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1

A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M approximately 8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M > or = 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9 g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of expected shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking is ca 35% in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama and ca 10% in Chiba for an average 30 year period, in good agreement with our independent estimate, and thus bolstering our view that Tokyo's hazard looms large. Given 1 trillion US dollars estimates for the cost of an M approximately 7.3 shock beneath Tokyo, our probability implies a 13 billion US dollars annual probable loss. PMID:16844644

Stein, Ross S; Toda, Shinji; Parsons, Tom; Grunewald, Elliot

2006-08-15

2

Microzonation of earthquake hazard in Greater Delhi area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A spate of earthquakes in the recent past, causing extensive damage,has heightened the sensitivity of engineers and planners to the looming seismic risk in densely populated Indian cities. Delhi city is in a seismically active region and hence it is important to understand the existing earthquake hazard to the city on a scientific basis. This article, after discussing the seismo-tectonic status of the city and its environs, presents probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of an area of 30 km x ...

Iyengar, Rn; Ghosh, S.

2004-01-01

3

Assessing Flood Hazard in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh Using SAR Imageries with GIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the development of a flood hazard map and assessment of flood hazard are described using RADARSAT SAR and GIS data for the historical flood event of 1998. A flood hazard map was developed on the basis of ranking matrix in two dimensional multiplication mode which was calculated using the digital elevation and land-cover data. Flood-affected frequency estimated from multi-temporal SAR imageries was considered as a hydraulic component for the evaluation of flood hazard. Assessment of flood hazard was performed by overlaying thematic data onto derived hazard map. It is demonstrated that the evaluation of flood risk can be done efficiently using GIS and RS data. It is expected that the developed flood hazard map will be useful to mitigate losses of lives and property from future flood disasters in third world cities, particularly in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Ashraf Mahmmood Dewan

2005-01-01

4

Seismic ground motion and hazard assessment of the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, southeastern Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seismic ground motion of the Greater Accra Metropolitan area has been computed and the hazard zones assessed using a deterministic hybrid approach based on the modal summation and finite difference methods. The seismic ground motion along four profiles located in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area has been modelled using the 1939 earthquake of magnitude 6.5(ML) as the scenario earthquake. Synthetic seismic waveforms from which parameters for engineering design such as peak ground acceleration, velocity and spectral amplifications have been produced along the geological cross sections. From the seismograms computed, the seismic hazard of the metropolis, expressed in terms of peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity have been estimated. The peak ground acceleration estimated in the study ranges from 0.14 - 0.57 g and the peak ground velocity from 9.2 - 37.1cms-1. The presence of low velocity sediments gave rise to high peak values and amplifications. The maximum peak ground accelerations estimated are located in areas with low velocity formations such as colluvium, continental and marine deposits. Areas in the metropolis underlain by unconsolidated sediments have been classified as the maximum damage potential zone and those underlain by highly consolidated geological materials are classified as low damage potential zone. The results of the numerical simulation have been extended to all areas in the metropolis with similar geological formation. (author)

5

Seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area was undertaken. The research was aimed at employing a methematical model to estimate the seismic stress for the study area by generating a complete, unified and harmonized earthquake catalogue spanning 1615 to 2012. Seismic events were souced from Leydecker, G. and P. Amponsah, (1986), Ambraseys and Adams, (1986), Amponsah (2008), Geological Survey Department, Accra, Ghana, Amponsah (2002), National Earthquake Information Service, United States Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA, the International Seismological Centre and the National Data Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Events occurring in the study area were used to create and Epicentral Intensity Map and a seismicity map of the study area after interpolation of missing seismic magnitudes. The least square method and the maximum likelihood estimation method were employed to evaluate b-values of 0.6 and 0.9 respectively for the study area. A thematic map of epicentral intensity superimposed on the geology of the study area was also developed to help understand the relationship between the virtually fractured, jointed and sheared geology and the seismic events. The results obtained are indicative of the fact that the stress level of GAMA has a telling effect on its seismicity and also the events are prevalents at fractured, jointed and sheared zones. (au)

6

Kappa-opioids produce significantly greater analgesia in women than in men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex differences in human responses to nociceptive stimuli and painful pathological conditions have generally indicated that women report higher pain levels or exhibit less tolerance than men for given stimulus intensities (reviewed in ref. 1 and 2). However, studies have not evaluated sex differences in analgesic responses. We recently reported that the opioid agonist-antagonist pentazocine, which acts predominantly at kappa-receptors, produced significantly better postoperative analgesia in females than in males in patients who underwent surgery for the removal of their third molars (wisdom teeth). In the current study, we evaluated the hypothesis that this sex difference is a characteristic of kappa-opioid agonism. In order to determine whether there are sex differences associated with kappa-opioid agonism, the analgesic efficacy of two other predominantly kappa-opioid analgesics, nalbuphine and butorphanol; was compared in males and females who underwent surgery for the removal of third molar teeth. We found that both nalbuphine and butorphanol produced significantly greater analgesia in females as compared with males. Considering our earlier findings, we conclude that kappa-opioid analgesia is greater in females than in males, probably reflecting a difference in kappa-opioid-activated endogenous pain modulating circuits. PMID:8898754

Gear, R W; Miaskowski, C; Gordon, N C; Paul, S M; Heller, P H; Levine, J D

1996-11-01

7

Liquefaction hazard mapping with LPI in the Greater Oakland, California, area  

Science.gov (United States)

Cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) of surficial geologic units were used to define the liquefaction hazard in a 140-km2 area along the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay near Oakland, California. LPI values were computed for 202 cone penetration tests conducted in surficial geologic units in the study area. The hazard of each unit was defined by the cumulative frequency at LPI = 5. The distributions predict that 73% and 3%, respectively, of the area underlain by artificial fill and Holocene alluvial fan deposits will show surface manifestations of liquefaction during a M7.1 earthquake on the nearby Hayward Fault. The predictions are consistent with recent earthquakes in other areas where similar types of deposits experienced near-field ground motion. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Holzer, T.L.; Bennett, M.J.; Noce, T.E.; Padovani, A.C.; Tinsley, J. C., III

2006-01-01

8

Crustal Faults in the Chilean Andes: Tectonic significance and implications for geologic hazard  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chilean Andes is one of the best natural laboratories to unravel the geologic nature of seismic hazards. It has recorded both great subduction earthquakes (e.g. Mw 9.5, Valdivia, 1960) and moderate magnitude crustal earthquakes (e.g., Mw 6.2, Aysen, 2007). At the Nazca-South America subduction zone, hundred-kilometer-long segmented megathrust faults can produce earthquakes of magnitudes greater than 7.5, with recurrence times between 80 to 120 years, and earthquakes of magnitudes greater than 8.5 every 250 to 500 years. Thus, megathrust-type earthquakes represent the first order seismic hazard in the Chilean Andes, causing the most damage to population and economy. Crustal intra-plate faults, in turn, have longer recurrence times, but can also cause great destruction at local scale because of their shallower hipocentral depth. However, the nature, timing and slip rates of crustal faults in the Chilean Andes remain poorly constrained. Recent studies have suggested a link between the subduction seismic cycle and activity on crustal faults, but this remains as an open question. Some crustal faults -especially those in the outer forearc- have the potential to reactivate co-seismically, when optimally oriented with respect to the instantaneous extension direction arising from elastic rebound of mega-earthquakes. Other faults may activate during the subduction interseismic period. Among these, are the regional strike-slip faults and thrusts in the main cordillera (e.g. Liquiñe-Ofqui fault, LOF). Although sparse and limited, current structural, paleo-seismological and geodetic data suggests that slip rates in Chilean crustal faults range from 0.2 mm/year in the forearc to up to 6.5 mm/year for the LOF. This implies recurrence times in the range of 50.000 to 200 years for Mw 7 earthquakes, respectively. The main implication of these very different tectonic modes for fault reactivation and the wide range of slip rates is that geologic hazard assessment of crustal faults is far from trivial: many structures considered active in the traditional sense will not generate earthquakes in thousands of years according to their recurrence times, whereas other less-well-known Quaternary faults, that have no instrumentally recorded seismicity, could trigger Mw 7 earthquakes. Furthermore, fault segments that have generated earthquakes independently, may eventually be capable to merge together into a single rupture zone and generate an earthquake of greater magnitude. Our current neotectonic and paleoseismological investigations in Chile are focused into unraveling the spatial distribution, precise geometry, and slip-rates of these faults and their potential link with short and long-term subduction zone rupture segments. A rigorous seismic hazard assessment must then consider the widely different nature, timing and slip rates of Andean faults. Understanding the nature of crustal faults will help us not only to better assessing the geological hazard associated to them, but also to understand and constrain their link with the subduction zone seismic cycle.

Santibanez, I.; Cembrano, J. M.; Gonzalez, G.; Aron, F.; Yanez, G. A.

2013-12-01

9

Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis: a significant health hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions. (author)

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Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis : A significant health hazard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis. Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions.

Alanazi Marzouqah

2009-01-01

11

Exploring the significance of the fluidized flow regime for avalanche hazard mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

Observational and experimental evidence suggests that it is important to explicitly account for the fluidized flow regime in avalanche hazard mapping due to its high mobility, intermediate density and high velocity. We explore the differences from conventional runout modelling by implementing an extension of the Norem-Irgens-Schieldrop (NIS) rheology in a simple mass-point model. When the dispersive stresses and the excess pore pressure equal the overburden pressure, the flow height increases and the density diminishes until a new equilibrium is reached, determined by the different density dependencies of the two parameters of the dispersive stresses. Fluidization requires sufficiently steep terrain; when it occurs it leads to substantially higher velocities than compared to the dense-flow regime. The model parameters are strongly constrained by their physical meaning and vary little between widely different avalanches. However, in all test cases we obtained better agreement between simulated and observed runout distances and pressure effects than with conventional models.

Issler, Dieter; Gauer, Peter

12

Radioactivity measurements in Egyptian Phosphate Mines and Their Significance As a Source of Hazardous Radioactive Waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate mines that may contain radioactive traces in the composition of their ores represent source of hazardous radioactive waste in the environment. Radioactivity measurements have been conducted in nine underground phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert in order to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers in those mining sites. Measurements were carried out of airborne radon and its short- lived decay products (progeny) and thoron progeny, as well as radiation from mines walls, ceilings and floors. Conventional, well established techniques, methods and instrumentation were used to make these measurements. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions showed partial agreement between these two sets of data. This result is partly attributed to the complex layout of these mines, which causes undesirable ventilation conditions, such as recirculation airflow patterns, which could not be adequately identified or quantified. The radiation data obtained were used to estimate the maximum Annual Dose (MAD), and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. These calculations indicate that in eight out of the nine mines surveyed, the MAD exceeded (by a factor of up to 7) the maximum recommended level by ICRP 60. Numbers of suggestions are made in order to reduce the MAD in the affected mines. This study could help in the estimation of the environmental impact of these mine operations on the environment

13

Evaluating the health significance of hazardous air pollutants using monitoring data.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: Though many contaminants are released into the atmosphere, in the US only six air pollutants-ozone, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead-are closely monitored and carefully assessed for health significance. Other pollutants, even if highly toxic, are neither widely monitored nor routinely assessed at the national level. The goal of this study was to analyze the availability of information needed to characterize the health significance of h...

Kyle, A. D.; Wright, C. C.; Caldwell, J. C.; Buffler, P. A.; Woodruff, T. J.

2001-01-01

14

Greater India  

Science.gov (United States)

"Greater India" is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India-Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924) [Argand, E., 1924. La tectonique de l' Asie. Proc. 13th Int. Geol. Cong. 7 (1924), 171-372.] and Arthur Holmes (1965) [Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Second Edition. The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1128.] thought that the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau had been raised due to the northern edge of the Indian craton under-thrusting the entire region. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory, Greater India proposals have been based principally on three lines of logic. One group of workers has added various amounts of continental lithosphere to India as part of their Mesozoic Gondwana models. A second form of reconstruction is based on Himalayan crustal-shortening estimates. A third body of researchers has used India continent extensions as means of allowing initial contact between the block and the Eurasian backstop plate in southern Tibet to take place at various times between the Late Cretaceous and late Eocene in what we call "fill-the-gap" solutions. The Indian craton and the southern edge of Eurasia were almost invariably some distance from one another when the collision was supposed to have started; extensions to the sub-continent were used to circumvent the problem. Occasionally, Greater India extensions have been based on a combination of fill-the-gap and shortening estimate arguments. In this paper, we exhume and re-examine the key Greater India proposals. From our analysis, it is clear that many proponents have ignored key information regarding the sub-continent's pre break-up position within Gondwana and the bathymetry of the Indian Ocean west of Australia, in particular the Wallaby-Zenith Plateau Ridge and the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. We suggest that the Indian continent probably extended no more than 950 km in the central portion of the Main Boundary Thrust, up to the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. At the Western Syntaxis, the extension was about 600 km. These estimates are broadly compatible with some of the geophysically-derived models depicting subducted Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet, as well as estimates of Himalayan shortening. Models requiring sub-continent extensions > 9° ahead of the craton are probably wrong. We also suggest that northern India did not have a thinned rifted passive margin due to the earlier rifting of blocks away from it when it formed part of Gondwana. Instead, the boundary developed as a transform fault and probably had a very narrow ocean-continent transition zone (5-10 km wide), similar to the Romanche Fracture Zone offshore of Ghana, West Africa.

Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

2005-10-01

15

Identification of hazardous road locations of traffic accidents by means of kernel density estimation and cluster significance evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a procedure which evaluates clusters of traffic accident and organizes them according to their significance. The standard kernel density estimation was extended by statistical significance testing of the resulting clusters of the traffic accidents. This allowed us to identify the most important clusters within each section. They represent places where the kernel density function exceeds the significance level corresponding to the 95th percentile level, which is estimated using the Monte Carlo simulations. To show only the most important clusters within a set of sections, we introduced the cluster strength and cluster stability evaluation procedures. The method was applied in the Southern Moravia Region of the Czech Republic. PMID:23567216

Bíl, Michal; Andrášik, Richard; Janoška, Zbyn?k

2013-06-01

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Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

2011-08-01

17

Hazardous waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whether pesticides from agricultural lands, gasolines leakage from service station tanks, heavy metals from plating solutions, or radioactive wastes from nuclear powerplants, hazardous wastes are present throughout the world as byproducts of growth in developing nations. The technology for treatment and disposal of hazardous waste is the most rapidly developing area of environmental engineering. A significant portion of this technology is refinement and/or adaption of proven practices in air quality control, solid waste management, and wastewater treatment. Also, the environmental engineer must learn more about geohydrology to assess the subsurface disposition of hazardous wastes. In the US, the management of hazardous waste is significantly regulated, including such requirements as a manifest system for waste tracking. In addition to a commitment to proper waste treatment and disposal, management programs need also to address means of waste reduction through industrial process changes, including recovery and reuse. This chapter addresses the general areas of direct hazardous waste treatment, categoric remedial action requirements, and low-level radioactive waste handling, and the more specific area of abating underground storage tank leakage. 118 refs., 29 figs., 53 tabs

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A Study of the Anatomical Variations in the Position of the Greater Palatine Foramen in Adult Human Skulls and its Clinical Significance / Variaciones Anatómicas en la Posición del Foramen Palatino Mayor en Cráneos Humanos Adultos y su Significación Clínica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El dolor es un síntoma común y preocupante en la práctica dental. Dependiendo de los casos, diferentes técnicas se utilizan para aliviar el dolor. Una de ellas es el bloqueo periférico del nervio trigémino. Esta, ha demostrado ser una forma eficaz y conveniente para anestesiar grandes regiones del c [...] omplejo oral y maxilofacial. Este bloqueo puede ser intraoral o extraoral. La vía intraoral es a través del foramen palatino mayor en la cual se ingresa en la fosa pterigopalatina, donde se encuentra el nervio maxilar. Las variaciones morfológicas en la posición del foramen palatino mayor puede ser de importancia clínica en la administración de anestesia local y en la cirugía del paladar. En el presente estudio, se examinó la distancia del foramen palatino mayor desde la sutura palatina mediana y el margen posterior del paladar duro, y su posición relativa a los molares superiores, así como la dirección del foramen palatino mayor. Abstract in english Pain is a common distressing symptom in dental practice. Depending upon the cases, different techniques are used to relieve pain. One of these is peripheral trigeminal nerve block. Peripheral trigeminal nerve block anaesthesia has proved to be an effective and convenient way to anaesthetise large re [...] gions of oral and maxillofacial complex. This block can be intraoral or extra oral. The intraoral route is through the greater palatine foramen in which the dental surgeons enter into the pterygopalatine fossa, where the maxillary nerve is situated. The morphological variations in the position of greater palatine foramen may be of clinical importance in the administration of local anaesthesia and in palatal surgery. In the present study, the distance of greater palatine foramen from the median palatine suture, and from the posterior border of hard palate have been noted, and the position of greater palatine foramen relative to the maxillary molars, as well as the direction of the foramen have been examined.

Mitesh R, Dave; Vaishali Kiran, Yagain; Samir, Anadkat.

2013-06-01

19

The Hazard Evaluation System and Information Service: A Physician's Resource in Toxicology and Occupational Medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hazard evaluation is an emerging science. The Hazard Evaluation System and Information Service (HESIS), part of California's program in preventive occupational health, is a resource for clinicians who wish to stay abreast of the relationship between toxicology and occupational health. For example, advances in assays for cancer or reproductive effects in test animals enable us to identify with greater confidence significant cancer or reproductive hazards among the increasing variety of workpla...

Hooper, Kim

1982-01-01

20

Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

Blanchard, A.

2000-02-28

 
 
 
 
21

Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

22

Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

23

Predicted no effect concentration derivation as a significant source of variability in environmental hazard assessments of chemicals in aquatic systems: an international analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental hazard assessments for chemicals are carried out to define an environmentally "safe" level at which, theoretically, the chemical will not negatively affect any exposed biota. Despite this common goal, the methodologies in use are very diverse across different countries and jurisdictions. This becomes particularly obvious when international scientists work together on documents with global scope, e.g., in the World Health Organization (WHO) International Program on Chemical Safety. In this article, we present a study that describes the extent of such variability and analyze the reasons that lead to different outcomes in deriving a "safe level" (termed the predicted no effect concentration [PNEC] throughout this article). For this purpose, we chose 5 chemicals to represent well-known substances for which sufficient high-quality aquatic effects data were available: ethylene glycol, trichloroethylene, nonylphenol, hexachlorobenzene, and copper (Cu). From these data, 2 data sets for each chemical were compiled: the full data set, that contained all information from selected peer-review sources, and the base data set, a subsample of the full set simulating limited data. Scientists from the European Union (EU), United States, Canada, Japan, and Australia independently carried out hazard assessments for each of these chemicals using the same data sets. Their reasoning for key study selection, use of assessment factors, or use of probabilistic methods was comprehensively documented. The observed variation in the PNECs for all chemicals was up to 3 orders of magnitude, and this was not simply due to obvious factors such as the size of the data set or the methodology used. Rather, this was due to individual decisions of the assessors within the scope of the methodology used, especially key study selection, acute versus chronic definitions, and size of assessment factors. Awareness of these factors, together with transparency of the decision-making process, would be necessary to minimize confusion and uncertainty related to different hazard assessment outcomes, particularly in international documents. The development of a "guideline on transparency in decision-making" ensuring the decision-making process is science-based, understandable, and transparent, may therefore be a promising way forward. PMID:23913910

Hahn, Thorsten; Diamond, Jerry; Dobson, Stuart; Howe, Paul; Kielhorn, Janet; Koennecker, Gustav; Lee-Steere, Chris; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Schneider, Uwe; Sugaya, Yoshio; Taylor, Ken; Dam, Rick Van; Stauber, Jenny L

2014-01-01

24

Hazardous Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

25

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pain around the greater trochanter is still a common clinical problem that may be secondary to a variety of either intra-articular or periarticular pathologies. Gluteal tendon pathologies are one of the primary causes of greater trochanteric pain, with attrition of the fasciae latae against the gluteus medius and minimus tendons, and the trochanteric bursa being possible causes. Key sonographic findings of gluteal tendinopathy, bursitis, and differential diagnosis are described in this overview. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is still challenging; therefore ultrasound is helpful to localize the origin of pain, determine underlying pathology, and, based on these findings, to guide local aspiration and/or injection in cases of tendinopathy and/or bursitis. PMID:23487333

Klauser, Andrea S; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto; Bellmann-Weiler, Rosa; Feuchtner, Gudrun M; Wick, Marius; Jaschke, Werner R

2013-02-01

26

Three anomalies: A scythebill in the Greater Antillean Grackle (blackbird, a crown pattern in the Rock Beauty (angelfish, and a double spot in the Butter Hamlet (grouper, and their possible genetic significance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three anomalies are described: a scythebill in Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert (Passeriformes: Emberizidae, a crown color pattern in Rock Beauty, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae, and a double-spot color pattern in Butter Hamlet, Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae. Bill anomalies are generally thought to be genetic in origin and genetic changes in bill shape can occur rapidly in a population. The scythebill anomally demonstrates how quickly a drastic bill modification may occur. The crown color pattern anomaly is similar to distinctive markings found in other members of this genus [Queen Angelfish, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus and hybrid Townsend Angelfish H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] in the tropical western Atlantic. It suggests how quickly this pattern could have originated in the other species, and/or some propensity of this pattern in the genus. The distinct double-spot color pattern anomaly suggests how quickly new color patterns can originate in genus Hypoplectrus. This is important because species in this genus are distinguished almost solely on the basis of color pattern and speciation may be occurring rapidly. Anomalies should be recorded because they may give us some hints at the genetic origin of species characters and some could represent potentially inheritable characters. We suggest these potentially inheritable characters could be recognized and described when they first arise in an individual and before they become inherited by a population. Following these potentially inheritable characters could help to explain how such characters enter into a population. This approach to the study of inherited characters could fill a void in our knowledge of evolution and speciation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 161-169. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.Se describen tres anomalías: el pico de guadaña en el chinchilín, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert (Passeriformes: Emberizidae, un patrón de color de corona en el isabelita medioluto, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae, y un patrón de color de doble mancha en el vaca blanca, Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae. Generalmente se piensa que las anomalías en el pico son de origen genético y que los cambios genéticos en la forma del pico pueden ocurrir rápidamente en una población. La anomalía del pico de guadaña demuestra cuan rápido puede ocurrir una modificación drástica del pico. La anomalía del patrón de color de corona es similar a otras marcas distintivas encontradas en otros miembros de este género [isabelita reina, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus y el híbrido isabelita azul H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] en el Atlántico occidental tropical y también indica cambios rápidos. Esto es importante porque las especies de este género se distinguen casi solamente por patrones de color. Las anomalías deberían ser registradas ya que podrían darnos algunas pistas acerca del origen genético de las características de las especies. Proponemos que los caracteres potencialmente heredables pueden reconocerse y describirse cuando aparecen en un individuo, antes de que sean heredados a la población, llenando un vacío en nuestro conocimiento de la evolución y la especiación.

Ernest H Williams, Jr

2006-12-01

27

Three anomalies: A scythebill in the Greater Antillean Grackle (blackbird), a crown pattern in the Rock Beauty (angelfish), and a double spot in the Butter Hamlet (grouper), and their possible genetic significance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se describen tres anomalías: el pico de guadaña en el chinchilín, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), un patrón de color de corona en el isabelita medioluto, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), y un patrón de color de doble mancha en el vaca blanca, Hypopl [...] ectrus unicolor (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Generalmente se piensa que las anomalías en el pico son de origen genético y que los cambios genéticos en la forma del pico pueden ocurrir rápidamente en una población. La anomalía del pico de guadaña demuestra cuan rápido puede ocurrir una modificación drástica del pico. La anomalía del patrón de color de corona es similar a otras marcas distintivas encontradas en otros miembros de este género [isabelita reina, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus) y el híbrido isabelita azul H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] en el Atlántico occidental tropical y también indica cambios rápidos. Esto es importante porque las especies de este género se distinguen casi solamente por patrones de color. Las anomalías deberían ser registradas ya que podrían darnos algunas pistas acerca del origen genético de las características de las especies. Proponemos que los caracteres potencialmente heredables pueden reconocerse y describirse cuando aparecen en un individuo, antes de que sean heredados a la población, llenando un vacío en nuestro conocimiento de la evolución y la especiación. Abstract in english Three anomalies are described: a scythebill in Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), a crown color pattern in Rock Beauty, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), and a double-spot color pattern in Butter Hamlet, Hypoplectrus unicolor [...] (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Bill anomalies are generally thought to be genetic in origin and genetic changes in bill shape can occur rapidly in a population. The scythebill anomally demonstrates how quickly a drastic bill modification may occur. The crown color pattern anomaly is similar to distinctive markings found in other members of this genus [Queen Angelfish, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus) and hybrid Townsend Angelfish H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] in the tropical western Atlantic. It suggests how quickly this pattern could have originated in the other species, and/or some propensity of this pattern in the genus. The distinct double-spot color pattern anomaly suggests how quickly new color patterns can originate in genus Hypoplectrus. This is important because species in this genus are distinguished almost solely on the basis of color pattern and speciation may be occurring rapidly. Anomalies should be recorded because they may give us some hints at the genetic origin of species characters and some could represent potentially inheritable characters. We suggest these potentially inheritable characters could be recognized and described when they first arise in an individual and before they become inherited by a population. Following these potentially inheritable characters could help to explain how such characters enter into a population. This approach to the study of inherited characters could fill a void in our knowledge of evolution and speciation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3): 161-169. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.

Ernest H, Williams, Jr; Lucy, Bunkley-Williams.

2006-12-01

28

A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

2014-11-01

29

Greater oil investment opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

30

The large-scale impact of climate change to Mississippi flood hazard in New Orleans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this paper is to describe the impact of climate change on the Mississippi River flood hazard in the New Orleans area. This city has a unique flood risk management challenge, heavily influenced by climate change, since it faces flood hazards from multiple geographical locations (e.g. Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi River) and multiple sources (hurricane, river, rainfall). Also the low elevation and significant subsidence rate of the Greater New Orleans area poses a high ris...

Driessen, T. L. A.; Ledden, M.

2012-01-01

31

Hazards analysis of laser fusion targets containing tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazards analysis indicates that intact microballoons filled with D--T present only a negligible hazard. The ingestion of the microballoon is considered. The hazard associated with broken glass microballoons appears to be greater from the glass standpoint than from the tritium hazard

32

The hazard in using probabilistic seismic hazard analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthquake experts rely on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for everything from emergency-response planning to development of building codes. Unfortunately, says the author, the analysis is defective for the large earthquakes that pose the greater risks. Structures have short lifetimes and the distance over which earthquakes cause damage are relatively small. Exceptions serve to prove the rule. To be useful in engineering, earthquakes hazard assessment must focus narrowly in both time and space

33

77 FR 29231 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program  

Science.gov (United States)

...Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental...State hazardous waste management program requirements...authorized State hazardous waste management program requirements...Significantly Affect Energy Supply,...

2012-05-17

34

75 FR 45489 - New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program  

Science.gov (United States)

...of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental...State hazardous waste management program requirements...authorized State hazardous waste management program requirements...Significantly Affect Energy Supply,...

2010-08-03

35

Hazardous Waste  

...WasteFurther Technical InformationPolychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)Hazardous Waste ForumProducer ResponsibilityPackaging WasteWaste BatteriesWaste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)Transfrontier Shipments...

36

A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

2014-05-01

37

Studies on natural background radiation in beach sand along the coastline of the Greater Accra Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sand samples were collected from eleven (11) beaches of the Greater Accra Region. The 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activities, present in these samples, were measured using a gamma ray spectroscopy technique. Specific activities obtained ranged from 1.93 to 93.71 Bq Kg-1 for 226Ra, 2.60 to 231.17 Bq Kg-1 for 232Th and 53.07 to 168.88 for 40K. In ten out of the eleven beaches, 40K was the main contributor to the calculated local gamma dose rate. The mean values for the annual effective dose rates in air and radiation hazard indices were evaluated for the samples from the eleven beaches. Mean values of 29.3 nGy h-1, 0.19 mSv y-1, 6.29 Bq kg-1, 0.17 and 0.24 were obtained, for absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and internal hazard index respectively. Ten of the beaches studied have radium equivalent specific activity (Raeq), external hazard indices (Hex) and internal hazard indices (Hin) lower than the international reference values of 370 Bq kg-1, 1 and 1 respectively. The values of 433.9 Bq kg-1, 1.2 and 1.7 for La Pleasure beach respectively exceeded the international reference values. The values of natural radioactivity and gamma absorbed dose rates estimated show that the selected beaches can be regarded as areas with normal natural be regarded as areas with normal natural background radiation. Beach sand from most of these beaches can be used in construction and may not pose any significant radiological hazard to tourists who may use the beaches for recreational purposes (au).

38

76 FR 50759 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving Proposed No Significant...  

Science.gov (United States)

...is needed to support the next cycle of operation (i.e., Cycle 22) for QCNPS Unit 1 for cycle exposure greater than 4000 MWd/MT, which is currently scheduled to occur in November 2011. Basis for proposed no significant hazards consideration...

2011-08-16

39

An index for assessing demographic inequalities in cumulative environmental hazards with application to Los Angeles, California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers in environmental justice contend that low-income communities and communities of color face greater impacts from environmental hazards. This is also of concern for policy makers. In this context, our paper has two principal objectives. First, we propose a method for creating an index capable of summarizing racial-ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities from the impact of cumulative environmental hazards. Second, we apply the index to Los Angeles County to illustrate the potential applications and complexities of its implementation. Individual environmental inequality indices are calculated based on unequal shares of environmental hazards for racial-ethnic groups and socioeconomic positions. The illustrated hazards include ambient concentrations of particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and estimates of cancer risk associated with modeled estimates for diesel particulate matter. The cumulative environmental hazard inequality index (CEHII) then combines individual environmental hazards, using either a multiplicative or an additive model. Significant but modest inequalities exist for both individual and cumulative environmental hazards in Los Angeles. The highest level of inequality among racial-ethnic and socioeconomic groups occurs when a multiplicative model is used to estimate cumulative hazard. The CEHII provides a generalized framework that incorporates environmental hazards and socioeconomic characteristics to assess inequalities in cumulative environmental risks. PMID:19921871

Su, Jason G; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Jesdale, Bill M; Kyle, Amy D; Shamasunder, Bhavna; Jerrett, Michael

2009-10-15

40

Landslide Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

This fact sheet provides an overview of the hazards presented by landslides and debris flows, particluarly in wet weather conditions in landslide-prone areas. Topics include a discussion of the characteristics of debris flows, and suggestions for residents who live in steep, hilly terrain which is subject to periodic heavy rains.

2011-06-23

 
 
 
 
41

COMPUTERS HAZARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group therapy is carried out. In acute cases, pharmacology is applied as reinforcement of psychotherapy. Self-support groups are organised, in similarity to AA clubs for alcohol addicts.

Andrzej Augustynek

2007-01-01

42

Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

1994-04-01

43

Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency

44

Waste minimization via destruction of hazardous organics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing technologies that are capable of destroying hazardous organics, that is, converting them basically to water and carbon dioxide. If these technologies were incorporated into the main processing operation where the waste is produced, then the volume and toxicity of the hazardous or mix hazardous waste generated would be significantly reduced. This presentation will briefly discuss some of the waste treatment technologies under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory focused on destroying hazardous organics

45

Seismic hazard and risk assessment in the intraplate environment: The New Madrid seismic zone of the central United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the causes of large intraplate earthquakes are still not fully understood, they pose certain hazard and risk to societies. Estimating hazard and risk in these regions is difficult because of lack of earthquake records. The New Madrid seismic zone is one such region where large and rare intraplate earthquakes (M = 7.0 or greater) pose significant hazard and risk. Many different definitions of hazard and risk have been used, and the resulting estimates differ dramatically. In this paper, seismic hazard is defined as the natural phenomenon generated by earthquakes, such as ground motion, and is quantified by two parameters: a level of hazard and its occurrence frequency or mean recurrence interval; seismic risk is defined as the probability of occurrence of a specific level of seismic hazard over a certain time and is quantified by three parameters: probability, a level of hazard, and exposure time. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), a commonly used method for estimating seismic hazard and risk, derives a relationship between a ground motion parameter and its return period (hazard curve). The return period is not an independent temporal parameter but a mathematical extrapolation of the recurrence interval of earthquakes and the uncertainty of ground motion. Therefore, it is difficult to understand and use PSHA. A new method is proposed and applied here for estimating seismic hazard in the New Madrid seismic zone. This method provides hazard estimates that are consistent with the state of our knowledge and can be easily applied to other intraplate regions. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

Wang, Z.

2007-01-01

46

The metallogenic evolution of the Greater Antilles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Greater Antilles host some of the world’s most important deposits of bauxite and lateritic nickel as well as significant resources of gold and silver, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt and chromium. Beginning in Jurassic time, sedimentary exhalative base metal deposits accumulated in marine sedimentary rift basins as North and South America drifted apart. With the onset of intraoceanic subduction during the Early Cretaceous, a primitive (tholeiitic) island arc formed above a southwesterly...

Nelson, C. E.

2011-01-01

47

NASA LaRC Hazardous Material Pharmacy  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1993-1994 the Office of Environmental Engineering contracted SAIC to develop NASA Langley's Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. One of the priority projects identified in this contract was the development of a hazardous waste minimization (HAZMIN)/hazardous materials reutilization (HAZMART) program in the form of a Hazardous Materials Pharmacy. A hazardous materials pharmacy is designed to reduce hazardous material procurement costs and hazardous waste disposal costs. This is accomplished through the collection and reissue of excess hazardous material. Currently, a rarely used hazardous material may be stored in a shop area, unused, until it passes its expiration date. The material is then usually disposed of as a hazardous waste, often at a greater expense than the original cost of the material. While this material was on the shelf expiring, other shop areas may have ordered new supplies of the same material. The hazardous material pharmacy would act as a clearinghouse for such materials. Material that is not going to be used would be turned in to the pharmacy. Other users could then be issued this material free of charge, thereby reducing procurement costs. The use of this material by another shop prevents it from expiring, thereby reducing hazardous waste disposal costs.

Esquenet, Remy

1995-01-01

48

Landslides Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

At this USGS educational web site, the public can find out about the nature and problems of landslides. Individuals can learn how wildfires can induce debris flows and other types of landslides. Within the National Landslide Information Center link, students and educators can find landslide fact sheets, numerous images of landslides, an interactive module on debris flows, and materials about current USGS landslide projects. The website features a searchable bibliographic database, lists of publications, and links to local organizations dealing with this natural hazard.

49

Seismic hazard assessment: Issues and alternatives  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used inter-changeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been pro-claimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

Wang, Z.

2011-01-01

50

Greater physical fitness is associated with better air ventilation efficiency in firefighters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Firefighting is a hazardous task associated with a heavy workload where task duration may be limited by air cylinder capacity. Increased fitness may lead to better air ventilation efficiency and task duration at a given heavy work intensity. This study compared performance, air ventilation and skeletal muscle oxygen extraction during a maximal graded walking test (GWT), a 10 METS (metabolic equivalent) treadmill test (T10) and a simulated work circuit (SWC). Participants (n = 13) who performed the SWC in a shorter time had significantly lower air cylinder ventilation values on the T10 (r = -0.495), better peak oxygen consumption (r = -0.924) during the GWT and significantly greater skeletal muscle oxygen extraction during the SWC (HbDiff, r = 0.768). These results demonstrate that the fastest participants on the SWC had better air ventilation efficiency that could prolong interventions in difficult situations requiring air cylinder use. PMID:25479992

Gendron, P; Freiberger, E; Laurencelle, L; Trudeau, F; Lajoie, C

2015-03-01

51

Planning for greater confinement disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

52

Electrostatic hazards  

CERN Document Server

In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries.The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years'' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

Luttgens, Günter

1997-01-01

53

The hazard to man of accidental releases of tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of the atmospheric dispersion of tritium are discussed, followed by consideration of the dosimetric pathways. In order to assess the significance of a tritium release the doses from various pathways are estimated and compared with the doses estimated from a similar release of iodine-131. The major hazard from tritium is the ingestion of contaminated food products. For similar releases of tritium and I131 the ingestion hazard can be comparable if the release occurs near and before the end of the harvest season. However, in the tritium release case the agricultural season influences the consequences markedly and, at other times during the year, the ingestion hazard from tritium may be approximately 20 times less. The dose from inhalation of tritium is sensitive to its chemical form and for similar releases of tritiated water and tritium gas then the dose from tritiated water is approximately 104 greater than the dose from tritium gas. For similar releases of tritiated water and iodine-131 then a comparison of the inhalation shows that the dose from the iodine is approximately 300 times greater. (author)

54

Internal dosimetry hazard and risk assessments: methods and applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Routine internal dose exposures are typically (in the UK nuclear industry) less than external dose exposures: however, the costs of internal dosimetry monitoring programmes can be significantly greater than those for external dosimetry. For this reason decisions on when to apply routine monitoring programmes, and the nature of these programmes, can be more critical than for external dosimetry programmes. This paper describes various methods for performing hazard and risk assessments which are being developed by RWE NUKEM Limited Approved Dosimetry Services to provide an indication when routine internal dosimetry monitoring should be considered. (author)

Roberts, G.A. [RWE NUKEM Limited, Didcot (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

55

Counterfactual Volcano Hazard Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The historical database of past disasters is a cornerstone of catastrophe risk assessment. Whereas disasters are fortunately comparatively rare, near-misses are quite common for both natural and man-made hazards. The word disaster originally means 'an unfavourable aspect of a star'. Except for astrologists, disasters are no longer perceived fatalistically as pre-determined. Nevertheless, to this day, historical disasters are treated statistically as fixed events, although in reality there is a large luck element involved in converting a near-miss crisis situation into a disaster statistic. It is possible to conceive a stochastic simulation of the past to explore the implications of this chance factor. Counterfactual history is the exercise of hypothesizing alternative paths of history from what actually happened. Exploring history from a counterfactual perspective is instructive for a variety of reasons. First, it is easy to be fooled by randomness and see regularity in event patterns which are illusory. The past is just one realization of a variety of possible evolutions of history, which may be analyzed through a stochastic simulation of an array of counterfactual scenarios. In any hazard context, there is a random component equivalent to dice being rolled to decide whether a near-miss becomes an actual disaster. The fact that there may be no observed disaster over a period of time may belie the occurrence of numerous near-misses. This may be illustrated using the simple dice paradigm. Suppose a dice is rolled every month for a year, and an event is recorded if a six is thrown. There is still an 11% chance of no events occurring during the year. A variety of perils may be used to illustrate the use of near-miss information within a counterfactual disaster analysis. In the domain of natural hazards, near-misses are a notable feature of the threat landscape. Storm surges are an obvious example. Sea defences may protect against most meteorological scenarios. However, if a major storm surge happens to arrive at a high astronomical tide, sea walls may be overtopped and flooding may ensue. In the domain of geological hazards, periods of volcanic unrest may generate precursory signals suggestive of imminent volcanic danger, but without leading to an actual eruption. Near-miss unrest periods provide vital evidence for assessing the dynamics of volcanoes close to eruption. Where the volcano catalogue has been diligently revised to include the maximum amount of information on the phenomenology of unrest periods, dynamic modelling and hazard assessment may be significantly refined. This is illustrated with some topical volcano hazard examples, including Montserrat and Santorini.

Woo, Gordon

2013-04-01

56

Warning human populations of technological hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Warning people of an impending hazard seeks to make them aware of the threat and to elicit actions that would minimize the dangers to life and property. Because technological and natural hazards differ in important ways, the alerting and notification process for technological and natural hazards is also different. One of the differences rests in the ability of people to detect many natural hazards in a direct sensory manner; technological hazards often make such detection more difficult. For example, detection of radiological releases without instrumentation is nearly impossible, but even with tornadoes where warning is notoriously difficult, people are at least able to use their senses to detect the potential for hazard. Hence, warning for technological hazards is in some ways more problematic, generally representing a rather rapid shift from normalcy to emergency. This paper builds on the significant foundation of natural hazard warning research in developing a model of warning suitable for technological hazards. This model specifically examines immediate cascading, or networking, of the warning signal and message, so often reported in the natural hazard literature. The implications for technological and natural hazard warnings systems are examined

57

Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

58

Greater confinement disposal of radioactive waste in borehole facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Security experts are now very concerned that a sealed radioactive source (SRS) could be used in a radiological dispersion device to terrorize and disrupt society. The most vulnerable SRSs are the unwanted SRSs that owners must hold indefinitely because there are no disposal facilities. Near surface facilities are not safe for long lived wastes and deep geological repositories will never be available in most countries. Sandia National Laboratories recently demonstrated that intermediate depth greater confinement disposal boreholes sited in thick arid alluvium can safely isolate long lived radioactive waste. The Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, with Sandia National Laboratories, is conducting a preliminary safety assessment of intermediate depth borehole disposal in thick arid alluvium in Egypt based on experience with greater confinement disposal boreholes in the United States of America. Such intermediate depth boreholes can be used to remove unwanted SRSs from the biosphere, thus eliminating both the security and safety hazards associated with unwanted and highly radioactive materials. (author)

59

Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA) receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of th [...] e epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m². The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p

P, Gajate; S, Pietrokovsky; L, Abramo Orrego; O, Pérez; A, Monte; J, Belmonte; C, Wisnivesky-Colli.

2001-05-01

60

Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

1994-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment

62

Periurbanisation and natural hazards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In mountainous areas in recent decades urbanisation has expanded to areas where low ground adjoins mountainsides that are unstable in a number of respects. Periurbanisation in mountain basins with unstable sides poses specific problems that local players have to address. The Lavanchon basin (southeast of Grenoble, which is subject to very rapid urban growth combined with particularly dynamic mountainsides, is representative of the way activity is being brought into closer contact with potential hazards. A diachronic study of changes in land use between 1956 and 2001 shows how valley infrastructures at the bottom of mountainsides have become increasingly dense. In this context, a survey was carried out among a number of residents in the Lavanchon basin in an attempt to evaluate the degree of awareness that the population has of the natural hazards to which it is exposed. The results show that slightly more than half of the population surveyed was aware of the problem of natural hazards being present in the area, with most inhabitants being more concerned about industrial and pollution hazards. New residents were unaware of or were unwilling to accept the reality of hazards. The low incidence of significant natural events, the effectiveness of the protective structures built, the absence of information provided by the public authorities and the division of the basin between several management bodies appear to have engendered a feeling of safety from natural phenomena. The geographical distribution of appreciation of the hazard clearly shows a distinction between those inhabitants living on the low ground and those at the bottom of the mountainsides, and this corresponds fairly closely with the historical and current location of the main potentially hazardous events that have occurred.Dans les territoires de montagne, les dernières décennies ont vu l’expansion de l’urbanisation vers les zones de contact entre la plaine et les versants, lieux d’instabilités multiples. La périurbanisation au sein de bassins montagnards aux versants instables pose des problèmes spécifiques auxquels les acteurs locaux tentent de faire face. Le bassin du Lavanchon (sud-est de Grenoble, qui combine un accroissement urbain très rapide et des versants particulièrement dynamiques est représentatif de ce rapprochement entre les aléas et les activités. L’étude diachronique de l’évolution de l’utilisation du sol entre 1956 et 2001 montre la densification des infrastructures dans la vallée et au bas des versants. Dans ce contexte, une enquête a été réalisée auprès d’un certain nombre de résidents du bassin du Lavanchon dans le but l’évaluer le degré de conscience que les populations ont des risques naturels auxquels ils sont exposés. Les résultats montrent qu’un peu plus de la moitié de la population interrogée a conscience de la problématique des risques naturels sur ce territoire, plutôt marquée selon la plupart des habitants par les risques industriels et de pollution. Les nouveaux résidants ignorent ou occultent la réalité des risques. La faible fréquence d’événements naturels marquants, l’efficacité des ouvrages de protection réalisés, l’absence d’informations de la part des pouvoirs publics et le morcellement du bassin entre plusieurs gestionnaires semble avoir généré un sentiment de sécurité par rapport aux phénomènes naturels. La répartition géographique de cette appréhension du risque montre clairement une distinction entre les habitants de la plaine et ceux des bas de versants, qui correspond assez bien à la localisation historique et actuelle des principaux aléas.

Delphine Loison

2009-03-01

63

Hazard Alert Cards  

Science.gov (United States)

... here Home » Publications » Materials for Workers Hazard Alert Cards Hazard Alerts are short, image-driven materials that ... workers. They are available in two formats: printed cards folded to “pocket size” of 3 ½” x ...

64

Hazard Analysis Database Report  

CERN Document Server

The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

Grams, W H

2000-01-01

65

29 CFR 1910.1200 - Hazard communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

...hazardous chemicals to an employer, generally in large...other distributors or to employers. Employee means...are not covered. Employer means a person engaged...inhalation, ingestion, skin contact or absorption.) ...self-sustained flame at a rate greater than one-tenth...

2010-07-01

66

Hazard Analysis Database Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

GRAMS, W.H.

2000-12-28

67

Hazard Analysis Database Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification

68

Overconfidence and Moral Hazard  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments, and thus prefers higher-powered incentives. On the other hand, if the agent overestimates the extent to which his actions affect outcomes, lower-powered incentives are sufficient to induce any given effort level. If the agent is moderately overconfident, the latter effect dominates. Because the agent bears less risk in this case, there are efficiency gains stemming from his overconfidence. If the agent is significantly overconfident, the former effect dominates; the agent is then exposed to an excessive amount of risk, and any gains arise only from risk-sharing under disagreement. An increase in optimism or overconfidence increases the effort level implemented in equilibrium.

de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

2011-01-01

69

Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m². The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p<0.001. The number of triatomines collected largely exceeded the highest domestic infestation found in one house from rural endemic areas of Argentina. Though triatomines were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, they could acquire the parasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

Gajate P

2001-01-01

70

Hazard Analysis Database Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification

71

Software safety hazard analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper

72

Software safety hazard analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-02-01

73

Prevalence of hazardous exposures in veterinary practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate erinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects

74

Greater occipital nerve block in chronic migraine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Headache syndromes often involve occipital and neck symptoms suggesting a functional connectivity between nociceptive trigeminal and cervical afferents. Several studies have suggested that pain relief in migraine and other types of headache can be achieved by local injections of steroids, local anaesthetics or a mixture of both in the area of greater occipital nerve (GON). Usually greater occipital nerve block (GONB) is performed by using local anaesthetics alone or with steroid. The rationale of performing a GONB for the treatment of chronic headache states is on the anatomical connections between trigeminal and upper cervical sensory fibres at the level of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. However, the reason for the improvement after GONB in primary headache is unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether adding triamcinolone to local anaesthetics increased the efficacy of GONB and trigger point injections (TPIs) for chronic migraine (TM). Patients with TM were randomized to receive GONB and TPIs using lidocaine 2% and bupivacaine 0.5% + either saline or triamcinolone 40 mg. Particularly, a 10-ml syringe containing 4.5 ml of lidocaine 2%, 4.5 ml of bupivacaine 0.5% and 1 ml of either saline (group A) or triamcinolone 40 mg/ml (group B) was prepared for each patients. Patients were given bilateral GONB and TPIs in the cervical paraspinal and trapezius muscles bilaterally. 2 ml were injected into each GON at the medial third of the distance between the occipital protuberance and the mastoid process. In addition, 0.5 ml was injected into each of the 12 trigger points. The total injected volume was 10 ml. The primary outcome measure was the change in mean headache severity from before injection to 20 min after in the two groups. Secondary outcome measures were the change in mean neck pain, photophobia and phonofobia severity from before injection to 20 min after in the two groups. Patients documented headache and severity of associated symptoms for 4 weeks after injection. Changes in symptom severity were compared between the two groups. Thirty-seven patients were included. Twenty minutes after injection, mean headache severity decreased by 3.2 points in group A (p points in group B (p points in group A (p points in group B (p < 0.01). Mean duration of being headache-free was 2.7 +/- 3.8 days in group A and 1.0 +/- 1.1 days in group B (p = 0.67). None of the outcome measures differed significantly between the two groups. Both treatments were full tolerated. In our study, adding triamcinolone to local anaesthetic when performing GONB and TPIs was not associated with improved outcome in the sample of patients with TM. In both groups, the procedure resulted in significant and rapid relief of headache, neck pain, photophobia and phonofobia. PMID:20464617

Saracco, Maria Gabriella; Valfrè, W; Cavallini, M; Aguggia, M

2010-06-01

75

Undersea Natural Hazards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This special issue of Oceanography takes a look at a variety of undersea natural hazards—hazards resulting from natural processes such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. These undersea natural hazards are generally more difficult to assess than those on land because of the challenges and expense of working in the ocean. Seafloor monitoring networks, deep drilling of fault zones, new computational methods, high-resolution sonar imaging, and paleoseismology, among o...

Ellen Kappel

2014-01-01

76

Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope  

Science.gov (United States)

Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning: at the lower levels (up to 1500 m) they are recorded for a longer period and higher than 2000 m only 2-3 months. In terms of genesis the following types of debris flows are registered: rain, glacial and mixed. Rain mudflows are formed due to intensive rains (the daily amount is about 25 U 100 mm). A critical norm of precipitation forming debris 1 flows varies from west to east. In the western part it is 75-100 mm, central U 50-75 mm and eastern U 25-50 mm. Also the norm varies from north to south, in particular on advanced ridges it is higher but on the Glavny and Bokovoy ridges it is less. The difference is about 2 times. Glacial mudflows are observed only in the areas of modern glaciation. They form under high air temperature (20 U 25°C) leading to an intensive melting of snow and ice on glaciers. High air temperature should be recorded not less than 5-10 days. Mixed mudflows form under high air temperature in the glaciers area and significant rainstorms in the glacial zone. Rainstorms cause debris flow formation in focal points. Frontal precipitation with a significant amount of rain cause debris flows at vast territories often covering several kilometers. In total rain mudflows prevail on the Greater Caucasus northern slope and equal 60 - 80% of all the mudflows. Glacial mudflows constitute 30-40% and mixed mudflows U 10-20%. In the western and eastern parts rain mudflows are the principal and their share is 80-90% of all the mudflows. In the central part glacial mudflows prevail (60- 0%). Technogenic mudflows are recorded in the areas with developed mining industry, highways, forestry, and pastures. In the given region debris flows distribute from north to south depending on genesis and volume. On advanced ridges (Lesisty, Pastbishny, Skalisty) only rain mudflows are registered with the volume up to 100,000 m3. Eluvial-deluvial, alluvial-proluvial and eolian-proluvial deposits compose their solid constituents. This is a zone of weak mudflow hazard. The most often are mudflows with volume up to 5000-10,000 m3. More powerful mudflows are less frequent (once

Panova, S.

77

Undersea Natural Hazards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This special issue of Oceanography takes a look at a variety of undersea natural hazards—hazards resulting from natural processes such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. These undersea natural hazards are generally more difficult to assess than those on land because of the challenges and expense of working in the ocean. Seafloor monitoring networks, deep drilling of fault zones, new computational methods, high-resolution sonar imaging, and paleoseismology, among other technologies and strategies, are all shedding new light on hazard risk and assessment around the globe.

Ellen Kappel

2014-06-01

78

Disposal of hazardous wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes.

Barnhart, B.J.

1978-10-01

79

Disposal of hazardous wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

80

Building Bridges : Pathways to a Greater Societal Significance for Audience Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience research. Altogether, the 14 contributions in the report provide insights and feed the debate on the stakeholders’ respective “inhabited worlds” (the academia being one stakeholder among others), the different modes of researcher-stakeholder interaction, and possible (and desirable) areas of joint interest and collaboration. With contributions by: Jakob Bjur, Mélanie Bourdaa, Göran Bolin, Nico Carpentier, Paula Cordeiro, Peter Dahlgren, Alexander Dhoest, Manuel José Damasio, J. Ignacio Gallego, Dafna Lemish, Jakob Linaa Jensen, Peter Lunt, Maria Francesca Murru, Francesca Pasquali, José-Manuel Noguera Vivo, Lars Nyre, Brian O’Neill, Andra Siibak, Sascha Trültzsch-Wijnen, Nicoletta Vittadini, Igor Vobi? and Frauke Zeller. Stakeholder feedback from: Michelle Arlotta (DeAgostini), Andreea M. Costache (Association of Consumers of Audiovisual Media in Catalonia/TAC), Francesco Diasio (AMARC Europe), Marius Dragomir (Open Society Foundations), Sara Elias (BBC Media Action), Dragan Kremer (Open Society Foundations), Muriel Hanot (High Authority for Audiovisual Media/CSA Belgium), Stefan Lazarevi? (Serbian Ministry of Foreign and Internal Trade and Telecommunications), Karol Ma?cu?y?ski (TVP), Jadranka Milanovi? (UNICEF Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe).

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Building bridges. Pathways to a greater societal significance for audience research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. B...

Patriarche, Geoffroy; Bilandzic, Helena; Carpentier, Nico; Ponte, Cristina; Schrøder, Kim C.; Zeller, Frauke

2014-01-01

82

Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

83

HAZARDOUS WASTE TO ENERGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the 260 million metric tonnes (MMT) of hazardous waste generated in the United States in 1981, only 1.70 MMT was disposed of through incineration. In addition, 3.85 MMT of industrial wastes that could be considered hazardous were burned as fuels in industrial processes. The pa...

84

Recognizing Chemical Hazards Module  

Science.gov (United States)

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module on recognizing chemical hazards. It focuses on chemical hazards specific to process industries, and their impact on safety, health and the environment. The material also introduces the purpose and components of an MSDS.

2013-01-09

85

Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation).

DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

1999-09-07

86

Human exposure, health hazards, and environmental regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

United States environmental regulations, intended to protect human health, generally fail to address major sources of pollutants that endanger human health. These sources are surprisingly close to us and within our control, such as consumer products and building materials that we use within our homes, workplaces, schools, and other indoor environments. Even though these indoor sources account for nearly 90% of our pollutant exposure, they are virtually unregulated by existing laws. Even pollutant levels found in typical homes, if found outdoors, would often violate federal environmental standards. This article examines the importance of human exposure as a way to understand and reduce effects of pollutants on human health. Results from exposure studies challenge traditional thinking about pollutant hazards, and reveal deficiencies in our patchwork of laws. And results from epidemiological studies, showing increases in exposure-related diseases, underscore the need for new protections. Because we cannot rely solely on regulations to protect us, and because health effects from exposures can develop insidiously, greater efforts are needed to reduce and prevent significant exposures before they occur. Recommendations include the development and use of safer alternatives to common products, public education on ways to reduce exposure, systematic monitoring of human exposure to pollutants, and a precautionary approach in decision-makingking

87

Offsite transportation hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

88

Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area  

Science.gov (United States)

This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability and future climate change have been briefly discussed.

Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

2014-11-01

89

Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high.

Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

1994-09-19

90

Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high

91

MEP advocates greater role for cogeneration in '  

...MEP advocates greater role for cogeneration in 'energy showdown' | EurActiv A secret weapon against global warming? Little is known about cogeneration ... climate-change,energy,climate change,cogeneration,energy efficiency EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click here for EU news ... VIDEOS Home › Energy › News MEP advocates greater role for cogeneration in 'energy showdown' -A + A Published 10 May 2007, updated ...May 2012 Tags climate change, cogeneration, energy efficiency Speaking at a 9 May stakeholder conference on cogeneration, Green MEP Claude Turmes called on ...

92

Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. [Exxon Exploration Co., Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

93

Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. (Exxon Exploration Co., Houston, TX (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

94

Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

Rahman, M. H.

1993-01-01

95

Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

McLean, Dulce Didio

1991-01-01

96

Occurrence of Laemobothrion maximum in Greater Coucal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

External examination of free range abandoned dead Greater Coucal in a veterinary dispensary, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India revealed presence of a large sized louse in the feathers and was identified as Laemobothrion maximum on the basis of morphology and size of the louse.

Jeyathilakan, N.; Latha, B. R.; Bino Sundar, S. T.; Abdul Basith, S.

2012-01-01

97

Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

98

Youth & Labor: Hazardous Jobs  

Science.gov (United States)

... Jobs Youth & Labor Subtopics Age Requirements Agricultural Employment Child Labor Statistics DOL Kids' Pages Door-to-door Sales ... Employment Exemptions to the FLSA Hazardous Jobs International Child Labor Newspaper Delivery Nonagricultural Employment Posting Requirements Recordkeeping Resources ...

99

Bayesian transformation hazard models  

CERN Document Server

We propose a class of transformation hazard models for right-censored failure time data. It includes the proportional hazards model (Cox) and the additive hazards model (Lin and Ying) as special cases. Due to the requirement of a nonnegative hazard function, multidimensional parameter constraints must be imposed in the model formulation. In the Bayesian paradigm, the nonlinear parameter constraint introduces many new computational challenges. We propose a prior through a conditional-marginal specification, in which the conditional distribution is univariate, and absorbs all of the nonlinear parameter constraints. The marginal part of the prior specification is free of any constraints. This class of prior distributions allows us to easily compute the full conditionals needed for Gibbs sampling, and hence implement the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm in a relatively straightforward fashion. Model comparison is based on the conditional predictive ordinate and the deviance information criterion. This new class...

Yin, G; Yin, Gousheng; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

2006-01-01

100

Liquefaction hazard evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief description of a recently developed methodology to evaluate liquefaction hazard at a site is presented. In this method uncertainty and scatter in the data are included in the analysis rigorously. The method is applied to sites located in two different seismotectonic environments to evaluate the sensitivity of the results. Foundation liquefaction hazard obtained from this method may be used in the fault tree seismic Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) for plant structures. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

K Basin Hazard Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

PECH, S.H.

2000-08-23

102

Glacier Hazards from Space  

Science.gov (United States)

This "Science Now" feature from the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television program "Nova" shows students how remote sensing by satellites can be used to monitor and evaluate hazards presented by glaciers as the climate becomes warmer, causing the glaciers to melt. The feature, which can be presented as a slide show, consists of 11 satellite images with brief written descriptions that explain such hazards as ice collapses and avalanches, flooding by meltwater, and bursting glacier lakes.

103

K Basins Hazard Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

104

K Basins Hazard Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

WEBB, R.H.

1999-12-29

105

Estimate of airborne release of plutonium from Babcock and Wilcox plant as a result of severe wind hazard and earthquake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of an interdisciplinary study to evaluate the potential radiological consequences of wind hazard and earthquake upon existing commercial mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants, the potential mass airborne releases of plutonium (source terms) from such events are estimated. The estimated souce terms are based upon the fraction of enclosures damaged to three levels of severity (crush, puncture penetrate, and loss of external filter, in order of decreasing severity), called damage ratio, and the airborne release if all enclosures suffered that level of damage. The discussion of damage scenarios and source terms is divided into wind hazard and earthquake scenarios in order of increasing severity. The largest airborne releases from the building were for cases involving the catastrophic collapse of the roof over the major production areas--wind hazard at 110 mph and earthquakes with peak ground accelerations of 0.20 to 0.29 g. Wind hazards at higher air velocities and earthquakes with higher ground acceleration do not result in significantly greater source terms. The source terms were calculated as additional mass of respirable particles released with time up to 4 days; and, under these assumptions, approximately 98% of the mass of material of concern is made airborne from 2 h to 4 days after the event. The overall building source terms from the damage scenarios evaluated are shown in a table. The contribution of individual areas to the overall building source term is presented in order of increasing severity for wind hazard and earthquake

106

Natural phenomena hazards project for Department of Energy sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed seismic and wind hazard models for the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS), Department of Energy (DOE). The work is part of a three-phase effort aimed at establishing uniform building design criteria for seismic and wind hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. In Phase 1, LLNL gathered information on the sites and their critical facilities, including nuclear reactors, fuel-reprocessing plants, high-level waste storage and treatment facilities, and special nuclear material facilities. In Phase 2, development of seismic and wind hazard models, was initiated. These hazard models express the annual probability that the site will experience an earthquake or wind speed greater than some specified magnitude. In the final phase, it is anticipated that the DOE will use the hazard models to establish uniform criteria for the design and evaluation of critical facilities. 13 references, 2 figures, 1 table

107

Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI)

108

Greater Vertebral Bone Mineral Mass in Exercising Young Men  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peak bone mass at skeletal maturity may be an important factor in the relative quantity of skeletal mass in old age. We have studied bone mineral in 46 young men, 28 of whom engage in regular and vigorous exercise programs. Spinal trabecular bone mineral density and spinal integral bone mineral content are significantly greater in the exercise group as compared with the 18 control subjects. Of the exercise group, subjects participating in both aerobic and weight-bearing regimens have the grea...

Block, Jon E.; Genant, Harry K.; Black, Dennis

1986-01-01

109

Control of biological hazards in cold smoked salmon production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An outline of the common processing technology for cold smoked salmon in Denmark is presented. The safety hazards related to pathogenic bacteria, parasites and biogenic amines are discussed with special emphasis on hazards related to Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. Critical control points are identified for all hazards except growth of L. monocytogenes. For this reason a limitation of shelf life to three weeks at +5 degrees C far cold smoked vacuum-packed salmon having greater than or equal to 3% water phase salt is recommended

Huss, Hans Henrik; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben

1995-01-01

110

21 CFR 120.7 - Hazard analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL...a written hazard analysis to determine whether there are food hazards that are... (b) The hazard analysis shall include food hazards that can...

2010-04-01

111

29 CFR 1910.1200 - Hazard communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

...less than 45 Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) at 100...physical hazard or a health hazard. Hazard warning...regarding the physical and health hazards of the hazardous...dispensed by a pharmacy to a health care provider for direct...

2010-07-01

112

Prediction of Strong Ground Motion and Hazard Uncertainties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis is to provide a detailed description of recent methods and scientific basis for characterizing earthquake sources within a certain region with distinct tectonic environments. The focus will be on those characteristics that are most significant to the ground-shaking hazard and on how we can incorporate our current knowledge into hazard analyses for engineering design purposes. I treat two particular geographical areas where I think current hazard analysis methods are...

Tavakoli, Behrooz

2003-01-01

113

Seismic hazard assessment for Adria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Adriatic region was chosen as one of the test areas in the GSHAP program and, consequently, its seismic hazard was computed. The standard hazard map chosen by GSHAP represents PGA with a 475-year return period. Some other parameters, as the spectral acceleration and the uniform hazard response spectra for the main Adriatic towns, have been computed for a better representation of the regional hazard. The most hazardous area remains identified in the Cephalonia zone, where strong earthquake...

Makropoulos, K.; Lapajne, J.; Kouskouna, V.; Kociu, S.; Herak, M.; Herak, D.; Cecic, I.; Camassi, R.; Slejko, D.; Meletti, C.

1999-01-01

114

Hazard estimation deduced from GPS and seismic data of Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Egypt rapidly growing development is accompanied by increasing levels of standard living particular in its urban areas. However, there is a limited experience in quantifying the sources of risk management in Egypt and in designing efficient strategies to keep away serious impacts of earthquakes. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai Peninsula regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the recent crustal movements, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications. This work will serve a basis for the development of so-called catastrophic models and can be further used for catastrophic risk management. Also, this work is trying to evaluate risk of large catastrophic losses within the important regions including the High Dam, strategic buildings and archeological sites. Studies on possible scenarios of earthquakes and losses are a critical issue for decision making in insurance as a part of mitigation measures.

Sayed Mohamed, Abdel-Monem

115

Barrow hazards survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a series of public meetings at which PERG presented the results of a literature review and site specific accident study of the hazards of the maritime transport of spent nuclear reactor fuel to Barrow (en route to the Windscale reprocessing works), PERG was requested by the Planning Committee of Barrow Town Council to prepare an assessment of the interaction of the hazards arising from the concentration of nuclear activities in the area with those of a proposed gas-terminal. This report presents a preliminary review of the Environmental Impact Assessments prepared by the Borough Surveyor and a critical appraisal of the hazard analyses undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive, and the consultants to Cumbria County Council on this matter, the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. After a general and historical introduction, the document continues under the following headings: a description of the hazards (BNFL spent fuel shipments; the gas terminal; gas condensate storage; the Vickers shipyard (involving nuclear powered submarines)); the interaction of hazards; planning implications and democratic decisions; recommendations. (U.K.)

116

Identification of Aircraft Hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

K. Ashley

2006-12-08

117

IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

K.L. Ashley

2005-03-23

118

Identification of Aircraft Hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

119

IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

120

[Classification of hazards of water pollutants].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper considers materials on the substantiation of criteria, indices, and their gradation for a new variant of the hygienic classification of hazards of water-contaminating substances. Emphasis is placed on the significance of a ratio of the maximally inactive concentrations (MIC) in terms of the toxicological sign of harmfulness to the threshold concentrations (TC) in terms of their effects on the organoleptic properties of water and on the general sanitary regime of water reservoirs. Only two types of late effects of substances, which are of individual significance for classification, such as carcinogenicity and reproductive effects, are identified. It is stated that a class of hazard may be toughened for high-stable substances, but neither the stability nor any other indices of the potential hazard of substances is the ground for reducing their hygienic standards in water. PMID:16758809

Krasovski?, G N; Egorova, N A; Bykov, I I

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR NATURAL EVENT HAZARDS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This technical basis document was developed to support the documented safety analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazard (NEH)-initiated accidents. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls

122

The perception of hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fourth chapter deals with the profusion of factors determining the differing assessment of hazards by our society. Subjective factors influencing risk perception comprise, among others, general knowledge and recognition of a hazard; the degree of voluntariness when taking the risk and its influencibility; the problem of large scale accidents; immediate and delayed results. Next to the objective and the subjective risks, the individual and the social or collective risks are assessed differently. The author dicusses in detail recent investigations into and study methods for the determination of risk perception, while eliminating systematic trends from subjective perception since common assessments are shared by whole groups of individuals time and again which allow a better understanding of today's handling of hazards. (HSCH)

123

US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff technical position on investigations to identify fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards at a geologic repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines the guidance provided to the US DOE by the NRC staff in its Staff Technical Position (STP) on appropriate investigations that can be used to identify fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards at a geologic repository. The STP defines an acceptable approach to the identification and investigation of fault displacement hazards, which in turn leads to the identification of three types of faults: Type III faults - need not be investigated in detail; Type II faults - candidates for detailed investigation; Type I faults - should be investigated in detail because they are subject to displacement and are of sufficient length and located such that they may affect repository design and/or performance or could provide significant input into models used to assess repository performance. The STP also describes an acceptable approach to conducting investigations to provide input for the analysis of vibratory ground motion with emphasis on those earthquakes that could generate the equivalent of .1g or greater ground acceleration at the location of the controlled area

124

Planning for greater-confinement disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report that provides guidance for planning for greater confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given

125

Transportation of hazardous goods  

CERN Multimedia

A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

TS Department

2008-01-01

126

Onsite transportation hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

127

Acceptance of radiation hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whether radiation hazards due to medical treatment can be accepted depends on the information provided about the risk and benefit assessed, as well as on the patient's subjective impressions, need for the investigation and state of the disease, and on the patient being aware that the measure is a necessary one and informed about what is actually going to happen. Furthermore, acceptance relies on the confidence between doctor and patient, rather than on the level of education of the respective patient. Fear of hazards due to the irradiation sustained was frequently voiced in connection with possible harmful repercursions of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. These fears were disproved in the majority of cases. (TRV)

128

Hazard Communication Standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

129

Radiological hazards to uranium miners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the present document is to review and assess the occupational hazards to uranium miners in Canada. Amendments to regulations set the maximum permissible dose to uranium miners at 50 mSv per year. Uranium miners are exposed to radon and thoron progeny, external gamma radiation and long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides in dust. The best estimate for the lifetime risk of inhaled radon progeny is about 3 x 10-4 lung cancers per WLM for the average miner, with a range of uncertainty from about 1 -6 x 10-4 per WLM. This central value is nearly twice as high as that recommended by the ICRP in 1981. The probability of serious biological consequences following exposure to external gamma rays is currently under review but is expected to be in the range of 3 - 6 x 10-2 Sv-1. Dosimetric calculations indicate that the stochastic risks per WLM of thoron progeny are about one-third of those for radon progeny. The annual limits on intake of inhaled ore dusts recommended by the ICRP are probably too low by at least a factor of two for the type of ore and dust normally encountered in underground uranium mines in Ontario; this is due in part to the fact that the average diameter of these dusts is five times greater than the value used by the ICRP. Radiological exposures of uranium miners in Canada were reviewed. The biological impact of these exposures were compared with those of conventional accidents on the basis of the years of normal life expectancy that are lost or seriously impaired due to occupational hazards. The objectives in considering all occupational risks are to reduce the total risk from all causes and to use funds spent for health protection as effectively as possible

130

Safety approaches in hazardous non-nuclear industries and their relation to nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several industries present major accident hazards: nuclear, chemical, explosive, natural gas, and the various forms of transportation of their product and waste. Natural events present similar or greater potential for disaster. When the sizes and likelihoods of the accidents in question are compared there is often found to be a large gap between the public perception and political acceptability of the hazards in question, and their relative real significance or probability. A variety of regulatory agencies have developed, in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, to control such hazards. The UK chemical industry uses a variety of techniques including simple hazard identification, engineering codes and standards, HAZOP, event and fault-tree analysis, consequence or risk quantification. The multistage safety acceptance procedures used by a few chemical companies are similar in concept to the stages of the licensing procedure used in the UK for nuclear power stations. UK regulatory regimes for the nuclear and chemical industry are compared. The advantages and disadvantages of licensing are discussed. The need for sample inspection is noted. The question of performance targets is considered. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is currently under scrutiny. PSA is a useful tool, which enables comparisons to be made between levels of safety achievable by different means or in different situations. It assumes assurance of reasonable standards of operation and care. Isonable standards of operation and care. It may seem attractive as a basis for regulatory control, but it should be applied only as an aid to judgement. An example is given of the use by the Health and Safety Executive of quantitative risk criteria for advice on the siting of buildings near chemical major hazards. The presentation of risk information to the public is discussed. The Health and Safety Commission's general policy on access to information is described. 11 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

131

Seismic hazard assessment for Adria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Adriatic region was chosen as one of the test areas in the GSHAP program and, consequently, its seismic hazard was computed. The standard hazard map chosen by GSHAP represents PGA with a 475-year return period. Some other parameters, as the spectral acceleration and the uniform hazard response spectra for the main Adriatic towns, have been computed for a better representation of the regional hazard. The most hazardous area remains identified in the Cephalonia zone, where strong earthquakes frequently occur. The Southern Apennines are characterised by a slightly lower hazard, while the Adriatic Sea itself, the Poplain and the Apulian peninsula are almost aseismic.

K. Makropoulos

1999-06-01

132

Remote sensing and landslide hazard assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Remotely acquired multispectral data are used to improve landslide hazard assessments at all scales of investigation. A vegetation map produced from automated interpretation of TM data is used in a GIS context to explore the effect of vegetation type on debris flow occurrence in preparation for inclusion in debris flow hazard modeling. Spectral vegetation indices map spatial patterns of grass senescence which are found to be correlated with soil thickness variations on hillslopes. Grassland senescence is delayed over deeper, wetter soils that are likely debris flow source areas. Prediction of actual soil depths using vegetation indices may be possible up to some limiting depth greater than the grass rooting zone. On forested earthflows, the slow slide movement disrupts the overhead timber canopy, exposes understory vegetation and soils, and alters site spectral characteristics. Both spectral and textural measures from broad band multispectral data are successful at detecting an earthflow within an undisturbed old-growth forest.

Mckean, J.; Buechel, S.; Gaydos, L.

1991-01-01

133

Avalanche hazard assessment on the railway section Podbrdo - Hudajužna  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Slovenia, natural hazards because of snow avalanches represent the biggest threat to winter mountaineers, populated Alpine valleys, ski facilities and infrastructure. Roads and railways with it's connecting role are a type of infrastructure which are often impossible to built outside of a hazard zone. In Slovenia avalanche safety should be provided with greater care, especially with concentrating on preventive safety measures. The avalanche hazard assessment, considering foreign guidelines...

Sirk, Katarina

2011-01-01

134

Radiation hazard control reoport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report outlines activities for radiation hazard control in the Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki University during the one-year period from April 1986 to March 1987. In particular, an environmental radioactivity survey was made around Higashi Osaka City beginning in the early May of 1986 to determine the amount of fallout attributable to the Chernobyl accident. For personal radiation hazard control, physical examination was conducted and thermal luminescence dosimeters and portable dosimeters were used in addition to film badges. No person suffered an exposure dose exceeding the maximum permissible level. For radiation hazard control in laboratories, the spatial dose rate was measured and recorded by ionization chamber type area monitors and survey meters. Film badges and thermal luminescence dosimeters were also employed. Continuous radiation measurement and recording has been conducted by various monitors. Radioactive nucleide concentration was monitored in the air, water and waste water. Periodic measurement was conducted of the contamination density over the surfaces of the floors, drafts, sinks and laboratory tables in the reactor building and the tracer-accelerator building. For outdoor radiation hazard control, the average environmental ?-ray dose rate was calcualated for each month at the prescribed sampling points and the total ? concentration in various environmental samples was measured three times a month. (Nogami, K.)th. (Nogami, K.)

135

COMBUSTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the 260 MMT of hazardous waste generated annually in the United States, 1.70 MMT are disposed of in incinerators, 3.50 MMT are burned in boilers and 0.35 MMT are burned in other industrial processes. The paper is an overview of the technologies that can be used to combust haza...

136

Koeberg radiation hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discusses the article by J.K. Basson, B.C. Winkler and J. Walmsley on the assessment of environmental radiation hazards from the Koeberg nuclear power station. He gives his own evaluation of the safety of the Koeberg nuclear power station and suggests an alternative reactor site

137

Hazardous solvent substitution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

138

Hazardous industrial waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The appropriate managing of hazardous wastes is a problem little dealed in the wastes management in the country. A search of available information was made about the generation and handling to internal and external level of the hazardous wastes by national industries. It was worked with eleven companies of different types of industrial activities for, by means of a questionnaire, interviews and visits, to determine the degree of integral and suitable handling of the wastes that they generate. It was concluded that exist only some isolated reports on the generation of hazardous industrial wastes and handling. The total quantity of wastes generated in the country was impossible to establish. The companies consulted were deficient in all stages of the handling of their wastes: generation, accumulation and storage, transport, treatment and final disposition. The lack of knowledge of the legislation and of the appropriate managing of the wastes is showed as the principal cause of the poor management of the residues. The lack of state or private entities entrusted to give services of storage, transport, treatment and final disposition of hazardous wastes in the country was evident. (author)

139

The New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX) Project - An overview of its major findings  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent major natural disasters, such as the 2011 T?hoku earthquake, tsunami and subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident, have raised awareness of the frequent and potentially far-reaching interconnections between natural hazards. Such interactions occur at the hazard level, where an initial hazard may trigger other events (e.g., an earthquake triggering a tsunami) or several events may occur concurrently (or nearly so), e.g., severe weather around the same time as an earthquake. Interactions also occur at the vulnerability level, where the initial event may make the affected community more susceptible to the negative consequences of another event (e.g., an earthquake weakens buildings, which are then damaged further by windstorms). There is also a temporal element involved, where changes in exposure may alter the total risk to a given area. In short, there is the likelihood that the total risk estimated when considering multiple hazard and risks and their interactions is greater than the sum of their individual parts. It is with these issues in mind that the European Commission, under their FP7 program, supported the New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe or MATRIX project (10.2010 to 12.2013). MATRIX set out to tackle multiple natural hazards (i.e., those of concern to Europe, namely earthquakes, landslides, volcanos, tsunamis, wild fires, storms and fluvial and coastal flooding) and risks within a common theoretical framework. The MATRIX work plan proceeded from an assessment of single-type risk methodologies (including how uncertainties should be treated), cascade effects within a multi-hazard environment, time-dependent vulnerability, decision making and support for multi-hazard mitigation and adaption, and an assessment of how the multi-hazard and risk viewpoint may be integrated into current decision making and risk mitigation programs, considering the existing single-hazard and risk focus. Three test sites were considered during the project: Naples, Cologne, and the French West Indies. In addition, a software platform, the MATRIX-Common IT sYstem (MATRIX-CITY), was developed to allow the evaluation of characteristic multi-hazard and risk scenarios in comparison to single-type analyses. This presentation therefore outlines the more significant outcomes of the project, in particular those dealing with the harmonization of single-type hazards, cascade event analysis, time-dependent vulnerability changes and the response of the disaster management community to the MATRIX point of view.

Fleming, Kevin; Zschau, Jochen; Gasparini, Paolo

2014-05-01

140

Hazardous materials management and compliance training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

OSHA training for hazardous waste site workers is required by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). In December 1986, a series of regulations was promulgated by OSHA on an interim basis calling for the training of workers engaged in hazardous waste operations. Subsequent to these interim regulations, final rules were promulgated and these final rules on hazardous waste operations and emergency response became effective on March 6, 1990. OSHA has conducted hearings on the accreditation of training programs. OSHA would like to follow the accreditation process under the AHERA regulations for asbestos, in which the model plan for accreditation of asbestos abatement training was included in Section 206 of Title 11 of the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). OSHA proposed on January 26, 1990, to perform the accreditation of training programs for hazardous waste operations and that proposal suggested that they follow the model plan similar to the one used for AHERA. They did not propose to accredited training programs for workers engaged in emergency response. These new regulations pose a significant problem to the various contractors and emergency responders who deal with hazardous materials spill response, cleanup and site remediation since these programs have expanded so quickly that many people are not familiar with what particular segment of the training they are required to have and whether or not programs that have yet to be accredited are sarams that have yet to be accredited are satisfactory for this type of training. Title III of SARA stipulates a training program for first responders which includes local emergency response organizations such as firemen and policemen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the needs of workers at hazardous waste site remediation projects and workers who are dealing with hazardous substances, spill response and cleanup

 
 
 
 
141

Seismic Hazard of Eritrea  

Science.gov (United States)

The method of spatially smoothed seismicity developed by Frankel(1995) and later extended by Lapajne et al.(1997) , is applied to estimate the seismic hazard of Eritrea. The extended method unlike the original one involves the delineation of the whole region into subregions with statistically determined directions of seismogenic faults pertaining to the respective tectonic regions (Poljak, 2000). Fault-rupture oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing results in spatial models of expected seismicity. Seismic catalogue was compiled from ISC, NEIC, and Turyomurgyendo(1996) and homogenized to Ms. Three seismicity models suggested by Frankel(1995) which are based on different time and magnitude intervals are used in this approach, and a fourth model suggested by Lapajne et al.(2000), which is based on the seismic energy release is also used to enhance the influence of historical events on the hazard computation. Activity rates and maximum likelihood estimates of b- values for the different models are computed using the OHAZ program. The western part of the region shows no seismic activity. b -value for models 1-3 is estimated to be 0.91. Mmax has been estimated to be 7.0. Correlation distances are obtained objectively from the location error in the seismic catalogue. The attenuation relationship by Ambraseys et al .(1996) was found suitable for the region under study. PGA values for 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years (return period of 475 years) are computed for each model and a combined seismic hazard map was produced by subjectively assigning weights to each of the models. A worst case map is also obtained showing the highest PGA values at each location from the four hazard maps. The map indicates a higher hazard along the main tectonic features of the East African and the Red sea rift systems, with its highest PGA values within Eritrea exceeding 25% of g being located north of the red sea port of Massawa. In areas around Asmara PGA values exceed 10% of g.

Hagos, L.; Arvidsson, R.

2003-04-01

142

Early tectonic history of the Greater Antilles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The islands of the Greater Antilles exhibit differing pre-Oligocene tectonic styles and histories, but all display the results of convergent plate activity from the Early Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. Western and central Cuba consist of autochthonous, Jurassic and older continental crust, which was overthrust by Cretaceous ophiolites in the Early to Middle Eocene. In contrast, eastern Cuba seems to be similar to Northern Hispaniola, and both areas consist of complexes of upper Cretaceous to Eocene magmatic-arc rocks, and trench generated ophiolites and blueschists produced by SW directed subduction. The oldest rocks in central Hispaniola are exposed in NW trending linear fault-bounded belts. Unusual high-Mg greenschists and amphibolites, quartz-feldspathic greenschists, together with N-type MORB basalts and keratophyric volcanics, are juxtaposed against a medial serpentinite belt. Central and eastern Puerto Rico consist of Lower to Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks intruded by upper Cretaceous to Eocene plutons. Similar Cretaceous volcanics occur in SW Puerto Rico, but they are overthrust by Upper Jurassic cherts, spilites and amphibolites. Jamaica lies along the Nicaraguan Rise to the SW of the other islands and consists of Barremian to Maastrichtian volcanics and volcanogenic sediments intruded by upper Cretaceous calc-alkalic plutons. Blueschists and related rocks in eastern Jamaica, and geochemical zonation in the igneous rocks suggest that the subduction was to the NW. Change in tectonic movements from convergence to left lateral shear took place during the Late Eocene/Early Oligocene.

Lewis, J.F.; Draper, G.; Mattson, P.

1985-01-01

143

Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

1997-10-01

144

Electrocution Hazards on the Farm  

Science.gov (United States)

... others on the farm, can unknowingly come in contact with electricity. This publication focuses on electrical hazards posed by overhead power lines, standby generators, and general operating procedures of electrical systems at the farm work site. Electrocution hazards The ...

145

A CASE STUDY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN CLASS I LANDFILLS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study documents the average concentration, estimated daily deposition, and partitioning of 17 metal species in hazardous wastes discharged to five Class I landfill sites in the greater Los Angeles area. These sites receive a combined estimated daily volume of 2.3 x 10 to the...

146

Seismic hazard assessment of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) for the return pe...

Ghafory-ashtiany, M.; Tavakoli, B.

1999-01-01

147

Seismic Hazard of Romania: Deterministic Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The seismic hazard of Romania is estimated in terms of peak-ground motion values-displacement, velocity, design ground acceleration (DGA)-computing complete synthetic seismograms, which are considered to be representative of the different seismogenic and structural zones of the country. The deterministic method addresses issues largely neglected in probabilistic hazard analysis, e.g., how crustal properties affect attenuation, since the ground motion parameters are not derived from overly simplified attenuation ``functions,'' but rather from synthetic time histories. The synthesis of the hazard is divided into two parts, one that of shallow-focus earthquakes, and the other, that of intermediate-focus events of the Vrancea region.The previous hazard maps of Romania completely ignore the seismic activity in the southeastern part of the country (due to the seismic source of Shabla zone). For the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes, which control the seismic hazard level over most of the territory, the comparison of the numerical results with the historically-based intensity map show significant differences. They could be due to possible structural or source properties not captured by our modeling, or to differences in the distribution of damageable buildings over the territory (meaning that future earthquakes can be more spectacularly damaging in regions other than those regions experiencing damage in the past). Since the deterministic modeling is highly sensitive to the source and path effects, it can be used to improve the seismological parameters of the historical events.

Radulian, M.; Vaccari, F.; Mândrescu, N.; Panza, G. F.; Moldoveanu, C. L.

148

Is water security necessary? An empirical analysis of the effects of climate hazards on national-level economic growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of climate and the role of water security on economic growth are topics of growing interest. Few studies have investigated the potential role that climate hazards, which water security addresses, and their cumulative effects have on the growth prospects for a country. Owing to the relatively stationary spatial patterns of global climate, certain regions and countries are more prone to climate hazards and climate variability than others. For example, El Nino/Southern Oscillation patterns result in greater hydroclimatic variability in much of the tropics than that experienced at higher latitudes. In this study, we use a precipitation index that preserves the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and differentiates between precipitation maxima (e.g. floods) and minima (e.g. droughts). The index is a more precise instrument for hydroclimate hazards than that used in any previous studies. A fixed effects, for year and country, regression model was developed to test the influence of climate variables on measures of economic growth and activity. The results indicate that precipitation extremes (i.e. floods and droughts) are the dominant climate influences on economic growth and that the effects are significant and negative. The drought index was found to be associated with a highly significant negative influence on gross domestic product (GDP) growth, while the flood index was associated with a negative influence on GDP growth and lagged effects on growth. The flood index was also found to have a negative effect on industrial value added in contemporary and lagged regressions. Temperature was found to have little significant effect. These results have important implications for economic projections of climate change impacts. Perhaps more important, the results make clear that hydroclimatic hazards have measurable negative impacts, and thus lack of water security is an impediment to growth. In addition, adaptation strategies should recognize the importance of managing hazards given the identification of precipitation extremes as the key climate influence on historical GDP growth. PMID:24080625

Brown, Casey; Meeks, Robyn; Ghile, Yonas; Hunu, Kenneth

2013-11-13

149

Emergency planning for industrial hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Communities have produced a Directive on the Major Accident Hazards of Certain Industrial Activities which sets out standards for the control and mitigation of the hazards presented by sites and storages which contain significant quantities of dangerous substances. An essential element of these controls is the provision of effective on-and off-site emergency plans. This conference explores the considerable research effort which is going on throughout the world in the improvement of systems for emergency planning. Attention was also drawn to areas where difficulties still exist, for example in predicting the consequences of an accident, the complexities of communication problems and the difficulties arising from involvement of the public. The proceedings are in six parts which deal with organizations implementing emergency planning: on- and off-site emergency planning and design; techniques for emergency plans; expenses and auditing of emergency plans; lessons learnt from the emergency management of major accidents; information to the public to and during emergencies. (author)

150

The Nature of US Natural Hazards Research, 1988-2008  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous academic disciplines have contributed to the body of published research on natural hazards and disasters. Geologists, engineers, geographers, and sociologists have participated since the topic first emerged as a formal research agenda in the early 1950s. In more recent decades, psychologists, political scientists, economists, historians, archeologists, anthropologists, architects, computer scientists, and artists have added to our understanding of environmental risk, hazard, and disaster. When examined in-print, what are the discipline-demographics of natural hazards? Who contributes and who tends to have the greater influence on scholarly discourse related to the topic? Are there clear trends in methods, techniques, or paradigmatic approaches? To what degree does this inherently interdisciplinary topic render interdisciplinary research? This paper will present initial findings from a larger data set on natural hazards and social science research. We will describe the discipline-demographics of natural hazards scholarship by examining college-level texts, peer-reviewed journal publications, federally-funded reports, and federally-funded research grants relating to natural hazards or disasters from 1988 to 2008. The citation frequency of sampled references will also be examined as a surrogate for influence on the scholarly discourse of natural hazards. In this paper, we will focus attention on the contributions of social scientists during this period, including an assessment of temporal trends relative to specific disaster events.

Hagelman, R., III

2009-04-01

151

Ground subsidence geo-hazards induced by rapid urbanization: implications from InSAR observation and geological analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the convenient transportation and construction, cities are prone to be situated in areas with flat terrain and unstable sediments, resulting in the concurrence of ground subsidence and urbanization. Here the interaction between geology, anthropogenic processes and ground subsidence geo-hazards were investigated in the Greater Pearl River Delta region of China. Geological evidences and 2006–2010 persistent scatterer data indicate that anthropogenic activities are dominant, although the distribution of river system and Quaternary sediments are also highly related to significant displacements (primarily at a rate of ?15 to 15 mm a?1. The surface displacements derived by synthetic aperture radar interferometry suggest that the urbanization rhythm has to be routinely monitored. Considering analogous urbanization modes, particularly in developing countries, ground subsidence monitoring together with the analysis of its driving force are critical for geo-hazards early-warning, city planning as well as sustainable urbanization.

F. Chen

2012-04-01

152

SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. T2) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The primary reasons for this difference is the greater activity rate used in contemporary models for the Charleston source zone and proper incorporation of uncertainty and randomness in GMAMs

153

Land Change in the Greater Antilles between 2001 and 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Land change in the Greater Antilles differs markedly among countries because of varying socioeconomic histories and global influences. We assessed land change between 2001 and 2010 in municipalities (second administrative units of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. Our analysis used annual land-use/land-cover maps derived from MODIS satellite imagery to model linear change in woody vegetation, mixed-woody/plantations and agriculture/herbaceous vegetation. Using this approach, we focused on municipalities with significant change (p ? 0.05. Between 2001 and 2010, the Greater Antilles gained 801 km2 of woody vegetation. This increase was mainly due to the return of woody vegetation in Cuba, and smaller increases in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Despite relatively similar environments, the factors associated with these changes varied greatly between countries. In Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica, agriculture declined while mixed-woody vegetation increased, mostly in montane regions. In contrast, Cuba experienced an extensive decline in sugarcane plantations, which resulted in the spread of an invasive woody shrub species and the increase in woody vegetation in areas of high agricultural value. In Haiti, the growing population, fuelwood consumption, and increase in agriculture contributed to woody vegetation loss; however, woody vegetation loss was accompanied with a significant increase in the mixed woody and plantations class. Most regional analyses often treated the Greater Antilles as a homogeneous unit; our results suggest that historical and socio-economic differences among countries are crucial for understanding the variation in present day land change dynamics.

Nora L. Álvarez-Berríos

2013-03-01

154

9 CFR 417.2 - Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...conducted for it, a hazard analysis to determine the food safety hazards reasonably...those hazards. The hazard analysis shall include food safety hazards that can...establishment whenever a hazard analysis reveals one or more food safety hazards that...

2010-01-01

155

14 CFR 417.413 - Hazard areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

...public hazard or launch location hazard. A launch...facility or launch location. The process...access to the launch location and must verify that system hazard controls...hazard area. Launch vehicle systems must not...

2010-01-01

156

Hazardous Waste Cleanup Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity helps students understand some of the reasoning and science involved in choosing technologies for cleaning up Superfund hazardous waste sites. They discover that the responsibility for selecting the most appropriate cleanup method for a specific site rests with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Remedial Project Manager (RPM) or On-Scene Coordinator (OSC), with input from the affected community. An important step in this selection process is narrowing the field of alternatives and developing a list of options that make sense for dealing with the contamination at the site. The students analyze the pros and cons of using various technologies for cleaning up specific hazardous waste problems, weighing factors such as contaminant-specific requirements, technological limitations, reliability, cleanup time, and cost.

157

Risk factors for the hazard of lameness in Danish Standardbred trotters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A follow-up study focusing on health problems interfering with optimal training of Danish Standardbred trotters was conducted with the participation of seven professional trainers. Our aim was to estimate the incidence of health problems that cause interruptions of optimal training, and to identify associations between the hazard of lameness and selected risk factors. The study population was dynamic and contained data of 265 Standardbred trotters monitored during 5 months in 1997 and 1998. The horses were greater than or equal to2 years old. Optimal training was defined as when the horse followed scheduled training including fast-speed trotting. Interruption of optimal training could only be caused by health problems and castration. A total of 123 new events of interruption of optimal training caused by health problems were reported. Lameness (injury located to joints and tendons) was the most-frequent cause of interruption of optimal training: 84 events in 69 horses (0.09 events per horse-month). Respiratory diseases (16 events) and muscular problems (seven events) were the second and third most-frequent causes of interrupted training. The effects of trainer, gender, age-group, time with a trainer, participation in races and current month on the hazard of lameness were estimated in a multivariable Cox proportional-hazard model. The effects of trainer, gender and age-group were modelled as time-independent. The effects of time with a trainer, participation in races and the current month were modelled as time-dependent variables. Trainer affected the hazard of lameness. Geldings had higher hazard than mares, as did 3-year olds (compared to >4-year olds). Compared to the period where horses. had been trained by the same trainer for >3 months, horses in the period 1.5-2.5 months after they had entered the training regime had higher risk of lameness (hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% Cl: 1.1-9.9). Participation in races increased the hazard of lameness significantly in the 5 days after a races. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Vigre, Håkan; Chriel, M.

2002-01-01

158

Zinc research: an environmental hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A suggestion has recently been made (Golden, B., and Golden, M., 1976, Lancet, i. 1133) that since the disposal via the drains of zinc-65 used in medical or biological research could be responsible for the high levels of radiozinc found in shellfish on the Oregon shore, regulations governing such disposal are urgently needed. Such regulations already exist in Britain, the United States and many other countries, and the use of radionuclides for medical research as well as for routine diagnosis and treatment is closely controlled. The administration of the British control procedures is briefly described. The environmental levels of radionuclides resulting from medical procedures are quite low, and medical research using radioactivity is generally done in a responsible manner with minimal environmental detriment. The disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants presents greater problems, but in Britain these disposals are also closely controlled and monitored. The hazards of environmental pollution with artificial radionuclides are appreciated. (U.K.)

159

Mapping Europe's Seismic Hazard  

Science.gov (United States)

From the rift that cuts through the heart of Iceland to the complex tectonic convergence that causes frequent and often deadly earthquakes in Italy, Greece, and Turkey to the volcanic tremors that rattle the Mediterranean, seismic activity is a prevalent and often life-threatening reality across Europe. Any attempt to mitigate the seismic risk faced by society requires an accurate estimate of the seismic hazard.

Giardini, Domenico; Wössner, Jochen; Danciu, Laurentiu

2014-07-01

160

Natural Hazards: Hurricanes  

Science.gov (United States)

This portal provides information on the hazards presented to the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of the United States by hurricanes. A fact sheet summarizes some of the destructive effects and describes some of the more recent damaging storms. Other links direct site visitors to highlighted resources describing the extent and causes of coastal impacts of hurricanes, impacts on wetlands, coastal changes, and educational resources on hurricanes. There are also links to hurricane monitoring and prediction websites.

 
 
 
 
161

Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

2003-03-05

162

PUREX facility hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities

163

Radiation hazard control report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the radiation hazard control in the Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kinki University, from April, 1992 to March, 1993 are reported. The persons engaged in radiation-related works in fiscal year 1992 were 55 teachers, 22 students and 47 workers, accordingly, 124 persons became the object of radiation hazard control. As to the state of operation of the nuclear reactor in fiscal year 1992, the highest thermal output was 1 W, cumulative thermal output was 297.06 W·h, and the total time of operation was 578.18 h. The operation of the neutron generator was not carried out. The periodic inspection by Science and Technology Agency was performed on April 2-4, and the investigation of the state of security regulation observation was performed on July 21, 1992, and the reactor passed both without trouble. The health checkup and the control of dose equivalent of personal radiation exposure were carried out, but abnormality was not found. In the radiation hazard control in laboratories and in fields, the particularly high level of radiation was not found. (K.I.)

164

Hazard waste risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory continued to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in the area of risk assessment for hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste management. The overall objective is to provide technical assistance to OOS in developing cost-effective risk assessment tools and strategies for bringing DOE facilities into compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Major efforts during FY 1985 included (1) completing the modification of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and developing training manuals and courses to assist in field office implementation of the modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS); (2) initiating the development of a system for reviewing field office HRS/mHRS evaluations for appropriate use of data and appropriate application of the methodology; (3) initiating the development of a data base management system to maintain all field office HRS/mHRS scoring sheets and to support the master OOS environmental data base system; (4) developing implementation guidance for Phase I of the DOE CERCLA Program, Installation Assessment; (5) continuing to develop an objective, scientifically based methodology for DOE management to use in establishing priorities for conducting site assessments under Phase II of the DOE CERCLA Program, Confirmation; of the DOE CERCLA Program, Confirmation; and (6) participating in developing the DOE response to EPA on the proposed listing of three sites on the National Priorities List

165

Chemical hazards in health care: high hazard, high risk, but low protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is counter-intuitive that the healthcare industry, whose mission is the care of the sick, is itself a "high-hazard" industry for the workers it employs. Possessing every hazard class, with chemical agents in the form of pharmaceuticals, sterilants, and germicidals in frequent use, this industry sector consistently demonstrates poor injury and illness statistics, among the highest in the United States, and in the European Union (EU), 34% higher than the average work-related accident rate. In both the United States and the EU, about 10% of all workers are employed in the healthcare sector, and in developing countries as well, forecasts for the increasing need of healthcare workers (HCW) suggests a large population at potential risk of health harm. The explosion of technology growth in the healthcare sector, most obvious in pharmaceutical applications, has not been accompanied by a stepped up safety program in hospitals. Where there is hazard recognition, the remedies are often voluntary, and often poorly enforced. The wrong assumption that this industry would police itself, given its presumed knowledge base, has also been found wanting. The healthcare industry is also a significant waste generator threatening the natural environment with chemical and infectious waste and products of incineration. The ILO has recommended that occupational health goals for industrial nations focus on the hazards of new technology of which pharma and biopharma products are the leaders. This unchecked growth cannot continue without a parallel commitment to the health and safety of workers encountering these "high tech" hazards. Simple strategies to improve the present state include: (a) recognizing healthcare as a "high-hazard" employment sector; (b) fortifying voluntary safety guidelines to the level of enforceable regulation; (c) "potent" inspections; (d) treating hazardous pharmaceuticals like the chemical toxicants they are; and (e) protecting HCWs at least as well as workers in other high-hazard sectors. PMID:17119236

McDiarmid, Melissa A

2006-09-01

166

Identification of Potential Tsunamogenic Areas From Multibeam and Seismic Data in the Greater Antilles South Slope  

Science.gov (United States)

As it is known, tsunamis have various general generating mechanisms associated with earthquakes, landslides/slumps and volcanic processes. Active tectonics along the north-eastern Caribbean plate is the principal cause de tsunami in the eastern Greater Antilles islands. In this area, earthquake and tsunami record suggest that the main tsunami sources are large shallow earthquakes (6.5) in submarine areas, which can yield a significant vertical motion over seafloor, and sudden landslides/slumps maybe triggered by this earthquakes generally in steeped bathymetry areas. In the spring of 2005 was carried out in the north-eastern Caribbean plate the marine geophysical survey GEOPRIO-DO aboard of Spanish R/V Hesp¦rides. This marine survey explored the north-eastern area of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands and the southern slope of Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. The survey included diverse geophysical techniques to research from deep to shallow structure, but with special emphasis on multibeam systematic mapping carried out in the Muertos Accretionary Prism and Muertos Trough, in the south of Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. This accretionary complex is occupying a broad band of active compression regime with an east-west trend. It is limited to the south by the Muertos Trough (>5600 m depth), where the Venezuelan Basin oceanic crust is being underthrusted beneath Puerto Rico and Hispaniola islands. We have used multibeam systematic data to get detailed bathymetry grids in which we have made geothematic mapping (contours, slopes, slope direction, channel network). The processing of multibeam data and their integration with shallower seismic data has allowed us to make a detailed morphotectonic analysis. We have identified many seafloor structures like landslides/slumps and active fault zones with high tsunamogenic potential. Our results suggest that the combination of very active tectonics with steep seafloor slopes in the vicinity of highly populated islands yields high tsunami hazard for the eastern Greater Antilles. We consider the integration of high resolution multibeam data with shallow seismic data essential tools to identify sources with high tsunamogenic potential.

Granja, J.; Carbo, A.; Muñoz-Martin, A.; Martin Davila, J.; ten Brink, U.; Gomez, M.; Cordoba, D.; von Hilldebrandt, C.; Payero, J.

2007-05-01

167

Waste Management Facilities Cost Information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, greater-than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic waste (TRU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste have been estimated previously, and a summary has been included in earlier WMFCI reports. In order to have a single source for obtaining transportation cost for all radioactive waste, the transportation costs for the contact- and remote-handled wastes are repeated in this report. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the US Department of Transportation (DOT), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations. It should be noted that the trend is toward greater restrictions on transportation of radioactive waste (e.g., truck or rail car speed, shipping route, security escort, and personnel training requirements), which may have a significant impact on future costs

168

Coupling seismic and GPS data for hazard estimation in some active regions in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinia regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the seismic events, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The active crustal deformation field in active regions in Egypt are examined, as obtained from both seismological and GPS data. The results from data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications.

Sayed Mohamed, Abdel-Monem

2010-05-01

169

Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 microg/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlifedlife

170

Earthquake hazard assessment and small earthquakes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The significance of small earthquakes and their treatment in nuclear power plant seismic hazard assessment is an issue which has received increased attention over the past few years. In probabilistic studies, sensitivity studies showed that the choice of the lower bound magnitude used in hazard calculations can have a larger than expected effect on the calculated hazard. Of particular interest is the fact that some of the difference in seismic hazard calculations between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies can be attributed to this choice. The LLNL study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 3.75 while the EPRI study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 5.0. The magnitudes used were assumed to be body wave magnitudes or their equivalents. In deterministic studies recent ground motion recordings of small to moderate earthquakes at or near nuclear power plants have shown that the high frequencies of design response spectra may be exceeded. These exceedances became important issues in the licensing of the Summer and Perry nuclear power plants. At various times in the past particular concerns have been raised with respect to the hazard and damage potential of small to moderate earthquakes occurring at very shallow depths. In this paper a closer look is taken at these issues. Emphasis is given to the impact of lower bound magnitude on probabilistic hazard calculations and the historical record of damage from smad the historical record of damage from small to moderate earthquakes. Limited recommendations are made as to how these issues should be viewed

171

Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India  

Science.gov (United States)

In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the construction of cyclone shelters was being undertaken. The availability heuristics caused a perception of low probability of tsunami following an earthquake, as the last large similar event happened over a hundred years ago. Another led to a situation when decisions were taken on the basis of experience and not statistical evidence, namely, experience showed that the so-called "Ring of Fire" generates underground earthquakes and tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. This knowledge made decision-makers to neglect the numerical estimations about probability of underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean even though seismologists were warning about probability of a large underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The bounded rationality bias led to misperception of signals from the early warning center in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting limited concern resulted in risk mitigation measures that considered cyclone risks, but much less about tsunami. Under loss aversion considerations, the decision-makers perceived the losses connected with the necessary additional investment as being greater than benefits from mitigating a less probable hazard.

Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

2013-04-01

172

Climate change-induced impacts on urban flood risk influenced by concurrent hazards  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In coastal regions, several hazards may lead to floods, and if they occur concurrently, the damage will be higher than for the hazards individually. The paper outlines an approach for carrying out a risk analysis with several hazards and applies it on a case study in Greater Copenhagen where two hazards, rainfall and sea surge, are both important. The core in the methodology is the application of copula functions as an extension of one-dimensional risk analysis and projections of future climatic changes. The results for Greater Copenhagen indicate that the dependence between the hazards is weak and that climate change most likely will not increase the correlation. The overall change in flood return periods over a forecast horizon of 110 years are estimated to decrease by one to three orders of magnitude.

Pedersen, A. N.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

2012-01-01

173

Flood Hazard Recurrence Frequencies for the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Department of Energy (DOE) regulations outline the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. The NPH considered in this report is flooding. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve defines, as a function of water elevation, the annual probability of occurrence or the return period in years. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curves provide basis to avoid unnecessary facility upgrades, to establish appropriate design criteria for new facilities, and to develop emergency preparedness plans to mitigate the consequences of floods. A method based on precipitation, basin runoff and open channel hydraulics was developed to determine probabilistic flood hazard curves for the Savannah River Site. The calculated flood hazard curves show that the probabilities of flooding existing SRS major facilities are significantly less than 1.E-05 per year

174

Hazardous Drinking-Related Characteristics of Depressive Disorders in Korea: The CRESCEND Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to identify clinical correlates of hazardous drinking in a large cohort of Korean patients with depression. We recruited a total of 402 depressed patients aged > 18 yr from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea. Patients' drinking habits were assessed using the Korean Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-K). Psychometric scales, including the HAMD, HAMA, BPRS, CGI-S, SSI-Beck, SOFAS, and WHOQOL-BREF, were used to assess depression, anxiety, overall psychiatric symptoms, global severity, suicidal ideation, social functioning, and quality of life, respectively. We compared demographic and clinical features and psychometric scores between patients with and without hazardous drinking behavior after adjusting for the effects of age and sex. We then performed binary logistic regression analysis to identify independent correlates of hazardous drinking in the study population. Our results revealed that hazardous drinking was associated with current smoking status, history of attempted suicide, greater psychomotor retardation, suicidal ideation, weight loss, and lower hypochondriasis than non-hazardous drinking. The regression model also demonstrated that more frequent smoking, higher levels of suicidal ideation, and lower levels of hypochondriasis were independently correlates for hazardous drinking in depressed patients. In conclusion, depressed patients who are hazardous drinkers experience severer symptoms and a greater burden of illness than non-hazardous drinkers. In Korea, screening depressed patients for signs of hazardous drinking could help identify subjects who may benefit from comprehensive therapeutic approaches. PMID:25552886

Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Kyu; Oh, Hong Seok; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

2015-01-01

175

Emergency Assessment of Postfire Debris-Flow Hazards for the 2009 Station Fire, San Gabriel Mountains, Southern California  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents an emergency assessment of potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2009 Station fire in Los Angeles County, southern California. Statistical-empirical models developed for postfire debris flows are used to estimate the probability and volume of debris-flow production from 678 drainage basins within the burned area and to generate maps of areas that may be inundated along the San Gabriel mountain front by the estimated volume of material. Debris-flow probabilities and volumes are estimated as combined functions of different measures of basin burned extent, gradient, and material properties in response to both a 3-hour-duration, 1-year-recurrence thunderstorm and to a 12-hour-duration, 2-year recurrence storm. Debris-flow inundation areas are mapped for scenarios where all sediment-retention basins are empty and where the basins are all completely full. This assessment provides critical information for issuing warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning evacuation timing and routes within the first two winters following the fire. Tributary basins that drain into Pacoima Canyon, Big Tujunga Canyon, Arroyo Seco, West Fork of the San Gabriel River, and Devils Canyon were identified as having probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, the potential to produce debris flows with volumes greater than 100,000 m3, and the highest Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking in response to both storms. The predicted high probability and large magnitude of the response to such short-recurrence storms indicates the potential for significant debris-flow impacts to any buildings, roads, bridges, culverts, and reservoirs located both within these drainages and downstream from the burned area. These areas will require appropriate debris-flow mitigation and warning efforts. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 m3, and high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings were estimated in response to both short recurrence-interval (1- and 2-year) storms for all but the smallest basins along the San Gabriel mountain front between Big Tujunga Canyon and Arroyo Seco. The combination of high probabilities and large magnitudes determined for these basins indicates significant debris-flow hazards for neighborhoods along the mountain front. When the capacity of sediment-retention basins is exceeded, debris flows may be deposited in neighborhoods and streets and impact infrastructure between the mountain front and Foothill Boulevard. In addition, debris flows may be deposited in neighborhoods immediately below unprotected basins. Hazards to neighborhoods and structures at risk from these events will require appropriate debris-flow mitigation and warning efforts.

Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.; Staley, Dennis M.; Worstell, Bruce B.

2009-01-01

176

Volcanic hazards: extent and severity of potential tephra hazard interpreted from layer Yn from Mount St. Helens, Washington (Abstract)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volcanoes in the conterminous United States erupt infrequently but represent a significant potential hazard. Tephra eruptions can affect broader areas and reach population centers at greater distances from a volcano than any other kind of volcanic event. Lava flows, pyroclastic flows, mudflows, and floods can be more hazardous, but they seldom extend beyond a volcano except along valleys. Severity of risk from tephra depends in part on rate of fall and grain size, but mainly on thickness. Rates of fall from future eruptions in the Cascade Range must be estimated from historic eruptions elsewhere; potential grain sizes and thicknesses can be judged from past tephra eruptions of the Cascade volcanoes themselves. Pumice layer Yn, erupted by Mount St. Helens about BC 2000, exemplifies an extensive and thick tephra resulting from a single eruptive pulse of a Cascade volcano; in thickness and volume it resembles tephra of the type Plinian eruption of Vesuvius in Italy in 79 AD. Layer Yn trends NNE from Mount St. Helens in a long narrow lobe that is much thicker at any given distance than if the layer had formed a wide lobe. On broad ridges where it should be nearly unaffected by thickening or erosion, its present (compacted) thickness is as much as 70 cm at about 50 km from the volcano, 20 cm at 100 km, and 5 cm at about 280 km. Future eruptions like that of layer Yn could produce similar thicknesses in any easterly direction between about NNE and SSE downwind from Mount St. Helens or any other explosive Cascade volcano. Weaker winds toward the west indicate that potential thicknesses are less in westerly directions.

Mullineaux, D.R.

1977-02-01

177

Communication in hazardous environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Radios were investigated for use in hazardous environments where protective breathing equipment such as plastic suits and respirators interfere with communication. A radio system, manufactured by Communications-Applied Technology (C-AT), was identified that was designed specifically for hazardous environment communications. This equipment had been used successfully by the US Army and NASA for several years. C-AT equipment was evaluated in plantwide applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) using temporary frequencies obtained by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR). Radios performed well in all applications, which included a tritium facility, high-level caves, a nuclear reactor building, tank farm, and a canyon building interior. Permanent frequencies were obtained by DOE-SR for two complete six-man C-AT systems at SRP. Because of the relatively short range of these systems, replicates will cover all applications of this type of equipment plantwide. Twelve radio systems are currently being used successfully in plantwide applications.

Rankin, W. N.; Herold, T. R.

178

Communication in hazardous environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radios were investigated for use in hazardous environments where protective breathing equipment such as plastic suits and respirators interfere with communication. A radio system, manufactured by Communications-Applied technology (C-AT), was identified that was designed specifically for hazardous environment communications. This equipment had been used successfully by the US Army and NASA for several years. C-AT equipment was evaluated in plantwide applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) using temporary frequencies obtained by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR). Radios performed well in all applications, which included a tritium facility, high-level caves, a nuclear reactor building, tank farm, and a canyon building interior. Permanent frequencies were obtained by DOE-SR for two complete six-man C-AT systems at SRP. Because of the relatively short range of these systems, replicates will cover all applications of this type of equipment plantwide. Twelve radio systems are currently being used successfully in plantwide applications.

Rankin, W N; Herold, T R

1986-01-01

179

GeoHazards International  

Science.gov (United States)

Created in 1991, GeoHazards International's (GHI) mission is to "reduce loss of life and suffering around the world in communities most vulnerable to geologic hazards." To attain this goal, GHI works "to create a world that devotes as many resources to preparing for and preventing the consequences of natural disasters as it devotes to responding to and recovering from them." A good place to start for visitors is the "Our Priorities" tab and the "Vulnerable Communities" link. Here they will find several graphs depicting the earthquake risk to people living in cities in developing countries. Although the earthquake risk for people in cities in industrialized nations has decreased due to better construction methods and emergency responsiveness, visitors will see by the graphs that the earthquake risk for developing countries has stayed the same. The "Our Projects" link, under the "Our Work" tab, shows visitors almost two dozen past and current projects that aim, or aimed, to increase community or country preparedness for earthquakes, seismic activity and tsunamis, in places such as Gujarat, rural Peru, Sumatra, and the Caucasus region. Under the "Resources" tab, visitors will find GHI's latest news, copies of their annual newsletter, as well as additional GHI publications and resources. For those visitors who wish to stay informed of GHI's activities, they can sign up for email updates under the "Get Involved" tab.

180

Regulatory barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary federal regulatory programs that influence the development of new technology for hazardous waste are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, also commonly known as Superfund). Two important aspects of RCRA that can create barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation are technology-based waste pre-treatment standards and a cumbersome permitting program. By choosing a technology-based approach to the RCRA land disposal restrictions program, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has simultaneously created tremendous demand for the technologies specified in its regulations, while at the same time significantly reduced incentives for technology innovation that might have otherwise existed. Also, the RCRA hazardous waste permitting process can take years and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The natural tendency of permit writers to be cautious of unproven (i.e., innovative) technology also can create a barrier to deployment of new technologies. EPA has created several permitting innovations, however, to attempt to mitigate this latter barrier. Understanding the constraints of these permitting innovations can be important to the success of hazardous waste technology development programs. 3 refs

 
 
 
 
181

A hazard perception test for novice drivers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a hazard perception test, modeled on that used currently in several Australian states, that presents short video scenes to observers and requires them to indicate the presence of a traffic conflict that would lead to a collision between the "camera" vehicle and another road user. After eliminating those scenes that were problematic (e.g., many observers did not recognize the hazard), we predicted driver group (novice vs. experienced drivers of similar age) on the basis of individual differences in reaction time, miss rate and false alarm rate. Novices were significantly slower in responding to hazards, even after controlling for age and simple reaction time. After selecting those scenes with the larger group differences, an 18-scene test that would be useful for mass testing exhibited even larger experience effects. There was good reliability in the resulting scale. Results suggest that this brief test of hazard perception can discriminate groups that differ in driving experience. Implications for driver licensing, evaluation and training are discussed. PMID:21094314

Scialfa, Charles T; Deschênes, Micheline C; Ference, Jennifer; Boone, Jessica; Horswill, Mark S; Wetton, Mark

2011-01-01

182

Market Transparency, Adverse Selection, and Moral Hazard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the effects of improvements in market transparency on eBay on seller exit and continuing sellers' behavior. An improvement in market transparency by reducing strategic bias in buyer ratings led to a significant increase in buyer valuation especially of sellers rated poorly prior to the change, but not to an increase in seller exit. When sellers had the choice between exiting'??a reduction in adverse selection'??and improved behavior'??a reduction in moral hazard'??, they pref...

Klein, Tobias J.; Lambertz, Christian; Stahl, Konrad O.

2013-01-01

183

Forecasting probabilistic seismic shaking for greater Tokyo from 400 years of intensity observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past shaking. We calculate the time-averaged (Poisson) probability of severe shaking by using more than 10,000 intensity observations recorded since AD 1600 in a 350 km-wide box centered on Tokyo. Unlike other hazard-assessment methods, source and site effects are included without modeling, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake nor the location and slip rate of any fault. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct here suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA ??? 6 shaking (??? PGA ??? 0.4 g or MMI ??? IX) is 30%-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10% 15% in Chiba and Tsukuba. This result means that there is a 30% chance that 4 million people will be subjected to IJMA ??? 6 shaking during an average 30-year period. We also produce exceedance maps of PGA for building-code regulations, and calculate short-term hazard associated with a hypothetical catastrophe bond. Our results resemble an independent assessment developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis for greater Tokyo. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Bozkurt, S.B.; Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.

2007-01-01

184

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF INCIDENT HYPOKALEMIA AND HYPERKALEMIA IN TREATED HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS IN ALLHAT  

Science.gov (United States)

Concerns exist that diuretic-induced changes in serum potassium may have adverse effects in hypertensive patients. ALLHAT, a large practice-based clinical trial made it possible to examine consequences of observed changes in potassium during care in conventional practice settings. Normokalemic participants randomized to chlorthalidone versus amlodipine or lisinopril as first-step drug were stratified by year-1 potassium. Post-year-1 outcomes among hypokalemics (potassium5.4mmol/L) were compared to normokalemics (potassium 3.5–5.4 mmol/L). Year-1 hypokalemia incidence was 6.8%; incidence in chlorthalidone (12.9%) differed from amlodipine (2.1%; p<0.001) and lisinopril (1.0%; p<0.01). Hyperkalemia incidence (2.0%) was greater in lisinopril (3.6%) than chlorthalidone (1.2%; p<0.01) or amlodipine (1.9%; p<0.01). Coronary heart disease occurred in 8.1% with hypokalemia, 8.0% with normokalemia, and 11.1% with hyperkalemia. Overall, mortality was higher in hypokalemics than normokalemics (Cox hazard ratio =1.21; 95% confidence interval=1.02–1.44) with statistically significant (interaction p<0.01) disparity in hazard ratios for the three treatment arms (hazard ratios: chlorthalidone=1.21, amlodipine=1.60, lisinopril=3.82). Hyperkalemia was associated with increased risk of combined cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio=1.58; 1.15–2.18) without significant treatment interactions. In conventional practice settings, the uncommon appearance of hyperkalemia was associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Hypokalemia was associated with increased mortality; however, the statistically significant heterogeneity in hazard ratios across treatment groups strongly suggests that the observed increase in mortality is unrelated to the specific effects of chlorthalidone. Thus, for most patients, concerns about potassium levels should not influence clinician’s decision about initiating hypertension treatment with low-moderate doses of thiazide diuretics (12.5–25 mg of chlorthalidone). PMID:22431578

Alderman, Michael H; Piller, Linda B; Ford, Charles E; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Oparil, Suzanne; Cushman, William C; Einhorn, Paula T; Franklin, Stanley S; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Ong, Stephen T; Eckfeldt, John H; Furberg, Curt D; Calhoun, David; Davis, Barry R

2012-01-01

185

When is statistical significance not significant?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article provides a non-technical introduction to the p value statistics. Its main purpose is to help researchers make sense of the appropriate role of the p value statistics in empirical political science research. On methodologica grounds, we use replication, simulations and observational data to show when statistical significance is not significant. We argue that: (1 scholars must always graphically analyze their data before interpreting the p value; (2 it is pointless to estimate the p value for non-random samples; (3 the p value is highly affected by the sample size, and (4 it is pointless to estimate the p value when dealing with data on population.

Dalson Britto Figueiredo Filho

2013-04-01

186

[Health significance of inhaled particles].  

Science.gov (United States)

Particulates refer to particles, dust, dirt, soot and aerosol mists that has suspended in the surrounding air. They may consist of solids of various forms including fibres or liquids. Long term exposure to silicon dioxide containing dusts (crystalline silica: quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite) may cause pneumoconiosis in the form of acute or/either chronic silicosis. Asbestos refers to a divers family of crystalline hydrated fibrous siliates typically exhibiting a greater tha 3:1 length ot diameter ratio. It is subdivided into serpentine (Chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite). Exposure to asbestos fibres may cause lung fibrosis and promote cancer of the lung or the pleura. Besides the induction of malignant diseases dust exposure may result in obstructive as well as restrictive lung diseases which may be compensate in case of the recognition as a occupational diseases. Other occupational exposures leading to pneumoconiosis are caused be talc, or metals including aluminium containing dusts. Also the group of man-made mineral (MMMFs) or vitreous fibres (MMVFs), including glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments, microfibres, refractory ceramic fibres are bioactive under certain experimental conditions. Although it has been shown that MMMFs may cause malignancies when injected intraperitoneally in high quantities in rodents, inhalation trials and human studies could not reproduce these results in the same precision. Fine particles (particulate matter = PM) comprise one of the most widespread and harmful air pollutants in the industrialized world. PM may cause worsening of asthma and other respiratory diseases, reduce lung function development in children, potentially increased the risk of premature death in the elderly and enhance mortality from cardiac diseases. Because of the small size PM2.5 is seen to be even more hazardous than PM10. PMID:16544243

Gillissen, A; Gessner, C; Hammerschmidt, S; Hoheisel, G; Wirtz, H

2006-03-24

187

Teen Girls May Face Greater Risk of Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript. Teen Girls May Face Greater Risk of Depression Relationship-related stress contributes to higher rates, researchers ... boys, which puts them at greater risk for depression, a new study finds. Nearly 400 white and ...

188

Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Alaska, are assessed on the basis of the recent volcanic history of the island. The long-term frequency of volcanic eruptions is estimated using a count of 40 identifiable vents considered to represent separate eruptions. Assuming regular temporal spacing of these events during the period 360,000 to 3230 y.b.p., the estimated mean recurrence time is 0.11 × 10 - 3 eruption/year and the eruptive interval is approximately 8900 years. Volcano hazards on St. Paul are associated exclusively with the eruption of low viscosity alkali basaltic magma. The most important are lava flows, tephra fallout, and base surges. Other hazards include volcanic gases, seismicity and ground deformation associated with dike intrusion beneath rift zones, and explosive lava-water interactions along coastal regions and water-saturated ground. The general characteristics of past volcanism on St. Paul indicate that the most likely styles of future eruptions will be (1) Hawaiian-style eruptions with fire fountains and pahoehoe lava flows issuing from one of two polygenetic shield volcanoes on the island; (2) Strombolian-style, scoria cone-building eruptions with associated tephra fallout and eruption of short pahoehoe lava flows; and (3) explosive Surtseyan-style, phreatomagmatic eruptions initiating at some point along St. Paul's insular shelf. Given the relatively restricted range in volcanic phenomena on St. Paul, the most significant question regarding volcano hazard and risk assessment is whether future eruptions will be confined to the same region on the island as the most recent activity. If future activity follows the recent past, resulting volcano hazards will most likely be located at inland areas sufficiently far from habitation that they will pose little threat to life or property. An important caveat, however, is that St. Paul is constructed almost entirely from the products of volcanic eruptions with vents located all over the island. Thus, a new vent could form at any place on the island, including St. Paul's insular shelf and areas farther offshore. Because of the remote location of St. Paul in the storm-lashed Bering Sea, risks related to volcano hazards may be greater than they would be in a different setting where more stable meteorological conditions prevail and access by monitoring and relief groups is less challenging.

Feeley, T. C.; Winer, G. S.

2009-05-01

189

Gas hydrates - new source of energy and new Geotechnical hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Constantly growing demand for energy carriers, limitation and irretrievability of their now in use resources have forced to turn in the end of XX century the close attention on searches of the no conventional sources possessing both more significant potential resources, and an opportunity of their constant completion. Sources of the energy carrier of organic carbon most widespread by the Earth resources of gas hydrates are prevailing and by different estimations on the order or exceed resources of hydrocarbon raw material used nowadays more. Gas hydrates - the firm crystal connections formed water (liquid water, an ice, water vapor) and low-molecular waterproof natural gases such as carbohydrates (mainly methane), 2, N2 and others, whose crystal structure effectively compresses gas: each cubic meter of hydrate can yield over 160 m3 of methane. Natural gas hydrates occur on earth in three kinds of environments: deep-water subaquactic regions, permafrost and glacier shields. The current estimates show that the amount of energy in these gas hydrates is twice total fossil fuel reserves, indicating a huge source of energy, which can be exploited in the right economical conditions. Despite of appeal of use gas hydrates as the perspective and ecologically more pure fuel with possessing huge resources, investigation and development of their deposits can lead to a number of the negative consequences connected with hazards arising difficulties for maintenance of their technical and ecological safety of carrying out. Furthermore, these gas hydrates are a safety hazard to drilling operation, as they could become unstable under typical wellborn conditions and produce large quantities of gas. The decomposition of natural gas hydrates in porous media could also be responsible for sub sea landslides and global weather changes. Recent studies show that they might provide an opportunity for CO2 sequestering. Scales of arising problems including Geoethical can change from local up to regional and even global. Obviously, in the future, much greater dangers should be taken into consideration in many territories and a strong respect for them has to become a new priority in many activities including Geoetics. Key words: Gas hydrates, Geoethical, geotechnical, hazard, methane.

Chistyakov, V.

2012-04-01

190

Linking emerging hazardous waste technologies with the electronic information era  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In looking to the future and the development of new approaches or strategies for managing hazardous waste, it is important to understand and appreciate the factors that have contributed to current successful approaches. In the United States, several events in the last two decades have had a significant impact in advancing remediation of hazardous waste, including environmental legislation, legislative reforms on licensing federally funded research, and electronic transfer of information. Similar activities also have occurred on a global level. While each of these areas is significant, the electronic exchange of information has no national boundaries and has become an active part of major hazardous waste research and management programs. It is important to realize that any group or society that is developing a comprehensive program in hazardous waste management should be able to take advantage of this advanced approach in the dissemination of information. 6 refs., 1 tab.

Anderson, B.E.; Suk, W.A. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Blackard, B. [Technology Planning and Management Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

1996-12-31

191

Radiation hazard control report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of radiation hazard control at the Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kinki University, are described for the one year period from April, 1979, to March, 1980. The personnel engaged in radiation works totaled 97. The nuclear reactor in the institute was operated for total 985.7 hours at heat output up to 1 watt during the year, and the total thermal output was 873.6 W.hr. In the year, there was no instance of any problem. However, as for surface contamination, there is the possibility of rise in future due to the increasing works in the RI tracer building. The following matters are described: personnel monitoring (health examination, personal exposure dose control), laboratory monitoring (also including the measurements of radioactive concentrations in air and water and of surface contamination density), and field monitoring. (J.P.N.)

192

Hazards of smoking.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strong association exists between cigarette smoking and several diseases namely, cancer of the lung, bronchitis and emphysema, cancer of the larynx, oral cavity and oesophagus, gastric and duodenal ulcers, Crohn's disease, cancer of the bladder, coronary artery disease, macrocytosis, polycythaemia, leukaemia, etc. This is due to the harmful constituents of cigarette and other modalities smoking. Smokers not only harm themselves but also harm those around. Foetal malformations, abortions, stillbirths, prematurity and low birth weight are common in smoker mothers. These are the effects of passive smoking. There is no safer cigarette in the market even by lowering its harmful constituents. Mass education about the hazards of smoking with emphasis on complete stoppage of smoking is the only way to prevent its rising incidence. PMID:1940406

Arya, S N; Rajiv, K; Arya, S

1991-04-01

193

Hazards of radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risks to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. There is scant data on somatic and genetic risks at environmental and occupational levels of radiation exposure. The available data on radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis are for high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Risk assessments for low level radiation are obtained using these data, assuming a linear dose-response relationship. During uranium mining the chief source of radiation hazard is inhalation of radon daughters. The correlation between radon daughter exposure and the increased incidence of lung cancer has been well documented. For radiation exposures at and below occupational limits, the associated risk of radiation induced cancers and genetic abnormalities is small and should not lead to a detectable increase over naturally occurring rates

194

Liability for hazardous technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liability for hazardous technologies is discussed using the atomic energy law as an example which reveals an individual system with components such as unlimited, absolute liability, financial security and indemnification, and 'deficiency guarantee' by the state in case of nuclear accidents abroad. Following chapters deal with liability under civil law or industrial injuries insurance, the problem of the causality that cannot be proved, and the resulting consequences, and with large-scale damage and transfrontier damage, and the claim for damages. The results of the review of this system are then used to draw conclusions and derive information with regard to handling the liability problems with risks in other fields of technology. Finally, a proposal is discussed that suggests the causality problem to be solved by establishing a fund: Damages could be paid from a fund, with contributions to this fund coming primarily from all potential risk sources and/or the general public. (orig./HSCH)

195

Radiation hazard control report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of radiation hazard control for the fiscal year 1982 in the Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki University (installed with a 1 watt research reactor and an accelerator) are reported. As for the personal monitoring, the results of medical examination and the radiation dose measured by film badges, TLD or pocket dosimeters for about 80 personnel are listed. As for the laboratory monitoring, the dose rate in various places in the facilities was measured every month. Radioactivity in the exhaust and drainage was also measured, and the results are shown. As for the field monitoring, the environmental gamma dose rate and ? activity in sampled land water, plants and mud in drainage were measured every three months. No abnormality was found. (Aoki, K.)

196

Risk assessment on hazards for decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A decommissioning plan should be followed by a qualitative and quantitative safety assessment of it. The safety assessment of a decommissioning plan is applied to identify the potential (radiological and non-radiological) hazards and risks. Radiological and non-radiological hazards arise during decommissioning activities. The non-radiological or industrial hazards to which workers are subjected during a decommissioning and dismantling process may be greater than those experienced during an operational lifetime of a facility. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities and as well as during accidents. The risk assessment method was developed by using risk matrix and fuzzy inference logic, on the basis of the radiological and non-radiological hazards for a decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility. Fuzzy inference of radiological and non-radiological hazards performs a mapping from radiological and non-radiological hazards to risk matrix. Defuzzification of radiological and non-radiological hazards is the conversion of risk matrix and priorities to the maximum criterion method and the mean criterion method. In the end, a composite risk assessment methodology, to rank the risk level on radiological and non-radiological hazards of the decommissioning tasks and to prioritize on the risk level of the decommissioning tasks, by simultaneously combining radiolotasks, by simultaneously combining radiological and non-radiological hazards, was developed.

197

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of Babol, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Babol, one of big cities in north of Iran. Many destructive earthquakes happened in Iran in the last centuries. It comes from historical references that at least many times; Babol has been destroyed by catastrophic earthquakes. In this paper, the peak horizontal ground acceleration over the bedrock (PGA is calculated by a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA. For this reason, at first, a collected catalogue, containing both historical and instrumental events that occurred in a radius of 200 km of Babol city and covering the period from 874 to 2004 have been gathered. Then, seismic sources are modeled and recur¬rence relationship is established. After elimination of the aftershocks and foreshocks, the main earthquakes were taken into consideration to calculate the seismic parameters (SP by Kijko method. The calculations were performed using the logic tree method and four weighted attenuation relationships Ghodrati, 0.35, Khademi, 0.25, Ambraseys and Simpson, 0.2, and Sarma and Srbulov, 0.2. Seismic hazard assessment is then carried out for 8 horizontal by 7 vertical lines grid points using SEISRISK III. Finally, two seismic hazard maps of the studied area based on Peak Horizontal Ground Acceleration (PGA over bedrock for 2 and 10% probability of ex¬ceedance in one life cycles of 50 year are presented. These calculations have been performed by the Poisson distribution of two hazard levels. The results showed that the PGA ranges from 0.32 to 0.33 g for a return period of 475 years and from 0.507 to 0.527 g for a return period of 2475 years. Since population is very dense in Babol and vulnerability of buildings is high, the risk of future earthquakes will be very significant.

Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

2011-01-01

198

Landslide Hazard in Georgia  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decades of the XX century, protect the population from geological hazards, to maintain land and safe operation of the engineering facilities has become the most important social - economic, demographic, political and environmental problems for the whole world. Georgia, with its scales of origination of the natural-catastrophic processes (landslide, mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.), their re-occurrence and with the negative results inflicted by these processes to the population, agricultural lands and engineering objects, is one of the most complex mountainous region. The extremely sensitive conditions were conditioned by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Activation of the negative meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic changes and their abnormally frequent occurrence (mostly increased atmospheric precipitations, temperature and humidity); 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. Following the problem urgency, a number of departmental and research institutions have made their operations more intense in the given direction within the limits of their competence. First of all, the activity of the Department of Geology of Georgia (which is at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection), which mapped, identified and cataloged the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and developmental regularities of these processes for tens of years. The increased risk of Geological catastrophes in Georgia first of all is caused by insufficient information between society and responsible persons toward this event. The existed situation needs the base assessment of natural disasters level, the identification of events, to determine their caused reasons, to develop special maps in GIS system, and continuous functioning of geo monitoring researches for develop safety early warning system.

Gaprindashvili, George; Tsereteli, Emil; Gaprindashvili, Merab

2014-05-01

199

DETERMINISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE TSUNAMI HAZARD IN CHINA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seismic hazard analysis has reached a level of maturity in China. Such work has contributed significantly towards improvements of the national infrastructure in effecting programs of disaster preparedness and mitigation. However, the work on tsunami risk assessment is still in a preliminary stage. The present study proposes a deterministic method of tsunami hazard analysis based on coastal bathymetry and morphology, as well as on mathematical simulations, and evaluates the potential tsunami r...

Yefei Ren; Ruizhi Wen; Baofeng Zhou; Dacheng Shi

2010-01-01

200

21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control...Section 123.6 Food and Drugs FOOD...for it, a hazard analysis to determine whether there are food safety hazards...whenever a hazard analysis reveals one or more food safety...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

The transportation of hazardous materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Vehicle Safety Group of the National Institute for Transport and Road Research investigated the problem of transportation of hazardous materials. The roles of the driver; vehicle; container; routing and labelling are discussed. The term hazardous materials is defined, and safety services are discussed

202

Health effects of hazardous waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1995, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has evaluated environmental contaminants and human health risks at nearly 3000 sites. Hazardous substances at these sites include newly emerging problems as well as historically identified threats. ATSDR classifies sites according to the degree of hazard they represent to the public. Less than 1% of the sites investigated are considered urgent public health hazards where chemical or physical hazards are at levels that could cause an immediate threat to life or health. Approximately 20% of sites have a potential for long-term human exposures above acceptable risk levels. At almost 40% of sites, hazardous substances do not represent a public health hazard. Completed exposure pathways for contaminants in air, water, and soil have been reported at approximately 30% of evaluated sites. The most common contaminants of concern at these sites include heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls. This article reviews ATSDR's ongoing work by examining the historic hazard of lead, the contemporary hazard of asbestos, and the emerging issue of perchlorate contamination. PMID:17119223

Dearwent, Steve M; Mumtaz, M Moiz; Godfrey, Gail; Sinks, Thomas; Falk, Henry

2006-09-01

203

Harmonizing seismic hazard assessments for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Even a cursory comparison between maps of global seismicity and NPP earthquake design levels reveals many inconsistencies. While, in part, this situation reflects the evolution in understanding of seismic hazards, mismatches can also be due to ongoing differences in the way the hazards are assessed and in local regulatory requirements. So far, formal international consensus has only been able to encompass broad principles, such as those recently recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and even these can raise many technical issues, particularly relating to zones of diffuse seismicity. In the future, greater harmonisation in hazard assessments and, to some extent, in earthquake design levels could emerge through the more widespread use of probabilistic methods. International collaborative ventures and joint projects will be important for resolving anomalies in the existing databases and their interpretations, and for acquiring new data, but to achieve their ideal objectives, they will need to proceed in clearly defined stages. (author)

204

29 CFR 1917.25 - Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous...  

Science.gov (United States)

...pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous...pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo...fumigants, pesticides or hazardous preservatives have created a hazardous...

2010-07-01

205

Seismic hazard assessment of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

1999-06-01

206

Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

Vusat AFANDIYEV

2014-12-01

207

Trimming the UCERF2 hazard logic tree  

Science.gov (United States)

The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 2 (UCERF2) is a fully time?dependent earthquake rupture forecast developed with sponsorship of the California Earthquake Authority (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [WGCEP], 2007; Field et al., 2009). UCERF2 contains 480 logic?tree branches reflecting choices among nine modeling uncertainties in the earthquake rate model shown in Figure 1. For seismic hazard analysis, it is also necessary to choose a ground?motion?prediction equation (GMPE) and set its parameters. Choosing among four next?generation attenuation (NGA) relationships results in a total of 1920 hazard calculations per site. The present work is motivated by a desire to reduce the computational effort involved in a hazard analysis without understating uncertainty. We set out to assess which branching points of the UCERF2 logic tree contribute most to overall uncertainty, and which might be safely ignored (set to only one branch) without significantly biasing results or affecting some useful measure of uncertainty. The trimmed logic tree will have all of the original choices from the branching points that contribute significantly to uncertainty, but only one arbitrarily selected choice from the branching points that do not.

Porter, Keith A.; Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin

2012-01-01

208

HAPs-Rx: Precombustion Removal of Hazardous Air Pollutant Precursors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CQ Inc. and its project team members--Howard University, PrepTech Inc., Fossil Fuel Sciences, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and industry advisors--are applying mature coal cleaning and scientific principles to the new purpose of removing potentially hazardous air pollutants from coal. The team uniquely combines mineral processing, chemical engineering, and geochemical expertise. This project meets more than 11 goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Energy Strategy, and the 1993 Climate Change Action Plan. During this project: (1) Equations were developed to predict the concentration of trace elements in as-mined and cleaned coals. These equations, which address both conventional and advanced cleaning processes, can be used to increase the removal of hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPs) by existing cleaning plants and to improve the design of new cleaning plants. (2) A promising chemical method of removing mercury and other HAPs was developed. At bench-scale, mercury reductions of over 50 percent were achieved on coal that had already been cleaned by froth flotation. The processing cost of this technology is projected to be less than $3.00 per ton ($3.30 per tonne). (3) Projections were made of the average trace element concentration in cleaning plant solid waste streams from individual states. Average concentrations were found to be highly variable. (4) A significantly improved understanding of how trace elements occur in coal was gained, primarily through work at the USGS during the first systematic development of semiquantitative data for mode of occurrence. In addition, significant improvement was made in the laboratory protocol for mode of occurrence determination. (5) Team members developed a high-quality trace element washability database. For example, the poorest mass balance closure for the uncrushed size and washability data for mercury on all four coals is 8.44 percent and the best is 0.46 percent. This indicates an extremely high level of reproducibility of the data. In addition, a series of ''round-robin'' tests involving various laboratories was performed to assure analytical accuracy. (6) A comparison of the cost of lowering mercury emissions through the use of coal cleaning technologies versus the use of post-combustion control methods such as activated carbon injection indicates that, in many cases, coal cleaning may prove to be the lower-cost option. The most significant disadvantage for using coal cleaning for control of mercury emissions is that a reduction of 90 percent or greater from as-fired coal has not yet been demonstrated, even at laboratory-scale.

David J. Akers; Clifford E. Raleigh

1998-03-16

209

Radioactivity in mushrooms: a health hazard?  

Science.gov (United States)

Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer. Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms, which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms, almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it. Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored. PMID:24518310

Guillén, J; Baeza, A

2014-07-01

210

An overview of external hazard assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four external hazards are discussed: earthquakes, aircraft crashes, fires, and gas cloud explosions. Historically the assessments have been hampered by different factors. For earthquakes, the difficulty lies in estimating the probability of a damaging earthquake in a seismically 'passive' region of the earth's surface. For aircraft crashes, the main uncertainty lies in assessing the effect on the functioning of the plant of an aircraft crash. For fires and gas cloud explosions, both the physics and the assessment methodology were not well developed; this has to a large extent been rectified and realistic risk assessments are feasible. The assessment of external hazards fits easily into the framework of probabilistic methods. Its use may result in a significant feedback from PRA to the design process; such a coupling, in a major way, would be a new departure. (author)

211

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2010-01-01

212

21 CFR 120.7 - Hazard analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...apply to control the food hazards identified as...analysis shall include food hazards that can be introduced...the processing plant environment, including food hazards that can occur...effect of each on the safety of the finished...

2010-04-01

213

Hazard classification guidelines and procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of a dam creates an incremental hazard to the downstream development beyond that of other natural hazards not associated with the dam, due to the potential for dam failure and uncontrolled water release. The general hazard classification system used by Ontario Hydro is documented and further guidance is provided for the identification and classification of downstream hazards. Suggested methods of determining the preliminary hazard category are also documented. Hazard categories are selected for each structure under both normal and flood conditions, examining potential for increase in loss of life, and economic loss, social and environmental impacts. Analysis of downstream areas includes location of existing facilities, existing land usage and zoning, historical flows and water levels, information concerning previous flooding events, and physical parameters of the dam. Detailed analysis develops the probable maximum precipitation and flood information, and flood routing. Final confirmation of the hazard classification uses the definitive water level information to re-examine the probable loss of life and flood damages. 8 refs., 6 figs

214

Natural Hazards Monitoring and Risk Mitigation  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Principles of Monitoring of Hazardous Geodynamic and Glaciohydrometeorological Processes in the Areas of Strategically Important for Economics of Georgia Objects and Recommendations on Hazard Mitigation

215

Improving tamper detection for hazardous waste security  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide improved levels of security for the hazardous materials in their charge. Many low-level wastes that previously had minimal or no security must now be well protected, while high-level wastes require even greater levels of security than previously employed. This demand for improved security comes, in many cases, without waste managers being provided the necessary additional funding, personnel, or security expertise. Contributing to the problem is the fact that--at least in our experience--waste managers often fail to appreciate certain types of security vulnerabilities. They frequently overlook or underestimate the security risks associated with disgruntled or compromised insiders, or the potential legal and political liabilities associated with nonexistent or ineffective security. Also frequently overlooked are potential threats from waste management critics who could resort to sabotage, vandalism, or civil disobedience for purposes of discrediting a waste management program.

Johnston, R. G. (Roger G.); Garcia, A. R. E. (Anthony R. E.); Pacheco, A. N. (Adam N.); Trujillo, S. J. (Sonia J.); Martinez, R. K. (Ronald K.); Martinez, D. D. (Debbie D.); Lopez, L. N. (Leon N.)

2002-01-01

216

The impacts of precursor reduction and meteorology on ground-level ozone in the Greater Toronto Area  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a major component of photochemical smog and is a known human health hazard, as well as a damaging factor for vegetation. Its precursor compounds, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), have a variety of anthropogenic and biogenic sources and exhibit non-linear effects on ozone production. As an update to previous studies on ground-level ozone in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), we present an analysis of NO2, VOC and O3 data from federal and provincial governmental monitoring sites in the GTA from 2000 to 2012. We show that, over the study period, summertime 24 h VOC reactivity and NO2 midday (11:00-15:00) concentrations at all sites decreased significantly; since 2000, all sites experienced a decrease in NO2 of 28-62% and in measured VOC reactivity of at least 53-71%. Comparing 2002-2003 to 2011-2012, the summed reactivity of OH towards NO2 and a suite of measured VOCs decreased from 8.6 to 4.6 s-1. Ratios of reactive VOC pairs indicate that the effective OH concentration experienced by primary pollutants in the GTA has increased significantly over the study period. Despite the continuous decrease in precursor levels, ozone concentrations are not following the same pattern at all stations; it was found that the Canada-wide Standard for ozone continues to be exceeded at all monitoring stations. Additionally, while the years 2008-2011 had consistently lower ozone levels than previous years, 2012 experienced one of the highest recorded summertime ozone concentrations and a large number of smog episodes. We demonstrate that these high ozone observations in 2012 may be a result of the number of days with high solar radiation, the number of stagnant periods and the transport of high ozone levels from upwind regions.

Pugliese, S. C.; Murphy, J. G.; Geddes, J. A.; Wang, J. M.

2014-08-01

217

Technical concept for a greater-confinement-disposal test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greater confinement disposal (GCO) has been defined by the National Low-Level Waste Program as the disposal of low-level waste in such a manner as to provide greater containment of radiation, reduce potential for migration or dispersion or radionuclides, and provide greater protection from inadvertent human and biological intrusions in order to protect the public health and safety. This paper discusses: the need for GCD; definition of GCD; advantages and disadvantages of GCD; relative dose impacts of GCD versus shallow land disposal; types of waste compatible with GCD; objectives of GCD borehole demonstration test; engineering and technical issues; and factors affecting performance of the greater confinement disposal facility

218

Spacecraft Charging and Hazards to Electronics in Space  

CERN Document Server

The interaction of a space system with its orbital environment is a major consideration in the design of any space system, since a variety of hazards are associated with the operation of spacecraft in the harsh space environment. In this brief review, two types of hazards to Earth-orbiting spacecraft are discussed: spacecraft charging and radiation hazards to spacecraft electronics, with emphasis on the natural environmental factors and interactions which contribute to these hazards. Following a summary of the historical eras of spacecraft charging and some observations from experimental satellites: SCATHA, CRRES and DMSP, environmental factors significant to spacecraft charging are discussed, including plasma interactions, electric and magnetic fields and solar radiation. Spacecraft charging depends on the spacecraft geometry, as well as on the characteristics of its orbit, since the natural environment may differ for each type of orbit. Low altitude orbiting satellites (LEO) usually experience less charging...

Mikaelian, Tsoline

2009-01-01

219

Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being shipped, and will otherwise maintain it as nearly as possible in its original condition.The recommendations provided are short-term solutions to the problems of shipping evidence, and have considered only currently commercially available containers. These containers may not be appropriate for all cases. Design, testing, and certification of new transportation containers would be necessary to provide a container appropriate for all cases.Table 1 provides a summary of the recommendations for each class of hazardous material.Table 1: Summary of RecommendationsContainerCost1-quart paint can with ArmlockTM seal ringLabelMaster(r)%242.90 eachHazard Class 3, 4, 5, 8, or 9 Small ContainersTC Hazardous Material Transport ContainerCurrently in Use4 DraftDraftDraftTable 1: Summary of Recommendations (continued)ContainerCost55-gallon open or closed-head steel drumsAll-Pak, Inc.%2458.28 - %2473.62 eachHazard Class 3, 4, 5, 8, or 9 Large Containers95-gallon poly overpack LabelMaster(r)%24194.50 each1-liter glass container with plastic coatingLabelMaster(r)%243.35 - %243.70 eachHazard Class 6 Division 6.1 Poisonous by Inhalation (PIH) Small ContainersTC Hazardous Material Transport ContainerCurrently in Use20 to 55-gallon PIH overpacksLabelMaster(r)%24142.50 - %24170.50 eachHazard Class 6 Division 6.1 Poisonous by Inhalation (PIH) Large Containers65 to 95-gallon poly overpacksLabelMaster(r)%24163.30 - %24194.50 each1-liter transparent containerCurrently in UseHazard Class 6 Division 6.2 Infectious Material Small ContainersInfectious Substance ShipperSource Packaging of NE, Inc.%24336.00 eachNone Commercially AvailableN/AHazard Class 6 Division 6.2 Infectious Material Large ContainersNone Commercially Available N/A5

Osborn, Douglas.

2005-06-01

220

Toxic hazards of underground excavation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

 
 
 
 
221

Quantitative Hazard and Risk Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a quantitative method for hazard and risk analysis is discussed. The method was developed and introduced for the allocation of safety requirements to the functions of a railway signaling remote control system.

Geza Tarnai

2006-01-01

222

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to develop a field-portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection using active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence (active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen). It should provide rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map areas of greatest contamination. Results indicate that ANET is very sensitive for monitoring heavy metals (Hg, Se) and hydrocarbons; furthermore, chlorinated hydrocarbons can be distinguished from nonchlorinated ones. Sensitivity is at ppB levels for sampling in air. ANET appears ideal for on-line monitoring of toxic heavy metal levels at building sites, hazardous waste land fills, in combustor flues, and of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels at building sites and hazardous waste dumps

223

MGR External Events Hazards Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

224

Hazardous'' terminology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of terms (e.g., hazardous chemicals,'' hazardous materials,'' hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses toxic'' nomenclature.

Powers, J.

1991-01-01

225

FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

226

FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

2001-01-22

227

Quantitative Hazard and Risk Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper a quantitative method for hazard and risk analysis is discussed. The method was developed and introduced for the allocation of safety requirements to the functions of a railway signaling remote control system.

Geza Tarnai; Balazs Saghi; Izabela Krbilova

2006-01-01

228

Uncertainties related to seismic hazard assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismic hazard analysis in the last few decades has become a very important issue. Recently, new technologies and available data have been improved that have helped many scientists to understand where and why earthquakes happen, the physics of earthquakes, etc. Scientists have begun to understand the role of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis. However, how to handle existing uncertainty is still a significant problem. The same lack of information causes difficulties in quantifying uncertainty accurately. Usually attenuation curves are obtained in a statistical manner: regression analysis. Statistical and probabilistic analysis show overlapping results for the site coefficients. This overlapping takes place not only at the border between two neighboring classes, but also among more than three classes. Although the analysis starts from classifying sites using geological terms, these site coefficients are not classified at all. In the present study, this problem is solved using fuzzy set theory. Using membership functions, the ambiguities at the border between neighboring classes can be avoided. Fuzzy set theory is performed for southern California in the conventional way. In this study, standard deviations that show variations between each site class obtained by fuzzy set theory and the classical manner are compared. Results of this analysis show that when we have insufficient data for hazard assessment, site classification based on fuzzy set theory shows values of standard deviations less than those obtained use the classical way, which is direct proof of less uncertainty.

Jorjiashvili, N.; Yokoi, T.; Javakhishvili, Z.

2012-04-01

229

Seismic hazard of Northern Eurasia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The GSHAP Regional Centre in Moscow, UIPE, has coordinated the seismic hazard mapping for the whole territory of the former U.S.S.R. and border regions. A five-year program was conducted to assemble for the whole area, subdivided in five overlapping blocks, the unified seismic catalogue with uniform magnitude, the strong motion databank and the seismic zones model (lineament-domain-source), which form the basis of a newly developed deterministic-probabilistic computation of seismic hazard ass...

Gshap, The Region Working Group; Ulomov, V. I.

1999-01-01

230

Measuring reuse in hazard analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazard analysis for safety-critical systems require sufficient coverage and rigour to instill confidence that the majority of hazardous consequences have been identified. These requirements are commonly met through the use of exhaustive hazard analysis techniques. However, such techniques are time consuming and error-prone. As an attempt at exhaustive coverage, hazard analysts typically employ reuse mechanisms such as copy-and-paste. Unfortunately, if reuse is applied inappropriately there is a risk that the reuse is at the cost of rigour in the analysis. This potential risk to the validity of the analysis is dependent on the nature and amount of reuse applied. This paper investigates hazard analysis reuse over two case studies. Initially reuse in an existing safety argument is described. Argument structures within the hazard analysis are identified and the amount of verbatim reuse examined. A second study is concerned with how reuse changes as a result of tool support. In contrast to the first case, the defined arguments are more diverse-reuse has occurred but is less verbatim in nature. Although tool support has aided the customisation of the reused arguments, many are only trivially customised. An edit distance algorithm is utilised to identify and enumerate verbatim and trivial reuse in the arguments

231

Cooled radiofrequency ablation for bilateral greater occipital neuralgia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the suboccipital region and radiated into her vertex. She was diagnosed with bilateral greater occipital neuralgia. She underwent cooled radiofrequency ablation of bilateral greater occipital nerves with minimal side effects and 75% pain reduction. Cooled radiofrequency ablation of the greater occipital nerve in challenging cases is an alternative to pulsed and continuous RFA to alleviate pain with less side effects and potential for long-term efficacy. PMID:24716017

Vu, Tiffany; Chhatre, Akhil

2014-01-01

232

Radon (222Rn) in underground drinking water supplies of the Southern Greater Poland Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activity concentration of the 222Rn radionuclide was determined in drinking water samples from the Southern Greater Poland region by liquid scintillation technique. The measured values ranged from 0.42 to 10.52 Bq/dm3 with the geometric mean value of 1.92 Bq/dm3. The calculated average annual effective doses from ingestion with water and inhalation of this radionuclide escaping from water were 1.15 and 11.8 ?Sv, respectively. Therefore, it should be underlined that, generally, it's not the ingestion of natural radionuclides with water but inhalation of the radon escaping from water which is a substantial part of the radiological hazard due to the presence of the natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series in the drinking water. (author)

233

Radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated wastes are discussed in this overview in terms of two components of hazard: radiobiological hazard, and radioecological hazard. Radiobiological hazard refers to human uptake of alpha-emitters by inhalation and ingestion, and the resultant dose to critical organs of the body. Radioecological hazard refers to the processes of release from buried wastes, transport in the environment, and translocation to man through the food chain. Besides detailing the sources and magnitude of hazards, this brief review identifies the uncertainties in their estimation, and implications for the regulatory process

234

Radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated wastes are discussed in this overview in terms of two components of hazard: radiobiological hazard, and radioecological hazard. Radiobiological hazard refers to human uptake of alpha-emitters by inhalation and ingestion, and the resultant dose to critical organs of the body. Radioecological hazard refers to the processes of release from buried wastes, transport in the environment, and translocation to man through the food chain. Besides detailing the sources and magnitude of hazards, this brief review identifies the uncertainties in their estimation, and implications for the regulatory process.

Rodgers, J.C.

1982-01-01

235

Development of District-Based Mineral-Hazards Maps for Highways in California  

Science.gov (United States)

The California Geological Survey (CGS) currently is developing a series of unpublished maps for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that shows potential for mineral hazards within each of the twelve highway districts administered by that agency. Where present along or near highway corridors, such hazards may pose problems for human health and safety or the environment. Prepared at a scale of 1:250,000, the maps are designed as initial screening tools for Caltrans staff to use to improve planning of activities that involve new construction projects, routine maintenance of highways, and emergency removal of debris deposited on roads by natural processes. Although the basic presentation of each type of thematic map in the series is the same, some customization and focus are allowed for each district because each has unique issues concerning potential for mineral hazards. The maps display many natural and man-made features that may be potential sources of mineral hazards within each district. Features compiled and evaluated under our definition of "mineral hazards" are: 1) naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA); 2) natural occurrences of various regulated metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se) as well as other pertinent metals, such as Mn and U; 3) faults, which can be sites of increased potential for certain types of mineralization, such as NOA; 4) mines and prospects, which can be sources of anomalous concentrations of metals as well as ore-processing chemicals; 5) natural petroleum features, such as oil and natural-gas seeps; 6) natural geothermal features, such as thermal springs and fumaroles; and 7) oil, natural-gas, and geothermal wells. Because of their greater potential as sources of mineral hazards, localities designated on the maps as "areas of potential mineralogical concern" are of particular interest to Caltrans. Examples include significant mining districts, such as New Almaden (Hg) near San Jose, and bedrock units such as serpentinite (NOA, Cr, Ni) and the Monterey Formation (Cd) and similar organic-carbon-rich and phosphate-rich Cenozoic marine sedimentary rocks (Cd, Se), all of which are common in the southern Coast Ranges. Some areas, present mainly in the Mojave Desert and east of the Sierra Nevada, comprise dry lake beds that can be sources of wind-blown dust, which may contain mineral hazards (e.g., As). Watershed boundaries and streams, superimposed on shaded topographic relief, are also shown on the maps to help Caltrans staff determine if drainages that intersect highway corridors may contain deleterious materials eroded and transported from upstream geologic features or mining areas. Besides the 1:250,000-scale maps, which are prepared as both paper copies and .pdf files, individual digital thematic layers of the features described above are prepared for use in GIS software and in-house image-viewers (CT Earth) employed by Caltrans. These layers provide additional information not displayed on the maps (e.g., directions of stream flow; characteristics of individual mines), which allows more-sophisticated analysis for possible mineral hazards.

Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Fonseca, M. C.

2011-12-01

236

Medical hazards of the water skiing douche.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many injuries can result from water skiing accidents, but the water skiing "douche" is unique to this sport. Although generally causing only discomfort, significant trauma can result from the forceful entry of water into the various body orifices. A case of otitis media attributed to this phenomenon is described. The hazards of vaginal and rectal laceration, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess with resultant infertility, induced abortion, and associated complications are reviewed. In addition to sinusitis, otitis media and tympanic membrane rupture, other potential upper airway and auditory complications are enumerated. PMID:7369581

Kizer, K W

1980-05-01

237

Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

Eicher, R.W.

1992-12-01

238

External hazards. In focus after the Fukushima accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International experience has shown that external hazards can be safety significant contributors to the risk of industrial plants with a high potential of damage to the environment; this has become evident after the Fukushima accident. As a consequence main focus has been set on adequate design measures against external hazards and appropriate assessment methods. Possible methods to analyse existing plants systematically regarding the adequacy of their existing protection equipment against hazards can be deterministic as well as probabilistic. On international level, new recommendations regarding external hazards are recently issued. In that context, in particular earthquakes and flooding scenarios have been re-evaluated to some extent. Also in Germany, a revised guideline on probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) and corresponding technical documents are issued in 2005 addressing external hazards. As a reaction to the accidents in Japan in March 2011, the German Reactor Safety Commission has issued a catalogue of requirements for plant-specific reviews of German nuclear power plants, and the status of the plants have been evaluated with respect to these requirements. The results of these investigations have been the basis for the German report in the frame of the European stress tests; the results with respect to natural external hazards are presented. (orig.)

Krauss, Matias; Berg, Heinz-Peter [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

2013-05-15

239

Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

1994-07-01

240

External hazards. In focus after the Fukushima accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International experience has shown that external hazards can be safety significant contributors to the risk of industrial plants with a high potential of damage to the environment; this has become evident after the Fukushima accident. As a consequence main focus has been set on adequate design measures against external hazards and appropriate assessment methods. Possible methods to analyse existing plants systematically regarding the adequacy of their existing protection equipment against hazards can be deterministic as well as probabilistic. On international level, new recommendations regarding external hazards are recently issued. In that context, in particular earthquakes and flooding scenarios have been re-evaluated to some extent. Also in Germany, a revised guideline on probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) and corresponding technical documents are issued in 2005 addressing external hazards. As a reaction to the accidents in Japan in March 2011, the German Reactor Safety Commission has issued a catalogue of requirements for plant-specific reviews of German nuclear power plants, and the status of the plants have been evaluated with respect to these requirements. The results of these investigations have been the basis for the German report in the frame of the European stress tests; the results with respect to natural external hazards are presented. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
241

Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories' operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment

242

Flood hazard in Hungary: a re-assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Some decades ago the concept of flood hazard in the Carpathian Basin was interpreted solely as riverine flood hazard, mostly restricted to the Tisza and Danube Rivers, and was closely associated with the impacts of river flow regulation in the second half of the 19th century. Recent assessments, however, allow us to outline a more diverse picture. Climate change is predicted to bring about both an increase in the frequency of droughts and excessive rainfall events, resulting in irregulaties in the water regimes of rivers in Hungary. Excess water hazard from raised groundwater levels is found to affect much larger areas than previously thought. Recent strongly localized cloudbursts, point to the increasing significance of flash floods.Riverine flooding and excess water hazard are more common in lowlands, whereas flash flood hazards are primarily, but not exclusively, affect the mountainous and hilly regions of the country. This paper intends to assess the relative importance of the three types of inundation hazard analyzed and to illustrate their overall spatial occurrences by microregions on a map series.

Lóczy, Dénes

2010-12-01

243

Malaria research in the Greater Mekong Subregion: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has low transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax and is a prime region for malaria elimination based on evidence. The extent of GMS based research is unknown. Pub Med-identified research articles from the GMS were selected based on defined criteria and classified into 24 research areas. A research questionnaire was sent to WHO country offices, national malaria control programs (NMCPs), national research institutes and non governmental organizations (NGOs). Two thousand eight hundred ninety of 3,319 identified publications were included, dating from 1933 to June 2012; 1,485 (51.8%) of 2,890 since 2000. Ten research areas accounted for 2,264 (78.3%) publications: drug resistance 12.8% (n=371), entomology 11.42% (n=330), clinical trials 10.45% (n=302), pathophysiology 9.34% (n=270), epidemiology 8.96% (n=259), pharmacology 6.06% (n=175), parasite biology 5.19% (n=150), malaria control 4.88% (n=141), diagnosis/diagnostics 4.6% (n=133) and clinical studies 4.6% (n=133). Thailand produced most publications, 1,684 (58.27%), followed by Viet Nam (365, 12.63%), Cambodia (139, 4.81%), Myanmar (132, 4.57%), Yunnan Province, China (124, 4.3%) and Lao PDR (79, 2.73%). Other publications were multicountry, including >or=1 GMS country (n=269), or reviews (n=98). Publication numbers increased significantly over time. Eleven questionnaires were received. Principal research areas were treatment seeking behavior, knowledge, attitude and practice surveys, bed net use, access to treatment by migrants, and malaria diagnostics. Research in GMS is broad. Biomedical research dominates peer reviewed publications. NMCP and NGOs focus more on downstream malaria implementation issues. The challenge is to engage GMS research capacity to build quality evidence for malaria elimination. PMID:24159834

Taylor, Walter R J

2013-01-01

244

Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six  

Science.gov (United States)

We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

2013-01-01

245

Role of environmental hazards in fall of community dwelling elderly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evidence linking home hazards to falls has not been well established. Falls and fall injury are a major public health concern for the elderly. Fall of elderly is very much affected by environmental hazards. Falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in persons older than 60. There is a greater-than-linear increase in the rate of falls with environmental hazards. This cross section survey will not only lay the foundation for further study on this topic but also provide the basis for the development of preventive program of falls for the elders of Pakistan. Objective: To explore the role of environmental hazards of fall in the community dwelling elders is the area which is lacking in research. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from October to December 2010 in Lahore and its peripheries and also the patients in hospital settings come after fractures or fall injuries. The total number of people included was 100. Community dwelling Elders above 60 years having recent history of at least one fall were included regardless of gender. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 11.5. Results: There were 71 people out of 100 who fell inside the home, 10 fell outside the home and 18 were not applicable to this question. There were 19% people, who fell repeatedly at one place, 31 people replied about hazard environment where fallen that contribute to fall. According to 24 people they had Safety checks of their home yard and/ or neighborhood which will assist to avoid future fall. Conclusion: Most elderly persons live in a risky home setting. It is vital that environmental hazard be recognized and removed for wellbeing of elderly. (author)

246

Predicting Strong Motions for Seismic Hazard Assessments in Seattle, Washington  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of Seattle, Washington lies atop a deep sedimentary basin. The Seattle Basin amplifies and distorts seismic waves in ways that modulate the hazard from earthquakes. Seismic hazard assessments heavily depend upon upper crustal and near-surface S-wave velocity models, which have traditionally been constructed from P-wave models using an empirical relationship between P-wave and S-wave velocity or by interpolating and extrapolating widely spaced observations of shallow geologic structures. Improving the accuracy and resolution of basin S-wave models is key to predictions for ground shaking. Tomography, with short-period Rayleigh waves extracted using noise interferometry, can refine S-wave velocity models in urban areas with dense arrays of short-period and broadband instruments. I apply this technique to the Seattle area to develop a new shallow S-wave model for use in hazard assessment. Continuous data from the Seismic Hazards in Puget Sound (SHIPS) array and local broadband stations have inter-station distances as short as a few kilometers. This spacing allows me to extract Rayleigh waves between 2-10s period that are sensitive to shallow basin structure. My results reveal greater detail in the upper 4 km than previous models. I use the new model to make predictions on the levels of ground motions for a variety of representative crustal and Benioff Zone earthquakes. My simulations reveal additional risk from earthquake shaking in some neighborhoods in north Seattle from crustal events relative to predictions made in the current seismic hazard map. The predicted amplitudes in the Seattle neighborhoods of Capital Hill and Queen Anne are twice as high as previous predictions for some events. The combined risk for all possible events will increase somewhat due to these predictions. My simulations of Benioff Zone events show similar results to the previous model used to make predictions for the seismic hazard map.

Delorey, Andrew A.

247

Cooled Radiofrequency Ablation for Bilateral Greater Occipital Neuralgia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the subocci...

Tiffany Vu; Akhil Chhatre

2014-01-01

248

Governing Greater China : dynamic perspectives and transforming interactions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The composition of Greater China among the PRC, Hong Kong and Taiwan entails an emerging form of micro governance where an ecological evolution of sub-group interaction and crossover of economic and social activities has been generating a dynamic of change within the East Asian region. The constitution of Greater China by social, economic, political, business and even daily commuting creates some soul searching questions about the possible outcomes of their intense interaction. To what extent...

Cheung, Gordon C. K.

2009-01-01

249

Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

250

Multi-hazard assessment using GIS in the urban areas: Case study - Banja Luka municipality, B&H  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research presents a techniques for natural hazard assessment using GIS and cartographic approaches with multi-hazard mapping in urban communities, because natural hazards are a multi-dimensional phenomena which have a spatial component. Therefore the use of Remote Sensing and GIS has an important function and become essential in urban multi-hazard assessment. The first aim of this research was to determine the geographical distributions of the major types of natural hazards in the study area. Seismic hazards, landslides, rockfalls, floods, torrential floods, and excessive erosion are the most significant natural hazards within the territory of Banja Luka Municipality. Areas vulnerable to some of these natural hazards were singled out using analytical maps. Based on these analyses, an integral map of the natural hazards of the study area was created using multi-hazard assessment and the total vulnerability was determined by overlapping the results. The detailed analysis, through the focused research within the most vulnerable areas in the study area will highlight the administrative units (urban centres and communes that are vulnerable to various types of natural hazard. The results presented in this article are the first multi-hazard assessment and the first version of the integral map of natural hazards in the Republic of Srpska.

Toši? Radislav

2013-01-01

251

Lessons learned from external hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

Peinador, Miguel; Zerger, Benoit [European Commisison Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Ramos, Manuel Martin [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Safety and Security Coordination; Wattrelos, Didier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

2014-01-15

252

Lessons learned from external hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

253

How to control chemical hazards  

CERN Multimedia

Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: cern.ch/regles-securite The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: safety-general@cern.ch The HSE Unit

2012-01-01

254

Asteroid and Comet Impact Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

This site provides an overview of NASA initiatives to locate, track, and study asteroids and comets--often called Near Earth Objects (NEOs)--in order to provide an early warning, to estimate the probability of their hitting Earth, and to predict what the resulting damage and environmental impacts would be. Materials at the site include an introduction to the risk of cosmic impacts, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to news articles. There is also a catalog of NEOs, information on the Torino Scale for categorizing impact hazards associated with newly discovered objects, a bibliography of recent scientific papers, and links to government reports on asteroid and comet impact hazards. Other materials include a small image gallery of artists' conceptions of catastrophic impacts and a brief video of the 1992 Peekskill, New York meteorite; a set of presentations on impact hazards and impacts in relation to evolution; and links to related web sites.

255

Risk - hazardous incident - communication 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terms such as 'risk', 'hazardous incident', and 'communication' have become major catchwords in discussions about present-day problems, and may be reduced to a common denominator: disaster. Such an association, however, is inappropriate, as the concept indicated by the term 'risk' for instance covers a wide scale of possible danger. Even the term 'hazardous incident' describes events or conditions that are very different in terms of possible danger, let alone disastrous effects. The discrepancy to be observed between the facts and the public perception usually is due to the fact that people have little insight into the complex of problems involved, and to insufficient communication between the world of experts and the general public. The contributions to this publication present information and discuss a variety of solution sets to improve the communication problems in the context of the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication'. (orig./CB)

256

Risk - hazardous incident - communication 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is difficult to develop an objective approach to risks and effects of a hazardous incident that would be acceptable to the community at large. It is a matter of fact that there is great dissimilarity in the way various social groups perceive and define the risks of a particular technology, or the effects of hazardous incidents, sometimes they have even contrary opinions. Hence, open communication is seriously hampered, which in turn aggravates the problems encountered in this context. This second volume of the publication dealing with the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication' is intended to reveal patterns of the recurrent process which impedes communication, and to bridge the gaps between the various 'styles' of risk perception and definition. (orig./CB)

257

Building 894 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 894. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 9 chemicals were kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 130 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 130 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

258

Building 6630 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 6630. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which one chemical was kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the chemical release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 76 meters. The highest emergency classification is an Alert. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 100 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

259

Constraints on the Rates and Timing of Exhumation of the Greater Caucasus from Low- Temperature Thermochronology  

Science.gov (United States)

Constraining the timing of onset and rates of deformation within the Greater Caucasus mountains is key to understanding the role of this orogen in accommodating total deformation across the Arabia-Eurasia plate boundary, as well as for comparison with modern observations of geodetic shortening and seismic strain release. Bedrock maps of the Greater Caucasus display two geologically distinct domains, separated at the longitude of Mt. Kazbek, possibly by the transverse Borjomi-Kazbek fault. West of Kazbek, Paleozoic amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks are thrust southward over highly deformed Mesozoic shelf and continental slope sediments. East of Kazbek, no rocks older than Jurassic are exposed, although Mesozoic and early Cenozoic strata are also deformed in a primarily south vergent sense. We present new low-temperature thermochronologic (apatite (U-Th)/He and fission track (AFT)) data from the western Greater Caucasus in Russia, and from the eastern Greater Caucasus in Azerbaijan. Cooling ages derived from thermochronology were combined with geologic constraints and fission-track length modeling to develop thermal histories for these regions. Samples from the western Greater Caucasus were collected from Permo-Triassic granitoids. Along the northern flank of the range, a sample from the Bezengi Valley yields AFT and (U-Th)/He ages of 22 and 11 Ma, respectively. Thermal modeling of fission-track length distributions from this sample suggest slow cooling, at rates of ~3°C/Myr, from 30--5 Ma. Cooling rates increase significantly at 5 Ma, to ~11°C/Myr. Samples collected closer to the southern range front, around Baksan Valley, yield AFT ages of ~5 Ma, with cooling rates of ~20°C/Myr. In contrast, (U-Th)/He ages on detrital apatite grains from Jurassic sandstones along the northern edge of the eastern Greater Caucasus are consistent with geologic relations indicating exhumation no greater than ~2 km since Early Cretaceous time. A sample from Early Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones of the Vandam zone on the southern flank of the range yields AFT and (U-Th)/He age of 88 and 2.8 Ma, respectively. Fission-track length modeling indicates that this sample remained at ~90°C from 20--5 Ma, when it was exhumed to the surface at ~15°C/Myr. These data bear on several issues regarding the tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus. First, modern rates of deformation can account for the observed deformation across the range if extrapolated back 5--7 Ma. Our thermochronologic data suggest that exhumation of the eastern Greater Caucasus has occurred within this time, but that the western Greater Caucasus was subject to an earlier exhumational history. This is consistent with geologic observations indicating Oligocene onset of exhumation in the western Greater Caucasus. Our data question lateral propagation of the Greater Caucasus, suggesting instead that the range may have had two distinct stages of growth, an Oligocene to Late Miocene stage in the western Greater Caucasus, and a post-Miocene stage across the modern range as a whole. Interestingly, the dividing line between these two zones roughly corresponds with a change in geodetic shortening and seismic moment release rates. The western Greater Caucasus are historically aseismic, with modern GPS shortening rates near zero, while significant seismicity and geodetic shortening rates of ~12 mm/yr are observed across the eastern Greater Caucasus. Whether this indicates a recent cessation of tectonic activity in the western Greater Caucasus remains an area of ongoing research.

Avdeev, B.; Niemi, N. A.

2008-12-01

260

76 FR 16534 - Hazardous Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9285-7] Hazardous Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion AGENCY...pickle acid treatment system and, therefore, was designated as EPA Hazardous Waste No. F006...

2011-03-24

 
 
 
 
261

76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9461-8] RIN 2050-AG60 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic...revise the regulations for hazardous waste management under the Resource Conservation and...

2011-09-09

262

75 FR 73972 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-R06-RCRA-2009-0312; SW FRL-9231-3] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of Direct Final Exclusion AGENCY...261 Environmental Protection, Hazardous waste, Recycling, Reporting and...

2010-11-30

263

21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...outside the processing plant environment, including food safety hazards that can occur...points designed to control food safety hazards introduced outside the processing plant environment, including food safety hazards that occur...

2010-04-01

264

21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 ...Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) Hazard analysis...absence of those controls. (b) The HACCP plan. Every processor shall have...

2010-04-01

265

INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified

266

INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

R.J. Garrett

2005-02-17

267

Potential biological hazard of importance for HACCP plans in fresh fish processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP system is scientifically based and focused on problem prevention in order to assure the produced food products are safe to consume. Prerequisite programs such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices, GHP (Good Hygienic Practices are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. One of the preliminary tasks in the development of HACCP plan is to conduct a hazard analysis. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages. The first is hazard identification and the second stage is the HACCP team decision which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. By definition, the HACCP concept covers all types of potential food safety hazards: biological, chemical and physical, whether they are naturally occurring in the food, contributed by the environment or generated by a mistake in the manufacturing process. In raw fish processing, potential significant biological hazards which are reasonably likely to cause illness of humans are parasites (Trematodae, Nematodae, Cestodae, bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphyloccocus aureus, viruses (Norwalk virus, Entero virusesi, Hepatitis A, Rotovirus and bio-toxins. Upon completion of hazard analysis, any measure(s that are used to control the hazard(s should be described.

Balti? Milan Ž.

2009-01-01

268

Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the Hanford 200 Areas (Non-Seismic)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this review is to assess the need for updating Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) assessments for the Hanford 200 Areas, as required by DOE Order 420.1B Chapter IV, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, based on significant changes in state-of-the-art NPH assessment methodology or site-specific information. The review includes all natural phenomena hazards with the exception of seismic/earthquake hazards, which are being addressed under a separate effort. It was determined that existing non-seismic NPH assessments are consistent with current design methodology and site specific data.

269

Significance of brown dwarfs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientific interest in objects that are not massive enough to qualify as stars has, until recently, not been high. However, the advent of powerful and clever new observational techniques, as well as of new instrumentation, signals the dawn of a new era in research related to sub-stellar mass bodies. The significance of these bodies in terms of their role in furthering our understanding of major problems in astronomy is discussed. The discussion centers on two themes; brown dwarfs in their own right, and brown dwarfs and their relationship to planetary systems. (author)

270

Geospatial and geophysical information for earthquake hazard assessment in Vrancea area, Romania  

Science.gov (United States)

Vrancea area at the sharp bend of the Southeast Carpathians in Romania is one of the highest seismogenic zones in Europe, the present-day tectonic activity in this region being characterized by a small zone of intense shallow- to intermediate-depth seismicity that is often interpreted as reflecting the late stage of intra-continental collision. Efforts to advance understanding of earthquake physics and assessing of earthquake hazard in Vrancea seismic area require detailed observations of all phases of the earthquake cycle (pre-, co-, and post-seismic), across multiple fault systems and tectonic environment. Earthquake prediction has two potentially compatible but distinctly different objectives: (a) phenomena that provide information about the future earthquake hazard useful to those who live in earthquake-prone regions and (b) phenomena causally related to the physical processes governing failure on a fault that will improve our understanding of those processes. Remote sensing and geospatial information tools and techniques, including numerical modeling, have advanced considerably in recent years, enabling a greater understanding of the Earth as a complex system of geophysical phenomena. Space-based geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System in synergy with ground-based seismological measurements, interferometric synthetic aperture radar data, high-resolution digital elevation models as well imaging spectroscopy (e.g. using ASTER, MODIS and Hyperion data) are contributing significantly to seismic hazard and risk assessment. Space-time anomalies of Earth's emitted radiation (radon in underground water and soil and surface air , thermal infrared in spectral range measured from satellite months to weeks before the occurrence of earthquakes etc.), ionospheric and electromagnetic anomalies have been interpreted, by several authors, as pre-seismic signals. For seismic hazard analysis in Vrancea area, Romania have been selected the earthquake precursors detectable from space which can also be observed by ground-based monitoring experiments: surface deformation provided by GPS and SAR imaging, land surface temperature changes as possible precursors provided by ASTER, Landsat TM and ETM, electromagnetic and ionospheric anomalies, radon gas emissions in the faults areas prior to earthquakes, as well as seismicity. Multispectral and multitemporal satellite images (LANDSAT TM, ETM , ASTER, MODIS) over 1989-2009 period have been analyzed for recognizing the continuity and regional relationships of active faults as well as for geologic and seismic hazard mapping. In spite of providing the best constraints on the rate of strain accumulation on active faults (coseismic, postseismic, and interseismic deformation; plate motion and crustal deformation at plate boundaries), GPS measurements have a low spatial resolution, and deformation in the vertical direction can not be determined very accurately. As Vrancea area has a significant regional tectonic activity in Romania and Europe, the joint analysis of geospatial and in-situ geophysical information is revealing new insights in the field of hazard assessment. For Vrancea region, observations of surface kinematics with data provided by Global Positioning System (GPS) network constitute a new and independent data source. In combination with geologic and geophysical information, surface motions may help to unravel the intriguing tectonics of the region. GPS Romanian network stations data revealed a displacement of about few millimeters (5-6 mm) per year in horizontal direction relative motion, and a (2-3 mm) per year in vertical direction. As Vrancea area is characterized by a significant regional tectonic activity, evidenced by neotectonic deformation and seismicity, future use of long-term interferometric data will be a useful tool in active tectonic investigation for this region. The joint analysis of geodetic, seismological and geological information on the spatial distribution of crustal deformations as well as the analysis of some earthquake precursors is revealing new

Zoran, Maria

2010-05-01

271

Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the N Basin Segment quiescent state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to document the final hazard classification and resultant commitments for the N Basin (located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington) segment quiescent state, and to quantitatively examine the hazards and identify appropriate controls as an auditable safety analysis. The baseline identifies and evaluates 7 potential hazard vulnerabilities applicable to the quiescent state; based on that evaluation, appropriate controls were established to safeguard workers and the environment. These hazards were further reviewed to determine any significant potential scenarios that could credibly expose individuals, to establish the final hazards classification. Results of the review: two such scenarios - pool draindown and a contaminated trash fire - are credible, although extremely unlikely. Each is a small fraction of the Category 3 threshold quantity and neither could credibly endanger personnel in the basin. The final hazard classification for the N Basin quiescent state is radiological

272

Hydrothermal Oxidation Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is fabricating a Hydrothermal Oxidation (HTO) Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed to evaluate and test various HTO reactor concepts for initial processing of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. If the HTO process is successful it will significantly reduce the volume of DOE mixed wastes by destroying the organic constituents

273

Radiation hazards from 241Am sources used in thyroid studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The neutron and gamma photon doses corresponding to the neck and eye level from an 241AmO2 source used in thyroid studies have been theoretically estimated. The radiation hazard to the patient is found to be not significant

274

Selenium bioaccumulation and hazards in a fish community affected by coal fly ash effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioaccumulation of selenium (Se) in the fish community of Pigeon River/Pigeon Lake, which receives inputs of Se from a coal fly ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se to fish, wildlife, and humans. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving seepage and effluents from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than those in fish from upstream, where Se concentrations were near background concentrations. Se concentrations differed among fish species, and interspecific variation was greatest at the most contaminated locations. Differences in Se bioaccumulation among fish species were not consistently associated with differences in trophic status. Although Se concentrations in northern pike were consistently less than those in likely prey species, large yellow perch contained Se concentrations as great as those in spottail shiners, their likely prey. Se bioaccumulation may have been influenced by differences in habitat preferences, as limnetic species generally contained greater Se concentrations than benthic species. Se concentrations in fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake did not exceed lowest observable adverse effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of fish species, but exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals. Human consumption of moderate quantities of fish from the areas studied should not result in excessive Se intake. PMID:8930500

Besser, J M; Giesy, J P; Brown, R W; Buell, J M; Dawson, G A

1996-10-01

275

Travel and urban form in the Greater Copenhagen region  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Research into the associations between urban form and travel in the capital areal has focussed on subcenters and the stability of urban form correlates over time. A trend towards de-concentration and formation of subcenters in metropolitan areas has been acknowledged for decades. Studies have analyzed the new urban structure by identifying subcenters and their land value impacts. Others have focused on subcenters as a location attribute or ‘intervention’ that affects travel patterns and therefore may be employed in the context of urban and transportation demand management. The research has aimed to identify subcenters in the Greater Copenhagen area and analyze their importance for property values as well as on travel demand. Subcenters are identified by applying spatial statistics to on available spatially explicit datasets representing jobs in general and retail jobs. Home price appreciation rates are available from the Danish property registers sales databases. Travel data are available from the Danish National Travel survey. Properties and travel patterns have been analysed for the effects of access to subcenters a different levels to support conclusions on which subcenters matter and how much. Analysis of the stability of urban form correlates of travel over time has exploited the possibilities offered by the most recent and consistent data series produced by the Danish National Travel Survey. Data allows for a comparison of the urban form correlates of travel at the peak of the economic upturn – with a later point in time where the financial crisis had radically changed the economic climate. It follows from the specificity of the historical events that an analysis of what happened to urban form and transport over the financial crisis is to be seen as a case study into the adaption’s that occurred and the conditioning properties of the urban fabric. However, this will still make a new contribution to our understanding of the relations between urban form, location and travel. The results indicated that some changes in the location dependencies of transport took place between 2006 and 2011 – especially with respect to the role of subcenters that seem to have increased in significance by the addition of an extra level of ‘centrality’ which again most likely reflect travel-saving behavioural changes.

Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

276

Identification of Process Hazards and Accident Scenarios for Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes a hazard and accident analysis conducted for Site 300 operations to support update of the ''Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas Safety Analysis Report'' (SAR) [LLNL 1997]. A significant change since the previous SAR is the construction and the new Contained Firing Facility (CFF). Therefore, this hazard and accident analysis focused on the hazards associated with bunker operations to ensure that the hazards at CFF are properly characterized in the updated SAR. Hazard tables were created to cover both the CFF and the existing bunkers with ''open air'' firing tables.

Lambert, H; Johnson, G

2001-05-04

277

Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities

278

Chemical hazards in the organisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of hazardous chemicals in organisations represents a substantial risk to occupational health, safety and the environment (OHSE). Organisational directors and managers have a responsibility to provide and maintain organisational management systems that manage these risks. The risk management approach of establishing organisational considerations, identifying chemical hazards (health and environmental), assessing and controlling risks and evaluating management activities has become the de facto means of managing organisational hazards in general and may be satisfactorily applied to the management of chemicals in the organisation. The Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is now at the forefront of major regulatory issues facing the chemicals manufacturing industry and downstream users of chemicals. The GHS offers one system for the classification of all dangerous, toxic and environmental (ecotoxic) effects of chemicals. Organisations should develop occupational health, safety and environment (OHSE) management systems which contain programs and procedures that contain systems for inventory control, hazard communication, competency training, risk assessment and control, transport and storage, monitoring and health surveillance, chemical emergencies (including accident investigation), waste minimisation and disposal, record keeping and management system review. PMID:22945564

Winder, Chris

2012-01-01

279

Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace  

Science.gov (United States)

... potential hazards. Where can I get more information? Contact the Teratology Information Service in your state or call the OTIS National line to find a service that may be able to provide you with information. You can also contact an industrial hygienist or occupational medicine specialist outside ...

280

The transport of hazardous materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid development of all kinds of transports has been leading to a continuously increasing number of accidents involving the release and escape of hazardous materials. The risks involved for men and the environment have to be realized and reduced to a minimum. Efforts in this field have meanwhile been accumulating an enormous quantity of rules, recommendations and regulations. They comprise, among others, both national and international rail transport, maritime transport, inland shipping, air and road transport regulations adding up to a total of about 5000 pages. The publication discusses the necessity and justification of the existing quantity of regulations, it deals with their possible simplification and modified user-oriented arrangement as well as with a possible international harmonization of regulations. Apart from giving a general survey of the transport of hazardous materials the author reviews the intensive efforts which are going into the safety of the transport of hazardous materials and points out technical and legal problems which have remained unsolved so far. The publication essentially contributes to clearing up the background, perspectives and prospects of the complex regulations controlling the transport of hazardous materials. (orig./HP)

 
 
 
 
281

Glove Box For Hazardous Liquids  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposed glove box enables technician to handle hazardous liquids safely and to clean up quickly if spill occurs. Technician places hands and arms in gloves at port to manipulate materials within the box. Glove box includes hatch that seals off glove ports so box vented and purged when necessary.

Rossier, R. N.; Bicknell, B.

1989-01-01

282

Mercury as a health hazard.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pink disease has virtually disappeared since teething powders were withdrawn. We describe a case in a boy who was exposed to metallic mercury vapour. We discuss the potential health hazard of spilled elemental mercury in the house and the difficulties of removing it from the environment.

Mucklow, E. S.

1987-01-01

283

Environmental sampling for hazardous wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discusses the need for improved methods of environmental sampling. It surveys the problems of collecting representative samples, ensuring the chemical integrity of samples from collection to analyses, and characterising and monitoring contamination sites. It also examines aspects of designing and implementing sampling programmes, emphasizing surface and subsurface sampling for hazardous waste.

Schweizer, G.E.; Santolvcito, J.A.

1985-01-01

284

Monogenetic volcanic hazards and assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of the Earth's major cities are build on the products of monogenetic volcanic eruptions and within geologically active basaltic volcanic fields. These cities include Mexico City (Mexico), Auckland (New Zealand), Melbourne (Australia), and Portland (USA) to name a few. Volcanic hazards in these areas are complex, and involve the potential formation of new volcanic vents and associated hazards, such as lava flows, tephra fallout, and ballistic hazards. Hazard assessment is complicated by the low recurrence rate of volcanism in most volcanic fields. We have developed a two-stage process for probabilistic modeling monogenetic volcanic hazards. The first step is an estimation of the possible locations of future eruptive vents based on kernel density estimation and recurrence rate of volcanism using Monte Carlo simulation and accounting for uncertainties in age determinations. The second step is convolution of this spatial density / recurrence rate model with hazard codes for modeling lava inundation, tephra fallout, and ballistic impacts. A methodology is presented using this two-stage approach to estimate lava flow hazard in several monogenetic volcanic fields, including at a nuclear power plant site near the Shamiram Plateau, a Quaternary volcanic field in Armenia. The location of possible future vents is determined by estimating spatial density from a distribution of 18 mapped vents using a 2-D elliptical Gaussian kernel function. The SAMSE method, a modified asymptotic mean squared error approach, uses the distribution of known eruptive vents to optimally determine a smoothing bandwidth for the Gaussian kernel function. The result is a probability map of vent density. A large random sample (N=10000) of vent locations is drawn from this probability map. For each randomly sampled vent location, a lava flow inundation model is executed. Lava flow input parameters (volume and average thickness) are determined from distributions fit to field observations of the low viscosity trachy-basalt to -dacite lava flows of the area. The areas and flow extents (a quantitative measure of lava flow length) of these simulated lava flows compare quite well with mapped lava flow areas and extents. This approach yields a conditional probability of lava flow inundation, given the opening of a new vent, and provides a map of the possible vent locations that lead to site inundation. Such models are generally applicable to any monogenetic volcanic field.

Connor, C.; Connor, L. J.; Richardson, J. A.

2012-12-01

285

Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

286

Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (<0.05 km3) in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people - the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

Tilling, R. I.

2009-12-01

287

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Our analysis approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The D-B discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. Furthermore, the discharge power requirements are quite modest, so that the unit can be powered by batteries. Thus an instrument based on ANET can readily be made portable. Our results indicate that ANET is a very sensitive technique for monitoring heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. We have demonstrated an overall detection sensitivity for most species that is at or below ppb levels. ANET alone, however, appears to be most successful in treating hazardous species that have been atomized. We are therefore developing a hybrid technique which combines a miniature, solid-state laser for sample collection and vaporization with ANET for subsequent detection. This approach requires no special sample preparation, can operate continuously, and lends itself well to compact packaging.

Piper, L.G.; Hunter, A.J.R.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

1996-12-31

288

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Our analysis approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The D-B discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. Furthermore, the discharge power requirements are quite modest, so that the unit can be powered by batteries. Thus an instrument based on ANET can readily be made portable. Our results indicate that ANET is a very sensitive technique for monitoring heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. We have demonstrated an overall detection sensitivity for most species that is at or below ppb levels. ANET alone, however, appears to be most successful in treatir, appears to be most successful in treating hazardous species that have been atomized. We are therefore developing a hybrid technique which combines a miniature, solid-state laser for sample collection and vaporization with ANET for subsequent detection. This approach requires no special sample preparation, can operate continuously, and lends itself well to compact packaging

289

Tumor significant dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These dn the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

290

Meaning and significance of  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

2011-05-01

291

A New Revisit Evidence of Stock Markets’ Interrelationships in the Greater China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the recent stock markets’ interrelationships in Greater China (China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. The main goal is to use more detailed and new daily stock market data from 2005/7 to 2010/5 to offer valuable and complementary insights on financial integration among these economies. From the empirical analysis, we found that China’s stock market has a positive impact on the other Greater China economies, but the reverse is not true. In addition, Hong Kong’s stock market also has a significantly positive impact on Taiwan, but not on China, and the impact of Hong Kong on Taiwan is larger than that of China on Taiwan. This result is consistent with the previous empirical findings that the segmented and integrated China stock market is mixed, and this result implies that the China stock market is still “partially integrated” with the other Greater China stock markets after the 2008 global financial crisis.

Chu-Chia Lin

2011-09-01

292

Evaluation of a pilot-scale circulating bed combustor as a potential hazardous waste incinerator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Circulating-bed combustors (CBC) have been proposed as a potential technology for destroying hazardous wastes. CBCs are normally operated at relatively low temperatures (750 to 900/sup 0/C) compared to typical waste incinerators (1000/sup 0/C or greater) prompting concern for the completeness of destruction of hazardous compounds (POHC) and the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PIC). Tests of the destruction of a mixture of simulated hazardous waste in a pilot-scale CBC were undertaken. Measurements of POHCs and PICs under nonoptimum combustion conditions indicated that the penetration of the POHCs was generally less than 1 x 10/sup -4/ whereas penetration of chlorinated organic PICs normalized with chlorine input was greater than 1 x 10/sup -4/. Correlation of PIC formation with normalized unburned hydrocarbon or CO was high. This observation supports the potential utility of these conventional combustion parameters for continuous monitoring of waste incinerator efficiency in CBCs.

Chang, D.P.Y.; Sorbo, N.W.; Murchison, G.S.; Adrian, R.C.; Simeroth, D.C.

1987-03-01

293

49 CFR 107.339 - Imminent hazards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Imminent hazards. 107.339 Section 107.339 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Injunctive Action § 107.339 Imminent hazards. Whenever...

2010-10-01

294

STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the growing interest in stabilization and solidification of hazardous wastes and contaminated soils and sediments, the Land Pollution Control Division of EPA's Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory has produced a technical handbook on the subject. The han...

295

Hazards assessment: Deionized (DI) Water Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Deionized (DI) Water Facility located at the Pinellas Plant. The facility-specific hazards assessment provides the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts.

1993-12-01

296

ANALYSIS OF GEOTHERMAL WASTES FOR HAZARDOUS COMPONENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Regulations governing the disposal of hazardous wastes led to an assessment for geothermal solid wastes for potentially hazardous properties. Samples were collected from three active geothermal sites in the western United States: The Geysers, Imperial Valley, and northwestern Nev...

297

Flood hazards for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flooding hazards for nuclear power plants may be caused by various external geophysical events. In this paper the hydrologic hazards from flash floods, river floods and heavy rain at the plant site are considered. Depending on the mode of analysis, two types of hazard evaluation are identified: 1) design hazard which is the probability of flooding over an expected service period, and 2) operational hazard which deals with real-time forecasting of the probability of flooding of an incoming event. Hazard evaluation techniques using flood frequency analysis can only be used for type 1) design hazard. Evaluation techniques using rainfall-runoff simulation or multi-station correlation can be used for both types of hazard prediction. (orig.)

298

29 CFR 1910.1200 - Hazard communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

...indicated on the material safety data sheet (MSDS) for the chemical. The identity used...hazardous chemicals, the label and the MSDS. Immediate use means that the hazardous...chemicals. Material safety data sheet (MSDS) means written or printed material...

2010-07-01

299

24 CFR 35.1120 - Hazard reduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Hazard reduction. 35.1120 Section 35.1120 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Public Housing Programs § 35.1120 Hazard reduction. (a) Each PHA...

2010-04-01

300

De-aggregated reliability analysis of freezing rain hazard  

Science.gov (United States)

This work addresses issues for improving the estimation of the recurrence rate and the distribution in severity of extreme ice events in the Montreal area, which is required in order to determine design criteria for structures such as electric transmission lines. Some of the limitations of current methods for studying extreme freezing rain events are due to the relatively short data records. This results in variability of 'at site' data sets that have only a few large accumulations. The methods developed in this work address these issues. First, de-aggregated analysis is used to obtain better statistical fits by grouping storms according to physical variables that are correlated with the occurrence of ice storms (spatial patterns of sea level pressure (SLP) or 1000 to 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies). And second a procedure to decrease the uncertainty on estimates of the hazard function at high return periods based on solving the CRREL Simple icing model using reliability method is developed. In this procedure, uncertainty is propagated through the model by treating it as a function of random variables. Anomaly maps of several meteorological variables were investigated for the objective categorization of ice storms. The NCEP reanalysis data was used to compile spatial patterns for the analysis of the storms identified and categorized by Rauber et al (2001). Several multivariate statistical analysis procedures were used to investigate the effectiveness of sea level pressure, the 1000 to 500 hPa, and the 1000 to 925 hPa geopotential heights for clustering these storms. Results indicated that the k-means algorithm applied to principle component scores of the storm anomaly maps provided the best clustering results. The results indicated that storms with higher precipitations belong to a group associated with the phenomena of cold air damming as a result of the Appalachian Mountains. Environment Canada hourly data was used to identify freezing rain events and obtain measurements of wind speed and precipitation during the events that occurred over Ottawa, Montreal, and Quebec City. General Pareto or Generalized Extreme Value distributions are fitted to the data of total precipitation or total radial ice accumulation for each cluster using a peaks-over-threshold approach. Statistical tests indicate the resulting distributions for precipitation are significantly different from each cluster. This de-aggregated approach improves estimates of the icing hazard by improving statistical fits and by reducing the sensitivity of the results to the choice of threshold. The second approach used to improve the estimates of the icing hazard function, using reliability methods, considers total precipitation, freezing ratio, and wind speed as the random variables in solving the icing model. The most likely combination of variables associated with high ice accumulations was found to high total precipitation, high freezing ratios, but only slightly higher than average wind speed. The latter is useful for defining load combinations (wind speed and ice accumulation) for structural design purposes. Finally, the superstation approach of Jones and White (2002a) was investigated by combining Environment Canada data for Ottawa, Montreal and Quebec City. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on the regional set of data using 'at site' indexes. The reliability analysis of empirical icing equation produced results similar to Jones and White at quantiles associated with the 50 year return period. However there were greater differences at higher quantiles. The estimated return periods for radial ice accumulations of 45mm are 160, 210, and 85 years for Montreal, Ottawa, and Quebec City respectively.

Erfani, Reza

 
 
 
 
301

Effects of Data Sparsity and Spatiotemporal Variability on Hazard Maps of Workplace Noise.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Personal sampling, considered a state-of-the-art technique to assess worker exposures to occupational hazards, is often conducted for the duration of a workshift so that time-weighted average (TWA) exposures may be evaluated relative to published occupational exposure limits. Such cross-shift measurements, however, provide little information on the spatial variability of exposures, except after a very large number of samples. Hazard maps, contour plots (or similar depiction) of hazard intensity throughout the workplace, have gained popularity as a way to locate sources and to visualize spatial variability of physical and chemical hazards within a facility. However, these maps are often generated from short duration measures and have little ability to assess temporal variability. To assess the potential bias that results from the use of short-duration measurements to represent the TWA in a hazard map, noise intensity measurements were collected at high spatial and temporal resolution in two facilities. Static monitors were distributed throughout the facility and used to capture the temporal variability at these locations. Roving monitors (typical of the hazard mapping process) captured spatial variability over multiple traverses through the facility. The differences in hazards maps generated with different sampling techniques were evaluated. Hazard maps produced from sparse, roving monitor data were in good agreement with the TWA hazard maps at the facility with low temporal variability. Estimated values were within 5 dB of the TWA over approximately 90% of the facility. However, at the facility with higher temporal variability, large differences between hazard maps were observed for different traverses through the facility. On the second day of sampling, estimates were at least 5 dB different than the TWA for more than half of the locations within the facility. The temporal variability of noise was found to have a greater influence on map accuracy than the spatial sampling resolution. PMID:25437137

Lake, Kirk; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Haonan; Volckens, John; Koehler, Kirsten A

2014-12-01

302

Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls.

Beaulieu, R A

2009-05-04

303

The GSHAP Global Seismic Hazard Map  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP), a demonstration project of the UN/International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction, was conducted in the 1992-1998 period with the goal of improving global standards in seismic hazard assessment. The GSHAP Global Seismic Hazard Map has been compiled by joining the regional maps produced for different GSHAP regions and test areas; it depicts the global seismic hazard as Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 ...

Zhang, P.; Shedlock, K. M.; Gru?nthal, G.; Giardini, D.

1999-01-01

304

Landslide hazard zoning at regional level – Vâlcea County case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years the severity of the extreme meteorological phenomena significantly increased,i.e. heavy rains which led to historical floods on the most part of the hydrographical basins of Romania,mostly during 2005 and 2010. These abnormal meteorological phenomena reactivated a great number oflandslides. Therefore, risk managers, in order to urge the landslide inventory at the whole country level,launched hazard maps in terms of Law no 575/2001 regarding the “Plan of the national territorydevelopment, the Fifth section – Areas of natural hazards”. This means risk maps of Romania for areasprone to natural hazards (floods, landslides and earthquakes, as well as the exact geographical andadministrative localization of these areas, including the indication of the risk level of producing thespecific hazards. The present paper presents the methodology of hazard zoning at the local and regionallevel, including the parameters used to draw down the thematic maps for inventory and representation ofthe active landslide for the whole territory. As a case study area, Vâlcea County was chosen for the largenumber of damages due to the landslide effects. Of them, the Ocnele Mari case is noteworthy as anatural reservation of diapire salts massifs, affected by collapse due to salt dissolution by runoff waterand overexploitation by water injection.

Adrian A. Mesescu

2011-08-01

305

AN ENHANCED HAZARD ANALYSIS PROCESS FOR THE HANFORD TANK FARMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., has expanded the scope and increased the formality of process hazards analyses performed on new or modified Tank Farm facilities, designs, and processes. The CH2M HILL process hazard analysis emphasis has been altered to reflect its use as a fundamental part of the engineering and change control process instead of simply being a nuclear safety analysis tool. The scope has been expanded to include identification of accidents/events that impact the environment, or require emergency response, in addition to those with significant impact to the facility worker, the offsite, and the 100-meter receptor. Also, there is now an expectation that controls will be identified to address all types of consequences. To ensure that the process has an appropriate level of rigor and formality, a new engineering standard for process hazards analysis was created. This paper discusses the role of process hazards analysis as an information source for not only nuclear safety, but also for the worker-safety management programs, emergency management, environmental programs. This paper also discusses the role of process hazards analysis in the change control process, including identifying when and how it should be applied to changes in design or process

306

Loss experience from natural phenomena hazards in the Department of Energy (50 years of natural phenomena hazard losses)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a historical prespective on losses due to natural hazard incidents (1943-1993) at Department of Energy (DOE) and predecessor agencies including the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA). This paper also demonstrates how an existing DOE resource can be used to gain valuable insight into injury or property damage incidents. That resource is the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) module of DOE's Safety Performance Measurement System. CAIRS data selected the 1981-1991 DOE injury/illness reports, from all the accident reports of the AEC that cited a natural phenomena hazard as either the direct or indirect cause of the injury/property damage. Specifically, injury or property damage reports were selected for analysis if they had a causal factor link to severe weather or natural phenomena hazard categories. Natural phenomena hazard categories are injury/property damage caused by hurricane/tornado, earthquake, lightning, or flood. Severe weather categories are injury/property damage associated with other than normal weather conditions. The lessons learned, as a result of reviewing case histories, are presented, as are suggestions on how to reduce the likelihood of future injuries/property damage as a result of similar events. A significant finding, is that most injuries and property damage were the result of an indirect causal link to a natural phenomena hazard and thus, may be more prevennomena hazard and thus, may be more preventable than previously thought possible. The primary message, however, is that CAIRS and other incident data bases are valuable resources and should be considered for use by those interested in identifying new ways of protecting the health and safety of the worker and for reducing building losses due to the effects of natural phenomena hazards

307

Social networking patterns/hazards among teenagers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have grown substantially, posing new hazards to teenagers. This study aimed to determine general patterns of Internet usage among Irish teenagers aged 11-16 years, and to identify potential hazards, including; bullying, inappropriate contact, overuse, addiction and invasion of users' privacy. A cross-sectional study design was employed to survey students at three Irish secondary schools, with a sample of 474 completing a questionnaire. 202 (44%) (n = 460) accessed the Internet using a shared home computer. Two hours or less were spent online daily by 285(62%), of whom 450 (98%) were unsupervised. 306 (72%) (n = 425) reported frequent usage of SNSs, 403 (95%) of whom were Facebook users. 42 (10%) males and 51 (12%) females experienced bullying online, while 114 (27%) reported inappropriate contact from others. Concerning overuse and the risk of addiction, 140 (33%) felt they accessed SNSs too often. These patterns among Irish teenagers suggest that SNS usage poses significant dangers, which are going largely unaddressed. PMID:22803496

Machold, C; Judge, G; Mavrinac, A; Elliott, J; Murphy, A M; Roche, E

2012-05-01

308

An ergodic approach to eruption hazard scaling  

Science.gov (United States)

The complexity and indeterminacy of volcanic processes demand the use of statistical methods to analyze the expectations of the occurrence and size of future eruptions. The probability of a volcano producing potentially destructive eruptions in a given time interval may be estimated analyzing the sequence of past eruptions assuming a physically plausible process. Since the threat posed by eruptions depends on their mass or energy release (magnitude) and on their emission rate (intensity), the Volcanic Explosivity Index is a suitable measure to quantify the eruptive events, particularly considering that the largest available global catalogues use that measure. The definition of volcanic hazard is thus posed here in terms of the expected annual release of energy by eruptions in each VEI category. This concept is based on the ergodic property of a large set of volcanoes to release about the same amount of energy in each VEI category over a sufficiently large time interval. This property is however constrained to the VEI range of eruptions that constitute complete catalogues (VEI >2) in the lower end, and to the extreme eruptions that may destroy or significantly alter a volcanic system, such as the large caldera-forming eruptions (VEI Colima, Citlaltepetl, El Chichón and Popocatepetl are presented to illustrate the method, aimed to provide an objective criterion to assess the relative hazard posed by different volcanoes.

De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Mendoza-Rosas, Ana Teresa

2014-05-01

309

Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the PFP. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

310

Schools Remove Hazardous Chemicals from Labs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes safety committee (New York section, American Chemical Society) survey of college chemistry facilities to assess hazards and make recommendations, and a cooperative project in Iowa to identify and remove hazardous chemicals from college/secondary school classrooms. Includes a partial list of hazardous chemicals identified by the Iowa…

Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

1982-01-01

311

21 CFR 120.7 - Hazard analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120...food hazard that must be addressed in the HACCP plan. A food hazard that is reasonably...food for the intended consumer. (e) HACCP plans for juice need not address the...

2010-04-01

312

Scaling law for seismic hazard after a main shock  

CERN Document Server

After a large earthquake, the likelihood of successive strong aftershocks needs to be estimated. Exploiting similarities with critical phenomena, we introduce a scaling law for the decay in time following a main shock of the expected number of aftershocks greater than a certain magnitude. Empirical results that support our scaling hypothesis are obtained from analyzing the record of earthquakes in California. The proposed form unifies the well-known Omori and Gutenberg-Richter laws of seismicity, together with other phenomenological observations. Our results substantially modify presently employed estimates and may lead to an improved assessment of seismic hazard after a large earthquake.}

Lise, S; Stella, A; Lise, Stefano; Paczuski, Maya; Stella, Attilio

2004-01-01

313

PHAZE, Parametric Hazard Function Estimation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking of the model assumptions. 2 - Methods: PHAZE assumes that the failures of a component follow a time-dependent (or non-homogenous) Poisson process and that the failure counts in non-overlapping time intervals are independent. Implicit in the independence property is the assumption that the component is restored to service immediately after any failure, with negligible repair time. The failures of one component are assumed to be independent of those of another component; a proportional hazards model is used. Data for a component are called time censored if the component is observed for a fixed time-period, or plant records covering a fixed time-period are examined, and the failure times are recorded. The number of these failures is random. Data are called failure censored if the component is kept in service until a predetermined number of failures has occurred, at which time the component is removed from service. In this case, theis removed from service. In this case, the number of failures is fixed, but the end of the observation period equals the final failure time and is random. A typical PHAZE session consists of reading failure data from a file prepared previously, selecting one of the three models, and performing data analysis (i.e., performing the usual statistical inference about the parameters of the model, with special emphasis on the parameter(s) that determine whether the hazard function is increasing). The final goals of the inference are a point estimate and a confidence interval for the hazard function at any time. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: PHAZE is limited to a maxima of 100 components and 40 failures per component

314

Seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations is greater in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Serum KL-6 is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, KL-6 has not been used to discriminate different types of ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations can vary depending on antigen exposure levels in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP); however, seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations in ILD have not been determined. We hypothesized that seasonal variation of serum KL-6 is greater in HP than for the other ILD. The aim of this study was to determine seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations in various ILD. Methods Serum KL-6 concentrations in the summer season from June 1 to September 30 and the winter season from November 1 to February 28 were retrospectively analyzed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n?=?16), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, n?=?16), collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial pneumonia (CVD-IP, n?=?33), house-related HP (House-HP, n?=?9), bird-related HP (Bird-HP, n?=?9), and combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE, n?=?13). Results Bird-HP and House-HP showed greater seasonal serum KL-6 variation than the other ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations in Bird-HP were significantly increased in the winter and KL-6 concentrations in House-HP were significantly increased in the summer. Serum KL-6 variation was significantly greater in acute HP than chronic HP. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that greater seasonal variation in serum KL-6 concentrations is diagnostic for Bird-HP. Conclusion HP should be considered in ILD with greater seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations. PMID:25098177

2014-01-01

315

SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The primary reasons for this difference is the greater activity rate used in contemporary models for the Charleston source zone and proper incorporation of uncertainty and randomness in GMAMs.

(NOEMAIL), R

2005-12-14

316

The Greater India beneath Tibet: A detailed new seismic mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greater India is a continent that existed before the India-Asia collision and comprised today's Indian subcontinent and its extension to the north, by now consumed in the collision. The size, shape, and evolution of the Greater India are a matter of a heated debate, from its place in the make-up of Gondwana to its rapid northward drift and evolution following the break-up of the supercontinent and to its eventual collision with Eurasia. How the India-Asia collision has been accommodated (how much of the continental Indian lithosphere has been consumed and what happened to it) is an important unresolved problem in itself, the proposed solutions including: underthrusting of India beneath Tibet; northward subduction of India; viscous thickening of the Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath Tibet; viscous thickening followed by convective removal; lateral extrusion of chunks of Greater India eastwards; slicing and sinking of the Greater India's lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Body-wave seismic tomography shows the remnants of the subducted lithosphere of the ancient Tethys Ocean, now in the lower mantle, and the more recently subducted lithosphere of the Indian Plate around the transition-zone depths. In the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range, however, the properties and even the presence of Indian lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Tibet are debated. Whereas surface-wave tomographic models typically show a high-velocity anomaly beneath much of Tibet at around 200 km depth, many body-wave models do not show high-velocity anomalies under most of the plateau, prompting very different interpretations. Here we determine the morphology of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet using a combination of large-scale waveform tomography (based on a new, unprecedentedly large global dataset) and of surface-wave array analysis in Tibet. The Greater Indian lithosphere is present (underthrusting or subducting) beneath much of Tibet. There are marked differences in the properties of the Greater Indian lithosphere and in the mechanism of its descent beneath different parts of the plateau. In the west, cratonic Indian lithosphere underthrusts the Tibetan crust and collides with the Tarim Craton to the north of it. In the central part of the plateau, Indian lithosphere underthrusts Tibet form the Himalayas up to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture and then, further north, subducts at a relatively steep angle. Indian lithosphere now under the east-central Himalayas is not cratonic (not as thick and cold as in the west). Beneath eastern Tibet, the Indian lithosphere has subducted, at a shallow angle, hundreds of kilometers northwards to under the Qiangtang and Songpan-Ganzi Terranes. The detailed new seismic images provide new constraints on the size of the Greater India continent and on lateral variations in the properties of its lithosphere. The size and shape of the Greater India as evidenced by the seismic data are consistent with the recent plate-tectonic models in which the India-Asia hard continental collision commences more recently than previously thought. References Agius, M. R., S. Lebedev. Tibetan and Indian lithospheres in the upper mantle beneath Tibet: Evidence from broadband surface-wave dispersion. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, doi:10.1002/ggge.20274, 2013. Schaeffer, A. J., S. Lebedev. Global shear-speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophys. J. Int. 194, 417-449, 2013. Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., et al., Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 7659-64, 2012. Zahirovic, S., et al., Insights on the kinematics of the India-Eurasia collision from global geodynamic models, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13, doi:10.1029/2011GC003883, 2012.

Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Agius, Matthew

2014-05-01

317

Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning  

Science.gov (United States)

For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there currently is an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does, however, not make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard respectively flood fatality hazard.

de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

2015-01-01

318

Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis to support the final CSB Safety Analysis Report and documents the results. This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis process identified hazardous conditions and material-at-risk, determined causes for potential accidents, identified preventive and mitigative features, and qualitatively estimated the frequencies and consequences of specific occurrences. The hazard analysis was performed by a team of cognizant CSB operations and design personnel, safety analysts familiar with the CSB, and technical experts in specialty areas. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process. Attachment A provides two lists of hazard analysis team members and describes the background and experience of each. The first list is a complete list of the hazard analysis team members that have been involved over the two-year long process. The second list is a subset of the first list and consists of those hazard analysis team members that reviewed and agreed to the final hazard analysis documentation. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process involving formal facilitated group sessions and independent hazard and accident analysis work. The hazard analysis process led to the selection of candidate accidents for further quantitative analysis. New information relative to the hazards, discovered during the accident analysis, was incorporated into the hazard analysis data in order to compile a complete profile of facility hazards. Through this process, the results of the hazard and accident analyses led directly to the identification of safety structures, systems, and components, technical safety requirements, and other controls required to protect the public, workers, and environment.

POWERS, T.B.

2000-03-16

319

40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imports of hazardous waste. 262.60 Section 262...APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports of hazardous waste. (a) Any person...

2010-07-01

320

Natural hazard and disaster tourism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An observed trend, which can be defined as tourist interest in natural hazards and disasters, has persuaded the authors to attempt to research several issues, including tourist motivations and specific tourism properties and functions of this form of activity. The objective also covered the allocation of this social and natural process in the general structure of tourism. This interest has a long history, and a new stage is currently forming, which partly results from factors affecting society, such as information and education, which provoke antagonistic reactions. Extreme natural phenomena entail a common reduction of tourist interest in the destination which hosted the event; however, it never drops to zero. Differences are visible depending on the type of phenomenon. On the other hand, natural hazards and disasters are considered to hold a specific tourism value. This article discusses the allocation of this human activity in the tourism forms known to scientists, accounting for its diversity and relating to ethics.

Ruci?ska Dorota

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Models of volcanic eruption hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volcanic eruptions pose an ever present but poorly constrained hazard to life and property for geothermal installations in volcanic areas. Because eruptions occur sporadically and may limit field access, quantitative and systematic field studies of eruptions are difficult to complete. Circumventing this difficulty, laboratory models and numerical simulations are pivotal in building our understanding of eruptions. For example, the results of fuel-coolant interaction experiments show that magma-water interaction controls many eruption styles. Applying these results, increasing numbers of field studies now document and interpret the role of external water eruptions. Similarly, numerical simulations solve the fundamental physics of high-speed fluid flow and give quantitative predictions that elucidate the complexities of pyroclastic flows and surges. A primary goal of these models is to guide geologists in searching for critical field relationships and making their interpretations. Coupled with field work, modeling is beginning to allow more quantitative and predictive volcanic hazard assessments.

Wohletz, K.H.

1992-06-01

322

Models of volcanic eruption hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volcanic eruptions pose an ever present but poorly constrained hazard to life and property for geothermal installations in volcanic areas. Because eruptions occur sporadically and may limit field access, quantitative and systematic field studies of eruptions are difficult to complete. Circumventing this difficulty, laboratory models and numerical simulations are pivotal in building our understanding of eruptions. For example, the results of fuel-coolant interaction experiments show that magma-water interaction controls many eruption styles. Applying these results, increasing numbers of field studies now document and interpret the role of external water eruptions. Similarly, numerical simulations solve the fundamental physics of high-speed fluid flow and give quantitative predictions that elucidate the complexities of pyroclastic flows and surges. A primary goal of these models is to guide geologists in searching for critical field relationships and making their interpretations. Coupled with field work, modeling is beginning to allow more quantitative and predictive volcanic hazard assessments.

Wohletz, K.H.

1992-01-01

323

77 FR 66874 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact  

Science.gov (United States)

...NRC-2012-0271] Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...implemented in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses, which are...prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to evaluate the...Geotechnical, and Seismic Engineering...

2012-11-07

324

76 FR 60777 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Environment and Natural Resources (DENR...Atlanta, Georgia 30303-8960...Atlanta, Georgia 30303-8960...a significant risk to public health...application of the Hazard Ranking System...Environment and Natural Resources,...

2011-09-30

325

Detection device for hazardous material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of a detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chemical with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

Partin, J.K.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

326

Magnetic Storms and Induction Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Québec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

Love, Jeffrey J.; Joshua Rigler, E.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher C.

2014-12-01

327

Computer Model Locates Environmental Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Catherine Huybrechts Burton founded San Francisco-based Endpoint Environmental (2E) LLC in 2005 while she was a student intern and project manager at Ames Research Center with NASA's DEVELOP program. The 2E team created the Tire Identification from Reflectance model, which algorithmically processes satellite images using turnkey technology to retain only the darkest parts of an image. This model allows 2E to locate piles of rubber tires, which often are stockpiled illegally and cause hazardous environmental conditions and fires.

2008-01-01

328

Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The global and regional maps found at the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program show the chances of seismic activity over the globe for the next 50 years. The maps, recently made available on the Internet through the Swiss Seismological Service, were created through the collaboration of hundreds of researchers worldwide. Available here are global and continental maps (Americas, Europe/ Africa/ Middle East, Asia, and Southwest Pacific) as well as other maps for more localized regions. Each map comes with an accompanying report.

329

Seismic hazard maps of Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Italian "Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti" has conducted a project in recent years for assessing seismic hazard in the national territory to be used as a basis for the revision of the current seismic zonation. In this project the data on the major earthquakes were reassessed and a new earthquake data file prepared. Definition of a seismotectonic model for the whole territory, based on a structural-kinematic analysis of Italy and the surrounding regions, led to the definition o...

Rebez, A.; Peruzza, L.; Slejko, D.

1998-01-01

330

Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts ...

Leikauf, George D.

2002-01-01

331

Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustment adoption.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationships of self-reported adoption of 12 seismic hazard adjustments (pre-impact actions to reduce danger to persons and property) with respondents' demographic characteristics, perceived risk, perceived hazard knowledge, perceived protection responsibility, and perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments. Consistent with theoretical predictions, perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments differentiated among the adjustments and had stronger correlations with adoption than any of the other predictors. These results identify the adjustments and attributes that emergency managers should address to have the greatest impact on improving household adjustment to earthquake hazard. PMID:10795335

Lindell, M K; Whitney, D J

2000-02-01

332

Health hazards of welding fumes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Even in the twenty -first century , welding is still a common and high skilled occupation. The hazardous agents associated with welding processes are acetylene, carbomonoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, phosgene, tungsten, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, iron, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, silver,tin and zinc.All welding processes involve the potential hazards for inhalation exposures that may lead to acute or chronic respiratory diseases. According to literature described earlier it has been suggested that welding fumes cause the lung function impairment, obstructive and restrictive,lungs diseases diseases, cough, dyspnea, rhinitis, asthama, pneumoconiosis, carcinoma of the lungs. In additon,welding workers suffer from eye problems like irritation, phtokeratitis, cataract, skin irritation, erythema, petrygium, non-melanosytic skin cancer, malignant melanoma, reduced sperm count , motility and infertility. Most of the studies have been attempted previously to evaluate the effects of weldig fumes.However no cllectively effort illuminating the general effects of welding fumes on differnt organs or systems or both in humans has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of welding fumes documented by individual efforts and provides information to community on hazards of welding. (author)

333

Greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus are partial capital breeders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Capital breeding refers to a strategy in which birds use body stores for egg formation, whereas income breeders obtain all resources for egg formation at breeding sites. Capital breeding should occur more in large-bodied species because the relative cost of carrying stores for egg formation becomes smaller with increasing body size. Based on a comparison between stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in potential prey at wintering sites and eggs, we examined whether greater flamingos use nutr...

Rendo?n-martos, M.; Rendo?n, Miguel A.; Garrido, Araceli; Amat, Juan A.

2011-01-01

334

Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face gre...

Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing

2011-01-01

335

Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

Banks, Richard C.

2011-01-01

336

Imaging and management of greater trochanteric pain syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a commonly diagnosed regional pain syndrome with a wide spectrum of aetiologies, reflecting the anatomy of the structures outside the hip joint capsule. There are five muscle tendons that insert on to the greater trochanter and three bursae in the region of the greater trochanter. The term GTPS includes tendinopathies, tendinous tears, bursal inflammation and effusion. There are a range of treatments and therapies depending on the specific diagnosis and severity of the condition. Many patients with GTPS can be successfully managed conservatively with weight loss and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients suffering from more chronic pain can receive varying degrees of symptomatic relief with lateral hip corticosteroid and local anaesthetic injections. More severe refractory cases of GTPS can be treated with surgical intervention. It is therefore important to make the correct diagnosis to ensure that appropriate management can be implemented. The clinical features of GTPS however are often non-specific because common conditions such as lumbar radicular pain and hip joint osteoarthritis can present with an almost identical form of lateral hip pain. The various diagnostic imaging modalities have particular strengths and weaknesses with ultrasound being the best first-line investigation due to its availability, low cost, dynamic nature and ability to guide treatments such as steroid injections. MRI can be very helpful in the further investigation of patients in whom there is diagnostic uncertainty as to the cause of lateral hip pain and in whom specialist orthopaedic referral is being considered. PMID:25187570

Chowdhury, Rajat; Naaseri, Sahar; Lee, Justin; Rajeswaran, Gajan

2014-10-01

337

Accident analysis for aircraft crash into hazardous facilities: DOE standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This standard provides the user with sufficient information to evaluate and assess the significance of aircraft crash risk on facility safety without expending excessive effort where it is not required. It establishes an approach for performing a conservative analysis of the risk posed by a release of hazardous radioactive or chemical material resulting from an aircraft crash into a facility containing significant quantities of such material. This can establish whether a facility has a significant potential for an aircraft impact and whether this has the potential for producing significant offsite or onsite consequences. General implementation guidance, screening and evaluation guidelines, and methodologies for the evaluations are included

338

Health hazards of fire fighters: exposure assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing concern over the detrimental health effects to firefighters produced by exposure to combustion byproducts of burning materials. To assess the types and levels of exposure encountered by firefighters during their routine occupational duties, members of the Buffalo Fire Department were monitored during firefighting activities with personal, portable, ambient environmental sampling devices. The results indicate that firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, benzene, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane, and particulates. Furthermore, in many cases of the worst exposure to these materials respiratory protective equipment was not used owing to the visual impression of low smoke intensity, and thus these levels represent actual direct exposure of the firefighters. Many of these materials have been implicated in the production of cardiovascular, respiratory, or neoplastic diseases, which may provide an explanation for the alleged increased risk for these illnesses among firefighters. PMID:3179235

Brandt-Rauf, P W; Fallon, L F; Tarantini, T; Idema, C; Andrews, L

1988-09-01

339

How Can Asian Snack FuLoi Plan Successful Entering to Greater Helsinki Area? : Market research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis introduces the significant factors of market research and its importance when considering doing international business. Furthermore, it could be useful for investors who have same favour to enter Finnish market. The case company is Asian Snack FuLoi- a German food industry company looking for new market. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility for a company to enter Finland in general and Greater Helsinki in particular. The thesis was structured with theor...

Nguyen, Loc

2014-01-01

340

Winter distribution of Greater Scaup Aythya marila in relation to available food resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The European wintering population of Greater Scaup has declined significantly over the last 20 years and some of the main threats appear to be at the wintering grounds. This contribution aims at describing the local distribution of Scaup in the Dutch Wadden Sea, one of the most important wintering sites for Scaup in relation to available food resources. Data on the distribution of Scaup was obtained from annual aerial counts in January during 1999–2009. This data was related to benthos data...

Cervencl, A.; Fernandez, S. A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Endogenous GABA levels in the pontine reticular formation are greater during wakefulness than during REM sleep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies using drugs that increase or decrease GABAergic transmission suggest that GABA in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) promotes wakefulness and inhibits rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Cholinergic transmission in the PRF promotes REM sleep, and levels of endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) in the PRF are significantly greater during REM sleep than during wakefulness or non-REM (NREM) sleep. No previous studies have determined whether levels of endogenous GABA in the PRF vary as a function...

Vanini, Giancarlo; Wathen, Bradley L.; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A.

2011-01-01

342

Quadricuspid aortic valve and single coronary artery in a greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula.  

Science.gov (United States)

An adult greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) had both a quadricuspid aortic valve and a single coronary artery arising from the aorta. The shrew was caught on 10 May 1994 in the environs of Málaga, southern Spain. Both congenital anomalies may be potential causes of cardiac dysfunction, but apparently produced no significant cardiac complication in the shrew. This is the first report of a quadricuspid aortic valve in a wild-living mammal. PMID:9359065

Durán, A C

1996-10-01

343

40 CFR 721.72 - Hazard communication program.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2) Human health hazard precautionary...Avoid skin contact. (ii... (3) Environmental hazard statements...iii) Human health hazard precautionary...Avoid skin contact (B) Avoid... (iv) Environmental hazard statements...iii) Human health hazard precautionary...Avoid skin contact (B) Avoid... (iv) Environmental hazard...

2010-07-01

344

Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

345

Identifying hazards associated with lava deltas  

Science.gov (United States)

Lava deltas, formed where lava enters the ocean and builds a shelf of new land extending from the coastline, represent a significant local hazard, especially on populated ocean island volcanoes. Such structures are unstable and prone to collapse—events that are often accompanied by small explosions that can deposit boulders and cobbles hundreds of meters inland. Explosions that coincide with collapses of the East Lae `Apuki lava delta at K?lauea Volcano, Hawai`i, during 2005-2007 followed an evolutionary progression mirroring that of the delta itself. A collapse that occurred when the lava-ocean entry was active was associated with a blast of lithic blocks and dispersal of spatter and fine, glassy tephra. Shortly after delta growth ceased, a collapse exposed hot rock to cold ocean water, resulting in an explosion composed entirely of lithic blocks and lapilli. Further collapse of the delta after several months of inactivity, by which time it had cooled significantly, resulted in no recognizable explosion deposit. Seaward displacement and subsidence of the coastline immediately inland of the delta was measured by both satellite and ground-based sensors and occurred at rates of several centimeters per month even after the lava-ocean entry had ceased. The anomalous deformation ended only after complete collapse of the delta. Monitoring of ground deformation may therefore provide an indication of the potential for delta collapse, while the hazard associated with collapse can be inferred from the level of activity, or the time since the last activity, on the delta.

Poland, Michael P.; Orr, Tim R.

2014-12-01

346

The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program Website: Summary of Recent and Ongoing Developments  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) website (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/) focuses on 1) earthquake reporting for informed decisions after an earthquake, 2) hazards information for informed decisions and planning before an earthquake, and 3) the basics of earthquake science to help the users of the information understand what is presented. The majority of website visitors are looking for information about current earthquakes in the U.S. and around the world, and the second most visited portion of the website are the education-related pages. People are eager for information, and they are most interested in "what's in my backyard?" Recent and future web developments are aimed at answering this question, making the information more relevant to users, and enabling users to more quickly and easily find the information they are looking for. Recent and/or current web developments include the new enhanced Recent Global Earthquakes and U.S. Earthquakes webpages, the Earthquake in the News system, the Rapid Accurate Tectonic Summaries (RATS), online Significant Earthquake Summary Posters (ESP's), and the U.S. Quaternary Fault & Fold Database, the details of which are covered individually in greater detail in this or other sessions. Future planned developments include a consistent look across all EHP webpages, an integrated one-stop-shopping earthquake notification (EQMail) subscription webpage, new navigation tabs, and a backend database allowing the user to search for earthquake information across all the various EHP websites (on different webservers) based on a topic or region. Another goal is to eventually allow a user to input their address (Zip Code?) and in return receive all the relevant EHP information (and links to more detailed information) such as closest fault, the last significant nearby earthquake, a local seismicity map, and a local hazard map, for example. This would essentially be a dynamic report based on the entered location. This type of "what's in my backyard?" information would be of great benefit to both various organizations, such as insurance agencies and building contractors, and the general public.

Wald, L. A.; Zirbes, M.; Robert, S.; Wald, D.; Presgrace, B.; Earle, P.; Schwarz, S.; Haefner, S.; Haller, K.; Rhea, S.

2003-12-01

347

78 FR 22576 - Application and Amendment to Facility Operating License Involving Proposed No Significant Hazards...  

Science.gov (United States)

...required by the reload safety analyses as detailed in the response...Core Cooling System (ECCS) analysis accounts for the changes to...SONGS Unit 2 ECCS performance Analyses of Record (AOR) for Large Break Loss-of-Coolant...

2013-04-16

348

75 FR 29587 - Notice of Availability of Revised Model Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration...  

Science.gov (United States)

...electronically at the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at http...documents located in ADAMS, contact the NRC's PDR reference...or by e-mail to pdr.resource@nrc.gov. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Barry W. Miller,...

2010-05-26

349

Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis : A significant health hazard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50...

Alanazi Marzouqah; Alashahrani Mohammad; Alsalamah Majid

2009-01-01

350

Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis: a significant health hazard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and ...

Alanazi, Marzouqah; Alashahrani, Mohammad; Alsalamah, Majid

2009-01-01

351

75 FR 39975 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Line Break/Feed Line Break evaluation...from Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC...Line Break/Feed Line Break...fluid. A leak rate ratio was developed...Engineers] Code [Boiler and Pressure...Protection for Light Water Reactor...

2010-07-13

352

Significance of epidemiological studies for estimating the genetic radiation hazards of man  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a brief presentation of the fundamentals of epidemiological studies, the problems associated with such studies are discussed. Epidemiological investigations on survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and also on the population of Kerala, a state in south west India with a high natural radiation load, are then discussed. Consideration was given to the question whether the Down-Syndrom is a valid indicator for proving a causal relationship between radiation dose and genetic effects. (MG)

353

Evaluation of relative hazards of phosphate products and wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate deposits throughout the world contain uranium and thorium series radionuclides, and stable metals, in concentrations greater than average natural background concentrations. The 238U series, including 226Ra and decay products, is the primary radiological concern. These nuclides are redistributed among the products, byproducts, and wastes from mining and processing of phosphate ore. Radium-226 is important not only as a gamma emitter that contributes to external radiation exposure, but also as a source of 222Rn and decay products. Radon decay products can accumulate in air inside structures built on reclaimed phosphate mining lands. In addition to potential radiation hazards, trace elements such as cadmium, lead, zinc, chromium, and vanadium are associated with phosphate ore and are found in some products and wastes. The natural uranium in phosphate ore is also chemically toxic. This report examines some of the exposure pathways for radiological and nonradiological hazards from the phosphate industry. A proposed waste classification methodology is applied to examine the hazardous potential of phosphate products, byproducts, and wastes. 33 references

354

INL Reactor Technology Complex Out-of-Service Buried Piping Hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) buried piping and components are being characterized to determine if they should be managed as hazardous waste and subject to the Hazardous Waste Management Act /Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RTC buried piping and components involve both active piping and components from currently operating nuclear facilities, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and inactive lines from facilities undergoing D&D activities. The issue exists as to the proper methods to analyze and control hazards associated with D&D activities on facilities collocated with existing operating nuclear facilities, or future collocated facilities being considered with the resurgent nuclear industry. During initial characterization activities, it was determined that residual radioactive material in several inactive RTC lines and components could potentially exceed hazard category (HC) 3 thresholds. In addition, concerns were raised as to how to properly isolate active nuclear facility piping and components from those inactive lines undergoing RCRA actions, and whether the operating facility safety basis could be impacted. Work was stopped, and a potential inadequacy in the safety analysis (PISA) was declared, even though no clear safety basis existed for the inactive, abandoned lines and equipment. An unreviewed safety question (USQ) and an occurrence report resulted. A HC 3 or greater Nuclear Facility/Activity for the buried piping and components was also declared in the occurrence report. A qualitative hazard assessment was developed to evaluate the potential hazards associated with characterization activities, and any potential effects on the safety basis of the collocated RTC operating nuclear facilities. The hazard assessment clearly demonstrated the low hazards associated with the activities based on form and dispersiblity of the radioactive material in the piping and components. The hazard assessment developed unique controls to isolate active RTC piping and components from inactive components, and demonstrated that existing safety management programs were adequate for protection of the worker.

Douglas M. Gerstner

2008-05-01

355

On the disappearance of the Greater Himalayan crystalline in the northwestern Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The apparent continuity of the major tectonic units and tectonic contacts along the Himalayan orogen is intriguing. Numerous studies substantiate a common first order extrusion history of the crystalline core of the orogen (the Greater Himalayan crystalline) along the length of the orogen, or elucidate second-order lateral variations thereof. However, little is known about the lateral termination of the crystalline core. The major shortening structures below the Greater Himalayan crystalline (Main Central thrust, Main Boundary thrust, and Main Frontal thrust) have been mapped as far west as the Nanga Parbat syntaxis in Pakistan, but significant debate exists as to how far west the Greater Himalayan crystalline crops out at the surface. In Himachal Pradesh, northwest India, the hanging wall of the Main Central thrust (MCT) consists of chlorite- to biotite-grade metamorphic metasedimentary rocks, which have been interpreted as lower-grade equivalents of the Greater Himalayan crystalline in the framework of both 'Channel-flow' and general shear extrusion models. More recently, proponents of a 'tectonic wedging' scenario of extrusion challenge this view and contend that the Greater Himalayan crystalline does not surface west of ~ 077°E, except in the Kishtwar tectonic window. However, none of these models account for the observed steep lateral metamorphic gradient from up to migmatite grade (? 750 °C) in the Sutlej valley to biotite grade west of the Beas valley, within 100 km along the strike of the orogen. New muscovite 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from the Beas valley indicate early Miocene emplacement of the MCT hanging wall in Himachal Pradesh. Emplacement is concurrent with the onset of extrusion of the crystalline core further east. Our cooling ages are significantly older than comparable ages measured in the central and eastern Himalaya, indicating that in Himachal Pradesh, unlike elsewhere, the amount of exhumation since the early Miocene is negligible. Based on structural mapping and our preliminary thermochronology data, we tentatively propose the existence of a lateral ramp in the Main Boundary thrust (MBT) in Himachal Pradesh. East of the Beas valley shortening between India and Asia has been accommodated by thrusting along the MCT and related faults. Thrusting was in part counteracted by early Miocene normal-sense slip along the South Tibetan detachment, which acted as a passive roof fault to the extruding Greater Himalayan crystalline. West of the Beas valley down-stepping of the MBT across the proposed ramp provided accommodation space for the MCT hanging wall. Extrusion of the Greater Himalayan crystalline is therefore limited to the east of the ramp; post-early Miocene exhumation is negligible west of the Beas, and no passive roof thrust comparable to the South Tibetan detachment developed.

Stübner, Konstanze; Grujic, Djordje; Ahmad, Talat

2010-05-01

356

Primary tumours of the mesentery and greater omentum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diseases of mesentery and greater omentum are commonly the result of lymph mode metastases from an abdominal carcinoma, or lymph node involvement as part of a general lymphatic malignancy. Primary tumours are rare. Cysts occur predominantly in children. In addition, one may find mesenchymal benign or malignant tumours, which produce clinical symptoms at a larger age. Plain abdominal films, barium meals and angiograms fail to show evidence of a space-occupying lesion, or produce only indirect signs. Only ultrasound or CT can demonstrate these tumours directly. (orig.)

357

[Primary tumors of the mesentery and greater omentum].  

Science.gov (United States)

Diseases of mesentery and greater omentum are commonly the result of lymph node metastases from an abdominal carcinoma, or lymph node involvement as part of a general lymphatic malignancy. Primary tumours are rare. Cysts occur predominantly in children. In addition, one may find mesenchymal benign or malignant tumours, which produce clinical symptoms at a later age. Plain abdominal films, barium meals and angiograms fail to show evidence of a space-occupying lesion, or produce only indirect signs. Only ultrasound or CT can demonstrate these tumours directly. PMID:6411546

Harder, T; Koischwitz, D; Engel, C

1983-09-01

358

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste transportation regulations and requirements study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to identify the regulations and requirements for transporting greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and to identify planning activities that need to be accomplished in preparation for transporting GTCC LLW. The regulations and requirements for transporting hazardous materials, of which GTCC LLW is included, are complex and include several Federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes. This report is divided into five sections and three appendices. Section 1 introduces the report. Section 2 identifies and discusses the transportation regulations and requirements. The regulations and requirements are divided into Federal, state, local government, and Indian tribes subsections. This report does not identify the regulations or requirements of specific state, local government, and Indian tribes, since the storage, treatment, and disposal facility locations and transportation routes have not been specifically identified. Section 3 identifies the planning needed to ensure that all transportation activities are in compliance with the regulations and requirements. It is divided into (a) transportation packaging; (b) transportation operations; (c) system safety and risk analysis, (d) route selection; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (f) safeguards and security. This section does not provide actual planning since the details of the Department of Energy (DOE) GTCC LLW Program have not been finalized, e.g., waste characterization and quantity, storage, treatment and disposal facility locations, and acceptance criteria. Sections 4 and 5 provide conclusions and referenced documents, respectively

359

Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP, which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA, started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010, along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS conducted in 1999, 2002, and 2010. Due to EEAA/CAIP efforts, a remarkable decrease in more than 90% in lead emissions was attained for 2007.

Zeinab Safar

2014-09-01

360

Greater Vancouver regional district air quality management plan : implementation status report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In December 1994, an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) was adopted by the Greater Vancouver Regional District. The AQMP included ways to improve air quality in the region, leading to reduced emissions from commercial and industrial operations. This Plan encourages cooperation with the various communities affected to achieve clean air lifestyles and manage emissions from human activity to enhance human health and the integrity of the environment. The reduction of total emissions of the common air contaminants sulphur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds by 38 per cent is the stated aim of the AQMP. Five years of planning resulted in the formulation of the AQMP. The issues addressed were assigned one of four priorities as follows: priority 1 deals with ground level ozone and fine particulate, priority 2 looks at visibility, hazardous air pollutants, and global climate change, priority 3 concerns odour, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, acidic deposition, and nitrogen dioxide, and priority 4 contains total suspended particulate matter and volatile organic compounds. A total of 54 Emission Reduction Measures were established, and the document reviewed them. Progress is being made in all areas. 2 tabs., 3 figs

 
 
 
 
361

Occupational hazards of interventional cardiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complex catheter-based interventions and rising case volumes confer occupational risks to interventional cardiologists. Despite advances in technology, modern interventional procedures are performed in a manner remarkably similar to the techniques pioneered decades ago. Percutaneous interventions are associated with operator orthopedic injuries, exposures to blood borne pathogens, and the effects of chronic radiation exposure from fluoroscopy. This review highlights the occupational hazards of interventional procedures and provides a glimpse at the technologies and techniques that may reduce risks to operators in the catheterization laboratory

362

Radiological hazards of narghile smoking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Narghile smoking pastes, known as jurak and moassel, are not standardized manufacture. This study aims at drawing the first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in relation to moassel-narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range of variations in the natural radioactivity. The distribution pattern of these natural radio-nuclides, during smoking, between smoke, ash and water filter is unknown, except for 210Po. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of 210Po was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radio-nuclides is discussed. Further research in this direction is needed. (author)(tk)

Khater, A.E.M.; Abd El-Aziz, N.S.; Al-Sewaidan, H.A.; Chaouachi, K.

2008-07-01

363

Windsurfing hazard caused by needlefish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Very amusing and entertaining for the traveler, marine activities in tropical countries can be dangerous. More and more trauma caused by hazardous marine animals have been reported in recent years in the world, after maritime accidents including water sports like windsurfing, kite surfing, swimming, diving, and injuries caused by sting or contact with a marine animal. Rays and stone-fish frequently cause trauma, but there are not many cases of injury by needlefish. This case reports a case of penetrating wound of the left foot caused by a Caribbean needlefish occurred during a session of windsurfing in Martinique. PMID:23412165

Rouvillain, J L; Donica, A; Gane, C; Zekhnini, C; Garron, E; Uzel, A P

2013-11-01

364

Occupational hazards of interventional cardiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Complex catheter-based interventions and rising case volumes confer occupational risks to interventional cardiologists. Despite advances in technology, modern interventional procedures are performed in a manner remarkably similar to the techniques pioneered decades ago. Percutaneous interventions are associated with operator orthopedic injuries, exposures to blood borne pathogens, and the effects of chronic radiation exposure from fluoroscopy. This review highlights the occupational hazards of interventional procedures and provides a glimpse at the technologies and techniques that may reduce risks to operators in the catheterization laboratory.

Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Balter, Stephen; Weisz, Giora, E-mail: gw2128@columbia.edu

2013-07-15

365

Seismic Hazard Assessment: Conditional Probability  

Science.gov (United States)

In this exercise, students investigate the use of conditional probability (the likelihood that a given event will occur within a specified time period) in assessing earthquake hazards. Introductory materials explain that conditional probability is based on the past history of earthquakes in a region and on how and when earthquakes recur; and discuss the different types of models that can be developed to predict recurrences. Using a table of probability values, students will calculate probabilities for earthquakes along the San Andreas and Wasatch Fault zones, and calculate probabilities that they will exceed a given acceleration (ground shaking) value. Example problems and a bibliography are provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

2012-08-14

366

WORKING CHILDREN IN HAZARDOUS SECTORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available hild labour is an international evil which spoils the whole life of the children who suppose to be the future of the nation. Due to many reasons the children becoming child labourer neither by force or by own interest towards the eager of earning etc… Every children need to enjoy their childhood with family, friends, education, entrainment etc… but many are playing their role as adult to work and earn to support their family. Here this study will give a picture of causes, risks and more about the working children in hazardous sector.

A. Prabhakaran

2014-04-01

367

Modified osteotomy for symptomatic malunion of the humeral greater tuberosity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we describe a modified osteotomy for malunion of the greater tuberosity that facilitates bone union and prevents symptom recurrence. The 3 most important features of this technique are: (1) osteotomizing the displaced fragment that includes the bed of the fracture, (2) placing figure-of-eight sutures by passing suture threads from inside the medullary cavity through osseous holes made in the metaphysis, and (3) pushing the distal end of the osteotomized fragment into the medullary cavity and fixing it in place. This procedure was performed on 10 patients who complained of clinical symptoms derived primarily from greater tuberosity malunion after fractures of various morphologies. Eight of these patients were available for follow-up examinations over 2 postoperative years. Constant score ratios comparing the repaired side to the uninjured side ranged from 82% to 100%. These results support the use of this modified osteotomy in achieving favorable bone union and in creating sufficient subacromial space to resolve most symptoms caused by these malunited proximal humeral fractures. PMID:24662991

Ogawa, Kiyohisa; Matsumura, Noboru; Yoshida, Atsushi

2014-12-01

368

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

2012-04-24

369

Balancing reservoir creation and seismic hazard in enhanced geothermal systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Fracture shear-dilatancy is an essential process for enhancing the permeability of deep geothermal reservoirs, and is usually accompanied by the radiation of seismic waves. However, the hazard and risk perspective of induced seismicity research typically focuses only on the question of how to reduce the occurrence of induced earthquakes. Here we present a quantitative analysis of seismic hazard as a function of the two key factors defining an enhanced geothermal system: The permeability enhancement, and the size of the stimulated reservoir. Our model has two coupled components: (1) a pressure diffusion model and (2) a stochastic seismicity model. Permeability is increased in the source area of each induced earthquake depending on the amount of slip, which is determined by the magnitude. We show that the few largest earthquakes (i.e. 5-10 events with M ? 1.5) contribute more than half of the total reservoir stimulation. The results further indicate that planning and controlling of reservoir engineering operations may be compromised by the considerable variability of maximum observed magnitude, reservoir size, the Gutenberg-Richter b-value and Shapiro's seismogenic index (i.e. a measure of seismic reactivity of a reservoir) that arises from the intrinsic stochastic nature of induced seismicity. We also find that injection volume has a large impact on both reservoir size and seismic hazard. Injection rate and injection scheme have a negligible effect. The impact of site-specific parameters on seismicity and reservoir properties is greater than that of the injected volume. In particular, conditions that lead to high b-values-possibly a low differential stress level-have a high impact on seismic hazard, but also reduce the efficiency of the stimulation in terms of permeability enhancement. Under such conditions, target reservoir permeability can still be achieved without reaching an unacceptable level of seismic hazard, if either the initial reservoir permeability is high or if several fractures are stimulated. The proposed methodology is a first step towards including induced seismic hazard analysis into the design of reservoir stimulation in a quantitative and robust manner.

Gischig, V.; Wiemer, S.; Alcolea, A.

2014-09-01

370

Hydrothermal oxidation of Navy shipboard excess hazardous materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study demonstrated effective destruction, using a novel supercritical water oxidation reactor, of oil, jet fuel, and hydraulic fluid, common excess hazardous materials found on-board Navy vessels. This reactor uses an advanced injector design to mix the hazardous compounds with water, oxidizer, and a supplementary fuel and it uses a transpiring wall to protect the surface of the reactor from corrosion and salt deposition. Our program was divided into four parts. First, basic chemical kinetic data were generated in a simple, tubular-configured reactor for short reaction times (<1 second) and long reaction times (>5 seconds) as a function of temperature. Second, using the data, an engineering model was developed for the more complicated industrial reactor mentioned above. Third, the three hazardous materials were destroyed in a quarter-scale version of the industrial reactor. Finally, the test data were compared with the model. The model and the experimental results for the quarter-scale reactor are described and compared in this report. A companion report discusses the first part of the program to generate basic chemical kinetic data. The injector and reactor worked as expected. The oxidation reaction with the supplementary fuel was initiated between 400 {degrees}C and 450 {degrees}C. The released energy raised the reactor temperature to greater than 600 {degrees}C. At that temperature, the hazardous materials were efficiently destroyed in less than five seconds. The model shows good agreement with the test data and has proven to be a useful tool in designing the system and understanding the test results. 16 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

LaJeunesse, C.A.; Haroldsen, B.L.; Rice, S.F.; Brown, B.G.

1997-03-01

371

Controlled air incineration of hazardous chemical waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An incineration system, originally demonstrated as a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process, is described. The production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology was modified for solid radioactive waste service. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system has been modified further for use in evaluating the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood. Results of a PCP-treated wood incineration test show a PCP destruction efficiency of greater than 99.99% in the primary chamber for the operating conditions investigated. Conditions and results for this test are described

372

Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA, which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions" recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene.

The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru. The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (<0.05 km3 in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia killed about 25 000 people – the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

R. I. Tilling

2009-12-01

373

Flood Hazard Mapping Assessment for Lebanon  

Science.gov (United States)

Of all natural disasters, floods affect the greatest number of people worldwide and have the greatest potential to cause damage. In fact, floods are responsible for over one third of people affected by natural disasters; almost 190 million people in more than 90 countries are exposed to catastrophic floods every year. Nowadays, with the emerging global warming phenomenon, this number is expected to increase, therefore, flood prediction and prevention has become a necessity in many places around the globe to decrease damages caused by flooding. Available evidence hints at an increasing frequency of flooding disasters being witnessed in the last 25 years in Lebanon. The consequences of such events are tragic including annual financial losses of around 15 million dollars. In this work, a hydrologic-hydraulic modeling framework for flood hazard mapping over Lebanon covering 19 watershed was introduced. Several empirical, statistical and stochastic methods to calculate the flood magnitude and its related return periods, where rainfall and river gauge data are neither continuous nor available on a long term basis with an absence of proper river sections that under estimate flows during flood events. TRMM weather satellite information, automated drainage networks, curve numbers and other geometrical characteristics for each basin was prepared using WMS-software and then exported into HMS files to implement the hydrologic modeling (rainfall-runoff) for single designed storm of uniformly distributed depth along each basin. The obtained flow hydrographs were implemented in the hydraulic model (HEC-RAS) where relative water surface profiles are calculated and flood plains are delineated. The model was calibrated using the last flood event of January 2013, field investigation, and high resolution satellite images. Flow results proved to have an accuracy ranging between 83-87% when compared to the computed statistical and stochastic methods. Results included the generation of recurrence flood plain maps of 10, 50 & 100 years intensity maps along with flood hazard maps for each watershed. It is of utmost significance for this study to be effective that the produced flood intensity and hazard maps will be made available to decision-makers, planners and relevant community stakeholders.

Abdallah, Chadi; Darwich, Talal; Hamze, Mouin; Zaarour, Nathalie

2014-05-01

374

National information network and database system of hazardous waste management in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industries in China generate large volumes of hazardous waste, which makes it essential for the nation to pay more attention to hazardous waste management. National laws and regulations, waste surveys, and manifest tracking and permission systems have been initiated. Some centralized hazardous waste disposal facilities are under construction. China`s National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) has also obtained valuable information on hazardous waste management from developed countries. To effectively share this information with local environmental protection bureaus, NEPA developed a national information network and database system for hazardous waste management. This information network will have such functions as information collection, inquiry, and connection. The long-term objective is to establish and develop a national and local hazardous waste management information network. This network will significantly help decision makers and researchers because it will be easy to obtain information (e.g., experiences of developed countries in hazardous waste management) to enhance hazardous waste management in China. The information network consists of five parts: technology consulting, import-export management, regulation inquiry, waste survey, and literature inquiry.

Ma Hongchang [National Environmental Protection Agency, Beijing (China)

1996-12-31

375

Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1994-11-01

376

Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lion prey selection was studied on the Greater Makalali Conservancy (140 km2 , Limpopo Province, South Africa, in order to assist with management strategies. Monitoring was carried out between February 1998 and December 2001. Lion killed 15 species, with warthog, blue wildebeest, Burchell’s zebra, kudu and waterbuck constituting approximately 75% of their diet. Between 2.2% and 3.1% of the available prey biomass was killed yearly, while each female equivalent unit (FEQ killed between 3 kg and 3.2 kg daily. Lion predation was greater for warthog, wildebeest and waterbuck and less for impala than expected. When male lion were present, a greater number of warthog and giraffe were killed, while number of females had a significant effect on medium-sized prey species and total prey species killed. Significantly more warthog, wildebeest and kudu were killed in winter than summer. More prey than expected was killed in open habitats and less than expected in thickets. Managers of small, enclosed reserves need to constantly monitor prey populations, especially medium-sized prey and may be able to reduce predation on large prey species by manipulating male lion numbers. Reserves also need to contain adequate open habitats for lion to make use of these areas for hunting.

Luke Hunter

2011-11-01

377

How Can the Science Community Support Reality Based Policies to Reducing the Escalating Toll of Natural Hazards?  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide, the toll of disaster damage caused by foreseeable natural hazards is growing, despite the fact that science is increasingly able to quantify the risk and foresee the likely location of natural events (NCDC 2012; NHC 2010). Those events can cause disastrous consequences if human built infrastructure is not properly designed for both the current state and future events (IBHS, 2012). Our existing approaches are not working at reducing the mounting toll of disasters which follow foreseeable natural events. Rather, even if the climate were not changing, current land use decisions coupled with development, engineering, design, and construction practices are significantly contributing to further increasing an unsustainable toll from disasters (Pielke, Gratz et al. 2007). Safe and proper construction practices developed to reduce flood losses (e.g. Design for Flooding, Watson, Adams et al., 2010) are all too often thought of as a zero sum situation where the community wins and the developer loses. In reality, the United States and the rest of the world often can find win-win solutions based on sound economics, law, ethics, and environmental sustainability that will benefit communities, developers, and natural hazard risk mitigation practitioners. While such solutions are being implemented in a fragmentary manner throughout the United States, communities implementing these solutions are increasingly working together in peer networks, such as the Natural Hazard Mitigation Association (NHMA)'s Resilient Neighbors Network. Examples include the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District that covers the metropolitan Denver area and recent work in Tulsa, Oklahoma. This presentation will set forth the scientific, ethical, and legal basis of higher development standards which, when combined with good negotiations techniques, can significantly decrease the terrible misery from wildfires, tornadoes, floods, and other natural disasters. Communities clearly have the legal right to implement safe design standards (Thomas, Riley Medlock 2008); yet all too often do not (NOAA, 2010). The required negotiations techniques must include outreach even to those who believe the topics of climate change and sustainability are some sort of plot against property rights and the free enterprise system. The presentation will also challenge the scientific community to support reasoned efforts to better prepare society for the even greater challenges posed by climate variability, uncertainty, and change: to work with practitioners who seek to build a safe and sustainable future to identify gaps in scientific knowledge and help develop workable solutions at the local level. Edward A. Thomas Esq. President Natural Hazard Mitigation Association

Thomas, E. A.

2012-12-01

378

Volcanic hazard management in dispersed volcanism areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional volcanic hazard methodologies were developed mainly to deal with the big stratovolcanoes. In such type of volcanoes, the hazard map is an important tool for decision-makers not only during a volcanic crisis but also for territorial planning. According to the past and recent eruptions of a volcano, all possible volcanic hazards are modelled and included in the hazard map. Combining the hazard map with the Event Tree the impact area can be zoned and defining the likely eruptive scenarios that will be used during a real volcanic crisis. But in areas of disperse volcanism is very complex to apply the same volcanic hazard methodologies. The event tree do not take into account unknown vents, because the spatial concepts included in it are only related with the distance reached by volcanic hazards. The volcanic hazard simulation is also difficult because the vent scatter modifies the results. The volcanic susceptibility try to solve this problem, calculating the most likely areas to have an eruption, but the differences between low and large values obtained are often very small. In these conditions the traditional hazard map effectiveness could be questioned, making necessary a change in the concept of hazard map. Instead to delimit the potential impact areas, the hazard map should show the expected behaviour of the volcanic activity and how the differences in the landscape and internal geo-structures could condition such behaviour. This approach has been carried out in La Palma (Canary Islands), combining the concept of long-term hazard map with the short-term volcanic scenario to show the expected volcanic activity behaviour. The objective is the decision-makers understand how a volcanic crisis could be and what kind of mitigation measurement and strategy could be used.

Marrero, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon

2014-05-01

379

222 S Laboratory complex hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the 222-S Analytical Laboratory located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of the laboratory is the responsibility of Waste Management Federal Services, Inc. (WMFS). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the 222-S Facility. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

380

Diesel particles - a health hazard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To all appearances, small particles belong to the pollutants presenting the biggest health hazards. Particles come especially from diesel-powered vehicles. According to researchers, particles cause thousands of early deaths each year in the big cities in Denmark alone, and up to 1,250 of these deaths could be prevented by fitting particle filters on diesel-powered vehicles. That is more than deaths caused by traffic accidents. Especially the elderly are affected. In addition, the small particles seem to aggravate asthma incidences, including the many children with asthma. What makes the small particles so very dangerous is that they can enter the smallest of vessels of the lungs. There is a solution within sight to this grave health hazard. The solution is called particle filters, but they will not come automatically. It requires initiatives in the form of legislation, green taxes and subsidies. The EU is introducing stricter regulations regarding particle emission from heavy vehicles from 2006, though only for new vehicles. It will therefore take many years to abate the problem this way. In the present pamphlet, the Danish Ecological Council offers a number of specific proposals on how to further the introduction of filters on diesel vehicles. The Danish government has taken a small step in the right direction by establishing a subsidy scheme for particle filters. Yet the amount allocated is too small and, because it is not followed up by setting taxes on polluting vehicles, it will have little effect. (au)

Ege, C.

2004-08-15

 
 
 
 
381

The hazards of nuclear technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case has been made against importing of nuclear technology by underdeveloped and developing countries without weighing its hazards which have been observed in the developed countries. According to the author, the total cost per kWhr of nuclear power is more than that of power generated by any other source except diesel. Data on environmental pollution caused by a 1000 kW nuclear power plant at 0.8 capacity using different types of reactors are given and problem of waste heat disposal is outlined. At times of needs/crisis there is the problem of organising enormous short-term technical manpower to keep radiation dose within permissible limits. This has been illustrated by referring to the experiences at the Tarapur Atomic Power Station. Disposal of radioactive wastes is also an operation fraught with hazards which are pointed out. The scenario hypothesized by Ralph Lapp after LOCA is outlined. Various instances of alarms and threats, vandalism and sabotage, security breaches which took place in 1960's and 1970's at nuclear facilities in U.S.A., U.K. and West Germany are given. The author disputes the concept of MPD (maximum permissible dose) as aoplied to the population at large, though it may be applicable in case personnel employed in nuclear facilities. (M.G.B.)

382

Health hazards of cement dust.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Even in the 21st century, millions of people are working daily in a dusty environment. They are exposed to different types of health hazards such as fume, gases and dust, which are risk factors in developing occupational disease. Cement industry is involved in the development of structure of this advanced and modern world but generates dust during its production. Cement dust causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon. Other studies have shown that cement dust may enter into the systemic circulation and thereby reach the essentially all the organs of body and affects the different tissues including heart, liver, spleen, bone, muscles and hairs and ultimately affecting their micro-structure and physiological performance. Most of the studies have been previously attempted to evaluate the effects of cement dust exposure on the basis of spirometry or radiology, or both. However, collective effort describing the general effects of cement dust on different organ and systems in humans or animals, or both has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of cement dust and to minimize the health risks in cement mill workers by providing them with information regarding the hazards of cement dust.

Sultan A. Meo

2004-09-01

383

E-waste hazard: The impending challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India?s lack of appropriate infrastru...

Pinto Violet

2008-01-01

384

Radiation - it's not the mother of all hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public, the media, and even many in the technically educated community, have an inordinate dread of things radioactive. Any radioactive material or contamination in the environment, even in trivial amounts, can be seen and feared as a human and environmental catastrophe. And yet other, significant hazards and risks that are encountered in life, are either accepted resignedly or are confidently tackled with sensible protection strategies. Australian Radiation Protection Society (ARPS) should develop and undertake deliberate strategies of its own, to foster protection of the population not only from genuine radiation hazards, but also, via an education campaign, from exaggerated perceptions of risk. Data on relative risks of some common life hazards are presented and compared to risks from a variety of radiation-related activities and scenarios. The comparison is not reflected in the public perspective. ARPS should firstly convince its own membership that radiation risk management is a mature and successful technology. Then ARPS should break out from its relatively closeted practices and address a deliberate program to educate the public, and combat the sensation-mongering media, concerning their eccentric attitudes to this class of hazard

385

Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials

386

Severe wind hazard using dynamically downscaled climate simulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tropical cyclones, thunderstorms and sub-tropical storms can generate extreme winds that can cause significant economic loss. Severe wind is one of the major natural hazards in Australia. In this study, regional return period gust wind hazard (10 meter height over open terrain) is determined using a new methodology developed by Geoscience Australia. The methodology involves a combination of three models: A Statistical Model (ie. data-based model) to quantify wind hazard using extreme value distributions. A methodology to extract gridded hourly maximum mean (time-step) wind speed and direction fields from a high-resolution regional climate model (RCM). Area-averaged measurements from the RCM are 'corrected' for point measurement exposure by applying a regional factor to the RCM values. And a Monte Carlo method to calculate gust wind from RCM mean wind, the former is the value of interest in wind hazard. To assess accuracy, model results were compared against three wind recording stations in Tasmania. These sites were selected because their weather stations and anemometer measurements are located at airports, avoiding the problem of houses or trees affecting the instruments, and also due to these sites having wind gust records. The model works only with synoptic gust wind speeds. A methodology to calculate severe wind gusts associated with thunderstorm down-burst winds is under development.

387

Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials.

Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Werth, Charles J.; Schaeffer, David [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Yoon, Hongkyu [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Barkan, Christopher P.L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2014-01-15

388

Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented.

HUCKFELDT, R.A.

1999-02-24

389

Partial Deposit Insurance and Moral Hazard in Banking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: Countries with deposit insurances differ significantly on how much protection their insurance provides. We study the optimal coverage limit in a model of deposit insurance with capital requirements and risk sensitive premia to prevent moral hazard. Depositors have incentives to monitor the bank’s risk taking behavior, thus threatening banks with withdrawals of deposits if necessary. We find that either banking regulations or market discipline is insufficient to reduce bank’s ris...

Li, Gan; Wen-yao, Wang

2010-01-01

390

Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented

391

The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR  

CERN Document Server

This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R

1983-01-01

392

Hydrology of the Greater Tongonan geothermal system, Philippines, as deduced from geochemical and isotopic data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluids in the Greater Tongonan geothermal system exhibit a large positive {sup 18}O shift from the Leyte meteoric water line. However, there is also a significant shift in {sup 2}H. The {delta}{sup 2}H-{delta}{sup 18}O plot shows that the geothermal fluids may be derived by the mixing of meteoric water with local magmatic water. The most enriched water in the Greater Tongonan system, in terms of {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H and Cl, is comprised of approximately 40% magmatic water. Baseline isotope results support a hydrogeochemical model in which there is increasing meteoric water dilution to the southeast, from Mahiao to Sambaloran and towards Malitbog. The Cl-{delta}{sup 18}O plot confirms that the geothermal fluid in Mahanagdong, further southeast, is distinct from that of the Mahiao-Sambaloran-Malitbog system.

Alvis-Isidro, R.R.; Solana, R.R. [Philippine National Oil Co.-Energy Development Corp., Fort Bonifacio (Philippines); D`amore, F.; Nuti, S. [Inst. Internazionale per le Ricerche Geotermiche, Pisa (Italy); Gonfiantini, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

1993-10-01

393

Validation of a heteroscedastic hazards regression model.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Cox-type regression model accommodating heteroscedasticity, with a power factor of the baseline cumulative hazard, is investigated for analyzing data with crossing hazards behavior. Since the approach of partial likelihood cannot eliminate the baseline hazard, an overidentified estimating equation (OEE) approach is introduced in the estimation procedure. It by-product, a model checking statistic, is presented to test for the overall adequacy of the heteroscedastic model. Further, under the heteroscedastic model setting, we propose two statistics to test the proportional hazards assumption. Implementation of this model is illustrated in a data analysis of a cancer clinical trial. PMID:11878222

Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac; Hsieh, Fushing; Chen, Chen-Hsin

2002-03-01

394

Canister storage building hazard analysis report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', and meets the intent of HNF-PRO-704, ''Hazard and Accident Analysis Process''. This hazard analysis implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''.

POWERS, T.B.

1999-05-11

395

MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M andO) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity

396

Hazard analysis in uranium hexafluoride production facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work provides a method for preliminary hazard analysis of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The proposed method identify both chemical and radiological hazards, as well as the consequences associated with accident scenarios. To illustrate the application of the method, a uranium hexafluoride production facility was selected. The main hazards are identified and the potential consequences are quantified. It was found that, although the facility handles radioactive material, the main hazards as associated with releases of toxic chemical substances such as hydrogen fluoride, anhydrous ammonia and nitric acid. It was shown that a contention bung can effectively reduce the consequences of atmospheric release of toxic materials. (author)

397

Thermal Remote Sensing of Urban Heat Islands: Greater Toronto Area  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 20 years, numerous peer reviewed studies have used thermal remote sensing to map urban heat islands. This study examines assumptions made in previous research through comparisons of in situ air temperatures and remotely sensed estimates of surface temperatures. Landsat thermal data collected from 4 heat event days over the summers of2007-2008 are correlated with air temperatures from 30 sites across the Greater Toronto Area. Weak relationships between surface and air temperature are strengthened by incorporating information on source area and urban geometry. Results suggest that the higher and more densely packed the urban structures are, the lower the rate of cooling and more pronounced the heat island effect. Surface temperatures averaged upwind of the monitoring sites, and frontal area density estimates are highly correlated with night-time air temperatures and well suited for mapping urban heat island intensities.

Maloley, Matthew

398

Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient

399

Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5). PMID:24549296

Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

2014-04-01

400

Clinical significance of incident hypokalemia and hyperkalemia in treated hypertensive patients in the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concerns exist that diuretic-induced changes in serum potassium may have adverse effects in hypertensive patients. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial, a large practice-based clinical trial, made it possible to examine consequences of observed changes in potassium during care in conventional practice settings. Normokalemic participants randomized to chlorthalidone (C) versus amlodipine or lisinopril as a first-step drug were stratified by year-1 potassium. Postyear-1 outcomes among hypokalemics (potassium, 5.4 mmol/L) were compared with normokalemics (potassium, 3.5-5.4 mmol/L). Year-1 hypokalemia incidence was 6.8%; incidence in C (12.9%) differed from amlodipine (2.1%; P<0.001) and lisinopril (1.0%; P<0.01). Hyperkalemia incidence (2.0%) was greater in lisinopril (3.6%) than in C (1.2%; P<0.01) or amlodipine (1.9%; P<0.01). Coronary heart disease occurred in 8.1% with hypokalemia, 8.0% with normokalemia, and 11.1% with hyperkalemia. Overall, mortality was higher in hypokalemics than in normokalemics (Cox hazard ratio, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.02-1.44]) with statistically significant (interaction, P<0.01) disparity in hazard ratios for the 3 treatment arms (hazard ratios, C=1.21, amlodipine=1.60, lisinopril=3.82). Hyperkalemia was associated with increased risk of combined cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.15-2.18]) without significant treatment interactions. In conventional practice settings, the uncommon appearance of hyperkalemia was associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Hypokalemia was associated with increased mortality; however, the statistically significant heterogeneity in hazard ratios across treatment groups strongly suggests that the observed increase in mortality is unrelated to the specific effects of C. Thus, for most patients, concerns about potassium levels should not influence the clinician's decision about initiating hypertension treatment with low-moderate doses of thiazide diuretics (12.5-25.0 mg of C). PMID:22431578

Alderman, Michael H; Piller, Linda B; Ford, Charles E; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Oparil, Suzanne; Cushman, William C; Einhorn, Paula T; Franklin, Stanley S; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Ong, Stephen T; Eckfeldt, John H; Furberg, Curt D; Calhoun, David A; Davis, Barry R

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
401

77 FR 58315 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9730-5] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion...specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities...underflow collection system and then to the...

2012-09-20

402

75 FR 11002 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9124-8] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental...plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities of...

2010-03-10

403

75 FR 60689 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-R06-RCRA-2010-0066; SW FRL-9208-6] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule AGENCY: Environmental...exclude (or delist) a certain solid waste generated by its Beaumont, Texas,...

2010-10-01

404

75 FR 58346 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-R06-RCRA-2009-0312; SW FRL-9206-9] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...to exclude (or delist) certain solid wastes generated by its Longview, Texas,...

2010-09-24

405

75 FR 71559 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2010-0066; SW FRL-9231-4] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of Direct Final Exclusion AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

2010-11-24

406

75 FR 16037 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion  

Science.gov (United States)

...SW-FRL-9131-6] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification...Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion...process treatment system except as described...composition or type of waste generated. Tokusen...Tokusen's management of the...

2010-03-31

407

77 FR 56558 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-R01-RCRA-2012-0447; FRL-9727-2] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection...CONTACT: Sharon Leitch, RCRA Waste Management and UST Section, Office of Site...

2012-09-13