslides. Therefore, risk managers, in order to urge the landslide inventory at the whole country level,launched hazard maps in terms of Law no 575/2001 regarding the “Plan of the national territorydevelopment, the Fifth section – Areas of natural hazards”. This means risk maps of Romania for areasprone to natural hazards (floods, landslides and earthquakes, as well as the exact geographical andadministrative localization of these areas, including the indication of the risk level of producing thespecific hazards. The present paper presents the methodology of hazard zoning at the local and regionallevel, including the parameters used to draw down the thematic maps for inventory and representation ofthe active landslide for the whole territory. As a case study area, Vâlcea County was chosen for the largenumber of damages due to the landslide effects. Of them, the Ocnele Mari case is noteworthy as anatural reservation of diapire salts massifs, affected by collapse due to salt dissolution by runoff waterand overexploitation by water injection.

Adrian A. Mesescu

2011-08-01

359

A method for mapping flood hazard along roads.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways. PMID:24361730

Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

2014-01-15

360

Documentation for the Southeast Asia seismic hazard maps  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project originated in response to the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M9.2) and the resulting tsunami that caused significant casualties and economic losses in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. During the course of this project, several great earthquakes ruptured subduction zones along the southern coast of Indonesia (fig. 1) causing additional structural damage and casualties in nearby communities. Future structural damage and societal losses from large earthquakes can be mitigated by providing an advance warning of tsunamis and introducing seismic hazard provisions in building codes that allow buildings and structures to withstand strong ground shaking associated with anticipated earthquakes. The Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project was funded through a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)—Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System to develop seismic hazard maps that would assist engineers in designing buildings that will resist earthquake strong ground shaking. An important objective of this project was to discuss regional hazard issues with building code officials, scientists, and engineers in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The code communities have been receptive to these discussions and are considering updating the Thailand and Indonesia building codes to incorporate new information (for example, see notes from Professor Panitan Lukkunaprasit, Chulalongkorn University in Appendix A).

Petersen, Mark; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Haller, Kathleen; Dewey, James; Luco, Nicolas; Crone, Anthony; Lidke, David; Rukstales, Kenneth

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

AN ENHANCED HAZARD ANALYSIS PROCESS FOR THE HANFORD TANK FARMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., has expanded the scope and increased the formality of process hazards analyses performed on new or modified Tank Farm facilities, designs, and processes. The CH2M HILL process hazard analysis emphasis has been altered to reflect its use as a fundamental part of the engineering and change control process instead of simply being a nuclear safety analysis tool. The scope has been expanded to include identification of accidents/events that impact the environment, or require emergency response, in addition to those with significant impact to the facility worker, the offsite, and the 100-meter receptor. Also, there is now an expectation that controls will be identified to address all types of consequences. To ensure that the process has an appropriate level of rigor and formality, a new engineering standard for process hazards analysis was created. This paper discusses the role of process hazards analysis as an information source for not only nuclear safety, but also for the worker-safety management programs, emergency management, environmental programs. This paper also discusses the role of process hazards analysis in the change control process, including identifying when and how it should be applied to changes in design or process

2008-05-03

362

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

2012-04-24

363

Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths.

Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

1981-06-01

364

Prevalence of strong bottom currents in the greater Agulhas system  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep current meter data and output from two high-resolution global ocean circulation models are used to determine the prevalence and location of strong bottom currents in the greater Agulhas Current system. The two models and current meter data are remarkably consistent, showing that benthic storms, with bottom currents greater than 0.2 m s-1, occur throughout the Agulhas retroflection region south of Africa more than 20% of the time. Furthermore, beneath the mean Agulhas Current core and the retroflection front, bottom currents exceed 0.2 m s-1 more than 50% of the time, while away from strong surface currents, bottom currents rarely exceed 0.2 m s-1. Implications for sediment transport are discussed and the results are compared to atmospheric storms. Benthic storms of this strength (0.2 m s-1) are comparable to a 9 m s-1 (Beaufort 5) windstorm, but scaling shows that benthic storms may be less effective at lifting and transporting sediment than dust storms.

Cronin, Meghan F.; Tozuka, Tomoki; Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Beal, Lisa M.

2013-05-01

365

Cancer in the Sindhi population of Greater Bombay.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sindhis are a Hindu subgroup identified by their place of origin and their written spoken language. These are the people who were originally inhabitants of the Province of Sind, which formed a part of the large Bombay Presidency in Undivided India before 1947. The Sindhi Hindus migrated en masse to India after partition. An attempt has been made here to examine the differences found in the site-specific cancer risks among the Sindhi community, the other Hindu groups (such as the Marathi and Gujrati populations) and the Parsi community of Greater Bombay. As the Indian Census Board does not provide age distribution details for the Sindhis, analysis of the data was undertaken employing frequency ratios. Age-standardized cancer ratios (ASCAR) were also utilized for certain calculations. The common sites of cancer appear to vary greatly between the total Bombay population and the Sindhi group. In Sindhi men, for example, cancers of the lung, large bowel, prostate, kidneys and leukemias are most commmonly seen, whereas laryngeal and oesophageal cancers predominate in the general population of Bombay. In Sindhi women the breast, uterus, ovary, and skin are the preferred sites, whereas cancers of the cervix and leukemias are predominant in the general population of Bombay. It is interesting to note that there is a degree of similarity in the incidence of cancer at certain anatomical sites, such as the prostate, large intestine, and leukemias in males, and breast, cervix, ovary and uterus in females, between the Sindhi and Parsi communities of Greater Bombay. PMID:7427916

Jussawalla, D J; Yeole, B B; Natekar, M V; Rajagopalan, T R

1980-11-01

366

Social networking patterns/hazards among teenagers.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have grown substantially, posing new hazards to teenagers. This study aimed to determine general patterns of Internet usage among Irish teenagers aged 11-16 years, and to identify potential hazards, including; bullying, inappropriate contact, overuse, addiction and invasion of users\\' privacy. A cross-sectional study design was employed to survey students at three Irish secondary schools, with a sample of 474 completing a questionnaire. 202 (44%) (n = 460) accessed the Internet using a shared home computer. Two hours or less were spent online daily by 285(62%), of whom 450 (98%) were unsupervised. 306 (72%) (n = 425) reported frequent usage of SNSs, 403 (95%) of whom were Facebook users. 42 (10%) males and 51 (12%) females experienced bullying online, while 114 (27%) reported inappropriate contact from others. Concerning overuse and the risk of addiction, 140 (33%) felt they accessed SNSs too often. These patterns among Irish teenagers suggest that SNS usage poses significant dangers, which are going largely unaddressed.

Machold, C

2012-05-01

367

WIPP fire hazards and risk analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a fire hazards risk analysis of the Transuranic (TRU) contact-handled waste receipt, emplacement, and disposal activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The technical bases and safety envelope for these operations are defined in the approved WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Although the safety documentation for the initial phase of the Test Program, the dry bin scale tests, has not yet been approved by the Department of Energy (DOE), reviews of the draft to date, including those by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Facility Safety (ACNFS), have concluded that the dry bin scale tests present no significant risks in excess of those estimated in the approved WIPP FSAR. It is the opinion of the authors and reviewers of this analysis, based on sound engineering judgment and knowledge of the WIPP operations, that a Fire Hazards and Risk Analysis specific to the dry bin scale test program is not warranted prior to first waste receipt. This conclusion is further supported by the risk analysis presented in this document which demonstrates the level of risk to WIPP operations posed by fire to be extremely low. 15 refs., 41 figs., 48 tabs

1991-01-01

368

Reactivity of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Hazardous Metal/Actinide Loading During Low Curie Salt Use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in its engineered form (IONSIV (registered) IE-911) continues to be studied for possible use for removing radioactive cesium from several types of waste solutions at the Savannah River Site. This study involved deriving information about spent CST that assists in determining possible disposition alternatives. Results for this work include: After passing 3000 column volumes of a dissolved saltcake simulant containing RCRA hazardous metals, the spent CST passed a TCLP test and is RCRA nonhazardous. The spent CST was found to have transuranic concentrations greater than the TRU limit of 100 nCi/g. The triplicate measurement showed TRU levels greater than 4000 nCi/g. Studies involving simulating storage of ground CST in sludge slurries indicated no detrimental effects on the measured yield stress or viscosity of the slurries when stored for up to 4 months at 50 degrees C. During the storage testing, there was no indication of significant degradation of the C ST as measured by in growth of CST-specific elements in the liquid phase of the slurry. Also, during storage tests minor desorption of cesium from the ground CST material was observed.

WILLIAM, WILMARTH

2004-11-30

369

Reactivity of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Hazardous Metal/Actinide Loading During Low Curie Salt Use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in its engineered form (IONSIV (registered) IE-911) continues to be studied for possible use for removing radioactive cesium from several types of waste solutions at the Savannah River Site. This study involved deriving information about spent CST that assists in determining possible disposition alternatives. Results for this work include: After passing 3000 column volumes of a dissolved saltcake simulant containing RCRA hazardous metals, the spent CST passed a TCLP test and is RCRA nonhazardous. The spent CST was found to have transuranic concentrations greater than the TRU limit of 100 nCi/g. The triplicate measurement showed TRU levels greater than 4000 nCi/g. Studies involving simulating storage of ground CST in sludge slurries indicated no detrimental effects on the measured yield stress or viscosity of the slurries when stored for up to 4 months at 50 degrees C. During the storage testing, there was no indication of significant degradation of the C ST as measured by in growth of CST-specific elements in the liquid phase of the slurry. Also, during storage tests minor desorption of cesium from the ground CST material was observed

2004-01-01

370

Electrical-hazards awareness program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This program was developed to increase the awareness of electrical hazards that exist in mines. The material was developed as a supplement to trainers' mine-specific needs, not as a substitute. Trainers should take time to review and summarize the electrical problems experienced at their mine. Some of the sections contain illustrations that can be made into overhead transparencies. Some sections are presented in slide/tape format. The trainers may choose to use the script and take their own slides for a personal touch. They may also use the slides and script as an outline for their lecture. The subtopics covered are: Introduction to Electricity; Statistics; Underground Electrical Equipment; Permissibility; Mine Electrical Substations; Grounding; Methane Monitors; Battery and Battery-Charging Safety; Overhead Power Line Hazards; Trailing Cables; Trolley Wires and Feeder Wires Underground; and Electrical Fatalities.

McLaughlin, A.D.; O' Neal, D.C.

1986-01-01

371

Landslide Hazards - A National Threat  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslides occur and can cause damage in all 50 States. Severe storms, earthquakes, volcanic activity, coastal wave attack, and wildfires can cause widespread slope instability. Landslide danger may be high even as emergency personnel are providing rescue and recovery services. To address landslide hazards, several questions must be considered: Where and when will landslides occur? How big will the landslides be? How fast and how far will they move? What areas will the landslides affect or damage? How frequently do landslides occur in a given area? Answers to these questions are needed to make accurate landslide hazard maps and forecasts of landslide occurrence, and to provide information on how to avoid or mitigate landslide impacts. The U.S. Geological Survey develops methods to answer these questions to help protect U.S. communities from the dangers of landslides.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2005-01-01

372

Occupational hazards of inhalational anaesthetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational exposure to inhalational anaesthetics has often been associated with health hazards and reproductive toxicity, but the available evidence is weak and comes mostly from epidemiological studies that have been criticized. Studies based on registered data generally showed no association between occupational exposure to inhalational anaesthetics and reproductive effects. Animal studies also showed a lack of carcinogenicity, organ toxicity and reproductive effects with trace concentrations, as observed in operating rooms. The exception may be nitrous oxide, which in some, but not all, studies showed teratogenicity in rats chronically exposed to concentrations of 1000 p.p.m. and higher, such as may occur in unscavenged operating rooms lacking a mechanical ventilation system. Occupational exposure has also been associated with impairment of psychological functions, but these effects do not occur with trace concentrations. All in all, the scientific evidence for hazards is weak. Nonetheless, it is good practice to limit levels of exposure. PMID:12751554

Burm, Anton G L

2003-03-01

373

Health hazards from environmental pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three examples from current research are cited in order to show the health hazards from environmental pollution and to describe methods of risk quantification: (1) The smog situation of January 1985 is analyzed on the basis of detailed morbidity and mortality statistics; (2) The current knowledge on the contribution of radon decay products to lung cancer is discussed; (3) The problem of abandoned industrial sites is illustrated by a population group living on contaminated ground. (orig.)

1985-01-00

374

Technology transfer with moral hazard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops an incomplete contract model of the licensing relationship that is susceptible to the moral hazard problem. The optimal contractual form of licensing derived in the model generates predictions that seem to be consistent with actual practice. For instance, the introduction of inputs that are not contractible and costly explains the prevalence of royalty contracts in the licensing relationship. Moreover, the model is able to relate the size of the royalty rate to the paramet...

Choi, Jay Pil

1996-01-01

375

Computer Model Locates Environmental Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Catherine Huybrechts Burton founded San Francisco-based Endpoint Environmental (2E) LLC in 2005 while she was a student intern and project manager at Ames Research Center with NASA's DEVELOP program. The 2E team created the Tire Identification from Reflectance model, which algorithmically processes satellite images using turnkey technology to retain only the darkest parts of an image. This model allows 2E to locate piles of rubber tires, which often are stockpiled illegally and cause hazardous environmental conditions and fires.

2008-01-01

376

Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components w...

Talhout, Reinskje; Schulz, Thomas; Florek, Ewa; Benthem, Jan; Wester, Piet; Opperhuizen, Antoon

2011-01-01

377

DOE hazardous waste management program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Memorandum of Understanding between DOE and EPA has recently been signed; in it DOE essentially incorporates all aspects of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for handling hazardous and mixed radioactive wastes. It has become clear that new and effective technologies are needed to adhere to these procedures and to other legislation, such as, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (ASDP) has established a Hazardous Waste Program to address technology development and technology transfer aspects for DOE sites nation-wide. The assignment for coordinating, integrating and reporting program activities was given to DOE's Oak Ridge Operations Office which established the Hazardous Waste Management Program (HWP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of this national program is to develop technologies and provide solutions to support ongoing generation, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous chemical and mixed wastes such that operation of defense facilities is continued and public health and safety are protected with minimum impact on the environment. The near-term strategy is to define the current magnitude and character of HCW, to identify areas of needed improvement in the treatment, storage, and disposal of HCW, to determine resources available to respond to technology development issues and ultimately to develop comprehensive plans to resolve them. Principal supporting objectives are to: act as a central resource for DOE in identifying problems and developing solution; integrate and coordinate activities among DOE installations; and develop databases and disseminate information on methodologies for treatment, storage, disposal and environmental restoration at DOE installations. This paper elaborates on the technical issues, problem areas and progress achieved by DOE's HWP

1985-03-24

378

Detection device for hazardous materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chcal with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

379

75 FR 5375 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments; Final Rule Federal Register...2137-AD89 Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...In this final rule, PHMSA is amending packaging requirements in the Hazardous...

2010-02-02

380

Greater Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Interrupted Stress Pattern Compared to Daily Restraint Stress in Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated stress on psychiatric disorders.

Zhang, Wei; Hetzel, Andrea; Shah, Bijal; Atchley, Derek; Blume, Shannon R.; Padival, Mallika A.; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor).  

Science.gov (United States)

Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia and four had heterophilia. The findings suggested that haematological testing is of potential diagnostic value in the species. PMID:18766947

Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

1985-10-01

382

Non–hypothalamic cluster headache: the role of the greater occipital nerve in cluster headache pathogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cluster headache is marked by its circadian rhythmicity and the hypothalamus appears to have a significant influence over cluster pathogenesis. However, as not all cluster patients present in the same manner and not all respond to the same combination of medications, there is likely a nonhypothalamic form of cluster headache. A patient is presented who began to develop cluster headaches after receiving bilateral greater occipital nerve (GON) blockade....

Rozen, T. D.

2005-01-01

383

Tourism Demand Modeling and Forecasting: A Review of Literature Related to Greater China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Greater China, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan, contributes significantly to both regional and global tourism developments. Empirical research on tourism demand modeling and forecasting has attracted increasing attention of scholars both within and beyond this region. One hundred eighty articles are identified that were published in both English? and Chinese?language journals since the beginning of the 1990s. This study presents the largest scale of literature surve...

Li, G.

2009-01-01

384

Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components with potential carcinogenic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been included, the three major smoke-related causes of death are all covered by the list. Given that the currently used Hoffmann list of hazardous smoke components is based on data from the 1990s and only includes carcinogens, it is recommended that the current list of 98 hazardous components is used for regulatory purposes instead. To enable risk assessment of components not covered by this list, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC have been established from the inhalation risk values found: 0.0018 µg day?1 for all risks, and 1.2 µg day?1 for all risks excluding carcinogenicity, the latter being similar to previously reported inhalation TTCs.

Piet Wester

2011-02-01

385

Seismic hazard maps of Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Italian "Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti" has conducted a project in recent years for assessing seismic hazard in the national territory to be used as a basis for the revision of the current seismic zonation. In this project the data on the major earthquakes were reassessed and a new earthquake data file prepared. Definition of a seismotectonic model for the whole territory, based on a structural-kinematic analysis of Italy and the surrounding regions, led to the definition of 80 seismogenic zones, for which the geological and seismic characteristics were determined. Horizontal PGA and macroseismic intensity were used as seismicity parameters in the application of the Cornell probabilistic approach. The main aspects of the seismic hazard assessment are here described and the results obtained are presented and discussed. The maps prepared show the various aspects of seismic hazard which need to be considered for a global view of the problem. In particular, those with a 475-year return period, in agreement with the specifications of the new seismic Eurocode EC8, can be considered basic products for a revision of the present national seismic zonation.

A. Rebez

1998-06-01

386

Screening hazardous wastes in solid waste landfills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presence of hazardous wastes in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream has become a well-recognized waste management issue. Recognition of the issue has been brought about by a variety of factors including the results of environmental monitoring at landfills; the increased sensitivity of laboratory instrumentation; the results of solid waste characterization studies; observations made in load-checking programs at MSW landfills; and hazardous incidents involving refuse workers and equipment. Concern over problems that can occur from hazardous waste in MSW has led to the development of such alternative hazardous waste management programs as household hazardous waste (HHW) collection programs and small-quantity generator (SQG) management programs.

Karpinski, G.; Glaub, J. (EMCON Associates, San Jose, CA (United States))

1994-08-01

387

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste transportation regulations and requirements study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to identify the regulations and requirements for transporting greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and to identify planning activities that need to be accomplished in preparation for transporting GTCC LLW. The regulations and requirements for transporting hazardous materials, of which GTCC LLW is included, are complex and include several Federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes. This report is divided into five sections and three appendices. Section 1 introduces the report. Section 2 identifies and discusses the transportation regulations and requirements. The regulations and requirements are divided into Federal, state, local government, and Indian tribes subsections. This report does not identify the regulations or requirements of specific state, local government, and Indian tribes, since the storage, treatment, and disposal facility locations and transportation routes have not been specifically identified. Section 3 identifies the planning needed to ensure that all transportation activities are in compliance with the regulations and requirements. It is divided into (a) transportation packaging; (b) transportation operations; (c) system safety and risk analysis, (d) route selection; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (f) safeguards and security. This section does not provide actual planning since the details of the Department of Energy (DOE) GTCC LLW Program have not been finalized, e.g., waste characterization and quantity, storage, treatment and disposal facility locations, and acceptance criteria. Sections 4 and 5 provide conclusions and referenced documents, respectively

1993-01-01

388

Scaling law for seismic hazard after a main shock  

CERN Document Server

After a large earthquake, the likelihood of successive strong aftershocks needs to be estimated. Exploiting similarities with critical phenomena, we introduce a scaling law for the decay in time following a main shock of the expected number of aftershocks greater than a certain magnitude. Empirical results that support our scaling hypothesis are obtained from analyzing the record of earthquakes in California. The proposed form unifies the well-known Omori and Gutenberg-Richter laws of seismicity, together with other phenomenological observations. Our results substantially modify presently employed estimates and may lead to an improved assessment of seismic hazard after a large earthquake.}

Lise, S; Stella, A; Lise, Stefano; Paczuski, Maya; Stella, Attilio

2004-01-01

389

Coupling induced seismic hazard analysis with reservoir design  

Science.gov (United States)

The hazard and risk perspective in research on induced seismicity usually focuses on the question how to reduce the occurrence of induced earthquakes. However, it is also well accepted that shear-dilatancy accompanied by seismic energy radiation is a required process for reservoir creation in low permeability rock. Assessment of induced seismic hazard for a planned stimulation experiment must take into account the target reservoir properties. We present a generic modelling study, in which induced seismic hazard can be analysed in balance with the permeability enhancement and the size of the stimulated reservoir. The model has two coupled components: 1) a flow model that solves the pressure diffusion equations, and 2) a stochastic seismicity model, which uses the transient pressure disturbances to trigger seismic events at so-called seed points. At triggering, a magnitude is randomly drawn from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution with a local b-value that depends on the stress state at the seed point. In the source area of the events the permeability is increased depending on the amount of slip, but only by a maximum factor of 200. Due to the stochastic nature of the modelling approach, a representative number of 500 model realizations are computed. The results demonstrate that planning and controlling of reservoir engineering operation may be compromised by the considerable variability of maximum observed magnitude, reservoir size, b-value and seismogenic index arising from the intrinsic virtually random nature of induced seismicity. We also find that injection volume has the highest impact on both reservoir size and seismic hazard, while changing injection rate and strategy at constant final injection volume has a negligible effect. However, the impact of site-specific parameters on seismicity and reservoir properties is greater than the volume effect. In particular, conditions that lead to high b-values - for instance a low differential stress level - have a high positive impact on seismic hazard. However, as smaller magnitudes contribute less to permeability enhancement the efficiency of stimulation is degraded in case of high b-value conditions. Nevertheless, target permeability enhancement can be still be achieved under high b-value condition without reaching an unacceptable seismic hazard level, if either initial permeability is already high or if several fractures are stimulated. The proposed modelling approach is a first step towards including induced seismic hazard analysis into the design of reservoir stimulation.

Gischig, V.; Wiemer, S.; Alcolea, A. R.

2013-12-01

390

Assessment of explosion hazards of coal dusts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes a method for determining explosion hazard during coal pulverization in power plants. On the basis of combustion and explosion theory a mathematical formula is derived considering major factors which influence explosion hazards. The following factors are analyzed: calorific value of coal, emission of volatile matter and ash content. The formula uses multipliers (e.g. critical volatile matter value) determined by experiments. On the basis of the explosion hazard index coal is classified in 4 groups: without explosion hazard, with a low explosion hazard, with a considerable explosion hazard and with an extremely high explosion hazard. Investigations carried out in Soviet power plants show that from 20% to 25% of coal being pulverized is prone to explosions. Explosion hazard in a pulverizing system is influenced not only by the degree of explosion hazard of a coal mixture but also by intensive variations in explosion hazard of individual components of the mixture used by a fossil-fuel power plant. The results of investigations carried out in a power plant in the USSR are analyzed. Due to fluctuations in physical and chemical properties of coal supplied by belt conveyors from various coal hoppers explosion hazards also fluctuate. Investigation results are shown in a diagram.

Babkin, R.L.; Koroleva, E.N.; Plotnikova, N.P.

1983-02-01

391

Analyzing electrical hazards in the workplace.  

Science.gov (United States)

In resolving the issues in analyzing electrical hazards in an industry, we must follow a path that will lead to a comprehensive analysis of the problems that exist and provide a quantified value to ensure the selection of appropriate personal protective equipment and clothing. An analysis of all three hazards--shock, arc, and blast--must be completed and steps taken to prevent injuries. The following steps could be taken to ensure adequacy of the electrical safe work practices program and training of "qualified" electrical personnel: 1. Conduct a comprehensive Job Task Analysis. 2. Complete a Task Hazard Assessment including: a) shock hazard, b) arc flash hazard, c) arc blast hazard, d) other hazards (slip, fall, struck-by, environmental, etc.). 3. Analyze task for the personal protective equipment needed. 4. Conduct training needs assessment for qualified and non-qualified electrical workers. 5. Revise, update, or publish a complete electrical safe work practices program. Regulatory agencies and standards organizations have long recognized the need to analyze the hazards of electrical work and plan accordingly to mitigate the hazards. Unfortunately, many in the electrical industry have chosen to "take their chances," largely because nothing bad has yet happened. As more information becomes available on the economic and human costs of electrical accidents, it is hoped that more in the industry will recognize the need for systematic hazard analysis and an electrical safe work program that emphasizes hazard identification and abatement. PMID:24358642

Neitzel, Dennis K

2013-10-01

392

Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient.

Moran, W.J.; Panje, W.R.

1987-04-01

393

Hazardous waste management at Rockwell Hanford Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The control of hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site is a complex task and one that requires cooperation from each of the site operating contractors. The Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) Hazardous Waste Management Program being conducted at the Hanford site is described briefly in the following paragraphs. The program, as described, is an evolving program that is changing continually to improve control, enhance safety, and achieve full regulatory compliance. The Rockwell Hazardous Waste Management Program can be divided into three parts: (1) the control of hazardous materials; (2) the identification of hazardous waste streams; and (3) the disposal of hazardous wastes. These three parts and how they interface to provide an effective Hazardous Waste Management Program are described in the following text.

McCall, D.L.

1984-11-01

394

Implementation of the hazardous debris rule  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hazardous debris includes objects contaminated with hazardous waste. Examples of debris include tree stumps, timbers, boulders, tanks, piping, crushed drums, personal protective clothing, etc. Most of the hazardous debris encountered comes from Superfund sites and other facility remediation, although generators and treaters of hazardous waste also generate hazardous debris. Major problems associated with disposal of debris includes: Inappropriateness of many waste treatments to debris; Difficulties in obtaining representative samples; Costs associated with applying waste specific treatments to debris; Subtitle C landfill space was being used for many low hazard debris types. These factors brought about the need for debris treatment technologies and regulations that addressed these issues. The goal of such regulation was to provide treatment to destroy or remove the contamination if possible and, if this is achieved, to dispose of the cleaned debris as a nonhazardous waste. EPA has accomplished this goal through promulgation of the Hazardous Debris Rule, August 18, 1992.

Sailer, J.E.

1993-01-05

395

Implementation of the hazardous debris rule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazardous debris includes objects contaminated with hazardous waste. Examples of debris include tree stumps, timbers, boulders, tanks, piping, crushed drums, personal protective clothing, etc. Most of the hazardous debris encountered comes from Superfund sites and other facility remediation, although generators and treaters of hazardous waste also generate hazardous debris. Major problems associated with disposal of debris includes: Inappropriateness of many waste treatments to debris; Difficulties in obtaining representative samples; Costs associated with applying waste specific treatments to debris; Subtitle C landfill space was being used for many low hazard debris types. These factors brought about the need for debris treatment technologies and regulations that addressed these issues. The goal of such regulation was to provide treatment to destroy or remove the contamination if possible and, if this is achieved, to dispose of the cleaned debris as a nonhazardous waste. EPA has accomplished this goal through promulgation of the Hazardous Debris Rule, August 18, 1992

1992-02-08

396

Strategic Significance of Negative Externalities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Negative externalities have competitive relevance in a market when they have selective impacts as, for example, when a product in use imposes greater costs on consumers of rival products than on other people. Because managers have discretion over aspects ...

M. G. Nagler

2012-01-01

397

Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

1980-11-10

398

78 FR 37594 - Application and Amendment to Facility Operating License Involving Proposed No Significant Hazards...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Facility Operating License Condition 2.C(1) ``Maximum Power Level,'' to restrict operation of SONGS Unit 2 to...generator management program and the license condition for maximum power. For the duration of Unit 2, Cycle 17, the...

2013-06-21

399

75 FR 39975 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards...  

Science.gov (United States)

...differential pressure. The leakage...General Design Criteria...Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code...due to the pressure-induced...technical specification] TS 4...analysis of the reactor coolant system...available. Design changes...

2010-07-13

400

78 FR 42113 - Application and Amendment to Facility Operating License Involving Proposed No Significant Hazards...  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements, to allow the licensee to use AREVA 16x16 reactor fuel on a permanent basis...to support the core design with the new AREVA fuel; revising TS 4.2.1, Fuel Assemblies...fuel centerline melt safety limit for the AREVA fuel with corresponding adjustments...

2013-07-15

 
 
 
 
401

Simulations of Tsunami Hazard from Regional Sources in the South China and Adjoining Seas  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the tsunami potential from sources located in the South China Sea and its adjoining basins, the Sulu and Sulawezi Seas, by running simulations using the MOST code for a number of scenarios of possible earthquakes at the various local subduction zones. In the Sulawezi Sea, we consider the events of 1918 at the Mindanao subduction zone, and 1996 at the Northern end of the Makassar Strait. In the Sulu Sea, we consider a scenario inspired by the 1948 Panay earthquake (because of the fractured nature of the plate system in those areas, it is not feasible to consider much larger earthquakes). In all three cases, we find that the tsunami is contained within the relevant marginal sea and does not penetrate significantly the greater South China Basin, but could cause significant damage to the Eastern coast of Borneo. Farther North, we consider as worst case scenarios events reaching 10**29 dyn*cm with rupture lengths of 400 km, both off Luzon Island and, under a slightly different geometry, off the Luzon Straits separating the Philippines and Taiwan. Such scenarios carry very significant hazard to all coastlines bordering the South China Sea, including Indochina and Borneo. We will also present models of landslide-generated tsunamis, inspired from the event of 14 February 1934 off the Luzon Strait, and the presumably Holocene Brunei mega-slide.

Kalligeris, N.; Synolakis, C. E.; Okal, E. A.

2008-12-01

402

Radiological and hazardous material measurement system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Existing nuclear waste assay systems do not have the measurement threshold or volume production rate capabilities required for a meaningful remediation of the significant amounts of nuclear waste at many of the DOE facilities. The conceptual design of the Radiological and Hazardous Material Measurement System, (RHMMS) was in response to engineering requirements for the remediation of uncharacterized buried nuclear waste in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The RHMMS is an integrated, multi-measurement processor with projected capabilities of measuring fissile and fertile materials to threshold levels below 10 nCi/g, at a volume production rate approaching 300 barrel equivalents per day. The processor also has the waste refinement capability of removing material which exceeds transuranic (TRU) levels from the bulk waste material. This paper addresses only the development of the measurement systems required for characterizing the waste.

Karvinen, J.R.

1992-01-01

403

Radiological and hazardous material measurement system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Existing nuclear waste assay systems do not have the measurement threshold or volume production rate capabilities required for a meaningful remediation of the significant amounts of nuclear waste at many of the DOE facilities. The conceptual design of the Radiological and Hazardous Material Measurement System, (RHMMS) was in response to engineering requirements for the remediation of uncharacterized buried nuclear waste in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The RHMMS is an integrated, multi-measurement processor with projected capabilities of measuring fissile and fertile materials to threshold levels below 10 nCi/g, at a volume production rate approaching 300 barrel equivalents per day. The processor also has the waste refinement capability of removing material which exceeds transuranic (TRU) levels from the bulk waste material. This paper addresses only the development of the measurement systems required for characterizing the waste.

Karvinen, J.R.

1992-08-01

404

Hazards Control Department 1996 Annual Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This annual report on the activities of the Hazards Control Department (HCD) in 1996 is part of the department's continuing effort to foster a working environment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where every person has the means, ability, and desire to work safely. The significant accomplishments and activities, the various services provided, and research into Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) issues by HCD would not have been possible without the many and ongoing contributions by its employees and support personnel. The HCD Leadership Team thanks each and every one in the department for their efforts and work in 1996 and for their personal commitment to keeping one of the premier research and scientific institutions in the world today a safe and healthy place.

Richards, J.

1997-06-30

405

Egyptian Environmental Activities and Regulations for Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner

1998-12-12

406

Microwave separation of organic chemicals from mixed hazardous waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of utilizing the differential heating characteristics of microwave energy (MW) to aid in the chemical extraction and separation process of hazardous organic compounds from mixed hazardous waste, was studied at the INEL. The long-term objective of this work was to identify a practical method of separating or enhancing the separation process of organic hazardous waste components from mixed waste using microwave (MW) frequency radiation. Methods using MW energy for calcination, solidification, and drying of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities is becoming more attractive. In order to study the effectiveness of MW heating, samples of several organic chemicals simulating those which may be found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL were exposed to MW energy. Vapor collection and analysis was performed as a function of time, signal frequency, and MW power throughout the process. Signal frequencies ranging from 900 MHz t 8000 MHz were used. Although the signal frequency bandwidth of the selectivity was quite broad, for the material tested an indication of the frequency dependence in the selectivity of MW heating was given. Greater efficiency in terms of energy used and time required was observed. The relatively large electromagnetic field intensities generated at the resonant frequencies which were supported by the cavity sample holder demonstrated the use of cavity resonance to aid in the process of differential heating

1992-08-23

407

Event specific seismic hazard analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seismic hazard analyses commonly express the exposure at a site in terms of uniform hazard spectra (UHS). They are defined as 'spectra of which each ordinate has the same probability of being exceeded in a fixed period of time.' All events capable of effecting the site are considered in assessing the probability of exceedance. From such definition it results that no single earthquake has a spectrum corresponding to the UHS since different types of earthquakes contribute to different frequency bands of the spectrum. Such approach introduces conservatism in design, particularly in the generation of artificial time histories as their frequency content is much broader than the one of real earthquakes. In the context of the Seismic Safety Margin Research Program (SSMRP) funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), this research attempts to circumvent the problem by expressing the seismic hazard at a site located in the central United States in terms of event specific response spectra corresponding to the particular types of earthquakes the site is expected to be subjected to. The procedure is based on simulation to retain the individual character of earthquakes. The parameters describing the simulation of one event at the site are (1) the PGA in both horizontal directions associated with the same spectral shape, (2) the PGA and spectral shape in the vertical direction and (3) the duration. This information is sufficient to either select real time histories or generate artificial ones to compute nonlinear structural response. The methodology appears promising in less research oriented applications as the additional effort over standard approaches is small compared to the additional amount of information it provides. (orig.)

1981-08-17

408

Vaccine preventability of meningococcal clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city of Aachen and 3 neighboring countries (Greater Aachen) prompted us to investigate and determine the source and nature of this outbreak. Using molecular typing and geographic mapping, we analyzed 1,143 strains belonging to ST41/44 complex, isolated from persons with invasive meningococcal disease over 6 years (2001-2006) from 2 German federal states (total population 26 million) and the Netherlands. A spatially slowly moving clone with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis type 19, ST42, and antigenic profile B:P1.7-2,4:F1-5 was responsible for the outbreak. Bactericidal activity in serum samples from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccination campaign confirmed vaccine preventability. Because this globally distributed epidemic strain spreads slowly, vaccination efforts could possibly eliminate meningococcal disease in this area. PMID:20202422

Elias, Johannes; Schouls, Leo M; van de Pol, Ingrid; Keijzers, Wendy C; Martin, Diana R; Glennie, Anne; Oster, Philipp; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich; van der Ende, Arie

2010-03-01

409

Managing greater-than-Class-C low-level waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Congress has assigned to the Federal Government responsibility to safely dispose of a category of nonDOE low-level radioactive waste classified as ''greater-than-Class-C that results from activities licensed by the NRC.'' Concentrations of radionuclides in this waste exceed the Nuclear Regulatory Commisision (NRC) limits for routine near-surface disposal. A recent Department of Energy (DOE) report to Congress identified the wastes that are in this category, defined issues that must be resolved to safely manage the waste, and proposed an approach to implement the federal responsibility. The volume of this waste is relatively small, but its management presents some unique needs. Those include a clear definition of the waste, improved data on volumes and characteristics of the waste, additional regulatory guidance from NRC and the Environmental Protection Agency, and an assessment of the viability of disposal at nonfederal sites. When these needs have been met, disposal capacity can be developed that will ensure the safe disposal of all waste in this category. In the interim, DOE proposes to explore nonfederal disposal options and, if necessary, accept the waste upon request of the generators, take title to the waste, store it until disposal capacity is available, and ensure its safe disposal with all reasonable costs to be borne by the waste generator or owner

1987-01-01

410

Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

2000-10-01

411

Desertification, and climate change. The case for greater convergence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poor knowledge of links between desertification and global climate change is limiting funding from the Global Environment Facility for anti-desertification projects and realization of synergies between the Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) and the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Greater convergence between research in the two fields could overcome these limitations, improve our knowledge of desertification, and benefit four areas of global climate change studies: mitigation assessment; accounting for land cover change in the carbon budget; land surface-atmosphere interactions; and climate change impact forecasting. Convergence would be assisted if desertification were treated more as a special case in dry areas of the global process of land degradation, and stimulated by: (a) closer cooperation between the FCCC and CCD; (b) better informal networking between desertification and global climate change scientists, e.g. within the framework of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Both strategies would be facilitated if the FCCC and CCD requested the IPCC to provide a scientific framework for realizing the synergies between them. 71 refs.

Grainger, A. [School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Smith, M.S. [CSIRO National Rangelands Programme, PO Box 2111, Alice Springs, NT 0871 (Australia); Squires, V.R. [Dryland Management Consultant, PO Box 31, Magill 5072, SA 5072 (Australia); Glenn, E.P. [Environmental Research Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85706-6985 (United States)

2000-07-01

412

Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite`s t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set).

Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

1993-12-01

413

Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite's t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set)

1993-01-01

414

Mercury's global contraction much greater than earlier estimates  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury, a planet with a lithosphere that forms a single tectonic plate, is replete with tectonic structures interpreted to be the result of planetary cooling and contraction. However, the amount of global contraction inferred from spacecraft images has been far lower than that predicted by models of the thermal evolution of the planet's interior. Here we present a synthesis of the global contraction of Mercury from orbital observations acquired by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We show that Mercury's global contraction has been accommodated by a substantially greater number and variety of structures than previously recognized, including long belts of ridges and scarps where the crust has been folded and faulted. The tectonic features on Mercury are consistent with models for large-scale deformation proposed for a globally contracting Earth--now obsolete--that pre-date plate tectonics theory. We find that Mercury has contracted radially by as much as 7 km, well in excess of the 0.8-3 km previously reported from photogeology and resolving the discrepancy with thermal models. Our findings provide a key constraint for studies of Mercury's thermal history, bulk silicate abundances of heat-producing elements, mantle convection and the structure of its large metallic core.

Byrne, Paul K.; Klimczak, Christian; Celâl ?engör, A. M.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watters, Thomas R.; Hauck, Steven A., II

2014-04-01

415

Three decades of research on the greater Agulhas Current  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The greater Agulhas Current has been shown to be a key link in the global thermohaline circulation and an increased understanding of this current system is therefore of more than just local interest. Knowledge on the Agulhas Current system has in fact increased enormously over the past 30 years. This review covers some aspects of what has been learnt on the northern and the southern parts of the Agulhas Current proper and their influence on the waters and circulation of the adjoining continental shelf. It also discusses the Natal Pulse and new information that has been gained on how it is triggered and what influence it has. It deals with the Agulhas retroflection, the shedding of Agulhas rings and the movement and characteristics of these rings that contributes to the meridional overturning circulation of the global ocean. The Agulhas Return Current forms part of the final outflow of the system and current knowledge on that current is appraised. The sources of the Agulhas Current have been a controversial subject for many years and this dispute continues. This is described and discussed, based on what information has been gained from research over the past three decades. Building on what is currently known, some suggestions are given on the most important remaining knowledge gaps and how these could most efficaciously be filled.

J. R. E. Lutjeharms

2007-01-01

416

Three decades of research on the greater Agulhas Current  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The greater Agulhas Current has been shown to be a key link in the global thermohaline circulation and an increased understanding of this current system is therefore of more than just local interest. Knowledge on the Agulhas Current system has in fact increased enormously over the past 30 years. This review covers some aspects of what has been learnt on the northern and the southern parts of the Agulhas Current proper and their influence on the waters and circulation of the adjoining continental shelf. It also discusses the Natal Pulse and new information that has been gained on how it is triggered and what influence it has. It deals with the Agulhas retroflection, the shedding of Agulhas rings and the movement and characteristics of these rings. The Agulhas Return Current forms the final outflow of the system and current knowledge on that current is appraised. The sources of the Agulhas Current have been a controversial subject for many years and this dispute continues. This is described and discussed, based on what information has been gained from research over the past three decades. Building on what is currently known, some suggestions are given on the most important remaining knowledge gaps and how these could most efficaciously be filled.

J. R. E. Lutjeharms

2006-07-01

417

Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

Piscitella, R.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

1991-12-31

418

Spar technology takes oil exploration to greater depths  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Gulf is the hottest exploration site in the world. How has this geological expanse, once considered in its declining years of oil and gas production, reawakened as a giant in drilling and exploration activity? Technological advances in deep-water drilling and recovery are the answer. Tension leg platforms have pioneered the path to greater depths with capabilities to 7,000 ft, but now there is technology that boasts of a future where oil recovery at depths of 10,000 ft is no engineer`s fantasy. The technology is the spar hull platform. The spar hull is basically a long, large-diameter pipe that floats vertically in the water, anchored by a number of mooring lines in the sea floor. The structure itself is very simple, but its great appeal is its stability in deep water. The structure floats so deeply in the water that the wave action at the surface is dampened by the counterbalance effect of the structure`s weight. Fin-like structures, called strakes, attached in a helical fashion around the exterior of the cylinder, act to break the water flow against the structure, further enhancing stability. The first spar hull platform to make its appearance in the Gulf of Mexico became operational this year. This paper discusses the fabrication of the platform.

Cullison, A.

1997-10-01

419

Greater coke strength through reactive additives to coking coal bends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Operational tests have shown that the addition of both carbon and petroleum bitumens to weakly coking coals leads to greater coke strength. As shown especially by the results of carbon pitch additives, better coke strength is achieved regardless of whether the reagent is added to the coal in ground, solid form or in hot, liquid form. The best results were achieved with carbon pitch, Esso tar, petroleum pitch and also flash pitch. Adding 7% carbon pitch to a gas flame/steam coal blend had the same quality boosting effect as 50% fat coal. The drawback of lower bulk density in the charge, occurring when reagents were added, together with the higher consequent total shrinkage and excessive gas collecting chamber temperature, were eliminated by using coarser steam coal and/or the addition of light fuel oil. With hot sprayed carbon-pitch the addition of 0.2% light fuel oil brought down shrinkage from 15.3 to 8.9%. Raising the average particle size of the charged steam coal reduced shrinkage, although some slight increase in M/sub 10/ abrasivity had to be accepted while strength M/sub 40/ remained unchanged.

Weskamp, W.; Rohde, W.; Stewen, W.; Habermehl