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Sample records for green sulfur bacteria

  1. Comparative Genomics of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Davenport, C

    2010-01-01

    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole-genome gene family and single gene sequence comparisons yielded similar phylogenetic trees of the sequenced chromosomes indicating a concerted vertical evolution of large gene sets. Chromosomal synteny of genes is not preserved in the phylum Chlorobi. The accessory genome is characterized by anomalous oligonucleotide usage and endows the strains with individual features for transport, secretion, cell wall, extracellular constituents, and a few elements of the biosynthetic apparatus. Giant genes are a peculiar feature of the genera Chlorobium and Prosthecochloris. The predicted proteins have a huge molecular weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment.

  2. Comparative genomics of green sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Colin; Ussery, David W; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2010-06-01

    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole-genome gene family and single gene sequence comparisons yielded similar phylogenetic trees of the sequenced chromosomes indicating a concerted vertical evolution of large gene sets. Chromosomal synteny of genes is not preserved in the phylum Chlorobi. The accessory genome is characterized by anomalous oligonucleotide usage and endows the strains with individual features for transport, secretion, cell wall, extracellular constituents, and a few elements of the biosynthetic apparatus. Giant genes are a peculiar feature of the genera Chlorobium and Prosthecochloris. The predicted proteins have a huge molecular weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment. PMID:20099081

  3. Sulfur globule oxidation in green sulfur bacteria is dependent on the dissimilatory sulfite reductase system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holkenbrink, Carina; Ocón Barbas, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Green sulfur bacteria oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to sulfate with extracellular globules of elemental sulfur as intermediate. Here we investigated which genes are involved in the formation and consumption of these sulfur globules in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. We show that sulfur globule oxidation is strictly dependent on the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) system. Deletion of dsrM/CT2244 or dsrT/CT2245 or the two dsrCABL clusters (CT0851-CT0854, CT2247-2250) abolished sulfur globule oxidation and prevented formation of sulfate from sulfide, whereas deletion of dsrU/CT2246 had no effect. The DSR system also seems to be involved in formation of thiosulfate, because thiosulfate is released from wild type cells during sulfide oxidation, but not from the dsr mutants. The dsr mutants incapable of complete substrate oxidation oxidized sulfide and thiosulfate about twice as fast as the wild type, while having only slightly lower growth rates (70-80% of wild type). The increased oxidation rates seem to compensate for the incomplete substrate oxidation to satisfy the requirement for reducing equivalents during growth. A mutant in which two sulfide:quinone oxidoreductases (sqrB/CT0117 and sqrD/CT1087) were deleted, exhibited a decreased sulfide oxidation rate (~50% of wild type), yet formation and consumption of sulfur globules were not affected. The observation that mutants lacking the DSR system maintain efficient growth, suggests that the DSR system is dispensable in environments with sufficient sulfide concentrations. Thus, the DSR system in GSB may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer in a response to a need for improved substrate utilization in sulfide-limiting habitats.

  4. Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels-UlrikFrigaard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Green sulfur bacteria (GSB constitute a closely related group of photoautotrophic and thiotrophic bacteria with limited phenotypic variation. They typically oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to sulfate with sulfur globules as an intermediate. Based on genome sequence information from 15 strains, the distribution and phylogeny of enzymes involved in their oxidative sulfur metabolism was investigated. At least one homolog of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR is present in all strains. In all sulfur-oxidizing GSB strains except the earliest diverging Chloroherpeton thalassium, the sulfide oxidation product is further oxidized to sulfite by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR system. This system consists of components horizontally acquired partly from sulfide-oxidizing and partly from sulfate-reducing bacteria. Depending on the strain, the sulfite is probably oxidized to sulfate by one of two different mechanisms that have different evolutionary origins: adenosine-5’-phosphosulfate reductase (APR or polysulfide reductase-like complex 3 (PSRLC3. Thiosulfate utilization by the SOX system in GSB has apparently been acquired horizontally from proteobacteria. SoxCD does not occur in GSB, and its function in sulfate formation in other bacteria has been replaced by the DSR system in GSB. Sequence analyses suggested that the conserved soxJXYZAKBW gene cluster was horizontally acquired by Chlorobium phaeovibrioides DSM 265 from the Chlorobaculum lineage and that this acquisition was mediated by a mobile genetic element. Thus, the last common ancestor of currently known GSB was probably photoautotrophic, hydrogenotrophic, and contained SQR but not DSR or SOX. In addition, the predominance of the Chlorobium-Chlorobaculum-Prosthecochloris lineage among cultured GSB could be due to the horizontally acquired DSR and SOX systems. Finally, based upon structural, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses, a uniform nomenclature is suggested for sqr genes in prokaryotes.

  5. Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lea Haarup; Bryant, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) constitute a closely related group of photoautotrophic and thiotrophic bacteria with limited phenotypic variation. They typically oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to sulfate with sulfur globules as an intermediate. Based on genome sequence information from 15 strains, the distribution and phylogeny of enzymes involved in their oxidative sulfur metabolism was investigated. At least one homolog of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is present in all strains. In all sulfur-oxidizing GSB strains except the earliest diverging Chloroherpeton thalassium, the sulfide oxidation product is further oxidized to sulfite by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) system. This system consists of components horizontally acquired partly from sulfide-oxidizing and partly from sulfate-reducing bacteria. Depending on the strain, the sulfite is probably oxidized to sulfate by one of two different mechanisms that have different evolutionary origins: adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase or polysulfide reductase-like complex 3. Thiosulfate utilization by the SOX system in GSB has apparently been acquired horizontally from Proteobacteria. SoxCD does not occur in GSB, and its function in sulfate formation in other bacteria has been replaced by the DSR system in GSB. Sequence analyses suggested that the conserved soxJXYZAKBW gene cluster was horizontally acquired by Chlorobium phaeovibrioides DSM 265 from the Chlorobaculum lineage and that this acquisition was mediated by a mobile genetic element. Thus, the last common ancestor of currently known GSB was probably photoautotrophic, hydrogenotrophic, and contained SQR but not DSR or SOX. In addition, the predominance of the Chlorobium-Chlorobaculum-Prosthecochloris lineage among cultured GSB could be due to the horizontally acquired DSR and SOX systems. Finally, based upon structural, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses, a uniform nomenclature is suggested for sqr genes in prokaryotes.

  6. Chromatic acclimation and population dynamics of green sulfur bacteria grown with spectrally tailored light

    CERN Document Server

    Saikin, Semion K; Huh, Joonsuk; Hannout, Moataz; Wang, Yaya; Zare, Farrokh; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Tang, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Living organisms have to adjust to their surrounding in order to survive in stressful conditions. We study this mechanism in one of most primitive creatures - photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria. These bacteria absorb photons very efficiently using the chlorosome antenna complexes and perform photosynthesis in extreme low-light environments. How the chlorosomes in green sulfur bacteria are acclimated to the stressful light conditions, for instance, if the spectrum of light is not optimal for absorption, is unknown. Studying Chlorobaculum tepidum cultures with far-red to near-infrared light-emitting diodes, we found that these bacteria react to changes in energy flow by regulating the amount of light-absorbing pigments and the size of the chlorosomes. Surprisingly, our results indicate that the bacteria can survive in near-infrared lights capturing low-frequency photons by the intermediate units of the light-harvesting complex. The latter strategy may be used by the species recently found near hydrothermal ve...

  7. Signature pigments of green sulfur bacteria in lower Pleistocene deposits from the Banyoles lacustrine area (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Mallorqui?, Noemi?; Arellano, Juan B.; Borrego, Carles M.; Garci?a-gil, L. Jesu?s

    2005-01-01

    Signature pigments of photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria (GSB) were found in ancient sediments collected from an abandoned clay quarry located in the Banyoles lacustrine area (Spain). The sediments belong to the Interglacial Waalian of the lower Pleistocene (0.7–1.5 millions years old) and were deposited after a marshy event occurring during that geologic period. Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analyses of acetone:methanol sediment extracts revealed that the...

  8. Multiple Types of 8-Vinyl Reductases for (Bacterio)Chlorophyll Biosynthesis Occur in Many Green Sulfur Bacteria ?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Bryant, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    Two 8-vinyl reductases, BciA and BciB, have been identified in chlorophototrophs. The bciA gene of Chlorobaculum tepidum was replaced with genes similar to bciB from other green sulfur bacteria. Pigment analyses of the complemented strains showed that the bciB homologs encode 8-vinyl reductases similar to those of cyanobacteria.

  9. Temperature and Carbon Assimilation Regulate the Chlorosome Biogenesis in Green Sulfur Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Enriquez, Miriam M; Huh, Joonsuk; Frank, Harry A; Urban, Volker S; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Green photosynthetic bacteria adjust the structure and functionality of the chlorosome - the light absorbing antenna complex - in response to environmental stress factors. The chlorosome is a natural self-assembled aggregate of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. In this study we report the regulation of the biogenesis of the Chlorobaculum tepidum chlorosome by carbon assimilation in conjunction with temperature changes. Our studies indicate that the carbon source and thermal stress culture of Cba. tepidum grows slower and incorporates less BChl c in the chlorosome. Compared with the chlorosome from other cultural conditions we investigated, the chlorosome from the carbon source and thermal stress culture displays: (a) smaller cross-sectional radius and overall size; (b) simplified BChl c homologues with smaller side chains; (c) blue-shifted Qy absorption maxima and (d) a sigmoid-shaped circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Using a theoretical model we analyze how the observed spectral modifications can be assoc...

  10. Long-Term Population Dynamics of Phototrophic Sulfur Bacteria in the Chemocline of Lake Cadagno, Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Tonolla, Mauro; Peduzzi, Raffaele; Hahn, Dittmar

    2005-01-01

    Population analyses in water samples obtained from the chemocline of crenogenic, meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland, in October for the years 1994 to 2003 were studied using in situ hybridization with specific probes. During this 10-year period, large shifts in abundance between purple and green sulfur bacteria and among different populations were obtained. Purple sulfur bacteria were the numerically most prominent phototrophic sulfur bacteria in samples obtained from 1994 to 2001, when the...

  11. Physiology of Haloalkaliphilic Sulfur-oxidizing Bacteria:

    OpenAIRE

    Banciu, H. L.

    2004-01-01

    The inorganic sulfur oxidation by obligate haloalkaliphilic chemolithoautotrophs was only recently discovered and investigated. These autotrophic sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), capable of oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds at moderate to high salt concentration and at high pH, can be divided into three genera belonging to the γ subdivision of the Proteobacteria: Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalivibrio and Thioalkalispira. Their taxonomy, metabolic diversity and the potential applicati...

  12. Specific gene bciD for C7-methyl oxidation in bacteriochlorophyll e biosynthesis of brown-colored green sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Jiro; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Satoh, Souichirou; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Yokono, Makio; Noguchi, Masato; Tanaka, Ayumi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The gene named bciD, which encodes the enzyme involved in C7-formylation in bacteriochlorophyll e biosynthesis, was found and investigated by insertional inactivation in the brown-colored green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum limnaeum (previously called Chlorobium phaeobacteroides). The bciD mutant cells were green in color, and accumulated bacteriochlorophyll c homologs bearing the 7-methyl group, compared to C7-formylated BChl e homologs in the wild type. BChl-c homolog compositions in the mutant were further different from those in Chlorobaculum tepidum which originally produced BChl c: (3(1) S)-8-isobutyl-12-ethyl-BChl c was unusually predominant. PMID:23560066

  13. Utilization of 'elemental' sulfur by different phototrophic sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae, Ectothiorhodospiraceae): A sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are generally able to use elemental sulfur as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Elemental sulfur is mainly a mixture of cyclo-octasulfur and polymeric sulfur. The purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum strongly prefers the polymeric sulfur fraction showing that sulfur speciation has a strong influence on availability of elemental sulfur. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was used to investigate whether polymeric sulfur is also the preferred sulfur species in other purple sulfur bacteria belonging to the families Chromatiaceae and Ecothiorodospiraceae. The cultures were fed with 50 mM of elemental sulfur consisting of 68% polymeric sulfur and 30% cyclo-octasulfur. In all cultures, elemental sulfur was converted into intra- or extracellular sulfur globules, respectively, and further oxidized to sulfate. Sulfate concentrations were determined by HPLC and turbidometric assays, respectively. However, the added elemental sulfur was only partly used by the bacteria, one part of the 'elemental sulfur' remained in the cultures and was not taken up. XANES spectroscopy revealed that only the polymeric sulfur fraction was taken up by all cultures investigated. This strongly indicates that polymeric 'chain-like' sulfur is the form preferably used by phototrophic sulfur bacteria.

  14. The role of bacteria and mycorrhiza in plant sulfur supply

    OpenAIRE

    Gahan, Jacinta; Schmalenberger, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth is highly dependent on bacteria, saprophytic, and mycorrhizal fungi which facilitate the cycling and mobilization of nutrients. Over 95% of the sulfur (S) in soil is present in an organic form. Sulfate-esters and sulfonates, the major forms of organo-S in soils, arise through deposition of biological material and are transformed through subsequent humification. Fungi and bacteria release S from sulfate-esters using sulfatases, however, release of S from sulfonates is catalyzed by...

  15. Forster energy transfer in chlorosomes of green photosynthetic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causgrove, T. P.; Brune, D. C.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Energy transfer properties of whole cells and chlorosome antenna complexes isolated from the green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium limicola (containing bacteriochlorophyll c), Chlorobium vibrioforme (containing bacteriochlorophyll d) and Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme (containing bacteriochlorophyll e) were measured. The spectral overlap of the major chlorosome pigment (bacteriochlorophyll c, d or, e) with the bacteriochlorophyll a B795 chlorosome baseplate pigment is greatest for bacteriochlorophyll c and smallest for bacteriochlorophyll e. The absorbance and fluorescence spectra of isolated chlorosomes were measured, fitted to gaussian curves and the overlap factors with B795 calculated. Energy transfer times from the bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e to B795 were measured in whole cells and the results interpreted in terms of the Forster theory of energy transfer.

  16. The role of bacteria and mycorrhiza in plant sulfur supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahan, Jacinta; Schmalenberger, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth is highly dependent on bacteria, saprophytic, and mycorrhizal fungi which facilitate the cycling and mobilization of nutrients. Over 95% of the sulfur (S) in soil is present in an organic form. Sulfate-esters and sulfonates, the major forms of organo-S in soils, arise through deposition of biological material and are transformed through subsequent humification. Fungi and bacteria release S from sulfate-esters using sulfatases, however, release of S from sulfonates is catalyzed by a bacterial multi-component mono-oxygenase system. The asfA gene is used as a key marker in this desulfonation process to study sulfonatase activity in soil bacteria identified as Variovorax, Polaromonas, Acidovorax, and Rhodococcus. The rhizosphere is regarded as a hot spot for microbial activity and recent studies indicate that this is also the case for the mycorrhizosphere where bacteria may attach to the fungal hyphae capable of mobilizing organo-S. While current evidence is not showing sulfatase and sulfonatase activity in arbuscular mycorrhiza, their effect on the expression of plant host sulfate transporters is documented. A revision of the role of bacteria, fungi and the interactions between soil bacteria and mycorrhiza in plant S supply was conducted. PMID:25566295

  17. Thioploca spp: filamentous sulfur bacteria with nitrate vacuoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, BB; Gallardo, VA

    1999-01-01

    Thioploca spp. are multicellular, filamentous, colorless sulfur bacteria inhabiting freshwater and marine sediments. They have elemental sulfur inclusions similar to the phylogenetically closely related Beggiatoa, but in contrast to these they live in bundles surrounded by a common sheath. Vast communities of large Thioploca species live along the Pacific coast of South America and in other upwelling areas of high organic matter sedimentation with bottom waters poor in oxygen and rich in nitrate. Each cell of these thioplocas harbors a large liquid vacuole which is used as a storage for nitrate with a concentration of lip to 506 mM. The nitrate is used as an electron acceptor for sulfide oxidation and the bacteria may grow autotrophically or mixotrophically using acetate or other organic molecules as carbon source. The filaments stretch up into the overlying seawater, from which they take up nitrate, and then glide down 5-15 cm deep into the sediment through their sheaths to oxidize sulfide formed by intensive sulfate reduction. New major occurrences have bren found in recent years, both in lakes and in the ocean, and have stimulated the interest in these fascinating bacteria. (C) 1999 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum : insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenby, Lasse Gaarde; Szymanska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Chlorobaculum (Cba.) tepidum is a green sulfur bacterium that oxidizes sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate for photosynthetic growth. To gain insight into the sulfur metabolism, the proteome of Cba. tepidum cells sampled under different growth conditions has been quantified using a rapid gel-free, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) protocol with an in-solution isotopic labeling strategy. Among the 2245 proteins predicted from the Cba. tepidum genome, approximately 970 proteins were detected in unlabeled samples, whereas approximately 630-640 proteins were detected in labeled samples comparing two different growth conditions. Wild-type cells growing on thiosulfate had an increased abundance of periplasmic cytochrome c-555 and proteins of the periplasmic thiosulfate-oxidizing SOX enzyme system when compared with cells growing on sulfide. A dsrM mutant of Cba. tepidum, which lacks the dissimilatory sulfite reductase DsrM protein and therefore is unable to oxidize sulfur globules to sulfite, was also investigated. When compared with wild type, the dsrM cells exhibited an increased abundance of DSR enzymes involved in the initial steps of sulfur globule oxidation (DsrABCL) and a decreased abundance of enzymes putatively involved in sulfite oxidation (Sat-AprAB-QmoABC). The results show that Cba. tepidum regulates the cellular levels of enzymes involved in sulfur metabolism and other electron-transferring processes in response to the availability of reduced sulfur compounds.

  19. Chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannasch, H. W.; Wirsen, C. O.; Molyneaux, S. J.

    In contrast to earlier attempts, we were able to isolate nine strains of obligately chemoautolithotropic, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from three offshore stations in the western basin of the Black Sea (R.V. Knorr Cruise 134-9, Black Sea leg 2). The isolates grew with doubling times averaging 1.3 h over a pH range of 6.5-9.0 in artificial sea water containing thiosulfate. They also oxidized hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur and tetrathionate. Although acid producing, growth of the isolates was neutrophilic (optimum pH 7.5). Nitrate or manganese and iron oxides were not utilized as alternate electron acceptors. If acetate was present, not more than 10% of the incorporated carbon was mixotrophically obtained from the organic source. With a DNA base composition range of 37-40 mol % G+C, the new isolates appear to belong to the genus Thiomicrospira (36-44 mol % G+C) rather than Thiobacillus (55-68mol % G+C). Experimental studies on the potential sulfide oxidation by the new isolates under in situ conditions suggest that, above a certain density of active cells ( ca 10 4 ml -1 ), biological sulfide oxidation appears to be able to compete successfully with its spontaneous chemical oxidation.

  20. Okenane, a biomarker for purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae), and other new carotenoid derivatives from the 1640 Ma Barney Creek Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, Jochen J.; Schaeffer, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    Carbonates of the 1640 million years (Ma) old Barney Creek Formation (BCF), McArthur Basin, Australia, contain more than 22 different C 40 carotenoid derivatives including lycopane, ?-carotane, ?-carotane, chlorobactane, isorenieratane, ?-isorenieratane, renieratane, ?-renierapurpurane, renierapurpurane and the monoaromatic carotenoid okenane. These biomarkers extend the geological record of carotenoid derivatives by more than 1000 million years. Okenane is potentially derived from the red-colored aromatic carotenoid okenone. Based on a detailed review of the ecology and physiology of all extant species that are known to contain okenone, we interpret fossil okenane as a biomarker for planktonic purple sulfur bacteria of the family Chromatiaceae. Okenane is strictly a biomarker for anoxic and sulfidic conditions in the presence of light (photic zone euxinia) and indicates an anoxic/oxic transition (temporarily) located at less than 25 m depth and, with a high probability, less than 12 m depth. For the BCF, we also interpret renierapurpurane, renieratane and ?-renierapurpurane as biomarkers for Chromatiaceae with a possible contribution of cyanobacterial synechoxanthin to the renierapurpurane pool. Although isorenieratane may, in principle, be derived from actinobacteria, in the BCF these biomarkers almost certainly derive from sulfide-oxidizing phototrophic green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae). Biological precursors of ?-carotane, ?-carotane and lycopane are found among numerous autotrophic and almost all phototrophic organisms in the three domains of life. In the BCF, a paucity of diagnostic eukaryotic steroids suggests that algae were rare and, therefore, that cyanobacterial carotenoids such as ?-carotene, echinenone, canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin are the most likely source of observed ?-carotane. ?-Carotane may be derived from cyanobacteria, Chlorobiaceae and green non-sulfur bacteria (Chloroflexi), while the most likely biological sources for lycopane in the BCF are carotenoids of the lycopene, rhodopin and spirilloxanthin series abundant in purple sulfur bacteria.

  1. Motility patterns of filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunker, Rita; RØy, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The large sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp., live on the oxidation of sulfide with oxygen or nitrate, but avoid high concentrations of both sulfide and oxygen. As gliding filaments, they rely on reversals in the gliding direction to find their preferred environment, the oxygen–sulfide interface.We observed the chemotactic patterns of single filaments in a transparent agar medium and scored their reversals and the glided distances between reversals. Filaments within the preferred microenvironment glided distances shorter than their own length between reversals that anchored them in their position as a microbial mat. Filaments in the oxic region above the mat or in the sulfidic, anoxic region below the mat glided distances longer than the filament length between reversals. This reversal behavior resulted in a diffusion-like spreading of the filaments. A numerical model of such gliding filaments was constructed based on our observations. The model was applied to virtual filaments in the oxygen- and sulfide-free zone of the sediment, which is a main habitat of Beggiatoa in the natural environment. The model predicts a long residence time of the virtual filament in the suboxic zone and explains why Beggiatoa accumulate high nitrate concentrations in internal vacuoles as an alternative electron acceptor to oxygen.

  2. Motility patterns of filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunker, Rita; RØy, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The large sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp., live on the oxidation of sulfide with oxygen or nitrate, but avoid high concentrations of both sulfide and oxygen. As gliding filaments, they rely on reversals in the gliding direction to find their preferred environment, the oxygen–sulfide interface. We observed the chemotactic patterns of single filaments in a transparent agar medium and scored their reversals and the glided distances between reversals. Filaments within the preferred microenvironment glided distances shorter than their own length between reversals that anchored them in their position as a microbial mat. Filaments in the oxic region above the mat or in the sulfidic, anoxic region below the mat glided distances longer than the filament length between reversals. This reversal behavior resulted in a diffusion-like spreading of the filaments. A numerical model of such gliding filaments was constructed based on our observations. The model was applied to virtual filaments in the oxygen- and sulfide-free zone of the sediment, which is a main habitat of Beggiatoa in the natural environment. The model predicts a long residence time of the virtual filament in the suboxic zone and explains why Beggiatoa accumulate high nitrate concentrations in internal vacuoles as an alternative electron acceptor to oxygen.

  3. [Fe]-hydrogenases in green algae: photo-fermentation and hydrogen evolution under sulfur deprivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, M.; Hemschemeier, A.; Happe, T. [Botanisches Institut der Universitat Bonn (Germany); Gotor, C. [CSIC y Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis; Melis, A. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Department of Plant and Microbial Biology

    2002-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that [Fe]-hydrogenases and H{sub 2} metabolism are widely distributed among green algae. The enzymes are simple structured and catalyze H{sub 2} evolution with similar rates than the more complex [Fe]-hydrogenases from bacteria. Different green algal species developed diverse strategies to survive under sulfur deprivation. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii evolves large quantities of hydrogen gas in the absence of sulfur. In a sealed culture of C. reinhardtii, the photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution rate drops below the rate of respiratory O{sub 2} consumption due to a reversible inhibition of photosystem II, thus leading to an intracellular anaerobiosis. The algal cells survive under these anaerobic conditions by switching their metabolism to a kind of photo-fermentation. Although possessing a functional [Fe]-hydrogenase gene, the cells of Scenedesmus obliquus produce no significant amounts of H{sub 2} under S-depleted conditions. Biochemical analyses indicate that S. obliquus decreases almost the complete metabolic activities while maintaining a low level of respiratory activity. (author)

  4. Oxygen and sulfur isotope fractionation during sulfide oxidation by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Michelle Y.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Mandernack, Kevin W.

    2012-04-01

    Sulfide-mediated anoxygenic photosynthesis (SMAP) carried out by anaerobic phototrophic bacteria may have played an important role in sulfur cycling, formation of sulfate, and, perhaps, primary production in the Earth’s early oceans. Determination of ?34SSO4-Sulfide- and ?18OSO4-H2O values for bacterial sulfide oxidation will permit more refined interpretation of the ?34S and ?18OSO4 values measured in modern anoxic environments, such as meromictic lakes where sulfide commonly extends into the photic zone, and in the ancient rock record, particularly during periods of the Precambrian when anoxic and sulfidic (euxinic) conditions were believed to be more pervasive than today. Laboratory experiments with anaerobic purple and green sulfur phototrophs, Allochromatium vinosum and Chlorobaculum tepidum, respectively, were conducted to determine the sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. Replicate experiments were conducted at 25 °C for A. vinosum and 45 °C for C. tepidum, and in duplicate at three different starting oxygen isotope values for water to determine sulfate-water oxygen isotope fractionations accurately (?18OSO4-H2O). ?18OSO4-H2O values of 5.6 ± 0.2‰ and 5.4 ± 0.1‰ were obtained for A. vinosum and C. tepidum, respectively. Temperature had no apparent effect on the ?18OSO4-H2O values. By combining all data from both cultures, an average ?18OSO4-H2O value of 5.6 ± 0.3‰ was obtained for SMAP. This value falls between those previously reported for bacterial oxidation of sphalerite and elemental sulfur (7-9‰) and abiotic and biotic oxidation of pyrite and chalcopyrite (2-4‰). Sulfur isotope fractionation between sulfide and sulfate formed by A.vinosum was negligible (0.1 ± 0.2‰) during all experiments. For C. tepidum an apparent fractionation of -2.3 ± 0.5‰ was observed during the earlier stages of oxidation based on bulk ?34S measurements of sulfate and sulfide and became smaller (-0.7 ± 0.3‰) when sulfate concentrations rose above 0.5 mM and sulfide concentrations had became negligible.

  5. Redox regulation of energy transfer efficiency in antennas of green photosynthetic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, R. E.; Cheng, P.; Causgrove, T. P.; Brune, D. C.; Wang, J.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of energy transfer from the peripheral chlorosome antenna structure to the membrane-bound antenna in green sulfur bacteria depends strongly on the redox potential of the medium. The fluorescence spectra and lifetimes indicate that efficient quenching pathways are induced in the chlorosome at high redox potential. The midpoint redox potential for the induction of this effect in isolated chlorosomes from Chlorobium vibrioforme is -146 mV at pH 7 (vs the normal hydrogen electrode), and the observed midpoint potential (n = 1) decreases by 60 mV per pH unit over the pH range 7-10. Extraction of isolated chlorosomes with hexane has little effect on the redox-induced quenching, indicating that the component(s) responsible for this effect are bound and not readily extractable. We have purified and partially characterized the trimeric water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll a-containing protein from the thermophilic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. This protein is located between the chlorosome and the membrane. Fluorescence spectra of the purified protein indicate that it also contains groups that quench excitations at high redox potential. The results indicate that the energy transfer pathway in green sulfur bacteria is regulated by redox potential. This regulation appears to operate in at least two distinct places in the energy transfer pathway, the oligomeric pigments in the interior of the chlorosome and in the bacteriochlorophyll a protein. The regulatory effect may serve to protect the cell against superoxide-induced damage when oxygen is present. By quenching excitations before they reach the reaction center, reduction and subsequent autooxidation of the low potential electron acceptors found in these organisms is avoided.

  6. 34S/32S fractionation in sulfur cycles catalyzed by anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotopic distributions in the sulfur cycle were studied with pure and mixed cultures of the anaerobic bacteria, Chlorobium vibrioforme and Desulfovibrio vulgaris. D. vulgaris and C. vibrioforme can catalyze three reactions constituting a complete anaerobic sulfur cycle: reduction of sulfate to sulfide (D. vulgaris), oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur (C. vibrioforme), and oxidation of sulfur to sulfate (C. vibrioforme). In all experiments, the first and last reactions favored concentration of the light 32S isotope in products (isotopic fractionation factor epsilon = -7.2 and -1.7%, respectively), whereas oxidation of sulfide favored concentration of the heavy 34S isotope in products (epsilon = +1.7%). Experimental results and model calculations suggest that elemental sulfur enriched in 34S versus sulfide may be a biogeochemical marker for the presence of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in modern and ancient environments.

  7. A model of the protein-pigment baseplate complex in chlorosomes of photosynthetic green bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Ø; Linnanto, Juha

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to photosynthetic reaction centers, which share the same structural architecture, more variety is found in the light-harvesting antenna systems of phototrophic organisms. The largest antenna system described, so far, is the chlorosome found in anoxygenic green bacteria, as well as in a recently discovered aerobic phototroph. Chlorosomes are the only antenna system, in which the major light-harvesting pigments are organized in self-assembled supramolecular aggregates rather than on protein scaffolds. This unique feature is believed to explain why some green bacteria are able to carry out photosynthesis at very low light intensities. Encasing the chlorosome pigments is a protein-lipid monolayer including an additional antenna complex: the baseplate, a two-dimensional paracrystalline structure containing the chlorosome protein CsmA and bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a). In this article, we review current knowledge of the baseplate antenna complex, which physically and functionally connects the chlorosome pigments to the reaction centers via the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein, with special emphasis on the well-studied green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum (previously Chlorobium tepidum). A possible role for the baseplate in the biogenesis of chlorosomes is discussed. In the final part, we present a structural model of the baseplate through combination of a recent NMR structure of CsmA and simulation of circular dichroism and optical spectra for the CsmA-BChl a complex.

  8. Modeling the electron transport chain of purple non-sulfur bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Klamt, Steffen; Grammel, Hartmut; Straube, Ronny; Ghosh, Robin; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria (Rhodospirillaceae) have been extensively employed for studying principles of photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport phosphorylation and for investigating the regulation of gene expression in response to redox signals. Here, we use mathematical modeling to evaluate the steady-state behavior of the electron transport chain (ETC) in these bacteria under different environmental conditions. Elementary-modes analysis of a stoichiometric ETC model reveals nine ...

  9. Interspecies interaction and diversity of green sulfur bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Mu?ller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The following work is shedding light on the phylogenetic classification on the family of the Chlorobiacea, the members of which are showing signs of preadaptation to symbiosis. Symbioses consisting of purely prokaryotic associations between phylogenetically distinct bacterial species have been widely documented. Only few are available as a laboratory culture to elucidate the molecular basis of their interaction. One of these few model organisms is the phototrophic consortium “Chlorochromati...

  10. Volatile sulfur production by pig cecal bacteria in batch culture and screening inhibitors of sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, T; Ishikawa, Y; Ushida, K

    2000-08-01

    We studied the effects of specific inhibitors of methanogenesis (2-bromoethane sulfonate, BES) and sulfate reduction (sodium molybdate) on volatile sulfur production in batch cultures of pig cecal bacteria. The volatile sulfur concentration in headspace gas was determined by flame-photometric detector gas chromatography. BES stimulated production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methanethiol, and sodium molybdate completely inhibited the production of these volatile sulfur compounds. The results indicated that dissimilate sulfate reduction is mainly responsible for volatile sulfur production in the hindgut. Therefore the extracts of herbs, food colors, and aroma chemicals were tested for their inhibitory effects on H2S production by a dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSM642. H2S was measured by the chromatography of the headspace gas, using a flame photometric detector. Of 306 herbal extracts tested, 69 extracts from 38 herbs inhibited H2S production at 1.0 mg/mL. Sisymbrium officinale (hedge mustard) was the most potent inhibitor. Six pigments inhibited H2S release. Erythrosine and rose bengal showed inhibitory effects at 0.01 mg/mL. Peppermint oil and 96 aroma chemicals were assayed for their effects on H2S release. Thirty-two aroma chemicals suppressed H2S production at 0.1 mg/mL, and camphene, 1-decanol, and 2-nonanone were effective at 0.01 mg/mL. PMID:11185657

  11. Glycolytic Breakdown of Sulfoquinovose in Bacteria: a Missing Link in the Sulfur Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Alexander B.; Hewlins, Michael J. E.; Ellis, Andrew J.; Harwood, John L.; White, Graham F.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfoquinovose (6-deoxy-6-sulfo-d-glucopyranose), formed by the hydrolysis of the plant sulfolipid, is a major component of the biological sulfur cycle. However, pathways for its catabolism are poorly delineated. We examined the hypothesis that mineralization of sulfoquinovose to inorganic sulfate is initiated by reactions of the glycolytic and/or Entner-Doudoroff pathways in bacteria. Metabolites of [U-13C]sulfoquinovose were identified by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in strains of K...

  12. Vertical Migration in the Sediment-Dwelling Sulfur Bacteria Thioploca spp. in Overcoming Diffusion Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Huettel, M.; Forster, S.; Kloser, S.; Fossing, H.

    1996-01-01

    In order to investigate the environmental requirements of the filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp., we tested the chemotactic responses of these sedimentary microorganisms to changes in oxygen, nitrate, and sulfide concentrations. A sediment core with a Thioploca mat, retrieved from the oxygen-minimum zone on the Chilean shelf, was incubated in a recirculating flume. The addition of 25 (mu)mol of nitrate per liter to the seawater flow induced the ascent of the Thioploca trichomes (lengt...

  13. Insights into the genome of large sulfur bacteria revealed by analysis of single filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussmann, Marc; Hu, Fen Z; Richter, Michael; de Beer, Dirk; Preisler, André; Jørgensen, Bo B; Huntemann, Marcel; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Amann, Rudolf; Koopman, Werner J H; Lasken, Roger S; Janto, Benjamin; Hogg, Justin; Stoodley, Paul; Boissy, Robert; Ehrlich, Garth D

    2007-09-01

    Marine sediments are frequently covered by mats of the filamentous Beggiatoa and other large nitrate-storing bacteria that oxidize hydrogen sulfide using either oxygen or nitrate, which they store in intracellular vacuoles. Despite their conspicuous metabolic properties and their biogeochemical importance, little is known about their genetic repertoire because of the lack of pure cultures. Here, we present a unique approach to access the genome of single filaments of Beggiatoa by combining whole genome amplification, pyrosequencing, and optical genome mapping. Sequence assemblies were incomplete and yielded average contig sizes of approximately 1 kb. Pathways for sulfur oxidation, nitrate and oxygen respiration, and CO2 fixation confirm the chemolithoautotrophic physiology of Beggiatoa. In addition, Beggiatoa potentially utilize inorganic sulfur compounds and dimethyl sulfoxide as electron acceptors. We propose a mechanism of vacuolar nitrate accumulation that is linked to proton translocation by vacuolar-type ATPases. Comparative genomics indicates substantial horizontal gene transfer of storage, metabolic, and gliding capabilities between Beggiatoa and cyanobacteria. These capabilities enable Beggiatoa to overcome non-overlapping availabilities of electron donors and acceptors while gliding between oxic and sulfidic zones. The first look into the genome of these filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria substantially deepens the understanding of their evolution and their contribution to sulfur and nitrogen cycling in marine sediments. PMID:17760503

  14. Removal of Cr from tannery sludge by indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, D; Jin, C J; Zhou, L X

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine Cr removal from tannery sludge by bioleaching method using indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria with special emphasis on the influence of bioleaching process on sludge settleability. Chemical leaching with sulfuric acid was designed as the control. The results showed that the inoculation of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and the addition of elemental sulfur were effective in removing Cr from tannery sludge. After 144 hours of bioleaching, 98% of Cr could be leached. Although it took only 8 hours to reduce the sludge pH from 7.8 to about 2.0 by chemical leaching as compared to 144 hours for bioleaching treatment, chemical leaching removed only 91% of the total Cr. Regardless of bioleaching and chemical leaching treatments, sludge settleability improved considerably with a decrease in sludge pH. Bioleaching treatment performed better than chemical leaching in terms of the percentage of settled sludge and the effluent suspended solids (ESS) content in sludge supernatant. Nevertheless, further work should be carried out to investigate the precise mechanisms leading to such enhanced sludge settleability during sludge bioleaching process. PMID:17990170

  15. Insights into the genome of large sulfur bacteria revealed by analysis of single filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Marc; Hu, Fen Z.

    2007-01-01

    Marine sediments are frequently covered by mats of the filamentous Beggiatoa and other large nitrate-storing bacteria that oxidize hydrogen sulfide using either oxygen or nitrate, which they store in intracellular vacuoles. Despite their conspicuous metabolic properties and their biogeochemical importance, little is known about their genetic repertoire because of the lack of pure cultures. Here, we present a unique approach to access the genome of single filaments of Beggiatoa by combining whole genome amplification, pyrosequencing, and optical genome mapping. Sequence assemblies were incomplete and yielded average contig sizes of approximately 1 kb. Pathways for sulfur oxidation, nitrate and oxygen respiration, and CO2 fixation confirm the chemolithoautotrophic physiology of Beggiatoa. In addition, Beggiatoa potentially utilize inorganic sulfur compounds and dimethyl sulfoxide as electron acceptors. We propose a mechanism of vacuolar nitrate accumulation that is linked to proton translocation by vacuolar-type ATPases. Comparative genomics indicates substantial horizontal gene transfer of storage, metabolic, and gliding capabilities between Beggiatoa and cyanobacteria. These capabilities enable Beggiatoa to overcome non-overlapping availabilities of electron donors and acceptors while gliding between oxic and sulfidic zones. The first look into the genome of these filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria substantially deepens the understanding of their evolution and their contribution to sulfur and nitrogen cycling in marine sediments.

  16. EFFECT OF SOLE AND ASSOCIATIVE ACTIONS OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR AND INOCULATION SULFUR OXIDIZING BACTERIA ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENTS CONTENTS OF PEPPER PLANTS AND THE USED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ibrahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of elemental sulfur (E.S rate (2.5 g/kg soil and sulfur oxidizing bacteria on pepper plant and some chemical properties of two representative soil samples varying in their texture and CaCO3 content. Pepper was grown in Shobrakheet clay loam and Nobaria sandy loam soils for 50 days. Each soil was treated with elemental sulfur (2.5 g kg-1 soil and inoculated with two sulfur oxidizing bacteria (S.O.B. No.8 and S.O.B. ATCC 8158. Elemental sulfur with or without sulfur oxidizing bacteria increased shoot dry weights of pepper plants as compared with control. The highest effect was observed with E.S + ATCC 8158 treatment which resulted in increasing the pepper shoot dry weights from 1.36 to 2.08 g pot-1 with the clay loam soil and from 0.77 to 1.37 g pot-1 with the sandy loam soil. The same treatment resulted in the highest plant content of S, N, P, K and micronutrients.

  17. Photosynthetic electron transport and anaerobic metabolism in purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, A G

    1994-01-01

    Purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria, exemplified by Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rhodobacter sphaeroides, exhibit a remarkable versatility in their anaerobic metabolism. In these bacteria the photosynthetic apparatus, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and pathways of anaerobic respiration are all induced upon a reduction in oxygen tension. Recently, there have been significant advances in the understanding of molecular properties of the photosynthetic apparatus and the control of the expression of genes involved in photosynthesis and CO2 fixation. In addition, anaerobic respiratory pathways have been characterised and their interaction with photosynthetic electron transport has been described. This review will survey these advances and will discuss the ways in which photosynthetic electron transport and oxidation-reduction processes are integrated during photoautotrophic and photoheterotrophic growth. PMID:7747929

  18. EFFECT OF LIGNIN ON ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF HARDWOOD AFTER GREEN LIQUOR AND SULFURIC ACID PRETREATMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Douyong Min,; Hasan Jameel; Vincent Chiang,; Hou-min Chang

    2012-01-01

    Red maple, sweet gum, trembling aspen, red alder, and Eucalyptus globulus samples were pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid and green liquor before enzymatic saccharification. Substrates showed different levels of delignification and sugar recovery, depending on the applied pretreatments and the syringaldehyde/vanillin ratio (S/V). Three major conclusions were drawn in this research. First, lignin is the greatest contributor to recalcitrance of hardwood to enzymatic saccharification. Second, ...

  19. The relationship between oral malodor and volatile sulfur compound-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krespi, Yosef P; Shrime, Mark G; Kacker, Ashutosh

    2006-11-01

    Halitosis can be a crippling social problem, and standard dental treatments and mouthwashes often provide only temporary relief. The mouth is home to hundreds of bacterial species that produce several fetid substances as a result of protein degradation. Volatile sulfur compound (VSC)-producing bacteria colonizing the lingual dorsum have recently been implicated in the generation of halitosis. Detection of VSCs, such as methylmercaptan and hydrogen sulfite, via organoleptic and objective methods, can aid in the identification of their source. Following comprehensive evaluation for possible causes, most halitosis in patients seen in an ENT practice can be localized to the tongue. We review methods of diagnosis and treatment of oral malodor from the overgrowth of proteolytic, anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria on the crevices of the lingual dorsum. Bacteriologic analysis of biofilm and scraped specimens obtained from the lingual dorsum and other oral sites, primarily gingival pockets and tonsillar crypts, can identify VSC-producing bacteria. Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Actinobacillus, and Fusobacterium species are the most common organisms identified. Halitosis is an oral phenomenon, with almost no cases originating distal to the tonsils. Halitosis arising from the lingual dorsum secondary to overpopulated VSC-producing bacteria can be successfully managed with a combination of mechanical cleansing using tongue brushes or scrapes and chemical solutions containing essential oils, zinc chloride, and cetylpyridinium chloride. PMID:17071291

  20. Population study of the filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp. off the Bay of Concepcion, Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Strotmann, B.

    2000-01-01

    A population of filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp. living in the Bay of Concepcion, Chile, and the adjoining shelf area was sampled for 14 mo at 4 to 6 wk intervals to investigate the influence of seasonal variations in upwelling intensity and oxygen concentrations on the population dynamics. The Thioploca population was described by its biomass, total number and diameter of sheaths, number of trichomes and species per sheath, and abundance and depth distribution of different morphological forms, e.g. trichome diameters and ratios of cell-length to diameter. Throughout the summer of 1996, oxygen concentrations in the bottom water were near zero, nitrate was 10 to 20 mu M and the biomass was high, up to 160 g m(-2) wet weight without sheaths. During winter, the biomass declined due to higher oxygen concentrations under reduced upwelling intensity. The depth distribution of Thioploca spp, changed strongly with seasonal variations, but the population structure remained mainly unchanged. During the 'El Nino' event in 1998, with high oxygen and low primary production the biomass was very low. In the Bay of Concepcion 2 populations of filamentous sulfur bacteria were observed, filaments with short cells in sheaths, populating the upper 7 cm of the sediment, and filaments without sheaths living at the sediment surface.

  1. Sulfate-reducing bacteria lower sulfur-mediated pitting corrosion under conditions of oxygen ingress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Shawna L; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2012-08-21

    The effect of oxygen ingress into sour water containing dissolved sulfide on the production of sulfur and polysulfide (S-PS) and associated iron corrosion was investigated. Biotic (active SRB present), abiotic (autoclaved SRB present), and chemical (no bacteria present) conditions were compared. Under biotic conditions formation of S-PS was only seen at a high ratio of oxygen to sulfide (R(OS)) of 1 to 2.4. General corrosion rates increased 10-fold to 0.10 mm/yr under these conditions. Under abiotic and chemical conditions S-PS formation increased over the entire range of R(OS) with general corrosion rates reaching 0.06 mm/yr. Although general corrosion rates were thus highest under biotic conditions, biotically corroded coupons showed much less pitting corrosion. Maximum pit depth increased to 40-80 ?m with increasing R(OS) for coupons incubated for 1 month under abiotic or chemical conditions but not for biotically incubated coupons (10 ?m). This appeared to be related to the properties and size of the sulfur formed, which was hydrophobic and in excess of 10 ?m under chemical or abiotic conditions and hydrophilic and 0.5 to 1 ?m under biotic conditions. Hence, perhaps contrary to expectation, SRB lowered pitting corrosion rates under conditions of oxygen ingress due to their ability to respire oxygen and produce a less aggressive form of sulfur. Microbial control, which is usually required in sour systems, may be counterproductive under these conditions. PMID:22823179

  2. Metabolic adaptation and trophic strategies of soil bacteria—C1- metabolism and sulfur chemolithotrophy in Starkeya novella

    OpenAIRE

    Kappler, Ulrike; Nouwens, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    The highly diverse and metabolically versatile microbial communities found in soil environments are major contributors to the global carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles. We have used a combination of genome –based pathway analysis with proteomics and gene expression studies to investigate metabolic adaptation in a representative of these bacteria, Starkeya novella, which was originally isolated from agricultural soil. This bacterium was the first facultative sulfur chemolithoautotroph that ...

  3. Metabolic adaptation and trophic strategies of soil bacteria - C1- metabolism and sulfur chemolithotrophy in Starkeya novella

    OpenAIRE

    UlrikeKappler

    2013-01-01

    The highly diverse and metabolically versatile microbial communities found in soil environments are major contributors to the global carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles. We have used a combination of genome –based pathway analysis with proteomics and gene expression studies to investigate metabolic adaptation in a representative of these bacteria, Starkeya novella, which was originally isolated from agricultural soil. This bacterium was the first facultative sulfur chemolithoautotroph that w...

  4. Identification and characterization of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in an artificial wetland that treats wastewater from a tannery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Aguilar, Juan Ramiro; Peña Cabriales, Juan José; Maldonado Vega, María

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater from tanneries contains high concentrations of organic matter, chromium, nitrogen, and sulfur compounds. In this study, an artificial wetland is is used as the tertiary treatment in a tannery in León Gto., México. It consists of three subplots with an area of about 450 m2. Two subplots were planted with Typha sp. and the third with Scirpus americanus. Geochemical analyses along the flowpath of the wetland show that contaminants were effectively attenuated. The most probable number technique was used to determine rhizospheric microbial populations involved in the sulfur cycle and suggested that there were 104-10(6) cells g(-1) sediment of sulfate-reducing bacteria and 10(2)-10(5) of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). Representatives of SOB were isolated on media containing thiosulfate. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA of SOB isolates shows that they belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Ochrobactrum, and Pseudomonas. Most of the isolates are organotrophic and can oxidize reduced sulfur compounds such as elemental sulfur or thiosulfate, accumulating thiosulfate, or tetrathionate during growth. All isolates can use reduced-sulfur compounds as their sole sulfur source and some can use nitrate as an electron acceptor to grow anaerobically. Our results illustrate the relevance of SOB in the functioning of the wetland constructed for tannery wastewater remediation. PMID:19260219

  5. Transformation of Sulfur Compounds by an Abundant Lineage of Marine Bacteria in the ?-Subclass of the Class Proteobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza?lez, Jose? M.; Kiene, Ronald P.; Moran, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    Members of a group of marine bacteria that is numerically important in coastal seawater and sediments were characterized with respect to their ability to transform organic and inorganic sulfur compounds. Fifteen strains representing the Roseobacter group (a phylogenetic cluster of marine bacteria in the ?-subclass of the class Proteobacteria) were isolated from seawater, primarily from the southeastern United States. Although more than one-half of the isolates were obtained without any selec...

  6. Effects of stress hormones on the production of volatile sulfur compounds by periodontopathogenic bacteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caroline Morini, Calil; Gisele Mattos, Oliveira; Karina, Cogo; Antonio Carlos, Pereira; Fernanda Klein, Marcondes; Francisco Carlos, Groppo.

    2014-06-11

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of stress hormones on the etiologic agents of halitosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effects of adrenaline (ADR), noradrenaline (NA) and cortisol (CORT) on bacteria that produce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), the major gases responsibl [...] e for bad breath. Cultures of Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Porphyromonas endodontalis (Pe), Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) were exposed to 50 µM ADR, NA and CORT or equivalent volumes of sterile water as controls for 12 and 24 h. Growth was evaluated based on absorbance at 660 nm. Portable gas chromatography was used to measure VSC concentrations. Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn post-hoc test were used to compare the groups. For Fn, ADR, NA and CORT significantly reduced bacterial growth after 12 h and 24 h (p 0.05). In the Pi cultures, ADR, NA and CORT increased H2S (p

  7. Molecular detection and isolation from antarctica of methylotrophic bacteria able to grow with methylated sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosvi, S Azra; McDonald, Ian R; Pearce, David A; Kelly, Donovan P; Wood, Ann P

    2005-08-01

    This study is the first demonstration that a diverse facultatively methylotrophic microbiota exists in some Antarctic locations. PCR amplification of genes diagnostic for methylotrophs was carried out with bacterial DNA isolated from 14 soil and sediment samples from ten locations on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica. Genes encoding the mxaF of methanol dehydrogenase, the fdxA for Afipia ferredoxin, the msmA of methanesulfonate monooxygenase, and the 16S rRNA gene of Methylobacterium were detected in all samples tested. The mxaF gene sequences corresponded to those of Hyphomicrobium, Methylobacterium, and Methylomonas. Over 30 pure cultures of methylotrophs were isolated on methanesulfonate, dimethylsulfone, or dimethylsulfide from ten Signy Island lakes. Some were identified from 16S rRNA gene sequences (and morphology) as Hyphomicrobium species, strains of Afipia felis, and a methylotrophic Flavobacterium strain. Antarctic environments thus contain diverse methylotrophic bacteria, growing on various C1-substrates, including C1-sulfur compounds. PMID:16104352

  8. Genetic transfer by conjugation in the thermophilic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum.

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlund, T. M.; Madigan, M. T.

    1995-01-01

    The broad-host-range IncQ group plasmids pDSK519 and pGSS33 were transferred by conjugation from Escherichia coli into the thermophilic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. C. tepidum exconjugants expressed the kanamycin and ampicillin-chloramphenicol resistances encoded by pDSK519 and pGSS33, respectively. Ampicillin resistance was a particularly good marker for selection in C. tepidum. Both pDSK519 and pGSS33 were stably maintained in C. tepidum at temperatures below 42 degrees C and ...

  9. EFFECT OF LIGNIN ON ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF HARDWOOD AFTER GREEN LIQUOR AND SULFURIC ACID PRETREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douyong Min,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Red maple, sweet gum, trembling aspen, red alder, and Eucalyptus globulus samples were pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid and green liquor before enzymatic saccharification. Substrates showed different levels of delignification and sugar recovery, depending on the applied pretreatments and the syringaldehyde/vanillin ratio (S/V. Three major conclusions were drawn in this research. First, lignin is the greatest contributor to recalcitrance of hardwood to enzymatic saccharification. Second, a high S/V ratio is a useful indicator of high delignification during a pretreatment process. Third, green liquor pretreatment is a promising pretreatment method because of a high delignification degree and sugar recovery. In addition, xylan also contributes to the recalcitrance of hardwoods toward enzymatic saccharification.

  10. Influence of Gamma Radiation in Combination with Biocides on Sulfur Reducing Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The counts of sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) of the water samples collected from a gas treatment plant of a petroleum field in middle delta-Egypt were determined. The data showed a significant counts of (SRB) in the collected samples and there was a mild increase in the bacterial counts through the system stages which revealed the presence of appropriate conditions required for the growth of (SRB) microflora. Three groups of non-oxidizing biocides were screened for their bactericidal activities. It was found that the biocides IA and IB were slightly superior in respect to the antibacterial efficacy compared to their analogues of aldehydic and cationic forms, respectively. So, these biocides were selected for the study of the combined treatment with gamma radiation to maximize the efficiency on sulfate reducing bacteria treatment using the minimum effective dose of both radiation and biocides, and to eliminate their negative impacts, This treatment demonstrated that it is possible to minimize the amount of chemical biocides that are injected into targeted systems and released to the environment by exposing the waste water to ionizing radiation after biocides addition

  11. Comparative proteomics and activity of a green sulfur bacterium across the water column of Lake Cadagno, Switzerland.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habicht, Kirsten Silvia; Miller, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Primary production in the meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland, is dominated by anoxygenic photosynthesis. The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium clathratiforme is the dominant phototrophic organism in the lake, comprising more than half of the bacterial population, and its biomass increases 3.8-fold over the summer. Cells from four positions in the water column were used for comparative analysis of the Chl. clathratiforme proteome in order to investigate changes in protein composition in response to the chemical and physical gradient in their environment, with special focus on how the bacteria survive in the dark. Although metagenomic data are not available for Lake Cadagno, proteome analysis was possible based on the completely sequenced genome of an isolated strain of Chl. clathratiforme. Using LC-MS/MS we identified 1321 Chl. clathratiforme proteins in Lake Cadagno and quantitatively compared 621 of these in the four samples. Our results showed that compared with cells obtained from the photic zone, cells collected from the dark part of the water column had the same expression level of key enzymes involved in carbon metabolism and photosynthetic light harvesting. However, most proteins participating in nitrogen and sulfur metabolism were twofold less abundant in the dark. From the proteome analysis we were able to show that Chl. clathratiforme in the photic zone contains enzymes for fixation of N2 and the complete oxidation of sulfide to sulfate while these processes are probably not active in the dark. Instead we propose that Chl. clathratiforme cells in the dark part of the water column obtain energy for maintenance from the fermentation of polyglucose. Based on the observed protein compositions we have constructed possible pathways for C, N and S metabolism in Chl. clathratiforme.

  12. Comparative proteomics and activity of a green sulfur bacterium across the water column of Lake Cadagno, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habicht, Kirsten S.; Miller, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Primary production in the meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland, is dominated by anoxygenic photosynthesis. The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium clathratiforme is the dominant phototrophic organism in the lake, comprising more than half of the bacterial population, and its biomass increases 3.8-fold over the summer. Cells from four positions in the water column were used for comparative analysis of the Chl. clathratiforme proteome in order to investigate changes in protein composition in response to the chemical and physical gradient in their environment, with special focus on how the bacteria survive in the dark. Although metagenomic data are not available for Lake Cadagno, proteome analysis was possible based on the completely sequenced genome of an isolated strain of Chl. clathratiforme. Using LC-MS/MS we identified 1321 Chl. clathratiforme proteins in Lake Cadagno and quantitatively compared 621 of these in the four samples. Our results showed that compared with cells obtained from the photic zone, cells collected from the dark part of the water column had the same expression level of key enzymes involved in carbon metabolism and photosynthetic light harvesting. However, most proteins participating in nitrogen and sulfur metabolism were twofold less abundant in the dark. From the proteome analysis we were able to show that Chl. clathratiforme in the photic zone contains enzymes for fixation of N2 and the complete oxidation of sulfide to sulfate while these processes are probably not active in the dark. Instead we propose that Chl. clathratiforme cells in the dark part of the water column obtain energy for maintenance from the fermentation of polyglucose. Based on the observed protein compositions we have constructed possible pathways for C, N and S metabolism in Chl. clathratiforme

  13. Pigment production and isotopic fractionations in continuous culture: okenone producing purple sulfur bacteria Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D A; Steele, A; Fogel, M L

    2015-05-01

    Okenone is a carotenoid pigment unique to certain members of Chromatiaceae, the dominant family of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) found in euxinic photic zones. Diagenetic alteration of okenone produces okenane, the only recognized molecular fossil unique to PSB. The in vivo concentrations of okenone and bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a) on a per cell basis were monitored and quantified as a function of light intensity in continuous cultures of the purple sulfur bacterium Marichromatium purpuratum (Mpurp1591). We show that okenone-producing PSB have constant bacteriochlorophyll to carotenoid ratios in light-harvesting antenna complexes. The in vivo concentrations of Bchl a, 0.151 ± 0.012 fmol cell(-1) , and okenone, 0.103 ± 0.012 fmol cell(-1) , were not dependent on average light intensity (10-225 Lux) at both steady and non-steady states. This observation revealed that in autotrophic continuous cultures of Mpurp1591, there was a constant ratio for okenone to Bchl a of 1:1.5. Okenone was therefore constitutively produced in planktonic cultures of PSB, regardless of light intensity. This confirms the legitimacy of okenone as a signature for autotrophic planktonic PSB and by extrapolation water column euxinia. We measured the ?(13) C, ?(15) N, and ?(34) S bulk biomass values from cells collected daily and determined the isotopic fractionations of Mpurp1591. There was no statistical relationship in the bulk isotope measurements or stable isotope fractionations to light intensity or cell density under steady and non-steady-state conditions. The carbon isotope fractionation between okenone and Bchl a with respect to overall bulk biomass ((13) ?pigment - biomass ) was 2.2 ± 0.4‰ and -4.1 ± 0.9‰, respectively. The carbon isotopic fractionation (13?pigment-CO2) for the production of pigments in PSB is more variable than previously thought with our reported values for okenone at -15.5 ± 1.2‰ and -21.8 ± 1.7‰ for Bchl a. PMID:25857754

  14. Natural green coating inhibits adhesion of clinically important bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Danielle S; Silva, Denise B; Frasson, Amanda P; Rzhepishevska, Olena; da Silva, Márcia V; de L Pulcini, Elinor; James, Garth; Soares, Gabriel V; Tasca, Tiana; Ramstedt, Madeleine; Giordani, Raquel B; Lopes, Norberto P; Macedo, Alexandre J

    2015-01-01

    Despite many advances, biomaterial-associated infections continue to be a major clinical problem. In order to minimize bacterial adhesion, material surface modifications are currently being investigated and natural products possess large potential for the design of innovative surface coatings. We report the bioguided phytochemical investigation of Pityrocarpa moniliformis and the characterization of tannins by mass spectrometry. It was demonstrated that B-type linked proanthocyanidins-coated surfaces, here termed Green coatings, reduced Gram-positive bacterial adhesion and supported mammalian cell spreading. The proposed mechanism of bacterial attachment inhibition is based on electrostatic repulsion, high hydrophilicity and the steric hindrance provided by the coating that blocks bacterium-substratum interactions. This work shows the applicability of a prototype Green-coated surface that aims to promote necessary mammalian tissue compatibility, while reducing bacterial colonization. PMID:25655943

  15. Natural Green Coating Inhibits Adhesion of Clinically Important Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Danielle S.; Silva, Denise B.; Frasson, Amanda P.; Rzhepishevska, Olena; da Silva, Márcia V.; de L. Pulcini, Elinor; James, Garth; Soares, Gabriel V.; Tasca, Tiana; Ramstedt, Madeleine; Giordani, Raquel B.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Macedo, Alexandre J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many advances, biomaterial-associated infections continue to be a major clinical problem. In order to minimize bacterial adhesion, material surface modifications are currently being investigated and natural products possess large potential for the design of innovative surface coatings. We report the bioguided phytochemical investigation of Pityrocarpa moniliformis and the characterization of tannins by mass spectrometry. It was demonstrated that B-type linked proanthocyanidins-coated surfaces, here termed Green coatings, reduced Gram-positive bacterial adhesion and supported mammalian cell spreading. The proposed mechanism of bacterial attachment inhibition is based on electrostatic repulsion, high hydrophilicity and the steric hindrance provided by the coating that blocks bacterium-substratum interactions. This work shows the applicability of a prototype Green-coated surface that aims to promote necessary mammalian tissue compatibility, while reducing bacterial colonization. PMID:25655943

  16. Carbon isotope fractionation by thermophilic phototrophic sulfur bacteria: evidence for autotrophic growth in natural populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, M. T.; Takigiku, R.; Lee, R. G.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Purple phototrophic bacteria of the genus Chromatium can grow as either photoautotrophs or photoheterotrophs. To determine the growth mode of the thermophilic Chromatium species, Chromatium tepidum, under in situ conditions, we have examined the carbon isotope fractionation patterns in laboratory cultures of this organism and in mats of C. tepidum which develop in sulfide thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park. Isotopic analysis (13C/12C) of total carbon, carotenoid pigments, and bacteriochlorophyll from photoautotrophically grown cultures of C. tepidum yielded 13C fractionation factors near -20%. Cells of C. tepidum grown on excess acetate, wherein synthesis of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase) was greatly repressed, were isotopically heavier, fractionation factors of ca. -7% being observed. Fractionation factors determined by isotopic analyses of cells and pigment fractions of natural populations of C. tepidum growing in three different sulfide thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park were approximately -20%, indicating that this purple sulfur bacterium grows as a photoautotroph in nature.

  17. Effects of stress hormones on the production of volatile sulfur compounds by periodontopathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil, Caroline Morini; Oliveira, Gisele Mattos; Cogo, Karina; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of stress hormones on the etiologic agents of halitosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effects of adrenaline (ADR), noradrenaline (NA) and cortisol (CORT) on bacteria that produce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), the major gases responsible for bad breath. Cultures of Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Porphyromonas endodontalis (Pe), Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) were exposed to 50 µM ADR, NA and CORT or equivalent volumes of sterile water as controls for 12 and 24 h. Growth was evaluated based on absorbance at 660 nm. Portable gas chromatography was used to measure VSC concentrations. Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn post-hoc test were used to compare the groups. For Fn, ADR, NA and CORT significantly reduced bacterial growth after 12 h and 24 h (p0.05). In the Pi cultures, ADR, NA and CORT increased H2S (p<0.05). Catecholamines and cortisol can interfere with growth and H2S production of sub-gingival species in vitro. This process appears to be complex and supports the association between stress and the production of VSC. PMID:24918364

  18. Application of bacteria involved in the biological sulfur cycle for paper mill effluent purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Albert J.H. [Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Shell Global Solutions Int. B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: albert.janssen@wur.nl; Lens, Piet N.L. [Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Stams, Alfons J.M.; Plugge, Caroline M. [Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Sorokin, Dimitri Y. [Department of Biotechnology, Delft (Netherlands); Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Muyzer, Gerard [Department of Biotechnology, Delft (Netherlands); Dijkman, Henk; Van Zessen, Erik [Paques B.V., Balk (Netherlands); Luimes, Peter [Industriewater Eerbeek B.V. Eerbeek (Netherlands); Buisman, Cees J.N. [Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-02-01

    In anaerobic wastewater treatment, the occurrence of biological sulfate reduction results in the formation of unwanted hydrogen sulfide, which is odorous, corrosive and toxic. In this paper, the role and application of bacteria in anaerobic and aerobic sulfur transformations are described and exemplified for the treatment of a paper mill wastewater. The sulfate containing wastewater first passes an anaerobic UASB reactor for bulk COD removal which is accompanied by the formation of biogas and hydrogen sulfide. In an aeration pond, the residual COD{sub organic} and the formed dissolved hydrogen sulfide are removed. The biogas, consisting of CH{sub 4} (80-90 vol.%), CO{sub 2} (10-20 vol.%) and H{sub 2}S (0.8-1.2 vol.%), is desulfurised prior to its combustion in a power generator thereby using a new biological process for H{sub 2}S removal. This process will be described in more detail in this paper. Biomass from the anaerobic bioreactor has a compact granular structure and contains a diverse microbial community. Therefore, other anaerobic bioreactors throughout the world are inoculated with biomass from this UASB reactor. The sludge was also successfully used in investigation on sulfate reduction with carbon monoxide as the electron donor and the conversion of methanethiol. This shows the biotechnological potential of this complex reactor biomass.

  19. Community structure of filamentous, sheath-building sulfur bacteria, Thioploca spp, off the coast of Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; JØrgensen, BB

    1996-01-01

    The filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp, produce dense bacterial mats in the shelf area off the coast of Chile and Peru. The mat consists of common sheaths, shared by many filaments, that reach 5 to 10 cm dean into the sediment, The structure of the Thioploca communities off the Bay of Concepcion was investigated,vith respect to biomass, species distribution, and three-dimensional orientation of the sheaths, Thioploca sheaths and filaments were found across the whole shelf area within the oxygen minimum zone, The maximum wet weight of sheaths, 800 g m(-2), was found at a depth of 90 m, The bacterial filaments within the sheaths contributed about 10% of this weight, The highest density of filaments was found within the uppermost I cm of the mat, On the basis of diameter classes, it was possible to distinguish populations containing only Thioploca spp, from mixed populations containing Beggiatoa spp, Three distinct size classes of Thioploca spp. were found, two of which have been described previously as Thioploca araucae and Thioploca chileae. Many Thioploca filaments did not possess a visible sheath, and about 20% of the sheaths contained more than one Thioploca species. The three-dimensional sheath structure showed that Thioploca filaments can move from the surface and deep into the sediment.

  20. Filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp., in arctic marine sediments (Svalbard, 79°N)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Bo Barker; Dunker, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Fjord sediments on the west coast of the arctic archipelago Svalbard were surveyed to understand whether large filamentous sulfur bacteria of the genus Beggiatoa thrive at seawater temperatures permanently near freezing. Two sediments had abundant populations of Beggiatoa, while at six sites, only sporadic occurrences were observed. We conclude that Beggiatoa, although previously unnoticed, are widespread in these arctic fjord sediments. Beggiatoa ranged in diameter from 2 to 52 ?m and, by those tested, stored nitrate in vacuoles at up to 260 mM. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of a 20-?m-wide filament is closely associated with other large, marine, nitrate-storing Beggiatoa. The Beggiatoa mostly occurred in the upper 2-5 cm of oxidized surface sediment between oxygen and the deeper sulfidic zone. In spite of a very low or an undetectable sulfide concentration, sulfate reduction provided abundant H2S in this zone. The total living biomass of Beggiatoa filaments at one study site varied over 3 years between 1.13 and 3.36 g m-2. Because of their large size, Beggiatoa accounted for up to 15% of the total prokaryotic biomass, even though the filament counts at this site were rather low, comprising <1/10 000 of the bacterial numbers on a cell basis.

  1. Mg(2+) improves biomass production from soybean wastewater using purple non-sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pan; Zhang, Guangming; Li, Jianzheng

    2015-02-01

    Soybean wastewater was used to generate biomass resource by use of purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB). This study investigated the enhancement of PNSB cell accumulation in wastewater by Mg(2+) under the light-anaerobic condition. Results showed that with the optimal Mg(2+) dosage of 10mg/L, biomass production was improved by 70% to 3630mg/L, and biomass yield also was improved by 60%. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal reached above 86% and hydraulic retention time was shortened from 96 to 72hr. The mechanism analysis indicated that Mg(2+) could promote the content of bacteriochlorophyll in photosynthesis because Mg(2+) is the bacteriochlorophyll active center, and thus improved adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. An increase of ATP production enhanced the conversion of organic matter in wastewater into PNSB cell materials (biomass yield) and COD removal, leading to more biomass production. With 10mg/L Mg(2+), bacteriochlorophyll content and ATP production were improved by 60% and 33% respectively. PMID:25662237

  2. Cultivation of Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea from Marine Sediments in Coculture with Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? †

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byoung-joon; Park, Soo-je; Yoon, Dae-no; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damste?, Jaap S.; Rhee, Sung-keun

    2010-01-01

    The role of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nitrogen cycling in marine sediments remains poorly characterized. In this study, we enriched and characterized AOA from marine sediments. Group I.1a crenarchaea closely related to those identified in marine sediments and “Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus” (99.1 and 94.9% 16S rRNA and amoA gene sequence identities to the latter, respectively) were substantially enriched by coculture with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). The selective enric...

  3. Roseobacter clade bacteria are abundant in coastal sediments and encode a novel combination of sulfur oxidation genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Sabine; Moraru, Cristina; Hahnke, Sarah; Arnds, Julia; Richter, Michael; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Harder, Jens; Amann, Rudolf; Mußmann, Marc

    2012-12-01

    Roseobacter clade bacteria (RCB) are abundant in marine bacterioplankton worldwide and central to pelagic sulfur cycling. Very little is known about their abundance and function in marine sediments. We investigated the abundance, diversity and sulfur oxidation potential of RCB in surface sediments of two tidal flats. Here, RCB accounted for up to 9.6% of all cells and exceeded abundances commonly known for pelagic RCB by 1000-fold as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and sulfate thiohydrolase (SoxB) genes indicated diverse, possibly sulfur-oxidizing RCB related to sequences known from bacterioplankton and marine biofilms. To investigate the sulfur oxidation potential of RCB in sediments in more detail, we analyzed a metagenomic fragment from a RCB. This fragment encoded the reverse dissimilatory sulfite reductase (rDSR) pathway, which was not yet found in RCB, a novel type of sulfite dehydrogenase (SoeABC) and the Sox multi-enzyme complex including the SoxCD subunits. This was unexpected as soxCD and dsr genes were presumed to be mutually exclusive in sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes. This unique gene arrangement would allow a metabolic flexibility beyond known sulfur-oxidizing pathways. We confirmed the presence of dsrA by geneFISH in closely related RCB from an enrichment culture. Our results show that RCB are an integral part of the microbial community in marine sediments, where they possibly oxidize inorganic and organic sulfur compounds in oxic and suboxic sediment layers. PMID:22739490

  4. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria for its possible use in the fermentation of green algerian olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour-Eddine, Karam

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the aim of obtaining lactic acid bacteria with the ability to ferment olives for possible use as starter cultures. For this reason, 32 isolates of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of green olives were characterized and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical criteria. 14 of them were identified as Lactococcus lactis, 11 isolates as Lactobacillus plantarum and 7 isolates as Enterococcus sp. Of the 18 isolates examined for antagonistic activity, 3 isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum and one isolate of Enterococcus sp. were able to give distinct zones of inhibition against 5 indicator strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated in this study. Cell free supernatant of Lactobacillus plantarum OL9 was active against Gram-positive bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Propionibacterium and also against one Gram-negative bacteria strain of spoilage significance (Erwinia.Este estudio se emprendió con el objetivo de obtener bacterias del ácido láctico con capacidad para utilizarse como cultivo iniciador en la fermentación de aceitunas. Por esta razón, 32 cepas de bacterias del ácido láctico procedentes de fermentaciones espontáneas de aceitunas verdes se caracterizaron e identificaron en función de criterios morfológicos y bioquímicos. Catorce cepas se identificaron como Lactococcus lactis, 11 cepas como Lactobacillus plantarum y 7 cepas como Enterococcus sp. De las 18 cepas que se examinaron para detectar actividades antagónicas, se encontró que 3 cepas de Lactobacillus plantarum y una de Enterococcus sp. mostraban zonas de inhibición contra 5 cepas indicadoras de bacterias del ácido láctico aisladas en este estudio. El sobrenadante libre de células Lactobacillus plantarum OL9 fue activo contra diversas bacterias Gram-positivas (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus y Propionibacterium y contra una cepa de bacteria Gram-negativa relacionada con alteraciones (Erwinia.

  5. Vertical Migration in the Sediment-Dwelling Sulfur Bacteria Thioploca spp. in Overcoming Diffusion Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettel, M; Forster, S; Kloser, S; Fossing, H

    1996-06-01

    In order to investigate the environmental requirements of the filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp., we tested the chemotactic responses of these sedimentary microorganisms to changes in oxygen, nitrate, and sulfide concentrations. A sediment core with a Thioploca mat, retrieved from the oxygen-minimum zone on the Chilean shelf, was incubated in a recirculating flume. The addition of 25 (mu)mol of nitrate per liter to the seawater flow induced the ascent of the Thioploca trichomes (length, up to 70 mm) in their mostly vertically oriented gelatinous sheaths. The upper ends of the filaments penetrated the sediment surface and protruded 1 to 3 mm into the flowing water before they bent downstream. By penetrating the diffusive boundary layer, Thioploca spp. facilitate efficient nitrate uptake in exposed trichome sections that are up to 30 mm long. The cumulative length of exposed filaments per square centimeter of sediment surface was up to 92 cm, with a total exposed trichome surface area of 1 cm(sup2). The positive reaction to nitrate overruled a negative response to oxygen, indicating that nitrate is the principal electron acceptor used by Thioploca spp. in the anoxic environment; 10-fold increases in nitrate fluxes after massive emergence of filaments strengthened this hypothesis. A positive chemotactic response to sulfide concentrations of less than 100 (mu)mol liter(sup-1) counteracted the attraction to nitrate and, along with phobic reactions to oxygen and higher sulfide concentrations, controlled the vertical movement of the trichomes. We suggest that the success of Thioploca spp. on the Chilean shelf is based on the ability of these organisms to shuttle between the nitrate-rich boundary layer and the sulfidic sediment strata. PMID:16535328

  6. Metabolic adaptation and trophic strategies of soil bacteria - C1- metabolism and sulfur chemolithotrophy in Starkeya novella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UlrikeKappler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly diverse and metabolically versatile microbial communities found in soil environments are major contributors to the global carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles. We have used a combination of genome –based pathway analysis with proteomics and gene expression studies to investigate metabolic adaptation in a representative of these bacteria, Starkeya novella, which was originally isolated from agricultural soil. This bacterium was the first facultative sulfur chemolithoautotroph that was isolated and it is also able to grow with methanol and on over 39 substrates as a heterotroph. However, using glucose, fructose, methanol, thiosulfate as well as combinations of the carbon compounds with thiosulfate as growth substrates we have demonstrated here that contrary to the previous classification, S. novella is not a facultative sulfur chemolitho- and methylotroph, as the enzyme systems required for these two growth modes as always expressed at high levels. This is typical for key metabolic pathways. In addition enzymes for various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation were always expressed at high levels, even during heterotrophic growth on glucose or fructose, which suggests a role for these pathways beyond the generation of reduced carbon units for cell growth, possibly in redox balancing of metabolism. Our results then indicate that S. novella, a representative of the Xanthobacteraceae family of methylotrophic soil and freshwater dwelling bacteria, employs a mixotrophic growth strategy under all conditions tested here. As a result the contribution of this bacterium to either carbon sequestration or the release of climate active substances could vary very quickly, which has direct implications for the modelling of such processes if mixotrophy proves to be the main growth strategy for large populations of soil bacteria.

  7. Metabolic adaptation and trophic strategies of soil bacteria-C1- metabolism and sulfur chemolithotrophy in Starkeya novella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, Ulrike; Nouwens, Amanda S

    2013-01-01

    The highly diverse and metabolically versatile microbial communities found in soil environments are major contributors to the global carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles. We have used a combination of genome -based pathway analysis with proteomics and gene expression studies to investigate metabolic adaptation in a representative of these bacteria, Starkeya novella, which was originally isolated from agricultural soil. This bacterium was the first facultative sulfur chemolithoautotroph that was isolated and it is also able to grow with methanol and on over 39 substrates as a heterotroph. However, using glucose, fructose, methanol, thiosulfate as well as combinations of the carbon compounds with thiosulfate as growth substrates we have demonstrated here that contrary to the previous classification, S. novella is not a facultative sulfur chemolitho- and methylotroph, as the enzyme systems required for these two growth modes are always expressed at high levels. This is typical for key metabolic pathways. In addition enzymes for various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation were always expressed at high levels, even during heterotrophic growth on glucose or fructose, which suggests a role for these pathways beyond the generation of reduced carbon units for cell growth, possibly in redox balancing of metabolism. Our results then indicate that S. novella, a representative of the Xanthobacteraceae family of methylotrophic soil and freshwater dwelling bacteria, employs a mixotrophic growth strategy under all conditions tested here. As a result the contribution of this bacterium to either carbon sequestration or the release of climate active substances could vary very quickly, which has direct implications for the modeling of such processes if mixotrophy proves to be the main growth strategy for large populations of soil bacteria. PMID:24146664

  8. Sulfur isotopic studies of Archean slate and graywacke from northern Minnesota: evidence for the existence of sulfate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur isotopic studies of pyrite from metasediments in the >2.6 Byr old Deer Lake greenstone sequence, Minnesota, have been conducted in order to evaluate the possible importance of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfide formation. Delta34S values of pyrite from the Deer Lake sediments range from -2.3 to 11.01%, with a peak at of the order of + 0.02%. Isotopic data are consistent with either high temperature inorganic reduction of circulating seawater sulfate, or low temperature bacterial reduction. However, the lack of sulfide bands or massive occurrences in the sediments, the restriction of pyrite mineralization to the sediments, and the absence of evidence for hot spring activity suggest that a diagenetic origin of pyrite is more feasible. Sulfide in such an environment would be produced principally by the action of sulfate reducing bacteria. (author)

  9. Selection of oleuropein-degrading lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from fermenting Moroccan green olives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabbour, N.; Lamzira, Z.; Thonart, P.; Cidalia, P.; Markaouid, M.; Asehraoua, A.

    2011-07-01

    A total of 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from early-stage Moroccan Picholine green olive fermentation, including Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%), Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%), Lactobacillus brevis (9.61%) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%). All the isolates were screened for their tolerance to olive leaf extract and oleuropein. Most of the isolates (85.3%) were found able to degrade oleuropein, when evaluated by either oleuropein or 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc) as substrates. The biodegradation capacity of the selected strains of each species was confirmed by HPLC analysis. (Author).

  10. Selection of oleuropein-degrading lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from fermenting Moroccan green olives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from early-stage Moroccan Picholine green olive fermentation, including Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%), Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%), Lactobacillus brevis (9.61%) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%). All the isolates were screened for their tolerance to olive leaf extract and oleuropein. Most of the isolates (85.3%) were found able to degrade oleuropein, when evaluated by either oleuropein or 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl ?-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc) as substrates. The biodegradation capacity of the selected strains of each species was confirmed by HPLC analysis. (Author).

  11. Ecologically and geologically relevant isotope signatures of C, N, and S: okenone producing purple sulfur bacteria part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D A; Steele, A; Bowden, R; Fogel, M L

    2015-05-01

    Purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) are known to couple the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycling in euxinic environments. This is the first study with multiple strains and species of okenone-producing PSB to examine the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) metabolisms and isotopic signatures in controlled laboratory conditions, investigating what isotopic fractionations might be recorded in modern environments and the geologic record. PSB play an integral role in the ecology of euxinic environments and produce the unique molecular fossil okenane, derived from the diagenetic alteration of the carotenoid pigment okenone. Cultures of Marichromatium purpuratum 1591 (Mpurp1591) were observed to have carbon isotope fractionations ((13) ?biomass - CO 2 ), via RuBisCO, ranging from -16.1 to -23.2‰ during exponential and stationary phases of growth. Cultures of Thiocapsa marina 5653 (Tmar5653) and Mpurp1591 had a nitrogen isotope fractionation ((15) ?biomass - NH 4 ) of -15‰, via glutamate dehydrogenase, measured and recorded for the first time in PSB. The ?(34) SVCDT values and amount of stored elemental sulfur for Mpurp1591 cells grown autotrophically and photoheterotrophically were dependent upon their carbon metabolic pathways. We show that PSB may contribute to the isotopic enrichments observed in modern and ancient anoxic basins. In a photoheterotrophic culture of Mpurp1591 that switched to autotrophy once the organic substrate was consumed, there were bulk biomass ?(13) C values that span a broader range than recorded across the Late Devonian, Permian-Triassic, Triassic-Jurassic, and OAE2 mass extinction boundaries. This finding stresses the complexities in interpreting and assigning ?(13) C values to bulk organic matter preserved in the geologic record. PMID:25857753

  12. INFLUENCE OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR AND/OR INOCULATION WITH SULFUR OXIDIZING BACTERIA ON GROWTH, AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SORGHUM PLANTS GROWN ON DIFFERENT SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of elemental sulfur(E.S rates (300 and 600 ppm and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria (S.O.B. ATCC 8158 on growth and nutrients content of sorghum plants grown on different soils (sandy soils(I & II and clay loam soil.The obtained results could be summarized in the followings:Sorghum plants:Significant increases over the control were observed in fresh and dry weights of sorghum plant as well as its content of SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu by using all the sulfur and/or the oxidizing bacteria treatments. Addition of E.S (300 & 600 ppm in combination with S.O.B. ATCC 8158 significantly increased both fresh and dry weights as well as SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu contents of sorghum plants grown on the used soils as compared with either of them alone.E.S rates (300 & 600 ppm significantly increased the fresh and dry weights as well as all the studied nutrients content (SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu of sorghum plants grown on the different soils as compared with S.O.B. ATCC 8158 treatment alone. The highest rate of E.S (600 ppm significantly increased all the previous parameters under study as compared with the lower rate (300 ppm. The highest values of fresh and dry weights as well as nutrients content (SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu of sorghum plants grown on the used soils were obtained by 600 ppm E.S + S.O.B. ATCC 8158 treatment followed by 600 ppm E.S; 300 ppm E.S + S.O.B. ATCC 8158; 300 ppm E.S; S.O.B. ATCC 8158 and control treatments in decreasing order.The used soils:E.S rates (300 & 600 ppm and/or S.O.B. ATCC 8158 decreased pH values of the used soils after 3, 6 and 9 weeks from sowing as compared with their corresponding control treatments. The values of pH of sand soil (I and clay loam soil slightly decreased by time i.e they decreased from 3 weeks to 9 weeks from plantation. E.S rates (300 & 600 ppm with or without inoculation the used soils with S.O.B. ATCC 8158 significantly increased SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu content of all the used soils as compared with the control and sole S.O.B. ATCC 8158 treatments each alone. The highest values of SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu contents of sandy soils (I & II and clay loam soil took the same trend of these nutrient in sorghum plants. The highest rate of E.S (600 ppm significantly increased SO4=, N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu contents in all the used soils as compared with the lower rates (300 ppm. All the values of fresh and dry weights as well as all the determined elements in sorghum plants and the used soils were higher when the clay loam soil was used than when the other two sandy soils (I & II were used. This may be due to the fertility levels of these soils.

  13. Exploring bacteria-induced growth and morphogenesis in the green macroalga order Ulvales (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Green macroalgae, such as Ulvales, lose their typical morphology completely when grown under axenic conditions or in the absence of the appropriate microbiome. As a result, slow growing aberrant phenotypes or even callus-like morphotypes are observed in Ulvales. The cross-kingdom interactions between marine algae and microorganisms are hence not only restricted by the exchange of macronutrients, including vitamins and nutrients, but also by infochemicals such as bacterial morphogenetic compounds. The latter are a fundamental trait mediating the mutualism within the chemosphere where the organisms interact with each other via compounds in their surroundings. Approximately 60 years ago, pilot studies demonstrated that certain bacteria promote growth, whereas other bacteria induce morphogenesis; this is particularly true for the order of Ulvales. However, only slow progress was made towards the underlying mechanism due to the complexity of, for example, algal cultivation techniques, and the lack of standardized experiments in the laboratory. A breakthrough in this research was the discovery of the morphogenetic compound thallusin, which was isolated from an epiphytic bacterium and induces normal germination restoring the foliaceous morphotypes of Monostroma. Owing to the low concentration, the purification and structure elucidation of highly biologically active morphogenetic compounds are still challenging. Recently, it was found that only the combination of two specific bacteria from the Rhodobacteraceae and Flavobacteriaceae can completely recover the growth and morphogenesis of axenic Ulva mutabilis cultures forming a symbiotic tripartite community by chemical communication. This review combines literature detailing evidences of bacteria-induced morphogenesis in Ulvales. A set of standardized experimental approaches is further proposed for the preparation of axenic algal tissues, bacteria isolation, co-cultivation experiments, and the analysis of the chemosphere. PMID:25784916

  14. Biologically produced sulfur

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinjan, W. E.; Keizer, A.; Janssen, A. J. H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are stabilized against aggregation by electrostatic repulsion or steric stabilization. The formed elemental sulfur has some distinctly different properties as compared to normal inorganic sulfur. The density...

  15. Sub-micrometer-scale mapping of magnetite crystals and sulfur globules in magnetotactic bacteria using confocal Raman micro-spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Stephan H K; Gigler, Alexander M; Hanzlik, Marianne; Winklhofer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The ferrimagnetic mineral magnetite Fe3O4 is biomineralized by magnetotactic microorganisms and a diverse range of animals. Here we demonstrate that confocal Raman microscopy can be used to visualize chains of magnetite crystals in magnetotactic bacteria, even though magnetite is a poor Raman scatterer and in bacteria occurs in typical grain sizes of only 35-120 nm, well below the diffraction-limited optical resolution. When using long integration times together with low laser power (Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum (Nitrospirae), we identified the sole presence of cyclo-octasulfur (S8: 151, 219, 467 cm(-1)), using green (532 nm), red (638 nm) and near-infrared excitation (785 nm). The Raman-spectra of phosphorous-rich intracellular accumulations point to orthophosphate in magnetic vibrios and to polyphosphate in magnetic cocci. Under green excitation, the cell envelopes are dominated by the resonant Raman lines of the heme cofactor of the b or c-type cytochrome, which can be used as a strong marker for label-free live-cell imaging of bacterial cytoplasmic membranes, as well as an indicator for the redox state. PMID:25233081

  16. Retreived bacteria from Noctiluca miliaris (green) bloom of the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Subhajit; Matondkar, S. G. Prabhu; Furtado, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, seasonal blooms of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris have appeared in the open-waters of the northern Arabian Sea (NAS). This study provides the first characterization of bacteria from a seasonal bloom of green Noctiluca of NAS (20°N-17°N and 64°E-70°E), during the spring-inter-monsoon cruise of Sagar Sampada 253, in March 2007. Bacterial growth as assessed by most-probable number (MPN) and plate counts, revealed `variable-physiotypes' over a wide range of salinities (0%-25% w/v NaCl), pH levels (5-8.5), and organic nutrient strengths, in comparison to non-bloom waters. MPN indices of bacteria in surface waters of bloom stations *DWK and *PRB, corresponded to (3.08-4.41)×103 cells/mL at 3.5% NaCl (w/v), and (2.82-9.49)×102 cells/mL at 25% (w/v) NaCl in tryptone-yeast extract broth (TYE). Plate counts were (1.12-4)×106 CFU/mL at 0% (w/v) NaCl, (1.28-3.9)×106 CFU/mL at 3.5% (w/v) NaCl, and (0.4-7)×104 CFU/mL at 25% NaCl (w/v) on TYE. One-tenth-strength Zobell's gave (0.6-3.74)×105 CFU/mL at pH 5 to (3.58-7.5)×105 CFU/mL at pH 8.5. These bacteria were identified to the genera Bacillus, Cellulomonas, Staphylococcus, Planococcus, Dietzia, Virgibacillus, Micrococcus, Sporosarcinae, Leucobacter, and Halomonas. The identity of three strains (GUFBSS253N2, GUFBSS253N30, and GUFBSS253N84) was confirmed through 16S rDNA sequence homology as Bacillus cohnii, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus cereus. The ˜2-3-fold higher plate counts of culturable bacteria from the open-waters of the NAS indicate that these bacteria could critically determine the biogeochemical dynamics of the bloom and its milieu. The role of these bacteria in sustaining/terminating the bloom is under evaluation.

  17. Theoretical characterization of excitation energy transfer in chlorosome light-harvesting antennae from green sulfur bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Takatoshi; Saikin, Semion K; Brookes, Jennifer C; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Chlorosomes are the largest and most efficient natural light-harvesting antenna systems. They contain thousands of pigment molecules - bacteriochlorophylls (BChls)- that are organized into supramolecular aggregates and form a very efficient network for excitonic energy migration. Here, we present a theoretical study of excitation energy transfer (EET) in the chlorosome based on experimental evidence of the molecular assembly. Our model for the exciton dynamics throughout the antenna combines a stochastic time propagation of the excitonic wave function with molecular dynamics simulations of supramolecular structure, and electronic structure calculations of the excited states. The simulation results reveal a detailed picture of the EET in the chlorosome. Coherent energy transfer is significant only for the first 50 fs after the initial excitation, and the wavelike motion of the exciton is completely damped at 100 fs. Characteristic time constants of incoherent energy transfer, subsequently, vary from 1 ps to se...

  18. Theoretical characterization of excitation energy transfer in chlorosome light-harvesting antennae from green sulfur bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Takatoshi; Huh, Joonsuk; Saikin, Semion K.; Brookes, Jennifer Clare; Aspuru-guzik, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Chlorosomes are the largest and most efficient natural light-harvesting antenna systems. They contain thousands of pigment molecules - bacteriochlorophylls (BChls)- that are organized into supramolecular aggregates and form a very efficient network for excitonic energy migration. Here, we present a theoretical study of excitation energy transfer (EET) in the chlorosome based on experimental evidence of the molecular assembly. Our model for the exciton dynamics throughout the...

  19. The role of sulfur- and phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria in biochar-induced growth promotion of Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aaron; Kwapinski, Witold; Griffiths, Bryan S; Schmalenberger, Achim

    2014-10-01

    Plants rely on microorganisms to mobilize organically and inorganically bound sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) in which the plant can then readily utilize. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of S- and P-mobilizing bacteria in plant growth promotion in biochar-amended soil, which has been rarely investigated so far. Pot experiments of Lolium perenne were established on S and P limited soil with 1% or 2% biochar (Miscanthus × giganteus) or without biochar (control) for a period of 126 days. Both biochar amendments resulted in significant plant growth promotion. Rhizobacteria capable of growing with (1) S from aromatic sulfonates, (2) P from phosphate esters, (3) P from phosphonates, and (4) P from tri-calcium phosphates as sole source of S or P, respectively, were significantly more abundant in the biochar treatments. 16S rRNA gene-based rhizobacteria community analysis revealed a significant biochar treatment effect. Abundance of nematodes feeding on bacteria was also significantly increased in the biochar treatments. Diversity analysis of rhizospheric asfA and phnJ genes revealed broad sequence diversities in bacterial sulfonate and phosphonate-mineralizing capabilities. These findings suggest that biochar amendment enhances microbially mediated nutrient mobilization of S and P resulting in improved plant growth. PMID:24965962

  20. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria from naturally-fermented Manzanilla Aloreña green table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Cobo, Antonio; Caballero, Natacha; Fernández Fuentes, Miguel Ángel; Pérez-Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Manzanilla Aloreña (or Aloreña) table olives are naturally fermented traditional green olives with a denomination of protection (DOP). The aim of this study was to search for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with technological properties of interest for possible inclusion in a starter or protective culture preparation or also as probiotics. A collection of 144 LAB obtained from Aloreña green table olives naturally-fermented by four small-medium enterprises (SMEs) from Málaga (Spain), including lactobacilli (81.94%), leuconostocs (10.42%) and pediococci (7.64%) were studied. REP-PCR clustering and further identification of strains by sequencing of phes and rpo genes revealed that all lactobacilli from the different SMEs were Lactobacillus pentosus. Pediococci were identified as Pediococcus parvulus (SME1) and leuconostocs as Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (SME1 and SME4). Genotyping revealed that strains were not clonally related and exhibited a considerable degree of genomic diversity specially for lactobacilli and also for leuconostocs. Some strains exhibit useful technological properties such as production of antimicrobial substances active against pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Salmonella enterica, utilization of raffinose and stachyose, production of bile salt hydrolase, phytase and haeme-dependent catalase activities, growth at 10 °C and in the presence of 6.5% NaCl, good acidifying capacity and also resistance to freezing. However, none of the isolates showed protease or amylase activity, and also did not exhibit biogenic amine production from histidine, ornithine, cysteine or tyrosine. On the basis of data obtained, selected strains with potential traits were tested for their survival at low pH and their tolerance to bile salts, and the survival capacity demonstrated by some of the analysed strains are encouraging to further study their potential as probiotics. PMID:22986194

  1. Cultivation of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaea from marine sediments in coculture with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Joon; Park, Soo-Je; Yoon, Dae-No; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2010-11-01

    The role of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nitrogen cycling in marine sediments remains poorly characterized. In this study, we enriched and characterized AOA from marine sediments. Group I.1a crenarchaea closely related to those identified in marine sediments and "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus" (99.1 and 94.9% 16S rRNA and amoA gene sequence identities to the latter, respectively) were substantially enriched by coculture with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). The selective enrichment of AOA over ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is likely due to the reduced oxygen levels caused by the rapid initial growth of SOB. After biweekly transfers for ca. 20 months, archaeal cells became the dominant prokaryotes (>80%), based on quantitative PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The increase of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers was coincident with the amount of ammonia oxidized, and expression of the archaeal amoA gene was observed during ammonia oxidation. Bacterial amoA genes were not detected in the enrichment culture. The affinities of these AOA to oxygen and ammonia were substantially higher than those of AOB. [(13)C]bicarbonate incorporation and the presence and activation of genes of the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle indicated autotrophy during ammonia oxidation. In the enrichment culture, ammonium was oxidized to nitrite by the AOA and subsequently to nitrate by Nitrospina-like bacteria. Our experiments suggest that AOA may be important nitrifiers in low-oxygen environments, such as oxygen-minimum zones and marine sediments. PMID:20870784

  2. Monitoring structural transformation of hydroxy-sulphate green rust in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of bacterial consortia enable organisms to maximize their metabolic capabilities. This article assesses the synergetic relationship between iron reducing bacteria (IRB), Shewanella putrefaciens and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Thus, the aim of this study was first to form a biogenic hydroxy-sulpahte green rust GR2(SO4-2) through the bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens and secondly to investigate if sulfate anions intercalated in the biogenic GR2(SO4-2) could serve as final electron acceptor for a sulfate reducing bacterium, D. alaskensis. The results indicate that the IRB lead to the formation of GR2(SO4-2) and this mineral serve as an electron acceptor for SRB. GR2(SO4-2) precipitation and its transformation was demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction (DRX), Moessbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). These observations point out the possible acceleration of steel corrosion in marine environment in presence of IRB/SRB consortia.

  3. Selection of oleuropein-degrading lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from fermenting Moroccan green olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghabbour, N.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from early-stage Moroccan Picholine green olive fermentation, including Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%, Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%, Lactobacillus brevis (9.61% and Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%. All the isolates were screened for their tolerance to olive leaf extract and oleuropein. Most of the isolates (85.3% were found able to degrade oleuropein, when evaluated by either oleuropein or 5-Bromo- 4-chloro-3-indolyl ?-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc as substrates. The biodegradation capacity of the selected strains of each species was confirmed by HPLC analysis.

    Un total de 177 cepas de bacterias ácido lácticas (LAB fueron aisladas en las primeras etapas de la fermentación de aceitunas verdes marroquíes Picholine, incluyendo Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%, Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%, Lactobacillus brevis (9.61% y Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%. Todos los aislados fueron evaluados mediante su tolerancia a extractos de hojas de olivo y oleuropeína. La mayoría de los aislados (85,3% degradaron oleuropeína, cuando fueron evaluados usando oleuropeína o 5-Bromo-4-cloro- 3-indolil ?-D-glucuronido (X-Gluc como sustrato. La capacidad de biodegradación de las cepas seleccionadas para cada especie fue confirmada mediante análisis por HPLC.

  4. Monitoring structural transformation of hydroxy-sulphate green rust in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoula, M.; Zegeye, A.; Jorand, F.; Carteret, C.

    The activities of bacterial consortia enable organisms to maximize their metabolic capabilities. This article assesses the synergetic relationship between iron reducing bacteria (IRB), Shewanella putrefaciens and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Thus, the aim of this study was first to form a biogenic hydroxysulpahte green rust GR2(SO{4/2-}) through the bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens and secondly to investigate if sulfate anions intercalated in the biogenic GR2(SO{4/2-}) could serve as final electron acceptor for a sulfate reducing bacterium, D. alaskensis. The results indicate that the IRB lead to the formation of GR2(SO{4/2-}) and this mineral serve as an electron acceptor for SRB. GR2(SO{4/2-}) precipitation and its transformation was demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). These observations point out the possible acceleration of steel corrosion in marine environment in presence of IRB/SRB consortia.

  5. Rhizosphere heterogeneity shapes abundance and activity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in vegetated salt marsh sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FrançoisThomas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt marshes are highly productive ecosystems hosting an intense sulfur (S cycle, yet little is known about S-oxidizing microorganisms in these ecosystems. Here, we studied the diversity and transcriptional activity of S-oxidizers in salt marsh sediments colonized by the plant Spartina alterniflora, and assessed variations with sediment depth and small-scale compartments within the rhizosphere. We combined next-generation amplicon sequencing of 16S rDNA and rRNA libraries with phylogenetic analyses of marker genes for two S-oxidation pathways (soxB and rdsrAB. Gene and transcript numbers of soxB and rdsrAB phylotypes were quantified simultaneously, using newly designed (RT-qPCR assays. We identified a diverse assemblage of S-oxidizers, with Chromatiales and Thiotrichales being dominant. The detection of transcripts from S-oxidizers was mostly confined to the upper 5 cm sediments, following the expected distribution of root biomass. A common pool of species dominated by Gammaproteobacteria transcribed S-oxidation genes across roots, rhizosphere, and surrounding sediment compartments, with rdsrAB transcripts prevailing over soxB. However, the root environment fine-tuned the abundance and transcriptional activity of the S-oxidizing community. In particular, the global transcription of soxB was higher on the roots compared to mix and rhizosphere samples. Furthermore, the contribution of Epsilonproteobacteria-related S-oxidizers tended to increase on Spartina roots compared to surrounding sediments. These data shed light on the under-studied oxidative part of the sulfur cycle in salt marsh sediments and indicate small-scale heterogeneities are important factors shaping abundance and potential activity of S-oxidizers in the rhizosphere.

  6. Natural polysulfides- reactive sulfur species from Allium with applications in medicine and agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Awais

    2009-01-01

    Natural sulfur compounds from plants, bacteria, fungi and animals frequently exhibit interesting biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. Considering the recent developments in medicine (e.g. oxidative stress in ageing, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and selective anticancer agents) and Agriculture (e.g. 'green'; pesticides), several of these compounds have become the focus of interdisciplinary research. Among the various sulfur agents isolated to dat...

  7. Spinach and mustard greens response to soil type, sulfur addition and lithium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26o 8' N, Long. 97o 57' W) between Dec. 2006 and Feb 2007 to evaluate the effect of soil type, added sulfur and lithium level on the growth and leaf nutrients, particularly biofortified levels of Li and S, in spinach and mustard gree...

  8. Hydrogen-producing purple non-sulfur bacteria isolated from the trophic lake Averno (Naples, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Lucia; Mannelli, Francesca; Viti, Carlo; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Florence, Piazzale delle Cascine 24, I 50144 Florence (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Seventeen purple non-sulfur bacterial strains, isolated from the trophic lake Averno, Naples, Italy, were phylogenetically classified and their H{sub 2}-producing performances were tested utilizing various synthetic substrates and the fermentation broth derived from the spontaneous fermentation of vegetable residues. All the strains showed the capability to produce hydrogen on at least one of the four carbon substrates tested (malic, lactic, acetic and succinic acid). On lactate, Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain AV33 showed the best maximum production rate (50.7 {+-} 2.6 mL (H{sub 2}) L{sup -1} h{sup -1}), with a mean rate, calculated on the whole period of production, of 17.9 mL {+-} 0.7 (H{sub 2}) L{sup -1} h{sup -1}. In the presence of acetate, AV33 produced only few mL of H{sub 2}, but intracellularly accumulated poly-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate up to a concentration of 21.4 {+-} 3.4% (w/w) of cell dry weight. Rp. palustris AV33 also produced H{sub 2} on the fermentation broth supplemented with Fe, with a maximum production rate of 16.4 {+-} 2.3 mL (H{sub 2}) L{sup -1} h{sup -1} and a conversion yield of 44.2%. (author)

  9. Sulfur biogeochemistry of cold seeps in the Green Canyon region of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formolo, Michael J.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2013-10-01

    Cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico provide a natural laboratory to study biogeochemical cycling of sulfur, carbon, and oxygen at hydrate- and hydrocarbon-rich deep marine settings with obvious additional relevance to studies of diverse modern and ancient seeps. Of particular interest are the sulfur isotope signatures of microbial sulfate reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane and other non-methane liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Whereas most of the published sulfur isotope data from cold seep systems pertain to pore-water species, our study integrates both solid and dissolved sulfur: acid-volatile sulfides (SAVS), pyrite (Spy), elemental sulfur (S°), dissolved sulfate and ?H2S. Modeled and 35SO42- reduction rates and ?13C and ?18O data for authigenic carbonates are integrated within this sulfur framework. Our results indicate extreme variability over narrow spatial and temporal scales within short distances (meters) from active seeps. High rates of microbial sulfate reduction can lead to complete consumption of the sulfate within the upper few centimeters of burial, while meters away the sulfate profile shows little depletion. Such small-scale variability must reflect the structure and temporal dynamics of hydrocarbon migration in the presence of low amounts of background organic matter. Our past work demonstrated that electron donors other than methane drive significant levels of microbial activity at these seeps, and very recent work has demonstrated that oxidation of higher chain volatile hydrocarbons can contribute to the high levels of microbial activity. These findings are consistent with our new results. Elevated concentrations of pyrite and diagenetic carbonate relative to background sediments are diagnostic of active seepage, yet the S isotopes tell more complex stories. Low levels of the transient, 'instantaneous' products of S cycling—AVS and S°—show high ?34S values that increase with depth. Most of the pyrite formation, however, seems to be very early as limited by the availability of reactive Fe phases. As such, ?34S values for pyrite at ancient seeps can show consistently low ?34S values that undersell the full intensity of microbial sulfate reduction. Low sedimentation rates, and the resulting low detrital iron fluxes, may in fact limit our ability to recognize seeps in the geologic record using only ?34S compositions for pyrite.

  10. Isolation and characterization of purple non-sulfur bacteria, Afifella marina, producing large amount of carotenoids from mangrove microhabitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar Soon, Tan; Al-Azad, Sujjat; Ransangan, Julian

    2014-08-28

    This study determined the effect of light intensity and photoperiod on the dry cell weight and total amount of carotenoids in four isolates of purple non-sulfur bacteria obtained from shaded and exposed microhabitats of a mangrove ecosystem in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. The initial isolation of the bacteria was carried out using synthetic 112 medium under anaerobic conditions (2.5 klx) at 30 ± 2°C. On the basis of colony appearance, cell morphology, gram staining, motility test, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses, all four bacteria were identified as Afifella marina. One of the bacterial isolates, designated as Af. marina strain ME, which was extracted from an exposed mud habitat within the mangrove ecosystem, showed the highest yield in dry cell weight (4.32± 0.03 g/l) as well as total carotenoids (0.783 ± 0.002 mg/g dry cell weight). These values were significantly higher than those for dry cell weight (3.77 ± 0.02g/l ) and total carotenoid content (0.706 ± 0.008 mg/g) produced by the isolates from shaded habitats. Further analysis of the effect of 10 levels of light intensity on the growth characteristics of Af. marina strain ME showed that the optimum production of dry cell weight and total carotenoids was achieved at different light intensities and incubation periods. The bacterium produced the highest dry cell weight of 4.98 g/l at 3 klx in 72 h incubation, but the carotenoid production of 0.783 mg/g was achieved at 2.5 klx in 48 h incubation. Subsequent analysis of the effect of photoperiod on the production of dry cell weight and total carotenoids at optimum light intensities (3 and 2.5 klx, respectively) revealed that 18 and 24 h were the optimum photoperiods for the production of dry cell weight and total carotenoids, respectively. The unique growth characteristics of the Af. marina strain ME can be exploited for biotechnology applications. PMID:24759424

  11. Biofilm formation, communication and interactions of leaching bacteria during colonization of pyrite and sulfur surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenberg, Sören; Díaz, Mauricio; Noël, Nanni; Sand, Wolfgang; Poetsch, Ansgar; Guiliani, Nicolas; Vera, Mario

    2014-11-01

    Bioleaching of metal sulfides is an interfacial process where biofilm formation is considered to be important in the initial steps of this process. Among the factors regulating biofilm formation, molecular cell-to-cell communication such as quorum sensing is involved. A functional LuxIR-type I quorum sensing system is present in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. However, cell-to-cell communication among different species of acidophilic mineral-oxidizing bacteria has not been studied in detail. These aspects were the scope of this study with emphasis on the effects exerted by the external addition of mixtures of synthetic N-acyl-homoserine-lactones on pure and binary cultures. Results revealed that some mixtures had inhibitory effects on pyrite leaching. Some of them correlated with changes in biofilm formation patterns on pyrite coupons. We also provide evidence that A. thiooxidans and Acidiferrobacter spp. produce N-acyl-homoserine-lactones. In addition, the observation that A. thiooxidans cells attached more readily to pyrite pre-colonized by living iron-oxidizing acidophiles than to heat-inactivated or biofilm-free pyrite grains suggests that other interactions also occur. Our experiments show that pre-cultivation conditions influence A. ferrooxidans attachment to pre-colonized pyrite surfaces. The understanding of cell-to-cell communication may consequently be used to develop attempts to influence biomining/bioremediation processes. PMID:25172572

  12. Barite Crusts From A Brine Pool In The Gulf Of Mexico Entomb Filamentous Sulfur Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, E. W.; Bailey, J. V.; Flood, B. E.; Jones, D. S.; Joye, S. B.; Teske, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Hypersaline environments offer the opportunity to study the preservation of cell material and the role of biology in catalyzing mineral precipitation under conditions where authigenic minerals are forming in the presence of microbial biomass. Mineral crusts collected from a brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico contain filamentous mineral structures of grossly similar morphology to extant Beggiatoa mats that can be found on and around the brine pool crusts. Mineralogical and molecular analyses were preformed in order to characterize the microbial and mineral assemblage associated with the crusts. Initial mineralogical analyses show the bulk composition of the crust to be barite (BaSO4). 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to provide insight into the overall microbial community composition. Sequencing results indicate the presence of phylotypes potentially involved in methane oxidation. Sequence-data produced with Beggiatoa specific primers also indicate Beggiatoa-derived DNA within the barite crusts. Barite precipitation has been linked with sulfide oxidation in non-marine settings, and we hypothesize that it may also be important in brine pool settings where low sulfate brine waters interface with sulfide produced via AOM. Ongoing experiments using several types of bacteria are being used to determine if the metabolic oxidation of sulfide to sulfate can induce the precipitation of barite, thus providing insight into the question of whether Beggiatoa can induce the precipitation of barite within a hypersaline setting.

  13. Isolation, Characterization, and Ecology of Cold-Active, Chemolithotrophic, Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria from Perennially Ice-Covered Lake Fryxell, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Sattley, W. Matthew; Madigan, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Novel strains of obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria have been isolated from various depths of Lake Fryxell, Antarctica. Physiological, morphological, and phylogenetic analyses showed these strains to be related to mesophilic Thiobacillus species, such as T. thioparus. However, the psychrotolerant Antarctic isolates showed an adaptation to cold temperatures and thus should be active in the nearly freezing waters of the lake. Enumeration by most-probable-number analysis...

  14. Screening of antagonistic bacteria against the green mold disease (Trichoderma harzianum Rifai of Grey Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr. Quel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nualsri, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 174 strains of bacteria antagonistic against the green mold (Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from cultivating bags and fruiting bodies of the mushrooms, were screened for effects on mushroom mycelia and ability to control the green mold disease. Twenty-eight of them promoted the primodia formation of the Pleurotus pulmonarius mycelia on agar plates. Twenty-two isolates were selected and further tested in a mushroom house. Cell suspension of each isolate was prepared and sprayed onto the spawn surface of P. pulmonarius. Fifteen isolates shortened the times required from watering to 2nd and 3rd flushing and increased yield of the basidiocarps by 1.1-34.3% over 30 days. Six isolates of bacteria which showed an inhibitory effect against T. harzianum, enhanced primordia formation and increased yield of P. pulmonarius were selected and used for control testing in a cultivation house. The suspension of each isolate was sprayed onto the spawn surface immediately after exposure to the air in the mushroom house, followed by spore suspension of T. harzianum two days later. The number of infected bags was counted at 30 days after inoculation and the cumulative yield was compared after 60 days. The results showed that bacteria isolate B012-022 was highly effective in suppressing the green mold disease.Only 6.7% of the cultivating bags were found to be infected by T. harzianum when bacteria isolate B012-022 was applied. Cumulative yield obtained from 900 g of 94% sawdust + 5% rice bran + 1% Ca(OH2 was 300.0 g/bag after 60 days, 71.1% higher than the bags infected by the green mold and without bacterial spraying. Identification of the six bacterial isolates showed all to be Bacillus spp.

  15. Preliminary investigations of hydrogen peroxide treatment of selected ornamental fishes and efficacy against external bacteria and parasites in green swordtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Riccardo; Curtis, Eric W; Yanong, Roy P E

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. In the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra Hyphessobrycon eques (also known as Serpa tetra H. serpae), tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus, and green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii) were exposed to H2O2 for 1 h at concentrations between 6 and 34 mg/L or for 24 h at concentrations between 1 and 6 mg/L. The results were species specific: green swordtails tolerated all of the treatments, serpae tetras and tiger barbs were sensitive only to the highest concentration, and mortalities of suckermouth catfish and blue gourami were recorded in every treatment. In the second part of the study, clinically healthy green swordtails and fish infested with external motile rod-shaped bacteria (i.e., Ichthyobodo spp., Trichodina spp., and Gyrodactylus spp.) were treated with several concentrations of H2O2. A single H2O2 treatment of 3.1 mg/L or more for 1 h effectively eliminated external bacteria, concentrations of 6.5 mg/L or more appeared to effectively kill Ichthyobodo spp., and none of the treatments tested was effective against Trichodina spp. or Gyrodactylus spp. These preliminary findings suggest that H2O2 is effective for treating certain external bacterial infections and flagellate infestations in some species of ornamental fish at the dosages tested. Other treatment regimens may need to be tested for effectiveness against Trichodina spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. PMID:18201053

  16. Microbial conversion of sulfur dioxide in flue gas to sulfide using bulk drug industry wastewater as an organic source by mixed cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were isolated from anaerobic cultures and enriched with SRB media. Studies on batch and continuous reactors for the removal of SO2 with bulk drug industry wastewater as an organic source using isolated mixed cultures of SRB revealed that isolation and enrichment methodology adopted in the present study were apt to suppress the undesirable growth of anaerobic bacteria other than SRB. Studies on anaerobic reactors showed that process was sustainable at COD/S ratio of 2.2 and above with optimum sulfur loading rate (SLR) of 5.46 kg S/(m3 day), organic loading rate (OLR) of 12.63 kg COD/(m3 day) and at hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 8 h. Free sulfide (FS) concentration in the range of 300-390 mg FS/l was found to be inhibitory to mixed cultures of SRB used in the present studies

  17. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria As Bio-Indicator Of Polluted Effluent In The Green Turtles, Chelonia Mydas In Oman

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Antibiotic resistant bacteria were studied as bio-indicators of marine polluted effluents during egg-laying in green turtles. A non-invasive procedure for sampling oviductal fluid was used to test for exposure of turtles to pollution in Ras Al-Hadd, Oman, which is one of the most important nesting beaches in the world. Each sample was obtained by inserting a 15 cm sterile swab gently into the cloacal vent as the sphincter muscle is relaxed and the cloacal lining is unfolde...

  18. In Situ Analysis of Sulfur Species in Sulfur Globules Produced from Thiosulfate by Thermoanaerobacter sulfurigignens and Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes? †

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yong-jin; Prange, Alexander; Lichtenberg, Henning; Rohde, Manfred; Dashti, Mona; Wiegel, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    The Firmicutes Thermoanaerobacter sulfurigignens and Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes convert thiosulfate, forming sulfur globules inside and outside cells. X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis revealed that the sulfur consisted mainly of sulfur chains with organic end groups similar to sulfur formed in purple sulfur bacteria, suggesting the possibility that the process of sulfur globule formation by bacteria is an ancient feature.

  19. Two exopolyphosphatases with distinct molecular architectures and substrate specificities from the thermophilic green-sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum TLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albi, Tomás; Serrano, Aurelio

    2014-09-01

    The genome of the thermophilic green-sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum TLS possesses two genes encoding putative exopolyphosphatases (PPX; EC 3.6.1.11), namely CT0099 (ppx1, 993 bp) and CT1713 (ppx2, 1557 bp). The predicted polypeptides of 330 and 518 aa residues are Ppx-GppA phosphatases of different domain architectures - the largest one has an extra C-terminal HD domain - which may represent ancient paralogues. Both ppx genes were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). While CtPPX1 was validated as a monomeric enzyme, CtPPX2 was found to be a homodimer. Both PPX homologues were functional, K(+)-stimulated phosphohydrolases, with an absolute requirement for divalent metal cations and a marked preference for Mg(2+). Nevertheless, they exhibited remarkably different catalytic specificities with regard to substrate classes and chain lengths. Even though both enzymes were able to hydrolyse the medium-size polyphosphate (polyP) P13-18 (polyP mix with mean chain length of 13-18 phosphate residues), CtPPX1 clearly reached its highest catalytic efficiency with tripolyphosphate and showed substantial nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) activity, while CtPPX2 preferred long-chain polyPs (>300 Pi residues) and did not show any detectable NTPase activity. These catalytic features, taken together with the distinct domain architectures and molecular phylogenies, indicate that the two PPX homologues of Chl. tepidum belong to different Ppx-GppA phosphatase subfamilies that should play specific biochemical roles in nucleotide and polyP metabolisms. In addition, these results provide an example of the remarkable functional plasticity of the Ppx-GppA phosphatases, a family of proteins with relatively simple structures that are widely distributed in the microbial world. PMID:24969471

  20. Structural investigation of oxidized chlorosomes from green bacteria using multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance up to 330 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Valentin, Marilena; Malorni, Domenico; Maniero, Anna Lisa; Agostini, Giancarlo; Giacometti, Giovanni; Vianelli, Alberto; Vannini, Candida; Cattaneo, Anna Giulia; Brunel, Louis-Claude; Carbonera, Donatella

    2002-01-01

    Chemical oxidation of the chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus and Chlorobium tepidum green bacteria produces bacteriochlorophyll radicals, which are characterized by an anomalously narrow EPR signal compared to in vitro monomeric BChl c (.+) [Van Noort PI, Zhu Y, LoBrutto R and Blankenship RE (1997) Biophys J 72: 316-325]. We have performed oxidant concentration and temperature-dependent X-band EPR measurements in order to elucidate the line narrowing mechanism. The linewidth decreases as the oxidant concentration is increased only for Chloroflexus indicating that for this system Heisenberg spin exchange is at least partially responsible for the EPR spectra narrowing. For both species the linewidth is decreasing on increasing the temperature. This indicates that temperature-activated electron transfer is the main narrowing mechanism for BChl radicals in chlorosomes. The extent of the electron transfer process among different BChl molecules has been evaluated and a comparison between the two species representative of the two green bacteria families has been made. In parallel, high frequency EPR experiments have been performed on the oxidized chlorosomes of Chloroflexus and Chlorobium at 110 and 330 GHz in the full temperature range investigated at X-band. The g-tensor components obtained from the simulation of the 330 GHz EPR spectrum from Chlorobium show the same anisotropy as those of monomeric Chl a (.+) [Bratt PJ, Poluektov OG, Thurnauer MC, Krzystek J, Brunel LC, Schrier J, Hsiao YW, Zerner M and Angerhofer A (2000) J Phys Chem B 104: 6973-6977]. The spectrum of Chloroflexus has a nearly axial g-tensor with reduced anisotropy compared to Chlorobium and monomeric Chl a in vitro. g-tensor values and temperature dependence of the linewidth have been discussed in terms of the differences in the local structure of the chlorosomes of the two families. PMID:16228499

  1. Formation of Fe(III)-containing mackinawite from hydroxysulphate green rust by sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions between Fe(II-III) hydroxysulphate GR(SO42-) and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) were studied. The considered SRB, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii ATCC 29578, were added with GR(SO42-) to culture media. Different conditions were envisioned, corresponding to various concentrations of bacteria, various sources of sulphate (dissolved SO42- + GR(SO42-) or GR(SO42-) alone) and various atmospheres (N2:H2 or N2:CO2:H2). In the first part of the study, CO2 was deliberately omitted so as to avoid the formation of carbonated compounds, and GR(SO42-) was the only source of sulphate. Cell concentration increases from ?4 x 107 to ?7 x 108 cells/mL in 2 weeks. The evolution with time of the iron compounds, monitored by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, showed the progressive formation of a FeS compound, the Fe(III)-containing mackinawite. This result is consistent with the association GR(SO42-)/SRB/FeS observed in rust layers formed on steel in seawater. In the presence of CO2 and additional dissolved sulphate species, a rapid growth of the bacteria could be observed, leading to the total transformation of GR(SO42-) into mackinawite, found in three physico-chemical stat, found in three physico-chemical states (nanocrystalline, crystalline stoichiometric FeS and Fe(III)-containing), and siderite FeCO3.

  2. CO2 assimilation in the chemocline of Lake Cadagno is dominated by a few types of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storelli, Nicola; Peduzzi, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Lake Cadagno is characterized by a compact chemocline that harbors high concentrations of various phototrophic sulfur bacteria. Four strains representing the numerically most abundant populations in the chemocline were tested in dialysis bags in situ for their ability to fix CO?. The purple sulfur bacterium Candidatus 'Thiodictyon syntrophicum' strain Cad16(T) had the highest CO? assimilation rate in the light of the four strains tested and had a high CO? assimilation rate even in the dark. The CO? assimilation of the population represented by strain Cad16(T) was estimated to be up to 25% of the total primary production in the chemocline. Pure cultures of strain Cad16(T) exposed to cycles of 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness exhibited the highest CO? assimilation during the first 4 h of light. The draft genome sequence of Cad16(T) showed the presence of cbbL and cbbM genes, which encode form I and form II of RuBisCO, respectively. Transcription analyses confirmed that, whereas cbbM remained poorly expressed throughout light and dark exposure, cbbL expression varied during the light-dark cycle and was affected by the available carbon sources. Interestingly, the peaks in cbbL expression did not correlate with the peaks in CO? assimilation.

  3. Abiotic process for Fe(II) oxidation and green rust mineralization driven by a heterotrophic nitrate reducing bacteria (Klebsiella mobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etique, Marjorie; Jorand, Frédéric P A; Zegeye, Asfaw; Grégoire, Brian; Despas, Christelle; Ruby, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Green rusts (GRs) are mixed Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides with a high reactivity toward organic and inorganic pollutants. GRs can be produced from ferric reducing or ferrous oxidizing bacterial activities. In this study, we investigated the capability of Klebsiella mobilis to produce iron minerals in the presence of nitrate and ferrous iron. This bacterium is well-known to reduce nitrate using an organic carbon source as electron donor but is unable to enzymatically oxidize Fe(II) species. During incubation, GR formation occurred as a secondary iron mineral precipitating on cell surfaces, resulting from Fe(II) oxidation by nitrite produced via bacterial respiration of nitrate. For the first time, we demonstrate GR formation by indirect microbial oxidation of Fe(II) (i.e., a combination of biotic/abiotic processes). These results therefore suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can potentially contribute to the formation of GR in natural environments. In addition, the chemical reduction of nitrite to ammonium by GR is observed, which gradually turns the GR into the end-product goethite. The nitrogen mass-balance clearly demonstrates that the total amount of ammonium produced corresponds to the quantity of bioreduced nitrate. These findings demonstrate how the activity of nitrate-reducing bacteria in ferrous environments may provide a direct link between the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and iron. PMID:24605878

  4. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  5. Bioenergetic studies of coal sulfur oxidation by extremely thermophilic bacteria. Final report, September 15, 1992--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.M.; Han, C.J.

    1997-12-31

    Thermoacidophilic microorganisms have been considered for inorganic sulfur removal from coal because of expected improvements in rates of both biotic and abiotic sulfur oxidation reactions with increasing temperature. In this study, the bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon, Metallosphaera sedula, to environmental changes have been examined in relation to its capacity to catalyze pyrite oxidation in coal. Given an appropriate bioenergetic challenge, the metabolic response was to utilize additional amounts of energy sources (i.e., pyrite) to survive. Of particular interest were the consequences of exposing the organism to various forms of stress (chemical, nutritional, thermal, pH) in the presence of coal pyrite. Several approaches to take advantage of stress response to accelerate pyrite oxidation by this organism were examined, including attempts to promote acquired thermal tolerance to extend its functional range, exposure to chemical uncouplers and decouplers, and manipulation of heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic tendencies to optimize biomass concentration and biocatalytic activity. Promising strategies were investigated in a continuous culture system. This study identified environmental conditions that promote better coupling of biotic and abiotic oxidation reactions to improve biosulfurization rates of thermoacidophilic microorganisms.

  6. The hopanoids of the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and the absolute configuration of bacteriohopanetetrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunlist, S; Bisseret, P; Rohmer, M

    1988-01-15

    Five complex hopanoids have been detected in the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. Next to the polyfunctionalized methylcyclopentane bacteriohopanetetrol ether already isolated from Methylobacterium organophilum, 35-carbamoylbacteriohopane-32,33,34-triol, 34,35-dicarbamoylbacteriohopane-32,33-diol and two nucleoside analogues, (22R)-30-(5'-adenosyl)hopane and (22S)-30-(5'-adenosyl)hopane were isolated and identified by spectroscopic and chemical methods. In Rhodopseudomonas palustris, however, only 35-amino-bacteriohopane-32,33,34-triol was detected. Chemical correlation between adenosylhopane and bacteriohopanetetrol, as well as comparison of derivatives obtained from bacterial and synthetic hopanoids, permitted the determination of the configurations of all asymmetric centres of the side-chain of bacteriohopanetetrol as 22R, 32R, 33R and 34S. According to the stereochemistry, this side-chain could be a D-ribose derivative linked through its C-5 carbon atom to the hopane skeleton. PMID:3338464

  7. Antioxidant efficacy of crude methanol extract of ashitaba green tea against radiation induced oxidative stress in E.coli K12 bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity of methanol crude extract of ashitaba green tea (G). The DPPH scavenging assay was evaluated for green tea extract to determine its radical scavenging capacity. The bacteria was pretreated with ashitaba green tea extract, quercetin (Q) and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate (E) at below MIC level. Oxidative stress was induced at 0.4 Gy using gamma radiation. The antioxidant efficacy of ashitaba green tea was evaluated through enzyme antioxidant studies like SOD (Superoxidedismutase) and CAT (Catalase). The oxidative stress marker Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) was also evaluated. Further the protective efficacy of the(G) was confirmed by colony forming units (CFU) study. Among the tested compounds the crude extract of ashitaba (G) exhibited excellent antioxidant activity in comparison with quercetin and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate. (abstract)

  8. A DNA element recognised by the molybdenum-responsive transcription factor ModE is conserved in Proteobacteria, green sulphur bacteria and Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Richard N

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition metal molybdenum is essential for life. Escherichia coli imports this metal into the cell in the form of molybdate ions, which are taken up via an ABC transport system. In E. coli and other Proteobacteria molybdenum metabolism and homeostasis are regulated by the molybdate-responsive transcription factor ModE. Results Orthologues of ModE are widespread amongst diverse prokaryotes, but not ubiquitous. We identified probable ModE-binding sites upstream of genes implicated in molybdenum metabolism in green sulphur bacteria and methanogenic Archaea as well as in Proteobacteria. We also present evidence of horizontal transfer of nitrogen fixation genes between green sulphur bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. Conclusions Whereas most of the archaeal helix-turn-helix-containing transcription factors belong to families that are Archaea-specific, ModE is unusual in that it is found in both Archaea and Bacteria. Moreover, its cognate upstream DNA recognition sequence is also conserved between Archaea and Bacteria, despite the fundamental differences in their core transcription machinery. ModE is the third example of a transcriptional regulator with a binding signal that is conserved in Bacteria and Archaea.

  9. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  10. Diel Variations in Carbon Metabolism by Green Nonsulfur-Like Bacteria in Alkaline Siliceous Hot Spring Microbial Mats from Yellowstone National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Meer, Marcel T. J.; Schouten, Stefan; Bateson, Mary M.; Nu?bel, Ulrich; Wieland, Andrea; Ku?hl, Michael; Leeuw, Jan W.; Sinninghe Damste?, Jaap S.; Ward, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Green nonsulfur-like bacteria (GNSLB) in hot spring microbial mats are thought to be mainly photoheterotrophic, using cyanobacterial metabolites as carbon sources. However, the stable carbon isotopic composition of typical Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus lipids suggests photoautotrophic metabolism of GNSLB. One possible explanation for this apparent discrepancy might be that GNSLB fix inorganic carbon only during certain times of the day. In order to study temporal variability in carbon metaboli...

  11. Green synthesis of protein capped silver nanoparticles from phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid with antimicrobial properties against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Supriyo; Basu, Arpita; Kundu, Surekha

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, green synthesis of nanoparticles, i.e., synthesizing nanoparticles using biological sources like bacteria, algae, fungus, or plant extracts have attracted much attention due to its environment-friendly and economic aspects. The present study demonstrates an eco-friendly and low-cost method of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using cell-free filtrate of phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. UV-visible spectrum showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon...

  12. Developing a biofilm of sulfur oxidizing bacteria, starting-up and operating a bioscrubber treating H2S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Naddafi, Kazem; Mesdaghinia, Alireza

    2007-03-01

    Development of an acclimatized SOB biofilm, startup and performance of a fixed bed bioscrubber packed with corrugated tube parts as a media having high specific surface area was investigated. Bioscrubber was a cylindrical Plexiglas air-and water-tight column with 10 L in working bed volume. Sludge from a tannery wastewater treatment plant was used as a seed for SOB separation, acclimation and enrichment. Enriched acclimatized SOB were applied as inoculum for biofilm development, which was carried out by recirculating the prepared microbial suspension through the bed. Thickness of the developed biofilm was 56 microm in which active acidophilic autotrophic H2S oxidizing bacteria were completely predominated. Activity measurements showed highest biodegradation rate of biofilm at liquid pH around 3. Due to employing an efficient specialized biofilm, startup period of the reactor was quite short and H2S removal efficiency just 12 h after starting up reached above of 92% and increased to 96% at day 3 of starting up while inlet H2S concentration gradually was increased to around 30 ppm. At the end of start up pH of the recycle liquid was modified to the optimal value of 3 +/- 0.5 in which biofilm demonstrated the highest activity in terms of OUR after which removal efficiency increased around 3% while other operating conditions were consistent. Furthermore, performance of the bioscrubber was evaluated at various inlet H2S concentrations ranging from 30 to 150 ppm(v). It was indicated that the inlet H2S concentrations in studied range did not affect the performance of the bioscrubber so that the removal efficiency of H2S was greater than 99.4% at all concentrations. These observations suggested that the development of an efficient specialized SOB biofilm on a media with high specific surface area will decrease the startup course and achieve high removal efficiency in the bioscrubber treating H2S. In addition, operation in acidic recycle liquid will overcome use of alkaline to adjust the pH, which reduce the operation cost of the control system. PMID:19069851

  13. Developing a Biofilm of Sulfur Oxidizing Bacteria, Starting-up and Operating a Bioscrubber Treating H2S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Moussavi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of an acclimatized SOB biofilm, startup and performance of a fixed bed bioscrubber packed with corrugated tube parts as a media having high specific surface area was investigated. Bioscrubber was a cylindrical Plexiglas air-and water-tight column with 10 L in working bed volume. Sludge from a tannery wastewater treatment plant was used as a seed for SOB separation, acclimation and enrichment. Enriched acclimatized SOB were applied as inoculum for biofilm development, which was carried out by recirculating the prepared microbial suspension through the bed. Thickness of the developed biofilm was 56 ?m in which active acidophilic autotrophic H2S oxidizing bacteria were completely predominated. Activity measurements showed highest biodegradation rate of biofilm at liquid pH around 3. Due to employing an efficient specialized biofilm, startup period of the reactor was quite short and H2S removal efficiency just 12 h after starting up reached above of 92% and increased to 96% at day 3 of starting up while inlet H2S concentration gradually was increased to around 30 ppm. At the end of start up pH of the recycle liquid was modified to the optimal value of 3±0.5 in which biofilm demonstrated the highest activity in terms of OUR after which removal efficiency increased around 3% while other operating conditions were consistent. Furthermore, performance of the bioscrubber was evaluated at various inlet H2S concentrations ranging from 30 to 150 ppmv. It was indicated that the inlet H2S concentrations in studied range did not affect the performance of the bioscrubber so that the removal efficiency of H2S was greater than 99.4% at all concentrations. These observations suggested that the development of an efficient specialized SOB biofilm on a media with high specific surface area will decrease the startup course and achieve high removal efficiency in the bioscrubber treating H2S. In addition, operation in acidic recycle liquid will overcome use of alkaline to adjust the pH, which reduce the operation cost of the control system.

  14. Spectroscopic properties of a reconstituted light-harvesting complex from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum containing CsmA and bacteriochlorophyll a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Østergaard; Pham, Lan

    2008-01-01

    Green sulfur bacteria possess two light-harvesting antenna systems, the chlorosome and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein. In addition to self-aggregated bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c, chlorosomes of Chlorobium tepidum contain a small amount of BChl a (ratio 100:1). The chlorosomal BChl a is associated with CsmA, a 6.2 kDa protein that accounts for more than 50% of the protein content of chlorosomes. This CsmA-BChl a complex is located in the chlorosome baseplate with the hydrophilic C-terminal part of CsmA in contact with the FMO protein. CsmA was purified from Chl. tepidum. Isolated chlorosomes were lyophilized and extracted with chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v). The . Isolated chlorosomes were lyophilized and extracted with chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v). The extract was further purified using gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC and the purity of the preparation confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Mass spectrometric analysis showed an m/z of 6154.8, in agreement with the calculated mass of the csmA gene product after C-terminal processing. CD spectroscopy of the isolated protein showed that the main structural motif was an R-helix. We have reconstituted the isolated CsmA protein with BChl a in micelles of n-octyl â-D-glucopyranoside. The resulting preparation reproduced the spectral characteristics of the CsmA-BChl a complex present in the chlorosome baseplate.

  15. Photofermentative hydrogen production using purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 in an annular photobioreactor: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basak, Nitai [Department of Biotechnology, Dr.B.R.Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar 144011, Punjab (India); Fermentation Technology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Das, Debabrata [Fermentation Technology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India)

    2009-06-15

    For meeting the increasing demand of energy, biohydrogen production is to be considered in higher yield. Biohydrogen can be produced both by dark and photofermentative process. In this study, the photofermentative pathway is followed by using DL malic acid (IUPAC name: 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, molecular weight: 134.08744 g mol{sup -1}, molecular formula: C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 5}) as carbon source. Pure strain of purple non-sulfur (PNS) bacteria: Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain O.U.001 was studied to produce biohydrogen using the photobioreactor. The photobioreactor was constructed aiming the uniform light distribution. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of 1 L annular photobioreactor operating in indoor conditions. The highest rate of hydrogen production was obtained at 92 h. In the designed photobioreactor, using Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain O.U.001 (initial DL malic acid concentration of 2.01 g L{sup -1}) at an initial pH of 6.8 {+-} 0.2, temperature 32 {+-} 2 C, inoculum volume 10% (v/v), inoculum age of 48 h, 250 rpm (rotation per minute) stirring and light intensity of 15 {+-} 1.1 W m{sup -2}, the average H{sub 2} production rate was about 6.5 {+-} 0.1 mL H{sub 2} h{sup -1} L{sup -1} media and yield 4.5 {+-} 0.05 mol of H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} of DL malic acid. Luedeking-Piret model was applied for the data fitting to determine the relationship between the cell growth and photofermentative hydrogen production. The photofermentative hydrogen production by this PNS bacterium was found to be microbial mixed growth associated function. (author)

  16. Benevolent behavior of Kleinia grandiflora leaf extract as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in sulfuric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchaipillai, Muthukrishnan; Raj, Karthik; Balasubramanian, Jeyaprabha; Periakaruppan, Prakash

    2014-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Kleinia grandiflora leaves was characterized and tested for its potential anticorrosion properties on mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 medium using mass-loss analysis, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of mild steel was studied in the range of 308 to 328 K. The inhibition efficiency was observed to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. Polarization curves revealed that the Kleinia grandiflora leaf extract is a mixed inhibitor. Impedance diagrams revealed that an increase of Kleinia grandiflora leaf extract concentration increased the charge transfer resistance and decreased the double-layer capacitance. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir's model, with a standard free energy of adsorption (? G ads) of -18.62 kJ/mol. The obtained results indicate that the Kleinia grandiflora leaf extract can serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in a sulfuric acid medium.

  17. Skin Bacteria Diversity and Spatial Distribution in Litoria genimaculata (GREEN- EYED TREE FROG Body Parts and its Bd-Inhibitory Activity -abstract-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Silva-Velasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several amphibian skin bacteria have shown inhibitory activity against the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. However‚ little is known about the spatial distribution of these inhibitory bacteria on amphibian skin‚ or their diversity. We looked at the diversity and distribution of skin bacteria of the green-eyed tree frog Litoria genimaculata. This stream-dwelling species from North Queensland rainforest declined in the early 1990s but has since recovered to pre-decline range population sizes. Swabs were taken from 5 body parts (hands‚ feet‚ legs and dorsal and ventral surfaces and inoculated onto agar plates for isolation of bacterial colonies. Bd- inhibitory activity was tested in challenge essays. Results show that feet had the highest number of bacterial isolates with Bd inhibitory activity followed by hands and legs with similar numbers of bacterial isolates and ventral body parts in that order. The dorsal surface had the lowest number of Bd inhibitory isolates. No sampled frogs were infected with Bd according to PCR assays‚ although Bd is endemic at the site. Information from morphological observations and Gram stains will be used to classify the bacterial isolates. Results will be analyzed for any patterns of distribution across the body of the frogs. Possible associations between body parts and bacterial isolates with and without Bd-inhibitory activity will be examined. This study will contribute to knowledge of the community structure of skin bacteria in frogs. Characterization of skin bacteria diversity is one of the first steps in understanding the role of amphibian skin bacteria in the resistance of the hosts to chytridiomycosis.

  18. Green synthesis of protein capped silver nanoparticles from phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid with antimicrobial properties against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Supriyo; Basu, Arpita; Kundu, Surekha

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, green synthesis of nanoparticles, i.e., synthesizing nanoparticles using biological sources like bacteria, algae, fungus, or plant extracts have attracted much attention due to its environment-friendly and economic aspects. The present study demonstrates an eco-friendly and low-cost method of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using cell-free filtrate of phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. UV-visible spectrum showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of spherical silver nanoparticles of the size range 5 to 40 nm, most of these being 16 to 20 nm in diameter. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum of the nanoparticles exhibited 2 ? values corresponding to silver nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were found to be naturally protein coated. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of an 85-kDa protein band responsible for capping and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activities of the silver nanoparticles against human as well as plant pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacteria were assayed. The particles showed inhibitory effect on the growth kinetics of human and plant bacteria. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of the silver nanoparticles with increasing concentrations was evaluated by DNA fragmentation studies using plasmid DNA.

  19. The effect of Pediococcus acidilactici bacteria used as probiotic supplement on the growth and non-specific immune responses of green terror, Aequidens rivulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neissi, Alireza; Rafiee, Gholamreza; Nematollahi, Mohammadali; Safari, Omid

    2013-12-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted on a species of ornamental fish called green terror (Aequidens rivulatus) (0.388 ± 0.0021 g) to assess the effect of probiotic bacteria, Pediococcus acidilactici on the growth indices and innate immune response. The fish were randomly allocated into 9 oval tanks (120 l) at a density of 60 fish per tank. The experimental diets were comprised of the control (C), C complemented with fish oil (O) and the probiotic and fish oil (PA) and fed ad lib twice a day. The growth indices (specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and immunological indices of fish fed the diets including lysozyme activity, total immunoglobulin and alternative complement activity were measured. The Fish fed with the diet containing P. acidilactici (PA) displayed significantly (P fish showed significant compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). The results showed positive effects of P. acidilactici as a potent probiotic on growth indices and non-specific immune system of green terror. PMID:24161762

  20. [Search for an optimal orientational ordering of Qy transition dipoles of subantennae molecules in superantenna of photosynthetic green bacteria. Model calculations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobova, A V; Iakovlev, A G; Taisova, A S; Fetisova, Z G

    2009-01-01

    This work continues a series of our investigations on efficient strategies of functioning of natural light-harvesting antennae, initiated by our concept of rigorous optimization of photosynthetic apparatus structure by functional criterion. Using computer modeling for the functioning of the natural antennae, we suggested some basic principles for designing optimal model systems. Targeted searches for these principles in in vivo systems allowed us to recognize some of them in natural antennae. This work deals with the problem of the structure optimization of nonuniform superantennae of photosynthetic green bacteria. These superantennae consist of several uniform subantennae which produces a problem of their optimal coordination. In this work, we used mathematical modeling for the functioning of these natural superantennae to consider a possible way to optimize the superantenna structure using optimization of mutual spatial orientation of Qy transition dipoles of subantennae pigments. This allowed us to determine some modes of optimal orientational ordering of Qy transition dipoles of subantennae pigments in the model of the green bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus superantenna. It was shown that the optimal mutual orientation of Qy transition dipoles of subantennae pigments (resulting in stable minimizing of the energy transfer time within the superantenna and, as a consequence, in decrease in energy losses) ensures the high efficiency and stability of the superatenna functioning. PMID:19548533

  1. A green triple biocide cocktail consisting of a biocide, EDDS and methanol for the mitigation of planktonic and sessile sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J; Xu, D; Gu, T; Raad, I

    2012-02-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) cause souring and their biofilms are often the culprit in Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC). The two most common green biocides for SRB treatment are tetrakis-hydroxymethylphosphonium sulfate (THPS) and glutaraldehyde. It is unlikely that there will be another equally effective green biocide in the market any time soon. This means more effective biocide treatment probably will rely on biocide cocktails. In this work a triple biocide cocktail consisting of glutaraldehyde or THPS, ethylenediaminedisuccinate (EDDS) and methanol was used to treat planktonic SRB and to remove established SRB biofilms. Desulfovibrio vulgaris (ATCC 7757), a corrosive SRB was used as an example in the tests. Laboratory results indicated that with the addition of 10-15% (v/v) methanol to the glutaraldehyde and EDDS double combination, mitigation of planktonic SRB growth in ATCC 1249 medium and a diluted medium turned from inhibition to a kill effect while the chelator dosage was cut from 2,000 to 1,000 ppm. Biofilm removal was achieved when 50 ppm glutaraldehyde combined with 15% methanol and 1,000 ppm EDDS was used. THPS showed similar effects when it was used to replace glutaraldehyde in the triple biocide cocktail to treat planktonic SRB. PMID:22806837

  2. Characterization of Sulfur Compounds in Coffee Beans by Sulfur K-XANES Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this 'feasibility study' the influence of roasting on the sulfur speciation in Mexican coffee beans was investigated by sulfur K-XANES Spectroscopy. Spectra of green and slightly roasted beans could be fitted to a linear combination of 'standard' reference spectra for biological samples, whereas longer roasting obviously involves formation of additional sulfur compounds in considerable amounts

  3. Sulfur Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here: EPA Home Air & Radiation Six Common Pollutants Sulfur Dioxide Announcements March 20, 2015 – EPA provides ... round of designations for the 2010 SO2 standard . Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is one of a group ...

  4. Safe use of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria in food: Bridging the gap between consumers, green groups, and industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilbert, Sybesma; Jeroen, Hugenholtz; Willem M., de Vos; Eddy J., Smid.

    2006-07-15

    Full Text Available Within the European Union (EU), the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production is not widely applied and accepted. In contrast to the United States of America, the current EU legislation limits the introduction of functional foods derived from GMOs that may bring a clear benefit [...] to the consumer. Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria (GM-LAB) can be considered as a different class of GMOs, and the European Union is preparing regulations for the risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms. Since these procedures are not yet implemented, the current risk assessment procedure is shared for GMOs derived from micro organisms, plants, or animals. At present, the use of organisms in food production that have uncontrolled genetic alterations made through random mutagenesis, is permitted, while similar applications with organisms that have controlled genetic alterations are not allowed. The current paper reviews the opportunities that genetically modified lactic acid bacteria may offer the food industry and the consumer. An objective risk profile is described for the use of GM-LAB in food production. To enhance the introduction of functional foods with proven health claims it is proposed to adapt the current safety assessment procedures for (GM)-LAB and suggestions are made for the related cost accountability. A qualified presumption of safety as proposed by SANCO (EU SANCO 2003), based on taxonomy and on the history of safe use of LAB applied in food, could in the near future be applied to any kind of LAB or GM-LAB provided that a series of modern profiling methods are used to verify the absence of unintended effects of altered LAB that may cause harm to the health of the consumer.

  5. Bacterial intracellular sulfur globules: structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, James S

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria that oxidize reduced sulfur compounds like H2S often transiently store sulfur in protein membrane-bounded intracellular sulfur globules; intracellular in this case meaning found inside the cell wall. The cultured bacteria that form these globules are primarily phylogenetically classified in the Proteobacteria and are chemotrophic or photoautotrophic. The current model organism is the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum. Research on this bacterium has provided the groundwork for understanding the protein membranes and the sulfur contents of globules. In addition, it has demonstrated the importance of different genes (e.g. sulfur oxidizing, sox) in their formation and in the final oxidation of sulfur in the globules to sulfate (e.g. dissimilatory sulfite reductase, dsr). Pursuing the characteristics of other intracellular sulfur globule-forming bacteria through genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics will eventually lead to a complete picture of their formation and breakdown. There will be commonality to some of the genetic, physiological and morphological characteristics involved in intracellular sulfur globules of different bacteria, but there will likely be some surprises as well. PMID:23920490

  6. Microbiological study of naturally fermented Algerian green olives: isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts along with the effects of brine solutions obtained at the end of olive fermentation on Lactobacillus plantarum...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour-Eddine, Karam

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The microflora of naturally fermented green olives produced in Western Algeria was studied over 15, 60 and 90 day fermentation periods. Different microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci, yeasts, psychrotrophs and lipolytic bacteria were recorded at 15 and 60 days of fermentation. After 90 days (pH 4.40 of fermentation, the lactic acid bacteria population became dominant and persisted together with yeasts throughout the fermentation period. The lactic acid bacteria isolated (343 isolates were identified as L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, L. plantarum, L. lactis subsp. lactis, E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. durans. The dominant species was L. plantarum. Yeasts were isolated from all samples (32 isolates and were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Candida parapsilosis. Also, in this study we reported that brine solutions obtained at the end of olive fermentation were able to stimulate the growth of several L. plantarum strainsLa microflora de las aceitunas verdes fermentadas naturalmente elaboradas en Argelia Occidental fue estudiada en períodos de fermentación de 15, 60 y 90 días. Diferentes microorganismos (bacterias aeróbicas, coliformes, estafilococos, bacterias del ácido láctico, lactobacilos, enterococos, levaduras, psicotrofos y bacterias lipolíticas fueron detectados a los 15 y 60 días de fermentación. Después de 90 días de fermentación (pH 4.40, la población de bacterias lácticas se hizo dominante y persistió junto con las levaduras a lo largo de todo el proceso. Las bacterias lácticas aisladas (343 fueron identificadas como L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, L. plantarum, L. lactis subsp. lactis, E. faecalis, E. faecium y E. durans. La especie dominante fue L. plantarum. Las levaduras aisladas (32 de todas las muestras fueron identificadas como Saccharomyces cerevisiae o Candida parapsilosis. También se recoge en este estudio que las soluciones de salmuera obtenidas al final de fermentación de aceitunas verdes fueron capaces de estimular el crecimiento de varias cepas de L. plantarum.

  7. Sulfur-cycling fossil bacteria from the 1.8-Ga Duck Creek Formation provide promising evidence of evolution's null hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J William; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B; Walter, Malcolm R; Van Kranendonk, Martin J; Williford, Kenneth H; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W; Gallardo, Victor A; Espinoza, Carola; Flannery, David T

    2015-02-17

    The recent discovery of a deep-water sulfur-cycling microbial biota in the ?2.3-Ga Western Australian Turee Creek Group opened a new window to life's early history. We now report a second such subseafloor-inhabiting community from the Western Australian ?1.8-Ga Duck Creek Formation. Permineralized in cherts formed during and soon after the 2.4- to 2.2-Ga "Great Oxidation Event," these two biotas may evidence an opportunistic response to the mid-Precambrian increase of environmental oxygen that resulted in increased production of metabolically useable sulfate and nitrate. The marked similarity of microbial morphology, habitat, and organization of these fossil communities to their modern counterparts documents exceptionally slow (hypobradytelic) change that, if paralleled by their molecular biology, would evidence extreme evolutionary stasis. PMID:25646436

  8. Sulfur Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Phosphorus Ricin Q & A Health Professionals Labs Responders Sarin Saxitoxin Selenium Sodium azide Sodium monofluoroacetate Soman Strychnine Sulfur mustard Sulfuryl Fluoride Super Warfarin Tabun ...

  9. Lunar sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  10. Bacteria: Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    This description of the fossil record of bacteria focuses on one particular group of bacteria, the cyanobacteria or blue-green algae, which have left a fossil record that extends far back into the Precambrian. The oldest cyanobacteria-like fossils known are nearly 3.5 billion years old and are among the oldest fossils currently known. Cyanobacteria are larger than most bacteria and may secrete a thick cell wall. More importantly, cyanobacteria may form large layered structures, called stromatolites (if more or less dome-shaped) or oncolites (if round). The site also refers to pseudomorphs of pyrite and siderite, and a group of bacteria known as endolithic. Two links are available for more information. One provides information on the discovery of possible remains of bacteria-like organisms on a meteorite from Mars and the other has a research report on fossilized filamentous bacteria and other microbes, found in Cretaceous amber.

  11. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so other compounds/mechanisms must be present in theother Pseudoalteromonas strains with antifouling activity.

  12. Drug Targets in Mycobacterial Sulfur Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Bhave, Devayani P.; Muse, Wilson B.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2007-01-01

    The identification of new antibacterial targets is urgently needed to address multidrug resistant and latent tuberculosis infection. Sulfur metabolic pathways are essential for survival and the expression of virulence in many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, microbial sulfur metabolic pathways are largely absent in humans and therefore, represent unique targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the en...

  13. BOGUS BACTERIA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs. Deaton

    2007-01-24

    Here are some websites to get you started... Just click on the links and start searching! microbe world- bacteria Bacteria Rule Quiz! Bacteria.... Harmful Bacteria Bacteria Museum Bacteria! Microbes- all sorts of info... When you are finished looking at the sites or when you have enough information concerning bacteria, ask Mrs. Deaton for some books that can give you even more DETAIL!!! *Don\\'t forget to keep track of your information on your I-CHARTS... ...

  14. Isolation and characterization of a new bacteriochlorophyll-c bearing a neopentyl substituent at the 8-position from the bciD-deletion mutant of the brown-colored green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum limnaeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Harada, Jiro; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2014-07-01

    We recently constructed the mutant of the brown-colored green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum limnaeum lacking BciD which was responsible for formation of a formyl group at the 7-position in bacteriochlorophyll(BChl)-e biosynthesis. This mutant exclusively gave BChl-c, but not BChl-e, as the chlorosome pigments (Harada et al. in PLoS One 8(4):e60026, 2013). By the mutation, the homolog and epimer composition of the pigment was drastically altered. The methylation at the 8(2)-position in the mutant cells proceeded to create BChl-c carrying large alkyl substituents at this position. Correspondingly, the content of BChls-c having the (S)-configuration at the chiral 3(1)-position remarkably increased and accounted for 80.6 % of the total BChl-c. Based on the alteration of the pigment composition in the mutant cells, a new BChl-c bearing the bulkiest, triple 8(2)-methylated neopentyl substituent at the 8-position ([N,E]BChl-c) was identified. The molecular structure of [N,E]BChl-c was fully determined by its NMR, mass, and circular dichroism spectra. The newly identified [N,E]BChl-c was epimerically pure at the chiral 3(1)-position and its stereochemistry was determined to be an (S)-configuration by modified Mosher's method. Further, the effects of the C8(2)-methylation on the optical absorption properties of monomeric BChls-c were investigated. The Soret but not Qy absorption bands shifted to longer wavelengths by the extra methylation (at most 1.4 nm). The C8(2)-methylation induced a slight but apparent effect on absorption properties of BChls-c in their monomeric states. PMID:24496988

  15. Enhancement of Copper Availability and Microbial Community Changes in Rice Rhizospheres Affected by Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Yuan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of sulfur on the availability of Cu and the bacterial community in rice rhizospheres was investigated by pot experiments. With sulfur addition, pH in rhizosphere soil decreased and Mg(NO32 extractable Cu increased significantly. The bacterial community composition also changed with sulfur addition. Some specific clones having high similarity to Thiobacillus, which indicated that sulfur oxidation in the rice rhizosphere could increase the availability of Cu. These results suggested that sulfur source which could provide substrate to sulfur oxidizing bacteria and enhance the availability of Cu was not a suitable sulfur fertilizer for Cu polluted soil.

  16. Effect of acidic pH on flow cytometric detection of bacteria stained with SYBR Green I and their distinction from background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unspecific background caused by biotic or abiotic particles, cellular debris, or autofluorescence is a well-known interfering parameter when applying flow cytometry to the detection of microorganisms in combination with fluorescent dyes. We present here an attempt to suppress the background signal intensity and thus to improve the detection of microorganisms using the nucleic acid stain SYBR® Green I. It has been observed that the fluorescent signals from SYBR Green I are greatly reduced at acidic pH. When lowering the pH of pre-stained samples directly prior to flow cytometric analysis, we hypothesized that the signals from particles and cells with membrane damage might therefore be reduced. Signals from intact cells, temporarily maintaining a neutral cytosolic pH, should not be affected. We show here that this principle holds true for lowering background interference, whereas the signals of membrane-compromised dead cells are only affected weakly. Signals from intact live cells at low pH were mostly comparable to signals without acidification. Although this study was solely performed with SYBR® Green I, the principle of low pH flow cytometry (low pH-FCM) might hold promise when analyzing complex matrices with an abundance of non-cellular matter, especially when expanded to non-DNA binding dyes with a stronger pH dependence of fluorescence than SYBR Green I and a higher pKa value. (paper)

  17. Metabolomic profiling of the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum during growth on different reduced sulfur compounds and malate

    OpenAIRE

    Weissgerber, Thomas; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Hoefgen, Rainer; Dahl, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Environmental fluctuations require rapid adjustment of the physiology of bacteria. Anoxygenic phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria, like Allochromatium vinosum, thrive in environments that are characterized by steep gradients of important nutrients for these organisms, i.e., reduced sulfur compounds, light, oxygen and carbon sources. Changing conditions necessitate changes on every level of the underlying cellular and molecular network. Thus far, two global analyses of A. vinosum responses to ...

  18. Uses of lunar sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Pettit, D.R.; Heiken, G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical and biochemical properties. Although low in abundance on the Moon (/approximately/0.1% in mare soils), sulfur is surface-correlated and relatively extractable. Co-production of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10% of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander

    2011-11-18

    Sulfur aromatic compounds, such as mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraalkyl-substituted thiophene, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, are the molecular components of many fossils (petroleum, oil shale, tar sands, bitumen). Structural units of natural, cross-linked heteroaromatic polymers present in brown coals, turf, and soil are similar to those of sulfur aromatic compounds. Many sulfur aromatic compounds are found in the streams of petroleum refining and upgrading (naphthas, gas oils) and in the consumer products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, heating fuels). Besides fossils, the structural fragments of sulfur aromatic compounds are present in molecules of certain organic semiconductors, pesticides, small molecule drugs, and in certain biomolecules present in human body (pheomelanin pigments). Photocatalysis is the frontier area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions initiated by absorption of photons by photocatalysts, that is, upon electronic rather than thermal activation, under "green" ambient conditions. This review provides systematization and critical review of the fundamental chemical and physicochemical information on heterogeneous photocatalysis of sulfur aromatic compounds accumulated in the last 20-30 years. Specifically, the following topics are covered: physicochemical properties of sulfur aromatic compounds, major classes of heterogeneous photocatalysts, mechanisms and reactive intermediates of photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds, and the selectivity of these reactions. Quantum chemical calculations of properties and structures of sulfur aromatic compounds, their reactive intermediates, and the structure of adsorption complexes formed on the surface of the photocatalysts are also discussed. PMID:21809426

  20. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and sulfate. Thus the overall process is comparable to the fermentation of organic compounds such as glucose and is consequently often described as 'inorganic fermentation'. The process is primarily carried out by microorganisms with phylogenetic affiliation to the so called sulfate-reducing bacteria within the delta subclass of Proteobacteria. The organisms grow with sulfate as their external electron acceptor and low-molecular weight organic compounds or hydrogen as energy sources. Studies of the biochemistry of a few isolates indicate that the disproportionating microbes reverse the sulfate reduction pathway during disproportionation. However, investigations with elemental sulfur disproportionating bacteria present evidence for an alternative pathway involving the enzyme sulfite-oxidoreductase, an enzyme that has hitherto only been reported participating in the oxidation of sulfite in aerobic or phototrophic sulfide oxidizers. Investigations bridging geology and microbiology have found strong evidence for disproportionating bacteria participating in and enhancing the rate at which pyrite forms and being partly responsible for the isotopic signatures of sulfidic minerals in recent and old sediments. New results indicate that elemental sulfur disproportionating microbes can be traced back in time as long as 3.5 billion years and elemental sulfur disproportionation would thus be one the oldest biological processes on Earth.

  1. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling of the Purple Sulfur Bacterium Allochromatium vinosum DSM 180T during Growth on Different Reduced Sulfur Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Weissgerber, Thomas; Dobler, Nadine; Polen, Tino; Latus, Jeanette; Stockdreher, Yvonne; Dahl, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum DSM 180T is one of the best-studied sulfur-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, and it has been developed into a model organism for laboratory-based studies of oxidative sulfur metabolism. Here, we took advantage of the organism's high metabolic versatility and performed whole-genome transcriptional profiling to investigate the response of A. vinosum cells upon exposure to sulfide, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, or sulfite compared to ...

  2. Sulfur Upwelling off the African Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Though these aquamarine clouds in the waters off the coast of northern Namibia may look like algae blooms, they are in fact clouds of sulfur produced by anaerobic bacteria on the ocean's floor. This image of the sulfur-filled water was taken on April 24, 2002, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. The anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that can live without oxygen) feed upon algae carcasses that exist in abundance on the ocean's floor off of Namibia. As the bacteria ingest the algae husks, they produce hydrogen sulfide, which slowly builds up in the sea-floor sediments. Eventually, the hydrogen sulfide reaches the point where the sediment can no longer contain it, and it bubbles forth. When this poisonous chemical reaches the surface, it combines with the oxygen in the upper layers of the ocean to create clouds of pure sulfur. The sulfur causes the Namibian coast to smell like rotten eggs, and the hydrogen sulfide will often kill fish and drive lobsters away. For more information, read: A Bloom By Any Other Name A high-resolution (250 meters per pixel) image earlier on the 24th taken from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows additional detail in the plumes. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE. MODIS image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Methylotrophic bacteria symbiosis with the higher plants as means of minimization of the lower hydrocarbons concentration during artificial ecosystem gas exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Yuliy; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Mardanov, Robert; Doronina, Nina; Ivanova, Ekaterina

    Plant growth unit should be included in the LSS for the space vehicles for vitamin greens supply and psychological support of cosmonauts during long-term missions. The lower hydrocarbons such as methane, methanol, methylated sulfuric compounds and methylated amines, ethylene and so on, are the natural products of human and plant metabolism and usually considered as the air pollutions. It is shown, that one way to decrease the lower hydrocarbons concentration in the artificial ecosystems could be colonization of the plants by methylotrophic bacteria. The aerobic methylotrophic bacteria possess unique ability to use methane and its oxidized or replaced derivatives without food damage and human, animals or plants infection. We have found that methylotrophic bacteria are the phyto-symbiotic bacteria: they stimulate growth and development of the colonized plants because of synthesizing cytokinins and auxins, and vitamin B12.Two collection strains of the obligate methylotrophic bacteria - Methylovorus mays C and Methylomonas metanica S - were chosen because of their high activity to assimilate the lower hydrocarbons due to functioning of methanoldehydrogenase, methanmonooxigenase and ribulose monophosphate cycle enzymes system.Colonization of the leaf cabbage Brassica chinensis L. by these strains led to approximately 30 % reduce of methanol and methane concentration in the air inside phytotron. Experimental estimations of the influence of methylotrophic bacteria on leafy greens growth and development are obtained.

  4. Bacteria Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Who knew that bacteria had their own virtual museum? Here, visitors will "learn that not all bacteria are harmful, how they are used in industry, that they belong to the oldest living creatures on Earth", and many more interesting facts to discover about the diverse world of bacteria. The "Bacterial Species Files" tab at the top of the page, allows visitors to look up information on 40 different specific bacteria, from Anthrax to Yersinia enterocolitica. The information provided for each bacterium includes photographs, consumer guides, fact sheets, and scientific links. Visitors will find that the "Main Exhibits" tab addresses the basics about bacteria, as well as "Pathogenic Bacteria", "Evolution", "How We Fight Bacteria", and "Food and Water Safety". Visitors will surely enjoy the "Good Bacteria in Food" link found in the Food and Water Safety section, as it explains how some foods benefit from good bacteria, such as Swiss cheese, sausage, sauerkraut, chocolate, and coffee.

  5. Organic Sulfur Gas Production in Sulfidic Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L. A.; Engel, A. S.; Bennett, P. C.

    2001-12-01

    Lower Kane Cave, Big Horn Basin, WY, permits access to an environment where anaerobic sulfide-rich groundwater meets the aerobic vadose zone. At this interface microorganisms thrive on diverse metabolic pathways including autotrophic sulfur oxidation, sulfate reduction, and aerobic heterotrophy. Springs introduce groundwater rich in H2S to the cave where it both degasses into the cave atmosphere and is used by chemautotrophic sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the cave spring and stream habitat. The cave atmosphere in the immediate vicinity of the springs has elevated levels of CO2, H2S and methane, mirroring the higher concentration of H2S and methane in the spring water. The high CO2 concentrations are attenuated toward the two main sources of fresh air, the cave entrance and breathing holes at the rear of the cave. Conventional toxic gas monitors permit estimations of H2S concentrations, but they have severe cross sensitivity with other reduced sulfur gases, and thus are inadequate for characterization of sulfur cave gases. However employment of a field-based GC revealed elevated concentrations of carbonyl sulfide in cave atmosphere. Cultures of microorganisms collected from the cave optimized for enriching fermenters and autotrophic and heterophic sulfate reducing bacteria each produced carbonyl sulfide suggesting a biogenic in origin of the COS in addition to H2S. Enrichment cultures also produced methanethiol (methyl mercaptan) and an additional as yet undetermined volatile organic sulfur compound. In culture, the organo-sulfur compounds were less abundant than H2S, whereas in the cave atmosphere the organo-sulfur compounds were the dominant sulfur gases. Thus, these organo-sulfur gases may prove to be important sources of both reduced sulfur and organic carbon to microorganisms living on the cave wall in a subaerial habitat. Moreover groundwater has not yet been recognized as a source of sulfur gases to the atmosphere, but with the abundance of sulfidic groundwater, this environment may prove to be important to the global sulfur cycle and its influence of the global radiation budget.

  6. Vertical distribution of bacteria and intensity of microbiological processes in two stratified gypsum Karst Lakes in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krevs A.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical-chemical parameters and the vertical distribution of bacteria and organic matter production-destruction processes were studied during midsummer stratification in two karst lakes (Kirkilai and Ramunelis located in northern Lithuania. The lakes were characterized by high sulfate concentrations (369–1248 mg·L-1. The O2/H2S intersection zone formed at 2–3 m depth. In Lake Kirkilai, the highest bacterial densities (up to 8.7 × 106 cell·mL-1 occurred at the O2/H2S intersection zone, whereas in Lake Ramunelis the highest densities were observed in the anoxic hypolimnion (up to 11 × 106 cell·mL-1. Pigment analysis revealed that green sulfur bacteria dominated in the microaerobic–anaerobic water layers in both lakes. The most intensive development of sulfate-reducing bacteria was observed in the anaerobic layer. Photosynthetic production of organic matter was highest in the upper layer. Rates of sulfate reduction reached 0.23 mg S2?·dm3·d-1 in the microaerobic-anaerobic water layer and 1.97 mg S2?·dm3·d-1 in sediments. Karst lakes are very sensitive to organic pollution, because under such impact in the presence of high sulfate amounts, sulfate reduction may become very intensive and, consequently, the increase in hydrogen sulfide and development of sulfur cycle bacteria may reduce the variety of other hydrobionts.

  7. Sulfur diagenesis in everglades peat and origin of pyrite in coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Z.S.; Schnepfe, M.M.; Silber, C.C.; Simon, F.O.

    1983-01-01

    The pattern of sulfur transformation in peat across the Everglades basin indicates that pyrite formation in organic-rich swamps depends on the use of organic oxysulfur compounds in dissimilatory respiration by sulfur-reducing bacteria. This paragenesis explains the primary distribution of sulfur compounds in low-sulfur coals and possibly in most coals and many organic-rich soils and sediments. It also accounts for the occurrence of framboidal pyrite bound in fossil tissue in coal and sediments.

  8. Split of sodium and sulfur in a Kraft mill and internal production of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The removal of lignin in a Kraft pulp mill, with the aim to utilize the lignin as more value added green product than just firing lignin in black liquor, is possible with a LignoBoost plant. The LignoBoost plant uses sulfuric acid in the process and this results in an increased net input of sulfur to the pulp mills recovery cycle. The sodium/sulfur balance in a Kraft pulp mill is an important factor to be able to run a mill optimal. The increased input of sulfur into the mill when implementin...

  9. Microbial stabilization of sulfur-landen sorbents; Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W. [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Clean coal technologies that involve limestone for sulfur capture generate lime/limestone products laden with sulfur at various oxidation states. If sulfur is completely stabilized as sulfate, the spent sorbent is ready for commercial utilization as gypsum. However, the presence of reduced sulfur species requires additional processing. Thermal oxidation of reduced sulfur can result in undesirable release of SO{sub 2}. Microbial oxidation might provide an inexpensive and effective alternative. Sorbents laden with reduced forms of sulfur such as sulfide, sulfite, or various polythionate species serve as growth substrates for sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, which have the potential to convert all sulfur to sulfate. This quarter, efforts focused on determining the combined effects of dibasic acids (DBA) and Ca{sup +2} concentration on several strains of neutrophilic thiobacilli, including Thiobacillus neapolitanus ATCC 23639 and ATCC 23641, and an isolate, TQ1, which was obtained from a commercial sulfur dioxide scrubber that utilizes DBA.

  10. Absorption linear dichroism measured directly on a single light-harvesting system: the role of disorder in chlorosomes of green photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumaki, Shu; Vacha, Frantisek; Habuchi, Satoshi; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Bryant, Donald A; Vacha, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Chlorosomes are light-harvesting antennae of photosynthetic bacteria containing large numbers of self-aggregated bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. They have developed unique photophysical properties that enable them to absorb light and transfer the excitation energy with very high efficiency. However, the molecular-level organization, that produces the photophysical properties of BChl molecules in the aggregates, is still not fully understood. One of the reasons is heterogeneity in the chlorosome structure which gives rise to a hierarchy of structural and energy disorder. In this report, we for the first time directly measure absorption linear dichroism (LD) on individual, isolated chlorosomes. Together with fluorescence-detected three-dimensional LD, these experiments reveal a large amount of disorder on the single-chlorosome level in the form of distributions of LD observables in chlorosomes from wild-type bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum . Fluorescence spectral parameters, such as peak wavelength and bandwidth, are measures of the aggregate excitonic properties. These parameters obtained on individual chlorosomes are uncorrelated with the observed LD distributions and indicate that the observed disorder is due to inner structural disorder along the chlorosome long axis. The excitonic disorder that is also present is not manifested in the LD distributions. Limiting values of the LD parameter distributions, which are relatively free of the effect of structural disorder, define a range of angles at which the excitonic dipole moment is oriented with respect to the surface of the two-dimensional aggregate of BChl molecules. Experiments on chlorosomes of a triple mutant of Chlorobaculum tepidum show that the mutant chlorosomes have significantly less inner structural disorder and higher symmetry, compatible with a model of well-ordered concentric cylinders. Different values of the transition dipole moment orientations are consistent with a different molecular level organization of BChl's in the mutant and wild-type chlorosomes. PMID:21476570

  11. Autotrophy of green non-sulphur bacteria in hot spring microbial mats: biological explanations for isotopically heavy organic carbon in the geological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, M. T.; Schouten, S.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Ward, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    Inferences about the evidence of life recorded in organic compounds within the Earth's ancient rocks have depended on 13C contents low enough to be characteristic of biological debris produced by the well-known CO2 fixation pathway, the Calvin cycle. 'Atypically' high values have been attributed to isotopic alteration of sedimentary organic carbon by thermal metamorphism. We examined the possibility that organic carbon characterized by a relatively high 13C content could have arisen biologically from recently discovered autotrophic pathways. We focused on the green non-sulphur bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus that uses the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway for inorganic carbon fixation and is geologically significant as it forms modern mat communities analogous to stromatolites. Organic matter in mats constructed by Chloroflexus spp. alone had relatively high 13C contents (-14.9%) and lipids diagnostic of Chloroflexus that were also isotopically heavy (-8.9% to -18.5%). Organic matter in mats constructed by Chloroflexus in conjunction with cyanobacteria had a more typical Calvin cycle signature (-23.5%). However, lipids diagnostic of Chloroflexus were isotopically enriched (-15.1% to -24.1%) relative to lipids typical of cyanobacteria (-33.9% to -36.3%). This suggests that, in mats formed by both cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus, autotrophy must have a greater effect on Chloroflexus carbon metabolism than the photoheterotrophic consumption of cyanobacterial photosynthate. Chloroflexus cell components were also selectively preserved. Hence, Chloroflexus autotrophy and selective preservation of its products constitute one purely biological mechanism by which isotopically heavy organic carbon could have been introduced into important Precambrian geological features.

  12. Reduced sulfur in euxinic sediments of the Cariaco Basin : Sulfur isotope contraints on organic sulfur formation

    OpenAIRE

    Sinninghe Damste?, J. S.; Werne, J.; Lyons, T. W.; Hollander, D. J.; Formolo, M.

    2003-01-01

    Reduced sulfur accumulation in Holocene and latest Pleistocene euxinic marine sediments from the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, was investigated to constrain the timing and possible pathways of organic matter (OM) sulfurization. Data were collected for a diverse suite of sulfur species, including concentrations and sulfur isotope compositions of pore-water sulfide, pore-water sulfate, pyrite sulfur, total organic sulfur (TOS), kerogen sulfur (KS), and polar bitumen sulfur (PBS). Results suggest th...

  13. Bacteria Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

    Students construct paper recombinant plasmids to simulate the methods genetic engineers use to create modified bacteria. They learn what role enzymes, DNA and genes play in the modification of organisms. For the particular model they work on, they isolate a mammal insulin gene and combine it with a bacteria's gene sequence (plasmid DNA) for production of the protein insulin.

  14. Microbial stabilization of sulfur-laden sorbents. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W. [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States); Hillyer, D.

    1993-12-31

    Clean coal technologies that involve limestone for sulfur capture generate lime/limestone products laden with sulfur at various oxidation states. If sulfur is completely stabilized as sulfate, the spent sorbent is ready for commercial utilization as gypsum. However, the presence of reduced sulfur species requires additional processing. Thermal oxidation of reduced sulfur can result in undesirable release of SO{sub 2}. Microbial oxidation might provide an inexpensive and effective alternative. Sorbents laden with reduced forms of sulfur such as sulfide or sulfite can serve as growth substrates for sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, which convert all sulfur to sulfate. The goals of this project are the following: (1) to optimize conditions for sulfate generation from sulfide, thiosulfate, and sulfite; (2) to test and optimize the effectiveness of microbial processing on spent sorbents from flue gas desulfurization, coal gasification, and fluidized bed combustion; (3) to search for hyperalkalinophilic thiobacilli, which would be effective up to pH 11.

  15. Assimilatory sulfur metabolism in marine microorganisms: characteristics and regulation of sulfate transport in Pseudomonas halodurans and Alteromonas luteo-violaceus.

    OpenAIRE

    Cuhel, R. L.; Taylor, C. D.; Jannasch, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    Sulfate transport capacity was not regulated by cysteine, methionine, or glutathione in Pseudomonas halodurans, but growth on sulfate or thiosulfate suppressed transport. Subsequent sulfur starvation of cultures grown on all sulfur sources except glutathione stimulated uptake. Only methionine failed to regulate sulfate transport in Alteromonas luteo-violaceus, and sulfur starvation of all cultures enhanced transport capacity. During sulfur starvation of sulfate-grown cultures of both bacteria...

  16. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy As a Probe of Microbial Sulfur Biochemistry: the Nature of Bacterial Sulfur Globules Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, G.N.; Gnida, M.; Bazylinski, D.A.; Prince, R.C.; Pickering, I.J.

    2009-05-18

    The chemical nature of the sulfur in bacterial sulfur globules has been the subject of controversy for a number of years. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful technique for probing the chemical forms of sulfur in situ, but two groups have used it with very different conclusions. The root of the controversy lies with the different detection strategies used by the two groups, which result in very different spectra. This paper seeks to resolve the controversy. We experimentally demonstrate that the use of transmittance detection for sulfur K-edge XAS measurements is highly prone to spectroscopic distortions and that much of the published work on sulfur bacteria is very likely based on distorted data. We also demonstrate that all three detection methods used for X-ray absorption experiments yield essentially identical spectra when the measurements are carried out under conditions where no experimental distortions are expected. Finally, we turn to the original question--the chemical nature of bacterial sulfur. We examine isolated sulfur globules of Allochromatium vinosum and intact cells of a strain of magnetotactic coccus and show that XAS indicates the presence of a chemical form of sulfur resembling S{sub 8}.

  17. GEOCHEMISTRY OF SULFUR IN IRON CORROSION SCALES FOUND IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron-sulfur geochemistry is important in many natural and engineered environments, including drinking water systems. In the anaerobic environment beneath scales of corroding iron drinking water distribution system pipes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulfide from natu...

  18. The Microworld of Marine-Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB

    1995-01-01

    Microsensor studies show that the marine environment in the size scale of bacteria is physically and chemically very different from the macroenvironment. The microbial world of the sediment-water interface is thus dominated by water viscosity and steep diffusion gradients. Because of the diverse metabolism types, bacteria in the mostly anoxic sea floor play an important role in the major element cycles of the ocean. The communities of giant, filamentous sulfur bacteria that live in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents or along the Pacific coast of South America are presented here as examples.

  19. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  20. A phylogenetic survey of budding, and/or prosthecate, non-phototrophic eubacteria: membership of Hyphomicrobium, Hyphomonas, Pedomicrobium, Filomicrobium, Caulobacter and "dichotomicrobium" to the alpha-subdivision of purple non-sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackebrandt, E; Fischer, A; Roggentin, T; Wehmeyer, U; Bomar, D; Smida, J

    1988-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of various budding and/or or prosthecate Gram-negative eubacteria was determined by different methods. Members of the genera Hyphomicrobium, Filomicrobium, Pedomicrobium were investigated by 16S rRNA cataloguing, a 1373 nucleotide long portion of the 16S rRNA was sequenced from Hyphomicrobium vulgare and the 5S rRNAs were analyzed from two Hyphomicrobium strains, Hyphomonas polymorpha and Caulobacter crescentus. Comparison with published sequences indicated a membership of all of these organisms to the alpha subdivision of purple bacteria. While C. crescentus and Hyphomonas polymorpha constitute separate individual lines of descent, the position of a coherent cluster embracing Hyphomicrobium, Pedomicrobium and Filomicrobium is not yet settled. 16S rRNA cataloguing indicate the presence of a distinct line equivalent to other subgroups in its phylogenetic depth. 5S rRNA analysis, on the other hand, groups Hyphomicrobium vulgare and strain IFAM 1761 with members of subgroup alpha-2 (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Nitrobacter winogradskyi and relatives). In contrast to the present classification, Pedomicrobium ferrugineum and Filimicrobium fusiforme are more closely related to certain Hyphomicrobium strains than these are related among each other. Budding mode of reproduction and prosthecate morphology are dominating morphological features of members of the alpha subdivision. These characteristics may gain diagnostic significance in a future formal description of this subdivision and its subgroups as a higher rank. PMID:2455491

  1. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses. The idea of the concept is a mutual participation of nature in architecture meaning that landscape features become tools to design a built space. The paper develops the concept further focusing on the scale of a single residential unit. The paper argues that the concept of Sensation of Green is flexible to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original definition of the concept defined during the summer house study. Learning from these single residential units, the paper ends by questioning the potential of the concept of Sensation of Green concerning a larger urban typology.

  2. Green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Camellia thea, Camellia theifera, Constituant Polyphénolique de Thé Vert, CPTV, EGCG, Epigallo Catechin Gallate, Épigallo-Catéchine Gallate, ... Camellia Sinensis, Extrait de Thé, Extrait de Thé Vert, Extrait de Thea Sinensis, Green Sencha Tea, Green ...

  3. Green growth

    OpenAIRE

    Zysman, John; Huberty, Mark; Behrens, Arno; Colijn, Bert; Tol, Richard S. J.; Nu?n?ez Ferrer, Jorge; Aglietta, Michel; Hourcade, Jean-charles

    2012-01-01

    Green growth is now a central theme of the international climate change negotiations. The Rio+20 Conference in June will concentrate on green growth as one of its main priorities. The Europe 2020 strategy has identified green growth as a fundamental pillar of EU economic policy. This Forum takes stock of the academic discussion and examines the theoretical and empirical underpinning of the concepts of green growth and employment through environmental policy.

  4. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Green Tea Common Names: green tea, Chinese tea, Japanese tea Latin Name: Camellia sinensis ... Introduction This fact sheet provides basic information about green tea—common names, what the science says, potential side ...

  5. Technetium-sulfur colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of the technetium-sulfur colloid produced by the reaction of sodium thiosulfate with acid was investigated. A commercial kit was duplicated, and analyses of elemental sulfur, bisulfite and residual thiosulfate were carried out. The colloidal dispersions were filtered through Nuclepore graded membranes, and the percentages of sulfur and of sup(99m)Tc in the various filtrates were determined. In all cases - with varying acid, thiosulfate and time of incubation - there was a rough agreement between the two percentages for particles 0.4?m in diameter or more. However, for small particles (1S3O6, used in place of sodium thiosulfate, produced small Tc-S colloid particles with less sulfur than the conventional thiosulfate-acid system. (author)or)

  6. [Ecophysiology of lithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing Sphaerotilus species from sulfide springs in the Northern Caucasus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridneva, E V; Grabovich, M Iu; Dubinina, G A; Chernousova, E Iu; Akimov, V N

    2009-01-01

    Six strains of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the known organotrophic species Sphaerotilus natans were isolated from two North Caucasian sulfide springs. Similar to known colorless sulfur bacteria, all the strains accumulated elemental sulfur when grown in media with sulfide. Unlike previously isolated S. natans strains, new isolates had higher temperature growth optima (33-37 degrees C) and variable metabolism. All the strains were capable of organotrophic, lithoheterotrophic, and mixotrophic growth with sulfur compounds as electron donors for energy metabolism. Variable metabolism of new Sphaerotilus isolates is a highly important adaptation mechanism which facilitates extension of their geographic range and supports their mass development in new habitats, e.g. sulfide springs. Within the cluster of new isolates, the physiological heterogeneity was shown to result from the inducible nature of the enzymes of oxidative sulfur metabolism and from their resistance to aerobic cultivation. PMID:19334601

  7. Dense populations of a giant sulfur bacterium in Namibian shelf sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Brinkhoff, T.

    1999-01-01

    A previously unknown giant sulfur bacterium is abundant in sediments underlying the oxygen minimum zone of the Benguela Current upwelling system. The bacterium has a spherical cell that exceeds by up to 100-fold the biovolume of the largest known prokaryotes. On the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence data, these bacteria are closely related to the marine filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca, abundant in the upwelling area off Chile and Peru. Similar to Thioploca, the giant bacteria oxidize sulfide with nitrate that is accumulated to less than or equal to 800 millimolar in a central vacuole.

  8. Discrimination of Pigments of Microalgae, Bacteria and Yeasts Using Lightweight Handheld Raman Spectrometers: Prospects for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlicka, J.; Osterrothova, K.; Nedbalova, L.; Gunde-Cimerman, N.; Oren, A.

    2014-06-01

    Handheld Raman instrumentation with 532 nm lasers can be used to distinguish carotenoids of autotrophic microalgae, purple sulfur bacteria, halophilic Archaea and pigmented yeasts. Pigments are proposed as biomarkers for astrobiology of Mars.

  9. Building Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    There's a great deal of talk about "building green" in the architecture and design world, but to many, this phrase may not mean a great deal. This website, created by the Building Green company, can help the uninitiated learn more about this subject. First-time visitors should click on the "Green Building Information" area. Here they can get answers to such question as "What is green?" and also learn more about green design strategies and the LEED rating system. Right next to this section is the "Case Studies" area, which features green building projects like elementary schools, commercial facilities, and university buildings. The site is rounded out by a "News" area and a detailed bibliography of websites, print resources, and so on.

  10. Sulfate-reducing bacteria-dominated biofilms that precipitate ZnS in a subsurface circumneutral-pH mine drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrenz, M; Banfield, J F

    2004-04-01

    The microbial diversity of ZnS-forming biofilms in 8 degrees C, circumneutral-pH groundwater in tunnels within the abandoned Piquette Zn, Pb mine (Tennyson, Wisconsin, USA) has been investigated by molecular methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and cultivation techniques. These biofilms are growing on old mine timbers that generate locally anaerobic zones within the mine drainage system. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) exclusively of the family Desulfobacteriaceae comprise a significant fraction of the active microbiota. Desulfosporosinus strains were isolated, but could not be detected by molecular methods. Other important microbial clusters belonged to the beta-, gamma-, and epsilon-Proteobacteria, the Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides-group (CFB), Planctomycetales, Spirochaetales, Clostridia, and green nonsulfur bacteria. Our investigations indicated a growth dependence of SRB on fermentative, cellulolytic, and organic acid-producing Clostridia. A few clones related to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were detected, suggesting a sulfur cycle related to redox gradients within the biofilm. Sulfur oxidation prevents sulfide accumulation that would lead to precipitation of other sulfide phases. FISH analyses indicated that Desulfobacteriaceae populations were not early colonizers in freshly grown and ZnS-poor biofilms, whereas they were abundant in older, naturally established, and ZnS-rich biofilms. Gram-negative SRB have been detected in situ over a period of 6 months, supporting the important role of these organisms in selective ZnS precipitation in Tennyson mine. Results demonstrate the complex nature of biofilms responsible for in situ bioremediation of toxic metals in a subsurface mine drainage system. PMID:14994175

  11. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  12. Membrane damage of bacteria by silanols treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yun-mi, Kim; Samuel, Farrah; Ronald H, Baney.

    2007-04-15

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Antimicrobial action of silanols, a new class of antimicrobials, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and fluorescent dye studies. Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis were trea [...] ted by silanols at concentration of less than 0.2 wt% for one hour. Membrane damage of the bacteria by the silanol treatment was clearly observed by transmission electron microscopy. Separation of the cytoplasmic membrane from the outer membrane for E. coli and disorganized cytoplasmic membrane of the Gram-positive bacteria were observed when compared to the control. Fluorescent dyes, green-fluorescent nucleic acid stain (Syto 9) and the red-fluorescent nucleic acid stain (Propidium iodide), were used to monitor membrane damage of the bacteria by Confocal microscopy and Spectrophotometer. A reduction of the green fluorescent emission was detected for silanol treated bacteria indicating membrane damage of the bacteria and supporting the hypothesis that their viability loss may be due to their membrane damage analogus to alcohols

  13. Rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rumen is the most extensively studied gut community and is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. This complex, mixed microbial culture is comprised of prokaryote organisms including methane-producing archaebacteria, eukaryote organisms, such as ciliate and flagellate protozoa, anaerobic phycomycete fungi and bacteriophage. Bacteria are predominant (up to 1011 viable cells per g comprising 200 species) but a variety of ciliate protozoa occur widely (104-106/g distributed over 25 genera). The anaerobic fungi are also widely distributed (zoospore population densities of 102-104/g distributed over 5 genera). The occurrence of bacteriophage is well documented (107-109 particles/g). This section focuses primarily on the widely used methods for the cultivation and the enumeration of rumen microbes, especially bacteria, which grow under anaerobic conditions. Methods that can be used to measure hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteinases) are also described, along with cell harvesting and fractionation procedures. Brief reference is also made to fungi and protozoa, but detailed explanations for culturing and enumerating these microbes is presented in Chapters 2.4 and 2.5

  14. Different lipid A types in lipopolysaccharides of phototrophic and related non-phototrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckesser, J; Mayer, H

    1988-01-01

    Lipid A analyses confirm not only the present taxa of the purple nonsulfur bacteria (formerly Rhodospirillaceae), but also phylogenetical relatedness of distinct phototrophic to distinct non-phototrophic bacteria, as was suggested by cataloguing 16S rRNA. For example, lipid A with ester-bound 3-OH-10:0 and the rare amide-linked 3-oxo-14:0 is common to the phototrophic Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rhodobacter sphaeroides and also to Paracoccus denitrificans and Thiobacillus versutus. 'Lipid ADAG' (lipid A with 2,3-diamino-D-glucose (DAG)) occurs in the phototrophic Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodopseudomonas palustris and also in the related non-phototrophic species, e.g., Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Pseudomonas diminuta, or Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The phylogenetically more coherent purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) uniformly contain D-mannose in their phosphate-free lipid A. Among the green bacteria, only the Chlorobiaceae but not the likewise chlorosome-containing Chloroflexaceae contain lipopolysaccharide. Lipid ADAG from R. viridis is a structural analogue of a biosynthetic precursor (lipid X) of enterobacterial lipid A. Lipid A synthase from Salmonella accepts not only lipid X but also the synthetic di-N-acyl-2,3-diamino-D-glucose analogue as substrate (Raetz, C.R.H., unpublished results). More and more naturally occurring lipid A's with both, 2,3-diaminoglucose and glucosamine ('mixed' lipid A, with 2,3-diaminoglucose or glucosamine dominating) are being found. Newly recognized lipid A and lipid ADAG types might offer the possibility of differentially stimulating desired biological activities in animals without also having the undesired endotoxic activities. The non-toxic lipid A from Rhodopseudomonas viridis for example is able to stimulate prostaglandin secretion in peritoneal macrophages and can be used as an antagonist to the endotoxic shock caused by Salmonella lipopolysaccharide. PMID:3078741

  15. Zeolites Remove Sulfur From Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1991-01-01

    Zeolites remove substantial amounts of sulfur compounds from diesel fuel under relatively mild conditions - atmospheric pressure below 300 degrees C. Extracts up to 60 percent of sulfur content of high-sulfur fuel. Applicable to petroleum refineries, natural-gas processors, electric powerplants, and chemical-processing plants. Method simpler and uses considerably lower pressure than current industrial method, hydro-desulfurization. Yields cleaner emissions from combustion of petroleum fuels, and protects catalysts from poisoning by sulfur.

  16. Predatory prokaryotes: Predation and primary consumption evolved in bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Ricardo; Pedro?s-alio?, Carlos; Esteve, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Chase, David; Margulis, Lynn

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of predatory bacteria have been observed and characterized by light and electron microscopy in samples from freshwater sulfurous lakes in northeastern Spain. The first bacterium, named Vampirococcus, is Gram-negative and ovoidal (0.6 ?m wide). An anaerobic epibiont, it adheres to the surface of phototrophic bacteria (Chromatium spp.) by specific attachment structures and, as it grows and divides by fission, destroys its prey. An important in situ predatory role can be inferred for ...

  17. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

  18. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkovi? Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  19. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ((approx)$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema,opean Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not recommended for treatment of wastes containing high concentrations of nitrates because of potentially dangerous reactions between sulfur, nitrate, and trace quantities of organics. Recently, the process has been adapted for the treatment of liquid elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil and debris

  20. Reconsidering the use of photosynthetic bacteria for removal of sulfide from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurse, T J; Keller, J

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using photosynthetic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria to remove sulfide from wastewater in circumstances where axenic cultures are unrealistic has been completely reconsidered on the basis of known ecophysiological data, and the principles of photobioreactor and chemical reactor engineering. This has given rise to the development of two similar treatment concepts relying on biofilms dominated by green sulfur bacteria (GSB) that develop on the exterior of transparent surfaces suspended in the wastewater. The GSB are sustained and selected for by radiant energy in the band 720-780 nm, supplied from within the transparent surface. A model of one of these concepts was constructed and with it the reactor concept was proven. The dependence of sulfide-removal rate on bulk sulfide concentration has been ascertained. The maximum net areal sulfide removal rate was 2.23 g m-(2) day-(1) at a bulk sulfide concentration of 16.5 mg L(-1) and an incident irradiance of 1.51 W m(-2). The system has a demonstrated capacity to mitigate surges in sulfide load, and appears to use much less radiant power than comparable systems. The efficacy with which this energy was used for sulfide removal was 1.47 g day(-1) W(-1). The biofilm was dominated by GSB, and evidence gathered indicated that other types of phototrophs were not present. PMID:14705011

  1. Green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world today, second only to water, and its medicinal properties have been widely explored. The tea plant, Camellia sinensis, is a member of the Theaceae family, and black, oolong, and green tea are produced from its leaves. It is an evergreen shrub or tree and can grow to heights of 30 feet, but is usually pruned to 2-5 feet for cultivation. The leaves are dark green, alternate and oval, with serrated edges, and the blossoms are white, fragrant, and appear in clusters or singly. Unlike black and oolong tea, green tea production does not involve oxidation of young tea leaves. Green tea is produced from steaming fresh leaves at high temperatures, thereby inactivating the oxidizing enzymes and leaving the polyphenol content intact. The polyphenols found in tea are more commonly known as flavonols or catechins and comprise 30-40 percent of the extractable solids of dried green tea leaves. The main catechins in green tea are epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), with the latter being the highest in concentration. Green tea polyphenols have demonstrated significant antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, thermogenic, probiotic, and antimicrobial properties in numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies. PMID:10956382

  2. Sulfur oxidation genes in diverse deep-sea viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, Karthik; Duhaime, Melissa B; Breier, John A; Wendt, Kathleen A; Toner, Brandy M; Dick, Gregory J

    2014-05-16

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans and a pervasive cause of mortality of microorganisms that drive biogeochemical cycles. Although the ecological and evolutionary effects of viruses on marine phototrophs are well recognized, little is known about their impact on ubiquitous marine lithotrophs. Here, we report 18 genome sequences of double-stranded DNA viruses that putatively infect widespread sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Fifteen of these viral genomes contain auxiliary metabolic genes for the ? and ? subunits of reverse dissimilatory sulfite reductase (rdsr). This enzyme oxidizes elemental sulfur, which is abundant in the hydrothermal plumes studied here. Our findings implicate viruses as a key agent in the sulfur cycle and as a reservoir of genetic diversity for bacterial enzymes that underpin chemosynthesis in the deep oceans. PMID:24789974

  3. Isolation of an aerobic sulfur oxidizer from the SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Katharine T.; Morris, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria from the uncultured SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade of gamma proteobacterial sulfur oxidizers (GSOs) have the genetic potential to oxidize reduced sulfur and fix carbon in the tissues of clams and mussels, in oxygen minimum zones and throughout the deep ocean (>200?m). Here, we report isolation of the first cultured representative from this GSO clade. Closely related cultures were obtained from surface waters in Puget Sound and from the deep chlorophyll maximum in the North Pacific gyre....

  4. Bioleaching of spent hydro-processing catalyst using acidophilic bacteria and its kinetics aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioleaching of metals from hazardous spent hydro-processing catalysts was attempted in the second stage after growing the bacteria with sulfur in the first stage. The first stage involved transformation of elemental sulfur particles to sulfuric acid through an oxidation process by acidophilic bacteria. In the second stage, the acidic medium was utilized for the leaching process. Nickel, vanadium and molybdenum contained within spent catalyst were leached from the solid materials to liquid medium by the action of sulfuric acid that was produced by acidophilic leaching bacteria. Experiments were conducted varying the reaction time, amount of spent catalysts, amount of elemental sulfur and temperature. At 50 g/L spent catalyst concentration and 20 g/L elemental sulfur, 88.3% Ni, 46.3% Mo, and 94.8% V were recovered after 7 days. Chemical leaching with commercial sulfuric acid of the similar amount that produced by bacteria was compared. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated and the nature of reaction was found to be exothermic. Leaching kinetics of the metals was represented by different reaction kinetic equations, however, only diffusion controlled model showed the best correlation here. During the whole process Mo showed low dissolution because of substantiate precipitation with leach residues as MoO3. Bioleach residues were characterized by EDX and XRD

  5. Getting sulfur on target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbert, T.R.; Brignac, G.B. [ExxonMobil Process Research Labs. (United States); Greeley, J.P.; Demmin, R.A.; Roundtree, E.M. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The paper focuses on how the required reductions in sulfur levels in motor vehicle fuel may be achieved over about the next five years. It is said that broadly there are two possible approaches, they are: (a) to hydrotreat the feed to the FCC unit and (b) to treat the naphtha produced by the FCC unit. The difficulties associated with these processes are mentioned. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) technology options for cat naphtha desulfurisation; (ii) optimising fractionator design via improved VLE models; (iii) commercial experience with ICN SCANfining; (iv) mercaptan predictive models and (v) process improvements. It was concluded that the individual needs of the refiner can be addressed by ExxonMobil Research and Engineering (EMRE) and the necessary reductions in sulfur levels can be achieved.

  6. Plant peaks sulfur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.E.

    1973-04-01

    Recoveries of 96% have been made in 2-stage Claus units designed to produce 1,000 ltpd of sulfur. Overall recovery at the Ram River plant of Aquitaine Co. Canada, Ltd., is more than 98% after Sulfreen treatment of the Claus tail gas. These results and other development work make it appear that 98% recovery in 4-stage Clause units is within reach. However, where a minimum 98% recovery must be guaranteed, a 2-stage Claus followed by a tail gas unit provides the most positive solution. The Ram River sulfur plant consists of four 1,000-ltpd Claus units, each including a reaction furnace and waste heat boiler, 2 catalytic converters and 3 condensers with integral coalescers. Converter reheat is obtained by automated inline burners. The design features, operating features, and the gas plant are described in detail. (10 refs.)

  7. Growth kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete from sewers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by microbes present on concrete surfaces of sewer pipes is a key process in sewer corrosion. The growth of aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria from corroded concrete surfaces was studied in a batch reactor. Samples of corrosion products, containing sulfur oxidizing bacteria, were suspended in aqueous solution at pH similar to that of corroded concrete. Hydrogen sulfide was supplied to the reactor to provide the source of reduced sulfur. The removal of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen was monitored. The utilization rates of both hydrogen sulfide and oxygen suggested exponential bacterial growth with median growth rates of 1.25 d-1 and 1.33 d-1 as determined from the utilization rates of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen, respectively. Elemental sulfur was found to be the immediate product of the hydrogen sulfide oxidation. When exponential growth had been achieved, the addition of hydrogen sulfide was terminated leading to elemental sulfur oxidation. The ratio of consumed sulfur to consumed oxygen suggested that sulfuric acid was the ultimate oxidation product. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study to determine the growth rate of bacteria involved in concrete corrosion with hydrogen sulfide as source of reduced sulfur.

  8. Homoatomic paramagnetic sulfur radical anions as colored species in ultramarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPR investigation shows that in ultramarine green, ultramarine blue, ultramarine violet and ultramarine red, paramagnetic polysulfide (-1) radical anions exist such as are also found in solutions of polysulfides in electron pair donor (EPD) solvents. In ultramarines, the following sulfur radical anions are observed: sup(.)S-, sup(.)S2- (yellow), sup(.)S3- (blue) and sup(.)S4- (red). They are also the colored species in the above ultramarines. (author)

  9. Development of Efficient Flowsheet and Transient Modeling for Nuclear Heat Coupled Sulfur Iodine Cyclefor Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shripad T. Revankar; Nicholas R. Brown; Cheikhou Kane; Seungmin Oh

    2010-05-01

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier which can be produced by a thermochemical water splitting process. The Sulfur-Iodine (SI) process is an example of a water splitting method using iodine and sulfur as recycling agents.

  10. Sulfur dichloride, SCl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month's molecule is sulfur dichloride, SCl2. This and other small inorganic molecules are discussed in the article by Matta and Gillespie. They describe electron density in molecules and how to analyze it to obtain information about molecular bonding and structure. Different depictions of electron density in SCl2 and other small molecules emphasize different aspects of their electron density and of the structures of the molecules.

  11. Acidophilic sulfur disproportionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Dalton S.; Olyphant, Greg A.; Bell, Jonathan B.; Johnson, Adam P.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur (S0) is a well-studied metabolism and is not previously reported to occur at pH values less than 4.5. In this study, a sediment core from an abandoned-coal-mine-waste deposit in Southwest Indiana revealed sulfur isotope fractionations between S0 and pyrite (?34Ses-py) of up to -35‰, inferred to indicate intense recycling of S0 via bacterial disproportionation and sulfide oxidation. Additionally, the chemistry of seasonally collected pore-water profiles were found to vary, with pore-water pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.8 and observed seasonal redox shifts expressed as abrupt transitions from Fe(III) to Fe(II) dominated conditions, often controlled by fluctuating water table depths. S0 is a common product during the oxidation of pyrite, a process known to generate acidic waters during weathering and production of acid mine drainage. The H2S product of S0 disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6‰, is rapidly oxidized to S0 near redox gradients via reaction with Fe(III) allowing for the accumulation of isotopically light S0 that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for S0 incorporating pyrite oxidation, S0 disproportionation, and S0 oxidation readily explains the range of observed ?34Ses-py and emphasizes the necessity of seasonally varying pyrite weathering and metabolic rates, as indicated by the pore water chemistry. The findings of this research suggest that S0 disproportionation is potentially a common microbial process at a pH < 4.5 and can create large sulfur isotope fractionations, even in the absence of sulfate reduction.

  12. Iron-sulfur clusters: biogenesis, molecular mechanisms, and their functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang Ming; Møller, Simon Geir

    2011-07-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters [Fe-S] are small, ubiquitous inorganic cofactors representing one of the earliest catalysts during biomolecule evolution and are involved in fundamental biological reactions, including regulation of enzyme activity, mitochondrial respiration, ribosome biogenesis, cofactor biogenesis, gene expression regulation, and nucleotide metabolism. Although simple in structure, [Fe-S] biogenesis requires complex protein machineries and pathways for assembly. [Fe-S] are assembled from cysteine-derived sulfur and iron onto scaffold proteins followed by transfer to recipient apoproteins. Several predominant iron-sulfur biogenesis systems have been identified, including nitrogen fixation (NIF), sulfur utilization factor (SUF), iron-sulfur cluster (ISC), and cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly (CIA), and many protein components have been identified and characterized. In eukaryotes ISC is mainly localized to mitochondria, cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly to the cytosol, whereas plant sulfur utilization factor is localized mainly to plastids. Because of this spatial separation, evidence suggests cross-talk mediated by organelle export machineries and dual targeting mechanisms. Although research efforts in understanding iron-sulfur biogenesis has been centered on bacteria, yeast, and plants, recent efforts have implicated inappropriate [Fe-S] biogenesis to underlie many human diseases. In this review we detail our current understanding of [Fe-S] biogenesis across species boundaries highlighting evolutionary conservation and divergence and assembling our knowledge into a cellular context. PMID:20812788

  13. Microbial stabilization of sulfur-laden sorbents. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W.

    1994-09-01

    Clean coal technologies that involve limestone for sulfur capture generate lime/limestone products laden with sulfur at various oxidation states. If sulfur is completely stabilized as sulfate, the spent sorbent is ready for commercial utilization as gypsum. However, the presence of reduced sulfur species requires additional processing. Thermal oxidation of reduced sulfur can result in undesirable release of SO{sub 2}. Microbial oxidation might provide an inexpensive and effective alternative. Sorbents laden with reduced forms of sulfur such as sulfide, sulfite, or various polythionate species serve as growth substrates for sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, which have the potential to convert all sulfur to sulfate. This quarter work continued with the solid phase of a spent slurry from an inhibited scrubber. The material was primarily CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}1/2H{sub 2}O. The authors did not detect growth of any bacterial strain in salts medium with the solid phase as the source of sulfur. However, unlike strains of Thiobacillus neapolitanus, the isolate TQ, was not inhibited by the solid phase. Evidence suggests that this organism grows slowly on low concentrations of sulfite.

  14. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  15. Growth of the facultative anaerobe Shewanella putrefaciens by elemental sulfur reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. P.; Nealson, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    The growth of bacteria by dissimilatory elemental sulfur reduction is generally associated with obligate anaerobes and thermophiles in particular. Here we describe the sulfur-dependent growth of the facultatively anaerobic mesophile Shewanella putrefaciens. Six of nine representative S. putrefaciens isolates from a variety of environments proved able to grow by sulfur reduction, and strain MR-1 was chosen for further study. Growth was monitored in a minimal medium (usually with 0.05% Casamino Acids added as a growth stimulant) containing 30 mM lactate and limiting concentrations of elemental sulfur. When mechanisms were provided for the removal of the metabolic end product, H2S, measurable growth was obtained at sulfur concentrations of from 2 to 30 mM. Initial doubling times were ca. 1.5 h and substrate independent over the range of sulfur concentrations tested. In the cultures with the highest sulfur concentrations, cell numbers increased by greater than 400-fold after 48 h, reaching a maximum density of 6.8 x 10(8) cells ml-1. Yields were determined as total cell carbon and ranged from 1.7 to 5.9 g of C mol of S(0) consumed-1 in the presence of the amino acid supplement and from 0.9 to 3.4 g of C mol of S(0-1) in its absence. Several lines of evidence indicate that cell-to-sulfur contact is not required for growth. Approaches for the culture of sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and potential ecological implications of sulfur reduction in Shewanella-like heterotrophs are discussed.

  16. Isolation and characterization of bacteria on the drainage water from Ratones mine and its behaviour on pyrite; Aislamiento y caracterizacion de bacterias en aguas de la mina de ratones y su comportamiento con pirita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, J. L.; Saez, R. M.

    1974-07-01

    This paper describes some of the studies made about iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria on the drainage water from Ratones mine. Different liquid and solid media were utilized as well as some energy sources, ferrous sulphate, thiosulfate and sulfur. Some experiment were al so realized on museum grade pyrite aimed at determining the possibilities of applying the mentioned bacteria on the leaching of pyrite and subsequently on the leaching of uranium ores. (Author) 27 refs.

  17. Diversity of l-Methionine Catabolism Pathways in Cheese-Ripening Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnarme, Pascal; Psoni, Lefki; Spinnler, Henry E.

    2000-01-01

    Enzymatic activities that could be involved in methanethiol generation in five cheese-ripening bacteria were assayed, and the major sulfur compounds produced were identified. l-Methionine and ?-keto-?-methyl-thio-butyric acid demethiolating activities were detected in whole cells and cell extracts (CFEs) of all the bacteria tested. No l-methionine deaminase activity could be detected in any of the ripening bacteria and l-methionine aminotransferase was detected in CFEs of Brevibacterium lin...

  18. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

  19. The Museum of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Museum of Bacteria serves as a clearinghouse of Web links on bacteria and bacteriology and also provides "crystal-clear information about many aspects of bacteria." The Museum of Bacteria is provided by the Foundation of Bacteria, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the field of bacteriology. Links are selected for a general audience, although one section is geared toward professionals in the field. Some of the latest features of the Museum are an "exhibit" on the good bacteria found in food and a Student Hall where students can present their own bacteria-related projects.

  20. Sulfur cycle in buried evaporites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, R. H.; Smalley, P. C.; Fallick, A. E.

    1997-07-01

    Sulfur isotopes are potent indicators of the way in which sulfur behaves chemically during diagenesis. We have studied sulfur isotope ratios (34S/32S) from a number of minerals and compounds across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Khuff Formation, Abu Dhabi. The ?34S in dissolved marine sulfate increased by 10‰ from the Late Permian to the Early Triassic. Despite precipitation of gypsum from Permian and Triassic seawater and its subsequent dehydration to anhydrite at depths greater than about 1000 m, the primary marine stratigraphic sulfur isotope variation has been preserved in anhydrite in the Khuff Formation. A combination of biostratigraphic and absolute age data show that this 10‰ shift occurred over sulfur isotope variation across the Permian-Triassic boundary is also present in elemental sulfur and H2S, at depths greater than 4300 m, formed by reaction of anhydrite with hydrocarbons via thermochemical sulfate reduction. This demonstrates that sulfate reduction has not led to isotope fractionation. It also demonstrates that significant mass transfer has not occurred, at least in the vicinity of the Permian-Triassic boundary, even though elemental sulfur and H2S are both fluid phases at depths greater than 4300 m. Thus, despite two major diagenetic processes that converted the sulfur in gypsum into elemental sulfur and H2S by 4300 m burial and the potentially mobile nature of some of the reaction products, the primary differences in sulfur isotopes have been preserved in the rocks and fluids. All reactions occurred in situ; there was no significant sulfur isotope fractionation, and only negligible sulfur was added, subtracted, or moved internally within the system.

  1. Isolation and characterization of bacteria on the drainage water from Ratones mine and its behaviour on pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some of the studies made about iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria on the drainage water from Ratones mine. Different liquid and solid media were utilized as well as some energy sources, ferrous sulphate, thiosulfate and sulfur. Some experiment were al so realized on museum grade pyrite aimed at determining the possibilities of applying the mentioned bacteria on the leaching of pyrite and subsequently on the leaching of uranium ores. (Author) 27 refs

  2. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  3. Green networking

    CERN Document Server

    Krief, Francine

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on green networking, which is an important topic for the scientific community composed of engineers, academics, researchers and industrialists working in the networking field. Reducing the environmental impact of the communications infrastructure has become essential with the ever increasing cost of energy and the need for reducing global CO2 emissions to protect our environment.Recent advances and future directions in green networking are presented in this book, including energy efficient networks (wired networks, wireless networks, mobile networks), adaptive networ

  4. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for reducing the level of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur dioxide- containing gas. It comprises preparing an aqueous slurry comprising a calcium alkali together with a calcium-reactive silica or alumina, the calcium alkali and calcium-reactive silica or alumina being introduced into the slurry in a form consisting essentially of a high calcium fly ash, which are present in amounts sufficient to allow for the formation of a sulfur dioxide-absorbing component which includes a calcium silicate or calcium aluminate; heating the slurry to a temperature between about 50 degrees and 200 degrees C. for between about 0.1 and about 24 hours to facilitate in the formation of the sulfur dioxide-absorbing component; contacting the gas with the slurry in a manner sufficient to allow for the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the absorbing component; and separating the absorbing component in the form of spent solids from the gas

  5. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for reducing the level of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur dioxide- containing gas. It comprises preparing an aqueous slurry comprising a calcium alkali together with a calcium-reactive silica or alumina which are present in amounts sufficient to allow for the formation of a sulfur dioxide-absorbing component which includes a calcium silicate or calcium aluminate; heating the slurry to a temperature between about 120 degrees and 180 degrees C. to facilitate in the formation of the sulfur dioxide-absorbing component; contacting the gas with the slurry in a manner sufficient to allow for the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the absorbing component; and separating the absorbing component in the form of spent solids from the gas

  6. Efeito de extratos de própolis verde sobre bactérias patogênicas isoladas do leite de vacas com mastite / Effect of green propolis extracts on patogenic bacteria isolated from milk of cows with mastitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Souza, PINTO; José Eurico de, FARIA; Dejair, MESSAGE; Sérvio Túlio Alves, CASSINI; Carmen Silva, PEREIRA; Marilú Martins, GIOSO.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A sensibilidade, in vitro, de amostras de Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. coagulase negativos, Streptococcus agalactiae e bactérias do grupo dos coliformes, isoladas do leite de vacas com mastite, a diferentes extratos de própolis, na concentração de 100 mg/ml, foi avaliada pela técnica do [...] antibiograma em discos de papel de filtro com sobrecamada de meio de cultura. Os resultados mostraram que o extrato etanólico de própolis comercial, os extratos etanólico e, em menor proporção, o metanólico inibiram o crescimento das amostras de bactérias Gram-positivas, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. coagulase negativos e Streptococcus agalactiae. Os extratos obtidos através da água, do acetato de etila e do clorofórmio não inibiram nenhuma amostra bacteriana, assim como os veículos etanol e metanol puros utilizados como controle. A bactéria Gram-negativa testada, do tipo coliforme, não apresentou sensibilidade a nenhum dos extratos. Verificaram-se diferenças significativas (p Abstract in english In vitro, the sensitivity to different propolis extracts, at a concentration of 100 mg/ml, of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. coagulase negative, Streptococcus agalactiae and bacteria of the coliform group, isolated from the milk of cows with mastitis, was evaluated using the technique of [...] an agar disk diffusion with a medium doublelayer. The results showed that the commercial propolis, the ethanolic extract, and, in a minor proportion, the methanolic extract inhibited the growth of the Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. coagulase negative and Streptococcus agalactiae. The extracts obtained through water, etila acetate and chloroform did not inhibit any bacterial strains, nor did the pure ethanol and methanol vehicles that were utilized as controls. The Gram negative bacterium tested, from the coliform group, did not show sensitivity to any extract. Bacterial strains of the same species collected from different sources presented significant differences in sensitivity to the extracts (p

  7. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate and Methanethiol Are Important Precursors of Methionine and Protein-Sulfur in Marine Bacterioplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Ronald P.; Linn, Laura J.; González, José; Moran, Mary Ann; Bruton, Jody A.

    1999-01-01

    Organic sulfur compounds are present in all aquatic systems, but their use as sources of sulfur for bacteria is generally not considered important because of the high sulfate concentrations in natural waters. This study investigated whether dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an algal osmolyte that is abundant and rapidly cycled in seawater, is used as a source of sulfur by bacterioplankton. Natural populations of bacterioplankton from subtropical and temperate marine waters rapidly incorporated 15 to 40% of the sulfur from tracer-level additions of [35S]DMSP into a macromolecule fraction. Tests with proteinase K and chloramphenicol showed that the sulfur from DMSP was incorporated into proteins, and analysis of protein hydrolysis products by high-pressure liquid chromatography showed that methionine was the major labeled amino acid produced from [35S]DMSP. Bacterial strains isolated from coastal seawater and belonging to the ?-subdivision of the division Proteobacteria incorporated DMSP sulfur into protein only if they were capable of degrading DMSP to methanethiol (MeSH), whereas MeSH was rapidly incorporated into macromolecules by all tested strains and by natural bacterioplankton. These findings indicate that the demethylation/demethiolation pathway of DMSP degradation is important for sulfur assimilation and that MeSH is a key intermediate in the pathway leading to protein sulfur. Incorporation of sulfur from DMSP and MeSH by natural populations was inhibited by nanomolar levels of other reduced sulfur compounds including sulfide, methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, and cystathionine. In addition, propargylglycine and vinylglycine were potent inhibitors of incorporation of sulfur from DMSP and MeSH, suggesting involvement of the enzyme cystathionine ?-synthetase in sulfur assimilation by natural populations. Experiments with [methyl-3H]MeSH and [35S]MeSH showed that the entire methiol group of MeSH was efficiently incorporated into methionine, a reaction consistent with activity of cystathionine ?-synthetase. Field data from the Gulf of Mexico indicated that natural turnover of DMSP supplied a major fraction of the sulfur required for bacterial growth in surface waters. Our study highlights a remarkable adaptation by marine bacteria: they exploit nanomolar levels of reduced sulfur in apparent preference to sulfate, which is present at 106- to 107-fold higher concentrations. PMID:10508088

  8. Not everything green has green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last week (March 2009) Slovak government extended the preferential treatment of renewable energy. Companies that will produce electricity from biomass, water, wind, solar and underground thermal springs, have guaranteed that they will receive a decently paid at least the next 15 years. It promises them a new government bill on the promotion of renewable energy. So far, the State guaranteed the purchase of green power for only one year in advance. And because it is more expensive than electricity from coal or uranium, green investment firms feared. Fifteen guarantees give assurance. The government will guarantee only purchase green electricity, but also biomethane to produce heat. So, who wants an ordinary agrarian biogas from waste and adjust to such a gas. Slovak gas industry will have to buy it into its network. Biomethane is not in domestic terms only on paper.

  9. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from a Danish estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, B.B.; Okholm-Hansen, B.

    1985-01-01

    The diurnal variations in sulfur emission were studied at seven sites in a Danish estuary, Norsminde Fjord. The sites comprised grass vegetation, intertidal mud flats, accretions of green algae, an exposed shore and a river outlet. Direct measurements of emission rates from soil and water were done by a dynamic flux chamber technique in connection with gas chromatographic detection and separation of the cryogenically trapped sulfur gases. Sulfur gas concentrations in air and seawater were measured together with emission rates at 0.5-1 h intervals over 25-40 h periods. DMS was the most important sulfur gas released from grass and algae, while mostly H2S was released from intertidal mud flats. OCS, CH3SH and CS2 were released from most sites at lower rates. Emission of DMS followed the daylight variations, often with a delay towards maximum emission rates in the evening. H2S was mostly emitted at night or in short outburst during low tides. Total sulfur emission rates were 1-10 mol S m S d . Extreme rates of 335 mol DMS m S d were measured over decomposing green algae (Ulva lactuca). H2S emission fractions were < 10 W to 2 x 10 U. H2S was detected, along with DMS, CH3SH, OCS and CS2, in the oxic seawater of the estuary at diurnal mean concentrations of 0.1-6.5 nmol Sl . This may indicate a more widespread occurrence of H2S in shallow, near-shore waters at nanomolar levels.

  10. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from a danish estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker Jørgensen, Bo; Okholm-Hansen, Bolette

    The diurnal variations in sulfur emission were studied at seven sites in a Danish estuary, Norsminde Fjord. The sites comprised grass vegetation, intertidal mud flats, accretions of green algae, an exposed shore and a river outlet. Direct measurements of emission rates from soil and water were done by a dynamic flux chamber technique in connection with gas Chromatographie detection and separation of the cryogenically trapped sulfur gases. Sulfur gas concentrations in air and sea water were measured together with emission rates at 0.5-1 h intervals over 25-40 h periods. DMS was the most important sulfur gas released from grass and algae, while mostly H 2S was released from intertidal mud flats. OCS, CH 3SH and CS 2 were released from most sites at lower rates. Emission of DMS followed the daylight variations, often with a delay towards maximum emission rates in the evening. H 2S was mostly emitted at night or in short outbursts during low tides. Total sulfur emission rates were 1-10?mol Sm -2 d -1. Extreme rates of 335?mol DMSm -2 d -1 were measured over decomposing green algae ( Ulva lactuca). H 2S emission fractions were < 10 -6 to 2.10 -4. H 2S was detected, along with DMS, CH 3SH, OCS and CS 2, in the oxic seawater of the estuary at diurnal mean concentrations of 0.1-6.5nmol S/ol -1. This may indicate a more widespread occurrence of H 2S in shallow, near-shore waters at nanomolar levels.

  11. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of â??Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  12. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  13. Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  14. Microbial stabilization of sulfur-laden sorbents. Technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W. [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Clean coal technologies that involve limestone for sulfur capture generate lime/limestone products laden with sulfur at various oxidation states. If sulfur is completely stabilized as sulfate, the spend sorbent is ready for commercial utilization as gypsum. However, the presence of reduced sulfur species required additional processing. Thermal oxidation of reduced sulfur can result in undesirable release of SO{sub 2}. Microbial oxidation might provide an inexpensive and effective alternative. Sorbents laden with reduced forms of sulfur such as sulfide, sulfite, or various polythionate species serve as growth substrates for sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, which have the potential to convert all sulfur to sulfate. This quarter, efforts focused on treating the aqueous phase of a waste sorbent obtained from an inhibited wet scrubbing process. Although two named strains, Thiobacillus neapolitanus ATCC 23639 and ATCC 23641, failed; the isolate TQ1 rapidly oxidized thiosalts, producing sulfate. The Virtis Fermentor arrived, so that experiments with TQ1 have been scaled up to 1.5 liters with temperature, aeration, and pH control.

  15. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  16. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  17. Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This on-line exercise is focused on lactic acid bacteria, a group of related bacteria that produce lactic acid as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. It includes a protocol for the enrichment of lactic acid bacteria from enriched samples (like yogurt, sauerkraut, decaying plant matter, and tooth plaque). Three parameters are measured: growth, culture diversity, and pH. The exercise also includes instructions for the isolation of some of these bacteria by using the streak-plate method.

  18. Green WSUS

    OpenAIRE

    Kadry, Seifedine; Joumaa, Chibli

    2012-01-01

    The new era of information and communication technology (ICT) calls for a greater understanding of the environmental impacts of recent technology. With increasing energy cost and growing environmental concerns, green IT is receiving more and more attention. Network and system design play a crucial role in both computing and telecommunication systems. Significant part of this energy cost goes to system update by downloading regularly patches and bug fixes to solve security pr...

  19. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical characte support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  20. Energy generation and the sulfur-carbon cycles: Final technical report for period March 1981 thru February 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to understand the role of anaerobic bacteria in natural and man-influenced carbon cycles in nature. The major goal was to elucidate how sulfur metabolism influenced organic decomposition in aquatic sediments. The research compared these processes in two different anaerobic ecosystems: the sulfate-depleted sediments of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin and the sulfate-saturated sediments of Great Salt Lake, Utah. The approach was both ecological and physiological, and employed both in situ characterization of carbon and sulfur metabolism with radiotracers and laboratory species isolation-characterization studies with pure and defined mixed cultures to demonstrate the prevalent environmental paths of carbon electrons, and sulfur during the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. The significance of this research encompassed fundamental knowledge of the carbon sulfur cycles, applied knowledge on the microbial genesis of flammable gas and oil and extended knowledge on the diversity and metabolic activity of obligately anaerobic bacteria in nature. 13 refs

  1. Microbial pathways in colonic sulfur metabolism and links with health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnC.Benefiel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur is both crucial to life and a potential threat to health. While colonic sulfur metabolism mediated by eukaryotic cells is relatively well studied, much less is known about sulfur metabolism within gastrointestinal microbes. Sulfated compounds in the colon are either of inorganic (e.g., sulfates, sulfites or organic (e.g., dietary amino acids and host mucins origin. The most extensively studied of the microbes involved in colonic sulfur metabolism are the sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are common colonic inhabitants. Many other microbial pathways are likely to shape colonic sulfur metabolism as well as the composition and availability of sulfated compounds, and these interactions need to be examined in more detail. Hydrogen sulfide is the sulfur derivative that has attracted the most attention in the context of colonic health, and the extent to which it is detrimental or beneficial remains in debate. Several lines of evidence point to sulfate-reducing bacteria or exogenous hydrogen sulfide as potential players in the etiology of intestinal disorders, inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer in particular. Generation of hydrogen sulfide via pathways other than dissimilatory sulfate reduction may be as, or more, important than those involving the sulfate-reducing bacteria. We suggest here that a novel axis of research is to assess the effects of hydrogen sulfide in shaping colonic microbiome structure. Clearly, in-depth characterization of the microbial pathways involved in colonic sulfur metabolism is necessary for a better understanding of its contribution to colonic disorders and development of therapeutic strategies.

  2. DEGRADATION KINETICS OF MONOSACCHARIDES IN HYDROCHLORIC, SULFURIC, AND SULFUROUS ACID

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Shi,; Tomoya Yokoyama; Takuya Akiyama,; Makoto Yashiro,; Yuji Matsumoto

    2012-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of monosaccharides during sulfurous acid treatment was compared to hydrochloric acid and to sulfuric acid treatments. Reaction conditions corresponded to the range found in previous research to allow for the production of hemicelluloses-derived monosaccharides through hydrolysis of wood. Degradation behavior of monosaccharides during treatment with each acid was expressed by a second-order reaction rate constant with respect to substrate and acid concentrations, and t...

  3. Bacteria Are Everywhere!

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMPS GK-12 Program,

    Students are introduced to the concept of engineering biological organisms and studying their growth to be able to identify periods of fast and slow growth. They learn that bacteria are found everywhere, including on the surfaces of our hands. Student groups study three different conditions under which bacteria are found and compare the growth of the individual bacteria from each source. In addition to monitoring the quantity of bacteria from differ conditions, they record the growth of bacteria over time, which is an excellent tool to study binary fission and the reproduction of unicellular organisms.

  4. DEGRADATION KINETICS OF MONOSACCHARIDES IN HYDROCHLORIC, SULFURIC, AND SULFUROUS ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The degradation kinetics of monosaccharides during sulfurous acid treatment was compared to hydrochloric acid and to sulfuric acid treatments. Reaction conditions corresponded to the range found in previous research to allow for the production of hemicelluloses-derived monosaccharides through hydrolysis of wood. Degradation behavior of monosaccharides during treatment with each acid was expressed by a second-order reaction rate constant with respect to substrate and acid concentrations, and the activation energy and frequency factor were calculated using the Arrhenius equation. Results demonstrated that the second-order reaction rate of a monosaccharide was dependent on the type of acid, indicating that monosaccharides degrade at different rates under different acids, even when the molar concentration of the acid is the same. The degradation of monosaccharides in sulfurous acid was much slower than that in hydrochloric acid and in sulfuric acid. A comparison of two sequential treatments with sulfuric acid, with and without the bisulfite ion, showed that sulfurous acid has a protective effect on the degradation of monosaccharides.

  5. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2015-04-07

    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  6. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  7. Toxicology of sulfur in ruminants: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandylis, K.

    1984-10-01

    This review deals with the toxicology of sulfur in ruminants including toxicity, neurotoxic effects, and mechanism of toxic action of hydrogen sulfide, clinical signs, and treatment. It will report effects of excessive intake of sulfur by ruminants on feed intake, animal performance, ruminal digestion and motility, rumination, and other physiological functions. Poisoning of animals with sulfur from industrial emissions (sulfur dioxide) also is discussed. Excessive quantities of dietary sulfur (above .3 to .4%) as sulfate or elemental sulfur may cause toxic effects and in extreme cases can be fatal. The means is discussed whereby consumption of excessive amounts of sulfur leads to toxic effects. 53 references, 1 table.

  8. Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    From the Department of Energy's Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development, this Green Buildings site serves as a detailed metapage for environmentally conscious architects, engineers, and builders. As the introduction to the site points out, "The design, construction, and maintenance of buildings has a tremendous impact on our environment and our natural resources." The site offers carefully summarized links to relevant Websites and publications on topics such as building principles, building programs, rating systems, affordable housing, codes/ordinances, educational materials, and more. This site may be of interest to those who want practical applications for protecting the environment.

  9. Green photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas. (review article)

  10. For sale: Sulfur emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The allowance trading market has started a slow march to maturity. Competitive developers should understand the risks and opportunities now presented. The marketplace for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions allowances - the centerpiece of Title 4's acid rain reduction program - remains enigmatic 19 months after the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 were passed. Yet it is increasingly clear that the emission allowance market will likely confound the gloom and doom of its doubters. The recently-announced $10 million dollar Wisconsin Power and Light allowance sales to Duquesne Light and the Tennessee Valley Authority are among the latest indications of momentum toward a stabilizing market. This trend puts additional pressure on independent developers to finalize their allowance strategies. Developers who understand what the allowance trading program is and what it is not, know the key players, and grasp the unresolved regulatory issues will have a new competitive advantage. The topics addressed in this article include the allowance marketplace, marketplace characteristics, the regulatory front, forward-looking strategies, and increasing marketplace activity

  11. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur metabolism in natural Thioploca samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otte, S.; Kuenen, JG

    1999-01-01

    Filamentous sulfur bacteria of the genus Thioploca occur as dense mats on the continental shelf off the coast of Chile and Peru. Since little is known about their nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon metabolism, this study was undertaken to investigate their (eco)physiology. Thioploca is able to store internally high concentrations of sulfur globules and nitrate. It has been previously hypothesized that these large vacuolated bacteria can oxidize sulfide by reducing their internally stored nitrate. We examined this nitrate reduction by incubation experiments of washed Thioploca sheaths,vith trichomes in combination with (15)N compounds and mass spectrometry and found that these Thioploca samples produce ammonium at a rate of 1 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1). Controls showed no significant activity. Sulfate was shown to be the end product of sulfide oxidation and was observed at a rate of 2 to 3 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1). The ammonium and sulfate production rates were not influenced by the addition of sulfide, suggesting that sulfide is first oxidized to elemental sulfur, and in a second independent step elemental sulfur is oxidized to sulfate. The average sulfide oxidation rate measured was 5 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1) and could be increased to 10.7 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1) after the trichomes were starved for 45 h. Incorporation of (14)CO(2) was at a rate of 0.4 to 0.8 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1), which is half the rate calculated from sulfide oxidation. [2-(14)C]acetate incorporation was 0.4 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1), which is equal to the CO(2) fixation rate, and no (14)CO(2) production was detected. These results suggest that Thioploca species are facultative chemolithoautotrophs capable of mixotrophic growth. Microautoradiography confirmed that Thioploca cells assimilated the majority of the radiocarbon from [2-(14)C]acetate, with only a minor contribution by epibiontic bacteria present in the samples.

  12. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural hes at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  13. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  14. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  15. Darwin y las bacterias / Darwin and bacteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter, Ledermann D.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con motivo de cumplirse 200 años del natalicio de Darwin y 150 desde la publicación de El Origen de las Especies, se revisa su obra buscando alguna mención de las bacterias, a las cuales el gran naturalista parece, o bien no haber conocido, algo muy difícil en un momento en que causaban sensación en [...] el mundo científico, o bien haber ignorado deliberadamente, porque no encontraba para ellas lugar en su teoría de la evolución. Las bacterias, por su parte, afectaron malamente su vida familiar, falleciendo uno de sus hijos de escarlatina y su hija favorita, Arme, de una tuberculosis agravada por el mismo mal que mató a su hermano. El propio Darwin, desde el regreso del Beagle afectado por una enfermedad crónica hasta ahora no dilucidada, podría haber sufrido de la enfermedad de Chagas, cuyo agente etiológico, si bien no es una bacteria, tiene un similar nivel en la escala evolutiva. Abstract in english As in 2009 the scientific world celebrates two hundreds years from the birthday of Charles Darwin and one hundred and fifty from the publication of The Origin of Species, an analysis of his complete work is performed, looking for any mention of bacteria. But it seems that the great naturahst never t [...] ook knowledge about its existence, something rather improbable in a time when the discovery of bacteria shook the medical world, or he deliberately ignored them, not finding a place for such microscopic beings into his theory of evolution. But the bacteria badly affected his familiar life, killing scarlet fever one of his children and worsening to death the evolution of tuberculosis of his favourite Annie. Darwin himself could suffer the sickness of Chagas, whose etiological agent has a similar level to bacteria in the scale of evolution.

  16. A facile in situ sulfur deposition route to obtain carbon-wrapped sulfur composite cathodes for lithium–sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Carbon-wrapped sulfur composite was obtained via an in situ sulfur deposition route. ? Sulfur–carbon composite suppresses the shuttle effect during charging. ? Sulfur–carbon composite shows enhanced cyclability and rate capability. ? Sulfur–carbon composite retains structural integrity and low impedance during cycling. - Abstract: An in situ sulfur deposition route has been developed for synthesizing sulfur–carbon composites as cathode materials for lithium–sulfur batteries. This facile synthesis method involves the precipitation of elemental sulfur at the interspaces between carbon nanoparticles in aqueous solution at room temperature. The product has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, charge–discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The sulfur–carbon composite cathode with 75 wt.% active material thus obtained exhibits a remarkably high first discharge capacity of 1116 mAh g?1 with good cycle performance, maintaining 777 mAh g?1 after 50 cycles. The significantly improved electrochemical performance of the sulfur–carbon composite cathode is attributed to the carbon-wrapped sulfur network structure, which suppresses the loss of active material during charging/discharging and the migration of the polysulfide ions to the anode (i.e., shuttling effect). The integrity of the cathode structure during cycling is refcycling is reflected in low impedance values observed after cycling. This facile in situ sulfur deposition route represents a low-cost approach to obtain high-performance sulfur–carbon composite cathodes for rechargeable Li–S batteries.

  17. Cospeciation of chemoautotrophic bacteria and deep sea clams

    OpenAIRE

    Peek, Andrew S.; Feldman, Robert A.; Lutz, Richard A.; Vrijenhoek, Robert C.

    1998-01-01

    Vesicomyid clams depend entirely on sulfur-oxidizing endosymbiotic bacteria for their nutriment. Endosymbionts that are transmitted cytoplasmically through eggs, such as these, should exhibit a phylogenetic pattern that closely parallels the phylogeny of host mitochondrial genes. Such parallel patterns are rarely observed, however, because they are obscured easily by small amounts of horizontal symbiont transmission or occasional host switching. The present symbiont genealogy, based on bacter...

  18. Ultrastructure of Thiothrix spp. and “Type 021N” Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Terry M.; Unz, Richard F.; Doman, J. Thomas

    1987-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of two groups of filamentous sulfur bacteria, Thiothrix spp. and an unnamed organism designated “type 021N,” were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Negative staining of whole cells and filaments with uranyl acetate revealed the presence of tufts of fimbriae located at the ends of individual gonidia of Thiothrix sp. strain A1 and “type 021N” strain N7. Holdfast material present at the center of mature rosettes was observed in thin sections stain...

  19. Fe-S Cluster Assembly Pathways in Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala-castro, Carla; Saini, Avneesh; Outten, F. Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are required for critical biochemical pathways, including respiration, photosynthesis, and nitrogen fixation. Assembly of these iron cofactors is a carefully controlled process in cells to avoid toxicity from free iron and sulfide. Multiple Fe-S cluster assembly pathways are present in bacteria to carry out basal cluster assembly, stress-responsive cluster assembly, and enzyme-specific cluster assembly. Although biochemical and genetic characterization is ...

  20. Analysis of the sulfur origin and sulfur isotopic compositions of acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid rain has been one of the most serious environment problems in the world and the study of sulfur isotope can help us find the sulfur source, composition and have important significance for research to harness acid rain. This paper mainly revolves around three aspects to introduce the significance of sulfur isotopic study, they are sulfur isotopes in coals, sulfur isotopic compositions of surface water and sulfur isotopes in wheat. (authors)

  1. Genomic analysis reveals versatile heterotrophic capacity of a potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Wang, Yong; Bougouffa, Salim; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Cai, Lin; Bajic, Vladimir; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) play essential roles in marine sponges. However, the detailed characteristics and physiology of the bacteria are largely unknown. Here, we present and analyse the first genome of sponge-associated SOB using a recently developed metagenomic binning strategy. The loss of transposase and virulence-associated genes and the maintenance of the ancient polyphosphate glucokinase gene suggested a stabilized SOB genome that might have coevolved with the ancient host during establishment of their association. Exclusive distribution in sponge, bacterial detoxification for the host (sulfide oxidation) and the enrichment for symbiotic characteristics (genes-encoding ankyrin) in the SOB genome supported the bacterial role as an intercellular symbiont. Despite possessing complete autotrophic sulfur oxidation pathways, the bacterium developed a much more versatile capacity for carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, in comparison with its closest relatives (Thioalkalivibrio) and to other representative autotrophs from the same order (Chromatiales). The ability to perform both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism likely results from the unstable supply of reduced sulfur in the sponge and is considered critical for the sponge-SOB consortium. Our study provides insights into SOB of sponge-specific clade with thioautotrophic and versatile heterotrophic metabolism relevant to its roles in the micro-environment of the sponge body. PMID:25088944

  2. Introduction to Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiscoverySchool.com

    2007-12-12

    This science site has students research how bacteria move, where they live, and how they reproduce; learn how bacteria can be helpful or harmful; and create a design illustrating what they have learned about bacteria. Included in the lesson plan are the objectives, needed materials and Web sites, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation, extensions, suggested reading, and vocabulary. Teachers can link to Teaching Tools to create custom worksheets, puzzles, and quizzes. A printable version of the lesson plan can be downloaded. The video Bacteria, Viruses and Allergies can be purchased and comprehension questions and answers can be downloaded.

  3. Bacteria-Antagonists

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development of Biological Control Agents Through Use of Recombinant Antagonistic Bacteria Possessing Variable Mechanisms of Antagonisms, High Colonizing Capacity and Marker Traits for their Monitoring in Nature

  4. Response to copper of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 grown in elemental sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almárcegui, Rodrigo J; Navarro, Claudio A; Paradela, Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; von Bernath, Diego; Jerez, Carlos A

    2014-11-01

    The response of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 to copper was analyzed in sulfur-grown cells by using quantitative proteomics. Forty-seven proteins showed altered levels in cells grown in the presence of 50 mM copper sulfate. Of these proteins, 24 were up-regulated and 23 down-regulated. As seen before in ferrous iron-grown cells, there was a notorious up-regulation of RND-type Cus systems and different RND-type efflux pumps, indicating that these proteins are very important in copper resistance. Copper also triggered the down-regulation of the major outer membrane porin of A. ferrooxidans in sulfur-grown bacteria, suggesting they respond to the metal by decreasing the influx of cations into the cell. On the contrary, copper in sulfur-grown cells caused an overexpression of putative TadA and TadB proteins known to be essential for biofilm formation in bacteria. Surprisingly, sulfur-grown microorganisms showed increased levels of proteins related with energy generation (rus and petII operons) in the presence of copper. Although rus operon is overexpressed mainly in cells grown in ferrous iron, the up-regulation of rusticyanin in sulfur indicates a possible role for this protein in copper resistance as well. Finally, copper response in A. ferrooxidans appears to be influenced by the substrate being oxidized by the microorganism. PMID:25041950

  5. Green Roofs and Green Building Rating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental benefits for green building from the Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED and Ecology, Energy, Waste, and Health (EEWH rating systems have been extensively investigated; however, the effect of green roofs on the credit-earning mechanisms is relatively unexplored. This study is concerned with the environmental benefits of green roofs with respect to sustainability, stormwater control, energy savings, and water resources. We focused on the relationship between green coverage and the credits of the rating systems, evaluated the credits efficiency, and performed cost analysis. As an example, we used a university building in Keelung, Northern Taiwan. The findings suggest that with EEWH, the proposed green coverage is 50–75%, whereas with LEED, the proposed green coverage is 100%. These findings have implications for the application of green roofs in green building.

  6. The green building envelope: vertical greening:

    OpenAIRE

    Ottele?, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve the environment in urban areas and is becoming a key design consideration in modern building developments. Vertical greening of structures offers large surfaces with vegetation and at the same tim...

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Green Tea Extract on Mouth Bacterial Activity in the Presence of Propylene Glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolhossein Moghbel; Ahmad Farjzadeh; Nasrin Aghel; Homaun Agheli; Nafiseh Raisi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Compounds present in green tea have proved to inhibit the growth and activity of bacteria associated with infections..Objectives: To assess the effects of green tea leaves extract in presence of propylene glycol on the aerobic mouth bacteria load..Materials and Methods: Saliva of 25 volunteer girl students aging 20-25 years were selected and evaluated by a mouthwash sample containing 1% tannin, as the most effective antibacterial complex in green tea. Comparative studies were also...

  8. Sulfur-doped graphene derived from cycled lithium-sulfur batteries as a metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhaoling; Dou, Shuo; Shen, Anli; Tao, Li; Dai, Liming; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-02-01

    Heteroatom-doped carbon materials have been extensively investigated as metal-free electrocatalysts to replace commercial Pt/C catalysts in oxygen reduction reactions in fuel cells and Li-air batteries. However, the synthesis of such materials usually involves high temperature or complicated equipment. Graphene-based sulfur composites have been recently developed to prolong the cycling life of Li-S batteries, one of the most attractive energy-storage devices. Given the high cost of graphene, there is significant demand to recycle and reuse graphene from Li-S batteries. Herein, we report a green and cost-effective method to prepare sulfur-doped graphene, achieved by the continuous charge/discharge cycling of graphene-sulfur composites in Li-S batteries. This material was used as a metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction and shows better electrocatalytic activity than pristine graphene and better methanol tolerance durability than Pt/C. PMID:25483872

  9. The Determinants of Green Radical and Incremental Innovation Performance: Green Shared Vision, Green Absorptive Capacity, and Green Organizational Ambidexterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new concept, green organisational ambidexterity, that integrates green exploration learning and green exploitation learning simultaneously. Besides, this study argues that the antecedents of green organisational ambidexterity are green shared vision and green absorptive capacity and its consequents are green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance. The results demonstrate that green exploration learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green radical innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. In addition, this study indicates that green exploitation learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green incremental innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. Hence, firms have to increase their green shared vision, green absorptive capacity, and green organisational ambidexterity to raise their green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance.

  10. Diversity and Distribution in Hypersaline Microbial Mats of Bacteria Related to Chloroflexus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nu?bel, Ulrich; Bateson, Mary M.; Madigan, Michael T.; Ku?hl, Michael; Ward, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria containing bacteriochlorophylls c and a were enriched from hypersaline microbial mats. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences, these organisms form a previously undescribed lineage distantly related to Chloroflexus spp. We developed and tested a set of PCR primers for the specific amplification of 16S rRNA genes from filamentous phototrophic bacteria within the kingdom of “green nonsulfur bacteria.” PCR products recovered from microbial mats in a sa...

  11. Sulfur isotope effects associated with oxidation of sulfide by O2 in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, B.; Ruf, W.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Normal sulfur isotope effects averaging epsilon = -5.2 +/- 1.4% (s.d.) were consistently observed for the oxidation of sulfide in aqueous solution. Reaction products were sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite at pH 10.8-11 in distilled water; S0 was formed in two experiments with synthetic seawater at pH 8-9.5. Because the -5.2% normal isotope effect differs significantly from the previously measured +2% inverse effect associated with anaerobic oxidation of sulfide by photosynthetic bacteria, stable sulfur isotopic measurements are potentially useful for distinguishing aerobic vs. anaerobic sulfide oxidation in marine and freshwater sulfureta.

  12. Assimilatory Sulfur Metabolism in Marine Microorganisms: Sulfur Metabolism, Protein Synthesis, and Growth of Alteromonas luteo-violaceus and Pseudomonas halodurans During Perturbed Batch Growth †

    OpenAIRE

    Cuhel, Russell L.; Taylor, Craig D.; Jannasch, Holger W.

    1982-01-01

    The antibiotic protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol specifically blocked the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into the residue protein of two marine bacteria, Pseudomonas halodurans and Alteromonas luteo-violaceus. Simultaneous inhibition of total protein synthesis occurred, but incorporation of 35S into low-molecular-weight organic compounds continued. A. luteo-violaceus rapidly autolyzed, with similar reduction in cell counts, total culture protein and cellular sulfur, whereas P. halodu...

  13. Green nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  14. Durability of incinerator ash waste encapsulated in modified sulfur cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste form stability under anticipated disposal conditions is an important consideration for ensuring continued isolation of contaminants from the accessible environment. Modified sulfur cement is a relatively new material and has only recently been applied as a binder for encapsulation of mixed wastes. Little data are available concerning its long-term durability. Therefore, a series of property evaluation tests for both binder and waste-binder combinations have been conducted to examine potential waste form performance under storage and disposal conditions. These tests include compressive strength, biodegradation, radiation stability, water immersion, thermal cycling, and leaching. Waste form compressive strength increased with ash waste loadings to 30.5 MPa at a maximum incinerator ash loading of 43 wt %. Biodegradation testing resulted in no visible microbial growth of either bacteria or fungi. Initial radiation stability testing did not reveal statistically significant deterioration in structural integrity. Results of 90 day water immersion tests were dependent on the type of ash tested. There were no statistically significant changes in compressive strength detected after completion of thermal cycle testing. Radionuclides from ash waste encapsulated in modified sulfur cement leached between 5 and 8 orders of magnitude slower than the leach index criterion established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for low-level radioactive waste. Modified sulfur cement waste forms containing up to 43 wt % incinerator fly ash passed EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) criteria for lead and cadmium leachability. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Biogeochemistry of sulfur and iron in Thioploca-colonized surface sediments in the upwelling area off central Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zopfi, Jakob; JØrgensen, Bo Barker

    2007-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of sedimentary sulfur was investigated on the continental shelf off central Chile at water depths between 24 and 88 m under partial influence of an oxygen minimum zone. Dissolved and solid iron and sulfur species, including the sulfur intermediates sulfite, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur, were analyzed at high resolution in the top 20 cm. All stations were characterized by high rates of sulfate reduction, but only the sediments within the Bay of Concepción contained dissolved sulfide. Due to advection and/or in-situ reoxidation of sulfide, dissolved sulfate was close to bottom water values. Whereas the concentrations of sulfite and thiosulfate were mostly in the submicromolar range, elemental sulfur was by far the dominant sulfur intermediate. Although the large nitrate- and sulfur-storing bacteria Thioploca were abundant, the major part of S0 was located extracellularly. The distribution of sulfur species and dissolved iron suggests the reaction of sulfide with FeOOH as an important pathway for sulfide oxidation and sulfur intermediate formation. This is in agreement with the sulfur isotope composition of co-existing elemental sulfur and iron monosulfides. In the Bay of Concepción, sulfur isotope data suggest that pyrite formation proceeds via the reaction of FeS with polysulfides or H2S. At the shelf stations, on the other hand, pyrite was significantly depleted in 34S relative to its potential precursors FeS and S0. Isotope mass balance considerations suggest further that pyritization at depth includes light sulfide, potentially originating from bacterial sulfur disproportionation. The ?34S-values of pyrite down to -38‰ vs. V-CDT are among the lightest found in organic-rich marine sediments. Seasonal variations in the sulfur isotope composition of dissolved sulfate indicated a dynamic non-steady-state sulfur cycle in the surface sediments. The 18O content of porewater sulfate increased with depth at all sites compared to the bottom water composition due to intracellular isotope exchange reactions during microbial sulfur transformations.

  16. Biogeochemistry of sulfur and iron in Thioploca-colonized surface sediments in the upwelling area off central Chile.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zopfi, Jakob; Michael E., Böttcher

    2008-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of sedimentary sulfur was investigated on the continental shelf off central Chile at water depths between 24 and 88 m under partial influence of an oxygen minimum zone. Dissolved and solid iron and sulfur species, including the sulfur intermediates sulfite, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur, were analyzed at high resolution in the top 20 cm. All stations were characterized by high rates of sulfate reduction, but only the sediments within the Bay of Concepción contained dissolved sulfide. Due to advection and/or in-situ reoxidation of sulfide, dissolved sulfate was close to bottom water values. Whereas the concentrations of sulfite and thiosulfate were mostly in the submicromolar range, elemental sulfur was by far the dominant sulfur intermediate. Although the large nitrate- and sulfur-storing bacteria Thioploca were abundant, the major part of S0 was located extracellularly. The distribution of sulfur species and dissolved iron suggests the reaction of sulfide with FeOOH as an important pathway for sulfide oxidation and sulfur intermediate formation. This is in agreement with the sulfur isotope composition of co-existing elemental sulfur and iron monosulfides. In the Bay of Concepción, sulfur isotope data suggest that pyrite formation proceeds via the reaction of FeS with polysulfides or H2S. At the shelf stations, on the other hand, pyrite was significantly depleted in 34S relative to its potential precursors FeS and S0. Isotope mass balance considerations suggest further that pyritization at depth includes light sulfide, potentially originating from bacterial sulfur disproportionation. The ?34S-values of pyrite down to -38‰ vs. V-CDT are among the lightest found in organic-rich marine sediments. Seasonal variations in the sulfur isotope composition of dissolved sulfate indicated a dynamic non-steady-state sulfur cycle in the surface sediments. The 18O content of porewater sulfate increased with depth at all sites compared to the bottom water composition due to intracellular isotope exchange reactions during microbial sulfur transformations.

  17. EPA Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency's site contains a wealth of information on green guilding: green-built schools, residences, and office buildings. This site also describes what EPA is doing to green its own buildings. Topics such as energy efficiency, indoor environment, and sustainable development are covered on the Green Buildings website.

  18. Sulfur Chemistry in Bacterial Leaching of Pyrite

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, A.; Jozsa, P.; Sand, W.

    1996-01-01

    In the case of pyrite bioleaching by Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, an organism without sulfur-oxidizing capacity, besides the production of tetra- and pentathionate, a considerable accumulation of elemental sulfur occurred. A similar result was obtained for chemical oxidation assays with acidic, sterile iron(III) ion-containing solutions. In the case of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, only slight amounts of elemental sulfur were detectable because of the organism's capacity to oxidize sulfur compou...

  19. Sulfur metabolism in the biosynthesis of monobactams.

    OpenAIRE

    O Sullivan, J.; Souser, M. L.; Kao, C. C.; Aklonis, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    We studied the biosynthesis of monobactams with respect to sulfur metabolism in Chromobacterium violaceum, Acetobacter sp., and Agrobacterium radiobacter. All three organisms used inorganic sulfur for monobactam production. When sulfur-containing amino acids were assayed as a source of sulfur for monobactam production, C. violaceum used cystine but not cysteine or methionine, Acetobacter sp. used all three compounds, and A. radiobacter used none. 35S from cysteine, methionine, and sodium sulf...

  20. Phanerozoic cycles of sedimentary carbon and sulfur

    OpenAIRE

    Garrels, Robert M.; Lerman, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    A reservoir model of a Recent steady-state sedimentary system in which the reduced sulfur and oxidized sulfur reservoirs were coupled with the oxidized carbon and reduced carbon reservoirs was constructed. The time curve of the sulfur isotope ratios of the sedimentary sulfate reservoir was used to drive the model back to the beginning of Cambrian time (600 million years ago), producing the reservoir sizes and isotope values and material fluxes of the carbon-sulfur system. The predicted values...

  1. Behavior of sulfur during coal pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, D.; Hutchinson, E.J.; Heidbrink, J.; Pan, W.-P.; Chou, C.-L.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of sulfur in Illinois coals during pyrolysis was evaluated by thermogravimetry/ Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (TG/FT-IR) techniques. SO2, COS, and H2S were major gaseous sulfur-containing products observed during coal pyrolysis. The release rates of the gaseous sulfur species showed several peaks within the temperature ranges, which were due to the emission of different forms of sulfur in coal. ?? 1994.

  2. Anaerobic microbial degradation of methylated sulfur compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Maarel, Marc Jos Elise Cornelis

    1996-01-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is one of the most abundant organic sulfur compounds in the marine environment and is thought to play an important role in the formation of cloud condensation nuclei through its atmospheric oxidation products methanesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid. DMS also forms a crucial link in the global sulfur cycle because it is the main sulfur species that is transported from marine to terrestrial environments. The precursor of DMS in marine environments is the osmolyte dimethylsu...

  3. Genetic engineering of sulfur-degrading Sulfolobus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, N.W.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research is to first establish a plasmid-mediated genetic transformation system for the sulfur degrading Sulfolobus, and then to clone and overexpress the genes encoding the organic-sulfur-degrading enzymes from Sulfolobus- as well as from other microorganisms, to develop a Sulfolobus-based microbial process for the removal of both organic and inorganic sulfur from coal.

  4. 46 CFR 148.04-20 - Sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfur. 148.04-20 Section 148.04-20 Shipping...Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-20 Sulfur. (a) When sulfur is loaded in a deep hold with general cargo in the...

  5. Biologically removing sulfur from dilute gas flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, R.; Dijkman, H.; Buisman, C. J. N.

    1999-05-01

    A biological process has been developed to clean off-gases containing sulfur dioxide from industrial installations. The sulfur dioxide is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which can then be oxidized to elemental sulfur if not used on-site. The process produces no waste products that require disposal and has a low reagent consumption.

  6. Sulfur cycling in contaminated aquifers: What can we learn from oxygen isotopes in sulfate? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeller, K.; Vogt, C.; Hoth, N.

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial reduction of dissolved sulfate (BSR) is a key process determining the natural attenuation in many contaminated aquifers. For example, in groundwater bodies affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) BSR reduces the contaminant load by producing alkalinity and facilitating a sustainable fixation of sulfur in the sediment. In aquifers contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons sulfate may act as a terminal electron acceptor for the anaerobic oxidation of the organic contaminants to carbon dioxide and water. Due to the isotope selectivity of sulfate reducing bacteria, BSR shows the most pronounced isotope fractionation within the sulfur cycle. While sulfur displays a straightforward kinetic enrichment in the residual sulfate described by the enrichment factor epsilon (?), the mechanism of oxygen isotope fractionation is still being discussed controversially. Nevertheless, it is agreed on that oxygen isotope exchange between ambient water and residual sulfate occurs during BSR in natural environments. With respect to this potential isotope exchange, the fractionation parameter theta (?) is introduced instead of the kinetic enrichment factor epsilon (?). The dual isotope system considering both sulfate-sulfur and sulfate-oxygen isotope fractionation and the respective fractionation parameters ? and ? provides an excellent tool for the recognition and quantification of BSR. Beyond that, the dual isotope approach may help identify and estimate interfering sulfur transformations such as re-oxidation and disproportionation processes which is especially vital for the understanding of the overall natural attenuation potential of the investigated aquifers. We present two examples from different field studies showing the benefits of applying the combination of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in dissolved sulfate to reveal the details of the sulfur cycle. The first case study is concerned with the evaluation of the potential for BSR in an AMD-affected aquifer close to an abandoned lignite mine. Due to the heterogeneous isotopic composition of the sulfate source (oxidation of sedimentary sulfide), sulfur isotopes alone are inappropriate for the recognition of BSR. Only the application of oxygen isotopes in sulfate provides clear evidence for the activity of sulfate reducing bacteria. However, the obtained small ? value indicates a significant influence of sulfide re-oxidation. In the second example we applied the dual isotope system to investigate the relevance of BSR for natural biodegradation in an aquifer contaminated with BTEX. Isotope fractionation parameters were determined in column experiments operated under near in situ conditions. The differences between field derived and experimental fractionation parameters revealed essential information on the occurrence of sulfur transformations competing with the actual biodegradation reactions. Most important of those processes is the re-oxidation of reduced sulfur species consuming electron acceptors that would be relevant for contaminant oxidation.

  7. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

  8. Radiation induced sulfur dioxide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest source of air pollution is the combustion of fossil fuels, were pollutants such as particulate, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) are emitted. Among these pollutants, sulfur dioxide plays the main role in acidification of the environment. The mechanism of sulfur dioxide transformation in the environment is partly photochemical. This is not direct photooxidation, however, but oxidation through formed radicals. Heterogenic reactions play an important role in this transformation as well; therefore, observations from environmental chemistry can be used in air pollution control engineering. One of the most promising technologies for desulfurization of the flue gases (and simultaneous denitrification) is radiation technology with an electron accelerator application. Contrary to the nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal processes, which is based on pure radiation induced reactions, sulfur dioxide removal depends on two pathways: a thermochemical reaction in the presence of ammonia/water vapor and a radiation set of radiochemical reactions. The mechanism of these reactions and the consequent technological parameters of the process are discussed in this paper. The industrial application of this radiation technology is being implemented in an industrial pilot plant operated by INCT at EPS Kaweczyn. A full-scale industrial plant is currently in operation in China, and two others are under develo in China, and two others are under development in Japan and Poland. (author)

  9. [Selective extraction of metals from zinc concentrate by association of chemolithotrophic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanian, N S; Vardanian, A K

    2011-01-01

    Ability for selective extraction of copper and zinc from zinc concentrate using association of chemolithotrophic bacteria was investigated. In the presence of bacterial association, the rate of desalinization of zinc, copper, and iron was increased 3-fold, 4-5-fold, and 2-fold, respectively. Zinc, copper, and iron were levigated with the most significant rate. It was revealed that addition of Fe3+ 2 g/l resulted in reduction of iron desalinization and in 3-fold increase of desalinization rate of copper at constant dissolution rate of mineral zinc. It is suggested that the intensification of copper desalinization is connected with the activity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria able to activate the mineral surface via elimination of passivation layer of elemental sulfur. It was concluded that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria play a significant role in copper desalinization from zinc concentrate. A unique strain of mesophile sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was isolated from desalinization pulp of zinc concentrate; in the perspective, it may serve as efficient candidate for performing of selective extraction of copper from zinc concentrate. PMID:22232898

  10. Silica sulfuric acid promotes aza-Michael addition reactions under solvent-free condition as a heterogeneous and reusable catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Yuan, Yan-Qin; Guo, Sheng-Rong

    2009-01-01

    A highly efficient, inexpensive, recyclable, convenient, and green protocol for chemoselective aza-Michael addition reactions of amines/thiols to alpha,beta-unsaturated compounds using silica sulfuric acid (SSA or SiO(2)-SO(3)H) was developed. This method is simple, convenient and the title compounds are produced in good to excellent yields. PMID:19935475

  11. Silica Sulfuric Acid Promotes Aza-Michael Addition Reactions under Solvent-Free Condition as a Heterogeneous and Reusable Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Rong Guo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient, inexpensive, recyclable, convenient, and green protocol for chemoselective aza-Michael addition reactions of amines/thiols to ?,?-unsaturated compounds using silica sulfuric acid (SSA or SiO2-SO3H was developed. This method is simple, convenient and the title compounds are produced in good to excellent yields.

  12. Effect of photosynthetic bacteria on water quality and microbiota in grass carp culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Shu, Miaoan; Wang, Yibing; Fu, Luoqin; Li, Weifen; Deng, Bin; Liang, Quan; Shen, Wenying

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects of photosynthetic bacteria as additives on water quality, microbial community structure and diversity, a photosynthetic purple non-sulfur bacteria, Rhodopseudamonas palustris, was isolated and used to remove nitrogen in the aquaculture water. The results of water quality showed that the levels of ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, total inorganic nitrogen and total nitrogen in the treatment group were significantly lower (p water supplementation with photosynthetic bacteria could significantly decrease (p water improves the water quality as it changes the microbial community structure. PMID:24879609

  13. Biology of anaerobic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Cord-ruwisch, Ralf; Dubourguier, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria of the genus DESULFOVIBRIO and homoacetogenic bacteria of the genus SPOROMUSA were sensitive to changes of hydrogen concentrations during the growth on an organic substrate. Increase of hydrogen concentrations competitively inhibited the organic substrate degradation and decrease of hydrogen concentration inhibited the respiration and the reduction of the external electron acceptor. Such hydrogen sensitive strains which seem to intermediarily produce and consume hydr...

  14. Phylogenetic analysis on the soil bacteria distributed in karst forest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JunPei, Zhou; Ying, Huang; MingHe, Mo.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in soil of a karst forest was analyzed by culture-independent molecular approach. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified directly from soil DNA and cloned to generate a library. After screening the clone library by RFLP, 16S rRNA genes of representa [...] tive clones were sequenced and the bacterial community was analyzed phylogenetically. The 16S rRNA gene inserts of 190 clones randomly selected were analyzed by RFLP and generated 126 different RFLP types. After sequencing, 126 non-chimeric sequences were obtained, generating 113 phylotypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacteria distributed in soil of the karst forest included the members assigning into Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi (Green nonsulfur bacteria), Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, Actinobacteria (High G+C Gram-positive bacteria), Firmicutes (Low G+C Gram-positive bacteria) and candidate divisions (including the SPAM and GN08).

  15. Antiquity and evolutionary status of bacterial sulfate reduction: sulfur isotope evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schidlowski, M

    1979-09-01

    The presently available sedimentary sulfur isotope record for the Precambrian seems to allow the following conclusions: (1) In the Early Archaean, sedimentary delta 34S patterns attributable to bacteriogenic sulfate reduction are generally absent. In particular, the delta 34S spread observed in the Isua banded iron formation (3.7 x 10(9) yr) is extremely narrow and coincides completely with the respective spreads yielded by contemporaneous rocks of assumed mantle derivation. Incipient minor differentiation of the isotope pattersn notably of Archaean sulfates may be accounted for by photosynthetic sulfur bacteria rather than by sulfate reducers. (2) Isotopic evidence of dissimilatory sulfate reduction is first observed in the upper Archaean of the Aldan Shield, Siberia (approximately 3.0 x 10(9) yr) and in the Michipicoten and Woman River banded iron formations of Canada (2.75 x 10(9) yr). This narrows down the possible time of appearance of sulfate respirers to the interval 2.8--3.1 x 10(9) yr. (3) Various lines of evidence indicate that photosynthesis is older than sulfate respiration, the SO4(2-) Utilized by the first sulfate reducers deriving most probably from oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds by photosynthetic sulfur bacteria. Sulfate respiration must, in turn, have antedated oxygen respiration as O2-respiring multicellular eucaryotes appear late in the Precambrian. (4) With the bulk of sulfate in the Archaean oceans probably produced by photosynthetic sulfur bacteria, the accumulation of SO4(2-) in the ancient seas must have preceded the buildup of appreciable steady state levels of free oxygen. Hence, the occurrence of sulfate evaporites in Archaean sediments does not necessarily provide testimony of oxidation weathering on the ancient continents and, consequently, of the existence of an atmospheric oxygen reservoir. PMID:503456

  16. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkov, V V; Beatty, J T

    1998-09-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the alpha-1, alpha-3, and alpha-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  17. Microphysical simulations of sulfur burdens from stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    OpenAIRE

    English, J. M.; Toon, O. B.; Mills, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent microphysical studies suggest that geoengineering by continuous stratospheric injection of SO2 gas may be limited by the growth of the aerosols. We study the efficacy of SO2, H2SO4 and aerosol injections on aerosol mass and optical depth using a three-dimensional general circulation model with sulfur chemistry and sectional aerosol microphysics (WACCM/CARMA). We find increasing injection rates o...

  18. Removal of sulfur from process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process wherein water is added to a non-reactive gas stream, preferably a hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas stream, sufficient to raise the water level thereof to from about 0.2 percent to about 50 percent, based on the total volume of the process gas stream, and the said moist gas stream is contacted, at elevated temperature, with a particulate mass of a sulfur-bearing metal alumina spinel characterized by the formula MAl2O4, wherein M is chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, or zinc to desorb sulfur thereon. In the sulfur sorption cycle, due to the simultaneous adsorption of water and sulfur, the useful life of the metal alumina spinel for sulfur adsorption can be extended, and the sorbent made more easily regenerable after contact with a sulfur-bearing gas stream, notably sulfur-bearing wet hydrogen or wet hydrogen-rich gas streams

  19. Removal of sulfur from process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brignac, D.G.

    1984-01-10

    A process wherein water is added to a non-reactive gas stream, preferably a hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas stream, sufficient to raise the water level thereof to from about 0.2 percent to about 50 percent, based on the total volume of the process gas stream, and the said moist gas stream is contacted, at elevated temperature, with a particulate mass of a sulfur-bearing metal alumina spinel characterized by the formula MAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, wherein M is chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, or zinc to desorb sulfur thereon. In the sulfur sorption cycle, due to the simultaneous adsorption of water and sulfur, the useful life of the metal alumina spinel for sulfur adsorption can be extended, and the sorbent made more easily regenerable after contact with a sulfur-bearing gas stream, notably sulfur-bearing wet hydrogen or wet hydrogen-rich gas streams.

  20. Linked Redox Precipitation of Sulfur and Selenium under Anaerobic Conditions by Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Hockin, Simon L.; Gadd, Geoffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    A biofilm-forming strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), isolated from a naturally occurring mixed biofilm and identified by 16S rDNA analysis as a strain of Desulfomicrobium norvegicum, rapidly removed 200 ?M selenite from solution during growth on lactate and sulfate. Elemental selenium and elemental sulfur were precipitated outside SRB cells. Precipitation occurred by an abiotic reaction with bacterially generated sulfide. This appears to be a generalized ability among SRB, arising fr...

  1. Copper Stress Affects Iron Homeostasis by Destabilizing Iron-Sulfur Cluster Formation in Bacillus subtilis?

    OpenAIRE

    Chillappagari, Shashi; Seubert, Andreas; Trip, Hein; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Miethke, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Copper and iron are essential elements for cellular growth. Although bacteria have to overcome limitations of these metals by affine and selective uptake, excessive amounts of both metals are toxic for the cells. Here we investigated the influences of copper stress on iron homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis, and we present evidence that copper excess leads to imbalances of intracellular iron metabolism by disturbing assembly of iron-sulfur cofactors. Connections between copper and iron homeosta...

  2. ACS Green Chemistry Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special feature page from the American Chemical Society (ACS) showcases the up-and-coming field of "green chemistry," that is, the development of chemical products and processes that eliminate or reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. A list of principles behind green chemistry, a searchable bibliography of green chemistry references, and green chemistry links (including conferences). This page comes from ACS's Green Chemistry Project, a three-year educational project to develop and disseminate green chemistry educational materials for graduate and undergraduate chemistry students.

  3. Relationship between the occurrence of filamentous bacteria on Bathymodiolus azoricus shell and the physiological and toxicological status of the vent mussel

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, I.; Colaco, A.; Santos, Raphael; Lesongeur, Francoise; Godfroy, Anne; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Cosson, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    The edifice walls of the Eiffel Tower hydrothermal vent site (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Lucky Strike vent field) are populated with dense communities of dual symbioses harboring vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus, some of which are covered by white filamentous mats belonging to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Mussels were collected in both the presence and absence of the filamentous bacteria. A sample of the filamentous bacteria was collected and water measurements of temperature, CH4 and H2S were recor...

  4. Insights into the Survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during Sulfur Starvation Based on Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression† ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoduo; Shrager, Jeff; Jain, Monica; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Vallon, Olivier; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2004-01-01

    Responses of photosynthetic organisms to sulfur starvation include (i) increasing the capacity of the cell for transporting and/or assimilating exogenous sulfate, (ii) restructuring cellular features to conserve sulfur resources, and (iii) modulating metabolic processes and rates of cell growth and division. We used microarray analyses to obtain a genome-level view of changes in mRNA abundances in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during sulfur starvation. The work confirms and extends upon previous findings showing that sulfur deprivation elicits changes in levels of transcripts for proteins that help scavenge sulfate and economize on the use of sulfur resources. Changes in levels of transcripts encoding members of the light-harvesting polypeptide family, such as LhcSR2, suggest restructuring of the photosynthetic apparatus during sulfur deprivation. There are also significant changes in levels of transcripts encoding enzymes involved in metabolic processes (e.g., carbon metabolism), intracellular proteolysis, and the amelioration of oxidative damage; a marked and sustained increase in mRNAs for a putative vanadium chloroperoxidase and a peroxiredoxin may help prolong survival of C. reinhardtii during sulfur deprivation. Furthermore, many of the sulfur stress-regulated transcripts (encoding polypeptides associated with sulfate uptake and assimilation, oxidative stress, and photosynthetic function) are not properly regulated in the sac1 mutant of C. reinhardtii, a strain that dies much more rapidly than parental cells during sulfur deprivation. Interestingly, sulfur stress elicits dramatic changes in levels of transcripts encoding putative chloroplast-localized chaperones in the sac1 mutant but not in the parental strain. These results suggest various strategies used by photosynthetic organisms during acclimation to nutrient-limited growth. PMID:15470261

  5. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Yunes Panahi; Mostafa Naderi; Mohammad Ali Zare; Zohreh Poursaleh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM) and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies) was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different t...

  6. Facile synthesis, spectral properties and formation mechanism of sulfur nanorods in PEG-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of about 6–8 was obtained. The sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble from spherical particles to nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift which was due to the production of nanorods. Highlights: ? A novel, facile and greener method to synthesize sulfur nanorods by the solubilizing and templating effect of PEG-200 was reported. ? S0 nanoparticles could self assemble in PEG-200 and finally form monodisperse and homogeneous rod-like structure with an average diameter of about 80 nm, the length ca. 600 nm. ? The absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously during the self-assembling process. ? PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sulfur sol by dissolving sublimed sulfur in a green solvent-PEG-200 was studied. Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of 6–8 was obtained. The structure, morphology, size, and stability of the products were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The spectral properties of the products were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy (RRS). The results showed that the spherical sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble into nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously. There was physical cross-linking between PEG and sulfur nanoparticles. PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. This research provides a greener and more environment-friendly synthetic method for the production of sulfur nanorods.

  7. Facile synthesis, spectral properties and formation mechanism of sulfur nanorods in PEG-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xin-yuan; Li, Li-yun; Zheng, Pu-sheng [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zheng, Wen-jie, E-mail: tzhwj@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Bai, Yan; Cheng, Tian-feng; Liu, Jie [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of about 6–8 was obtained. The sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble from spherical particles to nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift which was due to the production of nanorods. Highlights: ? A novel, facile and greener method to synthesize sulfur nanorods by the solubilizing and templating effect of PEG-200 was reported. ? S{sup 0} nanoparticles could self assemble in PEG-200 and finally form monodisperse and homogeneous rod-like structure with an average diameter of about 80 nm, the length ca. 600 nm. ? The absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously during the self-assembling process. ? PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sulfur sol by dissolving sublimed sulfur in a green solvent-PEG-200 was studied. Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of 6–8 was obtained. The structure, morphology, size, and stability of the products were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The spectral properties of the products were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy (RRS). The results showed that the spherical sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble into nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously. There was physical cross-linking between PEG and sulfur nanoparticles. PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. This research provides a greener and more environment-friendly synthetic method for the production of sulfur nanorods.

  8. Sulfur Nanoparticles Synthesis and Characterization from H2S Gas, Using Novel Biodegradable Iron Chelates in W/O Microemulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Aniruddha S.; Khomane, Ramdas B.; Vaidya, Bhalchandra K.; Joshi, Renuka M.; Harle, Arti S.; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D.

    2008-06-01

    Sulfur nanoparticles were synthesized from hazardous H2S gas using novel biodegradable iron chelates in w/o microemulsion system. Fe3+ malic acid chelate (0.05 M aqueous solution) was studied in w/o microemulsion containing cyclohexane, Triton X-100 and n-hexanol as oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant, respectively, for catalytic oxidation of H2S gas at ambient conditions of temperature, pressure, and neutral pH. The structural features of sulfur nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), diffused reflectance infra-red Fourier transform technique, and BET surface area measurements. XRD analysis indicates the presence of ?-sulfur. TEM analysis shows that the morphology of sulfur nanoparticles synthesized in w/o microemulsion system is nearly uniform in size (average particle size 10 nm) and narrow particle size distribution (in range of 5 15 nm) as compared to that in aqueous surfactant systems. The EDS analysis indicated high purity of sulfur (>99%). Moreover, sulfur nanoparticles synthesized in w/o microemulsion system exhibit higher antimicrobial activity (against bacteria, yeast, and fungi) than that of colloidal sulfur.

  9. Sulfur Nanoparticles Synthesis and Characterization from H2S Gas, Using Novel Biodegradable Iron Chelates in W/O Microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harle Arti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSulfur nanoparticles were synthesized from hazardous H2S gas using novel biodegradable iron chelates in w/o microemulsion system. Fe3+–malic acid chelate (0.05 M aqueous solution was studied in w/o microemulsion containing cyclohexane, Triton X-100 andn-hexanol as oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant, respectively, for catalytic oxidation of H2S gas at ambient conditions of temperature, pressure, and neutral pH. The structural features of sulfur nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, diffused reflectance infra-red Fourier transform technique, and BET surface area measurements. XRD analysis indicates the presence of ?-sulfur. TEM analysis shows that the morphology of sulfur nanoparticles synthesized in w/o microemulsion system is nearly uniform in size (average particle size 10 nm and narrow particle size distribution (in range of 5–15 nm as compared to that in aqueous surfactant systems. The EDS analysis indicated high purity of sulfur (>99%. Moreover, sulfur nanoparticles synthesized in w/o microemulsion system exhibit higher antimicrobial activity (against bacteria, yeast, and fungi than that of colloidal sulfur.

  10. Sulfur-impregnated disordered carbon nanotubes cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juchen; Xu, Yunhua; Wang, Chunsheng

    2011-10-12

    The commercialization of lithium-sulfur batteries is hindered by low cycle stability and low efficiency, which are induced by sulfur active material loss and polysulfide shuttle reaction through dissolution into electrolyte. In this study, sulfur-impregnated disordered carbon nanotubes are synthesized as cathode material for the lithium-sulfur battery. The obtained sulfur-carbon tube cathodes demonstrate superior cyclability and Coulombic efficiency. More importantly, the electrochemical characterization indicates a new stabilization mechanism of sulfur in carbon induced by heat treatment. PMID:21928817

  11. Cable bacteria associated with long-distance electron transport in New England salt marsh sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Steffen; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Filamentous Desulfobulbaceae have been proposed as 'cable bacteria', which electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction in marine sediment and thereby create a centimetre-deep suboxic zone. We incubated New England salt marsh sediment and found long-distance electron transport across 6?mm and 16S rRNA genes identical to those of previously observed cable bacteria in Aarhus Bay sediment incubations. Cable bacteria density in sediment cores was quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In contrast to the coastal, subtidal sediments with short-termed blooms of cable bacteria based on rapidly depleted iron sulfide pools, the salt marsh cable community was based on ongoing sulfate reduction and therefore probably more persistent. Previously observed seasonal correlation between Desulfobulbaceae dominance and extensive reduced sulfur oxidation in salt marshes suggest that cable bacteria at times may have an important role in situ. PMID:25224178

  12. Polymerization of commercial Mexican sulfur

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.W, Gómez; J.L, Pérez M; V, Marquina; R, Ridaura; M.L, Marquina.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las características físicas del azufre cambian en forma notable cuando su temperatura es de alrededor de 160°C: a) Un cambio de cuatro órdenes de magnitud en la viscosidad laminar, en un intervalo de 25°C. b) Cambios en su densidad y en la velocidad del sonido. c) Su color se hace más oscuro y su ín [...] dice de refracción y permitividad eléctrica, muestran un mínimo, d) Además existe un interés especial en el proceso de polimerización que ocurre en torno a esa temperatura, debido a que el azufre polimerizado puede tener aplicaciones industriales. Estudios realizados en azufre extra puro (99.999 %) han permitido avanzar en el entendimiento de estos fenómenos, pero aún no se tiene una explicación completa de ellos. Las propiedades del azufre cambian mucho por la presencia de impurezas y gases disueltos en él, por lo que, si se quieren utilizar sus características para uso industrial, hay que proceder con azufre comercial y no de gran pureza. En este trabajo se reportan algunos resultados de espectroscopia infrarroja, espectroscopia Raman y difracción de rayos-X obtenidos en experimentos diseñados para obtener la polimerización de azufre mexicano comercial. Abstract in english As it is well known, the physical characteristics of sulfur exhibit a wide range of interesting phenomena around 160°C (1): a) A shear viscosity change of four orders of magnitude over a 25°C interval (2). b) Changes in density and in sound velocity. c) Its color becomes darker and its refractive in [...] dex and dielectric permittivity reach a minimum. d) Of special interest, because of its possible industrial applications, is the polymerization process that occurs at around 160°C. Studies made in ultra pure sulfur (99.999%) have shed some light on this phenomenon, but a coherent picture is still missing. The properties of sulfur are strongly affected by impurities and dissolved gases, so that a great deal of care is necessary when performing these experiments. If the purpose is to take advantages of these properties for industrial applications, one must rule out the use of ultra-pure sulfur and think in terms of a simple process with a commercial substance. In this work we shall report some infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results obtained in our attempts at the polymerization of commercial Mexican sulfur.

  13. The Green Power Network: Green Power government information clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site contains Green Power information from the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Green Power Network exists to provide "news and information on green power providers." The site's information is searchable by state and shows different markets for green power (utility green pricing, green power marketing, and renewable energy certificates).

  14. Effect of different sulfur levels from various sources on brassica napus growth and soil sulfur fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two year field study was conducted at two different locations in northern rain fed Punjab, Pakistan to assess the effect of different rates of sulfur application from various sources on soil sulfur fractions and growth of Brassica napus. The treatments included three sulfur sources i. e., single super phosphate, ammonium sulfate and gypsum each applied at five different rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg S ha/sup -1/ ). Sulfur application had a significant positive effect on the growth and yield parameters of Brassica napus. Among the sulfur sources ammonium sulfate resulted in maximum increase in plant growth and yield parameters, followed by single super phosphate. Sulfur content and uptake by crop plants was significantly higher with ammonium sulfate application as compared to other two sulfur sources. Sulfur application also exerted a significant positive effect on different S fractions in the soils. On an average, 18.0% of the applied sulfur got incorporated into CaCl/sub 2/ extractable sulfur fraction, while 15.6% and 35.5% entered into adsorbed and organic sulfur fractions in the soils, respectively. The value cost ratio increased significantly by sulfur application up to 30 kg ha/sup -1/. Among sulfur sources, ammonium sulfate performed best giving the highest net return. (author)

  15. Public Libraries Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  16. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  17. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  18. Radiolysis of Sulfuric Acid, Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate, and Sulfuric Acid Tetrahydrate and Its Relevance to Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    We report laboratory studies on the 0.8 MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4 H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4 4H2O) between 10 and 180 K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4(exp -), and SO4(exp 2-). At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that H2SO4 H2O is formed on subsequent warming. This hydrate is significantly more stable to radiolytic destruction than pure H2SO4, falling to an equilibrium relative abundance of 50% of its original value on prolonged irradiation. Unlike either pure H2SO4 or H2SO4 H2O, the loss of H2SO4 4H2O exhibits a strong temperature dependence, as the tetrahydrate is essentially unchanged at the highest irradiation temperatures and completely destroyed at the lowest ones, which we speculate is due to a combination of radiolytic destruction and amorphization. Furthermore, at the lower temperatures it is clear that irradiation causes the tetrahydrate spectrum to transition to one that closely resembles the monohydrate spectrum. Extrapolating our results to Europa s surface, we speculate that the variations in SO2 concentrations observed in the chaotic terrains are a result of radiation processing of lower hydration states of sulfuric acid and that the monohydrate will remain stable on the surface over geological times, while the tetrahydrate will remain stable in the warmer regions but be destroyed in the colder regions, unless it can be reformed by other processes, such as thermal reactions induced by diurnal cycling.

  19. Biotin synthase: insights into radical-mediated carbon-sulfur bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Corey J; Jarrett, Joseph T

    2012-11-01

    The enzyme cofactor and essential vitamin biotin is biosynthesized in bacteria, fungi, and plants through a pathway that culminates with the addition of a sulfur atom to generate the five-membered thiophane ring. The immediate precursor, dethiobiotin, has methylene and methyl groups at the C6 and C9 positions, respectively, and formation of a thioether bridging these carbon atoms requires cleavage of unactivated CH bonds. Biotin synthase is an S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM or AdoMet) radical enzyme that catalyzes reduction of the AdoMet sulfonium to produce 5'-deoxyadenosyl radicals, high-energy carbon radicals that can directly abstract hydrogen atoms from dethiobiotin. The available experimental and structural data suggest that a [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster bound deep within biotin synthase provides a sulfur atom that is added to dethiobiotin in a stepwise reaction, first at the C9 position to generate 9-mercaptodethiobiotin, and then at the C6 position to close the thiophane ring. The formation of sulfur-containing biomolecules through a radical reaction involving an iron-sulfur cluster is an unprecedented reaction in biochemistry; however, recent enzyme discoveries suggest that radical sulfur insertion reactions may be a distinct subgroup within the burgeoning Radical SAM superfamily. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Radical SAM enzymes and Radical Enzymology. PMID:22326745

  20. Oxidative stress enhances the expression of sulfur assimilation genes: preliminary insights on the Enterococcus faecalis iron-sulfur cluster machinery regulation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Pelicioli, Riboldi; Christine Garcia, Bierhals; Eduardo Preusser de, Mattos; Ana Paula Guedes, Frazzon; Pedro Alves, d?Azevedo; Jeverson, Frazzon.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The Firmicutes bacteria participate extensively in virulence and pathological processes. Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal microorganism; however, it is also a pathogenic bacterium mainly associated with nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients. Iron-sulfur [Fe-S] clusters are inorgani [...] c prosthetic groups involved in diverse biological processes, whose in vivo formation requires several specific protein machineries. Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently studied microorganisms regarding [Fe-S] cluster biogenesis and encodes the iron-sulfur cluster and sulfur assimilation systems. In Firmicutes species, a unique operon composed of the sufCDSUB genes is responsible for [Fe-S] cluster biogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the E. faecalis sufCDSUB system in the [Fe-S] cluster assembly using oxidative stress and iron depletion as adverse growth conditions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated, for the first time, that Gram-positive bacteria possess an OxyR component responsive to oxidative stress conditions, as fully described for E. coli models. Likewise, strong expression of the sufCDSUB genes was observed in low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, indicating that the lowest concentration of oxygen free radicals inside cells, known to be highly damaging to [Fe-S] clusters, is sufficient to trigger the transcriptional machinery for prompt replacement of [Fe-S] clusters.

  1. Reduced sulfur compound oxidation by Thiobacillus caldus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallberg, K. B.; Dopson, M.; Lindstro?m, E. B.

    1996-01-01

    The oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds was studied by using resting cells of the moderate thermophile Thiobacillus caldus strain KU. The oxygen consumption rate and total oxygen consumed were determined for the reduced sulfur compounds thiosulfate, tetrathionate, sulfur, sulfide, and sulfite in the absence and in the presence of inhibitors and uncouplers. The uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone had no affect on the oxidation of thiosulfate, ...

  2. Sulfur Resistance of Pt-W Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Betti, Carolina P.; Badano, Juan M.; Rivas, Ivana L.; Mazzieri, Vanina A.; Juliana Maccarrone, M.; Fernando Coloma-Pascual; Vera, Carlos R.; Quiroga, M. Amp Xf Nica E.

    2013-01-01

    The sulfur resistance of low-loaded monometallic Pt catalysts and bimetallic Pt-W catalysts during the partial selective hydrogenation of styrene, a model compound of Pygas streams, was studied. The effect of metal impregnation sequence on the activity and selectivity was also evaluated. Catalysts were characterized by ICP, TPR, XRD, and XPS techniques. Catalytic tests with sulfur-free and sulfur-doped feeds were performed. All catalysts showed high selectivities (>98%) to ethylbenzene. Activ...

  3. Sulfur Production by Obligately Chemolithoautotrophic Thiobacillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, J. M.; Robertson, L. A.; Varseveld, H. W.; Kuenen, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    Transient-state experiments with the obligately autotrophic Thiobacillus sp. strain W5 revealed that sulfide oxidation proceeds in two physiological phases, (i) the sulfate-producing phase and (ii) the sulfur- and sulfate-producing phase, after which sulfide toxicity occurs. Specific sulfur-producing characteristics were independent of the growth rate. Sulfur formation was shown to occur when the maximum oxidative capacity of the culture was approached. In order to be able to oxidize increasi...

  4. METHOD OF PREPARING SULFUR-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS:

    OpenAIRE

    Sinninghe Damste?, J. S.; Graaf, W.; Leeuw, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9412450 (A1) The invention relates to a method of preparing sulfur-containing compounds, comprising reacting a sulfur compound with a compound containing unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds, wherein in a solvent one or more compounds containing non-activated unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds react with monohydrogen polysulfides. The invention further relates to methods of preparing polymeric polysulfides, heterocyclic sulfur compounds and of vulcanizing rubber.

  5. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and und...

  6. SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON STREAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Antoaneta Pavlova; Pavlina Ivanova; Teodora Dimova

    2012-01-01

    Determination of concentrations of sulfur compounds in different petroleum samples is a true analytical challenge. Only analytical procedures based on gas chromatography can meet the sensitivity and accuracy requirements dictated by up-to-date petroleum industry.The objective of this work is to develop the method for the quantifying of sulfur compounds in petroleum hydrocarbon streams. The optimum parameters for the GC-SCD method are found in order to determine of sulfur compounds in petroleu...

  7. Phototoxic effect of conjugates of plasmon-resonance nanoparticles with indocyanine green dye on Staphylococcus aureus induced by IR laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, E. S.; Tuchin, Valerii V.; Khlebtsov, B. N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2011-04-01

    The effect of IR laser radiation (? = 805 — 808 nm) on the bacteria of the strain Staphylococcus aureus 209 P, incubated in indocyanine green solutions, is studied, as well as that of colloid gold nanoshells, nanocages and their conjugates with indocyanine green. It is found that the S. aureus 209 P cells are equally subjected to the IR laser radiation (? = 805 nm) after preliminary sensitisation with indocyanine green and gold nanoparticles separately and with conjugates of nanoparticles and indocyanine green. The enhancement of photodynamic and photothermal effects by 5 % is observed after 30 min of laser illumination (? = 808 nm) of bacteria, treated with conjugates of indocyanine green and nanocages.

  8. GREEN MARKETING : GREEN ENVIRONMENT - STRATEGIES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhurelal Patidar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available -Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed particular import in the modern market. This concept has enabled for the re-marketing and packing of existing products which already adhere to such guidelines. Additionally, the development of green marketing has opened the door of opportunity for companies to co-brand their products into separate line, lauding the green-friendliness of some while ignoring that of others. Such marketing techniques as will be explained are as a direct result of movement in the minds of the consumer market

  9. Bd oxidase homologue of photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum is co-transcribed with a nitrogen fixation related gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincturk, H Benan; Demir, Volkan; Aykanat, Tutku

    2011-02-01

    Purple sulfur bacteria, which are known to be the most ancient among anoxygenic phototrophs, play an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Allochromatium vinosum oxidizes reduced sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur and thiosulfide. At low oxygen concentrations, A. vinosum can grow chemotrophically using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Being also a nitrogen fixer, A. vinosum is faced with the paradox of co-existence of aerobic metabolism and nitrogen fixation. Due to growth difficulties, only a few studies have dealt with the aerobic metabolism of the organism and, until now, there has been no information about the genes involved in the respiratory metabolism of purple sulfur bacteria. In this article we show the first terminal oxidase gene for A. vinosum. The presence of a Bd type of quinol oxidase is necessary to protect nitrogenases against the inhibitory effects of oxygen. In this case, a nitrogen fixation related gene is part of the cyd operon and this gene is co-transcribed with cydAB genes. Bd oxidase of A. vinosum may be the earliest form of oxidase where the function of the enzyme is to scavenge the contaminant oxygen during nitrogen fixation. This may be an important clue about the early evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, perhaps as a protective mechanism for nitrogen fixation. PMID:20577808

  10. Formation of CuxS Layers on Polypropylene Sulfurized by Molten Sulfur

    OpenAIRE

    Paluckiene?, Edita; Grevys, Stanislovas; Alaburdaite?, Rasa

    2011-01-01

    The processes of formation of electrically conductive layers of copper sulfides CuxS by the sorption-diffusion method on polypropylene (PP) using molten sulfur as sulfurizing agent was investigated. The amount of sorbed sulfur increased with the increase of the duration of treatment. Copper sulfide layers were formed on the surface of polypropylene after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Cu(II/I) salt solution. The amount of copper sulfide in layer increased with the increase of treatm...

  11. Discrepancy of Graham Greene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastoo Asgharpur

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lack of religious sense in twentieth century made so many writers to object to the situation. One of these writers who had devoted a very challenging criticism to himself is Graham Greene. In criticizing Greene’s novels there has always been an argument that Is there any relationship between his novels and his personal life? In this article the role of Catholicism Graham Greene’s works and his own personal life has been examined. In order observe such a role we need a very detailed examination of Greene’s life, his personal letters, his conversations and his works. According to so many critics the close relationship between Greene’s life and his works is not ignorable. So by applying Biographical Criticism on Graham Greene it is obvious that about this writer the death of author does not work. The prominent figure of the writer seems to be present in each story and each action.Keywords: Greeneland, Graham Greene, Biographical Criticism, Morality, Catholicism, Twentieth century Catholic novel.

  12. Electron Collision Data: Sulfur Hexafluorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tables of electron interaction cross sections, electron transport parameters, and information about references, uncertainties, and data needs regarding sulfur hexafluorine (SF-6) are provided here by the Electronics and Electronic Engineering Laboratory (EEEL) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These data come out of NIST's mission to provide a complete set of reliable electron collision data for gases used in the plasma processing of semiconductor devices. Along with the tables are color graphs of electron energy vs. cross section and electron transport coefficients for SF-6.

  13. Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Jun; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li-S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400-500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g-1 and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li-S batteries.

  14. Can bacteria save the planet?

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria might just hold the key to preserving the environment for our great grandchildren. Philip Hunter explores some of the novel ways in which systems biology and biotechnology are harnessing bacteria to produce renewable energy and clean up pollution.

  15. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163...Performance for Primary Copper Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a...smelting furnace, or copper converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in...

  16. Effects of sulfur dioxide on the aquatic plant Elodea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, P.M.

    1943-01-01

    The effects of sulfur dioxide upon the green plant cell was investigated with emphasis on the effects of the gas on Elodea canadensis. Toxicity studies were performed in which the relations between concentration of sulfur dioxide, pH of the solution, and duration of exposure were investigated. Changes in the structures of the cell induced by lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of the gas were also noted. Growth studies in which the effect of a sub-threshold amount of SO/sup 2/ (a concentration not producing visible alterations of the cell contents) on the rate of growth and developments of roots and lateral buds were noted. These, in turn, were correlated with changes of the growth hormone content of the plant. Enzyme studies were performed in which the effects of SO/sub 2/ upon amylase, catalase, and the oxidase system were noted. The effects of SO/sub 2/ on photosynthesis and respiration under varying conditions of light and temperature were also studied.

  17. Ecology and biotechnology of selenium-respiring bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancharaiah, Y V; Lens, P N L

    2015-03-01

    In nature, selenium is actively cycled between oxic and anoxic habitats, and this cycle plays an important role in carbon and nitrogen mineralization through bacterial anaerobic respiration. Selenium-respiring bacteria (SeRB) are found in geographically diverse, pristine or contaminated environments and play a pivotal role in the selenium cycle. Unlike its structural analogues oxygen and sulfur, the chalcogen selenium and its microbial cycling have received much less attention by the scientific community. This review focuses on microorganisms that use selenate and selenite as terminal electron acceptors, in parallel to the well-studied sulfate-reducing bacteria. It overviews the significant advancements made in recent years on the role of SeRB in the biological selenium cycle and their ecological role, phylogenetic characterization, and metabolism, as well as selenium biomineralization mechanisms and environmental biotechnological applications. PMID:25631289

  18. Three Activities: Bacteria Study, Micro Study, and Bacteria Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This resource provides a problem-based activity on risk assessment of environmental health issues. The lesson consists of three related activities: Bacteria Study, Micro Study and Bacteria Killers. "Bacteria Study" gives students hands-on experience with the concepts of epidemiology. "Micro Study" has students sketch, observe, and compare different types of bacteria that can grow in moist conditions. "Bacteria Killers" has students determine what kills bateria, especially in common household products. Detailed instructions are provided for each activity. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

  19. Denitrification by extremely halophilic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    Extremely halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of extremely halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.

  20. Plant biological warfare: thorns inject pathogenic bacteria into herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Malka; Raats, Dina; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2007-03-01

    Thorns, spines and prickles are among the rich arsenal of antiherbivore defence mechanisms that plants have evolved. Many of these thorns are aposematic, that is, marked by various types of warning coloration. This coloration was recently proposed to deter large herbivores. Yet, the mechanical defence provided by thorns against large herbivores might be only the tip of the iceberg in a much more complicated story. Here we present evidence that thorns harbour an array of pathogenic bacteria that are much more dangerous to herbivores than the painful mechanical wounding by the thorns. Pathogenic bacteria like Clostridium perfringens, the causative agent of the life-threatening gas gangrene, and others, were isolated and identified from date palm (with green-yellow-black aposematic spines) and common hawthorn (with red aposematic thorns). These thorn-inhabiting bacteria have a considerable potential role in antiherbivory, and may have uniquely contributed to the common evolution of aposematism (warning coloration) in thorny plants. PMID:17298359

  1. Preparation of sulfur-35-labeled dimethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors study the preparation of sulfur-35 labeled dimethyl sulfide by isotope exchange between sulfur-35 labeled sodium sulfide and dimethyl sulfide in order to draw conclusions concerning the quantitative and kinetic characteristics of isotope exchange between them. Isotope exchange is shown to take place in aqueous dimethyl sulfide

  2. Stability of sulfur slopes on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, G. D.; Carr, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical properties of elemental sulfur are such that the upper crust of Io cannot be primarily sulfur. For heat flows in the range 100-1000 ergs/sq cm sec sulfur becomes ductile within several hundred meters of the surface and would prevent the formation of calderas with depths greater than this. However, the one caldera for which precise depth data are available is 2 km deep, and this value may be typical. A study of the mechanical equilibrium of simple slopes shows that the depth to the zone of rapid ductile flow strongly controls the maximum heights for sulfur slopes. Sulfur scarps with heights greater than 1 km will fail for all heat flows greater than 180 ergs/sq cm sec and slope angles greater than 22.5 deg. The observed relief on Io is inconsistent with that anticipated for a predominantly sulfur crust. However, a silicate crust with several percent sulfur included satisfies both the mechanical constraints and the observed presence of sulfur on Io.

  3. Plutonium oxides analysis. Sulfur potentiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total sulfur determination (sulfur, sulfates, sulfides ...) in plutonium oxides, suitable for sulfate ion content between 0.003 percent to 0.2 percent, by dissolution in nitric hydrofluoric acid, nitrates elimination, addition of hydrochloric acid and reduction in hydrogen sulfide which is carried by an inert gas and neutralized by sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide is titrated with mercuric acetate by constant intensity potentiometry

  4. Exopolysaccharides from marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhenming; Fang, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives, textiles, Pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria, including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  5. Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and ?-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

  6. Communication among Oral Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Dire...

  7. Surface layers of bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Beveridge, T. J.; Graham, L. L.

    1991-01-01

    Since bacteria are so small, microscopy has traditionally been used to study them as individual cells. To this end, electron microscopy has been a most powerful tool for studying bacterial surfaces; the viewing of macromolecular arrangements of some surfaces is now possible. This review compares older conventional electron-microscopic methods with new cryotechniques currently available and the results each has produced. Emphasis is not placed on the methodology but, rather, on the importance ...

  8. Glacial Lake Hides Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This article highlights the published work of a geomicrobiology research team led by Eric Gaidos from the University of Hawaii and Brian Lanoil, from the University of California, Riverside. This group reports the identification of bacteria from an Icelandic sub-glacial lake, and how the collection and description of these microorganisms immured within glacial ice and sub-surface water serve as a model in the search for extra-terrestrial life.

  9. Glacial lake hides bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Peplow

    This article highlights the published work of a geomicrobiology research team led by Eric Gaidos from the University of Hawaii and Brian Lanoil, from the University of California, Riverside. This group reports the identification of bacteria from an Icelandic sub-glacial lake, and how the collection and description of these microorganisms immured within glacial ice and sub-surface water serve as a model in the search for extra-terrestrial life.

  10. Growing Unculturable Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability...

  11. Selection and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Tomato Bacterial Wilt Disease

    OpenAIRE

    ABDJAD ASIH NAWANGSIH; IKA DAMAYANTI; SURYO WIYONO; JUANG GEMA KARTIKA

    2011-01-01

    Biological control of bacterial wilt pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum) of tomato using endophytic bacteria is one of the alternative control methods to support sustainable agriculture. This study was conducted to select and characterize endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy tomato stems and to test their ability to promote plant growth and suppress bacterial wilt disease. Among 49 isolates successfully isolated, 41 were non-plant pathogenic. Green house test on six selected isolates based...

  12. How honey kills bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakman, Paulus H S; te Velde, Anje A; de Boer, Leonie; Speijer, Dave; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Zaat, Sebastian A J

    2010-07-01

    With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria tested, including Bacillus subtilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, were killed by 10-20% (v/v) honey, whereas > or = 40% (v/v) of a honey-equivalent sugar solution was required for similar activity. Honey accumulated up to 5.62 +/- 0.54 mM H(2)O(2) and contained 0.25 +/- 0.01 mM methylglyoxal (MGO). After enzymatic neutralization of these two compounds, honey retained substantial activity. Using B. subtilis for activity-guided isolation of the additional antimicrobial factors, we discovered bee defensin-1 in honey. After combined neutralization of H(2)O(2), MGO, and bee defensin-1, 20% honey had only minimal activity left, and subsequent adjustment of the pH of this honey from 3.3 to 7.0 reduced the activity to that of sugar alone. Activity against all other bacteria tested depended on sugar, H(2)O(2), MGO, and bee defensin-1. Thus, we fully characterized the antibacterial activity of medical-grade honey. PMID:20228250

  13. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Pepsin homologues in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateman Alex

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidase family A1, to which pepsin belongs, had been assumed to be restricted to eukaryotes. The tertiary structure of pepsin shows two lobes with similar folds and it has been suggested that the gene has arisen from an ancient duplication and fusion event. The only sequence similarity between the lobes is restricted to the motif around the active site aspartate and a hydrophobic-hydrophobic-Gly motif. Together, these contribute to an essential structural feature known as a psi-loop. There is one such psi-loop in each lobe, and so each lobe presents an active Asp. The human immunodeficiency virus peptidase, retropepsin, from peptidase family A2 also has a similar fold but consists of one lobe only and has to dimerize to be active. All known members of family A1 show the bilobed structure, but it is unclear if the ancestor of family A1 was similar to an A2 peptidase, or if the ancestral retropepsin was derived from a half-pepsin gene. The presence of a pepsin homologue in a prokaryote might give insights into the evolution of the pepsin family. Results Homologues of the aspartic peptidase pepsin have been found in the completed genomic sequences from seven species of bacteria. The bacterial homologues, unlike those from eukaryotes, do not possess signal peptides, and would therefore be intracellular acting at neutral pH. The bacterial homologues have Thr218 replaced by Asp, a change which in renin has been shown to confer activity at neutral pH. No pepsin homologues could be detected in any archaean genome. Conclusion The peptidase family A1 is found in some species of bacteria as well as eukaryotes. The bacterial homologues fall into two groups, one from oceanic bacteria and one from plant symbionts. The bacterial homologues are all predicted to be intracellular proteins, unlike the eukaryotic enzymes. The bacterial homologues are bilobed like pepsin, implying that if no horizontal gene transfer has occurred the duplication and fusion event might be very ancient indeed, preceding the divergence of bacteria and eukaryotes. It is unclear whether all the bacterial homologues are derived from horizontal gene transfer, but those from the plant symbionts probably are. The homologues from oceanic bacteria are most closely related to memapsins (or BACE-1 and BACE-2, but are so divergent that they are close to the root of the phylogenetic tree and to the division of the A1 family into two subfamilies.

  15. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional microbial system. The microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. One of the explanations for that is high-energy efficiency of dissimilatory conversions of inorganic sulfur compounds, both oxidative and reductive, sufficient to cope with costly life at double extreme conditions. The oxidative part of the sulfur cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which are unique for soda lakes. The haloalkaliphilic SOB are present in the surface sediment layer of various soda lakes at high numbers of up to 10(6) viable cells/cm(3). The culturable forms are so far represented by four novel genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, including the genera Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira, and Thioalkalibacter. The latter two were only found occasionally and each includes a single species, while the former two are widely distributed in various soda lakes over the world. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers the whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. Most importantly, the dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4?M total Na(+) - a so far unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotroph. Furthermore, some species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and three out of nine species can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides as electron acceptor. The reductive part of the sulfur cycle is active in the anoxic layers of the sediments of soda lakes. The in situ measurements of sulfate reduction rates and laboratory experiments with sediment slurries using sulfate, thiosulfate, or elemental sulfur as electron acceptors demonstrated relatively high sulfate reduction rates only hampered by salt-saturated conditions. However, the highest rates of sulfidogenesis were observed not with sulfate, but with elemental sulfur followed by thiosulfate. Formate, but not hydrogen, was the most efficient electron donor with all three sulfur electron acceptors, while acetate was only utilized as an electron donor under sulfur-reducing conditions. The native sulfidogenic populations of soda lakes showed a typical obligately alkaliphilic pH response, which corresponded well to the in situ pH conditions. Microbiological analysis indicated a domination of three groups of haloalkaliphilic autotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria belonging to the order Desulfovibrionales (genera Desulfonatronovibrio, Desulfonatronum, and Desulfonatronospira) with a clear tendency to grow by thiosulfate disproportionation in the absence of external electron donor even at salt-saturating conditions. Few novel representatives of the order Desulfobacterales capable of heterotrophic growth with volatile fatty acids and alcohols at high pH and moderate salinity have also been found, while acetate oxidation was a function of a specialized group of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-reducing bacteria, which belong to the phylum Chrysiogenetes. PMID:21747784

  16. Inhibitory effect of iron-oxidizing bacteria on ferrous-promoted chalcopyrite leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroyoshi; Hirota; Hirajima; Tsunekawa

    1999-08-20

    It is generally accepted that iron-oxidizing bacteria, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, enhance chalcopyrite leaching. However, this article details a case of the bacteria suppressing chalcopyrite leaching. Bacterial leaching experiments were performed with sulfuric acid solutions containing 0 or 0.04 mol/dm3 ferrous sulfate. Without ferrous sulfate, the bacteria enhance copper extraction and oxidation of ferrous ions released from chalcopyrite. However, the bacteria suppressed chalcopyrite leaching when ferrous sulfate was added. This is mainly due to the bacterial consumption of ferrous ions which act as a promoter for chalcopyrite oxidation with dissolved oxygen. Coprecipitation of copper ions with jarosite formed by the bacterial ferrous oxidation also causes the bacterial suppression of copper extraction. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10397886

  17. A sulfur isotopic study of alabandites from some manganese ore deposits in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabandites from Pretertiary bedded- and Tertiary vein-type manganese deposits in Japan have been examined for their sulfur isotopic composition. delta34 S(CDT) value ranges widely from -31 to +11 per mil in 12 specimens taken from 10 bedded type deposits. While the mineral is no more than a minor constituent in most of the deposits, the isotopic features clearly indicate that these alabandites are of bacteriogenic sedimentary origin, thus raising an important constraint for the genesis of this group of deposits. A cluster of delta34 S around -30 per mil implies an open-system, steady-state reduction (Schwarcz and Burnie, 1973) from a source SO42- with the isotopic level of ca. +20 per mil. The inferred source is likely to have been in the Triassic sea. Current conjectures upon the age of host sedimentary rocks of the deposits concerned are in favor of this view. Alabandites from the Tertiary (Miocene) vein type deposits show only a minor variation in delta34 S, +4 to +5 per mil. The data are very similar to the average isotopic composition of sulfides of the Miocene, ''Green Tuff'' mineralization represented by the kuroko type deposits. The remarkable consistency in sulfur isotopic composition of the Green Tuff mineralization over an extensive area may require a huge, common reservoir of sulfur in some form, which still remains an enigma. (author)

  18. The effect of green tea mouthwash (Camellia sinensis) on wound healing following periodontal crown lengthening surgery; a double blind randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Forouzanfar; Hamid Reza Arab; Hooman Shafaee; Majid Reza Mokhtari; Shayan Golestani

    2012-01-01

    Green tea has been used as a traditional medicine since 2700 BC and several studies have shown that green tea polyphenols inhibit the growth of oral and periodontal pathogenic bacteria and can improve oral and gingival health. In this clinical study we investigated the effect of green tea mouthwash on microbial dental plaque and gingival inflammation following periodontal surgery. A total of 34 crown lengthening surgeries were included in this study. After removing periodontal dressing, green...

  19. Green management and green technology - exploring the causal relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Nogareda, Jazmin Seijas; Ziegler, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze potential endogeneity problems in former econometric studies which regress corporate environmental performance such as green technology activities on green management. Based on evolutionary theory and the resource-based view of the firm, we discuss in the first step that green technology could also influence green management and that unobserved firm characteristics could simultaneously influence green management and green technology. Contrary to existing studies, we ...

  20. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Cilliers, E. J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D. J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit Tool to ensure protection and enhancement of the urban green totality. The tool is described and evaluated based on three core elements: the value matrix, the collection of values and green co...

  1. Sodium sulfur battery flight experiment definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rebecca R.; Minck, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Sodium-sulfur batteries were identified as the most likely successor to nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications. One advantage of the Na/S battery system is that the usable specific energy is two to three times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries. This represents a significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. Sodium-sulfur batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft power system performance, as well as the proposed Spacecraft 2000 initiative. The sodium-sulfur battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte. The transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. These critical transport functions must be demonstrated under actual microgravity conditions before sodium-sulfur batteries can be confidently utilized in space. Ford Aerospace Corporation, under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center, is currently working on the sodium-sulfur battery space flight experiment definition study. The objective is to design the experiment that will demonstrate operation of the sodium-sulfur battery/cell in the space environment with particular emphasis on evaluation of microgravity effects. Experimental payload definitions were completed and preliminary designs of the experiment were defined.

  2. The sulfur cycle hydrogen production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance characteristics of the Sulfur Cycle Hydrogen Production Process, as identified in the process evaluations, indicate that the system is capable of effectively filling a need for efficient hydrogen production. The experimental and analytical work being performed on the Sulfur Cycle continues to support the technical and economic potential of the system as an efficient and cost effective way to produce hydrogen. The development program, as currently formulated, is predicated on developing and demonstrating the technology on a timely basis to meet the needs of a phased commercialization plan. A scenario is foreseen where sulfurous acid electrolyzers, a key component of the Sulfur Cycle, are used in new generation combined sulfuric acid/hydrogen plants in the late 1980's, the full Sulfur Cycle is deployed in Solar Chemical plants in the 1990's, and the era of large scale merchant hydrogen production, with very high temperature nuclear reactors providing the energy needs of the Sulfur Cycle, starting after the turn of the century. (orig./DG)

  3. Green Chemistry and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  4. Winning green idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The best idea to improve the environment in the last year comes from the Novaky Power Plant. Jozef Gajdusek participated in the Green Idea project and he won with his proposal for mazut collection during start up of the boilers into portable plastic containers. Sixteen employees with twenty-two proposals participated in the pilot year of the Green Idea project. (author)

  5. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  6. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects of green default rules..

  7. Green technology in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiwan is striving for leadership in the field of green Technologies. Solar cells and Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are the best examples of successful Taiwanese green technologies. Electronic vehicles and smart grids are giving new impetus to the Taiwanese export of high-quality technology.

  8. The Green Party

    OpenAIRE

    Perottino, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This chapter is focused on the Czech Green Party. It presents its turbulent existence since the Velvet Revolution, his recent electoral and governmental emergence. The paper discusses the difficulties in implementing a green program in the Czech governmental context. It concludes on an analysis of the limited institutionalization of the party in practice and its dependence from political personalities.

  9. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  10. Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation at a biogeochemical hot spot in the dark ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Timothy E; Nunn, Brook L; Marshall, Katharine T; Proskurowski, Giora; Kelley, Deborah S; Kawka, Orest E; Goodlett, David R; Hansell, Dennis A; Morris, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria and archaea in the dark ocean (>200 m) comprise 0.3-1.3 billion tons of actively cycled marine carbon. Many of these microorganisms have the genetic potential to fix inorganic carbon (autotrophs) or assimilate single-carbon compounds (methylotrophs). We identified the functions of autotrophic and methylotrophic microorganisms in a vent plume at Axial Seamount, where hydrothermal activity provides a biogeochemical hot spot for carbon fixation in the dark ocean. Free-living members of the SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade of marine gamma-proteobacterial sulfur oxidizers (GSOs) are distributed throughout the northeastern Pacific Ocean and dominated hydrothermal plume waters at Axial Seamount. Marine GSOs expressed proteins for sulfur oxidation (adenosine phosphosulfate reductase, sox (sulfur oxidizing system), dissimilatory sulfite reductase and ATP sulfurylase), carbon fixation (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO)), aerobic respiration (cytochrome c oxidase) and nitrogen regulation (PII). Methylotrophs and iron oxidizers were also active in plume waters and expressed key proteins for methane oxidation and inorganic carbon fixation (particulate methane monooxygenase/methanol dehydrogenase and RuBisCO, respectively). Proteomic data suggest that free-living sulfur oxidizers and methylotrophs are among the dominant primary producers in vent plume waters in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. PMID:23842654

  11. Evaluation of sulfate-reducing bacteria for desulfurizing bitumen or its fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, S.M.; Sankey, B.M.; Voordouw, G. [National Research Council Canada, Halifax, NS (Canada). Inst. for Marine Biosciences

    1997-02-01

    Type cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), SRB obtained from oilfield production facilities and a sulfate-reducing microbial community obtained from Athabasca oil sands (ANFI) were examined for their ability to desulfurize bitumen or its associated fractions. Dibenzothiophene (DBT was used at a model compound). No significant reduction of the sulfur content DBT was observed for Desulfovibrio vulgaris or ANFI, even though these cultures convert maximally 1% of DBT into biphenyl (BP), as found previously. Furthermore, no significant reduction was observed in total sulfur content of vacuum gas oil, deasphalted oil or bitumen with this method. Growth of Desulfovibrio vulgaris or ANFI in the presence of DBT , bitumen or its fractions in medium lacking methylviologen also did not lead to significant reduction in their total sulfur contents, even though the ANFI community appeared able to utilize the real feeds as a potential carbon and energy source. 21 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Green Map Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based in New York, the people behind the Green Atlas have been going "green" since 1995. The Green Map system is an "adaptable framework for charting nature and culture in hometown environments." Recently, they published the Green Map Atlas, and now visitors can access the entire publication on this site. The Atlas includes maps of Jakarta, Kyoto, New York, Milwaukee, Toronto, and six other areas around the world. Visitors will find all types of interesting information on each of these maps, including the locations of community gardens, green spaces, bike trails, and other environmentally-friendly aspects of the built environment. It's certainly a novel and new way to think about communities, and these maps could also be used in courses on environmental science or urban planning.

  13. The sulfur cycle and clouds of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, R. G.

    The clouds of Venus play a central role in governing its meteorology and climate. These clouds contain concentrated sulfuric acid and an ultraviolet absorbing material which is probably elemental sulfur; their existence depends on the working of complex chemical cycles on the planet. In this paper, the overall chemical cycle responsible for the maintenance of significant amounts of the lithophilic element sulfur in the atmosphere, and the photochemical and thermochemical reactions involved in formation and destruction of the cloud particles themselves are elucidated. The susceptibility of these processes to change (e.g., due to episodic volcanism) with concomitant feedacks to the Venusian climate is emphasized.

  14. Fixation of sulfur dioxide into small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Fan, Congbin; Wu, Jie

    2015-02-14

    Sulfonyl-derived functional groups can be found in a broad range of natural products, pharmaceuticals, and materials. Among the methods for the introduction of the sulfonyl group into small molecules, the approach using sulfur dioxide is the most promising and attractive one. In the past several years, the insertion of sulfur dioxide into small molecules under transition metal catalysis or metal-free conditions via a radical process has been developed. In this review, recent advances in the insertion of sulfur dioxide are presented. PMID:25502340

  15. Investigation of sugar sulfur carrier in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purposes of galvanotechnics it is necessary to have nickel which is easely subjected to the anode dissolving (the so called depolarized nickel). In the industry, nickel of such a quality is produced by the method of electrolytic sedimentation from the nickel solution in the presence of sulfur carriers, usually in the presence of saccharin. To study behaviour of saccharin in the process of electrolysis, investigations of saccharin labelled by sulfur-35 have been done. These investigations have permitted to determine the type and quantity of products of decomposition formed, as well as to determine possibilities for rising the quantity of introducer sulfur due to the variants of technological process

  16. Viscosity of liquid sulfur under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viscosity of liquid sulfur up to 9.7 GPa and 1067 K was measured using the in situ x-ray radiography falling sphere method. The viscosity coefficients were found to range from 0.11 to 0.69 Pa s, and decreased continuously with increasing pressure under approximately constant homologous temperature conditions. The observed viscosity variation suggests that a gradual structural change occurs in liquid sulfur with pressure up to 10 GPa. The L-L' transition in liquid sulfur proposed by Brazhkin et al (1991 Phys. Lett. A 154 413) from thermobaric measurements has not been confirmed by the present viscometry

  17. Green Science: How green is your lawn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janna Palliser

    2010-07-01

    The perfect American lawn--green, lush, weed- and pest-free--is pursued by millions of Americans, who expend a massive amount of resources to attain this ideal. Americans spend an estimated $25 billion a year on lawn care, and a one-acre lawn costs approxim

  18. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  19. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  20. Modeling of the Sulfuric Acid and Sulfur Trioxide Decomposer using Aspen Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrogen production system using VHTR, which was combined with a Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle, is a good candidate for massive hydrogen production. It is being investigated for Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) project in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The SI thermo-chemical cycle is a good promise for the economical and eco-friendly hydrogen production. In SI cycle, the decomposition of a sulfuric acid is main concern for the material corrosion and mechanical stress on high temperature and pressure operation condition. KAERI has designed and constructed a small-scale gas loop that included sulfuric acid experimental facilities as a secondary loop. The main objectives of the loop are to monitor and validate the performances of NHDD component such as the Process Heat Exchanger (PHE) and sulfuric acid decomposer. In this paper, we discussed the results of the modeling of the sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide decomposer using Aspen plus process simulator

  1. Reduced inorganic sulfur oxidation supports autotrophic and mixotrophic growth of Magnetospirillum strain J10 and Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense

    OpenAIRE

    Geelhoed, J. S.; Kleerebezem, R.; Sorokin, D. Y.; Stams, A. J. M.; Loosdrecht, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are present at the oxic-anoxic transition zone where opposing gradients of oxygen and reduced sulfur and iron exist. Growth of non-magnetotactic lithoautotrophic Magnetospirillum strain J10 and its close relative magnetotactic Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense was characterized in microaerobic continuous culture. Both strains were able to grow in mixotrophic (acetate + sulfide) and autotrophic (sulfide or thiosulfate) conditions. Autotrophically growing cells completely ...

  2. Complete genome sequence of the sulfur compounds oxidizing chemolithoautotroph Sulfuricurvum kujiense type strain (YK-1T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kotsyurbenko, Oleg [Technical University of Braunschweig; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Sulfuricurvum kujiense Kodama and Watanabe 2004 is the type species of the monotypic genus Sulfuricurvum, which belongs to the family Helicobacteriaceae in the class Epsilonproteobacteria. The species is of interest because it is frequently found in crude oil and oil sands where it utilizes various reduced sulfur compounds such as elemental sulfur, sulfide and thiosulfate as electron donors. Members of the species do not utilize sugars, organic acids and hydrocarbons as carbon and energy sources. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Sulfuricurvum. The genome, which consists of a circular chromosome of 2,574,824 bp length and four plasmids of 118,585 bp, 71,513 bp, 51,014 bp, and 3,421 bp length, respectively, harboring a total of 2,879 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  3. Diversity, Activity, and Abundance of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Saline and Hypersaline Soda Lakes?

    OpenAIRE

    Foti, M.; Sorokin, D. Y.; Lomans, B. P.; Mussman, M.; Zacharova, E. E.; Pimenov, N. V.; Kuenen, J. G.; Muyzer, G.

    2007-01-01

    Soda lakes are naturally occurring highly alkaline and saline environments. Although the sulfur cycle is one of the most active element cycles in these lakes, little is known about the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In this study we investigated the diversity, activity, and abundance of SRB in sediment samples and enrichment cultures from a range of (hyper)saline soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe in southeastern Siberia in Russia. For this purpose, a polyphasic approach was used, including d...

  4. Acidic Microenvironments in Waste Rock Characterized by Neutral Drainage: Bacteria–Mineral Interactions at Sulfide Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Dockrey, John W.; Lindsay, Matthew B. J.; Ulrich Mayer, K.; Beckie, Roger D.; Norlund, Kelsey L. I.; Warren, Lesley A.; Gordon Southam

    2014-01-01

    Microbial populations and microbe-mineral interactions were examined in waste rock characterized by neutral rock drainage (NRD). Samples of three primary sulfide-bearing waste rock types (i.e., marble-hornfels, intrusive, exoskarn) were collected from field-scale experiments at the Antamina Cu–Zn–Mo mine, Peru. Microbial communities within all samples were dominated by neutrophilic thiosulfate oxidizing bacteria. However, acidophilic iron and sulfur oxidizers were present within intrusive...

  5. Use of sulfur concrete for radioecological problems solution in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present during intensive development of oil and gas fields in Kazakhstan a lot amount of sulfur is extracting. The problem of sulfur utilization demands its immediate solution. One of the perspective trends of sulfur utilization is use it in production of sulfur polymer concrete. It is well known, that encapsulation of low level radioactive and toxic wastes in sulfur polymer concrete and design from it radiation protection facilities have good perspectives for solution of radioecological problems. Sulfur concrete has high corrosion and radiation stability, improved mechanical and chemical properties. Unique properties of sulfur concrete allow to use it in materials ensuring protection from external irradiation

  6. Analysis of sulfur in deposited aerosols by thermal decomposition and sulfur dioxide analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masatoshi

    2005-07-15

    A thermal decomposition method that measures aerosol sulfur at the nanogram level directly from the collection substrate is described. A thermal decomposition apparatus was designed. A stainless steel strip was used as the aerosol collection substrate. A 0.1 mol/L MnCl2 solution was added as the thermal decomposition catalyst. Currents were passed through the strip where aerosol particles had been deposited. In this way, the strip was heated at 780 +/- 10 degrees C, and particulate sulfur was evaporated. A sulfur dioxide analyzer (SDA) with flame photometric detector (FPD) was used to detect gaseous sulfur. High sulfur recoveries from (NH4)2SO4 and other inorganic sulfates, such as NH4HSO4, K2SO4, MgSO4, and CaSO4, were obtained. From the sulfur blank and the calibration, a lower limited detection of 0.2 ng of sulfur and the determination range of 3.3-167 ng of sulfur were estimated. The method is effective for measuring the sulfate size distributions of urban aerosols in a small sample air volume of 50-60 L. The method is applicable to measuring the sulfur in aqueous extracts of size-segregated urban aerosols collected by impactor and comparing the results with the sulfate data measured by ion chromatography. PMID:16013855

  7. The sulfur thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokiya, M.

    1981-07-01

    Results of research on sulfur-cycle hydrogen production are presented. An H2S cycle using MoS2 as a catalyst is mentioned as showing promise for thermochemical water splitting, with an equilibrium reaction yield of 7%. Use of I or Pt as catalysts raised efficiencies to 16 and 12%, respectively, and further studies employing hybrid cycles with CO2-S and noble metals are reviewed. Thermal decomposition reactions with sulfuric acid are examined, noting a potential 30% thermal efficiency, and sulfur cycle research being undertaken at various industrial laboratories is outlined. It is noted that experiments with sulfuric acid salts for water electrolysis at Los Alamos will probably use solar collectors as a heat source.

  8. SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta Pavlova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of concentrations of sulfur compounds in different petroleum samples is a true analytical challenge. Only analytical procedures based on gas chromatography can meet the sensitivity and accuracy requirements dictated by up-to-date petroleum industry.The objective of this work is to develop the method for the quantifying of sulfur compounds in petroleum hydrocarbon streams. The optimum parameters for the GC-SCD method are found in order to determine of sulfur compounds in petroleum fractions. The present study is limited to fractions with final boiling point up to 100°C from the refining unit. Twelve petroleum samples are analyzed. The total sulfur contents of these samples are determined by GC-SCD and UV fluorescence detection. The data obtained are agreement.

  9. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity, investing in the rebuilding of fish stocks and a coordinated regulation of marine activities that interact with fisheries. Incentive-based regulation of fisheries that counterbalances services of the ecosystems is an important instrument to achieve green growth.

  10. Process for the preparation of sulfur hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur hexafluoride is prepared by gas phase reaction of sulfur tetrafluoride and uranium hexafluoride, which is the reaction product and can absorb laser radiation for energy transfer to uranium hexafluoride molecules. A CO2 laser with a wave length of 10.6 micrometers can be used in this case. Depleted uranium hexafluoride can be used, more-over uranium hexafluoride is transformed in solid uranium tetrafluoride easier to store

  11. Biologically produced sulfur particles and polysulfide ions

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinjan, W. E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of particles of biologically produced sulfur (or 'biosulfur') on a biotechnological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. Particular emphasis is given to the role of polysulfide ions in such a process. These polysulfide ions are formed from reaction of sulfide with biologically produced sulfur. The basic concepts of this H 2 S removal process were developed at the department of Environmental Technology of Wageningen University and the...

  12. Aluminum and sulfur impurities in electropolishing baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study highlights the impurities formation in electropolishing bath (mixture of sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids) when aluminum is chosen as cathode material. Such impurities could partially explain the performance disparities observed on electropolished niobium RF cavities. These products might be aluminum derivatives, sulfur S and hydrogen sulfide H2S. Furthermore, parameters such as temperature, acid concentrations are also taken into account with or without applied voltage

  13. Thermodynamic study of phosphogypsum decomposition by sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Innovation of this paper is a new and advanced process of phosphogypsum decomposition by sulfur for sulfuric acid production. Fig. 4 of this manuscript can indicate the innovation appropriately. Highlights: ? A new and advanced process for sulfuric acid production from phosphogypsum was proposed. ? Thermodynamic simulation of the new process was studied. ? Specific experiments were carried out to verify the thermodynamic simulation. ? Reaction heat of the new process were lower than that of traditional coke reduction process. - Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) is one of the most significant industrial solid wastes from the phosphorus chemical industry. In order to utilize PG more effectively, a new decomposition process of PG by sulfur as a reducer is proposed in this work. Thermodynamic study of the sulfur reduction process including two-step reactions was carried out by both thermodynamic simulation and experimental research. The simulation results indicate that sulfur changes its form in a complex way with rising temperature. The final decomposition temperature of PG by simulation is 993 K in the first-step reaction, and this is in good agreement with that obtained by the experiments. For the second-step reaction, however, the final PG decomposition temperature from the experiments is 250 K lower than the simulation results predict. The reaction heat of the sulfur reduction process is 27.95% less than that of the traditional coke reduction pf the traditional coke reduction process at T = 1473 K based on enthalpy change calculations. This new process can reduce the emission of CO2 effectively and is more suitable for resource utilization of PG than the coke reduction process, so it may be a promising method for sulfuric acid production from PG.

  14. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical gardening. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Redox control of sulfur degassing in silicic magmas

    OpenAIRE

    Scaillet, Bruno; Cle?mente, Be?atrice; Evans, Bernard W.; Pichavant, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Explosive eruptions involve mainly silicic magmas in which sulfur solubility and diffusivity are low. This inhibits sulfur exsolution during magma uprise as compared to more mafic magmas such as basalts. Silicic magmas can nevertheless liberate large quantities of sulfur as shown by the monitoring of SO2 in recent explosive silicic eruptions in arc settings, which invariably have displayed an excess of sulfur relative to that calculated from melt degassing. If this excess sulfur is stored in ...

  16. Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production

    OpenAIRE

    Dan, Huang

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study the Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production. There were three reactions in this cycle: Bunsen reaction, sulfuric acid decomposition and the hydriodic acid decomposition. The sulfuric acid decomposition required most heat in these three reactions. The thermal efficiency of this cycle mostly affects this section. The HYSYS simulator by Aspen Technologies was used for sulfuric acid decomposition. There were two steps in this section: sulfuric...

  17. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  18. Green Chemistry Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) has created these excellent resources via the Green Chemistry Institute and the ACS Education Division. The goal of these materials is "to increase awareness and understanding of Green Chemistry principles, alternatives, practices, and benefits within traditional educational institutions and among practicing scientists." In the Online Resources section, visitors will find downloadable pocket guides to basic green chemistry principles, "Greener Education Materials for Chemists" from the University of Oregon, and more. Perhaps the best section of the site is Activities and Experiments, where visitors can look over activities like "Gassing Up Without Air Pollution" and "Cleaning Up With Atom Economy."

  19. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, John Edward (Oldsmar, FL)

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  20. Genetic engineering of sulfur-degrading Sulfolobus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, N.W.Y. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Lab. of Renewable Resources Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that some microorganisms can play a significant role in removing the sulfur compounds from coal. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is one such microorganism. Some microorganisms can remove only organic sulfur from coal, other can remove only inorganic sulfur from coal, but S. acidocaldarius seems to be able to remove both the organic and the inorganic sulfur from coal. Furthermore, S. acidocaldarius has been shown to be able to use the sulfur and carbon derived from coal as its sole carbon and energy source for growth. These properties make this microorganism unique for coal desulfurization. This project is aimed at applying recombinant DNA techniques to improve the capability of S. acidocaldarius for coal desulfurization, which includes making it the host for housing foreign genes that encode the most effective enzymes for coal desulfurization. Since there is no established vectors and procedures for introducing vectors into S. acidocaldarius and related microorganisms, the immediate goal is to establish a gene cloning system for this species. During the present quarter, the authors have studied a few systems which can be used as the potential selection mechanism for the selection of the desired transformants. In addition, they also analyzed the extracellular proteins from S. acidocaldarius as well as other potential organic sulfur removing species and also managed to obtain most strains and plasmids that are needed for this work. Results to date are given. 1 tab.

  1. Sulfur "Concrete" for Lunar Applications - Sublimation Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Toutanji, Houssam

    2006-01-01

    Melting sulfur and mixing it with an aggregate to form "concrete" is commercially well established and constitutes a material that is particularly well-suited for use in corrosive environments. Discovery of the mineral troilite (FeS) on the moon poses the question of extracting the sulfur for use as a lunar construction material. This would be an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. However, the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. Here it is assumed that the lunar ore can be mined, refined, and the raw sulfur melded with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. This study evaluates pure sulfur and two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar stimulant and SiO2 powder as aggregate additions. Each set was subjected to extended periods in a vacuum environment to evaluate sublimation issues. Results from these experiments are presented and discussed within the context of the lunar environment.

  2. Geochemistry of sulfur isotopes in basaltic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur isotope ratios in oceanic basalts from three different localities (Bermuda Triangle, East Pacific Rise, and Galapagos Spreading Centre and in terrestrial basalts from Saudi Arabia have been analyzed by mass spectroscopy. In order to recognize and to interpret, if possible, secondary isotopic changes of basalts, various sulfurous materials occurring together with basalts gypsum, deep thermal pyrites) have been investigated too. By mechanochemical sample preparation it was possible to determine various sulfur carriers separately. Sulfides occurring as droplets in basalts showed values of -0.4 to -0.8 0/00 in materials from Bermuda Triangle, Galapagos Spreading Centre, and Saudi Arabia. The values are in agreement with those suggested for primary sulfur in the earth mantle. The basalts of East Pacific Rise show a significant 34S enrichment with a mean value of +3 0/00, which may be caused by processes in the course of magmatic differentiation. Because of secondary effects sulfate sulfur, including secondary pyrite, varies considerably in its sulfur isotope ratio (delta values between -12 to +22 0/00). Samples without recognizable secondary effects have delta values of about +1.5 0/00, which can be supposed for primary sulfates. Mechanically separated pyrites from deep thermal superimposed basalts show slightly negative 34S values4S values

  3. The sulfur chemistry of shiitake mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneeden, Eileen Yu; Harris, Hugh H; Pickering, Ingrid J; Prince, Roger C; Johnson, Sherida; Li, Xiaojie; Block, Eric; George, Graham N

    2004-01-21

    Allium herbs, such as Chinese chive, garlic, and onion, share a common sulfur biochemistry that occurs on cell breakage. Sulfoxide precursors are converted enzymatically to sulfenic acid intermediates and thence to a variety of pungent and in some cases noxious sulfur species that probably act to deter herbivores. Very similar biochemistry has been proposed to occur in shiitake mushrooms. Prior to the present work, our understanding of the sulfur biochemistry of these plants and fungi has been derived largely from conventional analysis procedures. We have used in situ sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy in intact and disrupted allium plants and shiitake mushroom. The expected changes in sulfur forms following cell breakage are indeed observed for the alliums, but no significant changes occur for the fungus. Thus, any changes involving the sulfur-containing compounds of shiitake mushroom following cell breakage occur to a far smaller extent than those involving allium plants, presumably reflecting the need in shiitake for action by multiple enzymes, namely a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and a C-S lyase. The shiitake C-S lyase occurs in far lower concentrations than the corresponding enzyme in garlic. Furthermore, cleavage of the flavorant precursor by the shiitake C-S lyase is reported to cease before cleavage of the precursor has been completed, presumably due to a product or suicide inhibition mechanism. PMID:14719930

  4. Effects of air pollution on plants. Part II. The effect of air pollution on leaves of roadside trees in Sendai, No. 2: the sulfur content in leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, T.; Inoue, Y.; Abe, K.; Hoshikawa, H.; Mesuriya, N.

    1974-10-01

    At 30 locations on main artery roads in Sendai and six locations in the suburbs, samples of leaves were taken to see the effects of sulfur dioxide on trees. The sulfur contents were investigated in samples of gingko leaves at 17 locations, zelkova at nine locations, Chinese maples at four, tulip trees at four, and green Paulonia at two locations. Samples were taken in late May, mid-August, and late October, 1971. The sulfur content in gingko leaves in the city was 0.31-0.41% (average 0.35%) in May, 0.50-0.65% (average 0.57%) in August, and 0.58-0.80% (average 0.70) in October. The averages of three suburban samplings were 0.20% for May, 0.33% for August, and 0.38% for October. The SO/sub 2/ concentration between May and October ranged between 0.010-0.055 ppm in the city and 0.006-0.01 ppm in the suburbs. For gingko, regardless of the location, the sulfur content in August and October was 1.6 - 2 times over that of May. For paulonia, it was 1.3 times higher in October than two other times. For other trees, the sulfur level decreased by 30% in August and October. Compared to the levels of sulfur content in trees in Kawasaki and Yokohama business areas, Sendai leaves had 20-30% less sulfur content.

  5. Extracellular communication in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhabra, S.R.; Philipp, B.

    2005-01-01

    Populations of bacterial cells often coordinate their responses to changes in their local environmental conditions through "quorum sensing", a cell-to-cell communication system employing small diffusible signal molecules. While there is considerable diversity in the chemistry of such signal molecules, in different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria they control pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production, biofilm differentiation, DNA transfer and bioluminescence. The development of biosensors for the detection of these signal molecules has greatly facilitated their subsequent chemical analysis which in turn has resulted in significant progress in understanding the molecular basis of quorum sensing-dependent gene expression. Consequently, the discovery and characterisation of natural molecules which antagonize quorum sensing-mediated responses has created new opportunities for the design of novel anti-infective agents which control infection through the attenuation of bacterial virulence.

  6. Green Ampt approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D. A.; Parlange, J.-Y.; Li, L.; Jeng, D.-S.; Crapper, M.

    2005-10-01

    The solution to the Green and Ampt infiltration equation is expressible in terms of the Lambert W-1 function. Approximations for Green and Ampt infiltration are thus derivable from approximations for the W-1 function and vice versa. An infinite family of asymptotic expansions to W-1 is presented. Although these expansions do not converge near the branch point of the W function (corresponds to Green-Ampt infiltration with immediate ponding), a method is presented for approximating W-1 that is exact at the branch point and asymptotically, with interpolation between these limits. Some existing and several new simple and compact yet robust approximations applicable to Green-Ampt infiltration and flux are presented, the most accurate of which has a maximum relative error of 5 × 10 -5%. This error is orders of magnitude lower than any existing analytical approximations.

  7. Green electricity under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the fifth time the so-called Warande-lecture has been held. This time by Lucas Reijnders, professor Environmental Sciences, on the subject of a sustainable energy supply, focusing on green electricity

  8. Compliance for Green IT

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The growing range of Green IT regulations are challenging more and more organisations to take specific steps to ensure they are in compliance with sometimes complex regulations, ranging from cap & trade requirements through to regulations concerning IT equipment disposal.

  9. From green architecture to architectural green : Facade versus space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics of green architecture. The paper argues that this greenification of facades is insufficient. The green is only a skin cladding the exterior envelope without having a spatial significance. Through the paper it is proposed to flip the order of words from green architecture to architectural green. Architectural green could signify green architecture with inclusive interrelations between green and space, built andunbuilt, inside and outside. The aim of the term is to reflect a new focus in green architecture – its architectural performance. Ecological issues are not underestimated or ignored, but so far they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One is Dutch pavilion at Hannover (MVRDV, 2000). The second is MFO Park (Burckhardt + Partner AG, 2002). By the means of the examples, possible characteristics and performance of architectural green are discussed and evaluated. The paper argues that the notion of green as an architectural quality is not limited to the architecture of pavilions and can be applied in other architectural forms and functions. The paper ends by questioning the potential of architectural green in urbanity.

  10. Toward the green economy: Assessing countries' green power

    OpenAIRE

    Never, Babette

    2013-01-01

    The green power potential of a country is a central factor in the transformation to a green economy. This paper argues that green power will become a decisive factor for global change. Green power combines sustainability, innovation and power into one concept. By merging insights from political science, economics and innovation research, this paper develops a multidimensional, multilevel concept of green power that takes both resources and processes into account. A first empirical assessment ...

  11. Green Buildings Virtual Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Academy of Sciences

    2009-01-01

    In this lesson, learners will use Google Earth to explore the diversity of green buildings around the world. During the activity, they will look for and record the characteristics that make buildings 'green'. They will also refer to the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) consensus-based national rating system to understand how buildings are developed to be both effective and sustainable. This lesson plan includes suggested resources, wrap-up discussion questions, key vocabulary, and is standards-based.

  12. Green Building Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PDF document from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) presents materials for a course on green building technologies. The document includes a course outline, syllabus and many learning modules on topics like landscaping water systems, passive efficiency, plumbing and HVAC, all in the context of building "green." Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  13. Green Product Innovation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, P. H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary research framework is identified. The second stage involves theory-building, using case studies and literature interactively. This stage leads to the identification of elelments of product innovatio...

  14. Green's functions with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Dean G

    2015-01-01

    This second edition systematically leads readers through the process of developing Green's functions for ordinary and partial differential equations. In addition to exploring the classical problems involving the wave, heat, and Helmholtz equations, the book includes special sections on leaky modes, water waves, and absolute/convective instability. The book helps readers develop an intuition about the behavior of Green's functions, and considers the questions of the computational efficiency and possible methods for accelerating the process.

  15. Green growth and transport

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Transport figures prominently on green growth agendas. The reason is twofold. First, transport has major environmental impacts in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, local air emissions and noise. And managing congestion more effectively is part of the broader agenda for more sustainable development and better use of resources invested in infrastructure. Second, a large part of public expenditure to stimulate green growth is directed at transport sector industries. This concerns most notably a...

  16. Coordinate green growth

    OpenAIRE

    Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Green economic growth needs a shared sense of direction if it is to lead to a more sustainable future under climate change. Studies on green innovation and societal transformation show that uncoordinated initiatives are unlikely to be an effective way “to get the ball rolling and to ‘learn by doing’” (Nature 468, 477; 2010). First, socio-technical transformations, such as the transition from fossil fuels to renewable-energy sources, will re...

  17. Green Valley Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, S.

    2014-12-01

    The "green valley" is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech), in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u-r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, "main" sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominanlty disk) morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the "green valley" using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all) of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012), Salim et al. (2012) and Martin et al. (2007), as well as other results.

  18. COULOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TOTAL SULFUR AND REDUCED INORGANIC SULFUR FRACTIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of the solid-phase partitioning of sulfur is frequently an important analytical component of risk assessments at hazardous waste sites because minerals containing reduced-sulfur can significantly affect the transport and fate of organic and inorganic contaminants in na...

  19. A ternary sulfur/polyaniline/carbon composite as cathode material for lithium sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A ternary sulfur/polyaniline–carbon black composite is prepared with a two-step thermal treatment. • A polyaniline–carbon black composite is applied as a conducting container for housing sulfur. • Polyaniline promotes the contact of sulfur and carbon black and contributes to the polysulfides confinement. • The sulfur/polyaniline–carbon black composite as cathode material exhibits improved cycle performance and rate capability. -- Abstract: A ternary sulfur/polyaniline–carbon (SPC) black composite was prepared by combining elemental sulfur and polyaniline–carbon black (PANi-C) composite by a continuous two-step thermal treatment at 155 °C and 280 °C. SPC composites were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PANi-C is a highly conductive polymer–carbon composite with PANi impregnated in porous carbon. PANi plays a bridge role between sulfur and carbon in SPC composites, resulting in the minimization of active material loss and the improvement of electrochemical performance in lithium sulfur batteries. The cell with SPC composite as cathode showed enhanced cyclablity and good rate capability, retaining a discharge capacity of 732 mAh g?1 at 0.2 C after 100 cycles

  20. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [For low sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 V olume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  1. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  2. Sulfur exchange reactions of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acids and their derivatives with elemental sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrary to the Miklukhin's report that dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid and its salts do not have an exchange reaction with elemental sulfur, it was found that such exchange reaction did occur under our experimental conditions. The reaction was the second order for the concentration of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid (or its derivatives) and the first order for sulfur concentration. The rate of reaction depended on the structure of the reactant compounds and the solvents. The rate was very small in the solvents containing ethanol. The eight-membered ring sulfur decreased in the system during the reaction, though the total amount of sulfur was constant. From the above experimental facts, it was concluded that an amphoteric polysulfide ion was produced by the reaction of elemental sulfur and dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid (or its derivatives). Therefore, it was proposed that the sulfur exchange does not occur by a bimolecular reaction between dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid (or its derivatives) and elemental sulfur, but the exchange of sulfur is accomplished by the reaction of the amphoteric polysulfide ions formed and the other acid molecules (or the other derivative molecules). (author)

  3. Fibrous hybrid of graphene and sulfur nanocrystals for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangmin; Yin, Li-Chang; Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Lu; Pei, Songfeng; Gentle, Ian Ross; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-06-25

    Graphene-sulfur (G-S) hybrid materials with sulfur nanocrystals anchored on interconnected fibrous graphene are obtained by a facile one-pot strategy using a sulfur/carbon disulfide/alcohol mixed solution. The reduction of graphene oxide and the formation/binding of sulfur nanocrystals were integrated. The G-S hybrids exhibit a highly porous network structure constructed by fibrous graphene, many electrically conducting pathways, and easily tunable sulfur content, which can be cut and pressed into pellets to be directly used as lithium-sulfur battery cathodes without using a metal current-collector, binder, and conductive additive. The porous network and sulfur nanocrystals enable rapid ion transport and short Li(+) diffusion distance, the interconnected fibrous graphene provides highly conductive electron transport pathways, and the oxygen-containing (mainly hydroxyl/epoxide) groups show strong binding with polysulfides, preventing their dissolution into the electrolyte based on first-principles calculations. As a result, the G-S hybrids show a high capacity, an excellent high-rate performance, and a long life over 100 cycles. These results demonstrate the great potential of this unique hybrid structure as cathodes for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. PMID:23672616

  4. Oxidative stress sensing by the iron-sulfur cluster in the transcription factor, SoxR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuo; Fujikawa, Mayu; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2014-04-01

    All bacteria are continuously exposed to environmental and/or endogenously active oxygen and nitrogen compounds and radicals. To reduce the deleterious effects of these reactive species, most bacteria have evolved specific sensor proteins that regulate the expression of enzymes that detoxify these species and repair proteins. Some bacterial transcriptional regulators containing an iron-sulfur cluster are involved in coordinating these physiological responses. Mechanistic and structural information can show how these regulators function, in particular, how chemical interactions at the cluster drive subsequent regulatory responses. The [2Fe-2S] transcription factor SoxR (superoxide response) functions as a bacterial sensor of oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO). This review focuses on the mechanisms by which SoxR proteins respond to oxidative stress. PMID:24332474

  5. Simultaneous bioreduction of nitrate and chromate using sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simultaneous heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification was stimulated. • Simultaneous bioreduction of nitrate and chromate was achieved. • Total chromium decreased 3?–N and Cr(VI) concentrations of 75 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively, and 3.7 h HRT. Maximum denitrification rate was 0.5 g NO3?–N/(L.d) when the bioreactor was fed with 75 mg/L NO3?–N, 150 mg/L methanol and 10 mg/L Cr(VI). The share of autotrophic denitrification was between 12% and 50% depending on HRT, C/N ratio and Cr(VI) concentration. Effluent total chromium was below 50 ?g/L provided that influent Cr(VI) concentration was equal or below 5 mg/L. DGGE results showed stable microbial community throughout the operation and the presence of sulfur oxidizing denitrifying bacteria (Thiobacillus denitrificans) and Cr(VI) reducing bacteria (Exiguobacterium spp.) in the column bed

  6. Thermophile bacteria in permafrost: model for astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilichinsky, D.; Rivkina, E.; Shcherbakova, V.; Laurinavichius, K.; Kholodov, A.; Abramov, A.

    2003-04-01

    According the NASA point of view, one way to have liquid water on Mars at shallow depths would be through subglacial volcanism. Such volcano-ice interactions could be going on beneath the polar caps of Mars today, or even within the adjacent permafrost around the margins of the ice caps. This is why one of the Earth's models, close to extraterrestrial environment, represented by active volcanoes in permafrost areas and the main question is - does such econishes as volcanoes and associated environment contain recently microbial communities? The first step of this study was carried out on volcano Stromboli (Italy), using the marine water samples extracted from the borehole near the island marine coast, surrounding the volcano. According the temperatures (45^oC), this thermal water has the hydraulic connection with volcano. Microscopy analyses of studied water shown the presence of different morphological types of microorganisms: small mobile roads, coccoid and sarcina-like organisms and long fixed roads, as well as rest forms (spores and cysts). To separate this community on marine and volcano microorganisms, the common mineral media with added CO_2, acetate or glucose-peptone as a source of carbon were used for culturing, and Fe3+, S^o, SO_42- were added as a electron acceptors. We attempt to isolate thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms of different metabolic groups - methanogens, acetogens, iron-, sulfur- and sulfate-reducers, and to test each group of microorganisms on the presence of halophilic forms. After 24 hours of incubation at temperatures varied 55 to 85^o, the grow relatively the control media was observed at CO_2+H_2 and glucose-peptone media. Microscopy study of preparations showed small coccus of irregular shape that was unable to reduce S^o or SO_42-. During the subsequent re-seeding were obtained the enrichment cultures of themophilic bacteria, genetically closed to genera Thermococcus: heterotrophic, growing up to 95^oC with the growth optimum at 87^oC and acetogenic, growing up to 92^oC with the optimum at 80^oC. Both isolated bacteria were non-halophiles. Using these data, one can conclude that isolated thermophiles are associated with volcano. The next step of this study was carried out on volcano Tolbachik, south border of permafrost zone, Kamchatka peninsula (Russia). During the volcano eruption in 1975-76 the thick (12 to 16 m) layer of interstratify volcano ash, sand and scoria was accumulated on the elevation 1100 m and to the moment this horizon is complete freeze, t=(-1)-(-2)^oC. The analyses showed that frozen samples extracted from the borehole, crossing these young volcano deposits, contain viable microorganisms and among them, thermophilic anaerobic bacteria. Moreover, biogenic methane (up to 1100-1900 ?lCH_4/kg soil) was also found in these samples. Thermophiles were never found before in permafrost thickness and this is why this study demonstrate that there are only one way for thermophilic bacteria to appear within frozen volcanic horizon - during the eruption, from volcano or surrounding associated subsurface geological strata. The most important conclusion is that thermophilic bacteria might survive in permafrost and even produce the biogenic gases. This is why the terrestrial volcano microbial community might serve as an exobiological model for hypothesis of existing ancient microbiocenoses, i. e. extraterrestrial habitats that probably might be found around Martian or other planet volcano in the absence of oxygen.

  7. Sulfur oxidation activities of pure and mixed thermophiles and sulfur speciation in bioleaching of chalcopyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Xia, Jin-Lan; Yang, Yi; Nie, Zhen-yuan; Zheng, Lei; Ma, Chen-yan; Zhang, Rui-yong; Peng, An-an; Tang, Lu; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2011-02-01

    The sulfur oxidation activities of four pure thermophilic archaea Acidianus brierleyi (JCM 8954), Metallosphaera sedula (YN 23), Acidianus manzaensis (YN 25) and Sulfolobus metallicus (YN 24) and their mixture in bioleaching chalcopyrite were compared. Meanwhile, the relevant surface sulfur speciation of chalcopyrite leached with the mixed thermophilic archaea was investigated. The results showed that the mixed culture, with contributing significantly to the raising of leaching rate and accelerating the formation of leaching products, may have a higher sulfur oxidation activity than the pure cultures, and jarosite was the main passivation component hindering the dissolution of chalcopyrite, while elemental sulfur seemed to have no influence on the dissolution of chalcopyrite. In addition, the present results supported the former speculation, i.e., covellite might be converted from chalcocite during the leaching experiments, and the elemental sulfur may partially be the derivation of covellite and chalcocite. PMID:21194927

  8. Predatory prokaryotes: predation and primary consumption evolved in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, R.; Pedros-Alio, C.; Esteve, I.; Mas, J.; Chase, D.; Margulis, L.

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of predatory bacteria have been observed and characterized by light and electron microscopy in samples from freshwater sulfurous lakes in northeastern Spain. The first bacterium, named Vampirococcus, is Gram-negative and ovoidal (0.6 micrometer wide). An anaerobic epibiont, it adheres to the surface of phototrophic bacteria (Chromatium spp.) by specific attachment structures and, as it grows and divides by fission, destroys its prey. An important in situ predatory role can be inferred for Vampirococcus from direct counts in natural samples. The second bacterium, named Daptobacter, is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic straight rod (0.5 x 1.5 micrometers) with a single polar flagellum, which collides, penetrates, and grows inside the cytoplasm of its prey (several genera of Chromatiaceae). Considering also the well-known case of Bdellovibrio, a Gram-negative, aerobic curved rod that penetrates and divides in the periplasmic space of many chemotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, there are three types of predatory prokaryotes presently known (epibiotic, cytoplasmic, and periplasmic). Thus, we conclude that antagonistic relationships such as primary consumption, predation, and scavenging had already evolved in microbial ecosystems prior to the appearance of eukaryotes. Furthermore, because they represent methods by which prokaryotes can penetrate other prokaryotes in the absence of phagocytosis, these associations can be considered preadaptation for the origin of intracellular organelles.

  9. Physico-Chemical and Microbial Quality of Locally Composted and Imported Green Waste Composts in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifeldin A. F. El-Nagerabi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the physical, chemical and microbial properties of four locally composted green waste composts (GWCs namely Almukhasib, Growers, Plantex, and Super along with four imported GWC (Florabella, Mikskaar, Potgrond, and Shamrock were studied to evaluate the quality of these composts with the acceptable standards. All composts showed normal physical properties, except the bad smell from sulfur reducing bacteria in Almukhasib, light brown color Plantex and one viable weed seed in Shamrock compost. The germination indexes of the composts comparable to the standard (90% were 100% for Mikskaar, followed by Shamrock (92%, Florabella (97, Potgrond (95%, Plantex (98%, Growers (77%, and 5% for both Super and Almukhasib. The physical and chemical properties vary considerably as follows: pH 3 - 10.5, 5.1 - 6.5 (standard 5 - 8, electrical conductivity (EC 0.4 - 10.2 mS·cm-1, 0.8 - 1.8 mS·cm-1(standard 0.0 - 4.0 mS·cm-1, moisture content (MC% 29% - 43.7%, 64% - 74% (standard 35% - 60% and water holding capacity (WHC% 92% - 200% and 400% - 800% for the locally produced and imported composts, respectively. Wide ranges in the chemical properties were expressed as ammonia concentration 512.4 - 1640.1 mg·kg-1, 459.4 - 656.5 mg·kg-1(standard < 500 mg·kg-1, organic matter 17% - 67.6%, and 53.3% - 66.2% (standard 35% for the locally composted and imported composts, respectively. The concentrations of the heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Pb, Hg, As, Cd, and Cr were lower than the recommended levels. The average of the bacterial colony forming unit per gram of locally produced and imported composts ranged between 260 - 1740 CFU/g and 330 - 2870 CFU/g, whereas the fungal CFU were 10 - 2800 CFU/g and 27 - 1800 CFU/g, respectively. The most probable number (MPN for coliform bacteria was 43 - 1100 CFU/g for locally produced composts, and 23 - 480 CFU/g for the imported composts. Therefore, these composts can not be used directly without effective treatment as substrate for plant growth, soil amendment and as biofertilizer.

  10. Controls on stable sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction in Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruchert, V.; Knoblauch, C.

    2001-01-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation experiments during bacterial sulfate reduction were performed with recently isolated strains of cold-adapted sulfate-reducing bacteria from Arctic marine sediments with year-round temperatures below 2 degreesC. The bacteria represent quantitatively important members of a high-latitude anaerobic microbial community. In the experiments, cell-specific sulfate reduction rates decreased with decreasing temperature and were only slightly higher than the inferred cell-specific sulfate reduction rates in their natural habitat. The experimentally determined isotopic fractionations varied by less than 5.8 parts per thousand with respect to temperature and sulfate reduction rate, whereas the difference in sulfur isotopic fractionation between bacteria with different carbon oxidation pathways was as large as 17.4 parts per thousand. Incubation of sediment slurries from two Arctic localities across an experimental temperature gradient from -4 degreesC to 39 degreesC yielded an isotopic fractionation of 30 parts per thousand below 7.6 degreesC, a fractionation of 14 parts per thousand and 15.5 parts per thousand between 7.6 degreesC and 25 degreesC, and fractionations of 5 parts per thousand and 8 parts per thousand above 25 degreesC, respectively. In absence of significant differences in sulfate reduction rates in the high and low temperature range, respectively, we infer that different genera of sulfate-reducing bacteria dominate the sulfate-reducing bacterial community at different temperatures. In the Arctic sediments where these bacteria are abundant the isotopic differences between dissolved sulfate, pyrite, and acid-volatile sulfide are at least twice as large as the experimentally determined isotopic fractionations. On the basis of bacterial abundance and cell-specific sulfate reduction rates, these greater isotopic differences cannot be accounted for by significantly lower in situ bacterial sulfate reduction rates. Therefore, the remaining isotopic difference between sulfate and sulfide must derive from additional isotope effects that exist in the oxidative part of the sedimentary sulfur cycle. Copyright (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. Sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane is dependent on methane concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusner, Christian; Holler, Thomas; Arnold, Gail L.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Formolo, Michael J.; Brunner, Benjamin

    2014-08-01

    Isotope signatures of sulfur compounds are key tools for studying sulfur cycling in the modern environment and throughout earth's history. However, for meaningful interpretations, the isotope effects of the processes involved must be known. Sulfate reduction coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM-SR) plays a pivotal role in sedimentary sulfur cycling and is the main process responsible for the consumption of methane in marine sediments - thereby efficiently limiting the escape of this potent greenhouse gas from the seabed to the overlying water column and atmosphere. In contrast to classical dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR), where sulfur and oxygen isotope effects have been measured in culture studies and a wide range of isotope effects has been observed, the sulfur and oxygen isotope effects by AOM-SR are unknown. This gap in knowledge severely hampers the interpretation of sulfur cycling in methane-bearing sediments, especially because, unlike DSR which is carried out by a single organism, AOM-SR is presumably catalyzed by consortia of archaea and bacteria that both contribute to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. We studied sulfur and oxygen isotope effects by AOM-SR at various aqueous methane concentrations from 1.4±0.6 mM up to 58.8±10.5 mM in continuous incubation at steady state. Changes in the concentration of methane induced strong changes in sulfur isotope enrichment (?S34) and oxygen isotope exchange between water and sulfate relative to sulfate reduction (?O), as well as sulfate reduction rates (SRR). Smallest ?S34 (21.9±1.9‰) and ?O (0.5±0.2) as well as highest SRR were observed for the highest methane concentration, whereas highest ?S34 (67.3±26.1‰) and ?O (2.5±1.5) and lowest SRR were reached at low methane concentration. Our results show that ?S34, ?O and SRR during AOM-SR are very sensitive to methane concentration and thus also correlate with energy yield. In sulfate-methane transition zones, AOM-SR is likely to induce very large sulfur isotope fractionation between sulfate and sulfide (i.e. >60‰) and will drive the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate towards the sulfate-water oxygen isotope equilibrium value. Sulfur isotope fractionation by AOM-SR at gas seeps, where methane fluxes are high, will be much smaller (i.e. 20 to 40‰).

  12. Multi-isotope biogeochemistry of sulfur in the water column and surface sediments of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, M. E.; Kamyshny, A.; Dellwig, O.; Farquhar, J.

    2012-04-01

    The anoxic deeps of the modern Baltic Sea with the temporal development of a pelagic redoxcline offer the opportunity to study the fundamental processes in the sulfur cycle of natural dynamic euxinic systems. In the low-temperature sulfur cycle multi-sulfur isotope discrimination has been found to be of particular value for the evaluation of fundamental biogeochemical processes and has, therefore, reached a lot of attention within the past decade. We analyzed the concentrations and stable sulfur isotope (S-32, S-33, S-34, S-36) compositions of dissolved sulfide and sulfate, as well as elemental sulfur in the water column, and of sulfate, acid-volatile sulfide (FeS + HS-) and CrII-reducible sulfur (essentially pyrite) in surface sediments of several stations in the Landsort Deep (LD) and the Gotland Basin (GB). Samples were recovered during several research cruises to the Baltic Sea. Water column samples were obtained via the IOW pump-CTD system or a conventional CTD-rosette system; short sediment cores were retrieved with a multi coring device. Special focus was set on the zone at and below the pelagic redoxcline. Stable isotope results are compared to previous measurements of the traditional sulfur isotopes (S-32, S-34), and findings from other euxinic systems. The direct correlation between salinity and dissolved sulfate and the low concentrations of dissolved sulfide (below 40 µM in the LD and 130 µM in the GB) indicate that now significant net pelagic sulfate reduction took place. Most of the sulfide originates from microbial processes in the surface sediments and further diffusion into the water column. The magnitude of overall 34S/32S discrimination between dissolved sulfate and sulfide in the anoxic water column was 49±1 (LD) and 46±2 (GB) per mil, with only small vertical variations and significantly smaller than in the modern Black Sea. This partitioning is within the range of published results found in experiments with pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria at low cellular activities using simple organic substrates. Sulfur isotope partitioning in the water column is close to results found in the (post-)modern surface sediments, but increases with sediment depth. Combined delta34S and delta-cap33S results give no evidence for a substantial contribution from the bacterial disproportionation of sulfur intermediates on sulfur cycling. Acknowledgements: Research was supported by Leibniz IOW and German Science Foundation, DFG (research cruises of RV Merian)

  13. [Phylogenetic in situ/ex situ analysis of a sulfur mat microbial community from a thermal sulfide stream in the North Caucasus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernousova, E Iu; Akimov, V N; Gridneva, E V; Dubinina, G A; Grabovich, M Iu

    2008-01-01

    A phylogenetic in situ/ex situ analysis of a sulfur mat formed by colorless filamentous sulfur bacteria in a thermal sulfide stream (northern spur of the main Caucasian ridge) was carried out. Nine phylotypes were revealed in the mat. Thiothrix sp. and Sphaerotilus sp. were the dominant phylotypes (66.3% and 26.3%, respectively). The 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence of Spahaerotilus sp. phylotype from the clone library was identical to the sequences of the seven Sphaerotilus strains isolated from the same source. A very high degree of similarity of Sphaerotilus strains revealed by ERIC-PCR fingerprints indicated little or no population diversity of this species in the mat. Thiothrix phylotype from the clone library and two Thiothrix strains isolated from the same mat sample differed in one to three nucleotides of 16S rRNA genes; this is an indication of this organism's population variability in the mat. 16S rRNA genes of the strains and clones of Thiothrix sp. exhibited the highest similarity (ca. 99%) with Thiothrix unzii; the strains and clones of Sphaerotilus had 99% similarity with the type species Sphaerotilus natans (the only species of this genus) and therefore can be assigned to this species. The minor seven components belong to the phylotypes from the Proteobacteria (3%), as well as the Chlorobia, Cyanobacteria, Clostridia, and Bacteroidetes phylogenetic groups, each of them constituting not more than 1%. Intracellular accumulation of elemental sulfur by Sphaerotilus similar to other filamentous sulfur bacteria was demonstrated for the first time (both in the population of the sulfur spring and in cultures with sulfide). Although mass growth of Sphaerotilus and Thiothrix is typical of bacterial populations of anthropogenic ecosystems (the activated sludge of treatment facilities), stable communities of these bacteria have not been previously found in the sulfur mats or "threads" of natural sulfide springs. PMID:18522328

  14. Anaerobic sulfur metabolism in thiotrophic symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, C; Gaill, F; Felbeck, H

    2001-02-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is generally accepted to be the energy source for the establishment of sulfur-oxidizing symbiotic communities. Here, we show that sulfur-storing symbioses not only consume but also produce large amounts of hydrogen sulfide. The prerequisite for this process appears to be the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic sulfide production is widespread among different thiotrophic symbioses from vent and non-vent sites (Riftia pachyptila, Calyptogena magnifica, Bathymodiolus thermophilus, Lucinoma aequizonata and Calyptogena elongata). The extent of H2S generation correlates positively with the amount of elemental sulfur stored in the symbiont-bearing tissues of the hosts. Sulfide production starts a few hours after anoxia sets in, with H2S initially accumulating in the circulatory system before it is excreted into the surrounding environment. We propose that not sulfate but the elemental sulfur deposited in the symbionts serves as a terminal electron acceptor during anoxia and is reduced to sulfide. In anoxia-tolerant symbioses such as L. aequizonata, anaerobic sulfur respiration may be important for producing maintenance energy to help the species survive several months without oxygen. The increased levels of cysteine in the gills of L. aequizonata may be caused by a lack of reoxidation due to the absence of oxygen. PMID:11171356

  15. Sulfur sources in protein supplements for ruminants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cássio José da, Silva; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; José Carlos, Pereira; Marcone Geraldo, Costa; Leonardo Marmo, Moreira; Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; Claudilene Lima de, Abreu.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study evaluates the efficiency of different sulfur sources for ruminant nutrition. The fiber digestibility and the amino acid profile were analyzed in the duodenal digesta of crossbred steers fed Brachiaria dictyoneura hay. The sources utilized were elemental sulfur (ES70S), elemental su [...] lfur (ES98S); calcium sulfate in hydrated (HCS), CaSO4.2H2O, and anhydrous (ACS), CaSO4, forms; and ammonium sulfate (AS), (NH4)2SO4, keeping a nitrogen:sulfur ratio of 11:1. The iso-protein supplements had 50% of protein in the total dry matter (DM). Five Holstein × Zebu steers, which were fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The different sulfur sources in the supplement did not affect any of the evaluated nutritional factors, such as intake of hay dry matter and protein supplement, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), organic matter (OM), non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC), ether extract (EE), total digestible nutrients (TDN), NDFap and CP digestibility coefficients, ruminal pH, and ruminal ammonia concentration. The concentrations of amino acids available in the abomasal digesta did not differ significantly in the tested diets. The sulfur sources evaluated in the present study are suitable as supplement for cattle, and their employment may be important to avoid environmental contaminations.

  16. Heat pipes for sodium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstine, John R.

    1989-08-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) for the thermal management of sodium-sulfur batteries. The VCHP maintains the sodium sulfur battery within a specified temperature rise limit (20 C) while the battery discharges a thermal load from 0 watts to 500 watts. A preliminary full scale thermal management design was developed for the sodium-sulfur battery, incorporating the VCHPs and supporting integration hardware. The feasibility of the VCHPs for this application was proved by test. The VCHP developed in Phase 1 utilized titanium as the heat pipe envelope material, and cesium as the heat pipe working fluid. The wick structure was axial grooves. Analysis and test indicate that the VCHP can provide the passive thermal control necessary for the sodium-sulfur battery. Test data show that with the heat input from Q = 0 watts to Q = 500 watts, the VCHP evaporator temperature increased from 350 C to 385 C. The temperature control range was higher than predicted due to working fluid vapor diffusion into the noncondensible gas and thermal axial conduction into the VCHP reservoir. Analysis has shown that by utilizing VCHPs for passive temperature control, the sodium-sulfur battery cells will have a lower axial delta-T during discharge than a current louver design. The VCHP thermal management package has the potential to be used in geosynchronous earth orbits (GEO) and low earth orbits (LEO).

  17. New developments in lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Belharouak, Ilias; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Polzin, Bryant; Li, James C. M.

    2013-05-01

    In this work, efforts were conducted in order to mitigate the issue of polysulfides dissolution and hence to improve the capacity and efficiency of Li-sulfur cells. The first approach was achieved by optimizing the amount of sulfur that can be contained in the sulfur/carbon electrode. Five sulfur/carbon ratios were prepared- (1) 50/50, (2) 60/40, (3) 70/30, (4) 80/20, and (5) 90/10- to study the effect of carbon contents on electrochemical cycling. The second approach was by adding nano-sized TiO2 particles having a large specific surface area as the polysulfide adsorbing agent in the electrodes. The impact of nano-sized TiO2 particles in improving the electrochemical properties of sulfur electrodes was investigated using CV measurements and charge/discharge tests. To further enhance the efficiency and cycling stability of Li-S batteries, a novel polysulfide electrolyte was developed. This new electrolyte mainly consisted of pre-dissolved lithium polysulfides (Li2Sx) as an alternative electrolyte salt to replace the lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone)imide (LiTFSI). We also used LiNO3 to mitigate the shuttle mechanism that occurs in Li-S cells during the charge and discharge. By creating a dynamic equilibrium at the interface of the cathode and electrolyte, the dissolution of lithium polysulfides, and thus the loss of active materials from the cathode during the discharge and charge of the cell, was greatly prevented.

  18. Lithium-sulfur batteries: progress and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Chung, Sheng-Heng; Zu, Chenxi

    2015-03-01

    Development of advanced energy-storage systems for portable devices, electric vehicles, and grid storage must fulfill several requirements: low-cost, long life, acceptable safety, high energy, high power, and environmental benignity. With these requirements, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries promise great potential to be the next-generation high-energy system. However, the practicality of Li-S technology is hindered by technical obstacles, such as short shelf and cycle life and low sulfur content/loading, arising from the shuttling of polysulfide intermediates between the cathode and anode and the poor electronic conductivity of S and the discharge product Li2 S. Much progress has been made during the past five years to circumvent these problems by employing sulfur-carbon or sulfur-polymer composite cathodes, novel cell configurations, and lithium-metal anode stabilization. This Progress Report highlights recent developments with special attention toward innovation in sulfur-encapsulation techniques, development of novel materials, and cell-component design. The scientific understanding and engineering concerns are discussed at the end in every developmental stage. The critical research directions needed and the remaining challenges to be addressed are summarized in the Conclusion. PMID:25688969

  19. Sulfur 'Concrete' for Lunar Applications - Environmental Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Commercial use of sulfur concrete on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive, e.g., acid and salt, environments. Having found troilite (FeS) on the Moon raises the question of using extracted sulfur as a lunar construction material, an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. For the purpose of this Technical Memorandum, it is assumed that lunar ore is mined, refined, and the raw sulfur processed with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. With this stipulation, it is then noted that the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. The work presented here evaluates two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar simulant as an aggregate addition. One set was subjected to extended periods in high vacuum to evaluate sublimation issues, and the other was cycled between room and liquid nitrogen temperatures to investigate their subsequent mechanical integrity. Results are presented from both investigations, discussed, and put into the context of the lunar environment.

  20. Sulfur chemistry in dense interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model is presented for the gas phase chemistry of molecules containing sulfur in dense interstellar clouds. The sulfur chemistry is different from that used in previous models as a result of an extensive search of the recent literature and the availability of new laboratory data. The changes have a significant effect on the calculated abundance of sulfur compounds. The linked chemistry of sulfur and oxygen in the present model requires a severe depletion of sulfur and low fractional abundances of both O and O2 in the dense clouds. In contrast, the high abundance of SO and the low abundance of CS relative to SO in the HVS in the KL may indicate an oxygen-rich, high temperature environment compared to OMC-1. The formation of S-H bonds is slow because of the absence of radiative association between S+ and H2. The present model underestimates the abundance of H2S unless a radiative association reaction between HS+ and H2 is postulated

  1. Sulfur copolymers for infrared optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namnabat, S.; Gabriel, J. J.; Pyun, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Dereniak, E. L.; van der Laan, J.

    2014-06-01

    The development of organic polymers with low infrared absorption has been investigated as a possible alternative to inorganic metal oxide, semiconductor, or chalcogenide-based materials for a variety of optical devices and components, such as lenses, goggles, thermal imaging cameras and optical fibers. In principle, organic-based polymers are attractive for these applications because of their low weight, ease of processing, mechanical toughness, and facile chemical variation using commercially available precursors. Herein we report on the optical characterization of a new class of sulfur copolymers that are readily moldable, transparent above 500 nm, possess high refractive index (n > 1.8) and take advantage of the low infrared absorption of S-S bonds for potential use in the mid-infrared at 3-5 microns. These materials are largely made from elemental sulfur by an inverse vulcanization process; in the current study we focus on the properties of a chemically stable, branched copolymer of poly(sulfur-random-1,3-diisopropenylbenzene) (poly(S-r- DIB). Copolymers with elemental sulfur content ranging from 50% to 80% by weight were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR, and prism coupling for refractive index measurement. Clear correlation between material composition and the optical properties was established, confirming that the high polarizability of the sulfur atom leads to high refractive index while also maintaining low optical loss in the infrared.

  2. Mobilization of bacteria in a bioinfilitration system during intermittent infiltration of stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, A.; Mohanty, S. K.; Torkelson, A. A.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Green infrastructure, like bioinfintration systems in rain gardens, is increasingly being used in urban centers to harvest stormwater for reuse or groundwater replenishment, but the fate of stormwater contaminants in these systems is not well understood. The present study compared the ability of a bioinfiltration system packed with sand and a geomaterial (iron oxide coated sand, IOCS) to remove model bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) under intermittent flow conditions. Experiments were carried out in two phases: (1) saturated columns packed with either sand or IOCS were contaminated by injecting synthetic stormwater with bacteria followed by injection of uncontaminated stormwater and (2) the mobilization of sequestered bacteria by intermittent infiltration of stormwater was examined by pausing infiltration and allowing columns to drained under gravity, and then reapplying uncontaminated stormwater; results were compared to a column subjected to the same intermittent flow conditions but not allowed to drain. Intermittent flow mobilized a greater fraction of sequestered bacteria when the column was allowed to drain suggesting mobilizing by scouring by the air-water interface. A smaller fraction of sequestered bacteria were mobilized from IOCS than sand indicating that irreversible attachment on the IOCS surface reduced mobilization of bacteria during rewetting. Presence of NOM in stormwater increase the amount of bacteria mobilized from IOCS during intermittent flow. The result of the study indicates that use of geomedia such as IOCS that promotes irreversible attachment of bacteria and maintaining saturated condition could minimize the mobilization of bacteria from bioinfiltration systems.

  3. Cryptic carbon and sulfur cycling between surface ocean plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Bryndan P; Sharma, Shalabh; Luo, Haiwei; Smith, Christa B; Amin, Shady A; Bender, Sara J; Dearth, Stephen P; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S; Campagna, Shawn R; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Armbrust, E Virginia; Moran, Mary Ann

    2015-01-13

    About half the carbon fixed by phytoplankton in the ocean is taken up and metabolized by marine bacteria, a transfer that is mediated through the seawater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool. The chemical complexity of marine DOC, along with a poor understanding of which compounds form the basis of trophic interactions between bacteria and phytoplankton, have impeded efforts to identify key currencies of this carbon cycle link. Here, we used transcriptional patterns in a bacterial-diatom model system based on vitamin B12 auxotrophy as a sensitive assay for metabolite exchange between marine plankton. The most highly up-regulated genes (up to 374-fold) by a marine Roseobacter clade bacterium when cocultured with the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana were those encoding the transport and catabolism of 2,3-dihydroxypropane-1-sulfonate (DHPS). This compound has no currently recognized role in the marine microbial food web. As the genes for DHPS catabolism have limited distribution among bacterial taxa, T. pseudonana may use this sulfonate for targeted feeding of beneficial associates. Indeed, DHPS was both a major component of the T. pseudonana cytosol and an abundant microbial metabolite in a diatom bloom in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Moreover, transcript analysis of the North Pacific samples provided evidence of DHPS catabolism by Roseobacter populations. Other such biogeochemically important metabolites may be common in the ocean but difficult to discriminate against the complex chemical background of seawater. Bacterial transformation of this diatom-derived sulfonate represents a previously unidentified and likely sizeable link in both the marine carbon and sulfur cycles. PMID:25548163

  4. Combined S-33 and O-18 Isotope Tracing of Intracellular Sulfur Metabolism during Microbial Sulfate Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antler, Gilad; Bosak, Tanja; Ono, Shuhei; Sivan, Orit; Turchyn, Alexandra V.

    2014-05-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction is a key player in the global carbon cycle, oxidizing nearly 50% of organic matter in marine sediments. The biochemical pathway of microbial sulfate reduction fractionates sulfur and oxygen isotopes and these fractionations can be used to reconstruct S cycling in sediments. Sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction, which partitions lighter sulfur (32S) into sulfide and heavier sulfur (33S and 34S) into the residual sulfate, can be as high as 72o for 34S/32S. The availability and type of organic substrate control the magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation by influencing the fluxes of and the transfer of electrons to different S species. The partitioning of oxygen in sulfate during microbial sulfate reduction appears to be strongly influenced by the oxygen isotopic composition of water in which the bacteria grow, but its magnitude also seems to correlate with the magnitude of 34S/32S isotope fractionation. In addition, the fractionation of 33S/32S is thought to reflect the reversibility of some intercellular fluxes. We wanted to investigate whether the 18O/16O, 34S/32S and 33S/32S isotope fractionations in sulfate are controlled by the same intracellular processes and conditions. This was done by investigating the combined sulfur and oxygen isotope partitioning by a marine Desulfovibrio sp. grown in pure culture on different organic substrates and in water with different isotopic composition of oxygen. The isotope fractionations of oxygen and sulfur correlated with the cell specific sulfate reduction rates (csSRR), where slower rates yielded higher sulfur fractionation (as high as 60) and higher oxygen isotope fractionation. The trends in 33S/32S and 34S/32S with the changing csSRR was similar to the trends in 18O/16O with the csSRR, suggesting that the same intercellular pathways controlled both oxygen and sulfur isotope signatures during microbial sulfate reduction. The use of water with different isotopic composition of oxygen showed that the kinetic isotopic fractionation was negligible and that ?18O in sulfate should be 22.5o higher than ?18O in water (at 22° C). This relationship indicates that more intracellular sulfite may be oxidized back to sulfate when the flux of electrons from the electron donor to sulfite is low, allowing isotopic exchange of oxygen between sulfite and water. The use of our experimental results as constraints in a reactive transport model implies that the magnitudes of the oxygen isotope fractionation and sulfur isotope fractionation are correlated under a broad range of sulfate reduction rates in marine and marginal marine environments. This correlation suggests a strong role for the electron donor in controlling the intracellular redox fluxes of sulfur and the fractionation of oxygen isotopes in the natural environment.

  5. Ferredoxins from the photosynthetic purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Isolation and amino acid sequence of ferredoxin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Y; Wakabayashi, S; Yamada, F; Wada, K; Zumft, W G; Matsubara, H

    1984-09-01

    Two ferredoxins, ferredoxins I and II, were prepared from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. They were separated on a Sephadex column after carboxymethylation and ferredoxin I, the major component, was subjected to an amino acid sequence study. The protein was composed of 63 amino acid residues and the sequence was as follows: (sequence; see text). The molecular weight was calculated to be 6,718, excluding iron and sulfur atoms. The distribution of the nine cysteine residues was similar to but clearly distinct from those of ferredoxins of other photosynthetic bacteria. Comparison of this ferredoxin with those of other bacteria suggests that the photosynthetic bacteria evolved on separate lines. Ferredoxin II was also subjected to analyses of amino acid composition and terminal sequences, but no further study was possible due to the limited material. Although the composition was different from that of ferredoxin I, the terminal sequences were exactly the same as those of ferredoxin I. PMID:6389527

  6. Bacteria Growth Inquiry: Bodily Bacteria and Healthy Hygiene Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this inquiry activity, students generate investigable questions to explore the link between hygiene/cleanliness and bacteria growth/population. The students will present their conclusions, and video clips containing additional information will be discussed.

  7. Fractionation of Stable Carbon Isotopes during Chemoautotrophic Growth of Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby, Edward G.; Jannasch, Holger W.; Deuser, Werner G.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory-grown strains of chemoautotrophic Thiomicrospira sp. strain L-12 and Thiobacillus neapolitanus produced cell carbon that was 24.6 to 25.1 ppt (24.6 to 25.1 mg/g) lower in 13C isotope abundance than the ambient source of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. This degree of 13C isotope depletion was comparable to that found in organic material produced in deep-sea hydrothermal-vent communities.

  8. Sampling bacteria with a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We also compared these data to samples of usual collection and filtering. The results of these laser measurements are very promising.

  9. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850–2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  10. Manipulating soil microbial communities in extensive green roof substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineux, Chloe J; Connop, Stuart P; Gange, Alan C

    2014-09-15

    There has been very little investigation into the soil microbial community on green roofs, yet this below ground habitat is vital for ecosystem functioning. Green roofs are often harsh environments that would greatly benefit from having a healthy microbial system, allowing efficient nutrient cycling and a degree of drought tolerance in dry summer months. To test if green roof microbial communities could be manipulated, we added mycorrhizal fungi and a microbial mixture ('compost tea') to green roof rootzones, composed mainly of crushed brick or crushed concrete. The study revealed that growing media type and depth play a vital role in the microbial ecology of green roofs. There are complex relationships between depth and type of substrate and the biomass of different microbial groups, with no clear pattern being observed. Following the addition of inoculants, bacterial groups tended to increase in biomass in shallower substrates, whereas fungal biomass change was dependent on depth and type of substrate. Increased fungal biomass was found in shallow plots containing more crushed concrete and deeper plots containing more crushed brick where compost tea (a live mixture of beneficial bacteria) was added, perhaps due to the presence of helper bacteria for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Often there was not an additive affect of the microbial inoculations but instead an antagonistic interaction between the added AM fungi and the compost tea. This suggests that some species of microbes may not be compatible with others, as competition for limited resources occurs within the various substrates. The overall results suggest that microbial inoculations of green roof habitats are sustainable. They need only be done once for increased biomass to be found in subsequent years, indicating that this is a novel and viable method of enhancing roof community composition. PMID:24992459

  11. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry : Effects of acidification and sulfur addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, JØrgen; Andersen, Astrid J

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with addition of sulfate and methionine (P < 0.01). Methanethiol (MT) was emitted in treatments with addition of methionine, especially when simultaneously acidified (P < 0.01). The large H2S production in the sulfate-amended slurries resulted in little accumulation of MT and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under neutral conditions, in contrast to acidic conditions where the degradation was inhibited and both MT and DMS accumulated. Based on odor activity values, untreated slurry had little odor development from S compounds, especially the aged slurry. Acidification did not significantly increase odor contribution from any of the compounds in fresh or aged slurry. Generally, addition of a sulfate increased the contribution from H2S dramatically, whereas acidification lowered the H2S contribution but increased that of MT. Thus, acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid may potentially produce more odor from S compounds than untreated slurry.

  12. Confine sulfur in mesoporous metal–organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide for lithium sulfur battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Weizhai [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, Zhian, E-mail: zza75@163.com [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Engineering Research Center of High Performance Battery Materials and Devices, Research Institute of Central South University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Qu, Yaohui; Zhou, Chengkun; Wang, Xiwen [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Li, Jie [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Engineering Research Center of High Performance Battery Materials and Devices, Research Institute of Central South University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Metal organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide was applied for sulfur cathode. • MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S composites are synthesized by a facile two-step liquid method. • Cycling stability of MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S sulfur cathode was improved. -- Abstract: Mesoporous metal organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide (MIL-101(Cr)@rGO) materials have been used as a host material to prepare the multi-composite sulfur cathode through a facile and effective two-step liquid phase method successfully, which is different from the simple MIL-101(Cr)/S mixed preparation method. The successful reduced graphene oxide coating in the MIL-101(Cr)@rGO improve the electronic conductivity of meso-MOFs effectively. The discharge capacity and capacity retention rate of MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S composite sulfur cathode are as high as 650 mAh g{sup ?1} and 66.6% at the 50th cycle at the current density of 335 mA g{sup ?1}. While the discharge capacity and capacity retention rate of MIL-101(Cr)/S mixed sulfur cathode is 458 mAh g{sup ?1} and 37.3%. Test results indicate that the MIL-101(Cr)@rGO is a promising host material for the sulfur cathode in the lithium–sulfur battery applications.

  13. X-ray diffraction studies on chromatophore membrane from photosynthetic bacteria. II. Comparison of diffraction patterns of photosynthetic units from various purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, M; Inai, K; Ueki, T; Yamashita, J

    1984-02-01

    Comparative X-ray diffraction studies, in conjunction with infrared absorption spectroscopy, were performed on chromatophores isolated from various purple photosynthetic bacteria in order to achieve a better understanding of the molecular structure of the photosynthetic unit. Purple non-sulfur bacteria used were Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodospirillum molischianum, Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Chromatophores of Chromatium vinosum, as a typical example of purple sulfur bacteria, were also investigated. The results were as follows. Distinct equatorial X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained from chromatophores of all the bacteria examined. They showed diffuse, continuous diffraction patterns having several maxima, and the patterns are evidently distinguished from those of either crystalline or amorphous material. The pattern indicates that the photosynthetic unit in the chromatophore has a highly organized molecular structure in the plane of the membrane. Bacteria whose major photosynthetic pigment is bacteriochlorophyll alpha can be categorized in three groups from the viewpoint of near infrared absorption spectra. X-ray diffraction patterns are also grouped accordingly, although the differences are minimal and the patterns display common features. In other words, the bacteriochlorophyll forms, which are bacteriochlorophyll-protein complexes exhibiting different near-infrared absorption spectra, show different X-ray patterns: the molecular structure of photosynthetic units is closely related to the state of pigment in each complex, although the "X-ray" molecular structure is mainly concerned with the arrangement of constituent protein molecules at the present resolution, whereas the "spectroscopic" structure reflects the local environment of pigment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6425275

  14. Green Human Resource Management: Simplified General Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Opatha, H. H. D. N. P.; Anton Arulrajah, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide simplified general reflections in respect of green human resource management (green HRM) that is a novel concept at least in Sri Lankan context and indeed has a great potential to serve the individual, society and business. The paper has its focus on seven aspects such as meaning of green, reasons for greening, meaning of green HRM, importance of green HRM, green human resource requirements, greening of HRM functions and the findings of some green HRM research stud...

  15. Green Logistics Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  16. On the galactic chemical evolution of sulfur

    OpenAIRE

    Ryde, N.; Lambert, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur abundances have been determined for ten stars to resolve a debate in the literature on the Galactic chemical evolution of sulfur in the halo phase of the Milky Way. Our analysis is based on observations of the S I lines at 9212.9, 9228.1, and 9237.5 A for stars for which the S abundance was obtained previously from much weaker S I lines at 8694.0 and 8694.6 A. In contrast to the previous results showing [S/Fe] to rise steadily with decreasing [Fe/H], our results show ...

  17. Controlling sulfur deposition in sour gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyne, J.B.

    1983-08-01

    This study relates the present theory on sulfur deposition to likely scenarios for very sour gas well behavior during production, including: what can be expected as a result of deposition, methods to avoid or mitigate deposition, procedures that should be avoided, and locations and conditions in which deposition can be expected. A technique is presented by which reservoirs containing high percentages of H/sub 2/S may be produced without causing the formation of sulfur plugs in the well or formation. The key to its success is in selecting a production rate that balances the effects of pressure drawdown and temperature changes with fluid flow velocity.

  18. Green IT technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jae H

    2011-01-01

    This book is the first of its kind in presenting comprehensive technical issues and solutions for rapidly growing Green IT. It brings together in a single volume both green communications and green computing under the theme of Green IT, and presents exciting research and developments taking place therein in a survey style. Written by the subject matter experts consisting of an international team of recognized researchers and practitioners in the field, ""Green IT: Technologies and Applications"" will serve as an excellent source of information on the latest technical trend of Green IT for grad

  19. Sulfur isotope ratios as evidence of dissolved sulfur uptake by salt marsh cordgrass. [Spartina alterniflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, P.R. Jr.; Forrest, J.

    1985-06-01

    The difference in stable sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide in marsh porewater was used to verify the uptake of hydrogen sulfide by the salt marsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, in North Carlina salt marsh. Most of the plant sulfur derived from porewater sulfide was recovered as sulfate indicating that the sulfide had been oxidized within the plant. The analysis of sulfur isotope ratios of other marsh halophytes is suggested as a technique to determine whether sulfide is taken up by plants. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Where Bacteria and Languages Concur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin Renfrew (University of Cambridge; McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research)

    2009-01-23

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Genetic data from human gastric bacteria provide independent support for a linguistic analysis of Pacific population dispersals.

  1. Superoxide dismutase in ruminal bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulghum, R. S.; Worthington, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Of 13 species of anaerobic ruminal bacteria examined, 11 were found to contain measurable levels of superoxide dismutase activity. Four of five other strict anaerobic species studied for comparison were found to contain superoxide dismutase activity.

  2. Oxidation of Elemental Sulfur to Sulfite by Thiobacillus thiooxidans Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Isamu; Chan, C. W.; Takeuchi, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    Thiobacillus thiooxidans cells oxidized elemental sulfur to sulfite, with 1 mol of O2 consumption per mol of sulfur oxidized to sulfite, when the oxidation of sulfite was inhibited with 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide.

  3. Interaction of sulfur-loaded 3A zeolite with ethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Munter, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    The sulfur-loaded 3A clay-bond molecular sieve exposed to ethylene at temperatures higher than 190°C loses its sulfur. Mainly hydrogen sulfide is formed. This behavior restricts its use as a cracking catalyst.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas pelagia CL-AP6, a Psychrotolerant Bacterium Isolated from Culture of Antarctic Green Alga Pyramimonas gelidicola

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Hye Yeon; Jung, Woongsic; Do, Hackwon; Lee, Sung Gu; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Kim, Hak Jun

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas pelagia CL-AP6, isolated from a culture of the Antarctic green alga Pyramimonas gelidicola, is a psychrotolerant bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide insights into the mutualistic interaction between microalgae and bacteria in sea ice, as well as the cold adaptation mechanisms of bacteria.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas pelagia CL-AP6, a Psychrotolerant Bacterium Isolated from Culture of Antarctic Green Alga Pyramimonas gelidicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hye Yeon; Jung, Woongsic; Do, Hackwon; Lee, Sung Gu; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Kim, Hak Jun

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas pelagia CL-AP6, isolated from a culture of the Antarctic green alga Pyramimonas gelidicola, is a psychrotolerant bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide insights into the mutualistic interaction between microalgae and bacteria in sea ice, as well as the cold adaptation mechanisms of bacteria. PMID:24009125

  6. Biocorrosion: pH regulation by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Biocorrosion: regulation du pH par les bacteries sulfato-reductrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crolet, J.L. (Societe Nationale des Petroles d' Aquitaine (SNPA), 64 - Pau (France)); Daumas, S. (GRAM, 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France)); Magot, M. (Sanofi Elf Bio Recherches, 31 - Labege (France))

    1992-01-01

    Association between microbiology bacteria metabolisms knowledge and water chemistry corrosion in presence of acid gases CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S leads to the conclusion that sulfate reducing bacteria regulate their environment pH around a value corresponding to a no acid production. Experimental results of the proposed model are presented with explanation of pitting corrosion, with a theoretical sorting of the most dangerous strains, and for petroleum exploitation: the potential link between the most severe bacteria corrosion and oxygen entrances, thiosulfates presence and other intermediate oxidation compounds of sulfur. (A.B.). 17 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Dissipative Shocks behind Bacteria Gliding

    OpenAIRE

    Virga, Epifanio G.

    2014-01-01

    Gliding is a means of locomotion on rigid substrates utilized by a number of bacteria includingmyxobacteria and cyanobacteria. One of the hypotheses advanced to explain this motility mechanism hinges on the role played by the slime filaments continuously extruded from gliding bacteria. This paper solves in full a non-linear mechanical theory that treats as dissipative shocks both the point where the extruded slime filament comes in contact with the substrate, called the fila...

  8. Magnetotactic bacteria for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathuriya, Abhilasha S

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is characterized by anomalous cell growth. Conventional therapies face many challenges and hence alternative treatment methods are in great demand. In addition, nature offers the best inspiration and recently many therapies of natural origin have proved multi-targeted, multi-staged, and a multi-component mode of action against cancer. Magnetotactic bacteria and magnetosomes-based treatment methods are among them. Present paper reviews various routes by which magnetotactic bacteria and magnetosomes contribute to cancer therapy. PMID:25388453

  9. Inducible bacteriophages from ruminal bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Klieve, A. V.; Hudman, J. F.; Bauchop, T.

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of temperate bacteriophage in a wide range of ruminal bacteria was investigated by means of induction with mitomycin C. Supernatant liquid from treated cultures was examined for phagelike particles by using transmission electron microscopy. Of 38 ruminal bacteria studied, nine organisms (23.7%) representing five genera (Eubacteria, Bacteroides, Butyrivibrio, Ruminococcus, and Streptococcus) produced phagelike particles. Filamentous particles from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens are th...

  10. Structure and bonding of sulfur-containing molecules and complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Risberg, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques enable investigations of the many important biological and environmental functions of the ubiquitous element sulfur. In this thesis the methods for interpreting sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra are developed and applied for analyses of functional sulfur groups. The influence of coordination, pH, hydrogen bonding, etc., on the sulfur 1s electronic excitations is evaluated by transition potential density functional the...

  11. The problem of sulfur content in calcined petroleum coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, M. Franz; Waller, James H.; Zabreznik, Rodney D.

    1990-07-01

    The sulfur content of petroleum coke has steadily increased in recent years, and forecasts show levels will rise even further. This increase in sulfur content comes at a time when environmental awareness is at a peak, and regulatory restrictions are likely to place limits on the amount of sulfur permitted. Fortunately for aluminum smelters, several methods of reducing the sulfur content in petroleum coke appear to be viable.

  12. Marine sulfur cycle constrained from isotope analysis of different forms of sulfur in the 3.2 Ga black shale (DXCL-DP) from Pilbara, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Sakamoto, R.; Naraoka, H.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ikehara, M.; Ito, T.

    2012-12-01

    Co-evolution of early life and surface environment has been one of the most important events on Earth. Rise of atmospheric oxygen, or as known as GOE (Great Oxidation Event: e.g., Holland, 1994), has been widely believed to have occurred at around 2.4 billion years ago. But geological and geochemical evidence suggest possibility of much earlier (by hundreds of millions of years) existence of oxic atmosphere and oceans. In order to further investigate the mystery of biological and environmental evolution, we conducted continental drilling in northwestern Pilbara, Western. Australia, to obtain 3.2 billion-years-old least-metamorphosed drillcore black shale samples (DXCL-DP:Dixon Island - Cleaverville Drilling Project; Yamaguchi et al., 2009). Preliminary stable isotope analyses using these samples suggested that photosynthetic organisms produced organic matter (Hosoi et al., 2011), nitrogen fixing bacteria were intermittently active (Yamada et al., 2011), and sulfate-reducing bacteria were active in environment with a limited supply of sulfate (Sakamoto et al., 2011) in the 3.2 Ga ocean. Bulk S isotope compositions could only provide limited information on the biogeochemical cycling of sedimentary S, because it is normally present as different facies (acid-volatile sulfur: AVS, pyrite: FeS2, sulfate, organic sulfur: Sorg, and elemental sulfur: S0) that depend on physicochemical and biological conditions. Therefore, abundance and isotope ratios of these species possess very useful information on oceanic and diagenetic conditions such as redox state and microbiological activity. In order to constrain biogeochemical cycling of S in the 3.2 Ga ocean, we conducted sequential extraction analysis using the DXCL-DP black shales to obtain different S-bearing species and S isotopic analysis. Average S contents for each form of S-bearing species were: ?S = 2.56 wt.%, AVS = 0.02 wt.%, pyrite = 1.61 wt.%, and sulfate = 0.57 wt%. Relationship between amounts of pyrite-S and organic C suggest presence of syngenetic pyrite (formed in water column) as well as diagenetic pyrite. Average S isotope compositions are: pyrite = 12.3±6.3 ‰, sulfate = 17.3 ± 7.1 ‰, and difference between them are up to as high as 16.8 ‰. These results show that depositional environment was probably close to the modern Black Sea, where sulfate-reducing bacteria are active in anaerobic water mass in semi-closed deep basin, with a limited supply of sulfate from the oxic surface ocean.

  13. Sustainable house construction and green financing. Explanation for 'green mortgages'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch government finances the sustainable construction of new houses by means of so-called 'green loans'. Extra costs for the construction of a sustainable house are compensated by a lower interest rate for a green loan. In this brochure it is explained when green financing of house construction is possible and how to apply for such loans

  14. Sustainable hydrogen photoproduction by phosphorus-deprived marine green microalgae Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyrova, Khorcheska; Gavrisheva, Anastasia; Ivanova, Elena; Liu, Jianguo; Tsygankov, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of prolonged H2 photoproduction when deprived of sulfur. In addition to sulfur deprivation (-S), sustained H2 photoproduction in C. reinhardtii cultures can be achieved under phosphorus-deprived (-P) conditions. Similar to sulfur deprivation, phosphorus deprivation limits O2 evolving activity in algal cells and causes other metabolic changes that are favorable for H2 photoproduction. Although significant advances in H2 photoproduction have recently been realized in fresh water microalgae, relatively few studies have focused on H2 production in marine green microalgae. In the present study phosphorus deprivation was applied for hydrogen production in marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., where sulfur deprivation is impossible due to a high concentration of sulfates in the sea water. Since resources of fresh water on earth are limited, the possibility of hydrogen production in seawater is more attractive. In order to achieve H2 photoproduction in P-deprived marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., the dilution approach was applied. Cultures diluted to about 0.5-1.8 mg Chl·L-1 in the beginning of P-deprivation were able to establish anaerobiosis, after the initial growth period, where cells utilize intracellular phosphorus, with subsequent transition to H2 photoproduction stage. It appears that marine microalgae during P-deprivation passed the same stages of adaptation as fresh water microalgae. The presence of inorganic carbon was essential for starch accumulation and subsequent hydrogen production by microalgae. The H2 accumulation was up to 40 mL H2 gas per 1iter of the culture, which is comparable to that obtained in P-deprived C. reinhardtii culture. PMID:25629229

  15. Sustainable Hydrogen Photoproduction by Phosphorus-Deprived Marine Green Microalgae Chlorella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorcheska Batyrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously it has been shown that green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of prolonged H2 photoproduction when deprived of sulfur. In addition to sulfur deprivation (-S, sustained H2 photoproduction in C. reinhardtii cultures can be achieved under phosphorus-deprived (-P conditions. Similar to sulfur deprivation, phosphorus deprivation limits O2 evolving activity in algal cells and causes other metabolic changes that are favorable for H2 photoproduction. Although significant advances in H2 photoproduction have recently been realized in fresh water microalgae, relatively few studies have focused on H2 production in marine green microalgae. In the present study phosphorus deprivation was applied for hydrogen production in marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., where sulfur deprivation is impossible due to a high concentration of sulfates in the sea water. Since resources of fresh water on earth are limited, the possibility of hydrogen production in seawater is more attractive. In order to achieve H2 photoproduction in P-deprived marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., the dilution approach was applied. Cultures diluted to about 0.5–1.8 mg Chl·L?1 in the beginning of P-deprivation were able to establish anaerobiosis, after the initial growth period, where cells utilize intracellular phosphorus, with subsequent transition to H2 photoproduction stage. It appears that marine microalgae during P-deprivation passed the same stages of adaptation as fresh water microalgae. The presence of inorganic carbon was essential for starch accumulation and subsequent hydrogen production by microalgae. The H2 accumulation was up to 40 mL H2 gas per 1iter of the culture, which is comparable to that obtained in P-deprived C. reinhardtii culture.

  16. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Sulfurous Acid in an Aqueous Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alicia; Hernandez, Willie; Suarez, Marco F.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of some parameters on sulfurous acid and sulfur oxidation kinetics such as initial concentration of sulfurous acid, oxygen, TiO[2] crystalline concentration, the power of black light, and quantity of TiO[2] is investigated. The experiments can be performed in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory with an inexpensive…

  17. Should we be worried about the green paradox? Announcement effects of the acid rain program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Corrado [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Lange, Ian [Stirling Univ. (United Kingdom); Werf, Edwin van der [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    This paper presents the first empirical test of the green paradox hypothesis, according to which well-intended but imperfectly implemented policies may lead to detrimental environmental outcomes due to supply side responses. We use the introduction of the Acid Rain Program in the U.S. as a case study. The theory predicts that owners of coal deposits, expecting future sales to decline, would supply more of their resource between the announcement of the Acid Rain Program and its implementation; moreover, the incentive to increase supply would be stronger for owners of high-sulfur coal. This would, all else equal, induce an increase in sulfur dioxide emissions. Using data on prices, heat input and sulfur content of coal delivered to U.S. power plants, we find strong evidence of a price decrease, some indication that the amount of coal used might have increased, and no evidence that the announcement of the Acid Rain Program lead the use of higher sulfur coal. Overall, our evidence suggests that while the mechanism indicated by the theory might be at work, market conditions and concurrent regulation prevented a green paradox from arising. These results have implications for the design of climate policies.

  18. Annotated bibliography of methods for determining sulfur and forms of sulfur in coal and coal-related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chriswell, C.D.; Norton, G.A.; Akhtar, S.S.; Straszheim, W.E.; Markuszewski, R.

    1993-01-01

    Over 400 published papers, presentations at scientific meetings, and reports relating to the determination of sulfur and sulfur forms in coal-related materials have been accumulated, classified, and an evaluation made of their content.

  19. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect

  20. Greening of the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselman, Alice

    1993-01-01

    Changes in our society have led to a turn toward the "greening" of North America. Classrooms are engaging in activities to create environmentally positive changes. The author's personal action plan began with the founding of the Association for Canadian Education Resources, which preserves and shares teaching tools for classrooms. (KS)

  1. The Green Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  2. Green chemistry metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  3. The Green Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Gillem

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available If “green” is an environmental concept applicable to the design and construction of buildings and landscapes, then we should not limit the scope of the concept solely to the natural environment. Rather, we should include key “environments” in which designers operate, including the socio-cultural, political, and natural environments. In this paper, I present a case study in“green” design that expands the scope of the concept and recognizes the interrelationship between these multiple environments. Using recent construction and renovation on the campus of the FirstPresbyterian Church of Berkeley as the case, I show how these environments are mutuallysupportive. Moreover, I argue that if designers simply consider the natural environment, theirlaudable goals may never be realized. In the first part of the paper, I provide a background on the project and its physical and socio-cultural setting. Second, I discuss how the different “environments” were addressed in the planning and design of the project. I then introduce specific“green” strategies that were employed in the design of the new and renovated buildings. These include considering renovation as the first imperative, thinking holistically about the entire campus,and applying a simplified approach to “greening” the buildings. I conclude by offering suggestionsfor future designers interested in reducing the environmental impact of their buildings.Keywords: Sustainability, Adaptive Reuse, Human Context

  4. Raising a "Green Generation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  5. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu...

  6. Another green world:

    OpenAIRE

    Panhuysen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Architect Winy Maas heads a research group known as 'The Why Factory'. According to them, while cutting consumption is all very well, we are too focused on individual 'green' behaviour. We need to think bigger to solve our problems. Big cities are the key to a greener future.

  7. GreenFacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    GreenFacts is a not-for-profit organization that provides plain-language summaries, peer-reviewed by independent experts, of scientific reports on health and environmental topics. The summaries are intended for the use of nonexperts, are presented as questions and answers, and are available at three levels of detail, with the third level using direct quotations from the original text. GreenFacts Digests are summaries of authoritative scientific consensus reports on such topics as agriculture and development, water resources, carbon dioxide capture and storage, and biodiversity; they are available in several languages in addition to English, mainly French and Spanish, sometimes German and Dutch. GreenFacts Co-publications are summaries produced by GreenFacts at the request of an independent scientific organization or public body (e.g., the European Commission) on such topics as electromagnetic fields, dental amalgam, and sunbeds and ultraviolet radiation; most are available in several languages in addition to English, mainly French, German, and Spanish.

  8. Green Team | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Those looking for a cost-effective way to spruce up their yards this spring can stop by the National Cancer Institute at Frederick Green Team’s booth during the Spring Research Festival (SRF) on May 7 and 8. Pick up a free plant, donate overgrown plants from your yard, or swap for a new plant.

  9. Magnetosome-containing bacteria living as symbionts of bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Suzanne C; Laurich, Jason R; Batstone, Rebecca T; McCuaig, Bonita; Elliott, Alexander; Poduska, Kristin M

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria containing magnetosomes (protein-bound nanoparticles of magnetite or greigite) are common to many sedimentary habitats, but have never been found before to live within another organism. Here, we show that octahedral inclusions in the extracellular symbionts of the marine bivalve Thyasira cf. gouldi contain iron, can exhibit magnetic contrast and are most likely magnetosomes. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, T. cf. gouldi symbionts group with symbiotic and free-living sulfur-oxidizing, chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacteria, including the symbionts of other thyasirids. T. cf. gouldi symbionts occur both among the microvilli of gill epithelial cells and in sediments surrounding the bivalves, and are therefore facultative. We propose that free-living T. cf. gouldi symbionts use magnetotaxis as a means of locating the oxic-anoxic interface, an optimal microhabitat for chemolithoautotrophy. T. cf. gouldi could acquire their symbionts from near-burrow sediments (where oxic-anoxic interfaces likely develop due to the host's bioirrigating behavior) using their superextensile feet, which could transfer symbionts to gill surfaces upon retraction into the mantle cavity. Once associated with their host, however, symbionts need not maintain structures for magnetotaxis as the host makes oxygen and reduced sulfur available via bioirrigation and sulfur-mining behaviors. Indeed, we show that within the host, symbionts lose the integrity of their magnetosome chain (and possibly their flagellum). Symbionts are eventually endocytosed and digested in host epithelial cells, and magnetosomes accumulate in host cytoplasm. Both host and symbiont behaviors appear important to symbiosis establishment in thyasirids. PMID:24914799

  10. Global Green USA: Building Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going "green" may be relatively easy for individuals, but how can a building go "green"? It's definitely more complex, and this website from the Global Green USA organization provides a host of resources on this topic. The homepage provides a few basic overviews of relevant questions, including "What makes a product green?" and "Why build green?" There's even a "Planet Green Game", developed by Global Green and Starbucks which seeks to educate individuals and organizations about making meaningful environmentally sound decisions. Moving along, visitors can click on the "Green Building Resources" link to find a thematically organized set of websites, lesson plans, and other items organized into topics like "Energy-Related Resources" and "Project Certifications and Guidelines". The site is rounded out by a series of links that allow visitors to email the group with questions and a place where they can also sign up to receive their newsletter.

  11. Leafy Greens and Your Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Leafy Greens and Your Brain HealthDay March 31, 2015 Related ... study finds adding more spinach and other leafy greens to your diet could slow down cognitive decline ...

  12. Perfluorinated ionomer-enveloped sulfur cathodes for lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jongchan; Choo, Min-Ju; Noh, Hyungjun; Park, Jung-Ki; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2014-12-01

    Nafion is known to suppress the polysulfide (PS) shuttle effect, a major obstacle to achieving high capacity and long cycle life for lithium-sulfur batteries. However, elaborate control of the layer's configuration is required for high performance. In this regard, we designed a Nafion-enveloped sulfur cathode, where the Nafion layer is formed on the skin of the cathode, covering its surface and edge while not restricting the porosity. Discharge capacity and efficiency were enhanced with the enveloping configuration, demonstrating suppression of shuttle. The edge protection exhibited better cycling stability than an edge-open configuration. In the absence of the Nafion envelope, charged sulfur concentrated on the top region of the cathode because of the relatively lower PS concentration at the cathode surface. Surprisingly, for the Nafion-enveloped cathode, sulfur was evenly distributed along the cathode, indicating that the configuration imparts a uniform PS concentration within the cathode. PMID:25358294

  13. Pressurized Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Experiments for the Sulfur-Iodine Thermochemical Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests are being performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control in the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle, and (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment. Acid conversion data are presented at pressures of 6 and 11 bars in the temperature range of 750 - 875 C. The design for an acid decomposer section with heat and mass recovery of undecomposed acid using a direct contact heat exchanger are presented. (authors)

  14. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Chang, John C. S. (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  15. Methane oxidation in presence of sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission of sulfurous gases including SO2 from stationary power generation remains to be a serious environmental and ecological problem. Sulfurous gases are almost entirely produced from the combustion of sulfur-containing fuels. While fuel desulfurization and flue gas scrubbing is a viable solution, in the developing countries it remains to be an economical challenge to implement these SOx reduction technologies. The oxidation of methane in presence of sulfurous gas (SO2) addition was studied experimentally. Te experiments were conducted in a static reactor at temperature of 728-786 K, and for mixture of C4/O2 ? 1/2 at a pressure of 117 Torr with varying amount of SO2 addition. It was observed that SO2 addition accelerated the oxidation process, reduced the induction period and increased the extent of methane consumption. At the relatively short resident time (less than 50 sec) SO3 was detected, but at longer residence time SO3 was reduced spontaneously to SO2

  16. Obtainment of sodium vanadate in sulfuric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the result of a some of the operational variables, in the precipitation of sodium vanadates in sulfuric medium at temperature of 600C, such as: initial Ph of precipitation, solution aging, intensity of agitation, H2SO4 concentration of titration solutions, cooling rate solution after neutralization and addition rate of neutralization solution. (author)

  17. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Richardson, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern U.S. coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992 and all technical work has been completed. This report is based on the research carried out under Tasks 2-7 described in the project proposal. These tasks include Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, In Situ Monitoring of Reagent Adsorption on Pyrite, Bench Scale Testing of the EESR Process, Bench Scale Testing of the PESR Process, and Modeling and Simulation.

  18. An improved intermolecular potential for sulfur hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Second virial coefficient data and viscosity were used to evaluate effective isotropic intermolecular potential functions proposed in the literature for sulfur hexafluoride. It was found that none of the potentials could predict the properties simultaneously. We have constructed a Morse--Morse--Spline--van der Waals (MMSV) potential which satisfactorily correlates second virial coefficient and viscosity data at the same time

  19. Helium and Sulfur Hexafluoride in Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forinash, Kyle; Dixon, Cory L.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of inhaled helium on the human voice were investigated in a recent article in "The Physics Teacher." As mentioned in that article, demonstrations of the effect are a popular classroom activity. If the number of YouTube videos is any indication, the effects of sulfur hexafluoride on the human voice are equally popular.…

  20. Hot-Gas Desulfurization with Sulfur Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop a second generation HGD process that regenerates the sulfided sorbent directly to elemental sulfur using SO2, with minimal consumption of coal gas. The goal is to have better overall economics than DSRP when integrated with the overall IGCC system

  1. High-Sulfur Coal and Acidic Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    KET

    2011-01-11

    In this video, a geologist measures the pH of water after high-sulfur coal from a Kentucky coal mine has been added to it. This test demonstrates that the sulfate salts found on the coal’s surface cause the water to become much more acidic.

  2. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of theses isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separations of 32S vs. 34S were 1.127 for H2S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF4, and 1.058 for CH3SH. Relative volatilities of 32S and 34S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF4. There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H2Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produces separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF4. (author). 8 refs.; 2 tabs

  3. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of these isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separation of 32S vs. 34S were 1.127 for H2S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF4, and 1.058 for CH3SH. Relative volatilities of 32S vs. 34S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF4. There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H2Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produced separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF4. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Muon-spin relaxation in sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report detailed measurements of the temperature dependence of muon-spin relaxation in sulfur. These complement measurements reported earlier [I.D. Reid and S.F.J. Cox, Physica B 289-290 (2000) 620] and allow a fuller comparison with the observations of muoniated radicals seen in selenium [I.D. Reid, et al., Physica B 326 (2003) 89

  5. Sulfur and selen clusters in nanoporous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electrical, and galvanomagnetic studies of nanoporous carbon with sulfur and selenium nanoclusters introduced into pores are analyzed. Conclusions are drawn concerning the short-range order in the introduced clusters and their interaction with carbon

  6. Acquisition of useful and high ability genes for acidophilic bacteria; Kosansei saikin ni takai noryoku wo fuyosuru idenshi no kakutoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, T.; Inoue, C.; Shinbori, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This effort aims at the development of high-performance bacteria usable in bio-leaching in metal smelting by acquiring genes capable of realizing such. A method is used of choosing some isolated strains exhibiting high-performance traits and acquiring target genes therefrom by use of genetic engineering. Approximately 200 kinds in the aggregate of acidophilic bacteria are currently available for the study, including isolated iron-oxidizing and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, standard species acquired for the study, and strains previously isolated by the laboratory. The bacteria are tested with respect to their Fe{sup 2+}-oxidizing rates, sulfur-oxidizing capabilities, and strength to withstand inhibiting substances (Ag{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, Mo{sup 6+}, etc.), which results in the nomination of 8 strains. The study planned to follow includes processes involving the extraction of chromosome DNAs from the 8 strains and their refinement, gene cloning by the Southern hybridization method, determination of their base sequences, determination of the difference between the strains in point of gene expression, and investigations of the relations that the results of these processes bear toward the said high-performance traits. Also under way is a study about the infuence-exerting factors revealed during the evaluation of the abilities of acidphlic bacteria. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    OpenAIRE

    Forester, Sarah C.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidant...

  8. Understanding of Sulfurized Polyacrylonitrile for Superior Performance Lithium/Sulfur Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Sheng S.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfurized polyacrylonitrile (SPAN) is one of the most important sulfurized carbon materials that can potentially be coupled with the carbonaceous anode to fabricate a safe and low cost “all carbon” lithium-ion battery. However, its chemical structure and electrochemical properties have been poorly understood. In this discussion, we analyze the previously published data in combination with our own results to propose a more reasonable chemical structure that consists of short –Sx– ch...

  9. Parameters Influencing Sulfur Speciation in Environmental Samples Using Sulfur K-Edge X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Siwatt Pongpiachan; Kanjana Thumanu; Charnwit Kositanont; Klaus Schwarzer; Amp Xf Rg Prietzel, J.; Phoosak Hirunyatrakul; Itthipon Kittikoon

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to enhance the credibility of applying the sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy as an innovative “fingerprint” for characterizing environmental samples. The sensitivities of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra of ten sulfur compound standards detected by two different detectors, namely, Lytle detector (LyD) and Germanium detector (GeD), were studied and compared. Further investigation on “self-absorption” effect revealed that the maximum sensitivities of sulfur K-edge XANES spectr...

  10. Graphene-Wrapped Sulfur Particles as a Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur-Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hailiang; Yang, Yuan; Liang, Yongye; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Li, Yanguang; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a graphene-sulfur composite material by wrapping polyethyleneglycol (PEG) coated submicron sulfur particles with mildly oxidized graphene oxide sheets decorated by carbon black nanoparticles. The PEG and graphene coating layers are important to accommodating volume expansion of the coated sulfur particles during discharge, trapping soluble polysulfide intermediates and rendering the sulfur particles electrically conducting. The resulting graphene-s...

  11. Green tea increases the survival yield of Bifidobacteria in simulated gastrointestinal environment and during refrigerated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The well–known prebiotics are carbohydrates but their effects may not always be beneficial, as they can also encourage the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Eubacterium biforme and Clostridium perfringens. Therefore, new alternatives such as non-carbohydrate sources to stimulate the growth of probiotics are needed. The aim of this work was to evaluate (I the green tea polyphenols by HPLC-LC/MS and (II the protective effect of green tea extract on viability and stability of B. infantis ATCC 15697 and B. breve ATCC 15700 microencapsulated in chitosan coated alginate microcapsules during exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions and refrigerated storage. Results The major compound identified by HPLC-LC/MS in green tea was epigallocatechin gallate followed by caffeine and epigallocatechin. The survival yield of probiotic bacteria in microcapsules with 10% GT during storage at 4°C, demonstrated significantly (P?B.infantis and B. breve with 5% and 10% GT showed a significantly (P? Conclusions The results of this study suggest that green tea coencapsulated with B. infantis or B. breve exert a protective effect of bacteria during exposure to gastrointestinal conditions and refrigerated storage. For a health perspective, the results confirm the growing interest probiotic bacteria and the perceived benefit of increasing their numbers in the gastrointestinal tract by microencapsulation.

  12. Toxicity of Chromobacterium subtsugae to southern green stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Hirose, Edson; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

    2007-06-01

    Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetles and southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), are pests on corn, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., as well as on cucurbits. Control of these insects has depended on chemicals. An alternative to chemical control is the use of biologicals. Use of bacteria, fungi, viruses, pheromones, and metabolites to control these insects can potentially improve resistance management and reduce pesticide use. Other than Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, few bacteria have been discovered that are lethal to either of these pests. Chromobacterium subtsugae Martin et al., a newly described bacterium that is known to be toxic to Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), larvae, was found to be toxic to both diabroticite adult beetles and southern green stink bug adults. In laboratory assays, toxins produced by these bacteria kill 80-100% of the adults of two species of diabroticite beetles, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber and Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and 100% of southern green stink bug adults within 6 d. For green stink bug, live bacteria were not needed for toxicity. PMID:17598525

  13. Effects of sulfur oxides on eicosanoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.C.; Miller, P.D.; Amdur, M.O. (New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Ultrafine metal oxides and SO2 react during coal combustion or smelting operations to form primary emissions coated with an acidic SOx layer. Ongoing work in this laboratory has examined the effects of sulfur oxides on pulmonary functions of guinea pigs. We have previously reported that 20 micrograms/m3 acidic sulfur oxide as a surface layer on ultrafine ZnO particles decreases lung volumes, decreases carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and causes lung inflammation in guinea pigs after 4 daily 3-h exposures. It also produces bronchial hypersensitivity following a single 1-h exposure. The importance of this surface layer is demonstrated by our observation that 200 micrograms/m3 of sulfuric acid droplets of equivalent size are needed to produce the same degree of hypersensitivity. This study characterized the concentration-dependent effects of in vivo exposures to sulfur oxides on arachidonic acid metabolism in the guinea pig lung, and investigated the time course and the relation between eicosanoid composition and pulmonary functions. We focused specifically on four cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, that is, prostaglandins (PG) E1, F2 alpha, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, and thromboxane (Tx) B2, and two groups of sulfidopeptide leukotrienes (C4, D4, E4, and F4). Guinea pigs were exposed to ultrafine ZnO aerosol (count median diameter = 0.05 microns, sigma g = 1.80) with a layer of acidic sulfur oxide on the surface of the particles. Lung lavage was collected after exposures, and the levels of arachidonic acid metabolites were determined using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Concentration-dependent promotion of PGF2 alpha and concentration-dependent suppression of LtB4 were observed. The increased PGF2 alpha was associated with depressed vital capacity and diffusing capacity of the lungs measured in guinea pigs exposed to the same atmosphere described in a previous study.

  14. Effects of sulfur oxides on eicosanoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafine metal oxides and SO2 react during coal combustion or smelting operations to form primary emissions coated with an acidic SOx layer. Ongoing work in this laboratory has examined the effects of sulfur oxides on pulmonary functions of guinea pigs. We have previously reported that 20 micrograms/m3 acidic sulfur oxide as a surface layer on ultrafine ZnO particles decreases lung volumes, decreases carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and causes lung inflammation in guinea pigs after 4 daily 3-h exposures. It also produces bronchial hypersensitivity following a single 1-h exposure. The importance of this surface layer is demonstrated by our observation that 200 micrograms/m3 of sulfuric acid droplets of equivalent size are needed to produce the same degree of hypersensitivity. This study characterized the concentration-dependent effects of in vivo exposures to sulfur oxides on arachidonic acid metabolism in the guinea pig lung, and investigated the time course and the relation between eicosanoid composition and pulmonary functions. We focused specifically on four cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, that is, prostaglandins (PG) E1, F2 alpha, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, and thromboxane (Tx) B2, and two groups of sulfidopeptide leukotrienes (C4, D4, E4, and F4). Guinea pigs were exposed to ultrafine ZnO aerosol (count median diameter = 0.05 microns, sigma g = 1.80) with a layer of acidic sulfur oxide on the surface of the particles. Lung lavage was collece of the particles. Lung lavage was collected after exposures, and the levels of arachidonic acid metabolites were determined using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Concentration-dependent promotion of PGF2 alpha and concentration-dependent suppression of LtB4 were observed. The increased PGF2 alpha was associated with depressed vital capacity and diffusing capacity of the lungs measured in guinea pigs exposed to the same atmosphere described in a previous study

  15. Consistency Between Measurements and Theory for Sulfur Gases and Oxidants During the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikes, B. G.; Higbie, A.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Bandy, A. R.; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, C.; Anderson, R. S.; Campos, T.; Huebert, B.; Bloomquist, B.; Wang, Y.; Heizer, C. G.; Pollack, I. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Airborne gas phase measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, dimethylsulfoxide, methane sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, hydroxyl, perhydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide, ozone, and carbon monoxide together with aerosol microphysical properties and bulk and size-dependent aerosol composition are examined for consistency with photochemical theory. The observations come from 14 research flights using the NCAR C-130 flown mostly southeast of Kiritimati in relatively cloud-free marine boundary layer air. This region was chosen because of its extremely low nitrogen oxide mixing ratios and minimal horizontal gradients in composition. A size-dependent gas-particle mass-transfer model is used to calculate the exchange rates of dimethylsulfoxide, methanesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid between the gas and aerosol. Gas kinetic reactions, aqueous reactions, and heterogeneous processes are used in the evaluation. Mass accommodation coefficients, Henry's Law solubilities, and the effective yields of methanesulfonic acid, sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid and dimethylsulfoxide from dimethylsulfide are estimated and consistent with the literature. Gas phase hydroxyl chemistry alone is sufficient to explain observed methanesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid vapor concentrations.

  16. A new study of an old sink of sulfur in hot molecular cores: the sulfur residue

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Paul M; Viti, Serena; Kanuchova, Z; Palumbo, Maria Elisabetta; Price, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur appears to be depleted by an order of magnitude or more from its elemental abundance in star-forming regions. In the last few years, numerous observations and experiments have been performed in order to to understand the reasons behind this depletion without providing a satisfactory explanation of the sulfur chemistry towards high-mass star-forming cores. Several sulfur-bearing molecules have been observed in these regions, and yet none are abundant enough to make up the gas-phase deficit. Where, then, does this hidden sulfur reside? This paper represents a step forward in our understanding of the interactions among the various S-bearing species. We have incorporated recent experimental and theoretical data into a chemical model of a hot molecular core in order to see whether they give any indication of the identity of the sulfur sink in these dense regions. Despite our model producing reasonable agreement with both solid-phase and gas-phase abundances of many sulfur-bearing species, we find that the s...

  17. Green mortgages in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since November 1996 sustainable building of houses is also part of the fiscal Regulation for Green Projects (i.e. the stimulation of environment-friendly investments). The extension of that financial regulation resulted in a new product: Green Mortgages. The conditions that have to be met to be qualified for a Green Mortgage are briefly outlined

  18. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  19. Humic sulfur in eutrophic bay sediments: Characterization by sulfur stable isotopes and K-edge XANES spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Chen, Liang-Jin; Yang, Gui-Peng; Huang, Xiang-Li; Ma, Chen-Yan

    2014-02-01

    Organic sulfur (OS) is an important sedimentary sulfur pool in marine sediments and chemical extractions are often used for quantification of various OS pools, however, OS sources and mechanisms of OS formation are not well understood. In this study, sulfur stable isotope and sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy were combined to investigate the sources and speciation of humic-acid sulfur (HA-S) and fulvic-acid sulfur (FA-S) in sediments of eutrophic Jiaozhou Bay. Whilst there may be some indication that eutrophication has enhanced FA-S burial in the sediment, this has not substantially modified the characteristically low humic sulfur (i.e., HA-S + FA-S) contents of the sediments. Sulfur isotopic compositions indicate that both HA-S and FA-S are mixtures of diagenetic and biosynthetic OS in origin; HA-S is dominated by biosynthetic sulfur and FA-S by diagenetic source. Sulfur isotopic compositions and contents of pyrite and diagenetic OS indicate that inhibition of sulfurization by pyrite formation, if any, appears insignificant. XANES analysis suggests that the contents of high oxidized OS (i.e., sulfones and ester-sulfates) and strongly reduced OS species are comparable in the HA-S, whereas the FA-S is dominated by strongly reduced OS as a result of enhanced sulfurization.

  20. The Fate of Sulfur in Late-Stage Magmatic Processes: Insights From Quadruple Sulfur Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, N. S.; Ono, S.; Shaw, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    Multiple sulfur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) have recently been shown to be useful tracers of fluid-rock interaction in seafloor hydrothermal systems [1]. Here we present the application of multiple sulfur isotopes to subaerial volcanoes with the aim of unraveling the various processes fractionating sulfur in the upper volcanic system. We take advantage of the fact that the ascent of volcanic gases through a hydrothermal system causes complex isotopic fractionation between the quaduple sulfur isotopes. ?34S is thought to trace the source of sulfur as well as magma degassing; at equilibrium, ?33S follows a mass-dependent fractionation relationship such that two phases in equilibrium with each other have equal ?33S values (?33S ? ln(?33S+1) - 0.515×ln(?34S+1)). Disequilibrium ?33S values can indicate isotope mixing and other fluid-rock interactions. The ultimate aim of this study is to assess the use of quadruple sulfur isotopes to obtain quantitative information on the sulfur cycle at convergent plate margins. The sulfur mass balance at convergent margins is poorly constrained, partly because late-stage processes are challenging to quantify and lead to large uncertainties in the global output fluxes. Quadruple sulfur isotopes provide a powerful tool to untangle the convoluted history of volcanic systems. Here we report the first quadruple sulfur isotopic values for H2S, SO2 and native sulfur from arc volcanoes. Fumarolic gases (˜100°C) and sulfur sublimates were collected from Poas and Turrialba, two actively degassing volcanoes in Costa Rica. The gases were bubbled in situ through chemical traps to separate H2S from SO2: H2S was reacted to form ZnS, and SO2 to form BaSO4. Sulfur was chemically extracted from the solid phases and precipitated as Ag2S, which was fluorinated to SF6 and analysed by IRMS. Poas and Turrialba have H2S/SO2 ˜1 and 0.01, respectively. ?34SH2S and ?34SSO2 are similar to gases measured at other arcs [2], - 7.9‰ and 0.6‰ for Poas, and -8.5‰ and +9‰ for Turrialba, likely reflecting a mixture of mantle (?34S = 0‰) and slab sources which have been degassed to variable degrees. Sulfur sublimate values are similar to those for H2S. ?33S values are different within each H2S/SO2 pair (?33SH2S and ?33SSO2 are -0.01‰ and -0.02‰ for Poas, 0‰ and -0.07‰ for Turrialba), indicating that at Turrialba, the two gas species are not in isotopic equilibrium. Reaction of the gases with mineral phases, such as sulfur-bearing alteration products in the volcanic edifice (e.g., alunite, anhydrite, sulfides) may explain these differences. [1] Ono et al. (2007), GCA 70 1170-1182, [2] Taylor (1986), RiM 16 185-225