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1

A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M approximately 8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M > or = 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9 g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of expected shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking is ca 35% in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama and ca 10% in Chiba for an average 30 year period, in good agreement with our independent estimate, and thus bolstering our view that Tokyo's hazard looms large. Given 1 trillion US dollars estimates for the cost of an M approximately 7.3 shock beneath Tokyo, our probability implies a 13 billion US dollars annual probable loss. PMID:16844644

Stein, Ross S; Toda, Shinji; Parsons, Tom; Grunewald, Elliot

2006-08-15

2

Assessing Flood Hazard in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh Using SAR Imageries with GIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the development of a flood hazard map and assessment of flood hazard are described using RADARSAT SAR and GIS data for the historical flood event of 1998. A flood hazard map was developed on the basis of ranking matrix in two dimensional multiplication mode which was calculated using the digital elevation and land-cover data. Flood-affected frequency estimated from multi-temporal SAR imageries was considered as a hydraulic component for the evaluation of flood hazard. Assessment of flood hazard was performed by overlaying thematic data onto derived hazard map. It is demonstrated that the evaluation of flood risk can be done efficiently using GIS and RS data. It is expected that the developed flood hazard map will be useful to mitigate losses of lives and property from future flood disasters in third world cities, particularly in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Ashraf Mahmmood Dewan

2005-01-01

3

Seismic ground motion and hazard assessment of the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, southeastern Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seismic ground motion of the Greater Accra Metropolitan area has been computed and the hazard zones assessed using a deterministic hybrid approach based on the modal summation and finite difference methods. The seismic ground motion along four profiles located in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area has been modelled using the 1939 earthquake of magnitude 6.5(ML) as the scenario earthquake. Synthetic seismic waveforms from which parameters for engineering design such as peak ground acceleration, velocity and spectral amplifications have been produced along the geological cross sections. From the seismograms computed, the seismic hazard of the metropolis, expressed in terms of peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity have been estimated. The peak ground acceleration estimated in the study ranges from 0.14 - 0.57 g and the peak ground velocity from 9.2 - 37.1cms-1. The presence of low velocity sediments gave rise to high peak values and amplifications. The maximum peak ground accelerations estimated are located in areas with low velocity formations such as colluvium, continental and marine deposits. Areas in the metropolis underlain by unconsolidated sediments have been classified as the maximum damage potential zone and those underlain by highly consolidated geological materials are classified as low damage potential zone. The results of the numerical simulation have been extended to all areas in the metropolis with similar geological formation. (author)

4

Seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area was undertaken. The research was aimed at employing a methematical model to estimate the seismic stress for the study area by generating a complete, unified and harmonized earthquake catalogue spanning 1615 to 2012. Seismic events were souced from Leydecker, G. and P. Amponsah, (1986), Ambraseys and Adams, (1986), Amponsah (2008), Geological Survey Department, Accra, Ghana, Amponsah (2002), National Earthquake Information Service, United States Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA, the International Seismological Centre and the National Data Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Events occurring in the study area were used to create and Epicentral Intensity Map and a seismicity map of the study area after interpolation of missing seismic magnitudes. The least square method and the maximum likelihood estimation method were employed to evaluate b-values of 0.6 and 0.9 respectively for the study area. A thematic map of epicentral intensity superimposed on the geology of the study area was also developed to help understand the relationship between the virtually fractured, jointed and sheared geology and the seismic events. The results obtained are indicative of the fact that the stress level of GAMA has a telling effect on its seismicity and also the events are prevalents at fractured, jointed and sheared zones. (au)

5

Graphene oxide nanoribbons exhibit significantly greater toxicity than graphene oxide nanoplatelets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Graphene oxide (GOs) has emerged in recent years as a versatile nanomaterial, demonstrating tremendous potential for multifunctional biomedical applications. GOs can be prepared by the top-down or bottom-up approach, which leads to a great variability of GOs being produced due to the different procedures and starting carbon sources adopted. This will have an effect on the physiochemical properties of GOs and their resultant toxic behavior. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of graphene-oxide nanoribbons (GONRs; ?310 × 5000 nm) and graphene-oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs; 100 × 100 nm), prepared from the oxidative treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs; ?100 × 5000 nm) and stacked graphene nanofibers (SGNFs; 100 × 5000 nm), respectively. In vitro assessments revealed that the GONRs exhibited a much stronger cytotoxicity over the GONPs, and we correlated that observation with characterization data that showed GONRs to have a greater amount of carbonyl groups as well as greater length. Therefore, we put forward that the stronger toxic behavior of GONRs is a result of the synergistic effect between these two factors, and the type of carbon source used to prepare GOs should be carefully considered in any future bioapplications. PMID:25104246

Chng, Elaine Lay Khim; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

2014-09-21

6

Inheritance of earthquake hazard from suturing: the Himalayas as an analogue for the structural architecture and seismic potential of the Greater Caucasus  

Science.gov (United States)

The nascent collision between the Arabian and Eurasian continents has created the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate how structures formed during initial suturing influence and even control the subsequent first-order structural architecture of the evolving orogen. Between the Caspian and Black Seas, the Greater Caucasus Mountains form both the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the main locus of orogen-perpendicular shortening, despite being located some 700 km north of the Bitlis suture. A better understanding of active structures in the range is critical for understanding the mechanics and evolution of this collisional orogen. Developing such a structural model of the Greater Caucasus is also essential for assessing earthquake hazards. Here we begin to address these problems by using geologic maps, digital topographic data, and structural measurements to create preliminary geologic cross sections across the southern flank of the central and western Greater Caucasus. These sections span both a low-elevation foreland fold-thrust belt in the south and the main topographic front of the range ~15-40 km to the north. In addition, we investigate active deformation using topographic surveys of river terraces in the foreland south of the western Greater Caucasus range front near the city of Zugdidi. Based on these observations, we suggest that the neotectonic architecture of the range is broadly analogous to that of the Himalayas, where active deformation is not focused along a range-front-defining fault but instead is localized tens of kilometers to the south, along the south edge of a low-elevation, low-relief foreland fold-thrust belt. We infer that active faults within the fold-thrust belt sole into a shallow (~5-10 km deep), north-dipping basal decollement that roots into a crustal-scale ramp which lies beneath the main topography of the Greater Caucasus. Based on prior work on the regional geology of the range, we hypothesize that this geometry results from the Cenozoic closure of a relict Mesozoic ocean basin within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, broadly similar to the eastern Black Sea and South Caspian Basins to which it was connected. A new compilation of earthquake records from local seismic networks shows that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus Mountains are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab, likely resulting from closure of this relict back-arc basin. Himalayan-style tectonism along the northern edge of the Arabia-Eurasia collision could potentially dictate the location, magnitude, and recurrence of seismicity in the Caucasus region, and as such has significant potential for seismic hazard assessment here. Rather than solely occurring on the main thrust within the range, this model suggests that significant earthquakes may occur within the fold-thrust belt and on a basal decollement that connects them to structures within the main range. Much of the region's population, including the Georgian capital city of Tbilisi, is found within or near the foreland fold-thrust belt.

Trexler, C.; Cowgill, E.; Forte, A. M.; Mumladze, T.; Sokhadze, G.; Elashvili, M.; Niemi, N. A.

2013-12-01

7

Crustal Faults in the Chilean Andes: Tectonic significance and implications for geologic hazard  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chilean Andes is one of the best natural laboratories to unravel the geologic nature of seismic hazards. It has recorded both great subduction earthquakes (e.g. Mw 9.5, Valdivia, 1960) and moderate magnitude crustal earthquakes (e.g., Mw 6.2, Aysen, 2007). At the Nazca-South America subduction zone, hundred-kilometer-long segmented megathrust faults can produce earthquakes of magnitudes greater than 7.5, with recurrence times between 80 to 120 years, and earthquakes of magnitudes greater than 8.5 every 250 to 500 years. Thus, megathrust-type earthquakes represent the first order seismic hazard in the Chilean Andes, causing the most damage to population and economy. Crustal intra-plate faults, in turn, have longer recurrence times, but can also cause great destruction at local scale because of their shallower hipocentral depth. However, the nature, timing and slip rates of crustal faults in the Chilean Andes remain poorly constrained. Recent studies have suggested a link between the subduction seismic cycle and activity on crustal faults, but this remains as an open question. Some crustal faults -especially those in the outer forearc- have the potential to reactivate co-seismically, when optimally oriented with respect to the instantaneous extension direction arising from elastic rebound of mega-earthquakes. Other faults may activate during the subduction interseismic period. Among these, are the regional strike-slip faults and thrusts in the main cordillera (e.g. Liquiñe-Ofqui fault, LOF). Although sparse and limited, current structural, paleo-seismological and geodetic data suggests that slip rates in Chilean crustal faults range from 0.2 mm/year in the forearc to up to 6.5 mm/year for the LOF. This implies recurrence times in the range of 50.000 to 200 years for Mw 7 earthquakes, respectively. The main implication of these very different tectonic modes for fault reactivation and the wide range of slip rates is that geologic hazard assessment of crustal faults is far from trivial: many structures considered active in the traditional sense will not generate earthquakes in thousands of years according to their recurrence times, whereas other less-well-known Quaternary faults, that have no instrumentally recorded seismicity, could trigger Mw 7 earthquakes. Furthermore, fault segments that have generated earthquakes independently, may eventually be capable to merge together into a single rupture zone and generate an earthquake of greater magnitude. Our current neotectonic and paleoseismological investigations in Chile are focused into unraveling the spatial distribution, precise geometry, and slip-rates of these faults and their potential link with short and long-term subduction zone rupture segments. A rigorous seismic hazard assessment must then consider the widely different nature, timing and slip rates of Andean faults. Understanding the nature of crustal faults will help us not only to better assessing the geological hazard associated to them, but also to understand and constrain their link with the subduction zone seismic cycle.

Santibanez, I.; Cembrano, J. M.; Gonzalez, G.; Aron, F.; Yanez, G. A.

2013-12-01

8

Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis: a significant health hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions. (author)

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Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis : A significant health hazard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis. Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions.

Alanazi Marzouqah

2009-01-01

10

Women have significantly greater difference between central and peripheral arterial pressure compared with men: the Bogalusa Heart Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender differences in the relationship between central and peripheral blood pressure (BP) are not well described. We sought to investigate gender differences between central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) and peripheral systolic blood pressure (pSBP) in adults in the Bogalusa study population. This study enrolled adults in a cross sectional survey conducted in 2007 to 2010. BP was measured with a standard cuff and Omron applanation tonometer. Data were available from 876 participants. Participants were 57.9% female and 42.1% male (mean age, 43.5 ± 4.4 years). Mean (standard deviation) for cSBP - pSBP was 1.0 (6.9) for males and 7.4 (5.2) for females (P < .001). Augmentation index (AI) was higher in women (men, 70.8 ± 14 vs. women: 85.5 ± 13; P < .01), as well as AI standardized to heart rate (HR) of 75 (AI@75; men, 68.5 ± 13 vs. women, 84.4 ± 11.8; P < .01). Female participants had greater difference between cSBP and pSBP than males. This suggests that, given similar peripheral BP, females might be at higher risk for developing target organ damage. Women in this study had higher AI, which may contribute to the difference found between cSBP and pSBP. These findings may explain why women have more age-related left ventricular hypertrophy, and poorer prognosis following myocardial infarction compared with males. PMID:23850194

Chester, Rebecca; Sander, Gary; Fernandez, Camilo; Chen, Wei; Berenson, Gerald; Giles, Thomas

2013-01-01

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Male gamblers have significantly greater salivary cortisol before and after betting on a horse race, than do female gamblers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence rates of gambling are influenced by gender. Among normative populations, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress is affected by gender. However, pathological, compared to recreational, gamblers demonstrate perturbations in HPA activation in response to gambling stimuli. We examined whether there were gender differences in HPA response to gambling in a naturalistic setting among horse-race bettors and scratch-off lottery bettors. Salivary cortisol was collected from horse-race gamblers (n=32) and scratch-off lottery ticket players (n=39) before and after (0, 10, or 20 min) betting on a horse race at an off-track betting establishment. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly higher among men than among women, both prior to and following, betting on a horse race. Among women, but not men, there was a decline in salivary cortisol across time in scratch-off bettors, whereas women horse-race bettors maintained consistent low concentrations of salivary cortisol at every time point sampled. Together these data suggest that engaging in gambling may have different effects on stress responses of men, compared to women. Whether these gender differences in HPA activation contribute to gender-related differences in gambling behavior is the subject of ongoing investigation. PMID:19683542

Franco, C; Paris, J J; Wulfert, E; Frye, C A

2010-02-01

12

Significance of experimental design in evaluating ecological hazards of sediments/soils to amphibian species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to determine the significance of experimental design on the results of laboratory sediment toxicity studies with amphibians (Xenopus laevis), two different sample preparations were evaluated from three different contaminated waste sites. Whole sediment and aqueous sediment extracts from each site were evaluated. Site 1 soil was characterized as loamy with a relatively high total organic carbon (TOC), moisture fraction (MF), and sulfide content; and contaminated with organochlorine pesticides. Site 2 soil was characterized as silty-clay with low/moderate TOC, MF, and sulfide; and contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pentachlorophenol. Site 3 soil samples consisted of two separate subsamples, the first characterized as loamy with a relatively high TOC, MF, and sulfide content, and the second as a mixture of silty/clay and sand with relatively low TOC, MF, and sulfide content. Both sub-site samples were contaminated with heavy metals, including copper, lead, and zinc. FETAX (Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay -- Xenopus) testing of Site 1 samples indicated that substantially greater levels of developmental toxicity were induced by the aqueous extracts than the whole bulk soil. Tests with Site 2 samples suggested that both of the preparations were capable of inducing comparable rates of developmental toxicity. Tests with subsample a of Site 3 indicated that the aqueous extract of the sample induced greater levels of developmental toxicity than the whole soil.

Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L. [Stover Group, Stillwater, OK (United States)

1997-09-01

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Radioactivity measurements in Egyptian Phosphate Mines and Their Significance As a Source of Hazardous Radioactive Waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate mines that may contain radioactive traces in the composition of their ores represent source of hazardous radioactive waste in the environment. Radioactivity measurements have been conducted in nine underground phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert in order to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers in those mining sites. Measurements were carried out of airborne radon and its short- lived decay products (progeny) and thoron progeny, as well as radiation from mines walls, ceilings and floors. Conventional, well established techniques, methods and instrumentation were used to make these measurements. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions showed partial agreement between these two sets of data. This result is partly attributed to the complex layout of these mines, which causes undesirable ventilation conditions, such as recirculation airflow patterns, which could not be adequately identified or quantified. The radiation data obtained were used to estimate the maximum Annual Dose (MAD), and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. These calculations indicate that in eight out of the nine mines surveyed, the MAD exceeded (by a factor of up to 7) the maximum recommended level by ICRP 60. Numbers of suggestions are made in order to reduce the MAD in the affected mines. This study could help in the estimation of the environmental impact of these mine operations on the environment

14

75 FR 29587 - Notice of Availability of Revised Model Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration...  

Science.gov (United States)

...May 2010. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. Revised Model Proposed No Significant...amendment is based on Nuclear Regulatory Commission...limit the level of radiation to the public....

2010-05-26

15

Significant motions between GPS sites in the New Madrid region: implications for seismic hazard  

Science.gov (United States)

Position time series from Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the New Madrid region were differenced to determine the relative motions between stations. Uncertainties in rates were estimated using a three?component noise model consisting of white, flicker, and random walk noise, following the methodology of Langbein, 2004. Significant motions of 0.37±0.07 (one standard error) mm/yr were found between sites PTGV and STLE, for which the baseline crosses the inferred deep portion of the Reelfoot fault. Baselines between STLE and three other sites also show significant motion. Site MCTY (adjacent to STLE) also exhibits significant motion with respect to PTGV. These motions are consistent with a model of interseismic slip of about 4??mm/yr on the Reelfoot fault at depths between 12 and 20 km. If constant over time, this rate of slip produces sufficient slip for an M 7.3 earthquake on the shallow portion of the Reelfoot fault, using the geologically derived recurrence time of 500 years. This model assumes that the shallow portion of the fault has been previously loaded by the intraplate stress. A GPS site near Little Rock, Arkansas, shows significant southward motion of 0.3–0.4??mm/yr (±0.08??mm/yr) relative to three sites to the north, indicating strain consistent with focal mechanisms of earthquake swarms in northern Arkansas.

Frankel, Arthur; Smalley, Robert; Paul, J.

2012-01-01

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The Effect of Congress' Mandate to Create Greater Efficiencies in the Characterization of Transuranic Waste through the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

termine with accuracy the impacts of Section 311 on the costs of characterizing TRU waste. It is safe to say, however, that the there have been many positive impacts flowing from Section 311. The generator sites now have more flexibility in characterizing waste. Also, RH TRU waste is now being disposed at WIPP - which was not possible before the 2006 Permit modification. As previously noted, the RH modification was approved at the same time as the Section 311 modification. Had the Section 311 changes not been implemented, RH TRU waste may not have been successfully permitted for disposal at WIPP. Changes made pursuant to Section 311 helped to facilitate approval of the proposed RH TRU modifications. For example, the three scenarios for use in AK Sufficiency Determination Requests, described herein, are essential to securing approval of some RH TRU waste streams for eventual disposal at WIPP. Thus, even if characterization rates do not increase significantly, options for disposal of RH TRU waste, which may not have been possible without Section 311, are now available and the TRU waste disposal mission is being accomplished as mandated by Congress in the LWA. Also, with the Section 311 modification, the Permittees commenced room-based VOC monitoring in the WIPP repository, which is also a positive impact of Section 311. Permit changes pursuant to Section 311 were a good beginning, but much more is need to encourage more efficient methodologies in waste characterization activities for TRU mixed waste destined for WIPP. Although the Permittees now have more flexibility in characterizing waste for disposal at WIPP, the processes are still lengthy, cumbersome, and paper-intensive. As the generator sites continue to characterize waste under Section 311, more data will likely be compiled and evaluated to assess the longer term cost and technical impacts of Section 311. Also, further refinements in TRU waste characterization requirements through Permit modifications are likely in future years to eliminate, improve, and clarify remaining unnecessary and redundant Permit provisions. Continuous improvements to the TRU waste characterization program are bound to occur, resulting in even greater efficiencies in the characterization and ultimate disposal of TRU waste. (authors)

17

NASA Hazard Analysis Process  

Science.gov (United States)

This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

Deckert, George

2010-01-01

18

Greater-confinement disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

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Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

2011-08-01

20

[Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90?%. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases. PMID:24414233

Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Hazardous waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whether pesticides from agricultural lands, gasolines leakage from service station tanks, heavy metals from plating solutions, or radioactive wastes from nuclear powerplants, hazardous wastes are present throughout the world as byproducts of growth in developing nations. The technology for treatment and disposal of hazardous waste is the most rapidly developing area of environmental engineering. A significant portion of this technology is refinement and/or adaption of proven practices in air quality control, solid waste management, and wastewater treatment. Also, the environmental engineer must learn more about geohydrology to assess the subsurface disposition of hazardous wastes. In the US, the management of hazardous waste is significantly regulated, including such requirements as a manifest system for waste tracking. In addition to a commitment to proper waste treatment and disposal, management programs need also to address means of waste reduction through industrial process changes, including recovery and reuse. This chapter addresses the general areas of direct hazardous waste treatment, categoric remedial action requirements, and low-level radioactive waste handling, and the more specific area of abating underground storage tank leakage. 118 refs., 29 figs., 53 tabs

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A Study of the Anatomical Variations in the Position of the Greater Palatine Foramen in Adult Human Skulls and its Clinical Significance / Variaciones Anatómicas en la Posición del Foramen Palatino Mayor en Cráneos Humanos Adultos y su Significación Clínica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El dolor es un síntoma común y preocupante en la práctica dental. Dependiendo de los casos, diferentes técnicas se utilizan para aliviar el dolor. Una de ellas es el bloqueo periférico del nervio trigémino. Esta, ha demostrado ser una forma eficaz y conveniente para anestesiar grandes regiones del c [...] omplejo oral y maxilofacial. Este bloqueo puede ser intraoral o extraoral. La vía intraoral es a través del foramen palatino mayor en la cual se ingresa en la fosa pterigopalatina, donde se encuentra el nervio maxilar. Las variaciones morfológicas en la posición del foramen palatino mayor puede ser de importancia clínica en la administración de anestesia local y en la cirugía del paladar. En el presente estudio, se examinó la distancia del foramen palatino mayor desde la sutura palatina mediana y el margen posterior del paladar duro, y su posición relativa a los molares superiores, así como la dirección del foramen palatino mayor. Abstract in english Pain is a common distressing symptom in dental practice. Depending upon the cases, different techniques are used to relieve pain. One of these is peripheral trigeminal nerve block. Peripheral trigeminal nerve block anaesthesia has proved to be an effective and convenient way to anaesthetise large re [...] gions of oral and maxillofacial complex. This block can be intraoral or extra oral. The intraoral route is through the greater palatine foramen in which the dental surgeons enter into the pterygopalatine fossa, where the maxillary nerve is situated. The morphological variations in the position of greater palatine foramen may be of clinical importance in the administration of local anaesthesia and in palatal surgery. In the present study, the distance of greater palatine foramen from the median palatine suture, and from the posterior border of hard palate have been noted, and the position of greater palatine foramen relative to the maxillary molars, as well as the direction of the foramen have been examined.

Mitesh R, Dave; Vaishali Kiran, Yagain; Samir, Anadkat.

2013-06-01

23

A Study of the Anatomical Variations in the Position of the Greater Palatine Foramen in Adult Human Skulls and its Clinical Significance / Variaciones Anatómicas en la Posición del Foramen Palatino Mayor en Cráneos Humanos Adultos y su Significación Clínica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El dolor es un síntoma común y preocupante en la práctica dental. Dependiendo de los casos, diferentes técnicas se utilizan para aliviar el dolor. Una de ellas es el bloqueo periférico del nervio trigémino. Esta, ha demostrado ser una forma eficaz y conveniente para anestesiar grandes regiones del c [...] omplejo oral y maxilofacial. Este bloqueo puede ser intraoral o extraoral. La vía intraoral es a través del foramen palatino mayor en la cual se ingresa en la fosa pterigopalatina, donde se encuentra el nervio maxilar. Las variaciones morfológicas en la posición del foramen palatino mayor puede ser de importancia clínica en la administración de anestesia local y en la cirugía del paladar. En el presente estudio, se examinó la distancia del foramen palatino mayor desde la sutura palatina mediana y el margen posterior del paladar duro, y su posición relativa a los molares superiores, así como la dirección del foramen palatino mayor. Abstract in english Pain is a common distressing symptom in dental practice. Depending upon the cases, different techniques are used to relieve pain. One of these is peripheral trigeminal nerve block. Peripheral trigeminal nerve block anaesthesia has proved to be an effective and convenient way to anaesthetise large re [...] gions of oral and maxillofacial complex. This block can be intraoral or extra oral. The intraoral route is through the greater palatine foramen in which the dental surgeons enter into the pterygopalatine fossa, where the maxillary nerve is situated. The morphological variations in the position of greater palatine foramen may be of clinical importance in the administration of local anaesthesia and in palatal surgery. In the present study, the distance of greater palatine foramen from the median palatine suture, and from the posterior border of hard palate have been noted, and the position of greater palatine foramen relative to the maxillary molars, as well as the direction of the foramen have been examined.

Mitesh R, Dave; Vaishali Kiran, Yagain; Samir, Anadkat.

24

Fault zone regulation, seismic hazard, and social vulnerability in Los Angeles, California: Hazard or urban amenity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Public perception and regulation of environmental hazards are important factors in the development and configuration of cities. Throughout California, probabilistic seismic hazard mapping and geologic investigations of active faults have spatially quantified earthquake hazard. In Los Angeles, these analyses have informed earthquake engineering, public awareness, the insurance industry, and the government regulation of developments near faults. Understanding the impact of natural hazards regulation on the social and built geography of cities is vital for informing future science and policy directions. We constructed a relative social vulnerability index classification for Los Angeles to examine the social condition within regions of significant seismic hazard, including areas regulated as Alquist-Priolo (AP) Act earthquake fault zones. Despite hazard disclosures, social vulnerability is lowest within AP regulatory zones and vulnerability increases with distance from them. Because the AP Act requires building setbacks from active faults, newer developments in these zones are bisected by parks. Parcel-level analysis demonstrates that homes adjacent to these fault zone parks are the most valuable in their neighborhoods. At a broad scale, a Landsat-based normalized difference vegetation index shows that greenness near AP zones is greater than the rest of the metropolitan area. In the parks-poor city of Los Angeles, fault zone regulation has contributed to the construction of park space within areas of earthquake hazard, thus transforming zones of natural hazard into amenities, attracting populations of relatively high social status, and demonstrating that the distribution of social vulnerability is sometimes more strongly tied to amenities than hazards.

Toké, Nathan A.; Boone, Christopher G.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón

2014-09-01

25

Three anomalies: A scythebill in the Greater Antillean Grackle (blackbird), a crown pattern in the Rock Beauty (angelfish), and a double spot in the Butter Hamlet (grouper), and their possible genetic significance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se describen tres anomalías: el pico de guadaña en el chinchilín, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), un patrón de color de corona en el isabelita medioluto, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), y un patrón de color de doble mancha en el vaca blanca, Hypopl [...] ectrus unicolor (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Generalmente se piensa que las anomalías en el pico son de origen genético y que los cambios genéticos en la forma del pico pueden ocurrir rápidamente en una población. La anomalía del pico de guadaña demuestra cuan rápido puede ocurrir una modificación drástica del pico. La anomalía del patrón de color de corona es similar a otras marcas distintivas encontradas en otros miembros de este género [isabelita reina, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus) y el híbrido isabelita azul H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] en el Atlántico occidental tropical y también indica cambios rápidos. Esto es importante porque las especies de este género se distinguen casi solamente por patrones de color. Las anomalías deberían ser registradas ya que podrían darnos algunas pistas acerca del origen genético de las características de las especies. Proponemos que los caracteres potencialmente heredables pueden reconocerse y describirse cuando aparecen en un individuo, antes de que sean heredados a la población, llenando un vacío en nuestro conocimiento de la evolución y la especiación. Abstract in english Three anomalies are described: a scythebill in Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), a crown color pattern in Rock Beauty, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), and a double-spot color pattern in Butter Hamlet, Hypoplectrus unicolor [...] (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Bill anomalies are generally thought to be genetic in origin and genetic changes in bill shape can occur rapidly in a population. The scythebill anomally demonstrates how quickly a drastic bill modification may occur. The crown color pattern anomaly is similar to distinctive markings found in other members of this genus [Queen Angelfish, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus) and hybrid Townsend Angelfish H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] in the tropical western Atlantic. It suggests how quickly this pattern could have originated in the other species, and/or some propensity of this pattern in the genus. The distinct double-spot color pattern anomaly suggests how quickly new color patterns can originate in genus Hypoplectrus. This is important because species in this genus are distinguished almost solely on the basis of color pattern and speciation may be occurring rapidly. Anomalies should be recorded because they may give us some hints at the genetic origin of species characters and some could represent potentially inheritable characters. We suggest these potentially inheritable characters could be recognized and described when they first arise in an individual and before they become inherited by a population. Following these potentially inheritable characters could help to explain how such characters enter into a population. This approach to the study of inherited characters could fill a void in our knowledge of evolution and speciation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3): 161-169. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.

Ernest H, Williams, Jr; Lucy, Bunkley-Williams.

26

Three anomalies: A scythebill in the Greater Antillean Grackle (blackbird), a crown pattern in the Rock Beauty (angelfish), and a double spot in the Butter Hamlet (grouper), and their possible genetic significance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se describen tres anomalías: el pico de guadaña en el chinchilín, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), un patrón de color de corona en el isabelita medioluto, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), y un patrón de color de doble mancha en el vaca blanca, Hypopl [...] ectrus unicolor (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Generalmente se piensa que las anomalías en el pico son de origen genético y que los cambios genéticos en la forma del pico pueden ocurrir rápidamente en una población. La anomalía del pico de guadaña demuestra cuan rápido puede ocurrir una modificación drástica del pico. La anomalía del patrón de color de corona es similar a otras marcas distintivas encontradas en otros miembros de este género [isabelita reina, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus) y el híbrido isabelita azul H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] en el Atlántico occidental tropical y también indica cambios rápidos. Esto es importante porque las especies de este género se distinguen casi solamente por patrones de color. Las anomalías deberían ser registradas ya que podrían darnos algunas pistas acerca del origen genético de las características de las especies. Proponemos que los caracteres potencialmente heredables pueden reconocerse y describirse cuando aparecen en un individuo, antes de que sean heredados a la población, llenando un vacío en nuestro conocimiento de la evolución y la especiación. Abstract in english Three anomalies are described: a scythebill in Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), a crown color pattern in Rock Beauty, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), and a double-spot color pattern in Butter Hamlet, Hypoplectrus unicolor [...] (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Bill anomalies are generally thought to be genetic in origin and genetic changes in bill shape can occur rapidly in a population. The scythebill anomally demonstrates how quickly a drastic bill modification may occur. The crown color pattern anomaly is similar to distinctive markings found in other members of this genus [Queen Angelfish, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus) and hybrid Townsend Angelfish H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] in the tropical western Atlantic. It suggests how quickly this pattern could have originated in the other species, and/or some propensity of this pattern in the genus. The distinct double-spot color pattern anomaly suggests how quickly new color patterns can originate in genus Hypoplectrus. This is important because species in this genus are distinguished almost solely on the basis of color pattern and speciation may be occurring rapidly. Anomalies should be recorded because they may give us some hints at the genetic origin of species characters and some could represent potentially inheritable characters. We suggest these potentially inheritable characters could be recognized and described when they first arise in an individual and before they become inherited by a population. Following these potentially inheritable characters could help to explain how such characters enter into a population. This approach to the study of inherited characters could fill a void in our knowledge of evolution and speciation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3): 161-169. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.

Ernest H, Williams, Jr; Lucy, Bunkley-Williams.

2006-12-01

27

Three anomalies: A scythebill in the Greater Antillean Grackle (blackbird, a crown pattern in the Rock Beauty (angelfish, and a double spot in the Butter Hamlet (grouper, and their possible genetic significance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three anomalies are described: a scythebill in Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert (Passeriformes: Emberizidae, a crown color pattern in Rock Beauty, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae, and a double-spot color pattern in Butter Hamlet, Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae. Bill anomalies are generally thought to be genetic in origin and genetic changes in bill shape can occur rapidly in a population. The scythebill anomally demonstrates how quickly a drastic bill modification may occur. The crown color pattern anomaly is similar to distinctive markings found in other members of this genus [Queen Angelfish, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus and hybrid Townsend Angelfish H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] in the tropical western Atlantic. It suggests how quickly this pattern could have originated in the other species, and/or some propensity of this pattern in the genus. The distinct double-spot color pattern anomaly suggests how quickly new color patterns can originate in genus Hypoplectrus. This is important because species in this genus are distinguished almost solely on the basis of color pattern and speciation may be occurring rapidly. Anomalies should be recorded because they may give us some hints at the genetic origin of species characters and some could represent potentially inheritable characters. We suggest these potentially inheritable characters could be recognized and described when they first arise in an individual and before they become inherited by a population. Following these potentially inheritable characters could help to explain how such characters enter into a population. This approach to the study of inherited characters could fill a void in our knowledge of evolution and speciation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 161-169. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.Se describen tres anomalías: el pico de guadaña en el chinchilín, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert (Passeriformes: Emberizidae, un patrón de color de corona en el isabelita medioluto, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae, y un patrón de color de doble mancha en el vaca blanca, Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae. Generalmente se piensa que las anomalías en el pico son de origen genético y que los cambios genéticos en la forma del pico pueden ocurrir rápidamente en una población. La anomalía del pico de guadaña demuestra cuan rápido puede ocurrir una modificación drástica del pico. La anomalía del patrón de color de corona es similar a otras marcas distintivas encontradas en otros miembros de este género [isabelita reina, H. ciliaris (Linnaeus y el híbrido isabelita azul H. ciliaris X H. bermudensis Goode] en el Atlántico occidental tropical y también indica cambios rápidos. Esto es importante porque las especies de este género se distinguen casi solamente por patrones de color. Las anomalías deberían ser registradas ya que podrían darnos algunas pistas acerca del origen genético de las características de las especies. Proponemos que los caracteres potencialmente heredables pueden reconocerse y describirse cuando aparecen en un individuo, antes de que sean heredados a la población, llenando un vacío en nuestro conocimiento de la evolución y la especiación.

Ernest H Williams, Jr

2006-12-01

28

Greater Good Science Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Housed at the University of California, Berkeley, the Greater Good Science Center (GGSC) is "devoted to the scientific understanding of happy and compassionate individuals, strong social bonds, and altruistic behavior." To achieve this goal, the GGSC enlists a broad range of scholars from various disciplines, publishes a quarterly magazine ("Greater Good"), and maintains an outreach program that includes a website designed for parents who wish to foster emotional intelligence in their children. On their homepage, visitors can look over the "Most Recent" area to learn about recent findings, view webcasts with experts from the Center, and also read about their latest publications. Visitors can also view the Greater Good tip of the week on the homepage to read a highlighted article.

2008-01-01

29

Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

Blanchard, A.

2000-02-28

30

Tuberculosis in greater kudu.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) died while maintained in captivity at a zoo. Necropsy revealed tuberculous lesions in the lungs, spleen, and thoracic lymph nodes. Histopathologic findings included granulomas with Langhans' giant cells, necrosis, and mineralization. Acid-fast organisms isolated from tissues of each kudu were identified as Mycobacterium bovis. PMID:789313

Himes, E M; LyVere, D B; Thoen, C O; Essey, M A; Lebel, J L; Freiheit, C F

1976-11-01

31

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common, but often misdiagnosed cause of lateral hip pain. Recent advances in the imaging of the hip has improved the understanding of the causative mechanisms of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). The syndrome encompasses a wide spectrum of causes incl [...] uding tendinosis, muscle tears, iliotibial band (ITB) disorders and surrounding soft tissue pathology. Clinically GTPS presents with lateral hip tenderness and pain with resisted abduction. A positive Trendelenburg test is the most sensitive predictor of a gluteal tear. Altered lower limb biomechanics is proposed as an important predisposing factor for gluteal muscle pathology. Many conditions are associated with GTPS: some of them may predispose to GTPS, while others may mimic the symptoms. Although plain radiographs are still important for ruling out other causes of hip pain, MRI has become the imaging modality of choice in GTPS. Most cases of GTPS can be regarded as self-limiting. Conservative modalities (rest, NSAIDs, physiotherapy) are still the mainstay of treatment. Corticosteroid injections are still widely used and reported to be successful. Proven gluteal muscle tears are treated with surgical repair and bursectomy. Endoscopic techniques have become increasingly popular.

D, Hugo; HR, de Jongh.

32

Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

33

Choking Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

... More information about choking hazards . Resources for Nutrition & Health Food Groups & Related Topics Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils Empty Calories Audiences Preschoolers Kids College Students ...

34

Hazardous Waste Movements  

...Waste Management StrategyHazardous Waste MovementsHazardous Waste Movements...Hazardous Waste MovementsHazardous Waste MovementsWelcome to our...move hazardous wastePre-notify movements of hazardous wasteiframe support is...

35

Hazardous Waste  

...WasteFurther Technical InformationPolychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)Hazardous Waste ForumProducer ResponsibilityPackaging WasteWaste BatteriesWaste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)Transfrontier Shipments...

36

''Hazardous'' terminology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

37

A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

2014-05-01

38

A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500–2500 years, the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1–10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1–1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

N. Horspool

2014-05-01

39

Hazardous Chemicals  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

2007-04-10

40

40 CFR 721.72 - Hazard communication program.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard communication program. 721.72 Section...Certain Significant New Uses § 721.72 Hazard communication program. Whenever...of that substance without establishing a hazard communication program as described...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Landslide Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

This fact sheet provides an overview of the hazards presented by landslides and debris flows, particluarly in wet weather conditions in landslide-prone areas. Topics include a discussion of the characteristics of debris flows, and suggestions for residents who live in steep, hilly terrain which is subject to periodic heavy rains.

2011-06-23

42

Sunglasses--an ocular hazard?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A suggestion that protective eye gear can pose a threat either to the crystalline lens or to the retina is examined from an epidemiological point of view. It is concluded that it may accentuate a pre-existing high-risk hazard but has little significance for low-risk hazards.

Weale, R. A.

1986-01-01

43

Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency

44

Migration, environmental hazards, and health outcomes in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

China's rapid economic growth has had a serious impact on the environment. Environmental hazards are major sources of health risk factors. The migration of over 200 million people to heavily polluted urban areas is likely to be significantly detrimental to health. Based on data from the 2009 national household survey "Chinese Attitudes toward Inequality and Distributive Injustice" (N = 2866) and various county-level and municipal indicators, we investigate the disparities in subjective exposure to environmental hazards and associated health outcomes in China. This study focuses particularly on migration-residency status and county-level socio-economic development. We employ multiple regressions that account for the complex multi-stage survey design to assess the associations between perceived environmental hazards and individual and county-level indicators and between perceived environmental hazards and health outcomes, controlling for physical and social environments at multiple levels. We find that perceived environmental hazards are associated with county-level industrialization and economic development: respondents living in more industrialized counties report greater exposure to environmental hazards. Rural-to-urban migrants are exposed to more water pollution and a higher measure of overall environmental hazard. Perceived environmental risk factors severely affect the physical and mental health of the respondents. The negative effects of perceived overall environmental hazard on physical health are more detrimental for rural-to-urban migrants than for urban residents. The research findings call for restructuring the household registration system in order to equalize access to public services and mitigate adverse environmental health effects, particularly among the migrant population. PMID:23273408

Chen, Juan; Chen, Shuo; Landry, Pierre F

2013-03-01

45

Waste minimization via destruction of hazardous organics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing technologies that are capable of destroying hazardous organics, that is, converting them basically to water and carbon dioxide. If these technologies were incorporated into the main processing operation where the waste is produced, then the volume and toxicity of the hazardous or mix hazardous waste generated would be significantly reduced. This presentation will briefly discuss some of the waste treatment technologies under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory focused on destroying hazardous organics

46

Landslides Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

At this USGS educational web site, the public can find out about the nature and problems of landslides. Individuals can learn how wildfires can induce debris flows and other types of landslides. Within the National Landslide Information Center link, students and educators can find landslide fact sheets, numerous images of landslides, an interactive module on debris flows, and materials about current USGS landslide projects. The website features a searchable bibliographic database, lists of publications, and links to local organizations dealing with this natural hazard.

47

[Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].  

Science.gov (United States)

Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

48

Natural hazard phenomena and mitigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intent of this volume is to serve as a focal point for researchers and engineers in state-of-the-art research and investigative development in natural hazard phenomena and mitigation, particularly relating to the engineering activities conducted at various waste facilities. This volume is heavily oriented towards seismic analysis. However, it is intended that over time, other natural hazard phenomena such as tornado and flood may also become significant topics of discussion. Papers are arranged in the following sections: Brookhaven, Argonne, and eastern regional natural hazards phenomena and mitigation programs; Oak Ridge and southern regional natural hazard phenomena and mitigation programs; and Hanford Site and western regional natural hazards phenomena and mitigation programs. Twenty papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Lin, C.W.; Wang, C.Y.; Chang, S.J.; Chen, W.W.; Gutierrez, B.J. (eds.)

1994-01-01

49

Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

50

Health Hazard Evaluations  

Science.gov (United States)

... this page: About CDC.gov . NIOSH Home Health Hazard Evaluations NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Program Home Request an HHE HHE Request ... can ask NIOSH to help learn whether health hazards are present at their place of work. NIOSH ...

51

Hazard Alert: Trenches  

Science.gov (United States)

... person/index.html Find out more about construction hazards. Get more of these Hazard Alert cards – and cards on other topics. Call ... works to reduce or eliminate safety and health hazards construction workers face on the job. Production of ...

52

Hazard Alert Cards  

Science.gov (United States)

... You are here Home » Publications » Materials for Workers Hazard Alert Cards Hazard Alerts are short, image-driven materials that deliver ... direct messages for protection against safety and health hazards faced by construction workers. They are available in ...

53

Significance Variables  

CERN Document Server

Many particle physics analyses which need to discriminate some background process from a signal ignore event-by-event resolutions of kinematic variables. Adding this information, as is done for missing momentum significance, can only improve the power of existing techniques. We therefore propose the use of significance variables which combine kinematic information with event-by-event resolutions. We begin by giving some explicit examples of constructing optimal significance variables. Then, we consider three applications: new heavy gauge bosons, Higgs to $\\tau\\tau$, and direct stop squark pair production. We find that significance variables can provide additional discriminating power over the original kinematic variables: $\\sim$ 20% improvement over $m_T$ in the case of $H\\rightarrow\\tau\\tau$ case, and $\\sim$ 30% impovement over $m_{T2}$ in the case of the direct stop search.

Nachman, Benjamin

2013-01-01

54

E-waste hazard: The impending challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India?s lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India?s current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action.

Pinto Violet

2008-01-01

55

E-waste hazard: The impending challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India's lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India's current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action. PMID:20040981

Pinto, Violet N.

2008-01-01

56

The hazard to man of accidental releases of tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of the atmospheric dispersion of tritium are discussed, followed by consideration of the dosimetric pathways. In order to assess the significance of a tritium release the doses from various pathways are estimated and compared with the doses estimated from a similar release of iodine-131. The major hazard from tritium is the ingestion of contaminated food products. For similar releases of tritium and I131 the ingestion hazard can be comparable if the release occurs near and before the end of the harvest season. However, in the tritium release case the agricultural season influences the consequences markedly and, at other times during the year, the ingestion hazard from tritium may be approximately 20 times less. The dose from inhalation of tritium is sensitive to its chemical form and for similar releases of tritiated water and tritium gas then the dose from tritiated water is approximately 104 greater than the dose from tritium gas. For similar releases of tritiated water and iodine-131 then a comparison of the inhalation shows that the dose from the iodine is approximately 300 times greater. (author)

57

A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Western Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of the Indian Ocean Tsunami on 26 December, 2004 has raised concern about the difficulty in determining appropriate tsunami mitigation measures in Australia, due to the lack of information on the tsunami threat. A first step in the development of such measures is a tsunami hazard assessment, which gives an indication of which areas of coastline are most likely to experience tsunamis, and how likely such events are. Here we present the results of a probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Western Australia (WA). Compared to other parts of Australia, the WA coastline experiences a relatively high frequency of tsunami occurrence. This hazard is due to earthquakes along the Sunda Arc, south of Indonesia. Our work shows that large earthquakes offshore of Java and Sumba are likely to be a greater threat to WA than those offshore of Sumatra or elsewhere in Indonesia. A magnitude 9 earthquake offshore of the Indonesian islands of Java or Sumba has the potential to significantly impact a large part of the West Australian coastline. The level of hazard varies along the coast, but is highest along the coast from Carnarvon to Dampier. Tsunamis generated by other sources (e.g., large intra-plate events, volcanoes, landslides and asteroids) were not considered in this study.

Burbidge, David; Cummins, Phil R.; Mleczko, Richard; Thio, Hong Kie

2008-12-01

58

Is statistical significance always significant?  

Science.gov (United States)

One way in which we learn new information is to read the medical literature. Whether or not we do primary research, it is important to be able to read literature in a critical fashion. A seemingly simple concept in reading is to interpret p values. For most of us, if we find a p value that is conclusion to heart and quote it at every opportunity. If the p value is >.05, we discard the paper and look elsewhere for useful information. Unfortunately, this is too simplistic an approach. The real utility of p values is to consider them within the context of the experiment being performed. Defects in study design can make an interpretation of a p value useless. One has to be wary of type I (seeing a "statistically significant" difference just because of chance) and type II (failing to see a difference that really exists) errors. Examples of the former are publication bias and the performance of multiple analyses; the latter refers to a trial that is too small to demonstrate the difference. Finding significant differences in surrogate or intermediate endpoints may not help us. We need to know if those endpoints reflect the behavior of clinical endpoints. Selectively citing significant differences and disregarding studies that do not find them is inappropriate. Small differences, even if they are statistically significant, may require too much resource expenditure to be clinically useful. This article explores these problems in depth and attempts to put p values in the context of studies. PMID:16207667

Koretz, Ronald L

2005-06-01

59

Warning human populations of technological hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Warning people of an impending hazard seeks to make them aware of the threat and to elicit actions that would minimize the dangers to life and property. Because technological and natural hazards differ in important ways, the alerting and notification process for technological and natural hazards is also different. One of the differences rests in the ability of people to detect many natural hazards in a direct sensory manner; technological hazards often make such detection more difficult. For example, detection of radiological releases without instrumentation is nearly impossible, but even with tornadoes where warning is notoriously difficult, people are at least able to use their senses to detect the potential for hazard. Hence, warning for technological hazards is in some ways more problematic, generally representing a rather rapid shift from normalcy to emergency. This paper builds on the significant foundation of natural hazard warning research in developing a model of warning suitable for technological hazards. This model specifically examines immediate cascading, or networking, of the warning signal and message, so often reported in the natural hazard literature. The implications for technological and natural hazard warnings systems are examined

60

40 CFR 355.12 - What quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements?  

Science.gov (United States)

...quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements? 355...quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements? ...amount equal to or greater than its TPQ triggers the emergency planning requirements...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

62

Radiological hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work of the (United Kingdom) National Radiological Protection Board is discussed. The following topics are mentioned: relative contributions to genetically significant doses of radiation from various sources; radon gas in non-coal mines and in dwelling houses; effects of radiation accidents; radioactive waste disposal; radiological protection of the patient in medicine; microwaves, infrared radiation and cataracts; guidance notes for use with forthcoming Ionising Radiations Regulations; training courses; personal dosimetry service; work related to European Communities. (U.K.)

63

Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment

64

What Are Volcano Hazards?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and hydrologic hazards. ... of the almost 70 active and potentially active volcanoes in the United States. They are closely monitoring ...

65

Hazard Analysis Database Report  

CERN Document Server

The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

Grams, W H

2000-01-01

66

Classification of Hazardous Waste  

The Classification of Hazardous Waste (HAZGUIDE NI 03) A Guide to the Hazardous Waste Regulations and the List of Wastes Regulations in Northern Ireland April 2011 Guidance – HAZGUIDE NI 03: The Classification of ...

67

Hazardous Waste Roundup  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

2004-01-01

68

Commentary training improves responsiveness to hazards in a driving simulator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Can commentary driving produce safer drivers? Producing a verbal commentary of potential hazards during driving has long been considered by the police to improve hazard perception skills. In this study we investigated whether learner drivers would benefit from being trained to produce a commentary drive. All learners were initially assessed on a virtual route in a driving simulator that contained 9 hazards. One group of drivers was then trained in commentary driving, and their subsequent simulated driving behaviour was compared to a control group. The results showed that the trained group had fewer crashes, reduced their speed sooner on approach to hazards, and applied pressure to the brakes sooner than untrained drivers. Conversely the untrained drivers' behaviour on approach to hazards was symptomatic of being surprised at the appearance of the hazards. The benefit of training was found to be greater for certain types of hazard than others. PMID:20728670

Crundall, David; Andrews, Ben; van Loon, Editha; Chapman, Peter

2010-11-01

69

Bedrock Geologic Map of the Greater Lefkosia Area, Cyprus  

Science.gov (United States)

The island of Cyprus has a long historical record of earthquakes that have damaged pre-Roman to modern human settlements. Because the recurrent damaging earthquakes can have a significant economic and social impact on Cyprus, this project was initiated to develop a seismic-hazard assessment for a roughly 400 square kilometer area centered on Cyprus' capital and largest city, whose European name is Nicosia and whose local name is Lefkosia. In addition, geologic and seismotectonic evaluations for the project extended beyond the perimeter of the geologic map. Additional structural, stratigraphic, and paleontological data were collected island-wide as well as data from literature research throughout the eastern Mediterranean region, in order to accurately place the geology and seismic hazards of the Lefkosia area in a regional tectonic framework.

Harrison, Richard W.; Newell, Wayne; Panayides, Ioannis; Stone, Byron; Tsiolakis, Efthymios; Necdet, Mehmet; Batihanli, Hilmi; Ozhur, Ayse; Lord, Alan; Berksoy, Okan; Zomeni, Zomenia; Schindler, J. Stephen

2008-01-01

70

Hazard Analysis Database Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

GRAMS, W.H.

2000-12-28

71

Hazard Analysis Database Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification

72

Digging Our Own Holes: Institutional Perspectives on Seismic Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been observed that there are no true students of the earth; instead, we each dig our own holes and sit in them. A similar situation arises in attempts to assess the hazards of earthquakes and other natural disasters and to develop strategies to mitigate them. Ideally, we would like to look at the interests of society as a whole and develop strategies that best balance hazard mitigation with alternative uses of resources. Doing so, however, is difficult for several reasons. First, estimating seismic hazards requires assumptions about the size, recurrence, and shaking from future earthquakes, none of which are well known. Second, we have to chose a definition of seismic hazard, which is even more arbitrary and at least as significant about future earthquakes. Third, mitigating the risks involves economic and policy issues as well as the scientific one of estimating the hazard itself and the engineering one of designing safe structures. As a result, different public and private organizations with different institutional perspectives naturally adopt different approaches. Most organizations have a single focus. For example, those focusing on economic development tend to discount hazards, whereas emergency management groups tend to accentuate them. Organizations with quasi-regulatory duties (BSSC, FEMA, USGS) focus on reducing losses in future earthquakes without considering the cost of mitigation measures or how this use of resources should be balanced with alternative uses of resources that could mitigate other losses. Some organizations, however, must confront these tradeoffs directly because they allocate resources internally. Hence hospitals implicitly trade off more earthquake resistant construction with treating uninsured patients, highway departments balance stronger bridges with other safety improvements, and schools balance safer buildings with after school programs. These choices are complicated by the fact that such infrastructure typically has longer life than normal commercial or residential buildings, and the direct and indirect losses resulting from their failure can be much larger. Hence the issue is balancing mitigating large losses in infrequent disasters with smaller but steady losses that may over time be greater. Finally, there has been little investigation of the benefits of mitigation regulations on the private sector relative to their consequences, which may significantly increase building costs, require seismic retrofits, and cause difficulties in securing loans and insurance. Possible outcomes include reduced economic activity (firms don't build or build elsewhere), job loss (or reduced growth), and the resulting reduction in tax revenue and thus public services. Given these complexities, organizations should be encouraged to examine broader societal issues beyond their institutional perspectives, and significant efforts should be made to develop a more integrated approach.

Stein, S.; Tomasello, J.

2005-12-01

73

Building Bridges : Pathways to a Greater Societal Significance for Audience Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience research. Altogether, the 14 contributions in the report provide insights and feed the debate on the stakeholders’ respective “inhabited worlds” (the academia being one stakeholder among others), the different modes of researcher-stakeholder interaction, and possible (and desirable) areas of joint interest and collaboration. With contributions by: Jakob Bjur, Mélanie Bourdaa, Göran Bolin, Nico Carpentier, Paula Cordeiro, Peter Dahlgren, Alexander Dhoest, Manuel José Damasio, J. Ignacio Gallego, Dafna Lemish, Jakob Linaa Jensen, Peter Lunt, Maria Francesca Murru, Francesca Pasquali, José-Manuel Noguera Vivo, Lars Nyre, Brian O’Neill, Andra Siibak, Sascha Trültzsch-Wijnen, Nicoletta Vittadini, Igor Vobi? and Frauke Zeller. Stakeholder feedback from: Michelle Arlotta (DeAgostini), Andreea M. Costache (Association of Consumers of Audiovisual Media in Catalonia/TAC), Francesco Diasio (AMARC Europe), Marius Dragomir (Open Society Foundations), Sara Elias (BBC Media Action), Dragan Kremer (Open Society Foundations), Muriel Hanot (High Authority for Audiovisual Media/CSA Belgium), Stefan Lazarevi? (Serbian Ministry of Foreign and Internal Trade and Telecommunications), Karol Ma?cu?y?ski (TVP), Jadranka Milanovi? (UNICEF Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe).

2014-01-01

74

Health hazards of obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several health hazards and social disabilities are associated with obesity. Increased mortality is associated with increased body weight. A high rate of mortality results from heart disease, diabetes mellitus, gallbladder disease, high blood pressure, and cancer. Physiologic cardiovascular changes occur, leading to left ventricular hypertrophy and lipid abnormalities. Hypertension, stroke, and venous stasis are increased. Pulmonary abnormalities include obstructive sleep apnea, which can be associated with secondary polycythemia and right ventricular hypertrophy. Gallstones, gallbladder disease, and accumulation of fat on the liver are significantly increased. Gout and reproductive abnormalities in women are common. Osteoarthritis of the knees and spine occur, although osteoporosis is rare. Risk for endometrial and breast cancer is increased, particularly in the presence of increased central fat. Changes in the skin include stretch marks, acanthosis negricans, hirsutism, intertrigo, and multiple papillomas. Impaired psychosocial function is manifested as social isolation, loss of job mobility, increased employee absenteeism, and economic and social discrimination. PMID:8977052

Bray, G A

1996-12-01

75

Hazards evaluation of plutonium metal opening and stabilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazards evaluation is the analysis of the significance of hazardous situations associated with an activity OK process. The HE used qualitative techniques of Hazard and Operability (HazOp) analysis and What-If analysis to identify those elements of handling and thermal stabilization processing that could lead to accidents

76

Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

2012-12-01

77

Hazard Detection Software for Lunar Landing  

Science.gov (United States)

The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing a system for safe and precise manned lunar landing that involves novel sensors, but also specific algorithms. ALHAT has selected imaging LIDAR (light detection and ranging) as the sensing modality for onboard hazard detection because imaging LIDARs can rapidly generate direct measurements of the lunar surface elevation from high altitude. Then, starting with the LIDAR-based Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) algorithm developed for Mars Landing, JPL has developed a mature set of HDA software for the manned lunar landing problem. Landing hazards exist everywhere on the Moon, and many of the more desirable landing sites are near the most hazardous terrain, so HDA is needed to autonomously and safely land payloads over much of the lunar surface. The HDA requirements used in the ALHAT project are to detect hazards that are 0.3 m tall or higher and slopes that are 5 or greater. Steep slopes, rocks, cliffs, and gullies are all hazards for landing and, by computing the local slope and roughness in an elevation map, all of these hazards can be detected. The algorithm in this innovation is used to measure slope and roughness hazards. In addition to detecting these hazards, the HDA capability also is able to find a safe landing site free of these hazards for a lunar lander with diameter .15 m over most of the lunar surface. This software includes an implementation of the HDA algorithm, software for generating simulated lunar terrain maps for testing, hazard detection performance analysis tools, and associated documentation. The HDA software has been deployed to Langley Research Center and integrated into the POST II Monte Carlo simulation environment. The high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations determine the required ground spacing between LIDAR samples (ground sample distances) and the noise on the LIDAR range measurement. This simulation has also been used to determine the effect of viewing on hazard detection performance. The software has also been deployed to Johnson Space Center and integrated into the ALHAT real-time Hardware-in-the-Loop testbed.

Huertas, Andres; Johnson, Andrew E.; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

2011-01-01

78

Software safety hazard analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-02-01

79

DOE Hazardous Waste Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

80

The Integrated Hazard Analysis Integrator  

Science.gov (United States)

Hazard analysis addresses hazards that arise in the design, development, manufacturing, construction, facilities, transportation, operations and disposal activities associated with hardware, software, maintenance, operations and environments. An integrated hazard is an event or condition that is caused by or controlled by multiple systems, elements, or subsystems. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is especially daunting and ambitious for large, complex systems such as NASA s Constellation program which incorporates program, systems and element components that impact others (International Space Station, public, International Partners, etc.). An appropriate IHA should identify all hazards, causes, controls and verifications used to mitigate the risk of catastrophic loss of crew, vehicle and/or mission. Unfortunately, in the current age of increased technology dependence, there is the tendency to sometimes overlook the necessary and sufficient qualifications of the integrator, that is, the person/team that identifies the parts, analyzes the architectural structure, aligns the analysis with the program plan and then communicates/coordinates with large and small components, each contributing necessary hardware, software and/or information to prevent catastrophic loss. As viewed from both Challenger and Columbia accidents, lack of appropriate communication, management errors and lack of resources dedicated to safety were cited as major contributors to these fatalities. From the accident reports, it would appear that the organizational impact of managers, integrators and safety personnel contributes more significantly to mission success and mission failure than purely technological components. If this is so, then organizations who sincerely desire mission success must put as much effort in selecting managers and integrators as they do when designing the hardware, writing the software code and analyzing competitive proposals. This paper will discuss the necessary and sufficient requirements of one of the significant contributors to mission success, the IHA integrator. Discussions will be provided to describe both the mindset required as well as deleterious assumptions/behaviors to avoid when integrating within a large scale system.

Morris, A. Terry; Massie, Michael J.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Undersea Natural Hazards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This special issue of Oceanography takes a look at a variety of undersea natural hazards—hazards resulting from natural processes such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. These undersea natural hazards are generally more difficult to assess than those on land because of the challenges and expense of working in the ocean. Seafloor monitoring networks, deep drilling of fault zones, new computational methods, high-resolution sonar imaging, and paleoseismology, among other technologies and strategies, are all shedding new light on hazard risk and assessment around the globe.

Ellen Kappel

2014-06-01

82

Disposal of hazardous wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes.

Barnhart, B.J.

1978-10-01

83

Disposal of hazardous wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

84

Near-Earth Object (NEO) Hazard Background  

Science.gov (United States)

The fundamental problem regarding NEO hazards is that the Earth and other planets, as well as their moons, share the solar system with a vast number of small planetary bodies and orbiting debris. Objects of substantial size are typically classified as either comets or asteroids. Although the solar system is quite expansive, the planets and moons (as well as the Sun) are occasionally impacted by these objects. We live in a cosmic shooting gallery where collisions with Earth occur on a regular basis. Because the number of smaller comets and asteroids is believed to be much greater than larger objects, the frequency of impacts is significantly higher. Fortunately, the smaller objects, which are much more numerous, are usually neutralized by the Earth's protective atmosphere. It is estimated that between 1000 and 10,000 tons of debris fall to Earth each year, most of it in the form of dust particles and extremely small meteorites. With no atmosphere, the Moon's surface is continuously impacted with dust and small debris. On November 17 and 18, 1999, during the annual Leonid meteor shower, several lunar surface impacts were observed by amateur astronomers in North America. The Leonids result from the Earth's passage each year through the debris ejected from Comet Tempel-Tuttle. These annual showers provide a periodic reminder of the possibility of a much more consequential cosmic collision, and the heavily cratered lunar surface acts a constant testimony to the impact threat. The impact problem and those planetary bodies that are a threat have been discussed in great depth in a wide range of publications and books, such as The Spaceguard Survey , Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, and Cosmic Catastrophes. This paper gives a brief overview on the background of this problem and address some limitations of ground-based surveys for detection of small and/or faint near-Earth objects.

Mazanek, Daniel D.

2005-01-01

85

Seismic hazard assessment of Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Earthquake activity in Greenland has been registered and mapped since 1907 (Larsen et al. 2006) and thus a long (albeit relatively sparse) record of seismic activity is available for evaluation of seismic hazard and risk. Seismic hazard assessment is carried out by judging the probability of future earthquakes in a given region and is based on statistic treatment of earthquake data. The determination of the seismic hazard is the first step in an evaluation of seismic risk, i.e. the possible economic costs and loss of human life after an earthquake. The motivation for this seismic hazard study is the registration of four significant earthquakes in Greenland in 2005. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) received reports of all four earthquakes from residents who had felt the shaking. The 2005 earthquakes were located at or near Qeqertarsuaq on 30 March, Sisimiut on 23 July, Station Nord on 30 August and Attu on 23 October (Fig. 1), with magnitudes on the Richter scale of 4.3, 4.1, 5.1 and 2.5,respectively. The earthquake in Attu led to the inhabitants fleeing in their boats.

Voss, Peter; Kildegaard Rose, Stine

2007-01-01

86

Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

87

Natural hazard losses and acceptable risk criteria  

Science.gov (United States)

The criteria for the definition of acceptable risk to the lives of members of a society (commonly called societal risk) resulting from exposure to natural hazards are based in most countries on the frequency and characteristics of industrial accidents, e.g., nuclear power plants. However, historical records indicate that the frequency of natural hazard events is much higher than those involved in industrial hazards and their consequences are far greater. We find that the risk from natural hazards is unacceptable in the current risk criteria framework, i.e., they are an unacceptable risk with respect to the acceptable risk criteria based on the frequency and consequences of industrial accidents. According to a definition of risk, there are two main components; first, the probability of occurrence of the hazard and second, the consequence of the hazard. The occurrence of industrial accident events (hazard) can be controlled to a large extent in contrast to that of natural hazards. However, we can control natural hazard risk, in some cases by engineering solutions to control hazard and by reducing the consequences of the events by mitigating, risk management, warning and monitoring techniques. With reference to natural hazards reducing risk is mainly effected by reducing consequences. The FN-curve is a tool commonly used in societal risk assessment. It is built on a series of frequency-loss data associated with a particular process in a given period of time. It is also used to set acceptable risk criteria for countries or sub-national jurisdictions, by defining slopes and intercepts for plots of a particular (or group of) processes. The intercept of the acceptable risk curve is usually arbitrarily defined in the order of 10-7-10-1 deaths per year, and the slope criteria is based on an adopted aversion factor of the society to accident and disaster losses.The imposed slope criteria is usually between -1 and -2 whereas the slope of FN-curves based on real natural disaster data is exposure. We illustrate the use of the normalized consequence approach by analyzing losses from natural hazards in 32 European countries derived from the EM-DAT database. We examine historical losses in relation to acceptable risk criteria and find that risks defined in the modified FN curves far exceed those defined in industrial-accident-based acceptable risk criteria in current European use.

Khaleghy Rad, M.; Evans, S. G.; Nadim, F.; Lacasse, S.

2009-12-01

88

MEP advocates greater role for cogeneration in '  

...MEP advocates greater role for cogeneration in 'energy showdown' | EurActiv A secret weapon against global warming? Little is known about cogeneration ... climate-change,energy,climate change,cogeneration,energy efficiency EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click here for EU news ... VIDEOS Home › Energy › News MEP advocates greater role for cogeneration in 'energy showdown' -A + A Published 10 May 2007, updated ...May 2012 Tags climate change, cogeneration, energy efficiency Speaking at a 9 May stakeholder conference on cogeneration, Green MEP Claude Turmes called on ...

89

40 CFR 63.1216 - What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?  

Science.gov (United States)

...in your hazardous waste feedstream. You...in the hazardous waste and on their concentration or mass in the hazardous waste feed, considering...resultant emission levels to two significant... Semivolatile and low volatile...

2010-07-01

90

Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

Rahman, M. H.

1993-01-01

91

Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

92

Offsite transportation hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

93

Hazardous child labor: lead and neurocognitive development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hazardous child labor is challenging to define and quantify in the context of acute or chronic toxic exposures--either of which may cause significant disease and disability. Epidemiologic occupational studies in adults have documented many harmful outcomes secondary to exposure to toxic substances. Occupational surveillance efforts often have focused on acute injuries because they are more readily identified. Fassa has been able to compile data concerning injuries to child laborers but notes, "There is great need for studies in developing countries ... on the impact of child labour on illness." Although injuries may be underreported or undocumented among child laborers, acute injury is, at least, potentially recordable. This is in sharp contrast to toxic exposures, where exposure assessment is usually difficult and costly. This is especially true when it is done after an exposure has taken place. The outcomes of most toxic workplace exposures to children remain unknown. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registries (ATSDR) notes that in similar environments, children may have greater exposures than adults: "Pound for pound of body weight, children drink more water, eat more food, and breathe more air than adults," and "In some instances, children are less able than adults to detoxify chemicals and are thus more vulnerable." Children who begin work at an early age have many more years to develop illness than an adult doing the same work. A household survey of child laborers in Ethiopia found that a high proportion (greater than 90%) of children in both urban and rural areas of the country reported non-use of protective equipment. However, it is the experience of present author D.P. that this equipment is rarely if ever adequate, even when made available. For example, protective equipment such as respirators or impermeable gloves are designed for adults, and thus do not properly fit children. In defining hazardous child labor, the larger context of public health cannot be ignored. The study of child labor needs to take into account the baseline health of exposed individuals. In developing countries, the poorest and most vulnerable children are most often involved in work in order to earn money for survival. These children are also likely to already lack basic necessities of food and medical care, predisposing them to diarrhea, anemia, and micronutrient deficiencies. Underlying nutritional conditions may make children more susceptible to the effects of toxic substances such as lead. In addition, child laborers also may be exposed to lead and other toxic substances from their poor living conditions. PMID:16350330

Ide, Lisa S R; Parker, David L

2005-01-01

94

A First-pass Natural Hazard Risk Assessment for the Asia-Pacific Region  

Science.gov (United States)

The high risk of natural disasters in developing nations has considerable implications for international aid programs. Natural disasters can significantly compromise development progress and reduce the effectiveness of aid investments. In order to better understand the threat that natural disasters may pose to its development aid program, AusAID commissioned Geoscience Australia to conduct a broad natural hazard risk assessment of the Asia-Pacific region. The assessment included earthquake, volcanic eruption, tsunami, cyclone, flood, landslide and wildfire hazards, with particular attention given to countries the Australian Government considered to be of high priority to its development aid program. Geoscience Australia's preliminary natural hazard risk assessment of the region aimed to help AusAID identify countries and areas at high risk from one or more natural hazards. The frequency of a range of sudden-onset natural hazards was estimated and, allowing for data constraints, an evaluation was made of potential disaster impact. Extra emphasis was placed on relatively rare but high-impact events, such as the December 2004 tsunami, which might not be well documented in the historical record. While a detailed risk assessment was well beyond the scope of this study, it was recognized that some understanding of the potential impact of natural disasters could be achieved through the simple means of developing appropriate overlays of population and hazard. For example, given an estimate of the frequency and magnitude (VEI) at which volcanic eruptions in a certain region occur, the populations impacted could be roughly estimated by considering the average population close enough to a volcano to receive a significant impact from ash fall. Our preliminary assessment of natural hazard risk in the Asia-Pacific region highlights the potential for the region to experience a megadisaster affecting millions of people during the coming century. While the scale of such a disaster may seem greater than any recorded so far, we reached this conclusion not only because the Asia-Pacific region is home to intense geological and meteorological activity, but also because of the region's burgeoning population, which has increased more than fivefold during the 20th century. People in the region are increasingly vulnerable because of trends such as rapid urbanisation and their tendency to concentrate in areas especially prone to natural hazards. Because of the threat natural disasters pose to the progress of development, natural hazard risk management will continue to increase in importance in international development policy in the Asia-Pacific region. Our study also demonstrates how the application of very 'broad-brush' science can address important policy issues.

Cummins, P. R.; Simpson, A.; Griffin, J.; Dhu, T.; Schneider, J.

2008-12-01

95

[The arterial system of the greater omentum].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of our study is to establish a pattern of distribution of the arteries of greater omentum. Right omental arteries supply the anterior lamina and the left ones the posterior lamina (in 82% there is an initial independent left-right distribution). In 18% it is mixed, the two territories being supplied by both anterior and posterior omental arteries. The classic pattern with three main arterial arches (one infra-gastric and two inferior marginal) was identified in 24% cases. More frequent (45%) is the pattern with two transverse main arteries, one superior and the other inferior (with a variable number of intermediate arteries). In 51% cases the infra-colic arch is dominant; in 14% cases it is thinner. The absence of arterial arches may be partly substituted by a dense capillary network. The laminar arterial distribution of greater omentum was expressed into more patterns. PMID:10756827

T?ranu, T; T?ranu, T; Varlam, H; Marta, G M; Antohe, D S

1998-01-01

96

GASTRIC DIVERTICULA ON THE GREATER CURVATURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gastric diverticula are extremely rare in the surgical pathology and is usually asymptomatic. Their discovery is in most cases incidentally, on radiographic examination or autopsy. The most frequent localization is on the posterior wall of the cardia and on the lesser curvature of the stomach. Symptomatic gastric diverticula are rare, mainly occurring in patients between 20 and 60 years of age. We present a rare case of gastric diverticula on the greater curvature in a 46- year- old female from urban area. Intraoperatory, the diverticula was discovered on the greater gastric curvature after endoscopic exploration and gastrotomy, next to splenic root. The diverticul was resected with an linear stapler device. Surgical intervention effectively relieves symptoms. In adults, laparoscopic resection seems to be an attractive alternative to conventional surgery, although some authors experienced problems in identifying the diverticulum intraoperatively.

Elena Cotea

2007-07-01

97

Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI)

98

Human exposure, health hazards, and environmental regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

United States environmental regulations, intended to protect human health, generally fail to address major sources of pollutants that endanger human health. These sources are surprisingly close to us and within our control, such as consumer products and building materials that we use within our homes, workplaces, schools, and other indoor environments. Even though these indoor sources account for nearly 90% of our pollutant exposure, they are virtually unregulated by existing laws. Even pollutant levels found in typical homes, if found outdoors, would often violate federal environmental standards. This article examines the importance of human exposure as a way to understand and reduce effects of pollutants on human health. Results from exposure studies challenge traditional thinking about pollutant hazards, and reveal deficiencies in our patchwork of laws. And results from epidemiological studies, showing increases in exposure-related diseases, underscore the need for new protections. Because we cannot rely solely on regulations to protect us, and because health effects from exposures can develop insidiously, greater efforts are needed to reduce and prevent significant exposures before they occur. Recommendations include the development and use of safer alternatives to common products, public education on ways to reduce exposure, systematic monitoring of human exposure to pollutants, and a precautionary approach in decision-making

99

Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high.

Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

1994-09-19

100

Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high

 
 
 
 
101

Airborne geophysical radon hazard mapping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shales containing uranium pose a radon health hazard even when covered by several meters of overburden. Such an alum shale in southern Norway has been mapped with a joint helicopter borne electromagnetic (HEM) and radiometric survey. Results are compared with ground spectrometer, radon emanometer and radon gas measurements in dwellings, and a model to predict radon gas concentrations from the airborne data is developed. Since the shale is conductive, combining the HEM data with the radiometric channel allows the shale to be mapped with greater reliability than if the radiometric channel were used alone. Radiometrically more active areas which do not pose a radon gas hazard can thus be separated from the shales which do. The ground follow-up work consisted of spectrometer and radon emanometer measurements over a uranium anomaly coinciding with a conductor. The correlation between the airborne uranium channel, the ground uranium channel and emanometry is extremely good, indicating that airborne geophysics can, in this case, be used to predict areas having a high radon potential. Contingency tables comparing both radon exhalation and concentration in dwellings with the airborne uranium data show a strong relationship exists between exhalation and the airborne data and while a relationship between concentration and the airborne data is present, but weaker

102

Volcano Hazards Program Webcams  

Science.gov (United States)

Volcano Hazards Program Webcams Below is a list of webcams of U.S. volcanoes. All webcams are operated ... the webcam. Pu`u `O`o vent, Kilauea Volcano (HVO) Halema`uma`u from HVO, Kilauea Volcano ( ...

103

Volcano Hazards Program Webcams  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Volcano Hazards Program Webcams Below is a list of webcams of U.S. volcanoes. All webcams are operated by the USGS, ... Alaska (AVO) Anatahan Volcano, Northern Mariana Islands (AVO)

104

Hazardous Waste.pdf  

...Plan for its Environmentally Sound Management Northern Ireland Hazardous Waste Forum...2004 Executive Summary The Waste Management Strategy for Northern Ireland, published...Waste Forum is an inclusive process associated with a constructive examination...

105

Natural Hazards Term Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Students apply the concepts learned in the class by preparing two (2) term projects discussing two natural hazards and how they impact the area where the student lives (or an area the student might like to live in).

Phillips, Michael

106

Automated Standard Hazard Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

Stebler, Shane

2014-01-01

107

Bayesian transformation hazard models  

CERN Document Server

We propose a class of transformation hazard models for right-censored failure time data. It includes the proportional hazards model (Cox) and the additive hazards model (Lin and Ying) as special cases. Due to the requirement of a nonnegative hazard function, multidimensional parameter constraints must be imposed in the model formulation. In the Bayesian paradigm, the nonlinear parameter constraint introduces many new computational challenges. We propose a prior through a conditional-marginal specification, in which the conditional distribution is univariate, and absorbs all of the nonlinear parameter constraints. The marginal part of the prior specification is free of any constraints. This class of prior distributions allows us to easily compute the full conditionals needed for Gibbs sampling, and hence implement the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm in a relatively straightforward fashion. Model comparison is based on the conditional predictive ordinate and the deviance information criterion. This new class...

Yin, G; Yin, Gousheng; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

2006-01-01

108

BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated the Biosystems Technology Development Program to anticipate and address research needs in managing our nation's hazardous waste. The Agency believes that bioremediation of...

109

Uranium Deposits Radioactive Hazards  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Assessment of Radioactive Hazard of Developed Jilskiy (Kyrgyzstan), Adrasman and Taboshar (Tajikistan) Uranium Deposits, Development and Typification of Actions on Rehabilitation of the Areas and Facilities for the Central Asia Region

110

Youth & Labor: Hazardous Jobs  

Science.gov (United States)

... state department of labor for this information. DOL Web Pages on This Topic Occupations Deemed Hazardous for ... sites and contact information for each department. Related Web Pages on This Topic The Department maintains partnerships ...

111

Hazardous dust control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazardous particles or dusts, for purposes of the paper, are considered to be those whose size or chemical species cause harm to the population through deposition in the lungs and other portions of the pulmonary tract. A small number of pollutants, some of which are particles, have been designated under the program from the Clean Air Act for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP); a larger number are being considered for NESHAP. Several RandD needs are listed including: sensing of excess emission of hazardous dust from control equipment; need to retrofit for improved capture of small particles; improved collection of fine condensable aerosols; and modeling of control technology for hazardous particles. Indoor air particles and dusts are discussed with emphasis on characterization, indoor air cleaners, and asbestos in residences. Radon in the indoor environment is discussed as an emerging problem. Finally, an indoor air/radon model is discussed linking indoor air dusts to lung deposition

112

Managing geotechnical hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workshop provided a forum for discussing practical challenges related to the management of geotechnical hazards and pipeline integrity. System-wide geotechnical hazard management processes and site-specific engineering assessment, monitoring and mitigation methods were reviewed. Topics discussed at the workshop included geographic information system (GIS) tools; standards and regulations related to geotechnical hazard; strain-based design techniques for pipelines; and aerial, satellite, and geotechnical instrumentation. Other mitigation methods for geotechnical hazards included the avoidance of unstable ground; pipeline ditch modifications; bedding and padding; and excavation for pipeline strain relief. It was concluded that guidance is needed from regulators and standards developing organizations in order to develop appropriate risk assessment procedures. The workshop was divided into 2 sessions: (1) assessment and management processes; and (2) monitoring and mitigation methods. tabs., figs.

Billey, D. [Pembina Pipeline Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Rizkalla, M. [Visitless Integrity Assessment Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

113

Seismic Hazard Analysis — Quo vadis?  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper is dedicated to the review of methods of seismic hazard analysis currently in use, analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches. The review is performed from the perspective of a user of the results of seismic hazard analysis for different applications such as the design of critical and general (non-critical) civil infrastructures, technical and financial risk analysis. A set of criteria is developed for and applied to an objective assessment of the capabilities of different analysis methods. It is demonstrated that traditional probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) methods have significant deficiencies, thus limiting their practical applications. These deficiencies have their roots in the use of inadequate probabilistic models and insufficient understanding of modern concepts of risk analysis, as have been revealed in some recent large scale studies. These deficiencies result in the lack of ability of a correct treatment of dependencies between physical parameters and finally, in an incorrect treatment of uncertainties. As a consequence, results of PSHA studies have been found to be unrealistic in comparison with empirical information from the real world. The attempt to compensate these problems by a systematic use of expert elicitation has, so far, not resulted in any improvement of the situation. It is also shown that scenario-earthquakes developed by disaggregation from the results of a traditional PSHA may not be conservative with respect to energy conservation and should not be used for the design of critical infrastructures without validation. Because the assessment of technical as well as of financial risks associated with potential damages of earthquakes need a risk analysis, current method is based on a probabilistic approach with its unsolved deficiencies. Traditional deterministic or scenario-based seismic hazard analysis methods provide a reliable and in general robust design basis for applications such as the design of critical infrastructures, especially with systematic sensitivity analyses based on validated phenomenological models. Deterministic seismic hazard analysis incorporates uncertainties in the safety factors. These factors are derived from experience as well as from expert judgment. Deterministic methods associated with high safety factors may lead to too conservative results, especially if applied for generally short-lived civil structures. Scenarios used in deterministic seismic hazard analysis have a clear physical basis. They are related to seismic sources discovered by geological, geomorphologic, geodetic and seismological investigations or derived from historical references. Scenario-based methods can be expanded for risk analysis applications with an extended data analysis providing the frequency of seismic events. Such an extension provides a better informed risk model that is suitable for risk-informed decision making.

Klügel, Jens-Uwe

2008-05-01

114

Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile. PMID:24906427

Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

2014-06-01

115

K Basins Hazard Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

WEBB, R.H.

1999-12-29

116

Glacier Hazards from Space  

Science.gov (United States)

This "Science Now" feature from the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television program "Nova" shows students how remote sensing by satellites can be used to monitor and evaluate hazards presented by glaciers as the climate becomes warmer, causing the glaciers to melt. The feature, which can be presented as a slide show, consists of 11 satellite images with brief written descriptions that explain such hazards as ice collapses and avalanches, flooding by meltwater, and bursting glacier lakes.

117

K Basin Hazard Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

PECH, S.H.

2000-08-23

118

Radiation hazards and their effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation can be classified into ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on whether it is capable of ionizing atoms and breaking chemical bonds. Ultraviolet and higher frequency such as X-rays, gamma rays are ionizing. These pose their own special hazards. Non ionizing radiation is associated with two major potential hazards. i.e. electrical and biological. Additionally includes electric current caused by radiation can generate sparks and create a fire or explosive hazards. Strong radiation can induce current capable of delivering an electric shock. Extremely high power electromagnetic radiation can cause electric currents strong enough to create sparks when an induced voltage exceeds the breakdown voltage of surrounding mediums. A 2009 study at the University of Basal in Switzerland found that intermitted exposure of human cells to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field at a flux density of 10 Gy induced a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the comet assay. Mobile phones radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwaves range and some believes this may be harmful to human health. (author)

119

Planning for greater-confinement disposal  

Science.gov (United States)

The preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (CGD) of low-level radioactive waste is presented. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives.

Gilbert, T. L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N. K.; Trevorrow, L. E.; Yu, C.

120

Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston  

Science.gov (United States)

As Boston was once known as the "Athens of America", it will probably not be a surprise to learn that the metropolitan area has more arts and cultural organizations per capita than any other place in the United States. One organization that is dedicated to strengthen this vibrant arts community is the Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston. They provide pro bono legal services for artists, training workshops to serve artists and art administrators, and they also train business professionals to serve on nonprofit boards of directors. The Council is also a chapter of the American for the Arts organization, and their homepage provides an event calendar, announcements, and talks. Along the right-hand side of the page visitors will find easy-to-use links such as "I need legal help" and "I want to be a more successful artist." Also, the site contains links to sign up for their Twitter feed and to join their Facebook network.

 
 
 
 
121

Planning for greater-confinement disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

122

The wind energy potential in Greater Hannover  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to its location, Greater Hanover offers a big potential for wind energy utilization. Due to restrictions regarding natural space, settlement structure and regional planning, the utilization of wind energy on a large surface area, however, is not possible or only relatively possible. The investigation shows that with small-area systems and wind parks, only the development of site quality class 1 (of 7 possible classes) and a fraction of the site quality class for the production of 15-20% of electric power consumption is necessary. The second part of this report deals with the costs of development as well as with the profits which can be gained, considering especially small-area systems. (BWI)

123

Chemical process hazards analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

NONE

1996-02-01

124

Control of biological hazards in cold smoked salmon production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An outline of the common processing technology for cold smoked salmon in Denmark is presented. The safety hazards related to pathogenic bacteria, parasites and biogenic amines are discussed with special emphasis on hazards related to Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. Critical control points are identified for all hazards except growth of L. monocytogenes. For this reason a limitation of shelf life to three weeks at +5 degrees C far cold smoked vacuum-packed salmon having greater than or equal to 3% water phase salt is recommended

Huss, Hans Henrik; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben

1995-01-01

125

Radiation hazards from medical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An introduction is presented on the radiation hazards connected with biomedical radiography and nuclear medicine. The frequency of radiodiagnostic efforts was rather high in the Netherlands. This was reduced considerably by abolishing the thorax screening of the population. About diagnostic nuclear medicine less can be said because far fewer numerical data are available. An exposition of genetically and somatically significant doses and how to compute them is given. The drawing up of a profit versus risk evaluation for medical applications of ionizing radiations is recommended. (Auth.)

126

Updating Seismic Hazard at Parkfield  

CERN Document Server

The occurrence of the September 28, 2004 M = 6.0 earthquake at Parkfield, California, has significantly modified the mean and aperiodicity of the series of time intervals between the big events in this segment of the San Andreas fault. Using the Minimalist Model of characteristic earthquakes, the Brownian Passage Time Model and other, standard, statistical schemes as renewal models, we fit the new data series and recalculate the hazard parameters for the new seismic cycle. The differences resulting from these various renewal models are emphasized.

González, A; Pacheco, A F; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Gomez, Javier B.; Pacheco, Amalio F.

2004-01-01

127

IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

K.L. Ashley

2005-03-23

128

IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

129

Identification of Aircraft Hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

K. Ashley

2006-12-08

130

Natural Hazards, Second Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

Rouhban, Badaoui

131

Barrow hazards survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a series of public meetings at which PERG presented the results of a literature review and site specific accident study of the hazards of the maritime transport of spent nuclear reactor fuel to Barrow (en route to the Windscale reprocessing works), PERG was requested by the Planning Committee of Barrow Town Council to prepare an assessment of the interaction of the hazards arising from the concentration of nuclear activities in the area with those of a proposed gas-terminal. This report presents a preliminary review of the Environmental Impact Assessments prepared by the Borough Surveyor and a critical appraisal of the hazard analyses undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive, and the consultants to Cumbria County Council on this matter, the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. After a general and historical introduction, the document continues under the following headings: a description of the hazards (BNFL spent fuel shipments; the gas terminal; gas condensate storage; the Vickers shipyard (involving nuclear powered submarines)); the interaction of hazards; planning implications and democratic decisions; recommendations. (U.K.)

132

Identification of Aircraft Hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

133

Trafficking in persons and development: towards greater policy coherence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poverty is often regarded as the "root cause" of trafficking, but the linkages between poverty, a lack of development and trafficking are complex. For example, there is some evidence to suggest that victims of cross-border trafficking are more likely to originate from middle-income rather than lower-income countries. Trafficking and development have tended to be treated as very separate policy areas and the assessment of the development impact of counter-trafficking programmes is still at an early stage. This paper outlines a possible framework for a more evidence-based approach to understanding the linkages between trafficking, trafficking policy and human development. The paper argues that the human development gains from greater mobility could be significantly enhanced if there was greater coherence between policies to combat trafficking and policies to promote development. PMID:20645470

Danailova-Trainor, Gergana; Laczko, Frank

2010-01-01

134

Hazardous fluid leak detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

Gray, Harold E. (Las Vegas, NV); McLaurin, Felder M. (Las Vegas, NV); Ortiz, Monico (Las Vegas, NV); Huth, William A. (Las Vegas, NV)

1996-01-01

135

The perception of hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fourth chapter deals with the profusion of factors determining the differing assessment of hazards by our society. Subjective factors influencing risk perception comprise, among others, general knowledge and recognition of a hazard; the degree of voluntariness when taking the risk and its influencibility; the problem of large scale accidents; immediate and delayed results. Next to the objective and the subjective risks, the individual and the social or collective risks are assessed differently. The author dicusses in detail recent investigations into and study methods for the determination of risk perception, while eliminating systematic trends from subjective perception since common assessments are shared by whole groups of individuals time and again which allow a better understanding of today's handling of hazards. (HSCH)

136

Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

1997-10-01

137

Grassroots Action Research and the Greater Good  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study examines the action research topics and topic preferences of two groups of grassroots teachers: active researchers, and potential researchers. The analysis of the topics appears to indicate that, over the past decade, action research at the teaching of English at the grassroots level to speakers of other languages has been principally understood in terms of professional development with respect to teachers’ methodologies and learners’ learning behaviours. A nascent concern for a more ample approach to professional development and issues conducive to the greater good of the profession can, it is mooted, flourish only with the collaboration of all relevant stakeholders.

En este estudio se examinan los temas de investigación acción y los temas preferidos por dos grupos de profesores de base: uno de investigadores activos y otro de investigadores potenciales. El análisis sugiere que, durante la última década, la investigación acción en el aula de inglés para hablantes de otras lenguas se ha entendido principalmente en términos del desarrollo profesional con respecto a las metodologías de los profesores y las conductas estudiantiles de aprendizaje. Se considera que un incipiente interés por un enfoque más amplio y por asuntos conducentes al beneficio general de la profesión, solamente puede florecer con la colaboración de todos los actores más importantes.

Rainey Isobel

2011-04-01

138

Onsite transportation hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

139

Hazard Communication Standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

140

Acceptance of radiation hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whether radiation hazards due to medical treatment can be accepted depends on the information provided about the risk and benefit assessed, as well as on the patient's subjective impressions, need for the investigation and state of the disease, and on the patient being aware that the measure is a necessary one and informed about what is actually going to happen. Furthermore, acceptance relies on the confidence between doctor and patient, rather than on the level of education of the respective patient. Fear of hazards due to the irradiation sustained was frequently voiced in connection with possible harmful repercursions of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. These fears were disproved in the majority of cases. (TRV)

 
 
 
 
141

Lightning hazards to aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

Corn, P. B.

1978-01-01

142

Hazard estimation deduced from GPS and seismic data of Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Egypt rapidly growing development is accompanied by increasing levels of standard living particular in its urban areas. However, there is a limited experience in quantifying the sources of risk management in Egypt and in designing efficient strategies to keep away serious impacts of earthquakes. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai Peninsula regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the recent crustal movements, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications. This work will serve a basis for the development of so-called catastrophic models and can be further used for catastrophic risk management. Also, this work is trying to evaluate risk of large catastrophic losses within the important regions including the High Dam, strategic buildings and archeological sites. Studies on possible scenarios of earthquakes and losses are a critical issue for decision making in insurance as a part of mitigation measures.

Sayed Mohamed, Abdel-Monem

143

Seismic hazard assessment for Adria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Adriatic region was chosen as one of the test areas in the GSHAP program and, consequently, its seismic hazard was computed. The standard hazard map chosen by GSHAP represents PGA with a 475-year return period. Some other parameters, as the spectral acceleration and the uniform hazard response spectra for the main Adriatic towns, have been computed for a better representation of the regional hazard. The most hazardous area remains identified in the Cephalonia zone, where strong earthquakes frequently occur. The Southern Apennines are characterised by a slightly lower hazard, while the Adriatic Sea itself, the Poplain and the Apulian peninsula are almost aseismic.

K. Makropoulos

1999-06-01

144

Volcano Hazards Program Webcams  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Volcano Hazards Program Webcams Below is a list of webcams of U.S. volcanoes. All webcams are operated ... the webcam. Pu`u `O`o vent, Kilauea Volcano (HVO) Halema`uma`u from HVO, Kilauea Volcano ( ...

145

Managing Academe's Hazardous Materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Those responsible for planning and management of colleges and universities must plan comprehensively for hazardous waste disposal. Federal and state regulations are increasing, landfill area is becoming scarce, and incineration costs are rising fast. High-level institutional commitment to a sound campus environment policy is essential. (MSE)

Thompson, Fay

1991-01-01

146

COMBUSTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the 260 MMT of hazardous waste generated annually in the United States, 1.70 MMT are disposed of in incinerators, 3.50 MMT are burned in boilers and 0.35 MMT are burned in other industrial processes. The paper is an overview of the technologies that can be used to combust haza...

147

SCI Hazard Report Methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

Mitchell, Michael S.

2010-01-01

148

Volcano Hazards Program Webcams  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Volcano Hazards Program Webcams Below is a list of webcams of U.S. volcanoes. All webcams are operated by the USGS, unless otherwise noted. The images below are not the webcams but links to the webcams. The images were ...

149

Cadmium - is it hazardous  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report summarizes the state of knowledge and experience on cadmium. Biological, toxicological and epidemiological data have been evaluated. Cd pollution of the environment is reviewed under the aspect of human health. Uptake in food, threshod values of Cd exposure of the population, types and extent of health hazards, possible carcinogenic effects and future fields of research are discussed.

Zartner-Nyilas, G.; Valentin, H.; Schaller, K.H.; Schiele, R.

1983-01-01

150

Invited Commentary: Meeting Greater Expectations and Greater Needs for Education Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the greater need for education data brought about by the renewed emphasis on accountability in public education. "Projections of Education Statistics" features the kinds of information planners and policymakers will need for the future. Discusses shared responsibility for and benefits from high quality data at state and national levels.…

Dukes, Lavan; Croft, Edward

2000-01-01

151

Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phylogeography of the bush habituated African bovid species impala (Aepyceros melampus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Combined analysis of individual lineages, relationships and population genetics suggest a colonization process from Southern Africa toward Eastern regions in the greater kudu. Results are less clear for the impala, although remaining consistent with a similar pattern of historical dispersion. The study reveals a similar pattern, that is a marked divergence of lineages from South-western Africa relative to other regions. This pattern is opposed to previously published findings in other African bovid species. In the impala, the genetically isolated region is consistent with morphology because it is recognized as the subspecies A. m. petersi, the black-faced impala. In contrast, the similar split of South-western mitochondrial lineages was not expected in the greater kudu on the basis of morphology. Both species show a significant population genetic differentiation. Beyond their phylogeographical value, our results should raise conservation concerns about South-western populations of both species. The black-faced impala is categorized as vulnerable and our data show indications of hybridization with common impala A. m. melampus. The previously unrecognized genetic status of the South-western kudus could also imply conservation regulations. PMID:11298982

Nersting, L G; Arctander, P

2001-03-01

152

Tank farms hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

153

Healthcare Wide Hazards: Bloodborne Pathogens  

Science.gov (United States)

... are found in 29 CFR 1910.1030(b) . Potential Hazard Employee exposure to blood and OPIM [ 29 CFR 1910. ... Injuries Nursing staff are the most frequently injured employees from needlesticks ... Potential Hazard Exposure to blood and OPIM from needlestick ...

154

Geoethics: the responsibility of geoscientists in making society more aware of natural hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

The damage due to geological hazards, with frequent loss of human lives, is not entirely avoidable, but can be greatly reduced through the correct land use that respects the natural processes, through prevention and mitigation efforts, through an effective and correct information to the population. Often not responsible behaviors by politicians, as well as the need for heavy investments and the lack of information make difficult the solution of problems and slow the path to a proper management of the environment, the only way to provide a significant mitigation of damages of the geological disasters. In many countries (including Italy) the importance of the Geoscientists's role is not yet sufficiently recognized, despite it is evident the necessity of a greater attention to geological problems by policy makers and public opinion, as well as a more adequate information about natural risks to the society. The commitment to ensure prevention and mitigation of geological hazards must be considered an ethical value and duty for those who possess the appropriate knowledge and skills. Within the above context, Geoscientists have a key role to play as experts in analyzing and managing the territory's vulnerability: they must take responsibility to share and communicate their knowledge more effectively with all private and public stakeholders involved, paying attention to providing balanced information about risks and addressing inevitable uncertainties in natural hazard mapping, assessment, warning, and forecasting. But Geoscientists need to be more aware of their ethical responsibility, of their social duty to serve the society, care about and protect territory, and to facilitate the desirable shift from a culture of emergency to a culture of prevention. The search for balance between short-term economic issues and wider social impacts from natural hazards is an increasingly urgent need. Geoethics must be central to society's responses to natural hazard threats.

Peppoloni, S.; Matteucci, R.; Piacente, S.; Wasowski, J.

2012-04-01

155

Land Change in the Greater Antilles between 2001 and 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Land change in the Greater Antilles differs markedly among countries because of varying socioeconomic histories and global influences. We assessed land change between 2001 and 2010 in municipalities (second administrative units of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. Our analysis used annual land-use/land-cover maps derived from MODIS satellite imagery to model linear change in woody vegetation, mixed-woody/plantations and agriculture/herbaceous vegetation. Using this approach, we focused on municipalities with significant change (p ? 0.05. Between 2001 and 2010, the Greater Antilles gained 801 km2 of woody vegetation. This increase was mainly due to the return of woody vegetation in Cuba, and smaller increases in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Despite relatively similar environments, the factors associated with these changes varied greatly between countries. In Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica, agriculture declined while mixed-woody vegetation increased, mostly in montane regions. In contrast, Cuba experienced an extensive decline in sugarcane plantations, which resulted in the spread of an invasive woody shrub species and the increase in woody vegetation in areas of high agricultural value. In Haiti, the growing population, fuelwood consumption, and increase in agriculture contributed to woody vegetation loss; however, woody vegetation loss was accompanied with a significant increase in the mixed woody and plantations class. Most regional analyses often treated the Greater Antilles as a homogeneous unit; our results suggest that historical and socio-economic differences among countries are crucial for understanding the variation in present day land change dynamics.

Nora L. Álvarez-Berríos

2013-03-01

156

The New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX) Project - An overview of its major findings  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent major natural disasters, such as the 2011 T?hoku earthquake, tsunami and subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident, have raised awareness of the frequent and potentially far-reaching interconnections between natural hazards. Such interactions occur at the hazard level, where an initial hazard may trigger other events (e.g., an earthquake triggering a tsunami) or several events may occur concurrently (or nearly so), e.g., severe weather around the same time as an earthquake. Interactions also occur at the vulnerability level, where the initial event may make the affected community more susceptible to the negative consequences of another event (e.g., an earthquake weakens buildings, which are then damaged further by windstorms). There is also a temporal element involved, where changes in exposure may alter the total risk to a given area. In short, there is the likelihood that the total risk estimated when considering multiple hazard and risks and their interactions is greater than the sum of their individual parts. It is with these issues in mind that the European Commission, under their FP7 program, supported the New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe or MATRIX project (10.2010 to 12.2013). MATRIX set out to tackle multiple natural hazards (i.e., those of concern to Europe, namely earthquakes, landslides, volcanos, tsunamis, wild fires, storms and fluvial and coastal flooding) and risks within a common theoretical framework. The MATRIX work plan proceeded from an assessment of single-type risk methodologies (including how uncertainties should be treated), cascade effects within a multi-hazard environment, time-dependent vulnerability, decision making and support for multi-hazard mitigation and adaption, and an assessment of how the multi-hazard and risk viewpoint may be integrated into current decision making and risk mitigation programs, considering the existing single-hazard and risk focus. Three test sites were considered during the project: Naples, Cologne, and the French West Indies. In addition, a software platform, the MATRIX-Common IT sYstem (MATRIX-CITY), was developed to allow the evaluation of characteristic multi-hazard and risk scenarios in comparison to single-type analyses. This presentation therefore outlines the more significant outcomes of the project, in particular those dealing with the harmonization of single-type hazards, cascade event analysis, time-dependent vulnerability changes and the response of the disaster management community to the MATRIX point of view.

Fleming, Kevin; Zschau, Jochen; Gasparini, Paolo

2014-05-01

157

Evaluation of passive transfer in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  

Science.gov (United States)

Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) calves can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study, serum samples from neonatal kudu calves were tested for immunoglobulin using different tests validated for domestic ruminants, including measurement of gamma globulin (GG) measured by protein electrophoresis, total solids (TS) measured by calibrated refractometry, total protein (TP) and globulins measured by colorimetry, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the zinc sulfate turbidity test (ZSTT). In a logistic regression model, TP, TS, globulins, and the natural log transform of GGT were the only significant parameters associated with FPT. Various historic parameters related to the dam, as well as calf weight, sex, glucose, and packed cell volume, were not significant. Based on the results, FPT in greater kudu is defined as GG of kudu. With FPT defined as GG kudu calves with a TS < 4.8 g/dl and a negative ZSTT have an increased probability of requiring medical intervention and additional diagnostics may be warranted. PMID:22204060

Hammond, Elizabeth E; Fiorello, Christine V

2011-12-01

158

14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures  

Science.gov (United States)

...for a toxic propellant must account for each factor that would result in a greater toxic hazard...the mean measured wind direction plus three sigma and the mean measured wind direction minus three sigma; otherwise, the following apply for...

2010-01-01

159

Hazardous Waste Cleanup Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity helps students understand some of the reasoning and science involved in choosing technologies for cleaning up Superfund hazardous waste sites. They discover that the responsibility for selecting the most appropriate cleanup method for a specific site rests with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Remedial Project Manager (RPM) or On-Scene Coordinator (OSC), with input from the affected community. An important step in this selection process is narrowing the field of alternatives and developing a list of options that make sense for dealing with the contamination at the site. The students analyze the pros and cons of using various technologies for cleaning up specific hazardous waste problems, weighing factors such as contaminant-specific requirements, technological limitations, reliability, cleanup time, and cost.

160

USGS Geologic Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geologic Hazards section of the US Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research into the causes of geological phenomena such as landslides and earthquakes. The homepage connects visitors to the Geologic Hazards team's three main areas of endeavor. Geomagnetism provides links to the National Geomagnetic Information Center; Magnetic Observatories, Models, and Charts; and the Geomagnetic Information Node, which receives geomagnetic observatory data from around the world. The Landslide group studies the "causes and mechanisms of ground failure" to prevent "long-term losses and casualties." Their section provides links to the program and information center, publications, events, and current projects. The Earthquakes department hosts a wealth of information, including neotectonics, engineering seismology, and paleoseismology. Interactive maps are also provided.

 
 
 
 
161

Household Hazardous Waste Reduction  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson is designed to help students apply the pollution prevention (P2) concept to household hazardous waste (HHW). HHW includes hazardous materials such as household cleaners, paints, paint thinners, motor oils, gasoline, and pesticides that may pose a threat to human health or the environment if they are not disposed of properly. HHW poses a threat because it is toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive. This lesson plan provides guidance and activities that define HHW and name its four characteristics, explain why HHW reduction is important (particularly how it affects people and the environment), and explain how P2 concepts can be used to reduce HHW. In addition there is a fact sheet containing the background information and definitions necessary to implement this lesson plan.

2007-02-20

162

Immobilisation of hazardous waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazardous waste, e.g. radioactive waste, particularly that containing caesium-137, is immobilised by mixing with cement and solidifiable organic polymeric material. When first mixed, the organic material is preferably liquid and at this time can be polymerisable or already polymerised. The hardening can result from cooling or further polymerisation e.g. cross-linking. The organic material may be wax, or a polyester which may be unsaturated and cross-linkable by reaction with styrene. (author)

163

Natural Hazards: Hurricanes  

Science.gov (United States)

This portal provides information on the hazards presented to the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of the United States by hurricanes. A fact sheet summarizes some of the destructive effects and describes some of the more recent damaging storms. Other links direct site visitors to highlighted resources describing the extent and causes of coastal impacts of hurricanes, impacts on wetlands, coastal changes, and educational resources on hurricanes. There are also links to hurricane monitoring and prediction websites.

164

PUREX facility hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities

165

Radiation hazard control report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the radiation hazard control activities performed at the Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki University, Japan, during the one-year period from April 1989 to March 1990. Personal radiation hazard control is outlined first focusing on results of physical examination and data of personal exposure dose equivalent. Radiation control in laboratory is then described. Dose equivalent at various places is discussed on the basis of monthly total dose equivalent measured on film badges, measurements made by TLD, and observations made through a continuous radiations monitoring system. The concentration of radiations in air and water is discussed focusing on their measured concentrations in air at the air outlets of tracer/accelerator facilities, and radioactivity in waste water sampled in the reactor facilities and tracer/accelerator facilities. Another discussion is made on the surface contamination density over the floors, draft systems, sink surface, etc. Concerning outdoor radiation hazard control, furthermore, TLD measurements of environmental gamma-rays, data on total gamma-ray radioactivity in environmental samples, and analysis of gamma-ray emitting nuclides in environmental samples are described and discussed. (N.K.)

166

Hazard waste risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory continued to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in the area of risk assessment for hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste management. The overall objective is to provide technical assistance to OOS in developing cost-effective risk assessment tools and strategies for bringing DOE facilities into compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Major efforts during FY 1985 included (1) completing the modification of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and developing training manuals and courses to assist in field office implementation of the modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS); (2) initiating the development of a system for reviewing field office HRS/mHRS evaluations for appropriate use of data and appropriate application of the methodology; (3) initiating the development of a data base management system to maintain all field office HRS/mHRS scoring sheets and to support the master OOS environmental data base system; (4) developing implementation guidance for Phase I of the DOE CERCLA Program, Installation Assessment; (5) continuing to develop an objective, scientifically based methodology for DOE management to use in establishing priorities for conducting site assessments under Phase II of the DOE CERCLA Program, Confirmation; and (6) participating in developing the DOE response to EPA on the proposed listing of three sites on the National Priorities List

167

The Nature of US Natural Hazards Research, 1988-2008  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous academic disciplines have contributed to the body of published research on natural hazards and disasters. Geologists, engineers, geographers, and sociologists have participated since the topic first emerged as a formal research agenda in the early 1950s. In more recent decades, psychologists, political scientists, economists, historians, archeologists, anthropologists, architects, computer scientists, and artists have added to our understanding of environmental risk, hazard, and disaster. When examined in-print, what are the discipline-demographics of natural hazards? Who contributes and who tends to have the greater influence on scholarly discourse related to the topic? Are there clear trends in methods, techniques, or paradigmatic approaches? To what degree does this inherently interdisciplinary topic render interdisciplinary research? This paper will present initial findings from a larger data set on natural hazards and social science research. We will describe the discipline-demographics of natural hazards scholarship by examining college-level texts, peer-reviewed journal publications, federally-funded reports, and federally-funded research grants relating to natural hazards or disasters from 1988 to 2008. The citation frequency of sampled references will also be examined as a surrogate for influence on the scholarly discourse of natural hazards. In this paper, we will focus attention on the contributions of social scientists during this period, including an assessment of temporal trends relative to specific disaster events.

Hagelman, R., III

2009-04-01

168

Zinc research: an environmental hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A suggestion has recently been made (Golden, B., and Golden, M., 1976, Lancet, i. 1133) that since the disposal via the drains of zinc-65 used in medical or biological research could be responsible for the high levels of radiozinc found in shellfish on the Oregon shore, regulations governing such disposal are urgently needed. Such regulations already exist in Britain, the United States and many other countries, and the use of radionuclides for medical research as well as for routine diagnosis and treatment is closely controlled. The administration of the British control procedures is briefly described. The environmental levels of radionuclides resulting from medical procedures are quite low, and medical research using radioactivity is generally done in a responsible manner with minimal environmental detriment. The disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants presents greater problems, but in Britain these disposals are also closely controlled and monitored. The hazards of environmental pollution with artificial radionuclides are appreciated. (U.K.)

169

Is water security necessary? An empirical analysis of the effects of climate hazards on national-level economic growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of climate and the role of water security on economic growth are topics of growing interest. Few studies have investigated the potential role that climate hazards, which water security addresses, and their cumulative effects have on the growth prospects for a country. Owing to the relatively stationary spatial patterns of global climate, certain regions and countries are more prone to climate hazards and climate variability than others. For example, El Nino/Southern Oscillation patterns result in greater hydroclimatic variability in much of the tropics than that experienced at higher latitudes. In this study, we use a precipitation index that preserves the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and differentiates between precipitation maxima (e.g. floods) and minima (e.g. droughts). The index is a more precise instrument for hydroclimate hazards than that used in any previous studies. A fixed effects, for year and country, regression model was developed to test the influence of climate variables on measures of economic growth and activity. The results indicate that precipitation extremes (i.e. floods and droughts) are the dominant climate influences on economic growth and that the effects are significant and negative. The drought index was found to be associated with a highly significant negative influence on gross domestic product (GDP) growth, while the flood index was associated with a negative influence on GDP growth and lagged effects on growth. The flood index was also found to have a negative effect on industrial value added in contemporary and lagged regressions. Temperature was found to have little significant effect. These results have important implications for economic projections of climate change impacts. Perhaps more important, the results make clear that hydroclimatic hazards have measurable negative impacts, and thus lack of water security is an impediment to growth. In addition, adaptation strategies should recognize the importance of managing hazards given the identification of precipitation extremes as the key climate influence on historical GDP growth. PMID:24080625

Brown, Casey; Meeks, Robyn; Ghile, Yonas; Hunu, Kenneth

2013-11-13

170

Chemical hazards in health care: high hazard, high risk, but low protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is counter-intuitive that the healthcare industry, whose mission is the care of the sick, is itself a "high-hazard" industry for the workers it employs. Possessing every hazard class, with chemical agents in the form of pharmaceuticals, sterilants, and germicidals in frequent use, this industry sector consistently demonstrates poor injury and illness statistics, among the highest in the United States, and in the European Union (EU), 34% higher than the average work-related accident rate. In both the United States and the EU, about 10% of all workers are employed in the healthcare sector, and in developing countries as well, forecasts for the increasing need of healthcare workers (HCW) suggests a large population at potential risk of health harm. The explosion of technology growth in the healthcare sector, most obvious in pharmaceutical applications, has not been accompanied by a stepped up safety program in hospitals. Where there is hazard recognition, the remedies are often voluntary, and often poorly enforced. The wrong assumption that this industry would police itself, given its presumed knowledge base, has also been found wanting. The healthcare industry is also a significant waste generator threatening the natural environment with chemical and infectious waste and products of incineration. The ILO has recommended that occupational health goals for industrial nations focus on the hazards of new technology of which pharma and biopharma products are the leaders. This unchecked growth cannot continue without a parallel commitment to the health and safety of workers encountering these "high tech" hazards. Simple strategies to improve the present state include: (a) recognizing healthcare as a "high-hazard" employment sector; (b) fortifying voluntary safety guidelines to the level of enforceable regulation; (c) "potent" inspections; (d) treating hazardous pharmaceuticals like the chemical toxicants they are; and (e) protecting HCWs at least as well as workers in other high-hazard sectors. PMID:17119236

McDiarmid, Melissa A

2006-09-01

171

Ground motion prediction from nearest seismogenic zones in and around Greater Cairo Area, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the likely source characteristics, focal source mechanism and fault patterns of the nearest effective seismogenic zones to Greater Cairo Area. Furthermore, Mmax and ground accelerations related to the effective seismic events expected in future from those seismogenic zones are well evaluated. For this purpose, the digital waveform of earthquakes than ML=3 that occurred in and around Greater Cairo Area from 1997 to 2008 which have been recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network, are used to study source characterization, focal mechanism and fault pattern of the seismogenic zones around Greater Cairo Area. The ground motions are predicted from seismogenic zones to assess seismic hazard in the northeastern part of Greater Cairo, where three effective seismogenic zones, namely Abou Zabul, southeast Cairo trend and Dahshour area, have the largest effect to the Greater Cairo Area. The Mmax was determined, based upon an empirical relationship between the seismic moment and the rupture length of the fault during the earthquake. The estimated Mmax expected from Abou Zabul, southeast Cairo trend, Dahshour seismic sources are of Mw magnitudes equal to 5.4, 5.1, and 6.5, respectively. The predominant fundamental frequency and soil amplification characteristics at the area were obtained using boreholes data and in-situ ambient noise measurement.

Abd El-Aziz Khairy Abd El-Aal

2010-07-01

172

Risk assessment for hazardous installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examines the techniques that can be used to assess the significance of risk in quantitative terms and compares how these techniques are used in practice in the nuclear industry with the way they are used in those parts of the process industry that can be classified as having a major hazard potential. A proposal is made to develop the concept of ranking plants in a quantified way in terms of their potential risk. The acceptability of a project would be ranked in a comprehensive non-dimensional way which takes account of all the factors related to acceptability. There are seven chapters, one of which, on the way risks are quantified in the nuclear industry, is indexed separately. (UK)

173

40 CFR 261.3 - Definition of hazardous waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

...presumption for used oil. Used oil containing more than 1000...demonstrating that the used oil does not contain hazardous...to show that the used oil does not contain significant...kilns, flame reactors, electric furnaces, plasma arc...

2010-07-01

174

Modelling direct tangible damages due to natural hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Europe has witnessed a significant increase in direct damages from natural hazards. A further damage increase is expected due to the on-going accumulation of people and economic assets in risk-prone areas and the effects of climate change, for instance, on the severity and frequency of drought events in the Mediterranean basin. In order to mitigate the impact of natural hazards an improved risk management based on reliable risk analysis is needed. Particularly, there is still much research effort needed to improve the modelling of damage due to natural hazards. In comparison with hazard modelling, simple approaches still dominate damage assessments, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damaging processes and influencing factors. Within the EU-project ConHaz, methods as well as data sources and terminology for damage assessments were compiled, systemized and analysed. Similarities and differences between the approaches concerning floods, alpine hazards, coastal hazards and droughts were identified. Approaches for significant improvements of direct tangible damage modelling with a particular focus on cross-hazard-learning will be presented. Examples from different hazards and countries will be given how to improve damage data bases, the understanding of damaging processes, damage models and how to conduct improvements via validations and uncertainty analyses.

Kreibich, H.; Bubeck, P.

2012-04-01

175

Ground subsidence geo-hazards induced by rapid urbanization: implications from InSAR observation and geological analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the convenient transportation and construction, cities are prone to be situated in areas with flat terrain and unstable sediments, resulting in the concurrence of ground subsidence and urbanization. Here the interaction between geology, anthropogenic processes and ground subsidence geo-hazards were investigated in the Greater Pearl River Delta region of China. Geological evidences and 2006–2010 persistent scatterer data indicate that anthropogenic activities are dominant, although the distribution of river system and Quaternary sediments are also highly related to significant displacements (primarily at a rate of ?15 to 15 mm a?1. The surface displacements derived by synthetic aperture radar interferometry suggest that the urbanization rhythm has to be routinely monitored. Considering analogous urbanization modes, particularly in developing countries, ground subsidence monitoring together with the analysis of its driving force are critical for geo-hazards early-warning, city planning as well as sustainable urbanization.

F. Chen

2012-04-01

176

Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment.

Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1993-11-01

177

Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

2010-01-01

178

Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment for solid waste management facilities in E-area not previously evaluated  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Solid Waste Management Department (SWMD) activities located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) within E Area that are not described in the EPHAs for Mixed Hazardous Waste storage, the TRU Waste Storage Pads or the E-Area Vaults. The hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in the SWMD operational emergency management program

179

[Health significance of inhaled particles].  

Science.gov (United States)

Particulates refer to particles, dust, dirt, soot and aerosol mists that has suspended in the surrounding air. They may consist of solids of various forms including fibres or liquids. Long term exposure to silicon dioxide containing dusts (crystalline silica: quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite) may cause pneumoconiosis in the form of acute or/either chronic silicosis. Asbestos refers to a divers family of crystalline hydrated fibrous siliates typically exhibiting a greater tha 3:1 length ot diameter ratio. It is subdivided into serpentine (Chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite). Exposure to asbestos fibres may cause lung fibrosis and promote cancer of the lung or the pleura. Besides the induction of malignant diseases dust exposure may result in obstructive as well as restrictive lung diseases which may be compensate in case of the recognition as a occupational diseases. Other occupational exposures leading to pneumoconiosis are caused be talc, or metals including aluminium containing dusts. Also the group of man-made mineral (MMMFs) or vitreous fibres (MMVFs), including glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments, microfibres, refractory ceramic fibres are bioactive under certain experimental conditions. Although it has been shown that MMMFs may cause malignancies when injected intraperitoneally in high quantities in rodents, inhalation trials and human studies could not reproduce these results in the same precision. Fine particles (particulate matter = PM) comprise one of the most widespread and harmful air pollutants in the industrialized world. PM may cause worsening of asthma and other respiratory diseases, reduce lung function development in children, potentially increased the risk of premature death in the elderly and enhance mortality from cardiac diseases. Because of the small size PM2.5 is seen to be even more hazardous than PM10. PMID:16544243

Gillissen, A; Gessner, C; Hammerschmidt, S; Hoheisel, G; Wirtz, H

2006-03-24

180

Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 microg/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlife

 
 
 
 
181

Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India  

Science.gov (United States)

In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the construction of cyclone shelters was being undertaken. The availability heuristics caused a perception of low probability of tsunami following an earthquake, as the last large similar event happened over a hundred years ago. Another led to a situation when decisions were taken on the basis of experience and not statistical evidence, namely, experience showed that the so-called "Ring of Fire" generates underground earthquakes and tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. This knowledge made decision-makers to neglect the numerical estimations about probability of underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean even though seismologists were warning about probability of a large underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The bounded rationality bias led to misperception of signals from the early warning center in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting limited concern resulted in risk mitigation measures that considered cyclone risks, but much less about tsunami. Under loss aversion considerations, the decision-makers perceived the losses connected with the necessary additional investment as being greater than benefits from mitigating a less probable hazard.

Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

2013-04-01

182

Natural hazard phenomena and mitigation. PVP-Volume 271  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intent of this volume is to serve as a focal point for researchers and engineers in state-of-the-art research and investigative development in natural hazard phenomena and mitigation, particularly relating to the engineering activities conducted at various waste facilities. This volume is heavily oriented towards seismic analysis. However, it is intended that over time, other natural hazard phenomena such as tornado and flood may also become significant topics of discussion. Papers are arranged in the following sections: Brookhaven, Argonne, and eastern regional natural hazards phenomena and mitigation programs; Oak Ridge and southern regional natural hazard phenomena and mitigation programs; and Hanford Site and western regional natural hazards phenomena and mitigation programs. Twenty papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

183

The value of historical documents for hazard zone mapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assessment of historical data of small mountain torrents in Alpine catchment areas has shown a significant difference between the results of a regular hazard zone mapping and a thorough historical analysis. The Gemsbach in the Ostrach valley near Hinterstein (Municipality of Hindelang, southern Bavaria/Germany serves, among others, as an example. A 'traditional' hazard zone for the Gemsbach has been mapped in the 1990s. The oldest event included in the analysis was the flood of 1954. But historical data collected and analysed by the HANG-project shows flood-prone areas around the Gemsbach differing greatly in size and location from the one shown in the hazard zone maps. The inclusion of all data available for the Gemsbach area (15 events between 1671 and 1960 collected from four different archives leads to a completely new picture of the regional hazardous activity and demands a re-structuring of the traditional way of hazard zone mapping.

F. Barnikel

2004-01-01

184

Forecasting probabilistic seismic shaking for greater Tokyo from 400 years of intensity observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past shaking. We calculate the time-averaged (Poisson) probability of severe shaking by using more than 10,000 intensity observations recorded since AD 1600 in a 350 km-wide box centered on Tokyo. Unlike other hazard-assessment methods, source and site effects are included without modeling, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake nor the location and slip rate of any fault. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct here suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA ??? 6 shaking (??? PGA ??? 0.4 g or MMI ??? IX) is 30%-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10% 15% in Chiba and Tsukuba. This result means that there is a 30% chance that 4 million people will be subjected to IJMA ??? 6 shaking during an average 30-year period. We also produce exceedance maps of PGA for building-code regulations, and calculate short-term hazard associated with a hypothetical catastrophe bond. Our results resemble an independent assessment developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis for greater Tokyo. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Bozkurt, S. B.; Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.

2007-01-01

185

Climate change-induced impacts on urban flood risk influenced by concurrent hazards  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In coastal regions, several hazards may lead to floods, and if they occur concurrently, the damage will be higher than for the hazards individually. The paper outlines an approach for carrying out a risk analysis with several hazards and applies it on a case study in Greater Copenhagen where two hazards, rainfall and sea surge, are both important. The core in the methodology is the application of copula functions as an extension of one-dimensional risk analysis and projections of future climatic changes. The results for Greater Copenhagen indicate that the dependence between the hazards is weak and that climate change most likely will not increase the correlation. The overall change in flood return periods over a forecast horizon of 110 years are estimated to decrease by one to three orders of magnitude.

Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

2012-01-01

186

Serum albumin as a significant prognostic factor in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic role of the pretreatment serum albumin level in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) receiving platinum-based systemic chemotherapy. From 1995 to 2013, a total of 97 patients receiving platinum-based systemic chemotherapy for newly diagnosed MPM were enrolled. All clinical information and laboratory results were retrospectively collected from the medical records. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify significant independent prognostic factors for predicting survival. In total, 34 of the 97 patients (35.1 %) had hypoalbuminaemia (albumin ? 35 g/l). The 1-year overall survival rate was 44.1 % for patients with hypoalbuminaemia and 72.0 % for patients with a normal albumin level. Multivariate analysis indicated that pretreatment albumin was an independent prognostic factor in MPM. Patients with hypoalbuminaemia had a greater risk of death than those with a normal albumin level [hazard ratio (HR) 1.778; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.504-2.998; P = 0.031]. When albumin was entered as a continuous variable in the Cox regression model, the HR of death was significantly decreased by 9.8 % (95 % CI 0.851-0.956) for each 1-g/l increment. The pretreatment serum albumin level is a simple, inexpensive and easily measurable marker with prognostic significance in MPM patients treated with platinum-based systemic chemotherapy. PMID:25051913

Yao, Zhou-Hong; Tian, Guang-Yan; Yang, Shao-Xiang; Wan, Yun-Yan; Kang, Yan-Meng; Liu, Qing-Hua; Yao, Fei; Lin, Dian-Jie

2014-07-01

187

Statistical issues of hazardous agents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evaluation of hazards associated with exposure to chemicals, understanding of relationships between dose and adverse effect, extrapolation of effects from high experimental doses to low doses associated with actual exposures, and extrapolation from effects observed in animals to effects expected in humans are the main issues of statistical research in risk assessment of hazardous agents. We discuss statistical aspects of inhalation toxicology, proof of hazard, genetic toxicology and the role ...

Urfer, Wolfgang

2001-01-01

188

Spatial patterns of natural hazards mortality in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on natural hazard mortality are most often hazard-specific (e.g. floods, earthquakes, heat, event specific (e.g. Hurricane Katrina, or lack adequate temporal or geographic coverage. This makes it difficult to assess mortality from natural hazards in any systematic way. This paper examines the spatial patterns of natural hazard mortality at the county-level for the U.S. from 1970–2004 using a combination of geographical and epidemiological methods. Results Chronic everyday hazards such as severe weather (summer and winter and heat account for the majority of natural hazard fatalities. The regions most prone to deaths from natural hazards are the South and intermountain west, but sub-regional county-level mortality patterns show more variability. There is a distinct urban/rural component to the county patterns as well as a coastal trend. Significant clusters of high mortality are in the lower Mississippi Valley, upper Great Plains, and Mountain West, with additional areas in west Texas, and the panhandle of Florida, Significant clusters of low mortality are in the Midwest and urbanized Northeast. Conclusion There is no consistent source of hazard mortality data, yet improvements in existing databases can produce quality data that can be incorporated into spatial epidemiological studies as demonstrated in this paper. It is important to view natural hazard mortality through a geographic lens so as to better inform the public living in such hazard prone areas, but more importantly to inform local emergency practitioners who must plan for and respond to disasters in their community.

Cutter Susan L

2008-12-01

189

Robotics and artificial intelligence for hazardous environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our technological society, hazardous materials including toxic chemicals, flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances, and biological agents, are used and handled routinely. Each year, many workers who handle these substances are accidently contaminated, in some cases resulting in injury, death, or chronic disabilities. If these hazardous materials could be handled remotely, either with a teleoperated robot (operated by a worker in a safe location) or by an autonomous robot, then human suffering and economic costs of accidental exposures could be dramatically reduced. At present, it is still difficult for commercial robotic technology to completely replace humans involved in performing complex work tasks in hazardous environments. The robotics efforts at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research represent a significant effort at contributing to the advancement of robotics for use in hazardous environments. While this effort is very broad-based, ranging from dextrous manipulation to mobility and integrated sensing, the technical portion of this paper will focus on machine learning and the high-level decision making needed for autonomous robotics

190

Regulatory barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary federal regulatory programs that influence the development of new technology for hazardous waste are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, also commonly known as Superfund). Two important aspects of RCRA that can create barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation are technology-based waste pre-treatment standards and a cumbersome permitting program. By choosing a technology-based approach to the RCRA land disposal restrictions program, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has simultaneously created tremendous demand for the technologies specified in its regulations, while at the same time significantly reduced incentives for technology innovation that might have otherwise existed. Also, the RCRA hazardous waste permitting process can take years and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The natural tendency of permit writers to be cautious of unproven (i.e., innovative) technology also can create a barrier to deployment of new technologies. EPA has created several permitting innovations, however, to attempt to mitigate this latter barrier. Understanding the constraints of these permitting innovations can be important to the success of hazardous waste technology development programs. 3 refs

191

Bayesian updating in natural hazard risk assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Probabilistic models are typically implemented into risk management systems using whatever relevant information is available prior to the implementation. However, in the course of time more information becomes available and it is of significant practical importance to be able to update the probabilistic models based on the new information. The present paper investigates a Bayesian approach for the updating of probabilistic models in the context of risk management of natural hazards. Bayesian probabilistic networks are proposed to form the basic tool for the probabilistic representation of knowledge and uncertainties. Updating of models is performed by instantiating the variables of the Bayesian probabilistic networks corresponding to observations from events of natural hazards. This approach, however, necessitates that large Bayesian probabilistic networks can be efficiently handled and for that purpose a compact object based representation of Bayesian probabilistic networks is suggested. The proposed methodology is applied to three illustrative examples considering updating of fragility model parameters. It is illustrated how commonly applied techniques for model updating in natural hazards risk assessments may lead to somewhat biased model parameter estimates. Furthermore, it is shown how available information on hazard intensities as well as on damages of structures can be utilised at the same time for the updating of the fragility model parameters in a consistent and efficient way. © Institution of Engineers Australia, 2009.

Graf, M.; Nishijima, K.

2009-01-01

192

Hazards to nuclear plants from surface traffic accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytic models have been developed for evaluating hazards to nuclear plants from hazardous-materials accidents in the vicinity of the plant. In particular, these models permit the evaluation of hazards from such accidents occurring on surface traffic routes near the plant. The analysis uses statistical information on accident rates, traffic frequency, and cargo-size distribution along with parameters describing properties of the hazardous cargo, plant design, and atmospheric conditions, to arrive at a conservative estimate of the annual probability of a catastrophic event. Two of the major effects associated with hazardous-materials accidents, explosion and release of toxic vapors, are treated by a common formalism which can be readily applied to any given case by means of a graphic procedure. As an example, for a typical case it is found that railroad shipments of chlorine in 55-ton tank cars constitute a greater hazard to a nearby nuclear plant than equally frequent rail shipments of explosives in amounts of 10 tons. 11 references. (U.S.)

193

Seismic hazards in Uganda  

Science.gov (United States)

A probability seismic hazard map of Uganda is presented, based on instrumentally-derived data. The Uganda catalogue, compiled by Twesigomwe for the period 1900 to 1991, has been used. The magnitudes in the catalogue have been homogenised to surface wave magnitude (Ms); the conversion of body wave magnitude (m b) and local magnitude (M L to Ms were carried out where necessary using formulae derived for the Ugandan earthquakes. Based on seismicity and tectonics, the region was divided into 13 seismic source areas, each of which contributes to the seismic hazard throughout Uganda according to its specific seismicity. The uncertainties in the input parameters were accounted for by using a logic tree approach. On the logic tree, each uncertain parameter is represented by a node and branches emanating from that node represent alternative values on that parameter value and their assigned likelihood of being correct. Due to a lack of strong motion data, a semi-theoretical approach was used to develop an attenuation relation for the region. The mean peak ground acceleration (PGA), which is exceeded on average once every 50 years, was calculated. The resulting hazard map suggests that the whole of Uganda except in or close to the rifts, can expect to experience a PGA of between 0.5 and 0.6 m s -2, equivalent to an earthquake of intensity V-VI (slight damage) on average once every 50 years. In or close to the Western Rift, the expected PGA is between 1.0 and 2.2 m s -2, equivalent to an earthquake of intensity VII-VIII (moderate to heavy damage) on average once every 50 years. The frequency of occurrence of a PGA=2.0 m s -2 (heavy damage earthquake) for various parts of Uganda was also calculated. The results indicate that northeast Uganda can expect a destructive earthquake on average once in more than 3000 years, while south of latitude 0.5°N, except in and close to the Western Rift, can expect a destructive earthquake on average once every ˜1000-1500 years. In or close to the Western Rift the return period for destructive earthquake is on average less than about 50 years.

Twesigomwe, E. M.

1997-02-01

194

Market Transparency, Adverse Selection, and Moral Hazard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the effects of improvements in market transparency on eBay on seller exit and continuing sellers' behavior. An improvement in market transparency by reducing strategic bias in buyer ratings led to a significant increase in buyer valuation especially of sellers rated poorly prior to the change, but not to an increase in seller exit. When sellers had the choice between exiting'??a reduction in adverse selection'??and improved behavior'??a reduction in moral hazard'??, they pref...

Klein, Tobias J.; Lambertz, Christian; Stahl, Konrad O.

2013-01-01

195

Volatile organic migration from hazardous waste sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volatile organics in hazardous waste piles and organic liquid spills generate gaseous vapors that can have a significant negative environmental impact. Present methods for calculating organic vapor migration through soils neglect many important phenomena that influence the magnitude of the migration rate. This paper presents a methodology for predicting organic vapor migration that involves two-phase flow, absorption in soil moisture, and transport by diffusive and advective mechanisms

196

Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

irements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

197

Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.

Zani Alberto

2008-06-01

198

Hazards of radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risks to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. There is scant data on somatic and genetic risks at environmental and occupational levels of radiation exposure. The available data on radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis are for high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Risk assessments for low level radiation are obtained using these data, assuming a linear dose-response relationship. During uranium mining the chief source of radiation hazard is inhalation of radon daughters. The correlation between radon daughter exposure and the increased incidence of lung cancer has been well documented. For radiation exposures at and below occupational limits, the associated risk of radiation induced cancers and genetic abnormalities is small and should not lead to a detectable increase over naturally occurring rates

199

Liability for hazardous technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liability for hazardous technologies is discussed using the atomic energy law as an example which reveals an individual system with components such as unlimited, absolute liability, financial security and indemnification, and 'deficiency guarantee' by the state in case of nuclear accidents abroad. Following chapters deal with liability under civil law or industrial injuries insurance, the problem of the causality that cannot be proved, and the resulting consequences, and with large-scale damage and transfrontier damage, and the claim for damages. The results of the review of this system are then used to draw conclusions and derive information with regard to handling the liability problems with risks in other fields of technology. Finally, a proposal is discussed that suggests the causality problem to be solved by establishing a fund: Damages could be paid from a fund, with contributions to this fund coming primarily from all potential risk sources and/or the general public. (orig./HSCH)

200

Male gamblers have significantly greater salivary cortisol before and after betting on a horse race, than do female gamblers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prevalence rates of gambling are influenced by gender. Among normative populations, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress is affected by gender. However, pathological, compared to recreational, gamblers demonstrate perturbations in HPA activation in response to gambling stimuli. We examined whether there were gender differences in HPA response to gambling in a naturalistic setting among horse-race bettors and scratch-off lottery bettors. Salivary cortisol was collected ...

Franco, C.; Paris, J. J.; Wulfert, E.; Frye, A. C.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Landslide Hazard in Georgia  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decades of the XX century, protect the population from geological hazards, to maintain land and safe operation of the engineering facilities has become the most important social - economic, demographic, political and environmental problems for the whole world. Georgia, with its scales of origination of the natural-catastrophic processes (landslide, mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.), their re-occurrence and with the negative results inflicted by these processes to the population, agricultural lands and engineering objects, is one of the most complex mountainous region. The extremely sensitive conditions were conditioned by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Activation of the negative meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic changes and their abnormally frequent occurrence (mostly increased atmospheric precipitations, temperature and humidity); 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. Following the problem urgency, a number of departmental and research institutions have made their operations more intense in the given direction within the limits of their competence. First of all, the activity of the Department of Geology of Georgia (which is at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection), which mapped, identified and cataloged the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and developmental regularities of these processes for tens of years. The increased risk of Geological catastrophes in Georgia first of all is caused by insufficient information between society and responsible persons toward this event. The existed situation needs the base assessment of natural disasters level, the identification of events, to determine their caused reasons, to develop special maps in GIS system, and continuous functioning of geo monitoring researches for develop safety early warning system.

Gaprindashvili, George; Tsereteli, Emil; Gaprindashvili, Merab

2014-05-01

202

Guidance on new DOT training requirements for Hazardous Materials employees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In May of 1992, the US Department of Transportation issued new regulations which significantly enhanced the training requirements of the DOT Hazardous Materials Regulations. The new training requirements apply to persons involved with almost any aspect of the transportation of hazardous materials. The new regulations have a definite impact on nuclear utility management by requiring employers to provide certain employees with specific training and testing prior to working with hazardous materials. This report explains the impact of the new regulations on nuclear utilities. It also provides guidance on implementing the new requirements and achieving compliance

203

Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated further.

Riis, Troels

1997-01-01

204

Anatomical variation in the position of the greater palatine foramen.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study measured the position of the greater palatine foramen relative to adjacent anatomical landmarks in Brazilian skulls. The perpendicular distance of the greater palatine foramen to the midline maxillary suture in Brazilian skulls was about 14 mm and the distance of greater palatine foramen to the incisive foramen was approximately 36 mm. The distance of greater palatine foramen to the posterior border of the hard palate was approximately 3 mm, and the mean angle between the midline maxillary suture and the line from the incisive foramen and the greater palatine foramen was 22.71 degrees . In almost 70% of the cases, the greater palatine foramen opened in an anterior direction. The mean palatine length was approximately 52 mm. In the greater majority of the skulls (93.81%), the greater palatine foramina were opposite or distal to the maxillary third molar. These data will be helpful in comparing these skulls to those from various other regions as well as comparing skulls of different races. It can also provide professionals with anatomical references, in order to block the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve through the greater palatine foramen. Our results would help clinicians locate the greater palatine foramen in patients with and without upper molars. PMID:20339241

Chrcanovic, Bruno R; Custódio, Antônio L N

2010-03-01

205

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of Babol, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Babol, one of big cities in north of Iran. Many destructive earthquakes happened in Iran in the last centuries. It comes from historical references that at least many times; Babol has been destroyed by catastrophic earthquakes. In this paper, the peak horizontal ground acceleration over the bedrock (PGA is calculated by a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA. For this reason, at first, a collected catalogue, containing both historical and instrumental events that occurred in a radius of 200 km of Babol city and covering the period from 874 to 2004 have been gathered. Then, seismic sources are modeled and recur¬rence relationship is established. After elimination of the aftershocks and foreshocks, the main earthquakes were taken into consideration to calculate the seismic parameters (SP by Kijko method. The calculations were performed using the logic tree method and four weighted attenuation relationships Ghodrati, 0.35, Khademi, 0.25, Ambraseys and Simpson, 0.2, and Sarma and Srbulov, 0.2. Seismic hazard assessment is then carried out for 8 horizontal by 7 vertical lines grid points using SEISRISK III. Finally, two seismic hazard maps of the studied area based on Peak Horizontal Ground Acceleration (PGA over bedrock for 2 and 10% probability of ex¬ceedance in one life cycles of 50 year are presented. These calculations have been performed by the Poisson distribution of two hazard levels. The results showed that the PGA ranges from 0.32 to 0.33 g for a return period of 475 years and from 0.507 to 0.527 g for a return period of 2475 years. Since population is very dense in Babol and vulnerability of buildings is high, the risk of future earthquakes will be very significant.

Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

2011-01-01

206

21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan...FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.6 Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control...

2010-04-01

207

Linking emerging hazardous waste technologies with the electronic information era  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In looking to the future and the development of new approaches or strategies for managing hazardous waste, it is important to understand and appreciate the factors that have contributed to current successful approaches. In the United States, several events in the last two decades have had a significant impact in advancing remediation of hazardous waste, including environmental legislation, legislative reforms on licensing federally funded research, and electronic transfer of information. Similar activities also have occurred on a global level. While each of these areas is significant, the electronic exchange of information has no national boundaries and has become an active part of major hazardous waste research and management programs. It is important to realize that any group or society that is developing a comprehensive program in hazardous waste management should be able to take advantage of this advanced approach in the dissemination of information. 6 refs., 1 tab.

Anderson, B.E.; Suk, W.A. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Blackard, B. [Technology Planning and Management Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

1996-12-31

208

Seismic hazard assessment of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

1999-06-01

209

Seismic Hazards at Kilauea and Mauna LOA Volcanoes, Hawaii  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A significant seismic hazard exists in south Hawaii from large tectonic earthquakes that can reach magnitude 8 and intensity XII. This paper quantifies the hazard by estimating the horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) in south Hawaii which occurs with a 90% probability of not being exceeded during exposure times from 10 to 250 years. The largest earthquakes occur beneath active, unbuttressed and mobile flanks of volcanoes in their shield building stage.

Klein, Fred W.

1994-04-22

210

MOS OF CANADA: A FOODSERVICE INDUSTRY ANALYSIS OF GREATER VANCOUVER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the Greater Vancouver commercial food industry and whether the market is ideal for MOS Food Services to fulfil its “MOS of the World” strategy by opening a MOS Burger restaurant in Greater Vancouver. To assess the future viability of MOS Burger opening in Greater Vancouver, this paper identifies and analyzes market size, drivers of demand, various customer segments, key competitors, the strength of key industry forces, and the key sources of advantage for the foodservi...

Ryomoto, Craig

2009-01-01

211

A=D: SIGNIFICANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lacanian concept of significant is a part of the interpretation in psychoanalytic clinics. To get to this word, Lacan did a re-reading on Freud's texts and articulates it to Saussure's Linguistics. The significant is pre-existent in the subject, and its meaning of speech is directly related to the opposition relationship of a significant to another. The analytical listening aims at establishing a relationship among the significants that the subject does, as well as the own effect that it gives to its speech. Therefore, this article has the goal of th correlating the concept of significant and its expression through films, literature and linguistics, once that the many interactions of psychoanalysis with other sciences makes it more interesting and understandable

Samuel Lincoln Bezerra Lins

2009-07-01

212

Technical concept for a greater-confinement-disposal test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greater confinement disposal (GCO) has been defined by the National Low-Level Waste Program as the disposal of low-level waste in such a manner as to provide greater containment of radiation, reduce potential for migration or dispersion or radionuclides, and provide greater protection from inadvertent human and biological intrusions in order to protect the public health and safety. This paper discusses: the need for GCD; definition of GCD; advantages and disadvantages of GCD; relative dose impacts of GCD versus shallow land disposal; types of waste compatible with GCD; objectives of GCD borehole demonstration test; engineering and technical issues; and factors affecting performance of the greater confinement disposal facility

213

Severe Pain Predicts Greater Likelihood of Subsequent Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from the 1999 Large Health Survey of Veterans, Veterans Affairs' medical records, and the National Death Index (N = 260,254), the association between self-reported pain severity and suicide among veterans as examined, after accounting for demographic variables and psychiatric diagnoses. A Cox proportional hazards regression demonstrated…

Ilgen, Mark A.; Zivin, Kara; Austin, Karen L.; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Czyz, Ewa K.; Valenstein, Marcia; Kilbourne, Amy M.

2010-01-01

214

29 CFR 1910.1200 - Hazard communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

...that change. The determination of occupational...functions Chemicals: Mercury; carbon disulfide...damage Chemicals: Organic solvents; acids ...1910.1200—Hazard Determination (Mandatory) The...accuracy of the hazard determination. The hazard...

2010-07-01

215

29 CFR 1910.1200 - Hazard communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Hazard communication. 1910.1200 Section... § 1910.1200 Hazard communication. (a) Purpose...employees under the hazard communication program, will provide employees...containers, as long as the alternative method identifies the...

2010-07-01

216

14 CFR 437.55 - Hazard analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.55 Section 437... Safety Requirements § 437.55 Hazard analysis. (a) A permittee must identify and characterize each of the hazards and assess the risk to public...

2010-01-01

217

49 CFR 386.72 - Imminent hazard.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Imminent hazard. 386.72 Section 386.72 Transportation...MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS Injunctions and Imminent Hazards § 386.72 Imminent hazard. (a) Whenever it is determined that an...

2010-10-01

218

14 CFR 417.413 - Hazard areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard areas. 417.413 Section 417.413...SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.413 Hazard areas. (a) General. A launch operator must define a hazard area that confines the adverse...

2010-01-01

219

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2010-01-01

220

Trimming the UCERF2 hazard logic tree  

Science.gov (United States)

The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 2 (UCERF2) is a fully time?dependent earthquake rupture forecast developed with sponsorship of the California Earthquake Authority (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [WGCEP], 2007; Field et al., 2009). UCERF2 contains 480 logic?tree branches reflecting choices among nine modeling uncertainties in the earthquake rate model shown in Figure 1. For seismic hazard analysis, it is also necessary to choose a ground?motion?prediction equation (GMPE) and set its parameters. Choosing among four next?generation attenuation (NGA) relationships results in a total of 1920 hazard calculations per site. The present work is motivated by a desire to reduce the computational effort involved in a hazard analysis without understating uncertainty. We set out to assess which branching points of the UCERF2 logic tree contribute most to overall uncertainty, and which might be safely ignored (set to only one branch) without significantly biasing results or affecting some useful measure of uncertainty. The trimmed logic tree will have all of the original choices from the branching points that contribute significantly to uncertainty, but only one arbitrarily selected choice from the branching points that do not.

Porter, Keith A.; Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Accuracy of hazardous waste project estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HAZRATE system has been developed to appraise the current state of definition of hazardous waste remedial projects. This is shown to have a high degree of correlation to the financial risk of such projects. The method employs a weighted checklist indicating the current degree of definition of some 150 significant project elements. It is based on the author's experience with a similar system for establishing the risk characteristics of process plant projects (Hackney, 1965 and 1989; 1985). In this paper definition ratings for 15 hazardous waste remedial projects have been correlated with the excesses of their actual costs over their base estimates, excluding any allowances for contingencies. Equations are presented, based on this study, for computation of the contingency allowance needed and estimate accuracy possible at a given stage of project development

222

Establishing a regional economic development strategy in Greater Vancouver: The effectives policy network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is presently no regional economic development strategy for Greater Vancouver.This paper reviews four regional development initiatives over a ten-year period via a policy networks analytical model to determine the reasons for the failure to develop a strategy, and to predict the initiative most likely to result in a strategy. This model suggests that the Economic Leadership Council is the network best configured to achieve significant policy change in the Greater Vancouver context. A sup...

Graham, Karen

2005-01-01

223

The occurrence and significance of biogenic opal in the regolith  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogenic opal produced by vascular plants, diatoms, and siliceous sponges have been found in soils and terrestrial sediments of all continents except Antarctica since the middle of the 19th century. The opal particles range in size from fine silt to fine sand. Almost all soils contain detectable opal up to levels of 2-3%, and a significant number contain values in excess of 5%. Even higher values have been found from soils and sediments of all continents in a wide range of soil types. The most important factor is poor soil drainage and seasonal to permanent water logging. This encourages the proliferation of silica producing organisms. Such conditions have been found in the soils and aquatic sediments of the monsoonal tropics, tropical rain forests, temperate forests, tropical savanna, tropical islands, semi-arid grasslands and savanna, and temperate woodland and grassland. The presence of a volcanic substrate also appears favourable in some cases, but is not necessary. Biogenic opal preferentially collects in the A horizon of soils and, to a lesser extent, in the B horizon. This preferential distribution facilitates identification of palaeosols in stacked soil sequences. Biogenic opal is also a component of windblown dust, even in arid environments. Biogenic opal is significant to regolith processes in a number of ways. Firstly, as in the case in marine environments, it is likely to be important in silica cycling and storage because of its greater lability compared to quartz. Secondly, dissolution and reprecipitation of opal A as opal CT or micro-quartz may play a role in cementation and silicification of regolith to form silica hardpans and silcrete. Thirdly, the organisms that form biogenic opal can have considerable palaeoenvironmental significance and be valuable in reconstructing regolith evolution. Finally, some forms of biogenic silica, in particular sponge spicules, can present a health hazard. Their high abundance in some soils and sediments needs to be considered when assessing the health implications of airborne dust.

Clarke, Jonathan

2003-02-01

224

Effect of hazard warning on workers' attitudes and risk taking behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Until recently, the issue of job hazards has been largely ignored as a research and theoretical topic in business and management disciplines although workers' perceptions and assessments of job hazards are of significance to managers. In this paper are reported results of an experiment conducted in Egyptian chemical firms to test the generality of an implicit rational model used to explain employees' reactions to and perceptions of job hazards. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) workers' subjective estimates of their job hazards are positively related to the objective hazard, (2) workers' subjective estimates of a prospective new job hazard will vary directly with the extent of hazard communicated by the new product label, (3) workers' demand for new hazard wage premiums will vary directly with perceived prospective new work hazards, (4) workers' intention to quit the job will vary directly with subjective and objective estimates of job hazards. All hypotheses were supported. The rational worker model appears to be a general explanation for workers' responses to hazardous jobs and information on hazards. This model not only holds for USA workers but also for those in a nonwestern culture. Implications for management and the industrial setting are discussed. PMID:1862197

Farid, M I; Lirtzman, S I

1991-04-01

225

Instrumental musicians' hazards.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last two decades, injuries to instrumental musicians have been well documented. Major categories of performance-related injuries include musculoskeletal overuse, nerve entrapment/thoracic outlet syndrome, and focal dystonia. Other areas of concern to instrumentalists include hypermobility, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and hearing loss. This chapter reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, physical exam, treatment, and prevention of common problems of instrumentalists. Emphasis is placed on the team approach of treatment and prevention and the need for close collaboration of the various health professionals, music educators, and performers. Additional resources are presented for those interested in pursuing performing arts medicine in greater detail. PMID:11567922

Hoppmann, R A

2001-01-01

226

Radiation hazard control report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes results of radiation hazard control at the Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki University during the one year period from April 1988 to March 1989. Management of personal exposure dose has been performed using film badges mainly and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) and pocket dosimeters as required. Three types of film badges, for wide range (X-, gamma- and beta-rays), neutrons and gamma rays, have been used, and exposure dose of each worker is examined every three months or once a year depending on the frequency of the use of radiations. The maximum personal exposure dose for a three month period or for the year was 80 mrem (0.80 mSv) and 125 mrem (1.25 mSv), respectively. No one reached the maximum permissible exposure dose. Spatial gamma-ray dose rate was measured in the reactor building and tracer/accelerator building using ionization chamber type area monitors and ionization chamber type survey meters. TLDs and film badges for personal dose control are used to determine the average gamma-ray dose rate in these buildings. Environmental radioactivities were measured for various environmental samples. A small quantity of 137Cs was detected in some plant samples. (N.K.)

227

Geological hazards investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation on geologic hazard was carried out in the study area, which includes the topographic maps of Kumsan, Iwon, Youngdong, Kwanki and Boun, all at a scale of 1:50,000 and encompasses approximately 3,060 km{sup 2}, to provide information on many aspects of slope stability. In the Boun area, about 160 landslides occurred due to the heavy rainfall on August 12, 1998, not only killing lives but also damaging properties. According to the available information, it was found out that the most common type of landslides in the study area was debris flow induced by heavy rainfall during the rainy season. It was also found out that the flows mostly occurred in the slopes having an angle between 30-45 deg. Based on the results of physical and direct shear tests on disturbed and undisturbed samples, the soils occurring in the landslide areas were generally classified as SP-SM and SM. The shear strength was determined at 0-5 kPa(Cohesion) and 22-35 deg.(internal friction angle). (author). 23 refs., 15 tabs., 18 figs.

Han, Dae Suk; Yu, Il Hyon; Kim, Kyeong Su; Choi, Young Sup; Lee, Sa Ro [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

1998-12-01

228

Pricing hazardous substance emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

1997-12-31

229

Natural Hazards Monitoring and Risk Mitigation  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Principles of Monitoring of Hazardous Geodynamic and Glaciohydrometeorological Processes in the Areas of Strategically Important for Economics of Georgia Objects and Recommendations on Hazard Mitigation

230

Torsion of the greater omentum with inguinal hernia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Torsion of the greater omentum is an uncommon cause of acute abdomen, often diagnosed only intraoperatively. We report a 30-year-old man with torsion of the greater omentum in association with inguinal hernia, diagnosed on CT scan and managed conservatively. PMID:14658542

Xavier, Saju; John, Priya

2003-01-01

231

Utilization of wind energy in Greater Hannover - an introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt with energy and ecopolitical questions since the Eighties, the utilization of regenerative energy sources has remained a step-child for a long time. According to an expertise, wind energy has gained the greatest importance for Greater Hanover, since the potential is very high and the operational results can be assessed as favorable. (BWI)

232

[List of hazardous and extremely hazardous chemicals at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant]. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 311  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information reflects changes in the lists of hazardous chemicals present at this facility in amounts equal to or greater than 10,000 pounds and extremely hazardous chemicals present in amounts equal to or greater than 500 pounds or its Threshold Planning Quantity, whichever was less. These lists represent the following: (1) List of materials last reported in March 1996 (reference Y/TS-l482); (2) Materials to be deleted from list; (3) Materials to be added to list; and (4) Revised list of materials

233

Cooled radiofrequency ablation for bilateral greater occipital neuralgia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the suboccipital region and radiated into her vertex. She was diagnosed with bilateral greater occipital neuralgia. She underwent cooled radiofrequency ablation of bilateral greater occipital nerves with minimal side effects and 75% pain reduction. Cooled radiofrequency ablation of the greater occipital nerve in challenging cases is an alternative to pulsed and continuous RFA to alleviate pain with less side effects and potential for long-term efficacy. PMID:24716017

Vu, Tiffany; Chhatre, Akhil

2014-01-01

234

The impacts of precursor reduction and meteorology on ground-level ozone in the Greater Toronto Area  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a major component of photochemical smog and is a known human health hazard, as well as a damaging factor for vegetation. Its precursor compounds, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), have a variety of anthropogenic and biogenic sources and exhibit non-linear effects on ozone production. As an update to previous studies on ground-level ozone in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), we present an analysis of NO2, VOC and O3 data from federal and provincial governmental monitoring sites in the GTA from 2000 to 2012. We show that, over the study period, summertime 24 h VOC reactivity and NO2 midday (11:00-15:00) concentrations at all sites decreased significantly; since 2000, all sites experienced a decrease in NO2 of 28-62% and in measured VOC reactivity of at least 53-71%. Comparing 2002-2003 to 2011-2012, the summed reactivity of OH towards NO2 and a suite of measured VOCs decreased from 8.6 to 4.6 s-1. Ratios of reactive VOC pairs indicate that the effective OH concentration experienced by primary pollutants in the GTA has increased significantly over the study period. Despite the continuous decrease in precursor levels, ozone concentrations are not following the same pattern at all stations; it was found that the Canada-wide Standard for ozone continues to be exceeded at all monitoring stations. Additionally, while the years 2008-2011 had consistently lower ozone levels than previous years, 2012 experienced one of the highest recorded summertime ozone concentrations and a large number of smog episodes. We demonstrate that these high ozone observations in 2012 may be a result of the number of days with high solar radiation, the number of stagnant periods and the transport of high ozone levels from upwind regions.

Pugliese, S. C.; Murphy, J. G.; Geddes, J. A.; Wang, J. M.

2014-08-01

235

Rainfall-induced landslide cataloging for hazard assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Rainfall-triggered landslide hazards only represent a portion of the total fatalities associated with hydrometerological disasters; however, the economic losses and casualties caused by these hazards are greater than generally acknowledged and result in higher annual property losses than any other natural disaster. Most of the victims of landslide disasters occur in the developing world, where increased building on unstable hillslopes and poor or nonexistent mitigation activities escalate disaster risk. This research explores two landslide inventories at the global and regional scales and examines their potential applicability and validation capabilities for landslide hazard and risk assessment. The global analysis develops a methodology for compiling rainfall-triggered landslide events, drawing upon news reports, scholarly articles and other hazard databases to develop catalog at the global scale. The events cataloged in the inventory include information on the nominal and geographic location, date, affected population, information source, and a qualitative measure of the landslide event’s size and location accuracy. This global inventory differs from other landslide catalogs by providing a publicly available database of information on rainfall-triggered landslide events globally, which can be compared to other sources. The global catalog is used to evaluate preliminary landslide forecasting work as well as to assess landslide distribution and frequency worldwide. This research presents a discussion on the scientific and socio-economic implications of such a database and its utility in evaluating natural and anthropogenic triggers to hydrometeorological hazards in a changing world.

Hong, Y.; Kirschbaum, D. B.; Adler, R. F.

2009-12-01

236

Hazardous waste site investigations: Towards better decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Life Sciences Symposia series is conducted under the Associate Director for Environmental, Life, and Social Sciences. This series began in 1978 and it provides a forum to discuss subjects of interest to the US Department of Energy, the scientific community, and the public. The Tenth ORNL Life Sciences Symposium focused on key aspects of measurements made at hazardous waste sites and their impact on the decision-making process. In particular, the symposium was concerned with how field measurements could be improved to provide greater quality and quantity of data at less cost and in less time. Presentations and papers presented in this publication provide a critical review of the current status in their respective areas of interest. An effort has been made to identify existing deficiencies, future directions, and needed research. Experts were brought together to present data on the state-of-the-art hazardous waste site investigations in four major areas: Individual projects are processed separately for the databases

237

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment - Application to the Mediterranean Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Following several large tsunami events around the world in the recent years, the tsunami hazard is becoming an increasing concern. The traditional way of assessing tsunami hazard has been through deterministic scenario calculations which provide the expected wave heights due to a given tsunami source, usually a worst-case scenario. For quantitative hazard and risk assessment, however, it is necessary to move towards a probabilistic framework. In this study we focus on earthquake generated tsunamis and present a scheme for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA). Our PTHA methodology is based on the use of Monte-Carlo simulations and follows probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies closely. The PTHA is performed in four steps. First, earthquake and tsunami catalogues are analyzed in order to define a number of potential tsunami sources in the study area. For each of these sources, activity rates, maximum earthquake magnitude and uncertainties are assigned. Following, a synthetic earthquake catalogue is established, based on the information about the sources. The third step is to calculate multiple synthetic tsunami scenarios for all potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes in the synthetic catalogue. The tsunami scenarios are then combined at the fourth step to generate hazard curves and maps. We implement the PTHA methodology in the Mediterranean Sea, where numerous tsunami events have been reported in history. We derive a 100000 year-long catalog of potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes and calculate tsunami propagation scenarios for ca. 85000 M6.5+ earthquakes from the synthetic catalog. Results show that the highest tsunami hazard is attributed to the Eastern Mediterranean region, but that also the Western Mediterranean can experience significant tsunami waves for long return periods. Hazard maps will be presented for a range of probability levels together with hazard curves for selected critical locations.

Sorensen, M. B.; Spada, M.; Babeyko, A.; Wiemer, S.; Grünthal, G.

2009-12-01

238

Hamburger hazards and emotions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior.With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers’ willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done,well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating.We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer’s willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer’s likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies.

Olsen, Nina Veflen; RØssvoll, Elin

2014-01-01

239

Major hazards onshore and offshore  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

240

MGR External Events Hazards Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

L. Booth

1999-11-06

 
 
 
 
241

Toxic hazards of underground excavation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

1982-09-01

242

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to develop a field-portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection using active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence (active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen). It should provide rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map areas of greatest contamination. Results indicate that ANET is very sensitive for monitoring heavy metals (Hg, Se) and hydrocarbons; furthermore, chlorinated hydrocarbons can be distinguished from nonchlorinated ones. Sensitivity is at ppB levels for sampling in air. ANET appears ideal for on-line monitoring of toxic heavy metal levels at building sites, hazardous waste land fills, in combustor flues, and of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels at building sites and hazardous waste dumps

243

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective was to develop a field-portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection using active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence (active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen). It should provide rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map areas of greatest contamination. Results indicate that ANET is very sensitive for monitoring heavy metals (Hg, Se) and hydrocarbons; furthermore, chlorinated hydrocarbons can be distinguished from nonchlorinated ones. Sensitivity is at ppB levels for sampling in air. ANET appears ideal for on-line monitoring of toxic heavy metal levels at building sites, hazardous waste land fills, in combustor flues, and of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels at building sites and hazardous waste dumps.

Piper, L.G.

1994-12-31

244

Quantitative Hazard and Risk Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a quantitative method for hazard and risk analysis is discussed. The method was developed and introduced for the allocation of safety requirements to the functions of a railway signaling remote control system.

Geza Tarnai

2006-01-01

245

Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being shipped, and will otherwise maintain it as nearly as possible in its original condition.The recommendations provided are short-term solutions to the problems of shipping evidence, and have considered only currently commercially available containers. These containers may not be appropriate for all cases. Design, testing, and certification of new transportation containers would be necessary to provide a container appropriate for all cases.Table 1 provides a summary of the recommendations for each class of hazardous material.Table 1: Summary of RecommendationsContainerCost1-quart paint can with ArmlockTM seal ringLabelMaster(r)%242.90 eachHazard Class 3, 4, 5, 8, or 9 Small ContainersTC Hazardous Material Transport ContainerCurrently in Use4 DraftDraftDraftTable 1: Summary of Recommendations (continued)ContainerCost55-gallon open or closed-head steel drumsAll-Pak, Inc.%2458.28 - %2473.62 eachHazard Class 3, 4, 5, 8, or 9 Large Containers95-gallon poly overpack LabelMaster(r)%24194.50 each1-liter glass container with plastic coatingLabelMaster(r)%243.35 - %243.70 eachHazard Class 6 Division 6.1 Poisonous by Inhalation (PIH) Small ContainersTC Hazardous Material Transport ContainerCurrently in Use20 to 55-gallon PIH overpacksLabelMaster(r)%24142.50 - %24170.50 eachHazard Class 6 Division 6.1 Poisonous by Inhalation (PIH) Large Containers65 to 95-gallon poly overpacksLabelMaster(r)%24163.30 - %24194.50 each1-liter transparent containerCurrently in UseHazard Class 6 Division 6.2 Infectious Material Small ContainersInfectious Substance ShipperSource Packaging of NE, Inc.%24336.00 eachNone Commercially AvailableN/AHazard Class 6 Division 6.2 Infectious Material Large ContainersNone Commercially Available N/A5

Osborn, Douglas.

2005-06-01

246

A new relative hazard index  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several indexes for the evaluation of relative radionuclide hazards have been previously developed. In this paper, a new relative hazard index is derived for use in the assessment of the future burden to mankind from the presence of radionuclides in the environment. Important features of this hazard index are that it takes into account multiple decay schemes, non-equilibrium conditions, and finite time periods. As an application of this hazard index, a comparison is made between thermal reactor radioactive waste and the uranium required as fuel with the following conclusions: (1) For short time intervals (d 234U breaking the uranium decay chain. (3) For long time intervals of concern (d >= 500 000 years), the reactor waste and consumed uranium indexes are equal after a much shorter decay time (approximately 10 years.) (author)

247

Toxic hazards of underground excavation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

248

Exporting hazards to developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources. PMID:10050169

Menkes, D B

1998-01-01

249

Spacecraft Charging and Hazards to Electronics in Space  

CERN Document Server

The interaction of a space system with its orbital environment is a major consideration in the design of any space system, since a variety of hazards are associated with the operation of spacecraft in the harsh space environment. In this brief review, two types of hazards to Earth-orbiting spacecraft are discussed: spacecraft charging and radiation hazards to spacecraft electronics, with emphasis on the natural environmental factors and interactions which contribute to these hazards. Following a summary of the historical eras of spacecraft charging and some observations from experimental satellites: SCATHA, CRRES and DMSP, environmental factors significant to spacecraft charging are discussed, including plasma interactions, electric and magnetic fields and solar radiation. Spacecraft charging depends on the spacecraft geometry, as well as on the characteristics of its orbit, since the natural environment may differ for each type of orbit. Low altitude orbiting satellites (LEO) usually experience less charging...

Mikaelian, Tsoline

2009-01-01

250

Probabilistic analysis of tsunami hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining the likelihood of a disaster is a key component of any comprehensive hazard assessment. This is particularly true for tsunamis, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models. We discuss probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) from the standpoint of integrating computational methods with empirical analysis of past tsunami runup. PTHA is derived from probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), with the main difference being that PTHA must account for far-field sources. The computational methods rely on numerical tsunami propagation models rather than empirical attenuation relationships as in PSHA in determining ground motions. Because a number of source parameters affect local tsunami runup height, PTHA can become complex and computationally intensive. Empirical analysis can function in one of two ways, depending on the length and completeness of the tsunami catalog. For site-specific studies where there is sufficient tsunami runup data available, hazard curves can primarily be derived from empirical analysis, with computational methods used to highlight deficiencies in the tsunami catalog. For region-wide analyses and sites where there are little to no tsunami data, a computationally based method such as Monte Carlo simulation is the primary method to establish tsunami hazards. Two case studies that describe how computational and empirical methods can be integrated are presented for Acapulco, Mexico (site-specific) and the U.S. Pacific Northwest coastline (region-wide analysis).

Geist, E.L.; Parsons, T.

2006-01-01

251

USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps  

Science.gov (United States)

This set of resources provides seismic hazard assessments and information on design values and mitigation for the U.S. and areas around the world. Map resources include the U.S. National and Regional probabilistic ground motion map collection, which covers the 50 states, Puerto Rico, and selected countries. These maps display peak ground acceleration (PGA) values, and are used as the basis for seismic provisions in building codes and for new construction. There is also a custom mapping and analysis tool, which enables users to re-plot these maps for area of interest, get hazard values using latitude/longitude or zip code, find predominant magnitudes and distances, and map the probability of given magnitude within a certain distance from a site. The ground motion calculator, a Java application, determines hazard curves, uniform hazard response spectra, and design parameters for sites in the 50 states and most territories. There is also a two-part earthquake hazards 'primer', which provides links to hazard maps and frequently-asked-questions, and more detailed information for building and safety planners.

252

Recruitment advantage of large seeds is greater in shaded habitats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large seeds are assumed to have higher probability of successful recruitment than small seeds. This is because larger seeds give rise to larger seedlings and larger seedlings better withstand environmental hazards like deep shade and drought. Biotic and abiotic limitations to seedling growth and survival, and conversely availability of safe sites for recruitment, vary along environmental gradients and between habitat types. Thus, the value to plant species of possessing large seeds may differ...

Bruun, Hans Henrik; Ten Brink, Dirk-jan

2008-01-01

253

Radon (222Rn) in underground drinking water supplies of the Southern Greater Poland Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activity concentration of the 222Rn radionuclide was determined in drinking water samples from the Southern Greater Poland region by liquid scintillation technique. The measured values ranged from 0.42 to 10.52 Bq/dm3 with the geometric mean value of 1.92 Bq/dm3. The calculated average annual effective doses from ingestion with water and inhalation of this radionuclide escaping from water were 1.15 and 11.8 ?Sv, respectively. Therefore, it should be underlined that, generally, it's not the ingestion of natural radionuclides with water but inhalation of the radon escaping from water which is a substantial part of the radiological hazard due to the presence of the natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series in the drinking water. (author)

254

Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

255

Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards.

Elless, M.P. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: elless@edenspace.com; Ferguson, B.W. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: ferguson@edenspace.com; Bray, C.A. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: bray@edenspace.com; Patch, S. [Environmental Quality Institute, University of North Carolina, One University Heights, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)], E-mail: patch@unca.edu; Mielke, H. [College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States)], E-mail: hmielke@xula.edu; Blaylock, M.J. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: blaylock@edenspace.com

2008-11-15

256

Hazards Analysis Report Addendum Buildign 518/518A Industrial Gases & Chemtrack Receiving & Barcoding Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the Hazards Analysis Report (HAR) Addendum for Buildings 518 and 518A. In summary, the description of the facility and the operations given in the 1995 PHA are the same as the present in this year 2000. The hazards description also remains the same. The hazards analysis in this HAR Addendum is different in that it needs to be compared to operations routinely ''performed'' by the public. The HAR Addendum characterizes the level of intrinsic potential hazards associated with a facility and provides the basis for hazard classification. The hazard classification determines the level of safety documentation required and the DOE order governing the safety analysis. The hazard classification also determines the level of review and approval required for the safety analysis. This facility does not contain any safety class systems or systems important to safety as defined in Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3009-94. The hazards of primary concern associated with B518 and B518A are chemical in nature. The hazard classification is determined by comparing facility inventories of chemicals with threshold values for the various hazard classification levels. In this way, the hazard level of the facility can be ascertained. The most significant hazards that could affect people in the local area of B518 and B518A, elsewhere on the LLNL site, and off site, are associated with hazardous and toxic materials. These hazards are the focus of this report and are the basis for the facility hazard classification.

Hickman, R D

2000-02-04

257

Significances of Multimedia Technologies Training  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of multimedia technologies in education has enabled teachers to simulate final outcomes and assist s-tudents in applying knowledge learned from textbooks, thereby compensating for the deficiency of traditional teach- ing methods. It is important to examine how effective these technologies are in practical use. This study developed online learning-teaching resource platforms using Flash multimedia, providing interactive and integrated features in an easy-to-use user interface, in order to discuss Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD). The study utilized a teaching experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design to test and discuss students’ professional cognition, operating skill cognition, and level of learning satisfaction during the learning process. No significant differences emerged between the groups in regards to professional cognition or operation skills cognition. However, a significant difference in learning satisfaction was noted, indicating that the coursework with multimedia Flash produced greater satisfaction than with traditional learning methods. Results are explained in detail and recommendations for further research provided.

Zhang, Fulei

258

Coincidence to significance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article will describe the author's entrepreneurial experiences related to challenges of initiating, negotiating and completing a health promotion project for a Fortune 500 company. The events described begin with her casual meeting of a director of the health promotion section of an international food company and wncludes with the author's final development of a significant employee injury prevention program. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate professional challenges an occupational therapist may encounter to successfully complete a corporate project. PMID:23931009

Herring, C

1989-01-01

259

Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "ÃÂÃÂPractice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

Duckworth, William; Mccabe, George; Moore, David; Sclove, Stanley

2009-03-05

260

Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six  

Science.gov (United States)

We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

1993-10-01

262

Success in transmitting hazard science  

Science.gov (United States)

Money motivates mitigation. An example of success in communicating scientific information about hazards, coupled with information about available money, is the follow-up action by local governments to actually mitigate. The Nevada Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee helps local governments prepare competitive proposals for federal funds to reduce risks from natural hazards. Composed of volunteers with expertise in emergency management, building standards, and earthquake, flood, and wildfire hazards, the committee advises the Nevada Division of Emergency Management on (1) the content of the State’s hazard mitigation plan and (2) projects that have been proposed by local governments and state agencies for funding from various post- and pre-disaster hazard mitigation programs of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Local governments must have FEMA-approved hazard mitigation plans in place before they can receive this funding. The committee has been meeting quarterly with elected and appointed county officials, at their offices, to encourage them to update their mitigation plans and apply for this funding. We have settled on a format that includes the county’s giving the committee an overview of its infrastructure, hazards, and preparedness. The committee explains the process for applying for mitigation grants and presents the latest information that we have about earthquake hazards, including locations of nearby active faults, historical seismicity, geodetic strain, loss-estimation modeling, scenarios, and documents about what to do before, during, and after an earthquake. Much of the county-specific information is available on the web. The presentations have been well received, in part because the committee makes the effort to go to their communities, and in part because the committee is helping them attract federal funds for local mitigation of not only earthquake hazards but also floods (including canal breaches) and wildfires, the other major concerns in Nevada. Local citizens appreciate the efforts of the state officials to present the information in a public forum. The Committee’s earthquake presentations to the counties are supplemented by regular updates in the two most populous counties during quarterly meetings of the Nevada Earthquake Safety Council, generally alternating between Las Vegas and Reno. We have only 17 counties in Nevada, so we are making good progress at reaching each within a few years. The Committee is also learning from the county officials about their frustrations in dealing with the state and federal bureaucracies. Success is documented by the mitigation projects that FEMA has funded.

Price, J. G.; Garside, T.

2010-12-01

263

Torção do grande omento Torsion of greater omentum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present two cases of greater omental torsion, a rare condition of acute abdominal pain, emphasizing the clinical manifestations and imaging findings, which can lead us to the difficult preoperative diagnosis of this entity.

Leonardo Fernandes Valentim

2005-10-01

264

Conservation assessment of greater sage-grouse and sagebrush habitats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An unbiased assessment from an ecological perspective of the current status and the potential factors that influenced the long-term conservation of greater sage-grouse populations and the sagebrush ecosystems on which they depend.

Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies

2004-01-01

265

Hazard-consistent response spectra in the Region of Murcia (Southeast Spain): comparison to earthquake-resistant provisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hazard-consistent ground-motion characterisations of three representative sites located in the Region of Murcia (southeast Spain) are presented. This is the area where the last three damaging events in Spain occurred and there is a significant amount of data for comparing them with seismic hazard estimates and earthquake-resistant provisions. Results of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis are used to derive uniform hazard spectra (UHS) for the 475-year return period, on rock and soil cond...

Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Benito Oterino, Belen; Garcia Mayordomo, Julian

2008-01-01

266

Radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated wastes are discussed in this overview in terms of two components of hazard: radiobiological hazard, and radioecological hazard. Radiobiological hazard refers to human uptake of alpha-emitters by inhalation and ingestion, and the resultant dose to critical organs of the body. Radioecological hazard refers to the processes of release from buried wastes, transport in the environment, and translocation to man through the food chain. Besides detailing the sources and magnitude of hazards, this brief review identifies the uncertainties in their estimation, and implications for the regulatory process

267

Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

268

Significance of brown dwarfs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientific interest in objects that are not massive enough to qualify as stars has, until recently, not been high. However, the advent of powerful and clever new observational techniques, as well as of new instrumentation, signals the dawn of a new era in research related to sub-stellar mass bodies. The significance of these bodies in terms of their role in furthering our understanding of major problems in astronomy is discussed. The discussion centers on two themes; brown dwarfs in their own right, and brown dwarfs and their relationship to planetary systems. (author)

269

Influence of affective states on comprehension and hazard perception of warning pictorials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of positive and negative affective states on comprehension and hazard perception of warning pictorials. The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) was used to manipulate the affective states of sixty male undergraduate and graduate student participants. We used sixteen standard industrial warning pictorials, which were representative of a variety of industries, to assess changes in comprehension and hazard perception. Participants in the positive affect condition perceived greater hazards from the warning signs than those in the neutral affect condition or the negative affect condition. Post-hoc analyses confirmed this finding. We discuss implications for warning pictorials and future research. PMID:24045098

Jiamsanguanwong, Arisara; Umemuro, Hiroyuki

2014-09-01

270

76 FR 37283 - Hazardous Materials: Revision to the List of Hazardous Substances and Reportable Quantities  

Science.gov (United States)

...of saccharin and its salts as a hazardous substance...being listed as hazardous wastes under RCRA (40 CFR 261...removing saccharin and its salts for the ``List of Hazardous...transportation, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances...Markings, Packaging and containers, Reporting and...

2011-06-27

271

Personnel hazards from medical electron accelerator photoneutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For medical accelerators, neutron penetration through the room entry door is the major personnel hazard. Most therapy accelerator rooms are designed with at least a rudimentary maze to avoid the use of massive doors. Often, however, the maze may be similar to those shown in scale outline drawings of some medical electron accelerator rooms where the authors have made neutron measurements outside the doors which were of different thicknesses and compositions. The results are tabulated. It should be noted that there can be significant dose equivalents (H) at the door when a maze is inadequate, and that all three components - fast neutron, thermal neutron, and neutron capture ? rays - can be equally important

272

Personnel hazards from medical electron accelerator photoneutrons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For medical accelerators, neutron penetration through the room entry door is the major personnel hazard. Most therapy accelerator rooms are designed with at least a rudimentary maze to avoid the use of massive doors. Often, however, the maze may be similar to those shown in scale outline drawings of some medical electron accelerator rooms where the authors have made neutron measurements outside the doors which were of different thicknesses and compositions. The results are tabulated. It should be noted that there can be significant dose equivalents (H) at the door when a maze is inadequate, and that all three components - fast neutron, thermal neutron, and neutron capture ..gamma.. rays - can be equally important.

McCall, R.C.; Jenkins, T.M.; Shore, R.A.; LaRiviere, P.D.

1979-12-01

273

Explosion hazard analysis for an enclosure partially filled with a flammable gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The constant volume explosion of a flammable gas is one of the more common accidental explosions. The explosion pressure at the stoichiometric condition is approximately 50 times greater than the failure pressure of most industrial structures. Observations from accident scenes suggest that some explosions are caused by a quantity of fuel significantly less than the stoichiometric amount required to fill an enclosure. This paper presents a method for analyzing the explosion hazard in an enclosure which is only partially filled with a flammable gas. The method, called the adiabatic mixing model, is based on thermodynamics and can be used to calculate the minimum fuel quantity which will yield a specified explosion pressure. Results are presented for a set of representative fuels and are compared with alternative explosion models. The results demonstrate that catastrophic structural damage can be achieved with a volume of flammable gas which is less than one percent of the enclosure volume. The method can be a useful tool for both hazard analysis and accident investigations.

Ogle, R.A. [Packer Engineering Inc., Naperville, IL (United States)

1999-11-01

274

Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

1994-07-01

275

Innovative technologies for the treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes incur significant costs for Department of Energy (DOE) installations. These wastes must be managed under strict environmental controls and regulations to prevent the possibility of migration of hazardous materials to the biosphere. Through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program, the DOE is seeking to develop innovative ways of improving current treatment technologies to eliminate the hazardous components of wastes, reduce waste management costs, and minimize the volume requiring disposal as hazardous or mixed waste. Sponsored projects progress from research and development to field demonstration. Among the innovative technologies under development are supercritical water oxidation of hazardous chemicals, microwave-assisted destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons, paramagnetic separation of metals from waste, detoxification and reclamation of waste acid, nitrate destruction through calcination, treatment/disposal of reactive metals, and methodologies for encapsulation. Technologies at a demonstration phase include detoxification of mixed waste sludge, microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil, and the remediation process for a hydrocarbon spill. 14 refs

276

Seismic hazard in the design of oil and gas pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Criteria that are adopted in earthquake resistant design of pipelines and gas lines have to take into account seismic movements and seismic generated forces that are of significantly high probability level of appearance along the length of pipeline. A choice of criteria has to include an acceptable level of seismic hazard, while design criteria should be calculated. Seismic hazard is defined as a part of natural hazard and means probability of appearance of earthquake of corresponding characteristics in certain time and place. For design needs and calculation of influences caused by seismic forces the most important is seismic hazard of maximal horizontal acceleration due to ground vibration during earthquake. The methodology of seismic hazard calculation as base for micro seismic zoning is presented in the paper. It is shown calculation of seismic hazard of maximal horizontal acceleration due to ground vibration that is applied for 985 points at the territory of Republic of Serbia, based on which maps for return periods of 50 and 200 years are drawn.

Zdravkovi? Slavko

2011-01-01

277

Development of District-Based Mineral-Hazards Maps for Highways in California  

Science.gov (United States)

The California Geological Survey (CGS) currently is developing a series of unpublished maps for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that shows potential for mineral hazards within each of the twelve highway districts administered by that agency. Where present along or near highway corridors, such hazards may pose problems for human health and safety or the environment. Prepared at a scale of 1:250,000, the maps are designed as initial screening tools for Caltrans staff to use to improve planning of activities that involve new construction projects, routine maintenance of highways, and emergency removal of debris deposited on roads by natural processes. Although the basic presentation of each type of thematic map in the series is the same, some customization and focus are allowed for each district because each has unique issues concerning potential for mineral hazards. The maps display many natural and man-made features that may be potential sources of mineral hazards within each district. Features compiled and evaluated under our definition of "mineral hazards" are: 1) naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA); 2) natural occurrences of various regulated metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se) as well as other pertinent metals, such as Mn and U; 3) faults, which can be sites of increased potential for certain types of mineralization, such as NOA; 4) mines and prospects, which can be sources of anomalous concentrations of metals as well as ore-processing chemicals; 5) natural petroleum features, such as oil and natural-gas seeps; 6) natural geothermal features, such as thermal springs and fumaroles; and 7) oil, natural-gas, and geothermal wells. Because of their greater potential as sources of mineral hazards, localities designated on the maps as "areas of potential mineralogical concern" are of particular interest to Caltrans. Examples include significant mining districts, such as New Almaden (Hg) near San Jose, and bedrock units such as serpentinite (NOA, Cr, Ni) and the Monterey Formation (Cd) and similar organic-carbon-rich and phosphate-rich Cenozoic marine sedimentary rocks (Cd, Se), all of which are common in the southern Coast Ranges. Some areas, present mainly in the Mojave Desert and east of the Sierra Nevada, comprise dry lake beds that can be sources of wind-blown dust, which may contain mineral hazards (e.g., As). Watershed boundaries and streams, superimposed on shaded topographic relief, are also shown on the maps to help Caltrans staff determine if drainages that intersect highway corridors may contain deleterious materials eroded and transported from upstream geologic features or mining areas. Besides the 1:250,000-scale maps, which are prepared as both paper copies and .pdf files, individual digital thematic layers of the features described above are prepared for use in GIS software and in-house image-viewers (CT Earth) employed by Caltrans. These layers provide additional information not displayed on the maps (e.g., directions of stream flow; characteristics of individual mines), which allows more-sophisticated analysis for possible mineral hazards.

Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Fonseca, M. C.

2011-12-01

278

Tumor significant dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

279

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment in the Mediterranean Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating the occurrence probability of natural disasters is critical for setting construction standards and, more generally, prioritizing risk mitigation efforts. Tsunami hazard in the Mediterranean region has traditionally been estimated by considering so-called "most credible" scenarios of tsunami impact for limited geographical regions, but little attention has been paid to the probability of any given scenario. In this study, we present the first probabilistic estimate of earthquake generated tsunami hazard for the entire Mediterranean and estimate the annual probability of exceeding a given run-up height at any coastal location in the region. Our PTHA methodology is based on the use of Monte-Carlo simulations and follows probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies closely. The PTHA is performed in four steps. First, earthquake and tsunami catalogues are analyzed in order to define a number of potential tsunami sources in the study area. For each of these sources, activity rates, maximum earthquake magnitude and faulting regimes are assigned. Following, a synthetic earthquake catalogue is established, based on the information about the sources. The third step is to calculate multiple synthetic tsunami scenarios for all potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes in the synthetic catalogue. The tsunami scenarios are then combined to generate hazard curves and maps. The highest hazard is found to be in the Eastern Mediterranean owing to earthquakes along the Hellenic Arc, but most of the Mediterranean coastline is prone to tsunami impact. Our method allows us to identify the relative contributions of potential source zones to the tsunami hazard at any given location, and to evaluate the corresponding tsunami travel times and thereby map the potential for issuing timely tsunami warnings. We find that the probability of a tsunami wave exceeding 5 m somewhere in the Mediterranean in the next 30 years is greater than 90 percent. This underlines the urgent need for a tsunami warning system in the region.

Sorensen, M. B.; Spada, M.; Babeyko, A. Y.; Wiemer, S.; Grünthal, G.

2011-12-01

280

Predicting Strong Motions for Seismic Hazard Assessments in Seattle, Washington  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of Seattle, Washington lies atop a deep sedimentary basin. The Seattle Basin amplifies and distorts seismic waves in ways that modulate the hazard from earthquakes. Seismic hazard assessments heavily depend upon upper crustal and near-surface S-wave velocity models, which have traditionally been constructed from P-wave models using an empirical relationship between P-wave and S-wave velocity or by interpolating and extrapolating widely spaced observations of shallow geologic structures. Improving the accuracy and resolution of basin S-wave models is key to predictions for ground shaking. Tomography, with short-period Rayleigh waves extracted using noise interferometry, can refine S-wave velocity models in urban areas with dense arrays of short-period and broadband instruments. I apply this technique to the Seattle area to develop a new shallow S-wave model for use in hazard assessment. Continuous data from the Seismic Hazards in Puget Sound (SHIPS) array and local broadband stations have inter-station distances as short as a few kilometers. This spacing allows me to extract Rayleigh waves between 2-10s period that are sensitive to shallow basin structure. My results reveal greater detail in the upper 4 km than previous models. I use the new model to make predictions on the levels of ground motions for a variety of representative crustal and Benioff Zone earthquakes. My simulations reveal additional risk from earthquake shaking in some neighborhoods in north Seattle from crustal events relative to predictions made in the current seismic hazard map. The predicted amplitudes in the Seattle neighborhoods of Capital Hill and Queen Anne are twice as high as previous predictions for some events. The combined risk for all possible events will increase somewhat due to these predictions. My simulations of Benioff Zone events show similar results to the previous model used to make predictions for the seismic hazard map.

Delorey, Andrew A.

 
 
 
 
281

Determination of the fragment hazards from oil well perforators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accidental detonation of oil well perforators can result in serious threats to operator safety. This paper provided details of an experiment conducted to determine the maximum range at which the exploded fragments and jet from a perforator are hazardous to people. The study was conducted to clarify a previous study which did not accurately determine the trajectory of the perforator jet. Eleven arena tests were performed with a 50 mm perforator with a total mass of 0.5 kg. The perforator was aimed down-range and fired at a series of paper witness panels. The panels were positioned to capture the trajectory of the jet's flight. Results of the tests showed that the perforator posed a severe fragment hazard at 10 m, a high hazard at between 15 and 35 m, and a diminishing hazard at distances greater than 60 m. Within 10 m of the charge, the paper witness panel was damaged, torn and bent. Whereas in the previous study large perforations observed at a distance of 60 m were attributed to the jet, this study demonstrated that hazards from the charge jet were greatly diminished at a distance of 10 m. However, case fragments from the perforator had a range of approximately 300 m and exceeded the 80 J hazardous fragment criterion. A modelling study was conducted to determine kinetic energy equations as well as to determine the fragment trajectory based on its initial speed, launch angle, surface area, and drag. A Mott-equation based study conducted to determine the number of fragments that might be expected from the detonation of the perforator indicated that over 100 fragments with a mass exceeding 0.5 g could be expected from a single oil well perforator. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs.

Von Rosen, B.; Wilson, D.; Penney, D.

2006-02-15

282

Building 894 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 894. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 9 chemicals were kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 130 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 130 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

283

Lessons learned from external hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

Peinador, Miguel; Zerger, Benoit [European Commisison Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Ramos, Manuel Martin [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Safety and Security Coordination; Wattrelos, Didier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

2014-01-15

284

Building 6630 hazards assessment document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 6630. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which one chemical was kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the chemical release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 76 meters. The highest emergency classification is an Alert. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 100 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

285

327 Building hazard baseline document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document identifies the hazards in the 327 Building at the time that a facility walk through was performed during FY99, presents a PHA of stabilization and deactivation activities, and provides a basis for the hazard evaluation and accident analysis that will be developed in the 327 Building Basis for Interim Operation (BIO). Activities addressed in this hazard baseline document include: (1) Stabilization and deactivation activities in preparation for eventual decommissioning of the 327 Building and the routine handling, processing, and shipment of waste to support these activities. (2) 324/327 Building Minimum Safe Project engineering and maintenance activities to maintain the building and systems viable--especially the Safety SSCs--to allow stabilization, deactivation, and waste handling activities with a minimum of risk to workers, the public, and the environment

286

Biological treatment of hazardous waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This reference book is intended for individuals interested in or involved with the treatment of hazardous wastes using biological/biochemical processes. Composed of 13 chapters, it covers a wide variety of topics ranging from engineering design to hydrogeologic factors. The first four chapters are devoted to a description of several different types of bioreactors. Chapter 5 discusses the biofiltration of volatile organic compounds. Chapters 6 through 9 discuss specific biological, biochemical, physical, and engineering factors that affect bioremediation of hazardous wastes. Chapter 10 is a very good discussion of successful bioremediation of pentachlorophenol contamination under laboratory and field conditions, and excellent references are provided. The next chapter discusses the natural biodegradation of PCB-contaminated sediments in the Hudson River in New York state. Chapter 12 takes an excellent look at the bioremediation capability of anaerobic organisms. The final chapter discusses composting of hazardous waste.

Lewandowski, G.A.; Filippi, L.J. de [eds.

1998-12-01

287

Risk - hazardous incident - communication 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is difficult to develop an objective approach to risks and effects of a hazardous incident that would be acceptable to the community at large. It is a matter of fact that there is great dissimilarity in the way various social groups perceive and define the risks of a particular technology, or the effects of hazardous incidents, sometimes they have even contrary opinions. Hence, open communication is seriously hampered, which in turn aggravates the problems encountered in this context. This second volume of the publication dealing with the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication' is intended to reveal patterns of the recurrent process which impedes communication, and to bridge the gaps between the various 'styles' of risk perception and definition. (orig./CB)

288

Radioactive contamination hazard from patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is stated that the hazard of contamination and cross contamination associated with in-patients who have been injected with radioactive material for diagnostic purposes (such as imaging) is sometimes not fully appreciated. The quantity of activity appearing in the 24-hour urine from a patient initially injected with 10 mCi of 99Tcsup(m), for example, may be 0.5 mCi so that spillage or incontinence can easily produce a contamination hazard. It is urged that patients who have received such levels of radioactivity should be easily identifiable to enable nursing staff to appreciate that a hazard exists in the event of incontinence and that instructions should be available to the Nursing Officer in charge of wards summarizing the precautions to be taken in such circumstances, and indicating the length of time for which these special provisions should apply. (U.K.)

289

How to control chemical hazards  

CERN Multimedia

Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: cern.ch/regles-securite The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: safety-general@cern.ch The HSE Unit

2012-01-01

290

Asteroid and Comet Impact Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

This site provides an overview of NASA initiatives to locate, track, and study asteroids and comets--often called Near Earth Objects (NEOs)--in order to provide an early warning, to estimate the probability of their hitting Earth, and to predict what the resulting damage and environmental impacts would be. Materials at the site include an introduction to the risk of cosmic impacts, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to news articles. There is also a catalog of NEOs, information on the Torino Scale for categorizing impact hazards associated with newly discovered objects, a bibliography of recent scientific papers, and links to government reports on asteroid and comet impact hazards. Other materials include a small image gallery of artists' conceptions of catastrophic impacts and a brief video of the 1992 Peekskill, New York meteorite; a set of presentations on impact hazards and impacts in relation to evolution; and links to related web sites.

291

A Greater Society: The Transformation of the Federal Role in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The federal role in education will soon be transformed in ways that could produce an even greater society than President Lyndon B. Johnson envisioned. The authors identify underlying principles of this new role and describe how it represents a significant departure from the past. Historically, for example, the federal government has been…

Wise, Bob; Rothman, Robert

2010-01-01

292

Microstructural analysis of Greater Himalayan rocks in northern Bhutan  

Science.gov (United States)

Across the Himalayan fold-thrust belt, high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Greater Himalayan (GH) zone are juxtaposed between low-grade metasedimentary rocks structurally above and below. In Bhutan, the higher-grade GH rocks lie structurally over lower-grade Lesser Himalayan rocks and are separated by the Main Central Thrust. However, many aspects of the deformation path, deformation conditions, and the emplacement mechanism that led to the exhumation of GH rocks are poorly understood. In this study geologic mapping and quantitative microstructural analysis are utilized to gain insight into the deformation history of GH rocks in Bhutan, and to test the applicability of end-member emplacement models. Microstructural datasets include characterization of kinematic indicators, determination of deformation temperatures through analysis of quartz deformation microstructures and quartz crystal-preferred orientation (CPO) data, and classification of strain and shear type using CPO and kinematic vorticity data. Semi-quantitative deformation-temperature estimates obtained from cataloguing quartz-recrystallization mechanisms, combined with quantitative temperature estimates from CPO plot opening angles, suggest that GH rocks were deformed at temperatures of ca. 500 to 750°C at both structurally-lower and higher levels, and were later overprinted by a lower-temperature recrystallization event around that occurred at conditions of ca. 400--500°C. The higher-temperature recrystallization event is interpreted to be associated with earlier slip (˜22--15 Ma) along the Main Central Thrust, at or near peak metamorphic temperature conditions. The lower-temperature overprint is interpreted to have occurred at a higher point along the pressure-temperature-deformation path as GH rocks were passively translated and structurally elevated southward, concurrent with duplexing of Lesser Himalayan rocks (˜18--10 Ma). Internal deformation within structurally-lower and higher GH rocks consisted of components of both coaxial (pure shear) and non-coaxial (simple shear) strain, as indicated by localities with opposite shear-sense kinematics, type-I cross-girdle CPO patterns and kinematic vorticity, which suggests that exhumation of GH rocks was accompanied by significant flattening in north-central and northeast Bhutan.

Penfold, Melissa L.

293

Travel and urban form in the Greater Copenhagen region  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Research into the associations between urban form and travel in the capital areal has focussed on subcenters and the stability of urban form correlates over time. A trend towards de-concentration and formation of subcenters in metropolitan areas has been acknowledged for decades. Studies have analyzed the new urban structure by identifying subcenters and their land value impacts. Others have focused on subcenters as a location attribute or ‘intervention’ that affects travel patterns and therefore may be employed in the context of urban and transportation demand management. The research has aimed to identify subcenters in the Greater Copenhagen area and analyze their importance for property values as well as on travel demand. Subcenters are identified by applying spatial statistics to on available spatially explicit datasets representing jobs in general and retail jobs. Home price appreciation rates are available from the Danish property registers sales databases. Travel data are available from the Danish National Travel survey. Properties and travel patterns have been analysed for the effects of access to subcenters a different levels to support conclusions on which subcenters matter and how much. Analysis of the stability of urban form correlates of travel over time has exploited the possibilities offered by the most recent and consistent data series produced by the Danish National Travel Survey. Data allows for a comparison of the urban form correlates of travel at the peak of the economic upturn – with a later point in time where the financial crisis had radically changed the economic climate. It follows from the specificity of the historical events that an analysis of what happened to urban form and transport over the financial crisis is to be seen as a case study into the adaption’s that occurred and the conditioning properties of the urban fabric. However, this will still make a new contribution to our understanding of the relations between urban form, location and travel. The results indicated that some changes in the location dependencies of transport took place between 2006 and 2011 – especially with respect to the role of subcenters that seem to have increased in significance by the addition of an extra level of ‘centrality’ which again most likely reflect travel-saving behavioural changes.

Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

294

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  

Science.gov (United States)

Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with BSE in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), infectivity in greater kudu with BSE is distributed in as wide a range of tissues as occurs in any TSE. BSE agent was also detected in skin, conjunctiva, and salivary gland, tissues in which infectivity has not previously been reported in any naturally occurring TSE. The distribution of infectivity in greater kudu with BSE suggests possible routes for transmission of the disease and highlights the need for further research into the distribution of TSE infectious agents in other host species. PMID:15207051

Cunningham, Andrew A; Kirkwood, James K; Dawson, Michael; Spencer, Yvonne I; Green, Robert B; Wells, Gerald A H

2004-06-01

295

21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 ...Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) Hazard analysis...absence of those controls. (b) The HACCP plan. Every processor shall have...

2010-04-01

296

21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...points designed to control food safety hazards introduced...environment, including food safety hazards that occur... (d) Signing and dating the HACCP plan. ...a)(1). (e) Products subject to other regulations...plan need not list the food safety hazard...

2010-04-01

297

76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 2050-AG60 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and...the regulations for hazardous waste management under the Resource Conservation...the regulations for hazardous waste management under the Resource...

2011-09-09

298

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31

299

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M and O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''

300

Reproductive hazards and industrial chemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reproductive problems arising from industrial chemical exposures are not limited to pregnant women; both males and females at any time may be at risk. Few adequate epidemiological studies have been carried out but, to date, lead, methylmercury, beryllium, polychlorinated biphenyls, carbon monoxide, carbon disulphide, benzene, chlordecone, dibromochloropropane and hexachlorobenzene have been identified as hazardous to male and female reproduction in humans. In general, it is unusual for reproductive toxic effects to be observed at otherwise non-toxic doses. It seems likely that reproduction hazards from industrial chemicals will not be very common but, where they do occur, may be of great importance.

Barlow, S.M.; Sullivan, F.M.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The EMS and the international monetary system: towards greater stability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Monetary System (EMS is an attempt to achieve greater stability of monetary relationships between member states of the European Community. The author examines the theoretical foundations of such a scheme before discussing the experience of the EMS since its establishment in 1978. Particular attention is paid to the problem of harmonising the different monetary objectives of member states within the EMS and the role of the European Currency Unit in achieving harmonisation. This leads to an analysis of how greater stability may be achieved between the EMS and other currency areas and of how international monetary stability may be improved.

M. SARCINELLI

2013-12-01

302

Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A demonstration Greater Confinement Disposal facility, consisting of twenty GCD boreholes, began accepting solid low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant in 1984. Three of the boreholes have been filled with the higher activity fraction of SRP solid waste. They have been stabilized with grout to prevent subsidence and reduce water infiltration. Closure will take place when all twenty boreholes have been filled. A Greater Confinement Disposal trench project is underway, with construction scheduled to begin in November 1985. Trench volume will be 10,000 cubic feet. 2 figs

303

Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A demonstration Greater Confinement Disposal facility, consisting of twenty GCD boreholes, began accepting solid low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant in 1984. Three of the boreholes have been filled with the higher activity fraction of SRP solid waste. They have been stabilized with grout to prevent subsidence and reduce water infiltration. Closure will take place when all twenty boreholes have been filled. A Greater Confinement Disposal trench project is underway, with construction scheduled to begin in November 1985. Trench volume will be 10,000 cubic feet. 2 figs.

Towler, O A; Cook, J R

1985-09-01

304

Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A demonstration Greater Confinement Disposal facility, consisting of twenty GCD boreholes, began accepting solid low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River plant in 1984. Three of the boreholes have been filled with the higher activity fraction of SRP solid waste. They have been stabilized with grout to prevent subsidence and reduce water infiltration. Closure will take place when all twenty boreholes have been filled. A Greater Confinement Disposal trench project is underway, with construction scheduled to begin in November 1985. Trench volume will be 100,000 cubic feet

305

INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified

306

INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

R.J. Garrett

2005-02-17

307

Multi-hazard assessment using GIS in the urban areas: Case study - Banja Luka municipality, B&H  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research presents a techniques for natural hazard assessment using GIS and cartographic approaches with multi-hazard mapping in urban communities, because natural hazards are a multi-dimensional phenomena which have a spatial component. Therefore the use of Remote Sensing and GIS has an important function and become essential in urban multi-hazard assessment. The first aim of this research was to determine the geographical distributions of the major types of natural hazards in the study area. Seismic hazards, landslides, rockfalls, floods, torrential floods, and excessive erosion are the most significant natural hazards within the territory of Banja Luka Municipality. Areas vulnerable to some of these natural hazards were singled out using analytical maps. Based on these analyses, an integral map of the natural hazards of the study area was created using multi-hazard assessment and the total vulnerability was determined by overlapping the results. The detailed analysis, through the focused research within the most vulnerable areas in the study area will highlight the administrative units (urban centres and communes that are vulnerable to various types of natural hazard. The results presented in this article are the first multi-hazard assessment and the first version of the integral map of natural hazards in the Republic of Srpska.

Toši? Radislav

2013-01-01

308

Towards greater regulatory effectiveness: an end to statutory silence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Legislative amendments are currently being proposed which will commit the Canadian nuclear regulatory authority to a public information function. Greater openness in licencing nuclear facilities is aimed at, and it is hoped that the theoretically neutral stance of the AECB will give it public credibility. (E.C.B.)

309

Age and Expatriate Job Performance in Greater China  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - As opposed to the predominant belief in the West, in Chinese dominated societies theremay be a positive relationship between age and perceived possession of high quality personalresources. That attitude towards old age may carry over to expatriates in Chinese societies. This mayhave a positive impact on expatriates' job performance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is toexamine the association between the age of business expatriates and their work performance in a Chinese cultural setting. Design/methodology/approach - Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, data collected from business expatriates in Greater China were analyzed by means ofhierarchical regression. Findings - Results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive association with the age of the expatriates. This finding provides partial affirmative support to the presumption that the age of business expatriates matters in a Chinese cultural context. Practical implications - Companies sending expatriates to Greater China could introduce age among other selection criteria. At least, companies should not discriminate against older candidatesin expatriate selection for Greater China. Furthermore, older expatriates destined for a Chinesecultural context could be trained how to exploit their age advantage. Originality/value - In contrast to previous studies, this investigation attempts to match a certain personal characteristic of expatriates with a specific host culture. The results have implications for and contribute to the literature on expatriate selection as well as to the body of research on crosscultural training.

Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

2009-01-01

310

Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-11-01

311

Minority Neighborhoods Face Greater Exposure to Air Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

... enable JavaScript. Minority Neighborhoods Face Greater Exposure to Air Pollution Researchers tracked areas in 6 states to find ... strategies for reducing racial/ethnic disparities in air pollution exposure and air pollution-related morbidity and mortality," the researchers wrote. ...

312

Potential biological hazard of importance for HACCP plans in fresh fish processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP system is scientifically based and focused on problem prevention in order to assure the produced food products are safe to consume. Prerequisite programs such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices, GHP (Good Hygienic Practices are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. One of the preliminary tasks in the development of HACCP plan is to conduct a hazard analysis. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages. The first is hazard identification and the second stage is the HACCP team decision which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. By definition, the HACCP concept covers all types of potential food safety hazards: biological, chemical and physical, whether they are naturally occurring in the food, contributed by the environment or generated by a mistake in the manufacturing process. In raw fish processing, potential significant biological hazards which are reasonably likely to cause illness of humans are parasites (Trematodae, Nematodae, Cestodae, bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphyloccocus aureus, viruses (Norwalk virus, Entero virusesi, Hepatitis A, Rotovirus and bio-toxins. Upon completion of hazard analysis, any measure(s that are used to control the hazard(s should be described.

Balti? Milan Ž.

2009-01-01

313

Chemical hazards in the organisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of hazardous chemicals in organisations represents a substantial risk to occupational health, safety and the environment (OHSE). Organisational directors and managers have a responsibility to provide and maintain organisational management systems that manage these risks. The risk management approach of establishing organisational considerations, identifying chemical hazards (health and environmental), assessing and controlling risks and evaluating management activities has become the de facto means of managing organisational hazards in general and may be satisfactorily applied to the management of chemicals in the organisation. The Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is now at the forefront of major regulatory issues facing the chemicals manufacturing industry and downstream users of chemicals. The GHS offers one system for the classification of all dangerous, toxic and environmental (ecotoxic) effects of chemicals. Organisations should develop occupational health, safety and environment (OHSE) management systems which contain programs and procedures that contain systems for inventory control, hazard communication, competency training, risk assessment and control, transport and storage, monitoring and health surveillance, chemical emergencies (including accident investigation), waste minimisation and disposal, record keeping and management system review. PMID:22945564

Winder, Chris

2012-01-01

314

Hazardous waste policies and strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This manual has been compiled as a resource document for trainers to help in the design of training workshops of hazardous waste management. Although principally oriented at groupwork, some part of this manual are also suitable for individual study, and as a resource book

315

A Green Laser Pointer Hazard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An inexpensive green laser pointer was found to emit 20 mW of infrared radiation during normal use. This is potentially a serious hazard that would not be noticed by most users of such pointers. We find that this infrared emission derives from the design of the pointer, and describe a simple method of testing for infrared emissions using common household items.

Galang, Jemellie; Restelli, Allesandro; Hagley, Edward W.; Clark, Charles W.

2010-01-01

316

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Our analysis approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The D-B discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. Furthermore, the discharge power requirements are quite modest, so that the unit can be powered by batteries. Thus an instrument based on ANET can readily be made portable. Our results indicate that ANET is a very sensitive technique for monitoring heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. We have demonstrated an overall detection sensitivity for most species that is at or below ppb levels. ANET alone, however, appears to be most successful in treatir, appears to be most successful in treating hazardous species that have been atomized. We are therefore developing a hybrid technique which combines a miniature, solid-state laser for sample collection and vaporization with ANET for subsequent detection. This approach requires no special sample preparation, can operate continuously, and lends itself well to compact packaging

317

The Greater India beneath Tibet: A detailed new seismic mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greater India is a continent that existed before the India-Asia collision and comprised today's Indian subcontinent and its extension to the north, by now consumed in the collision. The size, shape, and evolution of the Greater India are a matter of a heated debate, from its place in the make-up of Gondwana to its rapid northward drift and evolution following the break-up of the supercontinent and to its eventual collision with Eurasia. How the India-Asia collision has been accommodated (how much of the continental Indian lithosphere has been consumed and what happened to it) is an important unresolved problem in itself, the proposed solutions including: underthrusting of India beneath Tibet; northward subduction of India; viscous thickening of the Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath Tibet; viscous thickening followed by convective removal; lateral extrusion of chunks of Greater India eastwards; slicing and sinking of the Greater India's lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Body-wave seismic tomography shows the remnants of the subducted lithosphere of the ancient Tethys Ocean, now in the lower mantle, and the more recently subducted lithosphere of the Indian Plate around the transition-zone depths. In the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range, however, the properties and even the presence of Indian lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Tibet are debated. Whereas surface-wave tomographic models typically show a high-velocity anomaly beneath much of Tibet at around 200 km depth, many body-wave models do not show high-velocity anomalies under most of the plateau, prompting very different interpretations. Here we determine the morphology of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet using a combination of large-scale waveform tomography (based on a new, unprecedentedly large global dataset) and of surface-wave array analysis in Tibet. The Greater Indian lithosphere is present (underthrusting or subducting) beneath much of Tibet. There are marked differences in the properties of the Greater Indian lithosphere and in the mechanism of its descent beneath different parts of the plateau. In the west, cratonic Indian lithosphere underthrusts the Tibetan crust and collides with the Tarim Craton to the north of it. In the central part of the plateau, Indian lithosphere underthrusts Tibet form the Himalayas up to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture and then, further north, subducts at a relatively steep angle. Indian lithosphere now under the east-central Himalayas is not cratonic (not as thick and cold as in the west). Beneath eastern Tibet, the Indian lithosphere has subducted, at a shallow angle, hundreds of kilometers northwards to under the Qiangtang and Songpan-Ganzi Terranes. The detailed new seismic images provide new constraints on the size of the Greater India continent and on lateral variations in the properties of its lithosphere. The size and shape of the Greater India as evidenced by the seismic data are consistent with the recent plate-tectonic models in which the India-Asia hard continental collision commences more recently than previously thought. References Agius, M. R., S. Lebedev. Tibetan and Indian lithospheres in the upper mantle beneath Tibet: Evidence from broadband surface-wave dispersion. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, doi:10.1002/ggge.20274, 2013. Schaeffer, A. J., S. Lebedev. Global shear-speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophys. J. Int. 194, 417-449, 2013. Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., et al., Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 7659-64, 2012. Zahirovic, S., et al., Insights on the kinematics of the India-Eurasia collision from global geodynamic models, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13, doi:10.1029/2011GC003883, 2012.

Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Agius, Matthew

2014-05-01

318

Children's misunderstandings of hazard warning signs in the new globally harmonized system for classification and labeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accidental chemical poisoning causes more than 35?000 child deaths every year across the world, and it leads to disease, disability, and suffering for many more children. Children's ignorance of dangers and their failure to interpret hazard warning signs as intended contribute significantly to this problem. A new Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling is being implemented internationally with a view to unifying the current multiple and disparate national systems. This study was designed to establish a productive, effective means of teaching the new GHS warning signs to primary school children (aged 7-11 years). A pre-test, post-test, follow-up test design was employed, with a teaching intervention informed by a Delphi survey of expert opinion. Children from one school formed the experimental group (n?=?49) and a second school provided a control group (n?=?23). Both groups showed a gain in knowledge from pre-test to post-test, the experimental group with a larger gain but which was not statistically significant. However, longer-term retention of knowledge, as shown by the follow-up test, was statistically significantly greater in the experimental group (p?=?0.001). The employment of teaching to match children's preferred learning styles, and the use of active learning were found to be related to improved retention of knowledge. Part of the study involved eliciting children's interpretation of standard hazard warning symbols, and this provoked considerable concern over the potential for dangerous misinterpretation with disastrous consequences. This article focuses on the reasons for such misconception and the action required to address this successfully in testing the intervention. PMID:23964825

Latham, Garry; Long, Tony; Devitt, Patric

2013-12-01

319

Hydrothermal Oxidation Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is fabricating a Hydrothermal Oxidation (HTO) Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed to evaluate and test various HTO reactor concepts for initial processing of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. If the HTO process is successful it will significantly reduce the volume of DOE mixed wastes by destroying the organic constituents

320

Household Hazardous Waste and Automotive Products: A Pennsylvania Survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant fraction of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated by home mechanics who use such products as motor oil, cleaners and solvents, and batteries. This survey assessed the following aspects: (1) perceptions of their health-related effects; (2) perceptions of their pollution potential; and (3) their use and disposal. (LZ)

Shorten, Charles V.; And Others

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Geospatial and geophysical information for earthquake hazard assessment in Vrancea area, Romania  

Science.gov (United States)

Vrancea area at the sharp bend of the Southeast Carpathians in Romania is one of the highest seismogenic zones in Europe, the present-day tectonic activity in this region being characterized by a small zone of intense shallow- to intermediate-depth seismicity that is often interpreted as reflecting the late stage of intra-continental collision. Efforts to advance understanding of earthquake physics and assessing of earthquake hazard in Vrancea seismic area require detailed observations of all phases of the earthquake cycle (pre-, co-, and post-seismic), across multiple fault systems and tectonic environment. Earthquake prediction has two potentially compatible but distinctly different objectives: (a) phenomena that provide information about the future earthquake hazard useful to those who live in earthquake-prone regions and (b) phenomena causally related to the physical processes governing failure on a fault that will improve our understanding of those processes. Remote sensing and geospatial information tools and techniques, including numerical modeling, have advanced considerably in recent years, enabling a greater understanding of the Earth as a complex system of geophysical phenomena. Space-based geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System in synergy with ground-based seismological measurements, interferometric synthetic aperture radar data, high-resolution digital elevation models as well imaging spectroscopy (e.g. using ASTER, MODIS and Hyperion data) are contributing significantly to seismic hazard and risk assessment. Space-time anomalies of Earth's emitted radiation (radon in underground water and soil and surface air , thermal infrared in spectral range measured from satellite months to weeks before the occurrence of earthquakes etc.), ionospheric and electromagnetic anomalies have been interpreted, by several authors, as pre-seismic signals. For seismic hazard analysis in Vrancea area, Romania have been selected the earthquake precursors detectable from space which can also be observed by ground-based monitoring experiments: surface deformation provided by GPS and SAR imaging, land surface temperature changes as possible precursors provided by ASTER, Landsat TM and ETM, electromagnetic and ionospheric anomalies, radon gas emissions in the faults areas prior to earthquakes, as well as seismicity. Multispectral and multitemporal satellite images (LANDSAT TM, ETM , ASTER, MODIS) over 1989-2009 period have been analyzed for recognizing the continuity and regional relationships of active faults as well as for geologic and seismic hazard mapping. In spite of providing the best constraints on the rate of strain accumulation on active faults (coseismic, postseismic, and interseismic deformation; plate motion and crustal deformation at plate boundaries), GPS measurements have a low spatial resolution, and deformation in the vertical direction can not be determined very accurately. As Vrancea area has a significant regional tectonic activity in Romania and Europe, the joint analysis of geospatial and in-situ geophysical information is revealing new insights in the field of hazard assessment. For Vrancea region, observations of surface kinematics with data provided by Global Positioning System (GPS) network constitute a new and independent data source. In combination with geologic and geophysical information, surface motions may help to unravel the intriguing tectonics of the region. GPS Romanian network stations data revealed a displacement of about few millimeters (5-6 mm) per year in horizontal direction relative motion, and a (2-3 mm) per year in vertical direction. As Vrancea area is characterized by a significant regional tectonic activity, evidenced by neotectonic deformation and seismicity, future use of long-term interferometric data will be a useful tool in active tectonic investigation for this region. The joint analysis of geodetic, seismological and geological information on the spatial distribution of crustal deformations as well as the analysis of some earthquake precursors is revealing new

Zoran, Maria

2010-05-01

322

A Framework for the Probabilistic Analysis of Tsunami Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

A framework for analysis of tsunami hazards is proposed that is based on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), though with some important modifications. PSHA is a convenient methodology to adopt for the analysis of tsunami hazards in part because, for most regions in the United States, seismic source model specifications have been developed through the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project. The two main modifications to PSHA that are needed are (1) incorporation of far-field sources (i.e., distant earthquakes) that can generate damaging tsunamis and (2) a numerical hazard model (i.e., runup and inundation in tsunami hazard analysis) rather than an empirical model (i.e., ground motion in seismic hazard analysis). An important step in the development of probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) is the definition of uncertainties. For local tsunamis, variation in slip distribution patterns is a significant source of uncertainty that is inherently unpredictable (i.e., an aleatory uncertainty). Stochastic source models can be used in PTHA to estimate the range of possible nearshore tsunami amplitudes for a given magnitude and rupture geometry. Other important sources of uncertainty for local tsunami generated by subduction zone earthquakes include occurrence of secondary faulting near the trench, and triggered submarine and coastal landslides. For distant tsunamis, in addition to the fundamental tsunami source parameters of seismic moment and epicentral distance, source radiation pattern and propagation raypath are important factors in hazard calculations. Tsunami propagation from both local and distant sources is also sensitive to nearshore variations in bathymetry (which itself maybe a source of epistemic uncertainty) that is analogous to site response in PSHA. In contrast to past method for forecasting tsunami hazards, a PSHA-based method permits incorporation of uncertainties into the probabilistic forecast. PTHA as outlined in this study is compared to log-frequency/maximum runup height curves derived from historical data that were used in the past, especially in light of new probability analyses of complex systems. An important final consideration for PTHA is how probabilistic results are formatted and presented to different end-user communities.

Geist, E. L.

2003-12-01

323

49 CFR 177.848 - Segregation of hazardous materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Segregation of hazardous materials. 177.848 Section 177.848...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC...

2010-10-01

324

49 CFR 174.81 - Segregation of hazardous materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Segregation of hazardous materials. 174.81 Section 174.81 ...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL...

2010-10-01

325

A New Revisit Evidence of Stock Markets’ Interrelationships in the Greater China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the recent stock markets’ interrelationships in Greater China (China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. The main goal is to use more detailed and new daily stock market data from 2005/7 to 2010/5 to offer valuable and complementary insights on financial integration among these economies. From the empirical analysis, we found that China’s stock market has a positive impact on the other Greater China economies, but the reverse is not true. In addition, Hong Kong’s stock market also has a significantly positive impact on Taiwan, but not on China, and the impact of Hong Kong on Taiwan is larger than that of China on Taiwan. This result is consistent with the previous empirical findings that the segmented and integrated China stock market is mixed, and this result implies that the China stock market is still “partially integrated” with the other Greater China stock markets after the 2008 global financial crisis.

Chu-Chia Lin

2011-09-01

326

Components off the shelf selection for nuclear industry environment greater than 100 kGy(Si)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents total dose test results of components off the shelf (COTS), greater than 100 kGy(Si), for nuclear industry applications. Tested components are bipolar analog integrated circuits (operational amplifiers, regulators) and bipolar logic integrated circuits (TTL-LS and ECL technology). The components were submitted to 60Co gamma radiation with dose rates from 100 Gy(Si)/h to 2 kGy(Si)/h, the components were maintained at 25 and 70 degrees Celsius during irradiation. The results show that a set of amplifiers and regulators can operate even with a cumulated dose greater than 100 kGy(Si), while others are limited to 4.5 kGy(Si). As for bipolar logic integrated circuits, they can sustain cumulated doses greater than 100 kGy(Si). The temperature seems to play no significant role. (A.C.)

327

29 CFR 1910.1200 - Hazard communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

...indicated on the material safety data sheet (MSDS) for the chemical. The identity used...hazardous chemicals, the label and the MSDS. Immediate use means that the hazardous...chemicals. Material safety data sheet (MSDS) means written or printed material...

2010-07-01

328

47 CFR 24.52 - RF hazards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF hazards. 24.52 Section 24.52 Telecommunication ...PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.52 RF hazards. Licensees and manufacturers are subject...

2010-10-01

329

29 CFR 1910.1200 - Hazard communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Importer means the first business with employees within the...is used in an employer's business, and that gives the employer...potential carcinogen for hazard communication purposes: (i) National...incorporated into the written hazard communication program required under...

2010-07-01

330

Hazard Response Modeling Uncertainty (A Quantitative Method).  

Science.gov (United States)

There are currently available many microcomputer-basd hazard response models for calculating concentrations of hazardous chemicals in the atmosphere. The uncertainties associated with these models are not well-known and they have not been adequately evalu...

L. L. Schulman, S. R. Hanna, T. Messier

1988-01-01

331

29 CFR 1910.1200 - Hazard communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

...whereby a retail distributor sells hazardous chemicals to an employer...hazard(s), including target organ effects, of the chemical(s) in...300 grams each. 7. Target organ effects. The following is a target organ categorization of...

2010-07-01

332

29 CFR 1910.1200 - Hazard communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the principles and procedures of hazard assessment. For purposes of this section...hazards: Chemicals which affect the eye or visual capacity Signs & Symptoms: Conjunctivitis...paragraphs should be the focus of your attention. Concentrate on becoming familiar...

2010-07-01

333

75 FR 12718 - Hazard Communication; Meetings Notice  

Science.gov (United States)

...1218-AC20 Hazard Communication; Meetings Notice AGENCY...to revise the Hazard Communication Standard in Washington...Marriott Pittsburgh City Center on March 31...Marriott Pittsburgh City Center, located at...OSHA, Office of Communications, Room N-3647,...

2010-03-17

334

29 CFR 1910.1200 - Hazard communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

...this section; (xi) Ionizing and nonionizing radiation; and, (xii) Biological...hazardous chemicals only in non-routine, isolated instances...employees of the hazards of non-routine tasks (for...circumstances permit. (3) In non-emergency...

2010-07-01

335

Microzonation of Seismic Hazard Potential in Tainan, Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

Majority of Tainan area is densely populated in alluvial plains. Medium- and high-story buildings are increasing. Reconstruction speed of old buildings in some communities is slow. Considering at least six active faults are distributed in this area, we can foresee very high earthquake hazard potential. In this study, a catalog of 2044 shallow earthquakes occurred from 1900 to 2010 with Mw magnitudes ranging from 5.0 to 8.2, and 11 disastrous earthquakes occurred from 1683-1899 are used to estimate the seismic hazard potential in Tainan area for seismic microzonation. The results reveal that the highest the earthquake hazard potential in Tainan area is located in the northern part, including Houbi Dist., Xinying Dist., Liuying Dist., western Baihe Dist., western Liujia Dist., northeastern Yanshui Dist., northeastern Xiaying Dist., northern Guantian Dist. and northern Madou Dist. The probabilities of seismic intensity exceeding MMI VIII in 10, 30, and 50-year periods in above areas are greater than 30%, 50% and 70%, respectively. Moreover, the probabilities of seismic intensity exceeding MMI VI in 10-year period are greater than 70% in the central and northern areas of Tainan. Finally, by comparing with the seismic zoning map of Taiwan in current building code that was revised after 921 earthquakes, we find that classification of whole Tainan are zone I has underestimated the following areas: southern Houbi Dist., western Baihe Dist., western Tungshan Dist., central and eastern Liuying Dist., northern Liujia Dist. and northeastern Xinying Dist.. Results of this study show high earthquake hazard potential in Tainan area. They provide a valuable database for the seismic design of critical facilities. It will help mitigate Tainan earthquake disaster loss in the future, as well as provide critical information for emergency response plans.

Liu, Kun Sung

2014-05-01

336

User's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard code INVENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report constitutes the user's guide to the radionuclide inventory and hazard index code INVENT and provides an explanation of the mathematical basis of the code, the database used and operation of the code. INVENT was designed to facilitate the post-closure radiological assessment of land-based repositories for low and intermediate-level wastes. For those radionuclides identified to be of potential significance, it allows the calculation of time-dependent radionuclide activities, hazard indices for both inhalation and ingestion of activity, and photon spectra. (author)

337

Harlequin ichthyosis in two greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two greater kudu calves (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) born 7 years apart were found with fissures and thickened, scaly, cutaneous plates covering over 80% of their bodies. One was dead at presentation, and the other was euthanized shortly after birth. Both animals shared a common sire. On necropsy, chemosis, ectropion, eclabium, and bilateral valgus deformities of the tarsal joints were observed in one calf, presumed to be secondary to the plates restricting normal fetal development. The principal microscopic lesion was severe lamellar orthokeratosis, with focal mild parakeratosis. Ultrastructural epidermal lesions included the absence of normal lamellar granules, large dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and abnormal retention of organelles and vesicles. Gross, histopathologic, and electron microscopic findings in both kudu calves were consistent with those of harlequin ichthyosis, a rare dermatosis of humans believed to have an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. The underlying genetic and molecular abnormality and heritability of this condition in this greater kudu herd were not determined. PMID:12450210

Chittick, E J; Olivry, T; Dalldorf, F; Wright, J; Dale, B A; Wolfe, B A

2002-11-01

338

Greater performance impairment of black runners than white runners when running in hypoxia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to compare the response of performance-matched black and white runners during maximal and sub-maximal running in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. 14 well-trained runners (8 black, 6 white) performed 2 incremental maximal exercise tests and 2 fatigue resistance tests at 21% O2 (normoxia) or 14% O2 (hypoxia). Respiratory parameters, heart rate (HR), lactate concentration ([La(-)]) as well as arterial saturation (SpO2) were measured. Enzyme activities and myosin heavy chain content (MHC) were also measured. White runners reached a significantly greater peak treadmill speed and a higher HRmax than black runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Additionally, White runners achieved a greater time to fatigue than black runners (p<0.05), with black runners displaying a greater decline in performance in hypoxia compared to normoxia (20.3% vs. 13.4%, black vs. white, respectively). However, black runners presented lower [La(-)] and higher SpO2 than white runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Black runners had a higher proportion of MHC IIa and higher lactate dehydrogenase activity (p<0.05). The greater performance impairment observed in black runners in hypoxia suggests a greater performance sensitivity to this condition, despite the maintenance of physiological variables such as SpO2 and [La (-) ] within a smaller range than white runners. PMID:24577858

Santos-Concejero, J; Tucker, R; Myburgh, K H; Essen-Gustavsson, B; Kohn, T A

2014-09-01

339

Torsion of the greater omentum: A rare preoperative diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Torsion of the greater omentum is a rare acute abdominal condition that is seldom diagnosed preoperatively. We report the characteristic computed tomography (CT scan findings and the clinical implications of this unusual diagnosis in a 41-year-old man, who also had longstanding right inguinal hernia. Awareness of omental torsion as a differential diagnosis in the acute abdomen setting is necessary for correct patient management.

Tandon Ankit

2010-01-01

340

Occupational health hazards in mining: an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review article outlines the physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial occupational health hazards of mining and associated metallurgical processes. Mining remains an important industrial sector in many parts of the world and although substantial progress has been made in the control of occupational health hazards, there remains room for further risk reduction. This applies particularly to traumatic injury hazards, ergonomic hazards and noise. Vigilance is also required to ensure exposures to coal dust and crystalline silica remain effectively controlled.

Donoghue, A.M. [Alcoa World Alumina Australia, Perth, WA (Australia)

2004-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

PHAZE, Parametric Hazard Function Estimation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking of the model assumptions. 2 - Methods: PHAZE assumes that the failures of a component follow a time-dependent (or non-homogenous) Poisson process and that the failure counts in non-overlapping time intervals are independent. Implicit in the independence property is the assumption that the component is restored to service immediately after any failure, with negligible repair time. The failures of one component are assumed to be independent of those of another component; a proportional hazards model is used. Data for a component are called time censored if the component is observed for a fixed time-period, or plant records covering a fixed time-period are examined, and the failure times are recorded. The number of these failures is random. Data are called failure censored if the component is kept in service until a predetermined number of failures has occurred, at which time the component is removed from service. In this case, the number of failures is fixed, but the end of the observation period equals the final failure time and is random. A typical PHAZE session consists of reading failure data from a file prepared previously, selecting one of the three models, and performing data analysis (i.e., performing the usual statistical inference about the parameters of the model, with special emphasis on the parameter(s) that determine whether the hazard function is increasing). The final goals of the inference are a point estimate and a confidence interval for the hazard function at any time. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: PHAZE is limited to a maxima of 100 components and 40 failures per component

342

21 CFR 120.7 - Hazard analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120...food hazard that must be addressed in the HACCP plan. A food hazard that is reasonably...food for the intended consumer. (e) HACCP plans for juice need not address the...

2010-04-01

343

21 CFR 120.7 - Hazard analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard analysis. 120.7 Section 120.7 Food... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP...General Provisions § 120.7 Hazard analysis. (a) Each processor shall...

2010-04-01

344

29 CFR 1910.1200 - Hazard communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

...under the hazard communication program, will...signs, placards, process sheets, batch...circumstances of process or percentage of...from the Hazard Communication standard in...quality of a hazard communication program is largely...evaluation is a process which...

2010-07-01

345

Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

346

38 CFR 36.4222 - Hazard insurance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard insurance. 36.4222 Section 36...Preparation General Provisions § 36.4222 Hazard insurance. (a) The holder shall...to protect the security against risks or hazards to which it may be subjected to...

2010-07-01

347

38 CFR 36.4329 - Hazard insurance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard insurance. 36.4329 Section 36...With Electronic Reporting § 36.4329 Hazard insurance. The holder shall require...protect the security against the risks or hazards to which it may be subjected...

2010-07-01

348

24 CFR 35.1120 - Hazard reduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard reduction. 35.1120 Section 35...Public Housing Programs § 35.1120 Hazard reduction. (a) Each PHA shall...lead-based paint and lead-based paint hazards identified in the evaluations...

2010-04-01

349

21 CFR 120.7 - Hazard analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard analysis. 120.7 Section 120.7...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT...SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.7 Hazard analysis. (a) Each processor...

2010-04-01

350

40 CFR 68.50 - Hazard review.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard review. 68.50 Section 68.50...Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.50 Hazard review. (a) The owner or operator shall conduct a review of the hazards associated with the regulated...

2010-07-01

351

Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the PFP. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

352

Transportation training: Focusing on movement of hazardous substances and wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, are developing and implementing a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

353

Investigations on natural hazards which trigger technological disasters in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romania faces the challenges of a developing country preparing to cope with disasters, be they natural or technological. The paper entails comprehensive research on technological accidents triggered by natural hazards (so-called Natech accidents. The research is based on a survey conducted by the competent authorities on the Seveso II Directive in 2009. This survey enabled the identification of Natech hazards and their correlation with the vulnerability of local communities and infrastructures. The Natech hazards were analyzed also in terms of their inclusion in the emergency planning process, starting from the current legislation. The results indicate that the number of incidents (including Natech events has significantly decreased subsequent to the appropriate implementation of emergency plans and safety reports.

A. Ozunu

2011-05-01

354

An ecotoxicological approach for hazard identification of energy ash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ., and the Swedish Geotechnical Inst. (SGI) have worked in projects with the main aim to improve the understanding of governing mechanisms for ecotoxicity of ash materials. With the ambition to provide recommendations on classification of ash according to H-14, we have characterised bottom and fly ash materials based on both total levels in solid materials and eluates. In addition, the eluates have been characterized with a battery of ecotoxicity tests. The most important findings from the projects are: (1) classification based on total content of substances over-estimates the ecotoxicological hazard potential as compared with ecotoxicity testing of eluates; (2) when leaching is performed at L/S <10 l/kg, components not classified as hazardous, in particular potassium, significantly influence the toxicity of the eluates, which is problematic from a hazard classification perspective, but likely negligible from a long-term environmental risk perspective.

Breitholtz, Magnus; Stiernstroem, Sara; Linde, Margareta [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)], e-mail: magnus.breitholtz@itm.su.se; Hemstroem, Kristian [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. AB (IVL), Stockholm (Sweden); Enell, Anja; Wik, Ola [Swedish Geotechnical Inst. (SGI), Linkoeping (Sweden)

2012-11-01

355

Problems associated with hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter presents research findings from a collaborative project between Mexican investigators from the Mexican Institute of Psychiatry and the World Health Organization on the identification and treatment of harmful and hazardous drinking. A sample of 189 individuals who met criteria for hazardous drinking was selected for the study after screening 2319 outpatients attending clinics in two general hospitals in Mexico City. We present here the characteristics of this sample along dimensions that include alcohol related problems, history of trauma, alcohol dependence scores and family history of alcoholism. We rated, utilizing structures interviews, situations that place these individuals at risk of drinking. The possibility of constructing a typology of harmful and hazardous drinking was also explored. The significance of the findings of this investigation for health care clinicians is discussed. PMID:9751956

Campillo, C; Romero, M; Saldivar, G; Ramos, L

1998-01-01

356

Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls

357

Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls.

Beaulieu, R A

2009-05-04

358

Seismic hazard analysis. Application of methodology, results, and sensitivity studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Site Specific Spectra Project, this report seeks to identify the sources of and minimize uncertainty in estimates of seismic hazards in the Eastern United States. Findings are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a synthesis among various methods that can be used in evaluating seismic hazard at the various plants in the Eastern United States. In this volume, one of a five-volume series, we discuss the application of the probabilistic approach using expert opinion. The seismic hazard is developed at nine sites in the Central and Northeastern United States, and both individual experts' and synthesis results are obtained. We also discuss and evaluate the ground motion models used to develop the seismic hazard at the various sites, analyzing extensive sensitivity studies to determine the important parameters and the significance of uncertainty in them. Comparisons are made between probabilistic and real spectra for a number of Eastern earthquakes. The uncertainty in the real spectra is examined as a function of the key earthquake source parameters. In our opinion, the single most important conclusion of this study is that the use of expert opinion to supplement the sparse data available on Eastern United States earthquakes is a viable approach for determining estimated seismic hazard in this region of the country. (author)

359

AN ENHANCED HAZARD ANALYSIS PROCESS FOR THE HANFORD TANK FARMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., has expanded the scope and increased the formality of process hazards analyses performed on new or modified Tank Farm facilities, designs, and processes. The CH2M HILL process hazard analysis emphasis has been altered to reflect its use as a fundamental part of the engineering and change control process instead of simply being a nuclear safety analysis tool. The scope has been expanded to include identification of accidents/events that impact the environment, or require emergency response, in addition to those with significant impact to the facility worker, the offsite, and the 100-meter receptor. Also, there is now an expectation that controls will be identified to address all types of consequences. To ensure that the process has an appropriate level of rigor and formality, a new engineering standard for process hazards analysis was created. This paper discusses the role of process hazards analysis as an information source for not only nuclear safety, but also for the worker-safety management programs, emergency management, environmental programs. This paper also discusses the role of process hazards analysis in the change control process, including identifying when and how it should be applied to changes in design or process

360

Documentation for the Southeast Asia seismic hazard maps  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project originated in response to the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M9.2) and the resulting tsunami that caused significant casualties and economic losses in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. During the course of this project, several great earthquakes ruptured subduction zones along the southern coast of Indonesia (fig. 1) causing additional structural damage and casualties in nearby communities. Future structural damage and societal losses from large earthquakes can be mitigated by providing an advance warning of tsunamis and introducing seismic hazard provisions in building codes that allow buildings and structures to withstand strong ground shaking associated with anticipated earthquakes. The Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project was funded through a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)—Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System to develop seismic hazard maps that would assist engineers in designing buildings that will resist earthquake strong ground shaking. An important objective of this project was to discuss regional hazard issues with building code officials, scientists, and engineers in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The code communities have been receptive to these discussions and are considering updating the Thailand and Indonesia building codes to incorporate new information (for example, see notes from Professor Panitan Lukkunaprasit, Chulalongkorn University in Appendix A).

Petersen, Mark; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Haller, Kathleen; Dewey, James; Luco, Nicolas; Crone, Anthony; Lidke, David; Rukstales, Kenneth

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Landslide hazard zoning at regional level – Vâlcea County case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years the severity of the extreme meteorological phenomena significantly increased,i.e. heavy rains which led to historical floods on the most part of the hydrographical basins of Romania,mostly during 2005 and 2010. These abnormal meteorological phenomena reactivated a great number oflandslides. Therefore, risk managers, in order to urge the landslide inventory at the whole country level,launched hazard maps in terms of Law no 575/2001 regarding the “Plan of the national territorydevelopment, the Fifth section – Areas of natural hazards”. This means risk maps of Romania for areasprone to natural hazards (floods, landslides and earthquakes, as well as the exact geographical andadministrative localization of these areas, including the indication of the risk level of producing thespecific hazards. The present paper presents the methodology of hazard zoning at the local and regionallevel, including the parameters used to draw down the thematic maps for inventory and representation ofthe active landslide for the whole territory. As a case study area, Vâlcea County was chosen for the largenumber of damages due to the landslide effects. Of them, the Ocnele Mari case is noteworthy as anatural reservation of diapire salts massifs, affected by collapse due to salt dissolution by runoff waterand overexploitation by water injection.

Adrian A. Mesescu

2011-08-01

362

Development of tsunami hazard maps for the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia, using heterogeneous slip models  

Science.gov (United States)

Heterogeneous distribution of slip during megathrust earthquakes has been shown to significantly affect the spatial distribution of tsunami height in both numerical studies and field observations. This means that tsunami hazard maps generated using uniform slip distributions in their tsunami source models may underestimate tsunami inundation in some locations compared with real events of the same magnitude in the same location. In order to more completely define areas that may be inundated during a tsunami it is important to consider how different possible distributions of slip will impact different parts of the coastline. We generate tsunami inundation maps for the Mentawai Islands, West Sumatra, Indonesia, from a composite suite of possible source models that are consistent with current knowledge of the source region. First, a suite of earthquake source models with randomly distributed slip along the Mentawai Segment of the Sunda Subduction Zone are generated. From this suite we select source models that generate vertical deformation consistent with that observed in coral palaeogeodetic records of previous ruptures of the Mentawai Segment. Tsunami inundation is modelled using high resolution elevation data for selected source models and the results compiled to generate a maximum tsunami inundation zone. This allows us to constrain the slip distribution beneath the Mentawai Islands, where coral palaeogeodetic data is available, while allowing greater variation in the slip distribution away from the islands, in particular near the trench where large slip events can generate large tsunami. This method also allows us to consider high slip events on deeper portions of the megathrust between the Mentawai Islands and the Sumatran Mainland, which give greater tsunami inundation on the eastern part of the Mentawai Islands and the west coast of Sumatra compared with near-trench events. By accounting for uncertainty in slip distribution, the resulting hazard maps give a more complete picture of the areas that may be inundated compared with hazard maps derived from a single ';worst case' source model. These maps allow for more robust tsunami evacuation plans to be developed to support immediate community evacuation in response to strong or long-lasting earthquake ground shaking.

Griffin, J.; Pranantyo, I. R.; Kongko, W.; Haunan, A.; Horspool, N.; Maemunah, I.; Natawidjaja, D.; Latief, H.; Cummins, P. R.

2013-12-01

363

De-aggregated reliability analysis of freezing rain hazard  

Science.gov (United States)

This work addresses issues for improving the estimation of the recurrence rate and the distribution in severity of extreme ice events in the Montreal area, which is required in order to determine design criteria for structures such as electric transmission lines. Some of the limitations of current methods for studying extreme freezing rain events are due to the relatively short data records. This results in variability of 'at site' data sets that have only a few large accumulations. The methods developed in this work address these issues. First, de-aggregated analysis is used to obtain better statistical fits by grouping storms according to physical variables that are correlated with the occurrence of ice storms (spatial patterns of sea level pressure (SLP) or 1000 to 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies). And second a procedure to decrease the uncertainty on estimates of the hazard function at high return periods based on solving the CRREL Simple icing model using reliability method is developed. In this procedure, uncertainty is propagated through the model by treating it as a function of random variables. Anomaly maps of several meteorological variables were investigated for the objective categorization of ice storms. The NCEP reanalysis data was used to compile spatial patterns for the analysis of the storms identified and categorized by Rauber et al (2001). Several multivariate statistical analysis procedures were used to investigate the effectiveness of sea level pressure, the 1000 to 500 hPa, and the 1000 to 925 hPa geopotential heights for clustering these storms. Results indicated that the k-means algorithm applied to principle component scores of the storm anomaly maps provided the best clustering results. The results indicated that storms with higher precipitations belong to a group associated with the phenomena of cold air damming as a result of the Appalachian Mountains. Environment Canada hourly data was used to identify freezing rain events and obtain measurements of wind speed and precipitation during the events that occurred over Ottawa, Montreal, and Quebec City. General Pareto or Generalized Extreme Value distributions are fitted to the data of total precipitation or total radial ice accumulation for each cluster using a peaks-over-threshold approach. Statistical tests indicate the resulting distributions for precipitation are significantly different from each cluster. This de-aggregated approach improves estimates of the icing hazard by improving statistical fits and by reducing the sensitivity of the results to the choice of threshold. The second approach used to improve the estimates of the icing hazard function, using reliability methods, considers total precipitation, freezing ratio, and wind speed as the random variables in solving the icing model. The most likely combination of variables associated with high ice accumulations was found to high total precipitation, high freezing ratios, but only slightly higher than average wind speed. The latter is useful for defining load combinations (wind speed and ice accumulation) for structural design purposes. Finally, the superstation approach of Jones and White (2002a) was investigated by combining Environment Canada data for Ottawa, Montreal and Quebec City. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on the regional set of data using 'at site' indexes. The reliability analysis of empirical icing equation produced results similar to Jones and White at quantiles associated with the 50 year return period. However there were greater differences at higher quantiles. The estimated return periods for radial ice accumulations of 45mm are 160, 210, and 85 years for Montreal, Ottawa, and Quebec City respectively.

Erfani, Reza

364

Continued Earthquake Hazard in Northern Sumatra  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of two large earthquakes (Mw = 8.4 and Mw = 7.9) along the Sumatran west coast on 12 September 2007 as well as an Mw = 7.4 event on 20 February 2008 have again put the high earthquake hazard of this region into focus. These events are the most recent in a series of major subduction zone earthquakes that began with the great Mw = 9.3 event of 26 December 2004 followed by an Mw = 8.7 event on 28 March 2005 [Bilham, 2005; Lay et al., 2005; Stein and Okal, 2005]. The major subduction zone earthquakes have been propagating southward along the Sunda trench, and the remaining stress is expected to be released along the subduction zone in a long stretch from the Andaman Sea in the north to the southernmost extension of the recent ruptures, especially in the southernmost part close to the Sunda Strait (Figure 1). Also, there is an additional and significant hazard due to potential earthquakes along the Great Sumatran Fault (GSF), a major right-lateral strike-slip fault parallel to the western coast of Sumatra. The GSF accommodates the component of plate convergence parallel to the trench, where strain partitioning is a result of the oblique collision along the Sunda trench.

Sørensen, Mathilde B.; Atakan, Kuvvet

2008-04-01

365

Social networking patterns/hazards among teenagers.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have grown substantially, posing new hazards to teenagers. This study aimed to determine general patterns of Internet usage among Irish teenagers aged 11-16 years, and to identify potential hazards, including; bullying, inappropriate contact, overuse, addiction and invasion of users\\' privacy. A cross-sectional study design was employed to survey students at three Irish secondary schools, with a sample of 474 completing a questionnaire. 202 (44%) (n = 460) accessed the Internet using a shared home computer. Two hours or less were spent online daily by 285(62%), of whom 450 (98%) were unsupervised. 306 (72%) (n = 425) reported frequent usage of SNSs, 403 (95%) of whom were Facebook users. 42 (10%) males and 51 (12%) females experienced bullying online, while 114 (27%) reported inappropriate contact from others. Concerning overuse and the risk of addiction, 140 (33%) felt they accessed SNSs too often. These patterns among Irish teenagers suggest that SNS usage poses significant dangers, which are going largely unaddressed.

Machold, C

2012-05-01

366

Hazard Detection Methods for Lunar Landing  

Science.gov (United States)

The methods and experiences from the Apollo Program are fundamental building blocks for the development of lunar landing strategies for the Constellation Program. Each of the six lunar landing Apollo missions landed under near ideal lighting conditions. The astronauts visually performed terrain relative navigation while looking out of windows, and were greatly aided by external communication and well lit scenes. As the LM approached the landing site, the astronauts performed visual hazard detection and avoidance, also under near-ideal lighting conditions. The astronauts were looking out of the windows trying to the best of their ability to avoid rocks, slopes, and craters and find a safe landing location. NASA has expressed a desire for global lunar access for both crewed and robotic sortie lunar exploration missions (Cook, 2007) (Dale, 2006). Early NASA architecture studies have identified the lunar poles as desirable locations for early lunar missions. These polar missions have less than ideal lighting conditions and will significantly affect the way a crewed vehicle plans to land at such locales. Consequently, a variety of hazard identification methods should be considered for use by the crew to ensure a high degree of safety. This paper discusses such identification methods applicable to the poorly lit polar lunar environment, better ensuring global access for the soon to be designed Lunar Lander Vehicle (LLV).

Brady, Tye; Zimpfer, Doug; Robertson, Edward; Epp, Chirold; Paschall, Stephen

2009-01-01

367

WIPP fire hazards and risk analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a fire hazards risk analysis of the Transuranic (TRU) contact-handled waste receipt, emplacement, and disposal activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The technical bases and safety envelope for these operations are defined in the approved WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Although the safety documentation for the initial phase of the Test Program, the dry bin scale tests, has not yet been approved by the Department of Energy (DOE), reviews of the draft to date, including those by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Facility Safety (ACNFS), have concluded that the dry bin scale tests present no significant risks in excess of those estimated in the approved WIPP FSAR. It is the opinion of the authors and reviewers of this analysis, based on sound engineering judgment and knowledge of the WIPP operations, that a Fire Hazards and Risk Analysis specific to the dry bin scale test program is not warranted prior to first waste receipt. This conclusion is further supported by the risk analysis presented in this document which demonstrates the level of risk to WIPP operations posed by fire to be extremely low. 15 refs., 41 figs., 48 tabs

368

Nucleotide diversity of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastid genome: addressing the mutational-hazard hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The mutational-hazard hypothesis argues that the noncoding-DNA content of a genome is a consequence of the mutation rate (? and the effective number of genes per locus in the population (Ng. The hypothesis predicts that genomes with a high Ng? will be more compact than those with a small Ng?. Approximations of Ng? can be gained by measuring the nucleotide diversity at silent sites (?silent. We addressed the mutation-hazard hypothesis apropos plastid-genome evolution by measuring ?silent of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastid DNA (ptDNA, the most noncoding-DNA-dense plastid genome observed to date. The data presented here in conjunction with previously published values of ?silent for the C. reinhardtii mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, which are respectively compact and bloated, allow for a complete analysis of nucleotide diversity and genome compactness in all three genetic compartments of this model organism. Results In C. reinhardtii, the mean estimate of ?silent forthe ptDNA (14.5 × 10-3 is less than that of the nuclear DNA (32 × 10-3 and greater than that of the mitochondrial DNA (8.5 × 10-3. On average, C. reinhardtii has ~4 times more silent-site ptDNA diversity than the mean value reported for land plants, which have more compact plastid genomes. The silent-site nucleotide diversity of the different ptDNA loci that were studied varied significantly: from 0 to 71 × 10-3 for synonymous sites and from 0 to 42 × 10-3 for intergenic regions. Conclusion Our findings on silent-site ptDNA diversity are inconsistent with what would be expected under the mutational-hazard hypothesis and go against the documented trend in other systems of ?silent positively correlating with genome compactness. Overall, we highlight the lack of reliable nucleotide-diversity measurements for ptDNA and hope that the values presented here will act as sound data for future research concerning the mutational-hazard hypothesis and plastid evolution in general.

Lee Robert W

2009-05-01

369

14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures  

Science.gov (United States)

...and operated according to the current process hazards analysis...intended. (5) Additional factors in selecting a worst-case...propellant must account for each factor that would result in a greater...transfer hose release due to splits or sudden hose...

2010-01-01

370

Magnetohydrodynamics and its hazard assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential occupational and environmental hazards of a typical combined open-cycle MHD/steam cycle power plant are critically assessed on the basis of direct/indirect research information. Among the potential occupational hazards, explosion at the coal feed system or at the superconducting magnet; combustor rupture in a confined pit; high intensity dc magnetic field exposure at the channel; and combustion products leakage from the pressurized systems are of primary concern. While environmental emissions of SO(x), NO(x) and fine particulates are considered under control in experimental scale, control effectiveness at high capacity operation remains uncertain. Gaseous emission of some highly toxic trace elements including radioactive species may be of concern without gas cleaning device in the MHD design.

Chan, W.-T.

1981-11-01

371

Significance of epidemiological studies for estimating the genetic radiation hazards of man  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a brief presentation of the fundamentals of epidemiological studies, the problems associated with such studies are discussed. Epidemiological investigations on survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and also on the population of Kerala, a state in south west India with a high natural radiation load, are then discussed. Consideration was given to the question whether the Down-Syndrom is a valid indicator for proving a causal relationship between radiation dose and genetic effects. (MG)

372

78 FR 22576 - Application and Amendment to Facility Operating License Involving Proposed No Significant Hazards...  

Science.gov (United States)

...RAI 11 \\2\\ assessed safety analysis methods...SONGS Unit 2, Cycle 17 reload core design and safety analysis...that evaluated how Reactor Coolant System (RCS...analysis required by the reload safety analyses as...

2013-04-16

373

75 FR 39975 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Guide 1.177, ``An Approach for Plant-Specific, Risk-Informed Decisionmaking: Technical Specifications.'' Based...transitions the existing fire protection program to a risk-informed, performance- based program based on National...

2010-07-13

374

Hazard identification of dangerous goods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For long, a lot of accidents related to goods transportation proved the need of hazards identification. International regulations are in existence for air, ground (road, rail), sea and waterways transportation. For about 25 years, a committee of experts has been dealing at United Nations level on Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) and recently (beginning 2001) extended its work to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling for Chemicals. In this lecture, will be presented...

Pineau, Jean-philippe; Michot, Christian; Kordek, Marie-astrid

2001-01-01

375

Computer Model Locates Environmental Hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Catherine Huybrechts Burton founded San Francisco-based Endpoint Environmental (2E) LLC in 2005 while she was a student intern and project manager at Ames Research Center with NASA's DEVELOP program. The 2E team created the Tire Identification from Reflectance model, which algorithmically processes satellite images using turnkey technology to retain only the darkest parts of an image. This model allows 2E to locate piles of rubber tires, which often are stockpiled illegally and cause hazardous environmental conditions and fires.

2008-01-01

376

Health hazards from environmental pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three examples from current research are cited in order to show the health hazards from environmental pollution and to describe methods of risk quantification: (1) The smog situation of January 1985 is analyzed on the basis of detailed morbidity and mortality statistics; (2) The current knowledge on the contribution of radon decay products to lung cancer is discussed; (3) The problem of abandoned industrial sites is illustrated by a population group living on contaminated ground. (orig.)

377

DOE hazardous waste management program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Memorandum of Understanding between DOE and EPA has recently been signed; in it DOE essentially incorporates all aspects of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for handling hazardous and mixed radioactive wastes. It has become clear that new and effective technologies are needed to adhere to these procedures and to other legislation, such as, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (ASDP) has established a Hazardous Waste Program to address technology development and technology transfer aspects for DOE sites nation-wide. The assignment for coordinating, integrating and reporting program activities was given to DOE's Oak Ridge Operations Office which established the Hazardous Waste Management Program (HWP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of this national program is to develop technologies and provide solutions to support ongoing generation, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous chemical and mixed wastes such that operation of defense facilities is continued and public health and safety are protected with minimum impact on the environment. The near-term strategy is to define the current magnitude and character of HCW, to identify areas of needed improvement in the treatment, storage, and disposal of HCW, to determine resources available to respond to technology development issues and ultimately to develop comprehensive plans to resolve them. Principal supporting objectives are to: act as a central resource for DOE in identifying problems and developing solution; integrate and coordinate activities among DOE installations; and develop databases and disseminate information on methodologies for treatment, storage, disposal and environmental restoration at DOE installations. This paper elaborates on the technical issues, problem areas and progress achieved by DOE's HWP

378

Training for hazardous waste workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This implementation plan describes the system and provides the information and schedules that are necessary to comply with the Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) Memorandum, Reference EPD dated September 11, 1990, Training for Hazardous Waste Workers. The memo establishes the need for identifying employees requiring environmental training, ensuring that the training is received, and meeting documentation and recordkeeping requirements for the training.

Favel, K.

1990-10-26

379

Detection device for hazardous material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of a detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chemical with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

Partin, J.K.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

380

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-2: Mixed GTCC LLW assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mixed greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (mixed GTCC LLW) is waste that combines two characteristics: it is radioactive, and it is hazardous. This report uses information compiled from Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW 1 14, Revision 1), and applies it to the question of how much and what types of mixed GTCC LLW are generated and are likely to require disposal in facilities jointly regulated by the DOE and the NRC. The report describes how to classify a RCRA hazardous waste, and then applies that classification process to the 41 GTCC LLW waste types identified in the DOE/LLW-114 (Revision 1). Of the 41 GTCC LLW categories identified, only six were identified in this study as potentially requiring regulation as hazardous waste under RCRA. These wastes can be combined into the following three groups: fuel-in decontamination resins, organic liquids, and process waste consisting of lead scrap/shielding from a sealed source manufacturer. For the base case, no mixed GTCC LLW is expected from nuclear utilities or sealed source licensees, whereas only 177 ml of mixed GTCC LLW are expected to be produced by other generators through the year 2035. This relatively small volume represents approximately 40% of the base case estimate for GTCC wastes from other generators. For these other generators, volume estimates for mixed GTCC LLW ranged from less than 1 m{sup 3} to 187 m{sup 3}, depending on assumptions and treatments applied to the wastes.

Kirner, N.P. [Ebasco Environmental, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-09-01

 
 
 
 
381

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-2: Mixed GTCC LLW assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mixed greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (mixed GTCC LLW) is waste that combines two characteristics: it is radioactive, and it is hazardous. This report uses information compiled from Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW 1 14, Revision 1), and applies it to the question of how much and what types of mixed GTCC LLW are generated and are likely to require disposal in facilities jointly regulated by the DOE and the NRC. The report describes how to classify a RCRA hazardous waste, and then applies that classification process to the 41 GTCC LLW waste types identified in the DOE/LLW-114 (Revision 1). Of the 41 GTCC LLW categories identified, only six were identified in this study as potentially requiring regulation as hazardous waste under RCRA. These wastes can be combined into the following three groups: fuel-in decontamination resins, organic liquids, and process waste consisting of lead scrap/shielding from a sealed source manufacturer. For the base case, no mixed GTCC LLW is expected from nuclear utilities or sealed source licensees, whereas only 177 ml of mixed GTCC LLW are expected to be produced by other generators through the year 2035. This relatively small volume represents approximately 40% of the base case estimate for GTCC wastes from other generators. For these other generators, volume estimates for mixed GTCC LLW ranged from less than 1 m3 to 187 m3, depending on assumptions and treatments applied to the wastes

382

The hazard associated with vitrified high-level radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evidence is presented to show that estimates of the hazard associated with vitrified high-level radioactive waste can be misleading if they are made by comparing the waste with the uranium ore from which it originated. There is a wide variation in the results of comparisons of the time course of such parameters as total activity, specific activity, activity per unit volume and number of maximum permissible annual intakes. These comparisons are concerned only with inherent radioactivity. Management and disposal practices are likely to be of greater importance in determining any eventual risk to man. (U.K.)

383

40 CFR 721.72 - Hazard communication program.  

Science.gov (United States)

...existing hazard communication program satisfies...signs, placards, process sheets, batch...individual stationary process containers...OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (29...potential hazards of a process rather than individual...written hazard communication program...

2010-07-01

384

A Strategy for Hazardous Waste Management in England  

treatment of hazardous waste, and the provision of infrastructure. What is \\hazardous waste? 2. Hazardous waste is waste that may cause particular harm \\to human health or ..... country as a whole is self sufficient in hazardous waste \\disposal,.

385

40 CFR 68.67 - Process hazard analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Process hazard analysis. 68.67 Section 68...Prevention Program § 68.67 Process hazard analysis. (a) The owner or operator shall perform an initial process hazard analysis (hazard evaluation)...

2010-07-01

386

49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Poisonous hazardous materials. 172.313 Section 172.313...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...

2010-10-01

387

Health hazards of welding fumes.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Even in the twenty-first century, welding is still a common and a highly skilled occupation. The hazardous agents associated with welding processes are acetylene, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, phosgene, tungsten, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, silver, tin, and zinc. All welding processes involve the potential hazards for inhalation exposures that may lead to acute or chronic respiratory diseases. According to literature described earlier it has been suggested that welding fumes cause the lung function impairment, obstructive and restrictive lung disease, cough, dyspnea, rhinitis, asthma, pneumonitis, pneumoconiosis, carcinoma of the lungs. In addition, welding workers suffer from eye irritation, photokeratitis, cataract, skin irritation, erythema, pterygium, non-melanocytic skin cancer, malignant melanoma, reduced sperm count, motility and infertility. Most of the studies have been attempted previously to evaluate the effects of welding fumes. However, no collectively effort illuminating the general effects of welding fumes on different organs or systems or both in human has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of welding fumes documented by individual efforts and provide informations to community on hazards of welding.

Sultan A. Meo

2003-11-01

388

Health hazards of welding fumes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Even in the twenty -first century , welding is still a common and high skilled occupation. The hazardous agents associated with welding processes are acetylene, carbomonoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, phosgene, tungsten, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, iron, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, silver,tin and zinc.All welding processes involve the potential hazards for inhalation exposures that may lead to acute or chronic respiratory diseases. According to literature described earlier it has been suggested that welding fumes cause the lung function impairment, obstructive and restrictive,lungs diseases diseases, cough, dyspnea, rhinitis, asthama, pneumoconiosis, carcinoma of the lungs. In additon,welding workers suffer from eye problems like irritation, phtokeratitis, cataract, skin irritation, erythema, petrygium, non-melanosytic skin cancer, malignant melanoma, reduced sperm count , motility and infertility. Most of the studies have been attempted previously to evaluate the effects of weldig fumes.However no cllectively effort illuminating the general effects of welding fumes on differnt organs or systems or both in humans has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of welding fumes documented by individual efforts and provides information to community on hazards of welding. (author)

389

Asbestos products, hazards, and regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asbestos is present in the United States in a multitude of products used in past decades, and in some products that continue to be imported and domestically produced. We have limited information on the hazards posed by some of these individual products and no information at all on most of them. Legal discovery of corporate documents has shed some light on the use of asbestos in some products and exposures from asbestos in others, sometimes adding considerably to what was in the published literature. But liability concerns have motivated corporate efforts to curtail governmental public health guidance on long-recognized hazards to workers. Liability considerations have also evidently led, in the case of asbestos brake linings, to the support of publication in the scientific literature of review articles denying in the 21st century what had been widely accepted and established in health policy in the 20th century. This report is an effort to illustrate the suppression and emergence of scientific knowledge in a climate of regulation and liability. Examples discussed are vinyl-asbestos flooring, feminine hygiene products, automotive friction materials, and asbestos contamination of other minerals such as talc and vermiculite. Global efforts to deal with the hazards of continuing marketing of asbestos products are also discussed. PMID:16878394

Castleman, Barry

2006-01-01

390

Seismic hazard maps of Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Italian "Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti" has conducted a project in recent years for assessing seismic hazard in the national territory to be used as a basis for the revision of the current seismic zonation. In this project the data on the major earthquakes were reassessed and a new earthquake data file prepared. Definition of a seismotectonic model for the whole territory, based on a structural-kinematic analysis of Italy and the surrounding regions, led to the definition of 80 seismogenic zones, for which the geological and seismic characteristics were determined. Horizontal PGA and macroseismic intensity were used as seismicity parameters in the application of the Cornell probabilistic approach. The main aspects of the seismic hazard assessment are here described and the results obtained are presented and discussed. The maps prepared show the various aspects of seismic hazard which need to be considered for a global view of the problem. In particular, those with a 475-year return period, in agreement with the specifications of the new seismic Eurocode EC8, can be considered basic products for a revision of the present national seismic zonation.

A. Rebez

1998-06-01

391

SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The primary reasons for this difference is the greater activity rate used in contemporary models for the Charleston source zone and proper incorporation of uncertainty and randomness in GMAMs.

(NOEMAIL), R

2005-12-14

392

CCD/CID Processors Would Offer Greater Precision  

Science.gov (United States)

Charge-coupled-device/charge-injection-device (CCD/CID) data processors of proposed type offer advantages of massively parallel computational architecture and high computational speed typical of older CCD/CID data processors, but with increased precision. Useful in performing matrix vector multiplications in variety of applications, including solving partial differential equations, processing signal and image data, control computations, and neural-network simulations. Greater precision of proposed devices help to ensure accuracy in CCD/CID implementations of pseudospectral neural networks - particular class of artificial neural networks especially suited to solving nonlinear differential equations.

Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad; Fijany, Amir

1995-01-01

393

Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite. PMID:17745405

Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

1990-05-25

394

Does the housing market reflect cultural heritage? A case study of Greater Dublin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Does the housing market reflect cultural heritage? We estimate several specifications of a hedonic price equation to establish whether distance to cultural heritage site is capitalised into housing prices in Greater Dublin, Ireland. The results show that distance to the nearest historic building has a significant and robust effect on housing prices. To our knowledge this is the first application of the hedonic price method to cultural heritage.

Moro, Mirko; Mayor, Karen; Lyons, Sea?n; Tol, Richard S. J.

2011-01-01

395

Rock avalanches: significance and progress (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The probability distribution of landslide volumes follows a power-law indicating that large rock avalanches dominate the terrestrial sediment supply from mountains, and that their source area morphologies dominate mountain topography. 2. Large rock slope failures (~ 106 m3 or greater) often mobilise into rock avalanches, which can travel extraordinarily long distances with devastating effect. This hypermobility has been the subject of many investigations; we have demonstrated that it can be explained quantitatively and accurately by considering the energetics of the intense rock fragmentation that always occurs during motion of a large rock mass. 3. Study of rock avalanche debris psd shows that the energy used in creating new rock surface area during fragmentation is not lost to surface energy, but is recycled generating a high-frequency elastic energy field that reduces the frictional resistance to motion during runout. 4. Rock avalanches that deposit on glaciers can eventually form large terminal moraines that have no connection with any climatic event; unless these are identified as rock-avalanche-influenced they can confuse palaeoclimatic inferences drawn from moraine ages. Rock-avalanche-derived fines, however, can be identified in moraine debris up to ten thousand years old by the characteristic micron-scale agglomerates that form during intense fragmentation, and which are absent from purely climatically-induced moraines; there is thus a strong case for re-examining existing palaeoclimatic databases to eliminate potentially rock-avalanche-influenced moraine ages. 5. Rock avalanches (especially coseismic ones) are a serious hazard, being very destructive in their own right; they also block river valleys, forming landslide dams and potentially devastating dambreak floods, and subsequent severe decade-scale aggradation of downstream fans and floodplains. Rock avalanches falling into lakes or fiords can cause catastrophic tsunami that pose a serious risk to waterside developments. Lake tsunami risk assessments can be derived from submarine landslide deposits. 6. Delineating hazard zones for these phenomena depends entirely on identifying the sites of future coseismic slope failures; in some cases this appears possible by identifying precursory coseismic displacements accumulated during previous earthquakes.

Davies, T. R.

2013-12-01

396

Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

Thormodsgard, June M.

2009-01-01

397

Expatriate job performance in Greater China: Does age matter?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As opposed to the predominant belief in the West, in Chinese dominated societies there may be a positive relationship between age and perceived possession of high quality personal resources and older people are traditionally treated with respect. This attitude towards old age may carry over to expatriates in Chinese societies. It is possible that older business expatriates will receive more respect and be treated with more deference in a Chinese cultural context than their apparently younger colleagues. This may have a positive impact on expatriates’ job performance. To empirically test this presumption, business expatriates in Greater Chine were targeted by a survey. Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive association with the age of the expatriates. This finding provides partial affirmative support to the presumption that the age of business expatriates matters in a Chinese cultural context. Implications of this result are discussed in detail.

Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

398

Greater inequalities in dental treatment than in disease experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to (1) describe social gradients in dental caries in a population-level survey and (2) examine whether inequalities are greater in disease experience or in its treatment. Using data from Australia's National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-2006, we examined absolute and relative income inequalities for DMFT and its separate components (DT, MT, FT) using adjusted proportions, means, and health disparity indices [Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII)]. Approximately 90% of Australian adults had experienced caries, with prevalence ranging from 89.7% in the highest to 96.6% in the lowest income group. Social gradients in caries were evident across all components of DMFT, but particularly notable in Missing (SII = -15.5, RII = -0.3) and untreated Decay (SII = -23.7, RII = -0.9). Analysis of age- and gender-adjusted data indicated less variation in levels of disease experienced (DMFT) than in the health outcomes of its management (missing teeth). The findings indicate that social gradients for dental caries have a greater effect on how the disease was treated than on lifetime disease experience. PMID:25081039

Mejia, G; Jamieson, L M; Ha, D; Spencer, A J

2014-10-01

399

Cancer in the Sindhi population of Greater Bombay.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sindhis are a Hindu subgroup identified by their place of origin and their written spoken language. These are the people who were originally inhabitants of the Province of Sind, which formed a part of the large Bombay Presidency in Undivided India before 1947. The Sindhi Hindus migrated en masse to India after partition. An attempt has been made here to examine the differences found in the site-specific cancer risks among the Sindhi community, the other Hindu groups (such as the Marathi and Gujrati populations) and the Parsi community of Greater Bombay. As the Indian Census Board does not provide age distribution details for the Sindhis, analysis of the data was undertaken employing frequency ratios. Age-standardized cancer ratios (ASCAR) were also utilized for certain calculations. The common sites of cancer appear to vary greatly between the total Bombay population and the Sindhi group. In Sindhi men, for example, cancers of the lung, large bowel, prostate, kidneys and leukemias are most commmonly seen, whereas laryngeal and oesophageal cancers predominate in the general population of Bombay. In Sindhi women the breast, uterus, ovary, and skin are the preferred sites, whereas cancers of the cervix and leukemias are predominant in the general population of Bombay. It is interesting to note that there is a degree of similarity in the incidence of cancer at certain anatomical sites, such as the prostate, large intestine, and leukemias in males, and breast, cervix, ovary and uterus in females, between the Sindhi and Parsi communities of Greater Bombay. PMID:7427916

Jussawalla, D J; Yeole, B B; Natekar, M V; Rajagopalan, T R

1980-11-01

400

Hazards Control Department 1996 Annual Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This annual report on the activities of the Hazards Control Department (HCD) in 1996 is part of the department's continuing effort to foster a working environment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where every person has the means, ability, and desire to work safely. The significant accomplishments and activities, the various services provided, and research into Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) issues by HCD would not have been possible without the many and ongoing contributions by its employees and support personnel. The HCD Leadership Team thanks each and every one in the department for their efforts and work in 1996 and for their personal commitment to keeping one of the premier research and scientific institutions in the world today a safe and healthy place.

Richards, J.

1997-06-30