WorldWideScience

Sample records for glucose analogs measured

  1. Liver kinetics of glucose analogs measured in pigs by PET: importance of dual-input blood sampling.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Bass, L

    2001-01-01

    Metabolic processes studied by PET are quantified traditionally using compartmental models, which relate the time course of the tracer concentration in tissue to that in arterial blood. For liver studies, the use of arterial input may, however, cause systematic errors to the estimated kinetic parameters, because of ignorance of the dual blood supply from the hepatic artery and the portal vein to the liver. METHODS: Six pigs underwent PET after [15O]carbon monoxide inhalation, 3-O-[11C]methylglucose (MG) injection, and [18F]FDG injection. For the glucose scans, PET data were acquired for 90 min. Hepatic arterial and portal venous blood samples and flows were measured during the scan. The dual-input function was calculated as the flow-weighted input. RESULTS: For both MG and FDG, the compartmental analysis using arterial input led to systematic underestimation of the rate constants for rapid blood-tissue exchange. Furthermore, the arterial input led to absurdly low estimates for the extracellular volume compared with the independently measured hepatic blood volume of 0.25 +/- 0.01 mL/mL (milliliter blood per milliliter liver tissue). In contrast, the use of a dual-input function provided parameter estimates that were in agreement with liver physiology. Using the dual-input function, the clearances into the liver cells (K1 = 1.11 +/- 0.11 mL/min/mL for MG; K1 = 1.07 +/- 0.19 mL/min/mL for FDG) were comparable with the liver blood flow (F = 1.02 +/- 0.05 mL/min/mL). As required physiologically, the extracellular volumes estimated using the dual-input function were larger than the hepatic blood volume. The linear Gjedde-Patlak analysis produced parameter estimates that were unaffected by the choice of input function, because this analysis was confined to time scales for which the arterial-input and dual-input functions were very similar. CONCLUSION: Compartmental analysis of MG and FDG kinetics using dynamic PET data requires measurements of dual-input activity concentrations. Using the dual-input function, physiologically reasonable parameter estimates of K1, k2, and Vp were obtained, whereas the use of conventional arterial sampling underestimated these parameters compared with independent measurements of hepatic flow and hepatic blood volume. In contrast, the linear Gjedde-Patlak analysis, being less informative but more robust, gave similar parameter estimates (K, V) with both input functions. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-May

  2. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, H E; Gjedde, A

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [14C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation o...

  3. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [14C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  4. Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

  5. Analog to Digital Conversion in Physical Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kapitaniak, T.; Zyczkowski, K.; Feudel, U.; Grebogi, C.

    1999-01-01

    There exist measuring devices where an analog input is converted into a digital output. Such converters can have a nonlinear internal dynamics. We show how measurements with such converting devices can be understood using concepts from symbolic dynamics. Our approach is based on a nonlinear one-to-one mapping between the analog input and the digital output of the device. We analyze the Bernoulli shift and the tent map which are realized in specific analog/digital converters....

  6. Cancer detection by F-18 fluorinated glucose analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) and 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-mannose (18F-FDM) were tested as tumor diagnostic agents in transplanted rat and rabbit tumors. Tissue distribution studies of rat showed high tumor uptake and low normal tissue uptakes of the the radiopharmaceuticals. Autoradiograms of the whole rats also showed high tumor radioactivity. Positron emission tomography of rabbit tumor delineated clearly the tumor and metastatic lymphnodes. These data showed that both agents were excellent cancer diagnostic agents

  7. Glucose concentration measurement using photoacoustic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Guodong; Ren, Zhong; Zeng, Lvming

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a noninvasive photoacoustic measurement setup was established to simple simulate the glucose concentration measurement. The PPA signal excited by a pulsed tunable wavelength laser can be used to determine the glucose concentration in solution. By building the multiple linear regression (MLR) model for the peak valves of the PPA signal at five characteristic absorption wavelengths, the relative error of prediction is less than 20% and the absolute error is less than 33mg/dL.

  8. Analog to Digital Conversion in Physical Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitaniak, T; Feudel, U; Grebogi, C

    1999-01-01

    There exist measuring devices where an analog input is converted into a digital output. Such converters can have a nonlinear internal dynamics. We show how measurements with such converting devices can be understood using concepts from symbolic dynamics. Our approach is based on a nonlinear one-to-one mapping between the analog input and the digital output of the device. We analyze the Bernoulli shift and the tent map which are realized in specific analog/digital converters. Furthermore, we discuss the sources of errors that are inevitable in physical realizations of such systems and suggest methods for error reduction.

  9. Potent humanin analog increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through enhanced metabolism in the ? cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kuliawat, Regina; Klein, Laura; Gong, Zhenwei; Nicoletta-Gentile, Marianna; NEMKAL, ANJANA; Cui, Lingguang; Bastie, Claire; Su, Kai; Huffman, Derek; Surana, Manju; Barzilai, Nir; Fleischer, Norman; Muzumdar, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    Humanin (HN) is a 24-aa polypeptide that offers protection from Alzheimer's disease and myocardial infarction, increases insulin sensitivity, improves survival of ? cells, and delays onset of diabetes. Here we examined the acute effects of HN on insulin secretion and potential mechanisms through which they are mediated. Effects of a potent HN analog, HNGF6A, on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) were assessed in vivo and in isolated pancreatic islets and cultured murine ? cell line (...

  10. Activity of P536, a UDP-glucose analog, against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcina, A.; Fresno, M.; Alarcon, B.

    1988-09-01

    P536, a UDP-glucose analog which was previously described as an antiviral agent, has a potent and selective activity against the intracellular and extracellular stages of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. It had a 50% inhibitory concentration of less than 5 micrograms/ml for T. cruzi extracellular cultured forms (epimastigote) and of 25 micrograms/ml for T. cruzi intracellular forms (amastigote) growing inside J774G8 macrophage-like cells. In contrast, the 50% inhibitory concentration was 100 micrograms/ml or greater for cultured mammalian cells and 180 micrograms/ml for the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes. Furthermore, the addition of P536 (50 micrograms/ml) to T. cruzi-infected J774G8 cells cured the infected macrophages, making them able to grow and function normally. Studies on the mechanism of action of this drug indicated that it inhibited incorporation of (TVS)methionine, (TH)thymidine, (TH)mannose, ( UC)-N-acetylglucosamine, and (TH)uridine into macromolecules by T. cruzi epimastigotes, the last being the most sensitive.

  11. Activity of P536, a UDP-glucose analog, against Trypanosoma cruzi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P536, a UDP-glucose analog which was previously described as an antiviral agent, has a potent and selective activity against the intracellular and extracellular stages of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. It had a 50% inhibitory concentration of less than 5 micrograms/ml for T. cruzi extracellular cultured forms (epimastigote) and of 25 micrograms/ml for T. cruzi intracellular forms (amastigote) growing inside J774G8 macrophage-like cells. In contrast, the 50% inhibitory concentration was 100 micrograms/ml or greater for cultured mammalian cells and 180 micrograms/ml for the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes. Furthermore, the addition of P536 (50 micrograms/ml) to T. cruzi-infected J774G8 cells cured the infected macrophages, making them able to grow and function normally. Studies on the mechanism of action of this drug indicated that it inhibited incorporation of [35S]methionine, [3H]thymidine, [3H]mannose, [14C]-N-acetylglucosamine, and [3H]uridine into macromolecules by T. cruzi epimastigotes, the last being the most sensitive

  12. A new application of electrical impedance spectroscopy for measuring glucose metabolism: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Glucose metabolism relates to biochemical processes in living organisms and plays an important role in diabetes and cancer-metastasis. Although many methods are available for measuring glucose metabolism-activities, from simple blood tests to positron emission tomography, currently there is no robust and affordable device that enables monitoring of glucose levels in real-time. In this study we tested feasibility of applying a unique resonance-frequency based electronic impedance spectroscopy (REIS) device that has been, recently developed to measure and monitor glucose metabolism levels using a phantom study. In this new testing model, a multi-frequency electrical signal sequence is applied and scanned through the subject. When the positive reactance of an inductor inside the device cancels out the negative reactance of the capacitance of the subject, the electrical impedance reaches a minimum value and this frequency is defined as the resonance frequency. The REIS system has a 24-bit analog-to-digital signal convertor and a frequency-resolution of 100Hz. In the experiment, two probes are placed inside a 100cc container initially filled with distilled water. As we gradually added liquid-glucose in increments of 1cc (250mg), we measured resonance frequencies and minimum electrical signal values (where A/D was normalized to a full scale of 1V). The results showed that resonance frequencies monotonously decreased from 243kHz to 178kHz, while the minimum voltages increased from 405mV to 793mV as the added amount of glucose increased from 0 to 5cc. The study demonstrated the feasibility of applying this new REIS technology to measure and/or monitor glucose levels in real-time in future.

  13. Portal glucose infusion-glucose clamp measures hepatic influence on postprandial systemic glucose appearance as well as whole body glucose disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Dan; Ionut, Viorica; Mooradian, Vahe; Stefanovski, Darko; Richard N. Bergman

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the liver, through both glucose production and uptake, on systemic glucose appearance cannot be readily studied in a classical glucose clamp because hepatic glucose metabolism is regulated not only by portal insulin and glucose levels but also portal glucose delivery (the portal signal). In the present study, we modified the classical glucose clamp by giving exogenous glucose through portal vein, the “portal glucose infusion (PoG)-glucose clamp”, to determine the net hepati...

  14. Glucose production, gluconeogenesis, and hepatic tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes measured by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of a single glucose derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Eunsook S.; Jones, John G.; Merritt, Matthew; Burgess, Shawn C.; Malloy, Craig R.; Sherry, A.Dean

    2004-01-01

    A triple-tracer method was developed to provide absolute fluxes contributing to endogenous glucose production and hepatic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle fluxes in 24-h-fasted rats by 2H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of a single glucose derivative. A primed, intravenous [3,4-13C2]glucose infusion was used to measure endogenous glucose production; intraperitoneal 2H2O (to enrich total body water) was used to quantify sources of glucose (TCA cycle, glycerol, and glycogen), an...

  15. Comparison of extracellular and net glucose oxidation measured isotopically and by indirect calorimetry during high and low glucose turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, M.M.; Marsh, H.M.; Rizza, R.A. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1991-05-01

    To determine the extent to which glucose oxidation measured by indirect calorimetry reflects glucose oxidation measured isotopically, subjects were studied during a 6-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (1 mU.kg-1.min-1) and during infusion of saline. (6-{sup 14}C)glucose was infused on both occasions. Breath was collected for determination of the specific activity of carbon dioxide, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production. Glucose turnover during hyperinsulinemia was approximately eightfold higher than during saline infusion. During the final 1.5 h of the hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp, oxidation measured isotopically remained slightly but consistently lower (P less than 0.05) than that measured by indirect calorimetry (13.8 +/- 1.1 vs 16.5 +/- 1.7 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively). In contrast, during the saline infusion, glucose oxidation measured isotopically did not differ from that measured by indirect calorimetry (8.3 +/- 0.6 vs 7.2 +/- 2.8 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively). We conclude that although net glucose oxidation measured isotopically was slightly lower than that measured by indirect calorimetry, both techniques provide similar estimates of glucose oxidation over a wide range of glucose disposal.

  16. Comparison of extracellular and net glucose oxidation measured isotopically and by indirect calorimetry during high and low glucose turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the extent to which glucose oxidation measured by indirect calorimetry reflects glucose oxidation measured isotopically, subjects were studied during a 6-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (1 mU.kg-1.min-1) and during infusion of saline. [6-14C]glucose was infused on both occasions. Breath was collected for determination of the specific activity of carbon dioxide, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production. Glucose turnover during hyperinsulinemia was approximately eightfold higher than during saline infusion. During the final 1.5 h of the hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp, oxidation measured isotopically remained slightly but consistently lower (P less than 0.05) than that measured by indirect calorimetry (13.8 +/- 1.1 vs 16.5 +/- 1.7 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively). In contrast, during the saline infusion, glucose oxidation measured isotopically did not differ from that measured by indirect calorimetry (8.3 +/- 0.6 vs 7.2 +/- 2.8 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively). We conclude that although net glucose oxidation measured isotopically was slightly lower than that measured by indirect calorimetry, both techniques provide similar estimates of glucose oxidation over a wide range of glucose disposal

  17. Subcutaneous capillary filtrate collector for measurement of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, S R; Poulos, J T; Rainier, J B; Zopp, W E; Janle, E; Kissinger, P T

    1992-01-01

    The capillary filtrate collector (CFC) is a device that creates an ultrafiltrate at 50-100 microliters/h from subcutaneous capillaries, and carries this filtrate out of the body for chemical analysis. From inside out, components include three looped hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes, a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) cuff, polyurethane tubing, a "Y" connector leading to a sampling port, a hub, and a needle placed into a 5 ml vacutainer tube. Animal studies have demonstrated that the CFC filtrate glucose level is exactly that of blood at the time the filtrate is created. The authors have performed clinical trials to determine the correlation of blood glucose and CFC glucose levels, and the time delay between contemporary samples. Seven diabetic patients wore the CFC device, tubing, and vacutainer tube for 1 month. In home monitored diabetic patients, fingerstick glucose measurements were performed at the usual daily schedule. The vacutainer was then evacuated, and this average sample analyzed and compared with the average of prior blood glucose levels. An optical device then was applied to measure the linear velocity of CFC fluid through external tubing, and predict the time for fluid to pass from fibers to the sampling port (average, 25 min). Capillary filtrate collector samples drawn at this time had glucose concentrations that generally correlated with blood levels. In diabetic patients on hemodialysis, the vacutainer was evacuated at the start of each treatment, and CFC and blood samples were drawn every 20 min during the treatment. Comparison of glucose-versus-time curves indicated a reasonable correlation between blood and CFC samples, with a delay related to flow rate (which declined 50% during dialysis).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1457893

  18. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of boronate derivatives to determine glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, J H

    2000-06-01

    A novel investigation into the fluorescence lifetimes of molecules, both established and newly designed, was performed. These molecules are the basis of a continuous, minimally invasive, glucose sensor based on fluorescence lifetime measurements. This sensor, if coupled with an automated insulin delivery device, would effectively create an artificial pancreas allowing for the constant monitoring and control of glucose levels in a person with diabetes. The proposed sensor includes a fluorescent molecule that changes its' fluorescence properties upon binding selectively and reversibly to glucose. One possible sensor molecule is N-methyl-N-(9-methylene anthryl)-2-methylenephenylboronic acid (AB). The fluorescence intensity of AB was shown to change in response to changing glucose concentrations. (James, 1994) James proposed that when glucose binds to AB the fluorescence intensity increases due to an enhancement of the N{yields}B dative bond which prevents photoinduced electron transfer (PET). PET from the amine (N) to the fluorophore (anthracene) quenches the fluorescence. The dative bond between the boron and the amine can prevent PET by involving the lone pair of electrons on the amine in interactions with the boron rather than allowing them to be transferred to the fluorophore. Results of this research show the average fluorescence lifetime of AB also changes with glucose concentration. It is proposed that fluorescence is due to two components: (1) AB with an enhanced N{yields}B interaction, and no PET, and (2) AB with a weak N{yields}B interaction, resulting in fluorescence quenching by PET. Lifetime measurements of AB as a function of both the pH of the solvent and glucose concentration in the solution were made to characterize this two component system and investigate the nature of the N{yields}B bond. Measurements of molecules similar to AB were also performed in order to isolate behavior of specific AB constituents. These molecules are 9-(Methylaminomethyl)-anthracene (MAMA), and N-benzyl-N-methyl-N-methyl anthracene (AB-B). Fluorescence lifetime measurements confirmed the two species of AB, with and without PET. Fluorescence lifetimes were approximately 11 nsec without PET and 3 nsec with PET. The degree of the interaction between the N and the B atoms was also determined by fluorescence lifetime measurements. Electron transfer rates of AB were measured to be on the order of 10{sup 8} sec{sup -1}. Analysis of AB as a glucose sensor shows it has the potential for measuring glucose concentrations in solution with less than 5% error. Two novel glucose sensing molecules, Chloro-oxazone boronate (COB) and Napthyl-imide boronate (NIB), were synthesized. Both molecules have a N{yields}B dative bond similar to AB, but with longer wavelength fluorophores. COB and NIB were found to be unacceptable for use as glucose sensor molecules due to the small changes in average fluorescence lifetime.

  19. Contribution to a decision making model for analogical measurement validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In limits of studies taken on validity of analogic measures in nuclear power plant's operation, the present thesis takes aim at establishment of a model to reaching a decision on the indice of probability on measures obtained by preliminary validation system. In a first step, it is proposed to retain a system made by redundant measures in which the calcul of measures is based on the coherence between measures themselves and logic vote. In the second step, one equation is proposed to compute the index of probability of measures taken in account, the characteristics of the system

  20. Noninvasive blood glucose measurement using multiple laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, E. T.; Zhang, X. Q.; Chen, J. H.; Soh, P. H.; Ng, K.; Yeo, J. H.

    2007-02-01

    In the event of diabetes clinicians have advocated that frequent monitoring of a diabetic's blood glucose level is the key to avoid future complications (kidney failure, blindness, amputations, premature death, etc.,) associated with the disease. While the test-strip glucose meters available in current consumer markets allow for frequent monitoring, a more convenient technique that is accurate, painless and sample-free is preferable in a diabetic's daily routine. This paper presents a non-invasive blood glucose measurement technique using diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) signals. This technique uses a set of laser diodes, each operating at fixed wavelengths in the first overtone region. The NIR signals from the laser diodes are channeled to the measurement site viz., the nail-bed by means of optical fibers. A series of in vivo experiments have been performed on eight normal human subjects using a standard Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) protocol. The reflected NIR signals are inputs to a Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm for calibration and future predictions. The calibration models used are developed using in vivo datasets and are unique to a particular individual. The 1218 paired points collected from the eight test subjects plotted on the Clarke Error Grid, revealed that 87.3% of these points fall within the A zone while the remainder, within the B zone, both of which, are clinically accepted. The standard error of prediction was +/-13.14mg/dL for the best calibration model. A Bland-Altman analysis of the 1218 paired points yields a 76.3% confidence level for a measurement accuracy of +/-20mg/dL. These results demonstrate the initial potential of the technique for non-invasive blood glucose measurements in vivo.

  1. Blood glucose measurement by using hollow optical fiber-based attenuated total reflection probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Tanaka, Yuki; Matsuura, Yuji

    2014-05-01

    A noninvasive glucose monitoring system based on mid-infrared, attenuated total reflection spectroscopy using a hollow optical fiber probe is developed. Owing to the flexible fiber probe, measurement of oral mucosa, where blood capillaries are near the skin surface, is possible. Blood glucose levels are measured by detecting the peak intensity of glucose absorption bands, and the experimental results showed that the reproducibility of the measurement is high enough for monitoring blood glucose.

  2. Investigation of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) was studied as a glucose analog for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism. Myocardial uptake and retention, blood clearance, species dependence (dog, monkey, man), and effect of diet on uptake were investigated. Normal myocardial uptake of FDG was 3 to 4% of injected dose in dog and monkey, and 1 to 4% in man, compared with brain uptakes of 1.5 to 3% in dog, 5 to 6% in monkey, and 4 to 8% in man. The myocardial metabolic rate (MR) for glucose in the nonfasting (glycolytic) state was 2.8 times that in the fasting (ketogenic) state. Human subjects showed higher myocardial uptake after a normal meal than after a meal containing mostly free fatty acids (FFA). Blood clearance was rapid with initial clearance t/sub 1/2/ of 0.2 to 0.3 min, followed by a t/sub 1/2/ of 8.4 +- 1.2 min in dog and 11.6 +- 1.1 min in man. A small third component had half-times of 59 +- 10 min and 88 +- 4 min in dog and man, respectively. With the ECAT positron tomograph, high image-contrast ratios were found between heart and blood (dog 3.5/1, man 14/1), heart and lung (dog 9/1, man 20/1), and heart and liver (dog 15/1, man 10/1). The FDG was taken up rapidly by the myocardium without any significant tissue clearance over a 4-hr period. The FDG exhibited excellent imaging properties. Average counting rates of 12K, 20K, and 40K c/min-mCi injected are obtained in human subjects with high, medium, and low resolutions of the ECAT tomograph. Determination of glucose and FFA MR in vivo with EACT provides a method for investigation and assessment of changing aerobic and anaerobic metabolic rates in ischemic heart disease in man

  3. Investigation of (/sup 18/F)2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Selin, C.; Huang, S.C.; Robinson, G.; MacDonald, N.; Schelbert, H.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1978-12-01

    Fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) was studied as a glucose analog for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism. Myocardial uptake and retention, blood clearance, species dependence (dog, monkey, man), and effect of diet on uptake were investigated. Normal myocardial uptake of FDG was 3 to 4% of injected dose in dog and monkey, and 1 to 4% in man, compared with brain uptakes of 1.5 to 3% in dog, 5 to 6% in monkey, and 4 to 8% in man. The myocardial metabolic rate (MR) for glucose in the nonfasting (glycolytic) state was 2.8 times that in the fasting (ketogenic) state. Human subjects showed higher myocardial uptake after a normal meal than after a meal containing mostly free fatty acids (FFA). Blood clearance was rapid with initial clearance t/sub 1/2/ of 0.2 to 0.3 min, followed by a t/sub 1/2/ of 8.4 +- 1.2 min in dog and 11.6 +- 1.1 min in man. A small third component had half-times of 59 +- 10 min and 88 +- 4 min in dog and man, respectively. With the ECAT positron tomograph, high image-contrast ratios were found between heart and blood (dog 3.5/1, man 14/1), heart and lung (dog 9/1, man 20/1), and heart and liver (dog 15/1, man 10/1). The FDG was taken up rapidly by the myocardium without any significant tissue clearance over a 4-hr period. The FDG exhibited excellent imaging properties. Average counting rates of 12K, 20K, and 40K c/min-mCi injected are obtained in human subjects with high, medium, and low resolutions of the ECAT tomograph. Determination of glucose and FFA MR in vivo with EACT provides a method for investigation and assessment of changing aerobic and anaerobic metabolic rates in ischemic heart disease in man.

  4. Variability of capillary blood glucose monitoring measured on home glucose monitoring devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kotwal, Narendra; Pandit, Aditi

    2012-01-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose helps achieve glycemic goals. Glucometers must be accurate. Many variables affect blood glucose levels. Factors are analytical variables (intrinsic to glucometer and glucose strips) and pre analytical related to patients. Analytical variables depend on factors like shelf life, amount of blood and enzymatic reactions. Preanalytical variables include pH of blood, hypoxia, hypotension, hematocrit etc. CGMS has the potential to revolutionise diabetes care but accu...

  5. Measurement of Monosaccharides and Conversion of Glucose to Acetate in Anoxic Rice Field Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Chidthaisong, Amnat; Rosenstock, Bernd; Conrad, Ralf

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of glucose has been implicated in acetate production in rice field soil, but the abundance of glucose, the temporal change of glucose turnover, and the relationship between glucose and acetate catabolism are not well understood. We therefore measured the pool sizes of glucose and acetate in rice field soil and investigated the turnover of [U-14C]glucose and [2-14C]acetate. Acetate accumulated up to about 2 mM during days 5 to 10 after flooding of the soil. Subsequently, methanogen...

  6. Development of a fluorescent method for simultaneous measurement of glucose concentrations in interstitial fluid and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring is of great clinical significance to patients with diabetes. One of the effective methods to monitor blood glucose is to measure glucose concentrations of interstitial fluid (ISF). However, a time-delay problem exists between ISF and blood glucose concentrations, which results in difficulty in indicating real-time blood glucose concentrations. Therefore, we developed a fluorescent method to verify the accuracy and reliability of simultaneous ISF and blood glucose measurement, especially incorporating it into research on the delay relationship between blood and ISF glucose changes. This method is based on a competitive reaction among borate polymer, alizarin and glucose. When glucose molecules combine with borate polymers in alizarin–borate polymer competitively, changes in fluorescence intensity demonstrate changes in glucose concentrations. By applying the measured results to the blood and ISF glucose delay relationship, we were able to calculate the time delay as an average of 2.16 ± 2.05 min for ISF glucose changes with reference to blood glucose concentrations. (paper)

  7. Development of a fluorescent method for simultaneous measurement of glucose concentrations in interstitial fluid and blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Chen, Limin; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2013-12-01

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring is of great clinical significance to patients with diabetes. One of the effective methods to monitor blood glucose is to measure glucose concentrations of interstitial fluid (ISF). However, a time-delay problem exists between ISF and blood glucose concentrations, which results in difficulty in indicating real-time blood glucose concentrations. Therefore, we developed a fluorescent method to verify the accuracy and reliability of simultaneous ISF and blood glucose measurement, especially incorporating it into research on the delay relationship between blood and ISF glucose changes. This method is based on a competitive reaction among borate polymer, alizarin and glucose. When glucose molecules combine with borate polymers in alizarin-borate polymer competitively, changes in fluorescence intensity demonstrate changes in glucose concentrations. By applying the measured results to the blood and ISF glucose delay relationship, we were able to calculate the time delay as an average of 2.16 ± 2.05 min for ISF glucose changes with reference to blood glucose concentrations.

  8. Relationship between fluctuations in glucose levels measured by continuous glucose monitoring and vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torimoto Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in blood glucose level cause endothelial dysfunction and play a critical role in onset and/or progression of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that fluctuation in blood glucose levels correlate with vascular endothelial dysfunction and that this relationship can be assessed using common bedside medical devices. Methods Fluctuations in blood glucose levels were measured over 24?hours by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM on admission day 2 in 57 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reactive hyperemia index (RHI, an index of vascular endothelial function, was measured using peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT on admission day 3. Results The natural logarithmic-scaled RHI (L_RHI correlated with SD (r=?0.504; PPP=0.001 and percentage of time ?200?mg/dl (r=?0.292; P=0.028. In 12 patients with hypoglycemia, L_RHI also correlated with the percentage of time at hypoglycemia (r=?0.589; P=0.044. L_RHI did not correlate with HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, L_RHI did not correlate with LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels or with systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Finally, multivariate analysis identified MAGE as the only significant determinant of L_RHI. Conclusions Fluctuations in blood glucose levels play a significant role in vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Trial registration UMIN000007581

  9. Application of novel notched long-period fiber grating for glucose concentration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Cheng; Wu, Janw-Wei; Chiang, Chia-Chin

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose using notched long-period fiber grating (NLPFG) fabricated by inductively coupled plasma etching for glucose concentration measurements. The experimental results show that the wavelengths varied linearly with differing glucose concentrations. The sensitivity of the NLPFG glucose concentration sensor is -0.147 nm/wt % from 0-40 wt % and the linearity (R2) is 0.938. The results demonstrate that the proposed NLPFG has potential for high-sensitivity glucose concentration sensor applications.

  10. Blood glucose measurement by glucometer in comparison with standard method in diagnosis of neonatal hypoglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemia is considered as a serious risk factor in neonates. In the majority of cases, it occurs with no clinical symptoms. Accordingly, early diagnosis is extremely imperative, which can also lead to less morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of screening blood glucose using glucometer (known as a quick and cost-effective diagnostic test in comparison with laboratory method. A total of 219 neonates at risk of hypoglycemia were included in this study. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and laboratory. In addition glucose level of capillary blood was measured by glucometer at the same time. Sensitivity and specificity of capillary blood glucose measurement by glucometer were 83.5%, 97.5% respectively (ppv=80%, (npv=98%. Capillary blood glucose measured by glucometer has an acceptable sensitivity and specificity in measurement of neonatal blood glucose. Therefore measurement by glucometer is recommended as a proper diagnostic test.

  11. Blood glucose measurement by glucometer in comparison with standard method in diagnosis of neonatal hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Fatemeh; Shariat, Mamak; Mousavi Behbahani, Hamid Modarres; Dehghan, Padideh; Ebrahim, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is considered as a serious risk factor in neonates. In the majority of cases, it occurs with no clinical symptoms. Accordingly, early diagnosis is extremely imperative, which can also lead to less morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of screening blood glucose using glucometer (known as a quick and cost-effective diagnostic test) in comparison with laboratory method. A total of 219 neonates at risk of hypoglycemia were included in this study. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and laboratory. In addition glucose level of capillary blood was measured by glucometer at the same time. Sensitivity and specificity of capillary blood glucose measurement by glucometer were 83.5%, 97.5% respectively (ppv=80%), (npv=98%). Capillary blood glucose measured by glucometer has an acceptable sensitivity and specificity in measurement of neonatal blood glucose. Therefore measurement by glucometer is recommended as a proper diagnostic test. PMID:25149886

  12. A New Digit Positioning Method for Analog Measuring Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Wei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For the automatic digit positioning of analogy measuring instruments, a positioning method based on coordinate transformation which has practical application is brought forward. And for the present, the mostly used ways for this field are method based on Hough transform and method based on circle scanning. But they have some defects such as time-consuming and complex or low accuracy rate. The method in this study is proposed to solve the above problems. It is primarily based on the coordinate transformation and projection operation to realize the object of digit positioning. By experiment, the validity and feasibility of the positioning method based on coordinate transformation are confirmed. It is shown that the average accuracy is improved by 5.4% and average positioning efficiency is improved by 8.73% compared to the present methods.

  13. Multidoored analogical scintigraphic device. Measurement of the ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of left ventricular ejection fraction and radionuclide ventriculography can easily be obtained in analog mode with a modified multiimaging device triggered by the patient's electrocardiogram

  14. Measuring blood glucose in neonatal units: how does hemocue compare?

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, S A; Matthews, J N; Platt, M. P.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid and reliable determination of blood glucose concentration is essential during the neonatal period to prevent adverse neurodevelopmental outcome from hypoglycaemia. Despite their unreliability, reagent strip methods continue to be used extensively in neonatal nurseries due to their rapidity and convenience. Recently, a new portable laboratory standard technique has been introduced (HemoCue B-Glucose system) for whole blood glucose determination. It is particularly suitable for near-patie...

  15. Glucose and glycerol concentrations and their tracer enrichment measurements using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BornØ, Andreas; Foged, Lene

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes a new liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for high-throughput quantification of glucose and glycerol in human plasma using stable isotopically labeled internal standards and is suitable for simultaneous measurements of glucose and glycerol enrichments in connection to in vivo metabolic studies investigating glucose turnover and lipolytic rate. Moreover, in order to keep up with this new fast analysis, simple derivatization procedures have been developed. Prior to analysis, glucose and glycerol were derivatized using benzoyl chloride in order to form benzoylated derivatives via new simplified fast procedures. For glucose, two internal standards were evaluated, [U-(13) C(6)]glucose and [U-(13) C(6), D(7)]glucose, and for glycerol, [U-(13) C(3), D(8)]glycerol was used. The method was validated by means of calibration curves, quality control samples, and plasma samples spiked with [6,6-D(2)]glucose, [U-(13) C(6)]glucose, and [1,1,2,3,3-D(5)]glycerol in order to test accuracy, precision, and recovery of the method. Moreover, post preparative and freeze-thaw sample stability were tested. The correlation of calibration curves for the glucose concentration were r(2) =?0.9998 for [U-(13) C(6)]glucose and r(2) =?0.9996 for [U-(13) C(6), D(7)]glucose, and r(2) =?0.9995 for the glycerol concentration. Interday accuracy for glucose using [U-(13) C(6)]glucose and glycerol determined in spiked plasma were respectively 103.5% and 106.0%, and the coefficients of variation were 2.0% and 9.7%, respectively. After derivatization, plasma samples were stable for at least 14?days. In conclusion, we have developed and validated a novel, accurate, and sensitive high-throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of glucose and glycerol concentrations and enrichment of infused tracers most commonly used in human metabolic kinetic studies.

  16. Measurement of the glucose concentration in human urine with optical refractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui-Yang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Meng, Ching-Tang; Cheng, Chih-Ching; Liao, Yu-Ching

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of human urine glucose measurement system is proposed. We measured the phase variation of human urine with/without glucose-urine mixture (to simulate diabetes mellitus). We were able to achieve high resolution with the proposed method. The relation curve between the phase difference and glucose concentration can be estimated, and the glucose concentration of a urine sample can be determined by using this relation curve. The proposed method showed that theoretical resolution is approximated of 1.47 mg/dl.

  17. Measurement of Physiologic Glucose Levels Using Raman Spectroscopy in a Rabbit Aqueous Humor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.; Borchert, M.

    1998-01-01

    We have elecited a reliable glucose signature in mammalian physiological ranges using near infrared Raman laser excitation at 785 nm and multivariate analysis. In a recent series of experiments we measured glucose levels in an artificial aqueous humor in the range from 0.5 to 13X normal values.

  18. Clinically important factors influencing the diagnostic measurement of pleural fluid pH and glucose.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, NM; Mishra, EK; Davies, HE; Davies, RJ; Lee, YC

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: Accurate pleural fluid pH and glucose measurement is a key component in the diagnosis and management of patients with pleural effusion. Standardized methods of pleural fluid collection have not been defined. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of common clinical factors that may distort measurement accuracy of pleural fluid pH and glucose. METHODS: Ninety-two exudative pleural aspirates were collected in commercially available blood gas syringes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Samples...

  19. Detection accuracy of three glucose meters estimated by capillary blood glucose measurements compared with venous blood evaluated by the diabetes unit of the Hospital Evangélico de Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho SL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mirnaluci Paulino Ribeiro Gama, Camile Fiorese Cruzeta, Ana Carolina Ossowski, Marina Rech Bay, Mariella Muller Michaelis, Stênio Lujan CamachoEndocrinology and Diabetes Service, Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba, BrazilObjective: To compare capillary blood glucose measurements between three different glucose meters and with the serum glucose values of inpatients at the diabetes unit of Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba, Brazil.Materials and methods: A total of 132 non-intensive care unit patients admitted for medical and surgical pathologies were evaluated. All patients reported a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, were under 60 years of age, had no hematocrit alterations, remained hemodynamically stable during the time of data collection, and were given no ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, dopamine, or mannitol during follow-up. Capillary and serum blood glucose samples were collected simultaneously by finger-stick and venipuncture 2 hours after lunch, by the same observer, who was blinded to the serum glucose results. First, between July and November 2009, capillary glucose levels were measured using the blood glucose meters OneTouch SureStep® and MediSense Optium®. Between November 2009 and February 2010, capillary blood glucose levels were measured on the glucose meters OneTouch SureStep and Optium Xceed®. The capillary glucose readings were analyzed between meters and also in relation to the serum blood glucose values by the t-test for paired samples and the Mood two-sample test.Results: The patients’ mean age was 50.45 years. The blood glucose means obtained using the meters OneTouch SureStep, MediSense Optium, and Optium Xceed were, respectively, 183.87 mg/dL, 178.49 mg/dL, and 192.73 mg/dL, and the mean for the serum glucose values was 174.58 mg/dL. A significant difference was found between the capillary measurements taken by the glucose meters and the serum glucose measurements (P < 0.05, and no significant interdevice difference was found. After stratification of the serum blood glucose values into two groups, below and above 180 mg/dL, the variance found for the glucose meter OneTouch SureStep was statistically greater (P = 0.03 in relation to the serum glucose levels above 180 mg/dL, which was not the case with the glucose meters MediSense Optium (P = 0.06 and Optium Xceed (P = 0.12. The percentage of capillary blood glucose values showing a variation of less than 20% compared with serum values was 64.94% for OneTouch SureStep, 47.83% for Medisense Optium, and 51.61% for Optium Xceed, when serum glucose was greater than 75 mg/dL.Conclusion: The glucose meters tested showed an adequate interdevice correlation in their capillary glucose readings, in addition to correlating with the serum glucose values (ie, if a blood glucose reading is high or low in one test, it is likely to be respectively high or low in another. The means for the capillary blood glucose readings, however, were significantly different from the mean serum glucose. When serum glucose was above 180 mg/dL, there was a greater variance in the capillary measurements on the glucose meter OneTouch SureStep, with less correlation with the serum blood glucose (P < 0.05, which did not occur significantly with the two other glucose meters. On the other hand, OneTouch SureStep had the highest accuracy in relation to serum glucose when the whole sample of serum glucose values above 75 mg/dL was analyzed, considering a variation of less than 20% in the measurements. The three glucose meters provide readings that correlate with the serum glucose values of hospitalized patients. However, one should bear in mind that capillary measurements quite often show more than a 20% variation in relation to serum glucose values, and caution should be exercised in interpreting the readings when serum glucose levels are elevated.Keywords: capillary blood glucose, serum glucose, glucose meters, hospitalized patients

  20. Measurement of deuterium-labeled glucose flux in newborn infants by the continuous isotope infusion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although hypoglycemia is a frequent neonatal problem, direct estimates of glucose turnover in newborn infants have not been possible before the advent of practical, stable isotope microtechniques. Using the well-established constant isotopic infusion procedure, glucose flux has been measured in newborn infants for the first time with the metabolically non-recycling tracer, glucose-6,6-d2. Nineteen infants from 650 to 4330 grams (25 to 44 weeks gestation) were studied at various times during the first week of postnatal life. 100 to 200 microliter capillary blood samples, obtained at appropriate intervals during the course of a 150 to 240 minute infusion of dideuterioglucose, were processed by rapid ion exchange purification and the glucose converted to the 6-0-acetyl-1,2 : 3,5-di-O-(n-butane-boronyl)-?-D-glucofuranose derivative for subsequent measurement of isotopic enrichment by combined GC-MS with selected ion recording using an AVA:Voltage Sweeping circuit. Glucose flux rates were calculated by steady-state equations, where appropriate, or by non steady-state approximations when blood glucose concentration and/or glucose isotopic enrichment changed during the course of the investigation. Total glucose flux ranged from 3 to 43 mg/min (3.7 to 11.1 mg/kg.min) and was directly correlated with body weight, estimated brain weight, and average blood sugar concentration during the course of the study. These data agree closely with previous indirect estimates of glucose metabolism in the newborn period and represent the first direct measurements of new glucose production and utilization in the human neonate

  1. Measurements of serum glucose using the luciferin/Luciferase system and a liquid scintillation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single-step assay for serum glucose measurements is described. The assay is based on the phosphorylation of D-glucose by glucokinase and the measurement of ATP consumption by firefly luciferase. The luminescence is recorded in an ordinary liquid scintillation spectrometer. The use of stable reagents and a stable final signal (light emission) makes it possible to analyze a large number of samples in each assay run. The assay is of particular value when repeated serum glucose determinations are performed on samples from small laboratory animals

  2. Adaptive Blood Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Measurement Devices for Visually Impaired Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes devices that people with visual impairments and diabetes can use to monitor blood glucose levels and measure insulin. A table lists devices, their manufacturers (including address and telephone number), and comments about the devices. (DB)

  3. Design of a Mechanical-Tunable Filter Spectrometer for Noninvasive Glucose Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saptari, Vidi; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal

    2004-05-01

    The development of an accurate and reliable noninvasive near-infrared (NIR) glucose sensor hinges on the success in addressing the sensitivity and the specificity problems associated with the weak glucose signals and the overlapping NIR spectra. Spectroscopic hardware parameters most relevant to noninvasive blood glucose measurement are discussed, which include the optical throughput, integration time, spectral range, and the spectral resolution. We propose a unique spectroscopic system using a continuously rotating interference filter, which produces a signal-to-noise ratio of the order of 10^5 and is estimated to be the minimum required for successful in vivo glucose sensing. Using a classical least-squares algorithm and a spectral range between 2180 and 2312 nm, we extracted clinically relevant glucose concentrations in multicomponent solutions containing bovine serum albumin, triacetin, lactate, and urea.

  4. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Measurements in Normo-Glycemic Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; Noordam, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The validity of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is well established in diabetic patients. CGM is also increasingly used for research purposes in normo-glycemic individuals, but the CGM validity in such individuals is unknown. We studied the accuracy of CGM measurements in normo-glycemic individuals by comparing CGM-derived versus venous blood-derived glucose levels and measures of glycemia and glycemic variability. METHODS: In 34 healthy participants (mean age 65.7 years), glucose was simultaneously measured every 10 minutes, via both an Enlite® CGM sensor, and in venous blood sampled over a 24-hour period. Validity of CGM-derived individual glucose measurements, calculated measures of glycemia over daytime (09:00h-23:00h) and nighttime (23:00h-09:00h), and calculated measures of glycemic variability (e.g. 24h standard deviation [SD]) were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients, mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and paired t-tests. RESULTS: The median correlation coefficient between CGM and venous glucose measurements per participant was 0.68 (interquartile range: 0.40-0.78), and the MARD was 17.6% (SD = 17%). Compared with venous sampling, the calculated measure of glycemia during daytime was 0.22 mmol/L higher when derived from CGM, but no difference was observed during nighttime. Most measures of glycemic variability were lower with CGM than with venous blood sampling (e.g., 24h SD: 1.07 with CGM and 1.26 with venous blood; p-value = 0.004). CONCLUSION: In normo-glycemic individuals, CGM-derived glucose measurements had good agreement with venous glucose levels. However, the measure of glycemia was higher during the day and most measures of glycemic variability were lower when derived from CGM.

  5. The measurement of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism in patients with movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism were evaluated in 34 patients with various movement disorders by using positron emission tomography with 18F-Dopa and 18F-FDG respectively. The 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum (the caudate head and the putamen) decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease but was relatively unaffected in the caudate. The cerebral glucose metabolism was normal in patients with Parkinson's disease. The 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum also decreased in cases of atypical parkinsonism and in cases of progressive supranuclear palsy, but there was no difference in the uptake between the caudate and the putamen. The glucose metabolism decreased in the cerebral hemisphere including the striatum; this finding was also different from those of Parkinson's disease. A normal 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum with a markedly decreased striatal glucose metabolism and a mildly decreased cortical glucose metabolism was observed in cases of Huntington's disease and Wilson's disease. The 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum increased and the glucose metabolism was normal in cases of idiopathic dystonia. Various patterns of 18F-Dopa uptake and glucose metabolism were thus observed in the various movement disorders. These results suggest that the measurements of the 18F-Dopa uptake and the cerebral glucose metabolism would be useful for the evaluation of the striatal function in various movement disorders. (author)

  6. Quantitative measurement of glucose utilization in dog brain using positron emission tomogram and 18FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development of positron emission tomography and fluorine-18 labeled deoxy-glucose has enabled us to observe in vivo metabolism of glucose. For the application to human study, the method originally developed by Sokoloff et al. in rat brain was performed in dog brain using ECAT II in order to measure cerebral metabolic rate of glucose. Cross calibration between ECAT II and well counter was performed using phantom imaging and positron emmiter (Ga-68). Plasma 18-FDG was measured in well counter and calibrated. Cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (mg/100g brain.min) was calculated using ECAT images of 18-FDG and integrated activity of plasma 18-FDG from injection time (zero) to imaging time (t). 14.5mg/100g brain.min and 14.2mg/100g brain.min were obtained in frontal cortex and occipital cortex in anesthetized dog. (author)

  7. In vitro measurements of physiological glucose concentrations in biological fluids using mid-infrared light

    OpenAIRE

    Liakat, Sabbir; Bors, Kevin A.; Huang, Tzu-Yung; Michel, Anna P. M.; Zanghi, Eric; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2013-01-01

    Mid-infrared transmission spectroscopy using broadband mid-infrared or Quantum Cascade laser sources is used to predict glucose concentrations of aqueous and serum solutions containing physiologically relevant amounts of glucose (50-400 mg/dL). We employ partial least squares regression to generate a calibration model using a subset of the spectra taken and to predict concentrations from new spectra. Clinically accurate measurements with respect to a Clarke error grid were made for concentrat...

  8. Wavelength-modulated differential laser photothermal radiometry for blood glucose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Wavelength-Modulated Differential Laser Photothermal Radiometer (WM-DPTR) technique was used for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring in the mid-IR range, where the prominent absorption peak is glucose specific and isolated from other interfering peaks in human blood. The WM-DPTR method consists of the out-of-phase modulated excitation at two discrete wavelengths 9.5 ?m and 10.4 ?m (near the peak and the baseline of glucose absorption), generated from two quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and the differential emission detection through a thermal-wave upconversion process via a HgCdZnTe (MCZT) detector (2-5 ?m). The differential method suppresses the background signal and reduces source-detection interference, thus enhancing glucose detection sensitivity. The results from aqueous glucose phantom (0-440 mg/dl) measurements demonstrate that both amplitude and phase of the WM-DPTR signal can be used for glucose detection. The dynamic range and the sensitivity of the glucose detection are influenced greatly by the laser intensity ratio and modulation frequency. The optimal intensity ratio for high sensitivity is ?1. Other laser intensity ratios increase dynamic range but reduce sensitivity. Sensitivity increases with frequency.

  9. Control module for fast measurement of analog signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CAMAC module-an autonomous program source with the simple hardwire program which is applied in a system crate is described. It controls an analogue multiplexer and an analogue-to-digital converter through their front panels and writes the information into buffer memory module through CAMAC branch highway. The program source module contains registeres to write down the controlled modules addresses. Using this module provides the total time of measurement 6-10 times less as compared to program data gathering, a possibility to measure signals with maximum frequency in a spectrum 6-10 times higher. Simultaneously with measuring other program could be run in a computer

  10. Picosecond time measurement using ultra fast analog memories

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, D.(Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, IN2P3/CNRS et Université Paris-Sud 11, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898, Orsay Cedex, France); Delagnes, E; Maalmi, J.

    2009-01-01

    The currently existing electronics dedicated to precise time measurement is mainly based on the use of constant fraction discriminators (CFD) associated with Time to Digital Converters (TDC). The constant fraction technique minimizes the time walk effect (dependency of timing on the pulse amplitude). Several attempts have been made to integrate CFD in multi-channel ASICs. But the time resolution measured on the most advanced one is of the order of 30 ps rms. Two main techniques are used for t...

  11. Measurement of the incretin hormones : glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological methods.

  12. Measurement of the Incretin Hormones: Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological methods.

  13. A simple method for measuring glucose utilization of insulin-sensitive tissues by using the brain as a reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method, without measurement of the plasma input function, to obtain semiquantitative values of glucose utilization in tissues other than the brain with radioactive deoxyglucose is reported. The brain, in which glucose utilization is essentially insensitive to plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, was used as an internal reference. The effects of graded doses of oral glucose loading (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/g body weight) on insulin-sensitive tissues (heart, muscle and fat tissue) were studied in the rat. By using the brain-reference method, dose-dependent increases in glucose utilization were clearly shown in all the insulin-sensitive tissues examined. The method seems to be of value for measurement of glucose utilization using radioactive deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography in the heart or other insulin-sensitive tissues, especially during glucose loading. (orig.)

  14. The analogy between optical beam shifts and quantum weak measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Mark R.; Götte, Jörg B

    2012-01-01

    We describe how the notion of optical beam shifts (including the spatial and angular Goos-H\\"anchen shift and Imbert-Federov shift) can be understood as a classical analogue of a quantum measurement of the polarization state of a paraxial beam by its transverse amplitude distribution. Under this scheme, complex quantum weak values are interpreted as spatial and angular shifts of polarized scalar components of the reflected beam. This connection leads us to predict an extra s...

  15. Evaluating the blood glucose measured via glucometry in diagnosis of hypoglycemia in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsollah Nooripoor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypoglycemia is one of the most prevalent problems seen in neonates and can lead toirreversible brain damage if not to be diagnosed in time. Today, the blood glucose is mostly checked bylaboratory methods that have a significant delay and can result in many adverse effects such as vesselrupture. The goal of this study was to evaluate the value of the glucometry device in diagnosis ofhypoglycemia in neonates.Materials and Methods: This study has been conducted over 156 hospitalized neonates in Amir almomenin Hospital, Semnan, Iran. The blood glucose in all cases has been simultaneously measured by bothlaboratory methods (glucose oxidase as the golden standard and glucometer. These measurements alongwith the relevant data for neonatal risk factors were recorded in the checklist. The blood glucosemeasurements of less than or equal 35 mg/dL in first two hours after birth, less than or equal 40mg/dL in 3to 24 hours after birth, less than or equal 45 mg/dL in more than 24 hours after birth are considered ashypoglycemic.Results: 58 neonates (37.2% were hypoglycemic.The measurement of blood glucose levels viaglucometer for hypoglycemia detection had a high precision (Area under curve = 0.941, Standard error=0.018, P= 0.0001. The optimum cut-off point yielded to equivalent of 51mg/dL. So that for fasting bloodglucose of less than or equal 51mg/dL, sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values were,respectively, 94.7%, 81.6%, 75.3%, and 96.4%.Conclusion: Findings show that, blood glucose levels measured by glucometry have goodaccuracy for diagnosis of hypoglycemia in newborns. Thus, it is recommended that in case ofscreening and frequent need of monitoring neonatal blood glucose, this device be used as asuitable replacement of laboratory methods

  16. The analogy between optical beam shifts and quantum weak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe how the notion of optical beam shifts (including the spatial and angular Goos-Hänchen shift and Imbert-Federov shift) can be understood as a classical analogue of a quantum measurement of the polarization state of a paraxial beam by its transverse amplitude distribution. Under this scheme, complex quantum weak values are interpreted as spatial and angular shifts of polarized scalar components of the reflected beam. This connection leads us to predict an extra spatial shift for beams with a radially-varying phase dependance. (paper)

  17. Measure and category a survey of the analogies between topological and measure spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Oxtoby, John C

    1980-01-01

    In this edition, a set of Supplementary Notes and Remarks has been added at the end, grouped according to chapter. Some of these call attention to subsequent developments, others add further explanation or additional remarks. Most of the remarks are accompanied by a briefly indicated proof, which is sometimes different from the one given in the reference cited. The list of references has been expanded to include many recent contributions, but it is still not intended to be exhaustive. John C. Oxtoby Bryn Mawr, April 1980 Preface to the First Edition This book has two main themes: the Baire category theorem as a method for proving existence, and the "duality" between measure and category. The category method is illustrated by a variety of typical applications, and the analogy between measure and category is explored in all of its ramifications. To this end, the elements of metric topology are reviewed and the principal properties of Lebesgue measure are derived. It turns out that Lebesgue integration is not es...

  18. Classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration noninvasively using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Li, Gang; Yan, Wen-Juan; Lin, Ling

    2014-11-01

    Developing noninvasive blood glucose monitoring method is an to immense need to alleviate the pain and suffering of diabetics associated with the frequent pricking of skin for taking blood sample. A hybrid algorithm for multivariate calibration is proposed to improve the prediction performance of classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy noninvasively. The algorithm is based on wavelet prism modified uninformative variable elimination approach (WP-mUVE) combined with least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), named as WP-mUVE-LSSVM. The method is successfully applied to diabetic classification experiment (in vivo) and blood glucose concentration measurement experiment (in vivo) respectively. Human tongue is selected as the measuring site in this study. To evaluate effectiveness of pretreatment method and quality of calibration models, several usually used pretreatment methods and kernel functions of LSSVM are introduced comparing with our method. Higher quality data is obtained by our pretreatment method owing to the elimination of varying background and noise of spectra data simultaneously. Better prediction accuracy and adaptability are obtained by LSSVM model with radial basis kernel function. The results indicate that WP-mUVE-LSSVM holds promise for the classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration noninvasively based on human tongue using NIR spectroscopy.

  19. Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiderman, Yevgeny; Blumenberg, Raz; Rabani, Nir; Teicher, Mina; Garcia, Javier; Mico, Vicente; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    An optical approach allowing the extraction and the separation of remote vibration sources has recently been proposed. The approach has also been applied for medical related applications as blood pressure and heart beats monitoring. In this paper we demonstrate its capability to monitor glucose concentration in blood stream. The technique is based on the tracking of temporal changes of reflected secondary speckle produced in human skin (wrist) when being illuminated by a laser beam. A temporal change in skin's vibration profile generated due to blood pulsation is analyzed for estimating the glucose concentration. Experimental tests that were carried out in order to verify the proposed approach showed good match with the change of the glucose level at the positive slope stage as it was obtained from conventional reference measurement. PMID:21483609

  20. [Achievement of the noninvasive measurement for human blood glucose with NIR diffusion reflectance spectrum method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan; Ding, Dong; Song, Li-qiang; Gu, Lin-na; Yang, Peng; Tang, Yu-guo

    2005-06-01

    The noninvasive measurement of human blood glucose was achieved with NIR diffusion reflectance spectrum method. The thumb fingertip NIR diffusion reflectance spectra of six different age healthy volunteers were collected using Nexus-870 and its NIR fiber port smart accessory. The test was implemented with changing the blood glucose concentration for the limosis and satiation of every volunteer. The calibration model was set up using PLS method with the smoothing, baseline correction and first derivatives pretreatment spectrum in the 7500-8500 cm(-1) region for single volunteer, the same age combination and that of different age. When the spectrum was obtained, the actual blood glucose value of every spectrun sample was demarcated using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The correlation between the calibration value and true value for single volunteer is better than that for the combination of volunteers, the correlative coefficients are all over 0.90471, RMSECs are all less than 0.171. PMID:16201363

  1. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Blood ... If You Have Questions What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  2. Study on the noninvasive blood glucose measurement by diffusion reflectance NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Song, Liqiang; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Cheng; Tang, Yuguo

    2005-01-01

    The noninvasive measurement of human blood glucose has been a hotspot for a long time to all clinical workers over the world. In this paper the noninvasive measurement of human blood glucose with diffusion reflectance NIR spectrum method is presented. The thumb fingertip, the palm and the wrist with vein are chosen for the collection of diffusion reflectance NIR spectroscopy from six different age healthy volunteers using Nexus-870 and its NIR fiber port smart accessory. The calibration model is set up in 7500~8500cm-1 region that has the absorption of the glucose using Partial Least Squares (PLS) method with the first and second derivative spectral that had been smoothed and baseline corrected for single volunteer. The actual blood glucose value is determined by an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The model with the spectrum obtained at the wrist is better than from other part for all volunteers, and it is much steadier with the second derivative pretreatment spectral than with the first derivative ones. The correlative coefficients are all over 0.93772; RMSECs are all less than 0.310 and the max differences are between -0.6mmo/L and +0.8mmo/L with the second derivative method. Some samples are kept for prediction with their own model. The differences are under 0.875529mmol/L.

  3. Measurement of glucose utilization by Pseudomonas fluorescens that are free-living and that are attached to surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assimilation and respiration of glucose by attached and free-living Pseudomonas fluorescens were compared. The attachment surfaces were polyvinylidene fluoride, polyethylene, and glass. Specific uptake of [1C]glucose was determined after bacterial biomass was measured by (1) microscopic counts or (2) prelabelling of cells by providing [3H]leucine as substrate, followed by dual-labelling scintillation counting. The glucose concentration was 1.4, 3.5, 5.5, 7.6, or 9.7 ?M. Glucose assimilation by cells which became detached from the surfaces during incubation with glucose was also measured after the detached cells were collected by filtration. The composition of the substratum had no effect on the amount of glucose assimilated by attached cells. Glucose assimilation by attached cells exceeded that by free-living cells by a factor of between 2 and 5 or more, and respiration of glucose by surface-associated cells was greater than that by free-living bacteria. Glucose assimilation by detached cells was greater than that by attached bacteria. Measurements of biomass by microscopic counts gave more consistent results than those obtained with dual-labelling, but in general, results obtained by both methods were corroborative

  4. Investigation of 18F-2-deoxyglucose for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F labeled 2-deoxyglucose (18FDG) was studied as a glucose analog. Myocardial uptake and retention, blood clearance, species (dog, monkey, man) dependence and effect of diet on uptake were investigated. Normal myocardial uptake of 18FDG was 3 to 4% in dog and monkey and 1 to 4% of injected dose in man compared to brain uptake of 2% in dog, 5 to 6% in monkey and 4 to 8% in man. The metabolic rate (MR) for glucose in non-fasting (glycolytic state) was 2.8 times greater than in fasting (ketogenic state). Human subjects showed higher myocardial uptake after a normal meal than after meal containing mostly free fatty acids (FFA). Blood clearance was rapid with initial clearance t1/2 of 0.2 to 0.3 min followed by a t1/2 of 8.4 +- 1.2 min in dog and 11.6 +- 1.1 min in man. A small third component had a t1/2 of 59 +- 10 min and 88 +- 4 min in dog and man, respectively. High image contrast ratios between heart and blood (dog 3.5/1; man 14/1), heart and lung (dog 9/1; man 20/1), heart and liver (dog 15/1; man 10/1) were found with the ECAT positron tomograph. 18FDG was found to be rapidly taken up by the myocardium without any significant tissue clearance over a 4 hour period. 18FDG is transported, phosphorylated to 18FDG-6-PO4 and trapped in myocardial cells in the same manner as has been found for brain and exhibits excellent imaging properties. Determination of glucose and FFA MR in vivo with ECT provides a method for investigation and assessment of changing aerobic and anaerobic metabolic rates in ischemic heart disease in man

  5. Measurement of Glucose Utilization by Pseudomonas fluorescens That Are Free-Living and That Are Attached to Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Madilyn

    1986-01-01

    The assimilation and respiration of glucose by attached and free-living Pseudomonas fluorescens were compared. The attachment surfaces were polyvinylidene fluoride, polyethylene, and glass. Specific uptake of [14C]glucose was determined after bacterial biomass was measured by (i) microscopic counts or (ii) prelabeling of cells by providing [3H]leucine as substrate, followed by dual-labeling scintillation counting. The glucose concentration was 1.4, 3.5, 5.5, 7.6, or 9.7 ?M. Glucose assimilati...

  6. Comparative performance assessment of point-of-care testing devices for measuring glucose and ketones at the patient bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Kaczmarek, Ewa; Guerra, Elena; Mastrantonio, Fabrizio; Lucarelli, Fausto; Valgimigli, Francesco; Mosca, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Point-of-care (POC) testing devices for monitoring glucose and ketones can play a key role in the management of dysglycemia in hospitalized diabetes patients. The accuracy of glucose devices can be influenced by biochemical changes that commonly occur in critically ill hospital patients and by the medication prescribed. Little is known about the influence of these factors on ketone POC measurements. The aim of this study was to assess the analytical performance of POC hospital whole-blood glucose and ketone meters and the extent of glucose interference factors on the design and accuracy of ketone results. StatStrip glucose/ketone, Optium FreeStyle glucose/ketone, and Accu-Chek Performa glucose were also assessed and results compared to a central laboratory reference method. The analytical evaluation was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocols for precision, linearity, method comparison, and interference. The interferences assessed included acetoacetate, acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, galactose, maltose, uric acid, and sodium. The accuracies of both Optium ketone and glucose measurements were significantly influenced by varying levels of hematocrit and ascorbic acid. StatStrip ketone and glucose measurements were unaffected by the interferences tested with exception of ascorbic acid, which reduced the higher level ketone value. The accuracy of Accu-Chek glucose measurements was affected by hematocrit, by ascorbic acid, and significantly by galactose. The method correlation assessment indicated differences between the meters in compliance to ISO 15197 and CLSI 12-A3 performance criteria. Combined POC glucose/ketone methods are now available. The use of these devices in a hospital setting requires careful consideration with regard to the selection of instruments not sensitive to hematocrit variation and presence of interfering substances. PMID:25519295

  7. Angular measurements of light scattered by the glucose containing biological tissues and their phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method of optical polarimetry is well known, but earlier it was mainly used to low scattering media. In this paper we consider the possibility of measuring the glucose concentration by detecting polarization of the backscattered laser light. Dependencies of the degree of polarization and of the optical rotation on the registration angle were received. Furthermore, the significant impact of the wavelength and the power of probing beam on the degree of polarization was shown

  8. Noninvasive measurement of regional myocardial glucose metabolism by positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the results of regional myocardial glucose metabolism measurements using positron emission computed tomography (13N-ammonia) are promising, their utility and value remains to be determined in man. If this technique can be applied to patients with acute myocardial ischemia or infarction it may permit delineation of regional myocardial segments with altered, yet still active metabolism. Further, it may become possible to evaluate the effects of interventions designed to salvage reversibly injured myocardium by this technique

  9. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Correlation between Blood Glucose Measured Using Glucometers and Enzymatic Laboratory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rasouli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is the most common chronic metabolic disease, with many complications including renal failure, blindness and non-traumatic amputation, so it is important to monitor and regulate blood glucose. Considering how easy home blood glucose monitoring is, we decided to evaluate the performance of two available glucometers for detection of blood glucose compared with standard laboratory methods.

     

    Methods: In this analytical study, we compared the capillary blood glucose levels of 60 volunteers with mean age of 32.8±9.6 years in Tabriz Mehr Laboratory as determined by test strips (two different Glucometers with venous blood glucose levels’ measurements by the enzymatic method (the standard laboratory kit. Data were analyzed using one way-ANOVA test, T-test, Pearson correlation and Bland and Altman plot.

     

    Results: The mean differences of No: 1 and No: 2 Glucometers with enzymatic laboratory method were 20.78±11.61 and 4.5±3.76mg/dl respectively. The one way ANOVA test indicated significant differences between three methods (p<0.05. Further Duncan's test revealed significant differences between two devices (p=0.001 and device No.1 and laboratory method (p=0.001; however, the differences between device No.2 and laboratory method were not statistically significant (p=0.83.

     

    Conclusion: According to the results, calibrating the devices with laboratory instruments in order to make major clinical decisions is recommended.

  10. The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of agent diffusion in biological tissues is very important to understand and characterize the optical clearing effects and mechanisms involved: tissue dehydration and refractive index matching. From measurements made to study the optical clearing, it is obvious that light scattering is reduced and that the optical properties of the tissue are controlled in the process. On the other hand, optical measurements do not allow direct determination of the diffusion properties of the agent in the tissue and some calculations are necessary to estimate those properties. This fact is imposed by the occurrence of two fluxes at optical clearing: water typically directed out of and agent directed into the tissue. When the water content in the immersion solution is approximately the same as the free water content of the tissue, a balance is established for water and the agent flux dominates. To prove this concept experimentally, we have measured the collimated transmittance of skeletal muscle samples under treatment with aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of glucose. After estimating the mean diffusion time values for each of the treatments we have represented those values as a function of glucose concentration in solution. Such a representation presents a maximum diffusion time for a water content in solution equal to the tissue free water content. Such a maximum represents the real diffusion time of glucose in the muscle and with this value we could calculate the corresponding diffusion coefficient. (paper)

  11. Estimation of utility values from visual analog scale measures of health in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Lars; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2014-01-01

    In health economic evaluations, mapping can be used to estimate utility values from other health outcomes in order to calculate quality adjusted life-years. Currently, no methods exist to map visual analog scale (VAS) scores to utility values. This study aimed to develop and propose a statistical algorithm for mapping five dimensions of health, measured on VASs, to utility scores in patients suffering from cardiovascular disease.

  12. Continuous glucose monitoring in newborn infants: how do errors in calibration measurements affect detected hypoglycemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity; Signal, Mathew; Harris, Deborah L; Weston, Philip J; Harding, Jane E; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause serious brain injury. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could improve hypoglycemia detection, while reducing blood glucose (BG) measurements. Calibration algorithms use BG measurements to convert sensor signals into CGM data. Thus, inaccuracies in calibration BG measurements directly affect CGM values and any metrics calculated from them. The aim was to quantify the effect of timing delays and calibration BG measurement errors on hypoglycemia metrics in newborn infants. Data from 155 babies were used. Two timing and 3 BG meter error models (Abbott Optium Xceed, Roche Accu-Chek Inform II, Nova Statstrip) were created using empirical data. Monte-Carlo methods were employed, and each simulation was run 1000 times. Each set of patient data in each simulation had randomly selected timing and/or measurement error added to BG measurements before CGM data were calibrated. The number of hypoglycemic events, duration of hypoglycemia, and hypoglycemic index were then calculated using the CGM data and compared to baseline values. Timing error alone had little effect on hypoglycemia metrics, but measurement error caused substantial variation. Abbott results underreported the number of hypoglycemic events by up to 8 and Roche overreported by up to 4 where the original number reported was 2. Nova results were closest to baseline. Similar trends were observed in the other hypoglycemia metrics. Errors in blood glucose concentration measurements used for calibration of CGM devices can have a clinically important impact on detection of hypoglycemia. If CGM devices are going to be used for assessing hypoglycemia it is important to understand of the impact of these errors on CGM data. PMID:24876618

  13. Clinical review: Consensus recommendations on measurement of blood glucose and reporting glycemic control in critically ill adults

    OpenAIRE

    Finfer, Simon; Wernerman, Jan; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Cass, Tony; Desaive, Thomas; Hovorka, Roman; Joseph, Jeffrey I.; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Krinsley, James; Mackenzie, Iain; Mesotten, Dieter; Schultz, Marcus J.; Scott, Mitchell G; Slingerland, Robbert; den Berghe, Greet Van

    2013-01-01

    The management reporting and assessment of glycemic control lacks standardization. The use of different methods to measure the blood glucose concentration and to report the performance of insulin treatment yields major disparities and complicates the interpretation and comparison of clinical trials. We convened a meeting of 16 experts plus invited observers from industry to discuss and where possible reach consensus on the most appropriate methods to measure and monitor blood glucose in criti...

  14. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin resistance, respectively. To a large degree, shared genetic factors contributed to these associations with the remaining explained by twin-specific environmental factors. PMID:26556598

  15. The Analog Revolution and Its On-Going Role in Modern Analytical Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Christie G

    2015-12-15

    The electronic revolution in analytical instrumentation began when we first exceeded the two-digit resolution of panel meters and chart recorders and then took the first steps into automated control. It started with the first uses of operational amplifiers (op amps) in the analog domain 20 years before the digital computer entered the analytical lab. Their application greatly increased both accuracy and precision in chemical measurement and they provided an elegant means for the electronic control of experimental quantities. Later, laboratory and personal computers provided an unlimited readout resolution and enabled programmable control of instrument parameters as well as storage and computation of acquired data. However, digital computers did not replace the op amp's critical role of converting the analog sensor's output to a robust and accurate voltage. Rather it added a new role: converting that voltage into a number. These analog operations are generally the limiting portions of our computerized instrumentation systems. Operational amplifier performance in gain, input current and resistance, offset voltage, and rise time have improved by a remarkable 3-4 orders of magnitude since their first implementations. Each 10-fold improvement has opened the doors for the development of new techniques in all areas of chemical analysis. Along with some interesting history, the multiple roles op amps play in modern instrumentation are described along with a number of examples of new areas of analysis that have been enabled by their improvements. PMID:26629976

  16. Measuring Deuterium Enrichment of Glucose Hydrogen Atoms by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniewicz, Maciek R.; Kelleher, Joanne K.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    We developed a simple and accurate method for determining deuterium enrichment of glucose hydrogen atoms by electron impact gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). First, we prepared 18 derivatives of glucose and screened over 200 glucose fragments to evaluate the accuracy and precision of mass isotopomer data for each fragment. We identified three glucose derivatives that gave six analytically useful ions: (1) glucose aldonitrile pentapropionate (m/z 173 derived from C4?C5 bond cleavag...

  17. Performance Measurement of a Multi-Level/Analog Ferroelectric Memory Device Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Phillips, Thomas A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the memory density and utilizing the unique characteristics of ferroelectric devices is important in making ferroelectric memory devices more desirable to the consumer. This paper describes the characterization of a design that allows multiple levels to be stored in a ferroelectric based memory cell. It can be used to store multiple bits or analog values in a high speed nonvolatile memory. The design utilizes the hysteresis characteristic of ferroelectric transistors to store an analog value in the memory cell. The design also compensates for the decay of the polarization of the ferroelectric material over time. This is done by utilizing a pair of ferroelectric transistors to store the data. One transistor is used a reference to determinethe amount of decay that has occurred since the pair was programmed. The second transistor stores the analog value as a polarization value between zero and saturated. The design allows digital data to be stored as multiple bits in each memory cell. The number of bits per cell that can be stored will vary with the decay rate of the ferroelectric transistors and the repeatability of polarization between transistors. This paper presents measurements of an actual prototype memory cell. This prototype is not a complete implementation of a device, but instead, a prototype of the storage and retrieval portion of an actual device. The performance of this prototype is presented with the projected performance of the overall device. This memory design will be useful because it allows higher memory density, compensates for the environmental and ferroelectric aging processes, allows analog values to be directly stored in memory, compensates for the thermal and radiation environments associated with space operations, and relies only on existing technologies.

  18. Low power analog readout front-end electronics for time and energy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleczek, R., E-mail: rafal.kleczek@agh.edu.pl; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.

    2014-06-01

    We report on the design and measurements of an analog front-end readout electronics dedicated for silicon microstrip detectors with relatively large capacitance of the order of tens pF for time and energy measurements of incoming pulses. The front-end readout electronics is required to process input pulses with an average rate of 150 kHz/channel with low both power consumption and noise at the same time. In the presented solution the single channel is built of two different parallel processing paths: fast and slow. The fast path includes the fast CR–RC shaper with the peaking time t{sub p}=40 ns and is optimized to determine the input charge arrival time. The slow path, which consists of the slow CR–(RC){sup 2} shaper with the peaking time t{sub p}=80 ns, is dedicated for low noise accurate energy measurement. The analog front-end electronics was implemented in UMC 180 nm CMOS technology as a prototype ASIC AFE. The AFE chip contains 8 channels with the size of 58 ?m×1150 ?m each. It has low power dissipation P{sub diss}=3.1 mW per single channel. The article presents the details of the front-end architecture and the measurement results.

  19. Low power analog readout front-end electronics for time and energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the design and measurements of an analog front-end readout electronics dedicated for silicon microstrip detectors with relatively large capacitance of the order of tens pF for time and energy measurements of incoming pulses. The front-end readout electronics is required to process input pulses with an average rate of 150 kHz/channel with low both power consumption and noise at the same time. In the presented solution the single channel is built of two different parallel processing paths: fast and slow. The fast path includes the fast CR–RC shaper with the peaking time tp=40 ns and is optimized to determine the input charge arrival time. The slow path, which consists of the slow CR–(RC)2 shaper with the peaking time tp=80 ns, is dedicated for low noise accurate energy measurement. The analog front-end electronics was implemented in UMC 180 nm CMOS technology as a prototype ASIC AFE. The AFE chip contains 8 channels with the size of 58 ?m×1150 ?m each. It has low power dissipation Pdiss=3.1 mW per single channel. The article presents the details of the front-end architecture and the measurement results

  20. Microdialysis of the interstitial water space in human skin in vivo : quantitative measurement of cutaneous glucose concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L J; Kristensen, J K

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a microdialysis technique for measurement of substances in the interstitial water space in intact human skin. Glucose was selected to validate the method. The cutaneous glucose concentration was measured by microdialysis and compared to that in venous blood. Single dialysis fibers (length 20 mm, 2,000 Da molecular weight cutoff) were glued to nylon tubings and inserted in forearm skin by means of a fine needle. Dialysis fibers were inserted in duplicate. Seven subjects were investigated after an overnight fast. Intradermal position of the dialysis probes was established by C-mode ultrasound scanning. The implantation trauma lasted 90-135 min as measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Each dialysis fiber was calibrated in vivo by perfusing it with four to five different glucose concentrations. The perfusion rate was 3 microliters/min. Regression analysis of the calibration curves yielded the relative in vivo recovery of glucose. The skin glucose concentration was calculated as that particular perfusate glucose concentration that resulted in no net glucose transport across the dialysis membrane. Correlation coefficient of the regression lines was 0.93 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- SEM). After the injection trauma had vanished, recovery was 20.5 +/- 0.7%. Coefficient of variation (CV) on recovery was 10.9%. The cutaneous glucose concentration was 99.1 +/- 1.8% of the glucose concentration in venous plasma water (CV 4.1%). These findings suggest that the microdialysis technique accurately and precisely can reflect biochemical events in the interstitial water space in human skin in vivo.

  1. Measurement of glucose metabolism in rat spinal cord slices with dynamic positron autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xiaoping [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People' s Hospital, Guangzhou 510100 (China); Asai, Tatsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Morioka, Koichi [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery II, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Uchida, Kenzo; Baba, Hisatoshi [Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Tanaka, Kuniyoshi [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery II, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Zhuang Jian [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People' s Hospital, Guangzhou 510100 (China); Okazawa, Hidehiko [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)], E-mail: yfuji@u-fukui.ac.jp

    2009-02-15

    We attempted to measure the regional metabolic rate of glucose (MRglc) in sliced spinal cords in vitro. The thoracic spinal cord of a mature Wister rat was cut into 400-{mu}m slices in oxygenated and cooled (1-4 deg. C) Krebs-Ringer solution. After at least 60 min of preincubation, the spinal cord slices were transferred into double polystyrene chambers and incubated in Krebs-Ringer solution at 36 deg. C, bubbled with 5% O{sub 2}/5% CO{sub 2} gas. To measure MRglc, we used the dynamic positron autoradiography technique (dPAT) with F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) and the net influx constant of [{sup 18}F]FDG as an index. Uptake curves of [{sup 18}F]FDG were well fitted by straight lines for more than 7 h after the slicing of the spinal cord (linear regression coefficient, r=0.99), indicating a constant uptake of glucose by the spinal cord tissue. The slope (K), which denotes MRglc, is affected by tetrodotoxin, and high K{sup +} (50 mM) or Ca{sup 2+}-free, high Mg{sup 2+} solution. After 10 min of hypoxia, the K value following reoxygenation was similar to the unloaded control value, but after 45 min of hypoxia, the K value was markedly lower than the unloaded control value, and after >90 min of reoxygenation it was nearly 0. Our results indicate that the living spinal cord slices used retained an activity-dependent metabolism to some extent. This technique may provide a new approach for measuring MRglc in sliced living spinal cord tissue in vitro and for quantifying the dynamic changes in MRglc in response to various interventions such as hypoxia.

  2. FASTBUS recording System for measurement of time intervals and analog signals for the Sphere spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A FASTBUS recording system used to measure time intervals and fast analog signal at the SPHERE spectrometer is described. The system is based on a 16-channel 8-bit ADC FASTBUS module, a 16-channel 16-bit TDC FASTBUS module and a FIORI interface module connected to CAMAC registers realized data transfer between a FASTBUS segment and a CAMAC dataway. The operation of the system is controlled by an Electronika-60 microcomputer connected to a CAMAC crate controller. The software used in the system provides communication between the FASTBUS segment and the computer, module testing, data acquisition and processing, and result presentation

  3. Myocardial glucose uptake and metabolic rate measurements in mice with microPET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish a practical microPET imaging procedure for the measurement of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlu) in mice. Methods: Twenty wild-type BKS mice were divided into 4 groups by random number table method.The mice were anesthetized with different concentrations of isoflurane (1.3%, 1.5%, 1.8%, 2.0%) at the temperature between 30 ? to 34 ?. The respiratory rate and the physiologic condition were monitored for adjusting the most appropriate isoflurane concentration. Then, different volumes of saline were injected to the anesthetized mice and blood glucose concentrations were measured to test the optimal injection volume. Under the optimal operating condition, 18F-FDG were injected in a group of six mice and followed by microPET imaging.Left ventricular TAC was obtained by drawing ROI and myocardial glucose SUV was also calculated. Meanwhile, the TAC from venous sampling at different time points after 18F-FDG injection was generated. 'Kinetic Imaging System' was used to estimate the coefficients and calculate the MRGlu (Ki ×Glu/LC; Ki =k1 ×k3/(k2 + k3). One-way analysis of variance and q test were used to analyze the data. Results: No movement was observed in non-fasted mice anesthetized with (1.5-1.8)% isoflurane, and their respiratory rates were all over 80 per minute. The plasma glucose concentration showed no difference at each time point between the experimental group injected with 75 ?l saline and the control group (F=1.215, P>0.05). The plasma glucose concentration of mice injected with 150 ?l saline exhibited statistically significant difference at 30 min (q=2.485, P=0.024), 45 min (q=2.287, P=0.036) and 60 min (q=2.709, P=0.015). When the injection volume reached 300 ?l, the blood glucose concentration increased remarkably at 45 min (q=2.435, P=0.027). Mice were maintained in good condition after injected with 18F-FDG ranging from 7.4 to 11.1 MBq within 75 ?l volume, meanwhile clear and stable myocardial microPET images could also be obtained. The median myocardial SUV value was 11.88 (9.71-14.93), Ki value was 0.19 (0.10-0.54) ml · min-1 · g-1 and MRGlu value was 19.64 (5.55-23.28) mg · kg-1 · min-1 at 45-55 min after 18F-FDG injection. Conclusion: The microPET imaging may be a reliable,practical method to evaluate myocardial glucose uptake rate and metabolic rate in mice under the precondition of optimal isoflurane anesthetization (1.5%-1.8%) and small volume of 18F-FDG injection (?<75 ?l). (authors)

  4. Associations between insulin and glucose concentrations and anthropometric measures of fat mass in Australian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denney-Wilson Elizabeth

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most serious, yet common co-morbidities of obesity is insulin resistance, which if untreated may progress to type 2 diabetes. This paper describes the insulin and glucose concentration distributions, the prevalence of elevated insulin, the associations between insulin and body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and fat mass index in a representative sample of Australian adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional population-based study of adolescent boys and girls (N = 496, mean age 15.3 years attending schools in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Fasting venous blood collected and analysed for insulin and glucose concentrations. Height, weight, waist circumference measured, BMI and waist-to-height ratio calculated. Pubertal status self-reported. Results Glucose concentrations were normally distributed and were not associated with adiposity. Insulin concentrations were distributed logarithmically, were higher among girls than boys overall and within the same ranges of BMI and waist circumference, but were lower among girls than boys within the same ranges of fat mass adjusted for height. The prevalence of elevated insulin concentration (defined as > 100 pmol/L was 15.9% and 17.1% among boys and girls, respectively. Correlations between insulin concentration and BMI, waist circumference, WHtR and fat mass adjusted for height were 0.53, 0.49, 0.51 and 0.55, among boys, respectively, and 0.35, 0.40, 0.42 and 0.34, among girls, respectively. Conclusions Elevated insulin is highly correlated with adiposity in adolescents. BMI and WHtR are simple measures that can be used to identify young people who should be screened for insulin resistance and other co-morbidities.

  5. Harmonical oscillator and electro-mechanical analogy: an interdiscinary experiment to high precision mass variation measurements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ailton M., Watanabe; Adriano dos, Santos; Paulo R., Bueno.

    Full Text Available De forma geral, os cursos de física clássica oferecidos nas universidades carecem de exemplos de aplicações nas áreas de química e biologia, o que por vezes desmotivam os alunos de graduação destas áreas a estudarem os conceitos físicos desenvolvidos em sala de aula. Neste texto, a analogia entre os [...] osciladores elétrico e mecânico é explorada visando possívies aplicações em química e biologia, mostrando-se de grande valia devido ao seu uso em técnicas de medição de variação de massa com alta precisão, tanto de forma direta como indireta. Estas técnicas são conhecidas como técnicas eletrogravimétricas e são de especial importância em aplicações que envolvem biossensores. Desta forma, o texto explora o estudo da analogia eletromecânica de forma interdisciplinar envolvendo as áreas de física, química e biologia. Baseado nessa analogia é proposto um experimento que permite a sua aplicação em diferentes níveis conceituais dessas disciplinas, tanto em abordagem básica como mais profunda. Abstract in english In general, the traditional Physics courses needs examples of the aplications of the Physics concepts in other areas such as Chemistry and Biology. This lacks tend to demotivate Chemistry and Biology students regarding to deal with Physical concepts developed in classroom. In this work, the analogy [...] among mechanic and electric oscillators is investigated to be applied in Chemistry and Biology areas, showing to be valuable due to its aplication in techniques that aims to measure mass variation with high precision. This measure could be made in a direct or indirect way. These techniques are known as electrogravimetric techniques and they are important in biosensor aplications. Thus, this paper explores the electromechanic analogy in an interdisciplinary way involving areas like Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Based on this analogy, it is proposed an experiment that can be applied in different ways, i.e. by an basic approach or more deeper, depending on the students specific formation, in other words, Physics, Chemistry or Biology.

  6. The relationship between HbA(1c) and fasting plasma glucose in patients with increased plasma liver enzyme measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, R; Rasmussen, L Melholt; Nybo, H; Steenstrup, T; Nybo, M

    2012-01-01

    Background:? HbA(1c) is currently being introduced for diagnostic purpose in diabetes. Previous studies have, however, indicated that patients with liver disease have false low HbA(1c) levels. We therefore investigated the correlation between HbA(1c) and plasma glucose in patients with different levels of increased liver enzyme concentrations. Methods:? Data from 10?065 patients with simultaneous measurement of HbA(1c) , venous fasting plasma glucose, alanine aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl tran...

  7. A self referencing platinum nanoparticle decorated enzyme-based microbiosensor for real time measurement of physiological glucose transport

    OpenAIRE

    McLamore, E. S.; Shi, J.; Jaroch, David; Claussen, Jonathan; Uchida, A.; Jiang, Y.; Zhang, W.; Donkin, Shawn S; Banks, M K; Buhman, K. K.; Teegarden, D.; Rickus, Jenna; Porterfield, D. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Glucose is the central molecule in many biochemical pathways, and numerous approaches have been developed for fabricating micro biosensors designed to measure glucose concentration in/near cells and/or tissues. An inherent problem for microsensors used in physiological studies is a low signal-to-noise ratio, which is further complicated by concentration drift due to the metabolic activity of cells. A microsensor technique designed to filter extraneous electrical noise and provide direct quant...

  8. Measurements of glucose phosphorylation with FDG and PET are not reduced by dephosphorylation of FDG-6-phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuwabara, H; Gjedde, A

    1991-01-01

    To improve the measurements of glucose metabolism in the human brain, we imposed biologic constraints on the deoxyglucose model with and without dephosphorylation of FDG-6-phosphate (the k4*- and k3*-models). The constraints included constant transport and phosphorylation ratios (tau and phi) and a common partition volume (K1/k2) for tracer [18F]FDG and glucose. In the presence of significant dephosphorylation, the k3*-model yielded time-dependent estimates of the phosphorylation coefficient (k3...

  9. Are Tubes Containing Sodium Fluoride Still Needed for the Measurement of Blood Glucose in Hospital Laboratory Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Al-Kharusi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare glucose values obtained using sodium flouride (NaF tubes and serum separation tubes (SST in a tertiary care hospital laboratory setting.? Methods: This study was conducted at the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Royal Hospital, Oman. During the study period (1 September–30 November 2013, 50 pairs (one NaF tube and one SST of patient’s blood specimens were randomly collected. Following separation of plasma (NaF tubes and serum (SST, glucose concentrations were measured by hexokinase assay using the Architect c8000. Fifteen pairs of these tubes were kept in the refrigerator at 4°C and plasma/serum glucose concentrations were measured daily up to seven days after collection.? Results: Comparing plasma (NaF and serum (SST results of glucose values (n=50 showed an average difference of 0.00mmol/L (range -0.60 to +0.60mmol/L. Bland Altman analysis gave a non-significant constant bias of 0.10 ±0.195mmol/L (bias ±SD. Pearson correlation between plasma (NaF and serum (SST glucose concentrations revealed a significant correlation approaching unity with r2= 0.9991. No significant differences in glucose values were noted for both plasma and serum in 15 pairs of NaF and SST tubes when analyzed seven days following refrigeration. Hemolysis was observed in five (10% NaF tubes compared with two (4% SST.? Conclusion: There is no difference in glucose values collected from plasma NaF tubes or serum SST, and so SST can be used in hospital laboratory settings as there are practical advantages, including cost-effectiveness and reduction in blood volume drawn when utilizing these tubes for glucose and other tests from a single blood collection tube.

  10. Design of an analog front-end for ambulatory biopotential measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiazhen; Xu Jun; Zheng Lirong; Ren Junyan, E-mail: jxu@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2010-10-15

    A continuously tunable gain and bandwidth analog front-end for ambulatory biopotential measurement systems is presented. The front-end circuit is capable of amplifying and conditioning different biosignals. To optimize the power consumption and simplify the system architecture, the front-end only adopts two-stage amplifiers. In addition, careful design eliminates the need for chopping circuits. The input-referred noise of the system is only 1.19 {mu}Vrms (0.48-2000 Hz). The chip is fabricated via a SMIC 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process. Although the power consumption is only 32.1 {mu}W under a 3 V voltage supply, test results show that the chip can successfully extract biopotential signals. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Design of an analog front-end for ambulatory biopotential measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuously tunable gain and bandwidth analog front-end for ambulatory biopotential measurement systems is presented. The front-end circuit is capable of amplifying and conditioning different biosignals. To optimize the power consumption and simplify the system architecture, the front-end only adopts two-stage amplifiers. In addition, careful design eliminates the need for chopping circuits. The input-referred noise of the system is only 1.19 ?Vrms (0.48-2000 Hz). The chip is fabricated via a SMIC 0.18 ?m CMOS process. Although the power consumption is only 32.1 ?W under a 3 V voltage supply, test results show that the chip can successfully extract biopotential signals. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Working Memory and Dynamic Measures of Analogical Reasoning as Predictors of Children's Math and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Claire E.; Bergwerff, Catharina E.; Heiser, Willem J.; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory and inductive reasoning ability each appear related to children's achievement in math and reading. Dynamic measures of reasoning, based on an assessment procedure including feedback, may provide additional predictive value. The aim of this study was to investigate whether working memory and dynamic measures of analogical

  13. Fructosamine: An Alternative to Serum Glucose Measurement in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePerno, Christopher S; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2015-10-01

    We determined the relationship between fructosamine and serum glucose in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested during two seasonally stressful periods for deer in coastal North Carolina, US: July 2008 represented the postparturition and lactation period, and March 2009 represented the late winter and pre-green-up period. Serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations were similar between time periods but were uncorrelated within each season. However, when serum glucose was separated into high and low categories based on the median blood glucose score within each time period, we detected statistically significant differences between July and March for serum glucose. Fructosamine was more stable than serum glucose for evaluating the white-tailed deer physiologic condition. PMID:26251990

  14. A New System Noise Measurement Method Using a 2-bit Analog-To-Digital Converter

    CERN Document Server

    Nakatake, Aki; Takeda, Koji

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new method to measure the system noise temperature, $T_{\\rm sys}$, using a 2-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The statistics of the digitized signal in a four-level quantization brings us information about the bias voltage and the variance, which reflects the power of the input signal. Comparison of the variances in {\\it hot} and {\\it sky} circumstances yields $T_{\\rm sys}$ without a power meter. We performed test experiments using the Kagoshima 6-m radio telescope and a 2-bit ADC to verify this method. Linearity in the power-variance relation was better than 99% within the dynamic range of 10 dB. Digitally measured $T_{\\rm sys}$ coincided with that of conventional measurement with a power meter in 1.8-% difference or less for elevations of $10^{\\circ} - 88^{\\circ}$. No significant impact was found by the bias voltages within the range between -3.7 and +12.8% with respect to the threshold voltage. The proposed method is available for existing interferometers that have a multi-level ADC, and...

  15. IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF THE SIZE AND DENSITY OF TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The organic haze produced from complex CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan plays an important role in processes that occur in the atmosphere and on its surface. The haze particles act as condensation nuclei and are therefore involved in Titan's methane hydrological cycle. They also may behave like sediment on Titan's surface and participate in both fluvial and aeolian processes. Models that seek to understand these processes require information about the physical properties of the particles including their size and density. Although measurements obtained by Cassini-Huygens have placed constraints on the size of the haze particles, their densities remain unknown. We have conducted a series of Titan atmosphere simulation experiments and measured the size, number density, and particle density of Titan aerosol analogs, or tholins, for CH{sub 4} concentrations from 0.01% to 10% using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that the densities currently in use by many Titan models are higher than the measured densities of our tholins.

  16. IN SITU MEASUREMENTS OF THE SIZE AND DENSITY OF TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organic haze produced from complex CH4/N2 chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan plays an important role in processes that occur in the atmosphere and on its surface. The haze particles act as condensation nuclei and are therefore involved in Titan's methane hydrological cycle. They also may behave like sediment on Titan's surface and participate in both fluvial and aeolian processes. Models that seek to understand these processes require information about the physical properties of the particles including their size and density. Although measurements obtained by Cassini-Huygens have placed constraints on the size of the haze particles, their densities remain unknown. We have conducted a series of Titan atmosphere simulation experiments and measured the size, number density, and particle density of Titan aerosol analogs, or tholins, for CH4 concentrations from 0.01% to 10% using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that the densities currently in use by many Titan models are higher than the measured densities of our tholins.

  17. Glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiser, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    Stress-related hyperglycemia is a common finding in acutely ill patients, and is related to the severity and outcome of the critical illness. The pathophysiology of stress hyperglycemia includes hormonal and neural signals, leading to increased production of glucose by the liver and peripheral insulin resistance mediated by the translocation of transmembrane glucose transporters. In one pioneering study, tight glycemic control by intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients was associated with improved survival. However, this major finding was not confirmed in several other prospective randomized controlled trials. The reasons underlying the discrepancy between the first and the subsequent studies could include nutritional strategy (amount of calories provided, use of parenteral nutrition), case-mix, potential differences in the optimal blood glucose level (BG) in different types of patients, hypoglycemia and its correction, and the magnitude of glucose variability. Therefore, an improved understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of glycemic regulation during acute illness is needed. Safe and effective glucose control will need improvement in the definition of optimal BG and in the measurement techniques, perhaps including continuous monitoring of insulin algorithms and closed-loop systems. PMID:23075589

  18. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  19. Photoacoustic blood glucose and skin measurement based on optical scattering effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllyla, Risto A.

    2002-07-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose determination has been investigated by more than 100 research groups in the world during the past fifteen years. The commonly optical methods are based on the capacity of near-IR light to penetrate a few hundreds micrometers or a few millimeters into human tissue where it interacts with glucose. A change of glucose concentration may modify the optical parameters in tissue, with the result that its glucose concentration can be extracted by analyzing the received optical signals. This paper demonstrates that glucose affects on the scattering coefficient of human blood, by applying the streak camera and pulsed photoacoustic techniques; and drinking water seems also affecting on PA signal from skin surface.

  20. The crystal structure of rabbit phosphoglucose isomerase complexed with D-sorbitol-6-phosphate, an analog of the open chain form of D-glucose-6-phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, JI HYUN; Constance J. Jeffery

    2005-01-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) catalyzes the isomerization of D-glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and D-fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Analysis of previously reported X-ray crystal structures of PGI without ligand, with the cyclic form of F6P, or with inhibitors that mimic the cis-enediol intermediate led to proposed mechanisms for the ring opening and isomerization steps in the multistep catalytic mechanism. To help complete our model of the overall mechanism, informat...

  1. Experiments of glucose solution measurement based on the tunable pulsed laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Xiong, Zhihua; Huang, Zhen

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a hybrid, well-established and promising detection technique that has widely applied into a lot of fields such as bio-medical, material and environment monitoring etc. PAS has high contrast and resolution because of combining the advantages of the pure-optical and the pure-acoustic. In this paper, a photoacoustic experiment of glucose solution induced by 532nm pumped Nd:YAG tunable pulsed laser with repetition rate of 20Hz and pulse width of 10ns is performed. The time-resolved photoacoustic signals of glucose solution induced by pulsed laser in the average time of 512 are obtained. And the photoacoustic experiments of different concentrations of glucose solutions and different wavelengths of pulsed laser are carried out in this paper. Experimental results demonstrate that the bipolar sine-wave profiles for the time-resolved photoacoustic signal of glucose solution are in good agreement with the past reported literatures. And the different absorbing coefficients of glucose solution can be gotten according to the slope of the first part of the time-resolved photoacoustic signals. In addition, the different acoustic velocities of glucose solution can also be gotten according to the shift change of the time-resolved photoacoustic peak values. Research results illustrate that the characteristic wavelengths, different optical and acoustic properties of glucose solution can be interpreted by the time-resolved and peak-to-peak photoacoustic signals induced by the pulsed laser.

  2. Intracellular Glucose Concentration in Derepressed Yeast Cells Consuming Glucose Is High Enough To Reduce the Glucose Transport Rate by 50%

    OpenAIRE

    Teusink, Bas; Diderich, Jasper A.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; van Dam, Karel; Walsh, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exhibiting high-affinity glucose transport, the glucose consumption rate at extracellular concentrations above 10 mM was only half of the zero trans-influx rate. To determine if this regulation of glucose transport might be a consequence of intracellular free glucose we developed a new method to measure intracellular glucose concentrations in cells metabolizing glucose, which compares glucose stereoisomers to correct for adhering glucose. The intracellular gl...

  3. Measurement of glucose metabolism in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy using positron emission tomography with 18F-FDG: Initial Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Fluorine18 deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has been used in numerous studies to determine the cardiac rate of glucose metabolism in normal and pathological conditions. It is known that during heart failure the metabolic pattern is altered. Patlack's graphical analysis allows the assessment of heart muscle glucose consumption in patients with non-ischaemic heart failure and normal subjects. Methods: Standardized measurement of glucose metabolism was performed in four patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and three healthy subjects. All subjects received an oral load of carbohydrates (75gr) previous to scanning. Dynamic images of the thorax were acquired. Myocardial uptake was estimated from time-activity curves in the atrium and left ventricle using Patlack's graphical analysis. Results: All subjects studied were male. 18F-FDG uptake rate for the group with dilated cardiomyopathy was 1.31±0.2, versus 1.26±0.37 ml/100gr/min in the control group. Conclusion: Measurement of cardiac glucose metabolism by 18F-FDG PET is feasible in a clinical service, allowing impact evaluation of physiologic and metabolic changes in the myocardium in different pathologic scenarios in addition to therapy assessment

  4. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  5. Age and sex differences in cerebral glucose consumption measured by pet using [18-F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resting cerebral glucose metabolic rates (CMRglc) were measured in 23 subjects by PET using FDG. Subjects were divided into several groups (mean age +- S.D.) 5 young males (YM) (27 +- 6); 6 young females (YF)(33 +9); 5 elderly males (EM)(73 +- 5); 7 elderly females (EF)(69 +- 7). Additionally, from these groups 4 YM, 3YF, 5EM and 4EF were studied again within 6 weeks under identical conditions. CMRglc in the YF group again was significantly hider than YM (p 0.05). No obvious relationships of CMRglc to the phase of the menstrual cycle was found in this small group. There was a trend (p=0.06) toward a higher CMRglc in YF than EF. These results support the findings of higher CBF in YF versus YM. The differences between the results of Kuhl et al (J. Cereb. and a reduction of CMRglc with age was found in a mixed group of males and females (58and female), and where no age effect was found the males, are also resolved by these findings. The authors suggest that the apparent age effect, in females in this study, is principally a hormonal one

  6. Measurement of regional cerebral glucose utilization in man by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various methods available for the study of regional cerebral glucose consumption in man by positron emission tomography are described and their applications, limitations and principal physiopathological results are presented

  7. Analog method for measurement of longitudinal coupling impedance of an electron ring in a chamber containing resonant elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analog method for measurement of the longitudinal coupling impedance of charged particle beam with the accelerator chamber is considered. The method is generalized for systems containing azimuthally inhomogeneous and resonant elements. Scheme and measurement results for electron ring coupling impedance with the injector in the compressor chamber are given. These results testify that resonant coupling with the injector (acting as a quarter-wave vibrator) may affect the electron ring significantly during its formation and at first stage of compression

  8. Real-time quantitative fluorescence measurement of microscale cell culture analog systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taek-il; Kim, Donghyun; Tatosian, Daniel; Sung, Jong Hwan; Shuler, Michael

    2007-02-01

    A microscale cell culture analog (?CCA) is a cell-based lab-on-a-chip assay that, as an animal surrogate, is applied to pharmacological studies for toxicology tests. A ?CCA typically comprises multiple chambers and microfluidics that connect the chambers, which represent animal organs and blood flow to mimic animal metabolism more realistically. A ?CCA is expected to provide a tool for high-throughput drug discovery. Previously, a portable fluorescence detection system was investigated for a single ?CCA device in real-time. In this study, we present a fluorescence-based imaging system that provides quantitative real-time data of the metabolic interactions in ?CCAs with an emphasis on measuring multiple ?CCA samples simultaneously for high-throughput screening. The detection system is based on discrete optics components, with a high-power LED and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera as a light source and a detector, for monitoring cellular status on the chambers of each ?CCA sample. Multiple samples are characterized mechanically on a motorized linear stage, which is fully-automated. Each ?CCA sample has four chambers, where cell lines MES-SA/DX- 5, and MES-SA (tumor cells of human uterus) have been cultured. All cell-lines have been transfected to express the fusion protein H2B-GFP, which is a human histone protein fused at the amino terminus to EGFP. As a model cytotoxic drug, 10 ?M doxorubicin (DOX) was used. Real-time quantitative data of the intensity loss of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) during cell death of target cells have been collected over several minutes to 40 hours. Design issues and improvements are also discussed.

  9. Upconverting phosphors as an amplifier of a colorimetric signal in dry chemistry test strips for enzymatic measurement of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valta, Timo; Horn, Carina

    2015-09-01

    We describe the use of upconverting phosphors (UCPs) as an amplifier of the colorimetric signal in enzymatic dry chemistry test strips for the determination of glucose. The indicator compound used in the strips attenuated both the emission and excitation wavelengths of the upconverting phosphors, thus taking advantage of the nonlinear relationship between the excitation and emission of these particles. By monitoring the emission of the UCPs under 978?nm excitation, we were able to obtain significantly higher signal response (a steeper calibration curve) from the colorimetric assay compared to a reflectance measurement. The limit of detection of the developed method was 2.1-fold lower than the reflectance-based reference method. The new method was able to determine glucose from a sample of water in the range of 5.7??M to 22?mM, which covers the typical blood glucose range in newborns and adults. In low analyte concentrations we obtained up to 3-fold improvement in the slope of the assay calibration curve. This difference decreased with increasing analyte concentration and the effect was diminished by the highest glucose concentration. However, the analytical sensitivity (the ratio of slope and standard deviation) was practically identical between the two methods because of the higher deviation in the UCP emission signal.

  10. Inhibition of JNK phosphorylation by a novel curcumin analog prevents high glucose-induced inflammation and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yong; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yunjie; Peng, Kesong; Li, Weixin; Wang, Yonggang; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhou, Shanshan; Liu, Quan; Li, Xiaokun; Cai, Lu; Liang, Guang

    2014-10-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced inflammation and apoptosis have important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We recently found that a novel curcumin derivative, C66, is able to reduce the high glucose (HG)-induced inflammatory response. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects on diabetic cardiomyopathy and its underlying mechanisms. Pretreatment with C66 significantly reduced HG-induced overexpression of inflammatory cytokines via inactivation of nuclear factor-?B in both H9c2 cells and neonatal cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, we showed that the inhibition of Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation contributed to the protection of C66 from inflammation and cell apoptosis, which was validated by the use of SP600125 and dominant-negative JNK. The molecular docking and kinase activity assay confirmed direct binding of C66 to and inhibition of JNK. In mice with type 1 diabetes, the administration of C66 or SP600125 at 5 mg/kg significantly decreased the levels of plasma and cardiac tumor necrosis factor-?, accompanied by decreasing cardiac apoptosis, and, finally, improved histological abnormalities, fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction without affecting hyperglycemia. Thus, this work demonstrated the therapeutic potential of the JNK-targeting compound C66 for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Importantly, we indicated a critical role of JNK in diabetic heart injury, and suggested that JNK inhibition may be a feasible strategy for treating diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24848068

  11. Experimental study for cancer diagnosis with positron-labeled fluorinated glucose analogs: [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-mannose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) and 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-mannose (18F-FDM) were tested as tumor diagnostic agents in a transplantable rat tumor and rabbit tumors. Tissue distribution studies in rats showed high tumor uptakes of both radiopharmaceuticals. The tumor uptake reached 2.65+-0.61% dose 18F-FDG/g and 2.65+-0.81% dose 18F-FDM/g at 60 min and remained relatively constant until 120 min. Blood clearance of both 18F-FDG and 18F-FDM was very rapid and tumor-to-blood ratios reached 22.1 and 29.4 at 60 min, respectively. Tumor-to-tissue ratios of both radiopharmaceuticals were very high in most organs, especially in the liver, kidney, and pancreas. Positron emission tomography (PET) of rabbit tumor with 18F-FDM clearly delineated the main tumor, central necrosis, and lymph node metastases. These data suggested that 18F-FDM, which is a by-product of 18F-FDG synthesis, was also an excellent cancer diagnostic agent as well as 18-F-FDG. This is not only a new feature of 18F-FDM, but also an economical improvement on cancer diagnosis by PET. (orig.)

  12. Self-monitoring of blood glucose measurements and glycaemic control in a managed care paediatric type 1 diabetes practice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B, Davey; D G, Segal.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intensive diabetes management requires intensive insulin treatment and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurements to obtain immediate information on the status of the blood glucose level and to obtain data for pattern analysis on which meal planning, insulin and lifestyle adjus [...] tments can be made. The value and optimal frequency of SMBGs are often questioned OBJECTIVES: To document the relationship between SMBG frequency and glycaemic control in a managed care paediatric type 1 diabetes practice METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 141 managed care paediatric and adolescent patients over a 1-year period from 1 February 2010 to 30 January 2011. The patients were stratified according to their insulin regimen. The frequency of SMBG was analysed and glycaemic control measured by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c RESULTS: A highly significant decrease (p

  13. Quantitative measurement of local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose utilizing tritiated 2-deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The [14C]2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) technique has been widely utilized for quantitative measurement of local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (lCMRG) in animals. The technique as presently used is limited by the energy of 14C beta-particles, which can travel relatively great distances in tissue. This results in limited autoradiographic resolution and in computed 14C concentrations which are a function of tissue section thickness. [3H]2-DG has less energetic beta-particles; hence, autoradiographs have better resolution and optical densities are independent of tissue thickness for sections greater than 5 ?m. The authors have developed a method for quantitation of lCMRG in rats using [3H]2-DG and a newly developed ultrasensitive X-ray film. Autoradiographic tissue standards were prepared by injecting rats with [3H]2-DG and assaying micro-samples of brain for 3H concentration. Ten rats were used in this study. Five rats received [3H]2-DG (300 ?Ci/100 g) and 5 rats received [14C]2-DG (7.5 ?Ci/100 g). The mean lCMRG values for selected areas of the central nervous system demonstrated no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the [14C]2-DG and the [3H]2-DG groups. Values for lCMRG from the [3H]2-DG group showed no variation attributable to inadequate microtome precision. The improved resolution obtained by utilizing [3H]2-DG is especially evident where gray matter (high lCMRG) is immediately adjacent to white matter (low lCMRG). (Auth.)

  14. Nucleic Acid Base Analog FRET-Pair Facilitating Detailed Structural Measurements in Nucleic Acid Containing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börjesson, Karl; Preus, Søren; El-Sagheer, Afaf; Brown, Tom; Albinsson, Bo; Wilhelmsson, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    We present the first nucleobase analog fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-pair. The pair consists of tCO, 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine, as an energy donor and the newly developed tC(nitro), 7-nitro-1,3-diaza-2-oxophenothiazine, as an energy acceptor. The FRET-pair successfully monitors distances covering up to more than one turn of the DNA duplex. Importantly, we show that the rigid stacking of the two base analogs, and consequently excellent control of their exact positions and orienta...

  15. Brain metabolism in autism. Resting cerebral glucose utilization rates as measured with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in ten men (mean age = 26 years) with well-documented histories of infantile autism and in 15 age-matched normal male controls using positron emission tomography and (F-18) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Positron emission tomography was completed during rest, with reduced visual and auditory stimulation. While the autistic group as a whole showed significantly elevated glucose utilization in widespread regions of the brain, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. No brain region showed a reduced metabolic rate in the autistic group. Significantly more autistic, as compared with control, subjects showed extreme relative metabolic rates (ratios of regional metabolic rates to whole brain rates and asymmetries) in one or more brain regions

  16. The effects of precision, haematocrit, pH and oxygen tension on point-of-care glucose measurement in critically ill patients: a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Watkinson, PJ; Barber, VS; Amira, E; James, T.; TAYLOR, R.; Young, JD

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critical care glycaemic control protocols commonly have treatment adjustment (target) ranges spanning ?2 mmol/L. These require precise point-of-care glucose measurement, unaffected by other variables, to avoid measurement errors increasing glycaemic variability and hypoglycaemic episodes (both strongly associated with mortality in critically ill patients). METHODS: A prospective 206 intensive care patient study was carried out. Arterial glucose concentrations were measured in dupl...

  17. Use of arterialised venous instead of arterial blood for measurement of myocardial glucose metabolism during euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling of arterialised venous blood (AVB) is often used as an alternative to sampling of arterial blood when determining the myocardial metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlu). This method, however, has not yet been validated for measurement of plasma fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) activity during a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp (EHC). In this study, dynamic FDG scans were performed with arterial blood sampling during EHC. Samples of arterial and AVB or venous blood were simultaneously withdrawn at five time points for measurement of FDG activity and plasma glucose in 36 patients. Both venous to arterial and AVB to arterial ratios were calculated for FDG activity and plasma glucose. Mean ratios between AVB and arterial FDG activity were then used to create calculated arterialised venous input functions from corresponding arterial input functions. The mean effect of arterialisation on the calculation of Ki was assessed. In nine additional patients, Ki obtained with continuous sampling of AVB was compared with Ki obtained with a corresponding (quality-controlled) image-derived input function from the ascending aorta. Using AVB, measurements of FDG activity were much more reliable than with venous blood sampling. As compared with arterial sampling, however, FDG activity was underestimated early after injection, while it was overestimated after 20 min. In both analyses, AVB resulted in 10%±10% overestimation of Ki. Because of a 5%±5% underestimation of plasma glucose concentration with AVB, the net effect on the final calculation of MRGlu was small (on average 5% overestimation). It is concluded that the use of AVB has a small average effect on the determination of MRGlu. This method does, however, contribute to variability in the results. This variability cannot be explained by different degrees of arterialisation. (orig.)

  18. Automatic Reading Recognition System for Analog Measuring Instruments Base on Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Junguo Zhang; Yi Wang; Fantao Lin

    2013-01-01

    Pointer instrument has been widely used in the electric power, chemical industry and other industrial fields, because of the advantages such as low price, high reliability, easy installation, replacement and so forth. The traditional manual reading method has its drawbacks for example process trival, big workload, lack of accuracy. This article, based on digital image processing techniques, studies the automatic reading recognition method for analog measuri...

  19. Associations between insulin and glucose concentrations and anthropometric measures of fat mass in Australian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Denney-Wilson Elizabeth; Cowell Christopher T; Okely Anthony D; Hardy Louise L; Aitken Robert; Dobbins Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background One of the most serious, yet common co-morbidities of obesity is insulin resistance, which if untreated may progress to type 2 diabetes. This paper describes the insulin and glucose concentration distributions, the prevalence of elevated insulin, the associations between insulin and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and fat mass index in a representative sample of Australian adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional population-based study ...

  20. Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood

    OpenAIRE

    Beiderman, Yevgeny; Blumenberg, Raz; Rabani, Nir; Teicher, Mina; Garcia, Javier; Mico, Vicente; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    An optical approach allowing the extraction and the separation of remote vibration sources has recently been proposed. The approach has also been applied for medical related applications as blood pressure and heart beats monitoring. In this paper we demonstrate its capability to monitor glucose concentration in blood stream. The technique is based on the tracking of temporal changes of reflected secondary speckle produced in human skin (wrist) when being illuminated by a laser beam. A tempora...

  1. Synthesis and anticancer activity of new flavonoid analogs and inconsistencies in assays related to proliferation and viability measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Alaina M; Lin, Huimin; Meadows, Gary G; Meier, G Patrick

    2014-08-01

    Flavonoids have been studied intensely for their ability to act as anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-aging agents and are often marketed as supplements related to their anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have primarily focused on the effects of polar natural flavonoids. We examined the activity of novel hydrophobic and lipophilic flavonols against human DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. All flavonol analogs were more active than the naturally occurring flavonols quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferide and galangin. The most potent analogs were 6.5-fold more active against DU-145 and PC-3 cells than quercetin and fell within the biologically relevant concentration range (low micromolar). We also evaluated the potential toxic effects of flavonol analogs on normal cells, an assessment that has frequently been ignored when studying the anticancer effects of flavonoids. During these analyses, we discovered that various metabolic and DNA staining assays were unreliable methods for assessing cell viability of flavonoids. Flavonoids reduce colorimetric dyes such as MTT and Alamar Blue in the absence of cells. We showed that flavonol-treated prostate cancer cells were stained less intensely with crystal violet than untreated cells at non-toxic concentrations. The trypan blue exclusion assay was selected as a reliable alternative for measuring cell viability. PMID:24859601

  2. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  3. An analog computer model for calculation of exposures measured by photodosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of known methods for calculation of X-ray, gamma and beta radiation doses, and data from experiments carried out by the author, a mathematical model has been developed and programmed in several versions on an analog computer. The model is able to calculate mixed radiation exposures detected by photodosimeters. An estimate is given of the error due to the broken line approximation of the calibration curves. The possibility for an automated selection of the appropriate program according to the input information is discussed. The model can be used without substantial modifications for computation of exposures registered by photodosimeters of other types. (N.K)

  4. GLUCOSE ELECTROOXIDATION

    OpenAIRE

    PASTA, MAURO

    2010-01-01

    The electrooxidation of glucose has attracted a lot of interest due to its applications in blood glucose sensors and biological fuel cells. Glucose sensors optimization is highly necessary to improve the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus, a chronic disease affecting millions of people around the world, while biological fuel cells have been studied in order to explore new, renewable energy sources alternative to fossil fuels. There are three main ways to perform glucose electrooxidation, depen...

  5. Measurements of urea and glucose in aqueous solutions with dual-beam near-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P.S.; Bak, J.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a dual-beam, optical null, FT-IR spectrometer to measure trace organic components in aqueous solutions in the combination band region 5000-4000 cm(-1). The spectrometer may be used for both single- and dual-beam measurements, thereby facilitating comparison of these two modes of operation. The concentrations of aqueous solutions of urea and glucose in the ranges 0-40 mg/dL and 0-250 mg/dL, respectively, were determined by principal component regression using both modes. The dual-beam technique eliminated instrumental variations present in the single-beam measurements that must be taken into account when quantifying trace components from single-beam spectra. The data obtained with the dual-beam technique resulted in more stable calibration models based on principal component regression. These calibration models need fewer factors and yield lower prediction errors than those based on traditional single-beam data.

  6. Spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masaru; Sato, Shun; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K. W.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    To realize the non-invasive blood glucose measurement, it will be effective to acquire the spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for eliminating other biological-component's disturbances. Our proposed imaging-type 2-dimensional Fourier spectroscopic imaging can limit the measuring depth into focal plane with high light detection sensitivity. Thus, the proposed method will be suitable for measuring only near the skin surface with detecting weak reflected light from inner biomembrane. But reflectance of skin surface is more than 1000 times larger than inner skin's reflectance. Paying attention on Fresnel reflection, fingers what were illuminated by p-polarized beam from Brewster's angle were observed with crossed-Nicol dark field optics. We successfully acquired spectroscopic characteristics of hemoglobin at vein area near the skin surface.

  7. Associations between Ultrasound Measures of Abdominal Fat Distribution and Indices of Glucose Metabolism in a Population at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The ADDITION-PRO Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; JØrgensen, Marit E

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Visceral adipose tissue measured by CT or MRI is strongly associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile. We assessed whether similar associations can be found with ultrasonography, by quantifying the strength of the relationship between different measures of obesity and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices of glucose metabolism were derived from a three point oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression of obesity measures on indices of glucose metabolism was performed. RESULTS: Mean age was 66.2 years, BMI 26.9kg/m2, subcutaneous adipose tissue 2.5cm and visceral adipose tissue 8.0cm. All measures of obesity were positively associated with indicators of glycaemia and inversely associated with indicators of insulin sensitivity. Associations were of equivalent magnitude except for subcutaneous adipose tissue and the visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio, which showed weaker associations. One standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt's index of insulin sensitivity, and 100 unit higher Stumvoll's index of beta-cell function. After adjustment for waist circumference visceral adipose tissue was still significantly associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend towards inverse or no associations with subcutaneous adipose tissue. After adjustment, a 1cm increase in visceral adipose tissue was associated with ~5% lower insulin sensitivity (p?0.0004) and ~0.18mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose (p?0.001). CONCLUSION: Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue assessed by ultrasonography are significantly associated with glucose metabolism, even after adjustment for other measures of obesity.

  8. Measurement of the thermal spectrum of Hawking radiation from analog horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unruh, William [British Columbia University (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: In 1974 Hawking predicted that black holes should radiate thermal radiation with a temperature given by the geometry of the horizon. In 1980 I suggested that this was a far more universal phenomenon and applied to horizons in many other situations, In 2010 we at Univ of BC measured the spectrum of the quantum radiation from a horizon to surface waves in water flow, by measuring the amplification of waves which impinged on that horizon. The spectrum of the associated quantum noise was shown that it would be thermal and Temperature determined by the characteristics of the flow as expected from the above arguments. (author)

  9. Measurement of Faraday rotation in twisted optical fiber using rotating polarization and analog phase detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrated phase modulation of rotating linearly polarized light by current-induced Faraday rotation in a single mode optical fiber and used the technique to measure the current in ZT-40M, a Reversed-Field Pinch. We have also demonstrated the practicality of using twisted sensing fiber to overcome the problems associated with linear birefringence

  10. Glucose Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose. In a person with signs and symptoms of diabetes or hyperglycemia , a non-fasting glucose level (random blood sample) ... to trauma, heart attack , and stroke for instance) Chronic kidney ... nervous system symptoms (sweating, palpitations, hunger, trembling, and anxiety), then begins ...

  11. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  12. Measurement of regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in the human subject with (F-18)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose and emission computed tomography: validation of the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracer techniques and models of in vitro quantitative autoradiography and tissue counting for the measure of regional metabolic rates (rMR) are combined with emission computed tomography (ECT). This approach, Physiologic Tomography (PT), provides atraumatic and analytical measurements of rMR. PT is exemplified with the regional measurement of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRGlu) in man with (18F)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and positron ECT. Our model incorporates a k4* mediated hydrolysis of FDG-6-PO4 to FDG which then competes with phosphorylation (k3*) of FDG back to FDG-6-PO4 and reverse transport (k2*) back to blood. Although small, k4* is found to be significant. The ECAT positron tomograph was used to measure the rate constants (k1*?k4*), lumped constant (LC), stability, and reproducibility of the model in man. Since these parameters have not been measured for FDG in any species, comparisons are made to values for DG in rat and monkey. Compartmental concentrations of FDG and FDG-6-PO4 were determined and show that cerebral FDG-6-PO4 steadily accumulates for about 100 mins, plateaus and then slowly decreases due to hydrolysis. Cerebral blood FDG concentration was determined to be a minor contribution to tissue activity after 10 min. Regional CMRGlu measurements are reproducible to +- 5.5% over 5 hrs. PT allows the in vivo study ofregional biochemistry and physiology in normal and pathophysiologic states in man with a unique and fundamental capability

  13. Experimentally Measured Interfacial Area during Gas Injection into Saturated Porous Media: An Air Sparging Analogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

    2010-01-01

    The amount of interfacial area (awn) between air and subsurface liquids during air-sparging can limit the rate of site remediation. Lateral movement within porous media could be encountered during air-sparging operations when air moves along the bottom of a low-permeability lens. This study was conducted to directly measure the amount of awn between air and water flowing within a bench-scale porous flow cell during the lateral movement of air along the upper edge of the cell during air injections into an initially water-saturated flow cell. Four different cell orientations were used to evaluate the effect of air injection rates and porous media geometries on the amount of awn between fluids. Air was injected at flow rates that varied by three orders of magnitude, and for each flow cellover this range of injection rates little change in awn was noted. A wider variation in awn was observed when air moved through different regions for the different flow cell orientations. These results are in good agreement with the experimental findings of Waduge et al. (2007), who performed experiments in a larger sand-pack flow cell, and determined that air-sparging efficiency is nearly independent of flow rate but highly dependent on the porous structure. By directly measuring the awn, and showing that awn does not vary greatly with changes in injection rate, we show that the lack of improvement to remediation rates is because there is a weak dependence of the awn on the air injection rate.

  14. High glucose concentrations partially release hexokinase from inhibition by glucose 6-phosphate.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, S.; Beutler, E

    1985-01-01

    The phosphorylation of glucose by human erythrocyte hexokinase follows classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; hexokinase manifests maximum activity at 5 mM glucose, and no further increase in activity can be measured at higher glucose concentrations. However, the erythrocytes of diabetics and normal erythrocytes incubated with high concentrations of glucose contain increased concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate. To elucidate the mechanism of accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate when erythrocyte...

  15. An Implantable RFID Sensor Tag toward Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhibin; Tan, Xi; Chen, Xianliang; Chen, Sizheng; Zhang, Zijian; Zhang, Hualei; Wang, Junyu; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Lirong; Min, Hao

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a wirelessly powered implantable electrochemical sensor tag for continuous blood glucose monitoring. The system is remotely powered by a 13.56-MHz inductive link and utilizes an ISO 15693 radio frequency identification (RFID) standard for communication. This paper provides reliable and accurate measurement for changing glucose level. The sensor tag employs a long-term glucose sensor, a winding ferrite antenna, an RFID front-end, a potentiostat, a 10-bit sigma-delta analog to digital converter, an on-chip temperature sensor, and a digital baseband for protocol processing and control. A high-frequency external reader is used to power, command, and configure the sensor tag. The only off-chip support circuitry required is a tuned antenna and a glucose microsensor. The integrated chip fabricated in SMIC 0.13-?m CMOS process occupies an area of 1.2 mm ×2 mm and consumes 50 ?W. The power sensitivity of the whole system is -4 dBm. The sensor tag achieves a measured glucose range of 0-30 mM with a sensitivity of 0.75 nA/mM. PMID:25823049

  16. An electron paramagnetic resonance method for measuring the affinity of a spin-labeled analog of cholesterol for phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Justin A; Wassall, Cynthia D; Kemple, Marvin D; Wassall, Stephen R

    2013-09-01

    Cholesterol (chol)-lipid interactions are thought to play an intrinsic role in determining lateral organization within cellular membranes. Steric compatibility of the rigid steroid moiety for ordered saturated chains contributes to the high affinity that holds chol and sphingomyelin together in lipid rafts whereas, conversely, poor affinity of the sterol for highly disordered polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is hypothesized to drive the formation of PUFA-containing phospholipid domains depleted in chol. Here, we describe a novel method using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to measure the relative affinity of chol for different phospholipids. We monitor the partitioning of 3?-doxyl-5?-cholestane (chlstn), a spin-labeled analog of chol, between large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and cyclodextrin (m?CD) through analysis of EPR spectra. Because the shape of the EPR spectrum for chlstn is sensitive to the very different tumbling rates of the two environments, the ratio of the population of chlstn in LUVs and m?CD can be determined directly from spectra. Partition coefficients (K(B)(A)) between lipids derived from our results for chlstn agree with values obtained for chol and confirm that decreased affinity for the sterol accompanies increasing acyl chain unsaturation. The virtue of this EPR method is that it provides a measure of chol binding that is quick, employs a commercially available probe and avoids the necessity for physical separation of LUVs and m?CD. PMID:23982160

  17. The Usefulness of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) for Detection of Glucose Intolerance in Thai Women of Reproductive Age with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwananuruk, Thanyarat; Rattanachaiyanont, Manee; Leerasiri, Pichai; Indhavivadhana, Suchada; Techatraisak, Kitirat; Angsuwathana, Surasak; Tanmahasamut, Prasong; Dangrat, Chongdee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To study the cut-off point of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) as a screening test for detection of glucose intolerance in Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Subject. Two hundred and fifty Thai PCOS women who attended the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit, during May 2007 to January 2009. Materials and Methods. The paitents were interviewed and examined for weight, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Venous blood samples were drawn twice, one at 12-hour fasting and the other at 2 hours after glucose loading. Results. The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women was 20.0%. The mean of HOMA-IR was 3.53? ± ?7.7. Area under an ROC curve for HOMA-IR for detecting glucose intolerance was 0.82. Using the cut-off value of HOMA-IR >2.0, there was sensitivity at 84.0%, specificity at 61.0%, positive predictive value at 35.0%, negative predictive value at 93.8%, and accuracy at 65.6%. Conclusion. HOMA-IR >2.0 was used for screening test for glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women. If the result was positive, a specific test should be done to prove the diagnosis. PMID:22737168

  18. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio

    2003-01-01

    In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose concentration assumed to remain constant along the hyperbola. Conceivably, glucose is one of the signals stimulating AIR in response to decreasing M. Hypothetically, as with any normally functioning feed-forward system, AIR should not fully compensate for worsening M, since this would remove the stimulus for the compensation. We provide evidence from cross-sectional, longitudinal, and prospective data from Pima Indians (n = 413) and Caucasians (n = 60) that fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations increase with decreasing M despite normal compensation of AIR. For this physiologic adaptation to chronic stress (insulin resistance), we propose to use the term "glucose allostasis." Allostasis (stability through change) ensures the continued homeostatic response (stability through staying the same) to acute stress at some cumulative costs to the system. With increasing severity and over time, the allostatic load (increase in glycemia) may have pathological consequences, such as the development of type 2 diabetes.

  19. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  20. On-line measurements of oscillating mitochondrial membrane potential in glucose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Poulsen, Allan K; Olsen, Lars Folke; Brasen, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    We employed the fluorescent cyanine dye DiOC(2)(3) to measure membrane potential in semi-anaerobic yeast cells under conditions where glycolysis was oscillating. Oscillations in glycolysis were studied by means of the naturally abundant nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). We found that the mitochondrial membrane potential was oscillating, and that these oscillations displayed the same frequency and duration as the NADH oscillations. It was confirmed that DiOC(2)(3) localizes itself in the ...

  1. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  2. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert; Vozarova, Barbora; Bogardus, Clifton; de Courten, Barbora

    2003-01-01

    In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hy...

  3. Correlation of fasting blood glucose and haemoglobin A1c measured with an automated analyser

    OpenAIRE

    Furota, Akira; Miyagawa, Teikichi; Tsuda, Izumi; Tatsumi, Noriyuki

    1990-01-01

    A subtype of glycohaemoglobin, haemoglobin (Hb) A1c, in specimens of whole blood was assayed on a new automated analyser that makes use of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The analyser provided precise and reproducible values. The mean of the HbA1c values was lower than that with an older instrument. The mean tended to increase with the age of the subjects, who were undergoing routine health examinations. No sex difference was found. When measurement was made 1 h after the subjects drank ...

  4. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune; Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-...

  5. Tumor glucose utilization with FDG-PET and cell kinetic measurements with IUdR in primary rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiepers, C.; Haustermans, K.; Penninckx, F. [U.Z. Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Rectal cancer is a common disease. Viable tumor cells show increased FDG uptake, which can be used to monitor radiotherapy (RT). Patients were studied in the fasting state (>6 hrs). 400-555 MBq F-18 FDG was administered i.v. and dynamic imaging started. Arterial blood was withdrawn to determine the plasma input function. A bladder catheter was flushed to clear tracer. Tumor glucose utilization (TuGluc) was calculated with a 3 compartment model, assuming a lumped constant of 1. Cell kinetics were measured with flow cytometry 6-8 hrs after in vivo labeling with iodo-deoxy-uridine (IUdR). Potential doubling time (Tpot) was determined. Two groups were investigated: (1) surgery only (n=9) and (2) before and 2-3 weeks after 30 Gy RT (n=9). For group 2 at baseline, a PET was done and tumor biopsies taken on the same day. The other PET studies were performed 1-2 days before surgery. Consecutive patients with a cT3 tumor without metastasis and over 50 yr were selected and randomized. The protocol was approved by the Human Studied Committee. At baseline TuGluc for group 1 was 222 {plus_minus} 104 nmol/min/ml (mean {plus_minus} 1 sd), and for group 2: 215 {plus_minus} 126 (p=Ns). After RT TuGluc decreased to 77 {plus_minus} 39 (p<.01). Tpot was 3.4 {plus_minus} 1.2 days for group 1 and 2.6 {plus_minus} 2.0 for group 2 at baseline (p=NS). After RT, Tpot slowed down to 5.5 {plus_minus} 3.5 days (p=0.06). A weak negative correlation of -0.2 was found between TuGluc and Tpot, a tendency for increased glucose utilization of faster dividing cells. Tpot is not clearly affected by RT suggesting undisturbed proliferation of viable cells 2-3 weeks after RT. However, TuGluc decreased indicating cell loss and histology revealed down staging in about half of patients. In conclusion: tumor FDG uptake and cell kinetics do not show a strong correlation in rectal cancer. RT results in overall loss of tumor cells and down staging, while proliferation of viable cells is maintained.

  6. Glucose Dependency of the Metabolic Pathway of HEK 293 Cells Measured by a Flow-through Type pH/CO2 Sensor System Using ISFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akira; Mohri, Satoshi; Nakamura, Michihiro; Naruse, Keiji

    Our group previously reported the application of a flow-through type pH/CO2 sensor system designed to evaluate the metabolic activity of cultured cells. The sensor system consists of two ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs), an ISFET to measure the total pH change and an ISFET enclosed within a gas-permeable silicone tube to measure the pH change attributable to CO2. In that study, we used the system to quantitatively analyze metabolic switching induced by glucose concentration changes in three cultured cell types (bovine arterial endothelium cell (BAEC), human umbilical vein endothelium cell (HUVEC), and rat cardiomuscle cell (RCMC)), and to measure the production rates of total carbonate and free lactic acid in the cultured cells. In every cell type examined, a decrease in the glucose concentration led to an increase in total carbonate, a product of cellular respiration, and a decrease of free lactic acid, a product of glycolysis. There were very significant differences among the cell types, however, in the glucose concentrations at the metabolic switching points. We postulated that the cell has a unique switching point on the metabolic pathway from glycolysis to respiration. In this paper we use our sensor system to evaluate the metabolic switching of human embryonic kidney 293 cells triggered by glucose concentration changes. The superior metabolic pathway switched from glycolysis to respiration when the glucose concentration decreased to about 2 mM. This result was very similar to that obtained in our earlier experiments on HUVECs, but far different from our results on the other two cells types, BAECs and RCMCs. This sensor system will be useful for analyzing cellular metabolism for many applications and will yield novel information on different cell types.

  7. Fictitious hyperglycemia: point-of-care glucose measurement is inaccurate during high-dose vitamin C infusion for burn shock resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Steven A; Lentz, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    The use of high-dose vitamin C (hdVC, 66 mg/kg/hour × 18 hours) infusion is a useful adjunct to reducing fluid requirements during resuscitation of burn shock. Routine point-of-care glucose (POCG) analysis has been inaccurately high in observed patients undergoing hdVC. Inaccurate POCG could potentially lead to iatrogenic hypoglycemia if the fictitious hyperglycemia is treated with insulin. This study is a retrospective analysis of plasma glucose measurements from a central laboratory (LG) compared with POCG during and 24 hours after hdVC infusion. Records of adult patients receiving hdVC infusions during burn resuscitation over 1 year were reviewed. Charts selected for analysis included those with glucose measurements using POCG and LG that were taken simultaneously, during hdVC infusion, and 24 hours after completion. All specimens were drawn from arterial lines. POCG was measured with Accu-Chek Inform (Roche, Indianapolis, IN) and LG was measured by Siemens Dimension Vista 500 (Siemens, Deerfield, IL) using biochromic analysis. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's matched pairs test and Spearman correlation with significance at P < .05. Of 18 adult patients undergoing burn resuscitation with hdVC infusion, 5 were chosen for analysis (%TBSA 40 ± 15; age 51 ± 18). All data were pooled with 11 comparisons both during and after hdVC. The mean POCG (225 ± 71) was significantly higher than mean LG (138 ± 41) on hdVC (P = .002). There was no difference between POCG (138 ± 30) and LG (128 ± 23) after hdVC was finished (P = .09). There was a negative correlation between POCG and LG on hdVC (-0.64, P = .04) and a positive correlation off hdVC (0.89, P = .0005). POCG analysis during hdVC infusion is significantly higher than laboratory glucose measurements. Once the hdVC infusion is complete, POCG and laboratory glucose measurements are not statistically different. Treating erroneously high glucose based on POC testing is potentially dangerous and could lead to hypoglycemia and seizures. PMID:25162951

  8. Estimating Plasma Glucose from Interstitial Glucose: The Issue of Calibration Algorithms in Commercial Continuous Glucose Monitoring Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Rossetti; Josep Vehí; Jorge Bondia; Fanelli, Carmine G.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of metabolic control of diabetic people has been classically performed measuring glucose concentrations in blood samples. Due to the potential improvement it offers in diabetes care, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the subcutaneous tissue is gaining popularity among both patients and physicians. However, devices for CGM measure glucose concentration in compartments other than blood, usually the interstitial space. This means that CGM need calibration against blood glucose va...

  9. The Usefulness of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) for Detection of Glucose Intolerance in Thai Women of Reproductive Age with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Prasong Tanmahasamut; Surasak Angsuwathana; Kitirat Techatraisak; Suchada Indhavivadhana; Pichai Leerasiri; Manee Rattanachaiyanont; Thanyarat Wongwananuruk; Chongdee Dangrat

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To study the cut-off point of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) as a screening test for detection of glucose intolerance in Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Subject. Two hundred and fifty Thai PCOS women who attended the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit, during May 2007 to January 2009. Materials and Methods. The ...

  10. Measurement of muscle and whole body (WB) glucose metabolism (GM) in vivo by combined stable isotope (SI) and PET techniques - Validation in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim/Background: Primed-constant infusion of SI labeled tracers is a classic technique for studying metabolism at the WB level, however, without invasive A-V difference data it provides no information about the metabolism of specific tissues. In contrast PET provides primarily tissue specific data. The aim of this study is to apply PET in combination with SI methods in an animal to simultaneously quantify substrate metabolism in specific tissues and the WB. Methods and materials: Animals: Seven white New Zealand rabbits (Mean ± SE 3.7 ± 0.1 kg;) were studied. After 14 hours of fast, they were surgically prepared by tracheotomy and implantation of catheters into carotid artery (Ca), jugular vein (Jv), and right femoral vein (Fv) under anesthesia. PET Imaging: The animal was placed in supine position in the gantry of a PC-4096 PET camera. Transmission images (5 min.) with a rotating pin source containing fib 68Ge were acquired with the central tomographic slice positioned to include both hind limbs (HLs). Each animal received C15O2 inhalation and was imaged for blood flow (BE) rate in HL muscles. Then, 18FDG (? 8 mCi) was injected into the animal through jugular vein, followed by serial PET images of muscle glucose metabolism (GM) for 90 min. Primed constant infusion of [6,6, 2H]-glucose (0.8?mol/kg/min, priming 64umol/kg) was conducted simultaneously. Plateau level blood samples were taken from the Ca and Fv for WB and HL GM. Stable Isotope Measurements: The whole body glucose metabolic rate and the plasma glucose kinetics are calculated according to the conventional stable isotope steady state kinetics model. Q=i(E,/EP-l) where i is the infusion rate of stable isotope labeled [6,6, 2H2]-glucose, E1 and EP are the isotopic enrichments of [6,6, 2H2]-glucose in infusate and plasma under steady state conditions. The hind limb glucose metabolism was also measured using stable isotope tracer and tracee difference across the hind limb. WB GM determined by SI was 2.54 ± 0.22 mg/kg/min and GM in the right HL measured by A-V difference of ST was 0.77 ± 0.12 mg/leg/min. Based on muscle mass in HL (199 ± 7.8 g), LM GM (?g/g tissue/min) was calculated to be 3.40 ± 0.46 by St and 3.64 ± 0.22 by PET (N.S; paired t-test). BF to HL muscle determined by C15O2 inhalation was 0.059 ± 0.01 ml/g tissue/min. Discussion: The two in vivo methods provided comparable quantitative information on muscle protein metabolism. PET measurements have the advantage of less invasive than A-V difference methods using SI, but it does not provide the information on whole body glucose disposal rate. Therefore combined SI and PET would provide more complete picture of whole body and regional glucose metabolism in vivo. Conclusions: PET-ST is a non-invasive approach to simultaneously quantify WB and muscle GM without biopsy, hence a powerful tool for human studies under various physio-pathophysiological conditions. (author)

  11. Noninvasive measurement of blood flow, oxygen consumption, and glucose utilization in the same brain regions in man by positron emission tomography: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen consumption (CMRO2), and glucose utilization (CMR-Glc) have been measured in three patients by positron emission tomography (PET), together with continuous inhalation of 15O labeled gases and i.v. injection of [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. In normal brain, the close local coupling between CBF and CMR-Glc, and that between CMRO2 and CMR-Glc, were well demonstrated. The coupling held for the asymptomatic areas and for parts of the affected hemispheres in two patients with cerebral ischemia. In one patient the CBF/CMR-Glc couple, but not the CMRO2/CMR-Glc couple, was disrupted in the acute ischemic core. This preliminary work demonstrates the local quantification of these important functional parameters, and indicates the potential usefulness of studying their pathophysiological interrelationship in brain disease

  12. Synthesis and anticancer activity of new flavonoid analogs and inconsistencies in assays related to proliferation and viability measurements

    OpenAIRE

    FORBES, ALAINA M.; LIN, HUIMIN; Meadows, Gary G.; MEIER, G. PATRICK

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids have been studied intensely for their ability to act as anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-aging agents and are often marketed as supplements related to their anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have primarily focused on the effects of polar natural flavonoids. We examined the activity of novel hydrophobic and lipophilic flavonols against human DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. All flavonol analogs were more active than the naturally occurr...

  13. Low-power adaptive control scheme using switching activity measurement method for reconfigurable analog-to-digital converters

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Razak, Mohd Zulhakimi

    2014-01-01

    Power consumption is a critical issue for portable devices. The ever-increasing demand for multimode wireless applications and the growing concerns towards power-aware green technology make dynamically reconfigurable hardware an attractive solution for overcoming the power issue. This is due to its advantages of flexibility, reusability, and adaptability. During the last decade, reconfigurable analog-to-digital converters (ReADCs) have been used to support multimode wireless applications. Wit...

  14. A Tale of Two Compartments: Interstitial Versus Blood Glucose Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Eda; Tamborlane, William V.

    2009-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose was described as one of the most important advancements in diabetes management since the invention of insulin in 1920. Recent advances in glucose sensor technology for measuring interstitial glucose concentrations have challenged the dominance of glucose meters in diabetes management, while raising questions about the relationships between interstitial and blood glucose levels. This article will review the differences between interstitial and blood glucose and...

  15. A novel method based solely on FPGA units enabling measurement of time and charge of analog signals in Positron Emission Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Pa?ka, M; Bia?as, P; Czerwi?ski, E; Kap?on, ?; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Krzemie?, W; Molenda, M; Moskal, P; Nied?wiecki, Sz; Pawlik, M; Raczy?ski, L; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; S?omski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wi?licki, W; Zieli?ski, M; Zo?, N

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a novel technique for precise measurement of time and charge based solely on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) device and few satellite discrete electronic components used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Described approach simplifies electronic circuits, reduces the power consumption, lowers costs, merges front-end electronics with digital electronics and also makes more compact final design. Furthermore, it allows to measure time when analog signals cross a reference voltage at different threshold levels with a very high precision of $\\sim$ 10ps (rms) and thus enables sampling of signals in a voltage domain.

  16. Water and glucose gradients in the substrate measured with NMR imaging during solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, F.J.; van As, H; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A

    2002-01-01

    Gradients inside substrate particles cannot be prevented in solid-state fermentation. These gradients can have a strong effect on the physiology of the microorganisms but have hitherto received little attention in experimental studies. We report gradients in moisture and glucose content during cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae on membrane-covered wheat-dough slices that were calculated from 1H-NMR images. We found that moisture gradients in the solid substrate remain small when evaporation is...

  17. Evaluation of the relationship between capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations obtained by the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system during an oral glucose tolerance test

    OpenAIRE

    Ignell, Claes; Berntorp, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 55 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, simultaneous capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 0, 30 and 120 min during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between capillary and venous glucose measurements, and to establish equations for the conversion of capillary and venous glucose concentrations using the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system. Additionally, the correlation between the ca...

  18. 19F NMR of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose for tumor diagnosis in mice. An NDP-bound hexose analog as a new NMR target for imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Y; Umayahara, K; Shimmura, T; Yamashita, T

    1997-01-01

    A well-known radiopharmaceutical 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose widely used for positron emission tomography diagnosis in terms of glucose utilization, was re-evaluated here as a nuclear magnetic resonance pharmaceutical for cancer detection. The uptake and metabolism of FDG in the experimental tumor, MH134, transplanted to the peritoneum of C3H mice as an ascitic tumor was studied extensively by ex vivo 19F NMR. Prolonged retention of FDG and its metabolites over 2 days was confirmed in the tumor cells as well as in the heart. In these tissues, the 6-phosphate of the injected compound was converted reversibly to its epimer 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-mannose and further to their NDP bound forms. The metabolites were almost cleared within a day from the other healthy organs where the formation of NDP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-mannose was low. Thus, the 19F NMR signal of NDP-FDM detected 1 day after the FDG injection could be used as a target signal for tumor detection. Through the use of in vivo 19F NMR spectra and 19F chemical shift images, the feasibility of this proposal was demonstrated. It was concluded that FDG-NMR has a potential for tumor diagnosis in animals. PMID:9251114

  19. Optical imaging of tumor vascularity associated with proliferation and glucose metabolism in early breast cancer: clinical application of total hemoglobin measurements in the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-infrared optical imaging targeting the intrinsic contrast of tissue hemoglobin has emerged as a promising approach for visualization of vascularity in cancer research. We evaluated the usefulness of diffuse optical spectroscopy using time-resolved spectroscopic (TRS) measurements for functional imaging of primary breast cancer. Fifty-five consecutive TNM stageI/II patients with histologically proven invasive ductal carcinoma and operable breast tumors (<5 cm) who underwent TRS measurements were enrolled. Thirty (54.5%) patients underwent 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with measurement of maximum tumor uptake. TRS was used to obtain oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin (tHb) levels from the lesions, surrounding normal tissue, and contralateral normal tissue. Lesions with tHb levels 20% higher than those present in normal tissue were defined as “hotspots,” while others were considered “uniform.” The findings in either tumor type were compared with clinicopathological factors. “Hotspot” tumors were significantly larger (P = 0.002) and exhibited significantly more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.01), higher mitotic counts (P = 0.01) and higher levels of FDG uptake (P = 0.0004) compared with “uniform” tumors; however, other pathological variables were not significantly different between the two groups. Optical imaging for determination of tHb levels allowed for measurement of tumor vascularity as a function of proliferation and glucose metabolism, which may be useful for prediction of patient prognosis and potential response to treatment

  20. Glucose and fructose 6-phosphate cycle in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined the rate of glucose cycling by comparing turnovers of [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose under basal conditions and during a glucose infusion. Moreover, the activity of the fructose 6-phosphate cycle was assessed by comparing [3-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose. The study included eight lean subjects with normal glucose tolerance. They participated in two randomly performed investigations. In one experiment [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose were given simultaneously, while in the other only [3-3H]glucose was given. The basal rate of glucose cycling was 0.32 +/- 0.08 mg X kg-1 X min-1 or 17% of basal glucose production (P less than 0.005). During glucose infusion the activity of endogenous glucose cycling did not change but since glucose production was suppressed it amounted to 130% of glucose production. The basal fructose 6-phosphate cycle could be detected only in three subjects and was suppressed during glucose infusion. In conclusion, the glucose cycle is active in healthy humans both in basal conditions and during moderate hyperglycemia. In some subjects, the fructose 6-phosphate cycle also appears to be active. Thus it is preferable to use [6-3H]glucose rather than [3-3H]glucose when measuring glucose production and particularly when assessing glucose cycle

  1. POF based glucose sensor incorporating grating wavelength filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Aasmul, SØren

    2014-01-01

    Medtronic has already developed a plastic fiber based optical sensor to detect the concentration of glucose both in vivo and in-vitro. The glucose sensor is based on a competitive glucose binding affinity assay consisting of a glucose receptor and glucose analog (ligand) contained in a compartment made up of permeable membrane for exchanging of only small molecules such as glucose, salts etc. (Fig 1). The binding between the glucose binding protein labeled with flourophore and glucose like molecules labelled with dye, is reversible. In the presence of glucose, the glucose analog competes with the glucose on binding to the protein. The system reaches an equilibrium, which correlates with the glucose concentration.The assay chemistry makes donor and acceptor pair for FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer). FRET results in decrease in donor emission intensity. Higher the concentration of glucose, more donor acceptor pairs got separated resulting in high intensity and vice versa. This change in optical signal is correlated to glucose concentration. (Fig.1) Medtronic Diabetes and DTU FOTONIK has been working together under the consortium of Marie Curie Research Framework called TRAINING AND RESEARCH IN POLYMER OPTICAL DEVICES; TRIPOD. Within the domain of TRIPOD, research is conducted on "Plastic Optical Fiber based Glucose Sensors Incorporating Grating Wavelength Filters". Research will be focused to optimized fiber tips for better coupling efficiency, reducing the response time of sensor, improve the mechanical stabilization of assay compartment by exploring the side excitation and side coupling method, ease of manufacturing and feasibility of Polymer Fiber Bragg gratings as filters. During the project, fibers will be drawn and fiber bragg gratings will be inscribed at DTU Fotonik and they will be characterized for glucose sensor at Medtronic Diabetes.

  2. Effects of 5 Thio-D-Glucose on cellular adenosine triphosphate levels and deoxyribonucleic acid rejoining in hypoxic and aerobic Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were measured in both hypoxic and aerobic cultures of V79 Chinese hamster cells treated with 5-thio-D-glucose (5-SH-D-Glc). This glucose analog, a known inhibitor of D-glucose transport and metabolism, reduced ATP in cell cultures allowed to become hypoxic by cell metabolism, but not in aerobic cultures treated similarly. Cells depleted of ATP were unable to rejoin x-ray induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks as measured by the alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation technique. The inference for radiation therapy is that inhibition of glucose metabolism selectively depletes energy reserves in hypoxic cells, rendering these cells more radiosensitive and leading to a more effective tumor treatment

  3. Analysis of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pregnant Women With Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Secher, Anna L; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Temple, Rosemary; Murphy, Helen R; Scott, Eleanor M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is increasingly used to assess glucose control in diabetes. The objective was to examine how analysis of glucose data might improve our understanding of the role temporal glucose variation has on large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants born to women with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Functional data analysis (FDA) was applied to 1.68 million glucose measurements from 759 measurement episodes, obtained from two previously published randomize...

  4. Blood-brain glucose transfer in spreading depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, A; Hansen, A J; Quistorff, B

    1981-01-01

    Spreading depression in rat brain cortex is associated with a twofold increase of cerebral blood flow. It is not known whether this increase is coupled to increases of cerebral metabolic rate and glucose transport from blood to brain. During the passage of a single spreading depression, we measured blood-brain glucose transport and glucose metabolism in rat cerebral cortex by single intravenous injection of tracer glucose. Blood flow and tissue content of glucose were measure as well. Reduction ...

  5. CSF glucose test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 - 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 of the blood sugar level). Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ...

  6. Blood Glucose Log

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cut here ¢ cut here ¢ If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... plan, physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

  7. Estimation of liver glucose metabolism after refeeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refeeding or infusing glucose to rats fasted for 24 hr or more causes rapid liver glycogen synthesis, the carbon source now considered to be largely from gluconeogenesis. While substrate cycling between plasma glucose and liver glucose-6P is known to occur, this cycling has apparently been ignored when calculations are made of % contribution of direct and indirect pathways to liver glycogen synthesis, or when hepatic glucose output is calculated from glucose turnover minus the glucose infusion rate. They show that, isotopically, an estimate of the fluxes of liver glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase is required to quantitate sources of carbon for liver glycogen synthesis, and to measure hepatic glucose output (or uptake). They propose a method to estimate these fluxes, involving a short infusion of a 14C labelled gluconeogenic precursor plus (6T)glucose, with determination of isotopic yields in liver glycogen and total glucose. Given also the rate of liver glycogen synthesis, this procedure permits the estimation of net gluconeogenesis and hepatic glucose output or uptake. Also, in vitro evidence against the notion of a drastic zonation of liver carbohydrate metabolism is presented, e.g. raising the glucose concentration from 10 to 25 mM increases the 14C yield from H14CO3- in lactate, with the increased pyruvate kinase flux and decreased gluconeogenesis occurring in the same cell type, not opposing pathways in different hepatocyte types (as has been postulated by some to occur in vivo after refeeding

  8. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.; Hansen, Torben; Tura, A.; Vistisen, D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin sensitivity and -cell function measured by gold-standard tests were reflected in the corresponding OGTT-derived estimates.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWith validated methods, various aspects of glucose absorpt...

  9. A CAMAC unit for charge measuring and pulse shape recording based on a fast, 8-bit parallel analog-to-digital converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device designed mainly for measuring systems for testing parameters of some type of detectors used in the high energy physics is described. The device is one-module CAMAC unit. It is equipped in a fast, 8-bit parallel analog-to-digital converter ''flash''type with a gated integrator at the input and a static RAM (4096 x 8 bit) at the output. The device enables measurements of the charge in pulses from detectors or registration of the shape of these pulses. The construction, operation and parameters of the circuits of the device are described and the way of programming functions using CAMAC dataway is given. 8 refs., 9 figs. (author)

  10. Compare analysis of efficiency of using of digital and analog regimes of registration of radiation in radiometric systems of radiation thickness measuring

    CERN Document Server

    Nedavnij, O I

    2002-01-01

    A consideration is given to the problem of selecting optimized methods of radionuclide radiation registration during the control of the objects with essential changes in thickness. Adequate model of information signal formation is developed and analyzed for the case of the existence of an inertial link of the system with the dead time of a noncontinued type. The boundary values of radiation thickness and radiation flux intensity that divide the priority of using either digital or analog registration modes are revealed. The method is found for the full correction of a systematic error of flux intensity measurement because of the dead time of the apparatus. To control the objects with essential variation of thickness the method of selective measurement of radiation intensity is proposed

  11. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin sensitivity and -cell function measured by gold-standard tests were reflected in the corresponding OGTT-derived estimates.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWith validated methods, various aspects of glucose absorption were estimated from 12-point, 3-h, 75-g OGTTs in 66 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), or isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT). Insulin sensitivity and -cell function were measured with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, respectively. Surrogate markers of both conditions were calculated from OGTTs.RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in thei-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body size were taken into account (P > 0.28). Faster glucose absorption was related to higher fasting (P = 0.001) and lower 2-h (P = 0.001) glucose levels and to greater height and fat-free mass (P <0.001). All OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, but only one of three measures of -cell function, reflected the differences for these parameters between those with normal and impaired glucose regulation as measured by gold-standard tests.CONCLUSIONSGlucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which should be taken into account when estimating -cell function from OGTTs in epidemiological studies.

  12. Nonradioisotope assay of glucose uptake activity in rat skeletal muscle using enzymatic measurement of 2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, A; Sato, T; Yoshida, H; Magata, K; Koga, N

    2000-01-01

    We investigated a nonradioisotope method for the evaluation of glucose uptake activity using enzymatic measurement of 2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate (2DG6P) content in isolated rat soleus muscle in vitro and in vivo. The 2DG6P content in isolated rat soleus muscle after incubation with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) was increased in a dose-dependent manner by insulin (ED(50) = 0.6 mU/ml), the maximum response being about 5 times that of the basal content in vitro. This increment was completely abolished by wortmannin (100 nM), with no effect on basal 2DG6P content. An insulin-mimetic compound, vanadium, also increased 2DG6P content in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated soleus muscle of Zucker fa/fa rats, well known as an insulin-resistant model, insulin did not increase 2DG6P content. The 2DG6P content in rat soleus muscle increased after 2DG (3 mmol/kg) injection in vivo, and conversely, the 2DG concentration in plasma was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by insulin (ED(50) = 0.11 U/kg). The maximum response of the accumulation of 2DG6P in soleus muscle was about 4 times that of the basal content. This method could be useful for evaluating glucose uptake (transport plus phosphorylation) activity in soleus muscle in vitro and in vivo without using radioactive materials. PMID:10965062

  13. Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.

    1983-08-01

    Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-(U-13C) glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia.

  14. Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-[U-13C] glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia

  15. Glucose metabolism in diabetic blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since glycolysis appears to be coupled to active ion transport in vascular smooth muscle, alterations in glucose metabolism may contribute to cellular dysfunction and angiopathy in diabetes. Uptake and utilization of glucose were studied in perfused blood vessels in which pulsatile flow and perfusion pressure were similar to those measured directly in vivo. Thoracic aortae isolated from 8-wk alloxan diabetic (D) and nondiabetic control rabbits were cannulated, tethered, and perfused with oxygenated buffer containing 7 or 25 mM glucose and tracer amounts of glucose-U-14 C. Norepinephrine (NE) (10-6 M) and/or insulin (I) (150 ?U/ml) and albumin (0.2%) were added. NE-induced tension development increased glucose uptake 39% and 14CO2 and lactate production 2.3-fold. With 7 mM glucose, marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), 14CO2 (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%), and tissue phospholipids (70%) were observed in D. Addition of I or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. Thus, in D, there was a marked depression of vascular glucose metabolism that was partially reversed by addition of low concentrations of insulin or D levels of glucose

  16. The determination of solubility and diffusion coefficient for solids in liquids by an inverse measurement technique using cylinders of amorphous glucose as a model compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of sugar and sugar-containing materials is well recognized nowadays, owing to their application in industrial processes, particularly in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Because of the large numbers of those compounds involved and the relatively small number of solubility and/or diffusion coefficient data for each compound available, it is highly desirable to measure the solubility and/or diffusion coefficient as efficiently as possible and to be able to improve the accuracy of the methods used. In this work, a new technique was developed for the measurement of the diffusion coefficient of a stationary solid solute in a stagnant solvent which simultaneously measures solubility based on an inverse measurement problem algorithm with the real-time dissolved amount profile as a function of time. This study differs from established techniques in both the experimental method and the data analysis. The experimental method was developed in which the dissolved amount of solid solute in quiescent solvent was investigated using a continuous weighing technique. In the data analysis, the hybrid genetic algorithm is used to minimize an objective function containing a calculated and a measured dissolved amount with time. This is measured on a cylindrical sample of amorphous glucose in methanol or ethanol. The calculated dissolved amount, that is a function of the unknown physical properties of the solid solute in the solvent, is calculated by the solution of the two-dimensional nonlinear inverse natural convection problem. The estimated values of the solubility of amorphous glucose in methanol and ethanol at 293 K were respectively 32.1 g/100 g methanol and 1.48 g/100 g ethanol, in agreement with the literature values, and support the validity of the simultaneously measured diffusion coefficient. These results show the efficiency and the stability of the developed technique to simultaneously estimate the solubility and diffusion coefficient. Also the influence of the solution density change and the initial concentration conditions on the dissolved amount was investigated by the numerical results using the estimated parameters. It is found that the theoretical assumption to simplify the inverse measurement problem algorithm is reasonable for low solubility

  17. Mechanism of Insulin-resistant Glucose Transport Activity in the Enlarged Adipose Cell of the Aged, Obese Rat: RELATIVE DEPLETION OF INTRACELLULAR GLUCOSE TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Hissin, Paul J.; Foley, James E; Wardzala, Lawrence J.; Karnieli, Eddy; Simpson, Ian A.; Salans, Lester B.; Cushman, Samuel W.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of increasing cell size on glucose transport activity and metabolism and on the concentrations of glucose transport systems in both the plasma and low density microsomal membranes in isolated adipose cells from the aging rat model of obesity have been examined. Glucose transport activity was assessed by measuring l-arabinose transport and the concentration of glucose transport systems estimated by measuring specific d-glucose-inhibitable cytochalasin B-binding. Basal glucose trans...

  18. Aqueous glucose measurement using differential absorption-based frequency domain optical coherence tomography at wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1625 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Pauline; Manoj, Murali; Sujatha, N.; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Rao, Suresh R.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a combination of differential absorption technique and frequency domain optical coherence tomography for detection of glucose, which is an important analyte in medical diagnosis of diabetes. Differential absorption technique is used to detect glucose selectively in the presence of interfering species especially water and frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) helps to obtain faster acquisition of depth information. Two broadband super-luminescent diode (SLED) sources with centre wavelengths 1586 nm (wavelength range of 1540 to 1640 nm) and 1312 nm (wavelength range of 1240 to 1380 nm) and a spectral width of ? 60 nm (FWHM) are used. Preliminary studies on absorption spectroscopy using various concentrations of aqueous glucose solution gave promising results to distinguish the absorption characteristics of glucose at two wavelengths 1310 nm (outside the absorption band of glucose) and 1625 nm (within the absorption band of glucose). In order to mimic the optical properties of biological skin tissue, 2% and 10% of 20% intralipid with various concentrations of glucose (0 to 4000 mg/dL) was prepared and used as sample. Using OCT technique, interference spectra were obtained using an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution of 0.5 nm. Further processing of the interference spectra provided information on reflections from the surfaces of the cuvette containing the aqueous glucose sample. Due to the absorption of glucose in the wavelength range of 1540 nm to 1640 nm, a trend of reduction in the intensity of the back reflected light was observed with increase in the concentration of glucose.

  19. Assessing liver function by magnetic resonance imaging two-dimensional phase-shift flow measurement of portal venous blood flow after oral intake of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have already reported that the ratio of portal venous flow 30 min after oral intake of glucose 75 g to that before intake (PVFR30), measured using pulsed-Doppler ultrasonography (US), correlated significantly with other indicators of liver function and that it could be used to estimate hepatic function before surgery, including liver resection. In this study, to assess the disadvantages of pulsed-Doppler ultrasonography, PVFR30 was measured using two-dimensional (2D) phase-shift (PS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PVFR30 was measured in 17 patients and 7 volunteers: 13 with liver cirrhosis (LC) and 11 without LC (non-LC). Portal venous flow could be measured in all patients without any disturbance of intestinal gas or patient fat, or the high degree of technical skill that Doppler US requires. PVFR30 was significantly lower in the LC group than in the non-LC group. In addition, it correlated significantly with other indicators of liver function, including the indocyanine green clearance test, prothrombin time, hepaplastin test, and cholinesterase activity. These results suggest that PVFR30 measured by 2D PS MRI can be used to estimate liver function, and that this MRI method can be performed more easily than pulsed-Doppler US. (author)

  20. A new principle for measurement of cobalamin and corrinoids, used for studies of cobalamin analogs on serum haptocorrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Nexø, Ebba

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transcobalamin (TC) and haptocorrin (HC) are serum corrinoid-binding proteins. We developed new methods for measurement of the corrinoids bound to HC and TC. METHODS: TC (n = 10) or HC (n = 138) was immunoprecipitated, and corrinoids were released by enzymatic degradation [subtilisin Carlsberg (EC 3.4.21.62)] of the binding proteins. Binding of the released corrinoids to added unsaturated TC (apoTC) or HC (apoHC) created holoTC (as measure of cobalamins) and holoHC (as measure of cor...

  1. Alternations in salivary glucose during ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Erfani; Reyhaneh Sariri; Abdolali Varasteh

    2010-01-01

    During the holly month of Ramadan, Muslims fast every day from dawn to sunset. Although the effect of Ramadan fasting on general health has been widely studied, the impact of fasting on oral health and possible changes in salivary biochemicals, such as glucose, has not received much attentiom. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of fasting on the level of glucose in the saliva of healthy individuals. Salivary glucose was measured using an enzymatic method based on oxidation of ...

  2. The Impact of Melatonin on Glucose Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Arzu Ye?in; Rüya Mutluay; ?ehri Elbeg; Resul Karaku?; Nuri Çak?r

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Melatonin is a pineal product mainly charged with the maintenance of antioxidant conditions in human. This study is performed to identify the short-term effect of melatonin on glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Melatonin and placebo were given perorally to sixty patients. Blood glucose and insulin levels were measured with constant intervals. Results: No significant correlation was found among the levels of glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR index at any ti...

  3. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  4. Evaluation and clinically relevant applications of a fluorescent imaging analog to fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rahul A.; Josephson, Lee; Mahmood, Umar

    2009-11-01

    A fluorescent analog to 2-deoxy-2 [18F] fluoro-D-glucose position emission tomography (FDG-PET) would allow for the introduction of metabolic imaging into intraoperative and minimally invasive settings. We present through in vitro and in vivo experimentation an evaluation of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), a fluorescently labeled glucose molecule, as a molecular beacon of glucose utilization. The competitive inhibition of 2-NBDG uptake by excess free glucose is directly compared against FDG uptake inhibition in cultured cells. 2-NBDG uptake in the brain of a mouse experiencing a generalized seizure is measured, as well as in subcutaneously implanted tumors in mice during fed and fasting states. Localization of 2-NBDG into malignant tissues is studied by laser scanning microscopy. The clinical relevance of 2-NBDG imaging is examined by performing fluorescence colonoscopy, and by correlating preoperative FDG-PET with intraoperative fluorescence imaging. 2-NBDG exhibits a similar uptake inhibition to FDG by excess glucose in the growth media. Uptake is significantly increased in the brain of an animal experiencing seizures versus control, and in subcutaneous tumors after the animals are kept nil per os (NPO) for 24 h versus ad libidum feeding. The clinical utility of 2-NBDG is confirmed by the demonstration of very high target-to-background ratios in minimally invasive and intraoperative imaging of malignant lesions. We present an optical analog of FDG-PET to extend the applicability of metabolic imaging to minimally invasive and intraoperative settings.

  5. Hyperglycemia-induced stimulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle measured by PET-[18F]6FDG and [18F]2FDG

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Chandramouli, Visvanathan; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Raymond F. Muzic

    2012-01-01

    A physiologically based model proposed by our group has been developed to assess glucose transport and phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated whether our model has the ability to detect a glucose-induced increase in glucose transport in skeletal muscle. In particular, we used small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) data obtained from [18F]6-fluoro-6-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]6FDG). A two-hour PET scan was acquired following a bolus injection of [18F]6FDG in rat...

  6. Avaliação do grau de satisfação entre os usuários de amplificação de tecnologia analógica e digital / Evaluation of satisfaction measures of analog and digital hearing aid users

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiana, Magni; Francine, Freiberger; Kátia, Tonn.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar o grau de satisfação entre os usuários de Aparelho de Amplificação Sonora (AAS) de tecnologia analógica e digital. FORMA DE ESTUDO: clínico com coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostra foi constituída de 40 usuários de AAS unilateral, sendo 20 [...] de tecnologia analógica (Grupo I) e 20 de tecnologia digital (Grupo II). Os indivíduos são portadores de perda auditiva neurossensorial, de configuração plana, de grau leve a moderado, com idade entre 40 e 95 anos. O instrumento de avaliação utilizado foi o International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA - Versão em Português) proposto por Cox et al. (2002). RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que os usuários do Grupo II utilizam o AAS por mais tempo diariamente e também apresentam um grau de dificuldade menor em determinadas situações com o uso da amplificação, comparado aos usuários do Grupo I. Os usuários do Grupo II relatam que sua perda auditiva não afeta em nada sua relação com terceiros. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de os resultados revelarem que os usuários do Grupo I apresentam um handicap auditivo mais acentuado comparado aos usuários do Grupo II, o grau de satisfação com relação à amplificação não apresenta diferença significativa entre os dois grupos. Abstract in english AIM: the objective of this study was to investigate the satisfaction measure of analog and digital hearing aid users. STUDY DESIGN: clinical with transversal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Among the 40 interviewed subjects, 20 were analog hearing aid users (Group I) and 20 were digital hearing aid use [...] rs (Group II). The subjects had mild to moderate sensorineural hearing impairment, and were aged 45 to 95 years old. RESULTS: The inventory of self-assessment completed by the hearing aid users was the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA - Portuguese version) proposed by Cox et al. (2002). The users of Group II used the hearing aid longer every day than the analog hearing aid users (Group I). The users of Group II have fewer difficulties with the amplification at some situations than the users of Group I. Despite the fact that users of Group I have presented mode deficit than the users of Group II, the results agree that all the subjects reported satisfaction with their hearing aids.

  7. Avaliação do grau de satisfação entre os usuários de amplificação de tecnologia analógica e digital Evaluation of satisfaction measures of analog and digital hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Magni

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar o grau de satisfação entre os usuários de Aparelho de Amplificação Sonora (AAS de tecnologia analógica e digital. FORMA DE ESTUDO: clínico com coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostra foi constituída de 40 usuários de AAS unilateral, sendo 20 de tecnologia analógica (Grupo I e 20 de tecnologia digital (Grupo II. Os indivíduos são portadores de perda auditiva neurossensorial, de configuração plana, de grau leve a moderado, com idade entre 40 e 95 anos. O instrumento de avaliação utilizado foi o International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA - Versão em Português proposto por Cox et al. (2002. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que os usuários do Grupo II utilizam o AAS por mais tempo diariamente e também apresentam um grau de dificuldade menor em determinadas situações com o uso da amplificação, comparado aos usuários do Grupo I. Os usuários do Grupo II relatam que sua perda auditiva não afeta em nada sua relação com terceiros. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de os resultados revelarem que os usuários do Grupo I apresentam um handicap auditivo mais acentuado comparado aos usuários do Grupo II, o grau de satisfação com relação à amplificação não apresenta diferença significativa entre os dois grupos.AIM: the objective of this study was to investigate the satisfaction measure of analog and digital hearing aid users. STUDY DESIGN: clinical with transversal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Among the 40 interviewed subjects, 20 were analog hearing aid users (Group I and 20 were digital hearing aid users (Group II. The subjects had mild to moderate sensorineural hearing impairment, and were aged 45 to 95 years old. RESULTS: The inventory of self-assessment completed by the hearing aid users was the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA - Portuguese version proposed by Cox et al. (2002. The users of Group II used the hearing aid longer every day than the analog hearing aid users (Group I. The users of Group II have fewer difficulties with the amplification at some situations than the users of Group I. Despite the fact that users of Group I have presented mode deficit than the users of Group II, the results agree that all the subjects reported satisfaction with their hearing aids.

  8. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. 864.7360 Section 864.7360 Food...Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the...

  9. Four grams of glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Wasserman, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Four grams of glucose circulates in the blood of a person weighing 70 kg. This glucose is critical for normal function in many cell types. In accordance with the importance of these 4 g of glucose, a sophisticated control system is in place to maintain blood glucose constant. Our focus has been on the mechanisms by which the flux of glucose from liver to blood and from blood to skeletal muscle is regulated. The body has a remarkable capacity to satisfy the nutritional need for glucose, while ...

  10. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with [32P]ATP and glycerokinase, residual [32P]ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free [32P]phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays

  11. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.C.; Kaslow, H.R. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-07-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with (32P)ATP and glycerokinase, residual (32P)ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free (32P)phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays.

  12. Glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity measurements derived from the non-insulin-assisted minimal model and the clamp techniques are concordant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jan Erik; Alford, Frank; Ward, Glenn; Thye-Rønn, Peter; Levin, Klaus; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Rantzau, Christian; Boston, Ray; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the concordance between glucose effectiveness (SG) and insulin sensitivity (SI), derived from the unmodified dynamic non-insulin-assisted intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) implemented by SG(MM) and SI(MM); simulation analysis and modelling/conversational interaction (SAAM/CONSAM) versus the eu/hyperglycaemic basal insulinaemic and the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (SG(CLAMP) and SI(CLAMP)).

  13. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your ... glucose is above 240 mg/dl, check your urine for ketones. If you have ketones, do not ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often. Ask your doctor how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. ... your blood glucose is above 240 mg/dl, check your urine for ketones. If you have ketones, ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... Stocks Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ...

  19. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print Print and Share (PDF 164KB) En Español Glucose meters test and record how much sugar (called ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & ...

  1. Edentulism and dental prostheses in the elderly: impact on quality of life measured with EuroQol - visual analog scale (EQ-VAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Borda, Miguel G; Arciniegas, Antonio J; Borda, Claudia X

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the impact of edentulism and dental prostheses on quality of life (QOL) in older adults in Bogota, Colombia. Edentulism is a frequent condition in older adults and has great impact on their QOL. No epidemiological data are currently available on edentulism among older adults in Colombia. Data were obtained from the SABE-Bogota study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 2012, and used to analyze the EQ-VAS (Visual Analog Scale) from the EuroQol instrument to measure the perception of quality of life (QOL) in relation to edentulism. The study included 2,000 individuals over 60 years old. The Spearman-Rho correlation was used to analyze the correlation between EQ-VAS and edentulism. Chi-Square, ANOVA and t-test were used to study the differences in EQ-VAS scores between edentulous and healthy subjects. Statistical significance was set at pdental prostheses and 23.7% had related eating problems. Older age, lower social class and lower education were related to edentulism. Individuals with fewer teeth and dental prostheses had lower EQ-VAS scores (pdental prosthesis did not improve EQ-VAS scores (p=0.22). Edentulism also showed a significant negative correlation with EQ-VAS scores (rho= -0.102, pdental health scenarios. Edentulism significantly affects QOL in older adults and the use of dental prosthesis does not improve the perception of QOL. PMID:26355885

  2. Underestimation of glucose turnover corrected with high-performance liquid chromatography purification of [6-3H]glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently reported that during infusion of commercially available [6-3H]glucose, a radioactive nonglucose contaminant may accumulate in plasma causing errors in the measurement of glucose turnover. To determine whether purification of this tracer by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) before infusion would eliminate the contaminant in plasma and remove the underestimation of glucose turnover reported during hyperinsulinemia, four normal subjects each underwent two 5-h euglycemic clamps during infusion of insulin (1 mU.kg-1.min-1). Glucose turnover was measured with either commercially available [6-3H]glucose or with HPLC-purified [6-3H]glucose. HPLC analysis of samples from the clamps done with commercially available [6-3H]glucose showed that 9.7% of the infused tracer and 26% of the plasma glucose 3H radioactivity were contaminants. In contrast, no contaminant was observed in the plasma during infusion of HPLC-purified [6-3H]glucose. During the last hour of the clamp, mean glucose turnover using commercially available [6-3H]glucose was less (P less than 0.01) than the mean glucose infusion rate (7.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 10.5 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1) yielding apparent negative (P less than 0.001) hepatic glucose release. In contrast, when HPLC-purified [6-3H]glucose was employed, glucose turnover equaled the glucose infusion rate (10.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 10.2 +/- 0.9 mg.kg-1.min-1) and hepatic glucose release was no longer negative. We conclude that removal of a tritiated nonglucose contaminant in [6-3H]glucose by HPLC yields correct estimations of glucose turnover at steady state

  3. Are polymers suitable rock analogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Grotenhuis, Saskia M.; Piazolo, Sandra; Pakula, T.; Passchier, Cees W.; Bons, Paul D.

    2002-05-01

    To evaluate if a polymer is suitable for analog modeling, it is essential to know the rheological properties of the material. Polymers used in analog modeling exhibit a complex rheological behavior; only part of which has been taken into account in most modeling studies. The mechanical behavior is strongly dependent on strain rate and temperature, and is characterized by specific dependencies of the storage and loss moduli, related to the elasticity and viscosity, on the deformation rate (frequency). We have measured the storage and loss moduli at a broad range of strain rates and strains, using an oscillatory parallel-disk rheometer. Investigated materials are polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), mixtures of PDMS and BaSO 4 (filler), Rhodorsil Gomme and mixtures of Rhodorsil Gomme and plastilina, all commonly used in analog experiments. Our measurements show that the rheological properties of mixtures of plastilina and Rhodorsil Gomme depend on its deformation history. Therefore, these mixtures are problematic for analog modeling. For mixtures of PDMS and BaSO 4, the significance of the elastic component increases with increasing filler content, and accordingly, these mixtures have a limited application for modeling of viscous deformation. Pure PDMS and Rhodorsil Gomme exhibit Newtonian flow behavior at strain rates commonly used in analog modeling.

  4. Analog Frequency Tracking Filter

    OpenAIRE

    ISAR, A.; ISAR, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper propose a new type of analog adaptive filter derived as a generalization of the concept of matched filter. We conceive such a filter to track the instantaneous frequency of frequency modulated signals. Some properties of the proposed analog frequency tracking filter are established using the time-frequency representations theory. A constructive solution, based on common analog integrated circuits, is also proposed. The performance of the analog frequency tracking filter built ...

  5. Application of screen-printed microband biosensors to end-point measurements of glucose and cell numbers in HepG2 cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, R M; Xu, J; Pittson, R; Biddle, N; Drago, G A; Jackson, S K; Hart, J P

    2009-02-15

    Microband glucose biosensors were produced by insulating and sectioning through a screen-printed, water-based carbon electrode containing cobalt phthalocyanine redox mediator and glucose oxidase enzyme. Under quiescent conditions at 37 degrees C, at an operating potential of +0.4V, they produced an amperometric response to glucose in buffer solutions with a sensitivity of 26.4 nA/mM and a linear range of 0.45 to 9.0 mM. An optimal pH value of 8.5 was obtained under these conditions, and a value for activation energy of 40.55 kJ mol(-1) was calculated. In culture medium (pH 7.3), a sensitivity of 13 nA/mM was obtained and the response was linear up to 5 mM with a detection limit of 0.5 mM. The working concentration was up to 20 mM glucose with a precision of 11.3% for replicate biosensors (n=4). The microband biosensors were applied to determine end-point glucose concentrations in culture medium by monitoring steady-state current responses 400 s after transfer of the biosensors into different sample solutions. In conjunction with cultures of HepG2 (human Caucasian hepatocyte carcinoma) cells, current responses obtained in 24-h supernatants showed an inverse correlation (R(2)=0.98) with cell number, indicating that the biosensors were applicable for monitoring glucose metabolism by cells and of quantifying cell number. Glucose concentrations determined using the biosensor assay were in good agreement, for concentrations up to 20mM, with those determined spectrophotometrically (R(2)=0.99). This method of end-point glucose determination was used to provide an estimated rate of glucose uptake for HepG2 cells of 7.9 nmol/(10(6) cells min) based on a 24-h period in culture. PMID:19027709

  6. Glucose turnover, gluconeogenesis from glycerol, and estimation of net glucose cycling in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double isotope method was used in patients with progressive malignancy and in control patients to measure: glucose turnover, conversion rate of carbon skeleton of glycerol into glucose, and the interorgan cycling of glucose carbons (Cori-cycle plus alanine-glucose cycle). [U-14C]glycerol and [6-3H]glucose were given intravenously as a single dose injection. The time course of the specific radioactivities of [6-3H] and [U-14C]glucose was followed in blood. The pool size and the turnover rate of glucose were increased in the cancer group as compared with the control patients. The net recycling of glucose carbons was not increased in the cancer group, despite the increased turnover of glucose. The alterations in the metabolism of glucose did not correlate with the plasma levels of insulin or thyroid hormones (T4, T3, rT3) neither in the entire cancer group nor in those cancer patients who were repeatedly investigated at different intervals of time. The turnover rate of glucose in the cancer patients correlated inversely to their body weight index. The gluconeogenesis rate, given as the fractional conversion rate of the injected radioactive dose of [14C]glycerol, or as mol glucose . kg body weight-1 . day-1, was increased in the cancer group, but still contributed only 3% of the glucose turnover rate in both cancer and control patients. We conclude that an increased gluconeogenesis from glycerol is not significant in terms of energy expenditure in patients with progressive malignancy, as has previously been concluded for the gluconeogenesis from alanine. It seems that increased turnover of glucose may contribute to inappropriately high energy expenditure in cancer patients

  7. Imaging atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries with F-18-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography: effect of imaging time after injection on quantitative measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging at two different circulation times after injection of F-18 FDG in order to measure atherosclerosis in carotid arteries. We assessed 12 patients with recent symptomatic plaques in the carotid arteries. F-18 FDG PET/CT carotid plaque imaging was performed for 20 min at 2 h after F-18 FDG injection in five patients and at 3 h in seven patients. We measured vessel wall uptake using the maximal standardized uptake value (SUV), and the mean and maximal blood target-to-background ratios (TBR) of the symptomatic carotid arteries. Blood pool activity (BPA) was measured as the mean SUV of the superior vena cava (SVC) and jugular vein of these 12 patients, and in 14 age-and gender-matched patients who underwent whole-body F-18 FDG PET/CT examinations 1 h after injection. F-18 FDG PET/CT revealed visible F-18 FDG uptake in all patients with symptomatic carotid plaques. Maximal SUV did not differ between groups evaluated at 2 h and 3 h (2.62±0.45 vs 3.00±0.85, p=0.335). However mean (2.04±0.22 vs 3.54±0.62, p<0.05) and maximal (1.65±0.15 vs 2.70±0.42, p<0.05) TBR values that were normalized to BPA in the SVC differ significantly. Symptomatic carotid plaques are visualized for a relatively short period of imaging time on ?1-h PET/CT images. Quantitative parameters of atherosclerotic carotid arteries are preserved or even increased over time, whereas those of blood pools are decreased

  8. Prognostic significance of the Complex "Visceral Adiposity Index" vs. simple anthropometric measures: Tehran lipid and glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Bozorgmanesh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral adiposity index (VAI has recently been suggested to be used as a surrogate of visceral adiposity. We examined if VAI could improve predictive performances for CVD of the Framingham's general CVD algorithm (a multivariate model incorporating established CVD risk factors. We compared the predictive abilities of the VAI with those of simple anthropometric measures i.e. BMI, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR or waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR. Design and methods In a nine-year population-based follow-up, 6 407 (2 778 men participants, free of CVD at baseline, aged ? 30 years were eligible for the current analysis. The risk of CVD was estimated by incorporating VAI, BMI, WHpR, and WHtR, one at a time, into multivariate accelerated failure time models. Results We documented 534 CVD events with the annual incidence rate (95%CIs being 7.3 (6.4-8.3 among women and 13.0 (11.7-14.6 among men. Risk of future CVD increased with increasing levels of VAI among both men and women. VAI was associated with multivariate-adjusted increased risk of incident CVD among women. However, the magnitude of risk conferred by VAI was not significantly higher than those conferred by BMI, WHpR, or WHtR. Among men, after adjustment for established CVD risk factors, VAI was no longer associated with increased risk of CVD. VAI failed to add to the predictive ability of the Framingham general CVD algorithm. Conclusions Using VAI instead of simple anthropometric measures may lead to loss of much information needed for predicting incident CVD.

  9. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  10. Detecting early kidney damage in horses with colic by measuring matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2, other enzymes, urinary glucose and total proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salonen Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate urine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 activity, alkaline phosphatase/creatinine (U-AP/Cr and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase/creatinine (U-GGT/Cr ratios, glucose concentration, and urine protein/creatinine (U-Prot/Cr ratio and to compare data with plasma MMP-2 and -9 activity, cystatin-C and creatinine concentrations in colic horses and healthy controls. Horses with surgical colic (n = 5 were compared to healthy stallions (n = 7 that came for castration. Blood and urine samples were collected. MMP gelatinolytic activity was measured by zymography. Results We found out that horses with colic had significantly higher urinary MMP-9 complex and proMMP-9 activities than horses in the control group. Colic horses also had higher plasma MMP-2 activity than the control horses. Serum creatinine, although within reference range, was significantly higher in the colic horses than in the control group. There was no significant increase in urinary alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase or total proteins in the colic horses compared to the control group. A human cystatin-C test (Dako Cytomation latex immunoassay® based on turbidimetry did not cross react with equine cystatin-C. Conclusion The results indicate that plasma MMP-2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of equine colic and urinary MMP-9 in equine kidney damage.

  11. Total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and measures of glucose and lipid metabolism following pioglitazone treatment in a randomized placebo-controlled study in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Frystyk, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggested that the effect of adiponectin on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism is mediated primarily by the high molecular weight (HMW) form of adiponectin. In the present study we evaluated total and HMW adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and controls and examined possible mechanisms for increased insulin sensitivity during pioglitazone treatment. STUDY SUBJECTS: Thirty PCOS patients randomized to pioglitazone, 30 mg/day, or placebo for 16 weeks and 14 weight-matched healthy females were studied. DESIGN: Total and HMW adiponectin levels were measured, and euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps and indirect calorimetry were performed. Delta-values denoted changes during pioglitazone treatment (16 weeks--basal). RESULTS: Pretreatment adiponectin levels were decreased in PCOS patients vs. controls (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were found in HMW adiponectin levels. Following pioglitazone treatment, total and HMW adiponectin increased (all P < 0.05), whereas no significant changes were observed with placebo. Delta-total adiponectin levels correlated positively with the rate of Delta-insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (R(d)) (r = 0.89) and Delta-oxidative glucose metabolism (r = 0.71) and inversely with Delta-fasting free fatty acid (FFA) levels (r = -0.69) and Delta-lipid oxidation (r = -0.73) during insulin stimulation (all P < 0.01). Weaker correlations were found between Delta-HMW adiponectin levels and Delta-measures of glucose and lipid metabolism during insulin stimulation than with Delta-total adiponectin. CONCLUSION: A close correlation between increased total adiponectin levels and increased insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism during pioglitzone treatment supports the hypothesis that the insulin-sensitizing effect of pioglitazone in PCOS is, at least in part, mediated by adiponectin. Measures of changes in HMW adiponectin did not add further information to this relationship Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2

  12. Analog fiber optic transmission link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analog fiber optic transmission link (FOTL) has been designed for relaying signals from equipment held at high voltage potentials to equipment at ground potential. The need for a fiber link arises from the requirements of low energy, light ion experiments conducted at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. In these experiments, ions are accelerated and transported to a high voltage scattering chamber and the FOTL is used to transmit signals from the scattering chamber to remote data acquisition systems. The performance of the link is mainly driven by the stringent requirements needed for successful transmission of analog pulses from radiation detectors located in the scattering chamber. The FOTL consists of a transmitter, receiver, and baseline restorer that are capable of transmitting radiation detector pulses without pulse height distortion, thus allowing high resolution energy measurements. The FOTL is also suitable for use with a wide variety of other analog signal types

  13. Construction of a Glucose Biosensor by Immobilizing Glucose Oxidase within a Poly(o-phenylenediamine) Covered Screen-printed Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Miao Yuqing; Chen Jianrong; Wu Xiaohua

    2006-01-01

    The glucose biosensors were prepared by the electropolymerization of the non-conductive polymer, Poly(o-phenylenediamine), onto a planar screen-printed electrode. A fabrication procedure was performed to decrease the waste of expensive enzyme. The amperometric glucose response was measured by the potensiostating of the prepared glucose biosensors at a potential of 0.3 V with ferrocene as mediator. Results show that the obtained biosensors have a linear range up to 25 mM glucose, fast response...

  14. Statins Impair Glucose Uptake in Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Malenda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Statins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases owing to their lipid-lowering effects. Previous studies revealed that, by modulating membrane cholesterol content, statins could induce conformational changes in cluster of differentiation 20 (CD20 tetraspanin. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the influence of statins on glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1-mediated glucose uptake in tumor cells. We observed a significant concentration- and time-dependent decrease in glucose analogs' uptake in several tumor cell lines incubated with statins. This effect was reversible with restitution of cholesterol synthesis pathway with mevalonic acid as well as with supplementation of plasma membrane with exogenous cholesterol. Statins did not change overall GLUT1 expression at neither transcriptional nor protein levels. An exploratory clinical trial revealed that statin treatment decreased glucose uptake in peripheral blood leukocytes and lowered 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG uptake by tumor masses in a mantle cell lymphoma patient. A bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the structure of human GLUT1 and to identify putative cholesterol-binding motifs in its juxtamembrane fragment. Altogether, the influence of statins on glucose uptake seems to be of clinical significance. By inhibiting 18F-FDG uptake, statins can negatively affect the sensitivity of positron emission tomography, a diagnostic procedure frequently used in oncology.

  15. New Insights into Cytosolic Glucose Levels during Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Fibroblasts into Adipocytes*

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacic, Petra Brina; Chowdhury, Helena H.; Velebit, Jelena; Kreft, Marko; Jensen, Jørgen; Zorec, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Cytosolic glucose concentration reflects the balance between glucose entry across the plasma membrane and cytosolic glucose utilization. In adipocytes, glucose utilization is considered very rapid, meaning that every glucose molecule entering the cytoplasm is quickly phosphorylated. Thus, the cytosolic free glucose concentration is considered to be negligible; however, it was never measured directly. In the present study, we monitored cytosolic glucose dynamics in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipo...

  16. Laboratory measurements of P-wave and S-wave velocities across a surface analog of the continental crust-mantle boundary: Cabo Ortegal, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dennis; Llana-Funez, Sergio; Carbonell, Ramon; Alvarez-Marron, Joaquina; Marti, David; Salisbury, Matt

    2010-05-01

    The Paleozoic Cabo Ortegal Complex of NW Spain provides an exposed analog of the continental crust-mantle transition. It is composed of an overturned section that, at its base, begins with felsic gneisses, followed upward by eclogites, intermediate and mafic granulties, and ultramafic rocks. Peak metamorphic conditions reached c. 800°C and 1.7 GPa in the Middle to Late Devonian. Fourteen samples were analysed for P-wave and S-wave velocities, as well as density at the High Pressure Lab at Dalhousie University, Canada. Seismic velocities were measured at pressures of 10 to 600 MPa at a temperature of 20°C. When possible, measurements were made parallel and perpendicular to banding and parallel to the lineation. The major element composition of each sample was measured by XRF at the University of Barcelona, Spain. Samples display a broad range of P-wave and S-wave velocities (6.2 to 8.2 km/s and 3.2 to 4.6 km/s at 600 MPa, respectively) that generally increase with density (2.7 to 3.4 g/cm3) and reflect an overall increase from middle to lower crustal velocities in the felsic gneisses and intermediate to mafic granulites to mantle velocities in the eclogites and ultramafic rocks. The seismic Moho (P-wave velocity > 7.6 km/s) is reached at the mappable contact between the gneisses and the eclogite, whereas the compositional Moho, or crust-mantle transition occurs at the transitional contact between the mafic granulites and peridotites. Between 200 and 600 MPa, P-wave anisotropy ranges from between 2% and 8%, whereas S-wave anisotropy ranges from <1% to around 8%, according to rock type. Poisson's ratios calculated from the laboratory measurements are within the range of those determined from field experiments elsewhere. P-wave reflection coefficients between the various lithologies range from 0.21 to 0.08. These laboratory data provide a calibration for the physical properties and the nature of reflectivity of the in-situ lower continental crust and upper mantle transition.

  17. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Richa; Hivert, Marie-France; Langenberg, Claudia; Tanaka, Toshiko; Pankow, James S; Vollenweider, Peter; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Dupuis, Josée; Jackson, Anne U; Kao, W H Linda; Li, Man; Glazer, Nicole L; Manning, Alisa K; Luan, Jian'an; Stringham, Heather M; Prokopenko, Inga; Johnson, Toby; Grarup, Niels; Boesgaard, Trine W; Lecoeur, Cécile; Shrader, Peter; O'Connell, Jeffrey; Ingelsson, Erik; Couper, David J; Rice, Kenneth; Song, Kijoung; Andreasen, Camilla H; Dina, Christian; Köttgen, Anna; Le Bacquer, Olivier; Pattou, François; Taneera, Jalal; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Rybin, Denis; Ardlie, Kristin; Sampson, Michael; Qi, Lu; van Hoek, Mandy; Weedon, Michael N; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Voight, Benjamin F; Grallert, Harald; Balkau, Beverley; Bergman, Richard N; Bielinski, Suzette J; Bonnefond, Amelie; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Böttcher, Yvonne; Brunner, Eric; Buchanan, Thomas A; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Cornelis, Marilyn; J Crawford, Gabriel; Delplanque, Jerome; Doney, Alex; Egan, Josephine M; Erdos, Michael R; Firmann, Mathieu; Forouhi, Nita G; Fox, Caroline S; Goodarzi, Mark O; Graessler, Jürgen; Hingorani, Aroon; Isomaa, Bo; Jørgensen, Torben; Kivimaki, Mika; Kovacs, Peter; Krohn, Knut; Kumari, Meena; Lauritzen, Torsten; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Mayor, Vladimir; McAteer, Jarred B; Meyre, David; Mitchell, Braxton D; Mohlke, Karen L; Morken, Mario A; Narisu, Narisu; Palmer, Colin N A; Pakyz, Ruth; Pascoe, Laura; Payne, Felicity; Pearson, Daniel; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Sandbaek, Annelli; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Scott, Laura J; Sharp, Stephen J; Sijbrands, Eric; Singleton, Andrew; Siscovick, David S; Smith, Nicholas L; Sparsø, Thomas; Swift, Amy J; Syddall, Holly; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Waeber, Gérard; Walley, Andrew; Waterworth, Dawn M; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhao, Jing Hua; Illig, Thomas; Wichmann, H Erich; Wilson, James F; van Duijn, Cornelia; Hu, Frank B; Morris, Andrew D; Frayling, Timothy M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Nilsson, Peter; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Shuldiner, Alan R; Walker, Mark; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter; Williams, Gordon H; Nathan, David M; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Cooper, Cyrus; Marmot, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Mooser, Vincent; Stumvoll, Michael; Loos, Ruth J F; Altshuler, David; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Inês; Sladek, Robert; Froguel, Philippe; Meigs, James B; Groop, Leif; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watanabe, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2-h glucose level (rs10423928, beta (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 x 10(-15)). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreas...

  18. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2-h glucose level (rs10423928, beta (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 x 10(-15)). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decr...

  19. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, R.; Hivert, M.F.; Langenberg, C; Tanaka, T; Pankow, J.S.; Lyssenko, V.; Bouatia-Naji, N.; Dupuis, J; Kao, W.H.L.; Li, M; Glazer, N.L.; Manning, A. K.; Stringham, H M; Prokopenko, I.; Grarup, N.

    2010-01-01

    Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2-h glucose level (rs10423928, ? (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 × 10 15). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased...

  20. Exenatide Regulates Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Brain Areas Associated With Glucose Homeostasis and Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Giuseppe; Iozzo, Patricia; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; Lancaster, Jack; Ciociaro, Demetrio; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Tripathy, Devjit; Triplitt, Curtis; Fox, Peter; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) have been found in the brain, but whether GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RAs) influence brain glucose metabolism is currently unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a single injection of the GLP-1RA exenatide on cerebral and peripheral glucose metabolism in response to a glucose load. In 15 male subjects with HbA1c of 5.7 ± 0.1%, fasting glucose of 114 ± 3 mg/dL, and 2-h glucose of 177 ± 11 mg/dL, exenatide (5 ?g) or placebo was injected in double-blind, randomized fashion subcutaneously 30 min before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRglu) was measured by positron emission tomography after an injection of [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose before the OGTT, and the rate of glucose absorption (RaO) and disposal was assessed using stable isotope tracers. Exenatide reduced RaO0-60 min (4.6 ± 1.4 vs. 13.1 ± 1.7 ?mol/min ? kg) and decreased the rise in mean glucose0-60 min (107 ± 6 vs. 138 ± 8 mg/dL) and insulin0-60 min (17.3 ± 3.1 vs. 24.7 ± 3.8 mU/L). Exenatide increased CMRglu in areas of the brain related to glucose homeostasis, appetite, and food reward, despite lower plasma insulin concentrations, but reduced glucose uptake in the hypothalamus. Decreased RaO0-60 min after exenatide was inversely correlated to CMRglu. In conclusion, these results demonstrate, for the first time in man, a major effect of a GLP-1RA on regulation of brain glucose metabolism in the absorptive state. PMID:26116695

  1. Insulin-like growth factor-I correlates more closely than growth hormone with insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, Dan; Purice, Mariana; Coculescu, Mihail

    2013-06-01

    In normal subjects growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) have opposing effects on glucose metabolism. Active acromegaly is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance although both GH and IGF-I are elevated. Our objective was to compare whether GH or IGF-I correlates more closely with IR and glucose intolerance in acromegaly. Basal serum IGF-I and GH, glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 70 normoglycemic and 44 hyperglycemic acromegalic patients (21 impaired fasting glucose, 11 impaired glucose tolerance and 12 diabetes mellitus) according to American Diabetes Association criteria. 55 patients were assessed before any treatment for acromegaly and 59 after surgery and/or radiotherapy (15 patients had normal IGF-I after treatment). Patients treated with somatostatin analogs, GH-receptor antagonists or antidiabetic drugs were excluded. IR was assessed by various basal and stimulated indices. Homeostatic Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA2-IR) index correlated more closely with IGF-I (r = 0.65, p HOMA2-IR correlated better with IGF-I than nadir or random GH also in normoglycemic (n = 70; r = 0.74, p < 0.0001 vs. r = 0.36, p = 0.001 vs. r = 0.39, p < 0.001) and hyperglycemic patients (n = 44; r = 0.54, p = 0.0002 vs. r = 0.09, p = 0.4 vs. r = 0.14, p = 0.26). In multivariate logistic regression analysis IGF-I but not GH was a significant risk factor for glucose intolerance after adjusting for age, sex, weight and acromegaly duration (OR = 1.56, p = 0.01). In acromegaly IGF-I correlates more closely than GH with IR. IGF-I levels but not GH are associated with glucose intolerance. PMID:22562529

  2. Detecção de trombose venosa em retalhos livres por medidas de glicemia capilar Detection of venous thrombosis in free flaps by measurement of capillary blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Saito Millan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A monitorização do retalho livre após a cirurgia é de vital importância, especialmente nas primeiras horas de pós-operatório, pois o momento de reabordagem pode ser o definidor entre o salvamento ou a perda do retalho. Até o momento, não existe trabalho na literatura estudando a decisão de abordagem do retalho baseada em medidas objetivas ou a comparação da glicemia entre retalhos que evoluíram bem com os que sofreram sofrimento vascular. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a validade da medida da glicemia capilar do retalho como método de monitorização de retalhos microcirúrgicos comparando com a avaliação clínica. MÉTODO: Foram estudados prospectivamente 16 pacientes portadores de retalhos livres, realizados de maio de 2012 a julho de 2012. A glicemia capilar foi avaliada por equipe formada por profissionais não envolvidos com a cirurgia realizada. A avaliação clínica do retalho foi realizada no pós-operatório imediato, na chegada à UTI, a cada 3 horas e sempre que necessário. RESULTADOS: Dos 16 pacientes, 5 (31,3% apresentaram complicações nas primeiras 24 horas. Todas as complicações observadas foram trombose venosa. Foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante na glicemia capilar de portadores de retalhos que apresentaram trombose venosa em comparação àqueles que não tiveram a complicação, nas medidas realizadas 6 horas, 9 horas e 12 horas após a operação (P BACKGROUND: Monitoring of free flaps after surgery is vitally important, especially in the first few hours because the timing of reoperation can determine flap salvage or loss. To date, no study has examined the decision to reoperate on a flap based on the objective measure of glycemia or a comparison between flaps that showed good outcomes and those that showed vascular damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of blood glucose measurements within the flap as a method for monitoring free flaps and to compare the efficacy of this method with that of clinical assessments. METHODS: The study was prospective, included 16 patients with free flaps, and was conducted from May 2012 to July 2012. A team of professionals not involved in the surgery evaluated capillary glycemia. Flaps were clinically evaluated during the immediate postoperative period, on ICU admission, at every 3 hours, and as needed. RESULTS: Of the 16 patients, 5 (31.3% had venous thrombosis in the first 24 hours. Statistically significant differences were noted in capillary glycemia in patients with or without venous thrombosis in measurements obtained 6, 9, and 12 hours after surgery (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of capillary glycemia was not superior to clinical evaluation by an experienced professional for the detection of venous thrombosis within free flaps.

  3. Classical analog of entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that quantum entanglement has a very close classical analog, namely, secret classical correlations. The fundamental analogy stems from the behavior of quantum entanglement under local operations and classical communication and the behavior of secret correlations under local operations and public communication. A large number of derived analogies follow. In particular, teleportation is analogous to the one time pad, the concept of 'pure state' exists in the classical domain, entanglement concentration and dilution are essentially classical secrecy protocols, and single-copy-entanglement manipulations have such a close classical analog that the majorization results are reproduced in the classical setting. This analogy allows one to import questions from the quantum domain into the classical one, and vice versa, helping to get a better understanding of both. Also, by identifying classical aspects of quantum entanglement, it allows one to identify those aspects of entanglement that are uniquely quantum mechanical

  4. The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose has served as a very specific, sensitive, and repeatable assay for detection of glucose in biological samples. It has been used successfully for analysis of glucose in samples from blood and urine, to analysis of glucose released from starch or glycog...

  5. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  6. Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  9. Analog synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog–digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA–protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  10. Early change in glucose metabolic rate measured using FDG-PET in patients with high-grade glioma predicts response to temozolomide but not temozolomide plus radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) to predict response to temozolomide vs. temozolomide plus radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients with high-grade glioma (HGG) were studied. Patients with recurrent glioma received temozolomide 75 mg/m2 daily for 7 weeks (n = 8). Newly diagnosed patients received temozolomide 75 mg/m2 daily plus radiotherapy 60 Gy/30 fractions over 6 weeks, followed by six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide 200 mg/m2/day (Days 1-5 q28) starting 1 month after radiotherapy (n = 11). [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed at baseline, and 7 and 19 weeks after initiation of temozolomide administration. Changes in glucose metabolic rate (MRGlu) and MRI response were correlated with patient survival. Results: In the temozolomide-alone group, patients who survived >26 vs. ?26 weeks showed a greater reduction in MRGlu measured at 7 weeks with median changes of -34% and -4%, respectively (p = 0.02). PET responders, defined as a reduction in MRGlu ?25%, survived longer than nonresponders with mean survival times of 75 weeks (95% CI, 34-115 vs. 20 weeks (95% CI, 14-26) (p = 0.0067). In the small group of patients studied, there was no relationship between MRI response and survival (p = 0.52). For patients receiving temozolomide plus radiotherapy, there was no difference in survival between PET responders and nonresponders (p = 0.32). Conclusions: Early changes in MRGlu predict response to temozolomide, but not temozolomide plus radiotherapy

  11. Glucose metabolism in a rat mammary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tumor hypoxia, which decreases therapy response is common in tumors. Glucose metabolism is closely tied to tumor oxygenation and alteration of its metabolism could improve tumor oxygenation. The objective of the study was to compare tissue pharmacokinetics of 14C-2-deoxyglucose (14C2DG) and 14C-glucose in an adenocarcinoma (R3230Ac) and normal control tissue (subcutis:SQ) using a novel fiberoptic scintillation detector. Fischer 344 rats with R3230Ac tumors were anesthetized with Isoflurane and detectors were inserted. Baseline data was acquired for 45 minutes, then 14C2DG or 14C-glucose (i.v.) was injected and data was acquired for 3 hours. After 100mCi of 14C2DG both tissues reached peaks (R3230Ac, 0.4mCi/g; SQ, 0.75mCi/g) 20 minutes post-injection that remained stable for 3 hours. With 200mCi 14C2DG R3230Ac peaked and plateaued at 1.75mCi/g by 50 minutes. SQ peaked (2.25mCi/g) at 20 minutes and decreased to a stable plateau (0.75mCi/g) at 50 minutes. Kinetics of 14C-glucose were different from 14C2DG. R3230Ac and SQ increased over 20 minutes, reaching peaks of 2.4mCi/g and 1.5mCi/g, respectively. A slow decrease followed, but tumor signal (1.25mCi/g) remained higher than SQ (0.5mCi/g). Kinetics of 14C2DG and 14C-glucose were distinctly different. In SQ a wash-in/wash-out effect was observed at 200mCi of 14C2DG. In tumor 14C2DG accumulated to a plateau (1.75mCi/g) that persisted out to 3 hours. 14C-glucose signal declined below 14C2DG signal in both tissues, suggesting they both metabolize 14C-glucose and excrete 14C-containing metabolites. PET can assess flouride-deoxyglucose uptake in tumors, which is analogous to our 14C2DG studies. However, PET cannot provide data on glucose metabolism and excretion because there is not a metabolizable fluorinated-glucose analogue that is imageable by PET. In summary, this novel detector has the unique capability to evaluate real-time accumulation, metabolism, and excretion of radiolabeled glucose in tissues before and after metabolic manipulation

  12. Glucose cycling is markedly enhanced in pancreatic islets of obese hyperglycemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic islets from fed 7-month old lean and obese hyperglycemic mice (ob/ob) were incubated with 3H2O and 5.5 mM or 16.7 mM glucose. Incorporation of 3H into the medium glucose was taken as the measure of glucose-6-P hydrolysis to glucose. Glucose utilization was measured from the yield of 3H2O from [5-3H]glucose. Only 3-4% of the glucose phosphorylated was dephosphorylated by the lean mouse islets irrespective of the glucose concentration. In contrast, the ob/ob mouse islets at 5.5 mM glucose dephosphorylated 18% of the glucose phosphorylated and 30% at 16.7 mM. Thus, the islets of hyperglycemic mice demonstrate increased glucose cycling as compared to the islets of normoglycemic lean mice

  13. Detecção de trombose venosa em retalhos livres por medidas de glicemia capilar / Detection of venous thrombosis in free flaps by measurement of capillary blood glucose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lincoln Saito, Millan; Luiz Carlos, Ishida; Esther Mihwa Oh, Choi; Enio Cesar, Giacchetto Junior; Teng Hsiang, Wei; Rames, Mattar Júnior; Marcus Castro, Ferreira.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A monitorização do retalho livre após a cirurgia é de vital importância, especialmente nas primeiras horas de pós-operatório, pois o momento de reabordagem pode ser o definidor entre o salvamento ou a perda do retalho. Até o momento, não existe trabalho na literatura estudando a decisão [...] de abordagem do retalho baseada em medidas objetivas ou a comparação da glicemia entre retalhos que evoluíram bem com os que sofreram sofrimento vascular. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a validade da medida da glicemia capilar do retalho como método de monitorização de retalhos microcirúrgicos comparando com a avaliação clínica. MÉTODO: Foram estudados prospectivamente 16 pacientes portadores de retalhos livres, realizados de maio de 2012 a julho de 2012. A glicemia capilar foi avaliada por equipe formada por profissionais não envolvidos com a cirurgia realizada. A avaliação clínica do retalho foi realizada no pós-operatório imediato, na chegada à UTI, a cada 3 horas e sempre que necessário. RESULTADOS: Dos 16 pacientes, 5 (31,3%) apresentaram complicações nas primeiras 24 horas. Todas as complicações observadas foram trombose venosa. Foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante na glicemia capilar de portadores de retalhos que apresentaram trombose venosa em comparação àqueles que não tiveram a complicação, nas medidas realizadas 6 horas, 9 horas e 12 horas após a operação (P Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Monitoring of free flaps after surgery is vitally important, especially in the first few hours because the timing of reoperation can determine flap salvage or loss. To date, no study has examined the decision to reoperate on a flap based on the objective measure of glycemia or a comparis [...] on between flaps that showed good outcomes and those that showed vascular damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of blood glucose measurements within the flap as a method for monitoring free flaps and to compare the efficacy of this method with that of clinical assessments. METHODS: The study was prospective, included 16 patients with free flaps, and was conducted from May 2012 to July 2012. A team of professionals not involved in the surgery evaluated capillary glycemia. Flaps were clinically evaluated during the immediate postoperative period, on ICU admission, at every 3 hours, and as needed. RESULTS: Of the 16 patients, 5 (31.3%) had venous thrombosis in the first 24 hours. Statistically significant differences were noted in capillary glycemia in patients with or without venous thrombosis in measurements obtained 6, 9, and 12 hours after surgery (P

  14. Noninvasive Measurement of Murine Hepatic Acetyl-CoA 13C-Enrichment Following Overnight Feeding with 13C-Enriched Fructose and Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, John G.; Cruz, Pedro F.; Ana Rita Simoes; Filipa Carvalho; Joao Duarte

    2013-01-01

    The 13C-isotopomer enrichment of hepatic cytosolic acetyl-CoA of overnight-fed mice whose drinking water was supplemented with [U-13C]fructose, and [1-13C]glucose and p-amino benzoic acid (PABA) was quantified by 13C NMR analysis of urinary N-acetyl-PABA. Four mice were given normal chow plus drinking water supplemented with 5% [1-13C]glucose, 2.5% [U-13C]fructose, and 2.5% fructose (Solution 1) overnight. Four were given chow and water containing 17.5% [1-13C]glucose, 8.75% [U-13C]fructose a...

  15. On employing a translationally controlled tumor protein-derived protein transduction domain analog for transmucosal delivery of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hae-duck; Lee, Kyunglim

    2013-09-28

    Protein transduction domains (PTDs) are recognized as promising vehicles for the delivery of macromolecular drugs. We have previously shown that a region in the N-terminus (residues 1-10) of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) contains a PTD (TCTP-PTD), MIIYRDLISH, which can serve as a vehicle for the delivery of macromolecules into the cells and tissues. In the current study, we evaluated the potential and safety of TCTP-PTD and its three mutant analogs as nasal absorption enhancers for delivery of drugs. We conducted this evaluation employing insulin as test drug. We examined the degree to which insulin was absorbed in nasal mucosa and also if any mucosal damage occurs following such nasal delivery of insulin using TCTP-PTDs as a vehicle. The systemic delivery of insulin was assessed by measuring the changes in blood glucose levels after nasal coadministration insulin and four PTDs. Of the three TCTP-PTD analogs examined, one, TCTP-PTD analog (MIIFRALISHKK) significantly enhanced the nasal absorption of insulin in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The relative pharmacological bioavailability of insulin nasally coadministered with the TCTP-PTD analog was 21.3% relative to the subcutaneous route. Molecular association between insulin and the TCTP-PTD analog was observed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements. The binding between the TCTP-PTD analog and insulin may enable the penetration of insulin through the nasal mucosa. Histological examination of mice nasal mucosa 7 days after repeated nasal administration showed no evidence of toxicity at the site of nasal administration. In this study using insulin as a test system we demonstrate that the TCTP-PTD analog offers a promising approach for nasal peptides and protein-drugs delivery. PMID:23791976

  16. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tony K. T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  17. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  18. Titanium-Beta Zeolites Catalyze the Stereospecific Isomerization of D-Glucose to L-Sorbose via Intramolecular C5-C1 Hydride Shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gounder, Rajamani [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Davis, Mark E. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2013-06-03

    Pure-silica zeolite beta containing Lewis acidic framework Ti4+ centers (Ti-Beta) is shown to catalyze the isomerization of D-glucose to L-sorbose via an intramolecular C5–C1 hydride shift. Glucose–sorbose isomerization occurs in parallel to glucose–fructose isomerization on Ti-Beta in both water and methanol solvents, with fructose formed as the predominant product in water and sorbose as the predominant product in methanol (at 373 K) at initial times and over the course of >10 turnovers. Isotopic tracer studies demonstrate that 13C and D labels placed respectively at the C1 and C2 positions of glucose are retained respectively at the C6 and C5 positions of sorbose, consistent with its formation via an intramolecular C5–C1 hydride shift isomerization mechanism. This direct Lewis acid-mediated pathway for glucose–sorbose isomerization appears to be unprecedented among heterogeneous or biological catalysts and sharply contrasts indirect base-mediated glucose–sorbose isomerization via 3,4-enediol intermediates or via retro-aldol fragmentation and recombination of sugar fragments. Measured first-order glucose–sorbose isomerization rate constants (per total Ti; 373 K) for Ti-Beta in methanol are similar for glucose and glucose deuterated at the C2 position (within a factor of ~1.1), but are a factor of ~2.3 lower for glucose deuterated at each carbon position, leading to H/D kinetic isotope effects expected for kinetically relevant intramolecular C5–C1 hydride shift steps. Optical rotation measurements show that isomerization of D-(+)-glucose (92% enantiomeric purity) with Ti-Beta in water (373 K) led to the formation of L-(-)-sorbose (73% enantiomeric purity) and D-(-)-fructose (87% enantiomeric purity) as the predominant stereoisomers, indicating that stereochemistry is preserved at carbon centers not directly involved in intramolecular C5–C1 or C2–C1 hydride shift steps, respectively. This new Lewis acid-mediated rearrangement of glucose to sorbose does not appear to have a metalloenzyme analog.

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your ... as a cold or flu. You have other stress, such as family conflicts or school or ... following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine ...

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals. XXVII. 18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose as a radiopharmaceutical for measuring regional myocardial glucose metabolism in vivo: tissue distribution and imaging studies in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) is rapidly extracted by the mouse heart, and the radioactivity in heart (3 to 4% per organ) remains relatively constant for 2 hr post injection. The brain uptake (2 to 3% per organ) remained relatively constant throughout the time course of the study. Liver, lungs, kidneys, small intestine, and blood all showed a rapid clearance of radioactivity after injection of 18FDG. At 120 min the heart-to-lung ratio was 12 and heart-to-liver ratio was 32. Urinary excretion of activity was approximately 16% of the injected dose at 60 min. The uptake of radioactivity by dog heart following the intravenous administration of 18FDG was 2.8 to 4.1% at 60 min and 2.4% at 135 min; it was regionally distributed, the areas of highest activity being the left ventricle and the interventricular septum. The brain activity was 2.1 to 3.5% at 120 min, with a ratio of gray matter-to-white matter of 2 to 3:1. Urinary excretion in dogs was 16% and 50% of the injected dose at 60 and 135 min. The chemical form of the activity in the urine, although unidentified, was not 18F-. Cross-sectional images of the mycardium of the dog after intravenous injection of 18FDG were obtained using emission tomography

  1. Discrete LIBOR Market Model Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Hula, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a discrete time LIBOR analog, which can be used for arbitrage-free discretization of Levy LIBOR models or discrete approximation of continuous time LIBOR market models. Using the work of Eberlein and Oezkan as an inspiration, we build a discrete forward LIBOR market model by starting with a discrete exponential martingale. We take this pure jump process and calculate the appropriate measure change between the forward measures. Next we prove weak convergence of the discrete analog to the continuous time LIBOR model, provided the driving process converges weakly to the continuous time one and the driving processes are PII's. This especially implies the weak convergence of the model to a Levy LIBOR market model if the driving process variables are infinitely divisible distributions. This also relates our model to an Euler discretization.

  2. FASTING GLUCOSE AND INSULIN AND MEASURES OF INSULIN RESISTANCE OF MEN AFTER CONSUMPTION OF WHOLE WHEAT/BROWN RICE OR BARLEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluble fiber has been recognized as beneficial in decreasing blood glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but has not been utilized extensively in the US diet. This study investigated whether consumption of barley would reduce cardiovascular r...

  3. Application of time gating in the measurement of glucose level in a three-layer biotissue model by using ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of using the time-of-flight (TOF) method at a wavelength of 820 nm for detecting the changes in the optical properties of multilayer light scattering medium in connection with the problem of the glucose level detection in the human tissue is discussed. Pulses scattered from a three-layer biotissue phantom consisting of two skin layers and a blood layer between them, are calculated with the help of a program code based on the Monte Carlo algorithm for different glucose concentrations. Relative changes in the recorded signals caused by variations in the glucose content are analysed for different source - detector separations. It is shown that the maximum relative change in the total pulse energy is 7.2% and 4.8% for the anisotropy factor of the layer mimicking skin g = 0.9 and 0.7, respectively, and the change in the glucose concentration from 0 up to 500 mg dL-1. The use of time gating leads to the increase in these values up to 12% and 8.5%, respectively. The sensitivity maps are obtained which can be used to determine the optimal duration and the time delay of the time gate relative to the probe pulse for five values of the source - detector separations. (biophotonics)

  4. Methodologic Considerations for Quantitative 18F-FDG PET/CT Studies of Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trägårdh, Malene; MØller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: PET with the glucose analog (18)F-FDG is used to measure regional tissue metabolism of glucose. However, (18)F-FDG may have affinities different from those of glucose for plasma membrane transporters and intracellular enzymes; the lumped constant (LC) can be used to correct these differences kinetically. The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of measuring human hepatic glucose metabolism with dynamic (18)F-FDG PET/CT and to determine an operational LC for (18)F-FDG by comparison with (3)H-glucose measurements. METHODS: Eight healthy human subjects were included. In all studies, (18)F-FDG and (3)H-glucose were mixed in saline and coadministered. A 60-min dynamic PET recording of the liver was performed for 180 min with blood sampling from catheters in a hepatic vein and a radial artery (concentrations of (18)F-FDG and (3)H-glucose in blood). Hepatic blood flow was determined by indocyanine green infusion. First, 3 subjects underwent studies comparing bolus administration and constant-infusion administration of tracers during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping. Next, 5 subjects underwent studies comparing fasting and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping with tracer infusions. Splanchnic extraction fractions of (18)F-FDG (E*) and (3)H-glucose (E) were calculated from concentrations in blood, and the LC was calculated as ln(1 - E*)/ln(1 - E). Volumes of interest were drawn in the liver tissue, and hepatic metabolic clearance of (18)F-FDG (mL of blood/100 mL of liver tissue/min) was estimated. RESULTS: For bolus versus infusion, E* values were always negative when (18)F-FDG was administered as a bolus and were always positive when it was administered as an infusion. For fasting versus clamping, E* values were positive in 4 of 5 studies during fasting and were always positive during clamping. Negative extraction fractions were ascribed to the tracer distribution in the large volume of distribution in the prehepatic splanchnic bed. The LC ranged from 0.43 to 2.53, with no significant difference between fasting and clamping. CONCLUSION: The large volume of distribution of (18)F-FDG in the prehepatic splanchnic bed may complicate the analysis of dynamic PET data because it represents the mixed tracer input to the liver via the portal vein. Therefore, dynamic (18)F-FDG data for human hepatic glucose metabolism should be interpreted with caution, but constant tracer infusion seems to yield more robust results than bolus injection.

  5. Appetite sensations, appetite signaling proteins, and glucose in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Kristi B; Wilson, Shanna L; Ferraro, Zachary M; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Eric; Goldfield, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured with an ad libitum lunch buffet. Results. Emotional eating scores were significantly higher in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Hunger levels rose and satiety levels fell significantly over the course of the monitoring period but there was no difference between the two groups. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder did not have significantly different levels of appetite signaling proteins or glucose. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder had a nonsignificantly higher energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of their emotional eating scores highlights the important role that psychological factors play in relation to eating behaviours. PMID:25006530

  6. Fluorescent Nano-Optodes for Glucose Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Billingsley, Kelvin; Balaconis, Mary K.; Dubach, J. Matthew; Zhang, Ning; Lim, Ed; Francis, Kevin P.; Clark, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed fluorescent nanosensors based on ion-selective optodes capable of detecting small molecules. By localizing the sensor components in a hydrophobic core, these nanosensors are able to monitor dynamic changes in concentration of the model analyte, glucose. The nanosensors demonstrated this response in vitro and also when injected subcutaneously into mice. The response of the nanosensors tracked changes in blood glucose levels in vivo that were comparable to measurements taken us...

  7. lyoluminescence experiments on mannose and glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As lyoluminescence seems to present interesting characteristics for several applications in dosimetry, the authors have performed some experiments using mannose and glucose. The characteristics of pure mannose and glucose were determined; and parameter like selection of the appropriate solvent, the granulometry of the powders, the amount of sugar used for each measurement were studied. The threshold dose was of the order of 5 Gy for both sugars. (author)

  8. Pre-meal video game playing and a glucose preload suppress food intake in normal weight boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branton, Alyson; Akhavan, Tina; Gladanac, Branka; Pollard, Damion; Welch, Jo; Rossiter, Melissa; Bellissimo, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Increased food intake (FI) during television viewing has been reported in children, but it is unknown if this occurs following pre-meal video game playing (VGP). The objective was to determine the effect of pre-meal VGP for 30?min on subjective appetite and emotions, and FI in normal weight (NW) boys after a glucose or control preload. On four test mornings, NW boys (n?=?19) received equally sweetened preloads of a non-caloric sucralose control or 50?g glucose in 250?mL of water, with or without VGP for 30?min. Food intake from an ad libitum pizza meal was measured immediately after. Subjective appetite was measured at 0, 15, 30, and 60?min. Subjective emotions were determined by visual analog scale at baseline and immediately before lunch. Both VGP (p?=?0.023) and glucose (p?<0.001) suppressed FI. Pre-meal VGP compared with no-VGP, and glucose compared with the non-caloric control, decreased FI by 59 and 170?kcal, respectively. Subjective average appetite increased to 30?min (p?=?0.003), but was lower after glucose (p?=?0.01) in both the VGP and no-VGP conditions compared with the control. Frustration and aggression scores increased after VGP (p?<0.05), but did not correlate with FI. However, baseline and pre-meal happiness and excitement scores were inversely associated with FI. In conclusion, both pre-meal VGP and the glucose preload suppressed FI, supporting the roles of both physiologic and environmental factors in the regulation of short-term FI in 9- to 14-year-old NW boys. PMID:25150911

  9. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg(-1) min(-1)) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; Ra OGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, RaOGTT, and Rd (all P < 0.0001) in all groups with a tendency for a greater (~20%) peak RaOGTT value in NGT subjects when compared to IGT and T2D subjects. Accordingly, following exercise, the plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT was increased in NGT subjects (P < 0.05), while unchanged in subjects with IGT and T2D. In conclusion, while a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise increased the postprandial glucose response in NGT subjects, glucose tolerance following exercise was preserved in the two hyperglycemic groups. Thus, postprandial plasma glucose responses immediately following exercise are dependent on the underlying degree of glycemic control.

  10. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

  11. Changes in Glucose Homeostasis after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity at Day Three, Two Months, and One Year after Surgery : Role of Gut Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkén, Y; Hellström, P M

    2011-01-01

    Context: Endocrine effects of gastric bypass (GBP) surgery for obesity on glucose homeostasis are not fully understood. Main Objective: The main objective of the study was to assess the changes in plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), leptin, somatostatin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, enteroglucagon, and glucagon early after GBP. Method: Twelve obese subjects (body mass index 45.3 ± 1.9 kg/m2) were subjected to a liquid meal without lipids before and 3 d, 2 months, and 1 yr after GBP. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, leptin, and gut peptide hormones were assessed before and for 180 min after the meal. Satiety was measured with visual analog scales. The absorption rate of acetaminophen added to the liquid meal was measured. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Results: All subjects lost weight (body mass index 30.3 ± 1.8 kg/m2 at 1 yr). Fasting glucose was significantly lower on d 3 (P < 0.05). There was a progressive decrease in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance after 2 months postoperatively. Postprandially, there was a progressive rise of GLP-1 and enteroglucagon and a transient increase in pancreatic glucagon release over the study period. There was a leftward shift of the time course of plasma glucose and insulin. Somatostatin release was lower on d 3 (P < 0.05) but then unchanged. The absorption rate of acetaminophen was twice as fast after GBP compared with before surgery and did not change over time. Satiety scores increased markedly postoperatively. Conclusion: Both enhanced insulin sensitivity and incretin hormones, such as GLP-1, contribute to the early control of glucose homeostasis. Progressively increasing postprandial levels of enteroglucagon (oxyntomodulin) and GLP-1 facilitate weight loss and enhance insulin effectiveness.

  12. Kidney transplantation improves arterial function measured by pulse wave analysis and endothelium-independent dilatation in uraemic patients despite deterioration of glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Clausen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of kidney transplantation on arterial function in relation to changes in glucose metabolism. METHODS: Included were 40 kidney recipients (Tx group, age 38 ± 13 years) and 40 patients without known diabetes remaining on the waiting list for kidney transplantation (uraemic control group, age 47 ± 11 years). Arterial function was estimated by the pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the carotid-femoral pulse wave, aortic augmentation index (AIX), flow-mediated (FMD) and nitroglycerin-induced vasodilatation (NID) of the brachial artery performed before transplantation and after 12 months. PWV recorded sequentially at the carotid and femoral artery is an estimate of arterial stiffness; AIX is an integrated index of vascular and ventricular function. FMD and NID are the dilatory capacities of the brachial artery after increased flow (endothelium dependent) and after nitroglycerin administration (endothelium independent). The insulin resistance was estimated by the insulin sensitivity index (ISI). RESULTS: AIX was reduced from 27% (17-33) to 14% (7-25) (P = 0.01) after 1 year in the Tx group and remained stable in uraemic controls (P = 0.001, between groups), and NID increased from 11% (7-16) to 18% (12-23) (P = 0.0005). At baseline, carotid-femoral PWV was similar in the Tx group, uraemic controls and healthy controls and it did not change significantly after transplantation. ISI deteriorated in the Tx group from 7.2 ± 4.0 to 5.0 ± 3.0 (P = 0.005) and remained stable in uraemic controls (7.9 ± 5.1 vs 8.5 ± 4.9, NS). Mean arterial blood pressure decreased from 105 ± 13 to 96 ± 11 mmHg (P = 0.005) in the Tx group despite a 20% lower use of antihypertensive agents. CONCLUSIONS: Arterial function measured by AIX and NID was improved 1 year after kidney transplantation. This was associated with a decline in blood pressure and seen inspite of an increase in insulin resistance.

  13. On the role of glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide in postprandial metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Tangaa, Winnie

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the role of glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide (GIP) in the regulation of gastric emptying (GE), appetite, energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), plasma levels of triglycerides (TAG), and free fatty acids (FFA) in humans. First, 20 healthy males received intravenous infusion of GIP (0.8 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1)) or saline for 300 min during and after a fixed meal (protocol 1). GE was measured using paracetamol, appetite sensations using visual analog scales, EE using indirect calorimetry, and EI during a subsequent ad libitum meal (at 300 min). Next, 10 healthy males received intravenous infusions of Intralipid, glucose, or Intralipid plus glucose, with and without GIP (1.5 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1)) for 300 min (protocol 2). In protocol 1, GIP did not have any effect on GE, EI, EE, removal of TAG, or FFA and did not influence the subjective feeling of hunger, satiety, fullness or prospective food consumption compared with saline. In protocol 2, no difference was seen in the plasma TAG on Intralipid + GIP/saline and Intralipid + glucose + GIP/saline days. FFA concentrations were lower on Intralipid + glucose + GIP/saline days (P <0.05) compared with Intralipid + GIP/saline days and on Intralipid + GIP day (P <0.004) compared with Intralipid + saline day. Insulin increased on all GIP days compared with saline days (P <0.05). In conclusion, while confirming its insulinotropic effects, these data suggest that GIP does not affect GE, appetite, energy intake, EE, or the clearance rate of the applied TAG formulation in humans. However, both insulin and GIP lower post-Intralipid FFA concentration, GIP probably via stimulation of insulin secretion, increasing FFA reesterification.

  14. Evaluation of the relationship between capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations obtained by the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system during an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignell, Claes; Berntorp, Kerstin

    2011-12-01

    In 55 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, simultaneous capillary and venous plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 0, 30 and 120 min during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between capillary and venous glucose measurements, and to establish equations for the conversion of capillary and venous glucose concentrations using the HemoCue Glucose 201+ system. Additionally, the correlation between the capillary and venous glucose concentrations with the diagnostic cut-off limits proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1999 was evaluated. Capillary glucose concentrations were consistently higher than venous glucose concentrations at all time points of the OGTT (p < 0.001), and the correlations between the measurements were statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). The differences between the samples were greatest in the non-fasting state as revealed by the 95% prediction intervals (mmol/L) in Bland-Altman plots; ± 0.54 at 0 min, ± 2.01 at 30 min, and ± 1.35 at 120 min. Equivalence values for capillary plasma glucose concentrations derived from this study tended to be higher than those proposed by the WHO as diagnostic cut-off limits. Stratifying subjects by glucose tolerance status according to the WHO criteria revealed disagreements related to glucose values close to the diagnostic cut-off points. The study findings highlight the uncertainty associated with derived equivalence values. However, capillary plasma glucose measurements could be suitable for diagnostic purposes in epidemiological studies and when translating results on a group basis. PMID:21961814

  15. Analogy in Thomism.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvo?ák, Petr

    Heusenstamm : Ontos Verlag, 2010 - ( Schumann , A.), s. 164-191 ISBN 978-3-86838-061-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : analogy * Thomism * semantics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  16. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2014-01-01

    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-differential-equation-based gray box (SDE-GB) model is formulated on the basis of an identifiable physiological model of the glucoregulatory system for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. A Bayesian method is used to estimate robust parameters from clinical data. The models are then used to predict PG from IG observations from 2 separate study occasions on the same patient. First, all statistically significant diffusion terms of the model are identified using likelihood ratio tests, yielding inclusion of ?Isc, ?Gp, and ?Gsc . Second, estimates using maximum likelihood are obtained, but prediction capability is poor. Finally a Bayesian method is implemented. Using this method the identified models are able to predict PG using only IG observations. These predictions are assessed visually. We are also able to validate these estimates on a separate data set from the same patient. This study shows that SDE-GBs and a Bayesian method can be used to identify a reliable model for prediction of PG using IG observations obtained with a CGM. The model could eventually be used in an artificial pancreas.

  17. Measurement of myocardial glucose uptake in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: application of a new quantitative method using regional tracer kinetic information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, H; Bøttcher, M; Nielsen, Torsten Toftegård; Gjedde, A; Bøtker, H E

    1999-01-01

    Quantification of myocardial glucose uptake (MGU) by 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) using PET may be inaccurate, because the correction factor that relates myocardial FDG uptake to MGU, the lumped constant (LC), is not a true constant. Recent studies have shown that analysis of FDG time-activity curves allows determination of individual LCs and that variable LCs yield accurate determination of MGU. We compared the magnitude of the LC in different regions of the heart in patients with ischemic c...

  18. Detecting early kidney damage in horses with colic by measuring matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2, other enzymes, urinary glucose and total proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen Hanna; Kastevaara Tuulia; Holopainen Elina; Rajamäki Minna; Raekallio Marja; Arosalo Bela M; Sankari Satu

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate urine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9) activity, alkaline phosphatase/creatinine (U-AP/Cr) and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase/creatinine (U-GGT/Cr) ratios, glucose concentration, and urine protein/creatinine (U-Prot/Cr) ratio and to compare data with plasma MMP-2 and -9 activity, cystatin-C and creatinine concentrations in colic horses and healthy controls. Horses with surgical colic (n = 5) were compared to healthy stallions (...

  19. Epigenome-Wide Association Study of Fasting Measures of Glucose, Insulin, and HOMA-IR in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, Bertha; Irvin, M. Ryan; Sha, Jin; Zhi, Degui; Aslibekyan, Stella; Absher, Devin; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ordovas, Jose M; Arnett, Donna K

    2014-01-01

    Known genetic susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) explain only a small proportion of heritable T2D risk. We hypothesize that DNA methylation patterns may contribute to variation in diabetes-related risk factors, and this epigenetic variation across the genome can contribute to the missing heritability in T2D and related metabolic traits. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study for fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) amo...

  20. 14C-glucose binding assay of the glucose transporter binding sites in muscular cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of determining the binding sites of glucose transporter in rat muscular cell membrane was introduced. The crude products of cell membrane form the skeletal muscle of control and insulin treated rats were prepared, and then fractionated in sucrose gradient. Both plasma membrane and microsome membrane were incubated with D-[U-14C] glucose respectively for the measurement of radioactivity and Scatchard plot analysis. It was found that the binding sites of glucose transporter in plasma membrane and intracellular membrane were 5.6 nmol 14C-glucose/mg protein and 8.7 nmol 14C-glucose-mg protein respectively at basic state. Insulin treatment in experimental groups caused approximately 146% increase in plasma membrane fraction and 88% decrease in intracellular membrane fraction. Moreover, the kinetic data of Scatchard plot curve were similar to those of the [3H]-cytochalasin B binding assay. D-[U-14C] glucose binding assay of glucose transporter binding sites in muscular cell membrane is simple, easy and practicable. The D-[U-14C] glucose is commercially available

  1. Intensive insulin treatment in critically ill trauma patients normalizes glucose by reducing endogenous glucose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorell, Anders; Rooyackers, Olav; Myrenfors, Peter; Soop, Mattias; Nygren, Jonas; Ljungqvist, Olle H

    2004-11-01

    Critical illness is associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Intensive insulin treatment to normalize blood glucose during feeding has been shown to improve morbidity and mortality in patients in intensive care. The mechanisms behind the glucose-controlling effects of insulin in stress are not well understood. Six previously healthy, severely traumatized patients (injury severity score > 15) were studied early (24-48 h) after trauma. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and whole-body glucose disposal (WGD) were measured (6,6-(2)H(2)-glucose) at basal, during total parenteral nutrition (TPN), and during TPN plus insulin to normalize blood glucose (TPN+I). Six matched volunteers served as controls. At basal and TPN, concentrations of glucose and insulin were higher in patients (P TPN+I, insulin concentrations were 30-fold higher in patients. At basal, WGD and EGP were 30% higher in patients (P TPN, EGP decreased in both groups but less in patients, resulting in 110% higher EGP than controls (P TPN or TPN+I and was not different between the groups. In conclusion, in healthy subjects, euglycemia is maintained during TPN at physiological insulin concentrations by a reduction of EGP, whereas WGD is maintained at basal levels. In traumatized patients, hyperglycemia is due to increased EGP. In contrast to controls, normalization of glucose concentration during TPN needs high insulin infusion rates and is accounted for by a reduction in EGP, whereas WGD is not increased. PMID:15531485

  2. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ... planned or exercised less than planned. You have stress from an illness, such as a cold or ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En ... Reed challenges you to take the Diabetes Risk Test! » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ... Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals Professional Books Patient ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for ... Stop Diabetes! Check out these special offers to benefit the Association. In My Community: I Decide to ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hometown Advocacy Easy Advocacy Checklists for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars ... and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia ( ...

  12. Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Events Upcoming and past meetings Follow Us Social media, RSS feeds, and more Follow Us Health Information > ... Meters Juvenile Diabetes (Teens and Diabetes ) Know Your Blood Glucose Numbers Your ...

  13. Glucose urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... planned or exercised less than planned. You have stress from an illness, such as a cold or ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes ... Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... insulin, your body can't use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  19. Glucose: Detection and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, A L; Kaufman, R C; Wilson, J D

    2015-12-01

    Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide that is centrally entrenched in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, serving as an energy reserve and metabolic fuel in most organisms. As both a monomer and as part of more complex structures such as polysaccharides and glucosides, glucose also plays a major role in modern food products, particularly where flavor and or structure are concerned. Over the years, many diverse methods for detecting and quantifying glucose have been developed; this review presents an overview of the most widely employed and historically significant, including copper iodometry, HPLC, GC, CZE, and enzyme based systems such as glucose meters. The relative strengths and limitations of each method are evaluated, and examples of their recent application in the realm of food chemistry are discussed. PMID:26041177

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips ... that smells fruity Nausea and vomiting Very dry mouth Talk to your doctor about how to handle ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food ... glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use for energy. When your body breaks ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ... Advocacy Easy Advocacy Checklists for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Legal Assistance Success Stories Complications Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia Skin Complications Eye Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your best bet is to practice good diabetes management and learn to detect hyperglycemia so you can ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Research Saves Lives - 2015-oct-donation- ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance Update The Health Insurance Marketplace ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms ... have ketones, do not exercise. Exercising when ketones are present may make your blood glucose level go ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Legal Assistance Success Stories Complications Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia Skin Complications Eye Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin ...

  11. All about Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are the blood glucose targets for people with diabetes? TargetssetbytheAmerican DiabetesAssociation (ADA)arelistedbelow. Talkwithyourhealthcareteam aboutyour personalgoals. What’s the best way to keep track ...

  12. Comparison of salivary and serum glucose levels in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shruti; Sandhu, Simarpreet Virk; Bansal, Himanta; Sharma, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a noncommunicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide and in developing countries. The most commonly used diagnostic biofluid for detection of glucose levels is blood, but sample collection is an invasive and painful procedure. Thus, there arises a need for a noninvasive and painless technique to detect glucose levels. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the glucose levels of saliva, to assess if any significant correlation existed between the serum and salivary glucose levels, and to correlate salivary glucose levels with regard to duration of diabetes, age, and gender. In the present study, serum and salivary glucose levels of 200 subjects (100 diabetic subjects and 100 nondiabetic subjects) were estimated by glucose oxidase method. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were also measured in randomly selected 40 diabetic subjects. The findings of present study revealed a significant correlation between salivary and serum glucose levels in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. No significant relationship was observed between salivary glucose levels and gender or age in both diabetics and nondiabetics and between salivary glucose levels and duration of diabetes in diabetics. On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that salivary glucose levels could serve as a potentially noninvasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. PMID:25294888

  13. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager Polarimetric (GMI-P); 10 - 183 GHz with Polarimetric channels including digital and analog back-ends: Ardeshir Art Azarbarzin, Sergey Krimchansky Jeff Piepmeir NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager Polarimetric (GMI-P) will be an instrument covering 10, 18, 23, 36, 89, 166 and 183 GHz with polarimetric channels on 10, 18 and 36 GHz channels. The GMI-P (or VWPIR) will have 13 analog channels and 12 digital channels. This instrument builds upon the success of GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) flying on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) launched in Feb 2014. And with GMI-P for the first time we can compare performance of digital and analog channels for 10, 18 and 36 channels. The GMI-P is recently renamed "Vector Wind Precipitation Imaging Radiometer (VWPIR). The instrument is a passive microwave with 1.2 m diameter reflector with 4-point hot/cold calibration capability in orbit. GMI-P (VWPIR) will provides measurements of precipitation intensity and distribution in addition to wind vector and speed. The Receivers, and multiple feedhorn tray rotate with the reflector at 32 RPM. The GMI-P will have capabilities as good as Windsat with added cyclone intensity and snow/ice measurement capability. This instrument will have a 2-Look capability (front and back) as well which will reduce uncertainty of reducing calibration accuracy further.

  14. Genetic Algorithm Tuning of PID Controller in Smith Predictor for Glucose Concentration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tsonyo Slavov; Olympia Roeva

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on design of a glucose concentration control system based on nonlinear model plant of E. coli MC4110 fed-batch cultivation process. Due to significant time delay in real time glucose concentration measurement, a correction is proposed in glucose concentration measurement and a Smith predictor (SP) control structure based on universal PID controller is designed. To reduce the influence of model error in SP structure the estimate of measured glucose concentration is used. For...

  15. Spatial relationship between tumor perfusion and endogeneous glucose distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies detecting glucose in tissue and solid tumors by bioluminescence imaging suggested, that glucose distribution patterns may be spatially related to functional vascularity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this relationship by comparing glucose distribution patterns as determined by bioluminescence imaging to perfusion patterns of endogeneous Hoechst 33342 in rats bearing mammary carcinomas. R 3230 mammary carcinoma cells have been implanted subcutaneously into 7 female Fischer 344 rats. Two months post implantation, after injection of Hoechst 33342 the tumors were removed and snap frozen to conserve metabolite levels. Concomitantly, blood was sampled from the animals for analysis of glucose concentrations using a micodialysis analyzer. Cryosections of the tumors have been prepared, and every slice has been analyzed for both, Hoechst binding by fluorescence microscopy, and for glucose distribution patterns using bioluminescence imaging. In many cases vascular structures could be retrieved by the spatial pattern of glucose distribution. In some cases however, higher glucose concentrations could be found independent from Hoechst signal. On the other hand, regions of high Hoechst signal are not necessarily correlated with high glucose concentrations. When comparing blood and tissue glucose levels, tissue glucose content as measured with bioluminescence imaging (1.9-3.5 mM) is considerably lower than blood glucose (5.6-8.0 mM), demonstrating the expected gradient from blood to tissue. This study demonstrates the feasibility of monitoring glucose gradients in relation to functional vasculature throughout the body, from blood down to tissue or tumor and further, throughout the microenvironment of the solid tumor. Glucose distribution patterns may be an important tool in perfusion studies, e. g. in detecting the direction of blood flow in ex-vivo samples or in estimating glucose consumption rates of tumor cells adjacent to or in between perfused vessels

  16. Digital and analog communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  17. Instructional Systems Design by Analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.

    The purpose of this paper is to review literature on analogical reasoning, to work out the implications of Polya's model of analogical problem solving, and to propose an alternative model of instructional design based on the use of analogical reasoning. Justification of the model is based on research on the nature of analogical thought and an…

  18. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study measured the acute effects of high glucose or the G6PD inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the production of O(2)(-) from isolated human neutrophils.

  19. Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring: A Review and Preview

    OpenAIRE

    Saudek, Christopher D.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians inappropriately think of blood glucose as a stable value because technology reduces a continuously varying parameter into a point-in-time measurement. Continuous blood glucose monitoring (CBGM) will force us to change this bad habit. Data management principles are suggested which will be necessary for conceptualizing the new data. The physiology of normal blood glucose fluctuations will be studied for the first time and the diagnosis of diabetes will be duly defined. Most important...

  20. Variable Classifications of Glycemic Index Determined by Glucose Meters

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Meng-Hsueh Amanda; Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Jenshinn

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated and compared the differences of glucose responses, incremental area under curve (IAUC), glycemic index (GI) and the classification of GI values between measured by biochemical analyzer (Fuji automatic biochemistry analyzer (FAA)) and three glucose meters: Accue Chek Advantage (AGM), BREEZE 2 (BGM), and Optimum Xceed (OGM). Ten healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The results showed OGM yield highest postprandial glucose responses of 119.6 ± 1.5, followed by FAA, ...

  1. Return of the glucoreceptor: Glucose activates the glucose-sensing receptor T1R3 and facilitates metabolism in pancreatic ?-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Itaru; Nakagawa, Yuko; Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Hamano, Kunihisa; Medina, Johan; Nagasawa, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Subunits of the sweet taste receptor, namely T1R2 and T1R3, are expressed in mouse pancreatic islets. Quantitatively, the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid for T1R2 is much lower than that of T1R3, and immunoreactive T1R2 is in fact undetectable. Presumably, a homodimer of T1R3 could function as a signaling receptor. Activation of this receptor by adding an artificial sweetener, sucralose, leads to an increase in intracellular adenosine triphosphate ([ATP]c). This increase in [ATP]c is observed in the absence of ambient glucose. Sucralose also augments elevation of [ATP]c induced by methylsuccinate, a substrate for mitochondria. Consequently, activation of T1R3 promotes metabolism in mitochondria and increases [ATP]c. 3-O-Methylglucose, a non-metabolizable analog of glucose, also increases [ATP]c. Conversely, knockdown of T1R3 attenuates elevation of [ATP]c induced by glucose. Hence, glucose promotes its own metabolism by activating T1R3 and augmenting ATP production. Collectively, a homodimer of T1R3 functions as a cell surface glucose-sensing receptor and participates in the action of glucose on insulin secretion. The glucose-sensing receptor T1R3 might be the putative glucoreceptor proposed decades ago by Niki et al. The glucose-sensing receptor is involved in the action of glucose and modulates glucose metabolism in pancreatic ?-cells. PMID:25969708

  2. Electrical analogous in viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala, Guido; Di Paola, Mario; Francomano, Elisa; Li, Yan; Pinnola, Francesco P.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, electrical analogous models of fractional hereditary materials are introduced. Based on recent works by the authors, mechanical models of materials viscoelasticity behavior are firstly approached by using fractional mathematical operators. Viscoelastic models have elastic and viscous components which are obtained by combining springs and dashpots. Various arrangements of these elements can be used, and all of these viscoelastic models can be equivalently modeled as electrical circuits, where the spring and dashpot are analogous to the capacitance and resistance, respectively. The proposed models are validated by using modal analysis. Moreover, a comparison with numerical experiments based on finite difference time domain method shows that, for long time simulations, the correct time behavior can be obtained only with modal analysis. The use of electrical analogous in viscoelasticity can better reveal the real behavior of fractional hereditary materials.

  3. The Effect of Basal Analog Insulin on the Glycemic Variability in Type 2 Diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Cander

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insulin detemir and glargine on glycemic variability as determined by capillary blood glucose measurements in Type 2 diabetics treated with oral antidiabetic drugs. Material and Method: A total of 64 insulin-naive type 2 diabetics with a HbA1c level of 7.5%-10% were included in the study. The patients were randomized into 3 groups according to the basal insulin analog started; Group 1 (n=22 was started on once-daily detemir, Group 2 (n=22 twice-daily detemir, and Group 3 (n=20 insulin glargine. Basal insulin doses were titrated according to the morning/evening fasting capillary blood glucose levels. Standard deviations of the 8-point intraday fasting and postprandial blood glucose values were compared. Results: The fasting blood glucose intraday standard deviation values showed an improvement of 22.4% in Group 1, 21.4% in Group 2, and 26.4% in Group 3, while the intraday standard deviation for the postprandial values showed an improvement of 14.4%, 15.2%, and 38.7%, respectively (p>0.05. The standard deviation values did not show statistical significance when the groups were compared with each other. Baseline HbA1c values and insulin doses negatively correlated with the glycemic variability. Dicussion: Basal insulin added to treatment in Type 2 diabetics provided an improvement of 14.4% to 38.7% in glycemic variability. There was no significant difference between insulin glargine and detemir regarding this effect. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 33-38

  4. Effect of Global ATGL Knockout on Murine Fasting Glucose Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Margarida; Nunes, Patricia; Mendes, Vera M.; Manadas, Bruno; Heerschap, Arend; Jones, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Mice deficient in adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL?/?) present elevated ectopic lipid levels but are paradoxically glucose-tolerant. Measurement of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and Cori cycle activity provide insights into the maintenance of glycemic control in these animals. These parameters were determined in 7 wild-type (ATGL+/?) and 6 ATGL?/? mice by a primed-infusion of [U-13C6]glucose followed by LC-MS/MS targeted mass-isotopomer analysis of blood glucose. EGP was quantified by isotope dilution of [U-13C6]glucose while Cori cycling was estimated by analysis of glucose triose 13C-isotopomers. Fasting plasma free fatty-acids were significantly lower in ATGL?/? versus control mice (0.43 ± 0.05?mM versus 0.73 ± 0.11?mM, P < 0.05). Six-hour fasting EGP rates were identical for both ATGL?/? and control mice (79 ± 11 versus 71 ± 7??mol/kg/min, resp.). Peripheral glucose metabolism was dominated by Cori cycling (80 ± 2% and 82 ± 7% of glucose disposal for ATGL?/? and control mice, resp.) indicating that peripheral glucose oxidation was not significantly upregulated in ATGL?/? mice under these conditions. The glucose 13C-isotopomer distributions in both ATGL?/? and control mice were consistent with extensive hepatic pyruvate recycling. This suggests that gluconeogenic outflow from the Krebs cycle was also well compensated in ATGL?/? mice. PMID:26236747

  5. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  6. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  7. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized on unhybridized titanium dioxide nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glucose biosensor has been fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on unhybridized titanium dioxide nanotube arrays using an optimized cross-linking technique. The TiO2 nanotube arrays were synthesized directly on a titanium substrate by anodic oxidation. The structure and morphology of electrode material were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performances of the glucose biosensor were conducted by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements. It gives a linear response to glucose in the 0.05 to 0.65 mM concentration range, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9981, a sensitivity of 199.6 ?A mM?1 cm?2, and a detection limit as low as 3.8 µM. This glucose biosensor exhibited high selectivity for glucose determination in the presence of ascorbic acid, sucrose and other common interfering substances. This glucose biosensor also performed good reproducibility and long-time storage stability. This optimized cross-linking technique could open a new avenue for other enzyme biosensors fabrication. (author)

  8. Radiotracers in the study of marine food chains. The use of compartmental analysis and analog modelling in measuring utilization rates of particulate organic matter by benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study assesses the problem of recycling when using radiotracers to quantify ingestion and assimilation rates of particulate organic matter by benthic invertebrates. The rapid production of dissolved organic matter and its subsequent utilization by benthic invertebrates constitutes a major bias in this kind of study. However recycling processes may also concern POM through the production and reingestion of faeces. The present paper shows that compartmental analysis of the diffusion kinetics of the radiotracer between the different compartments of the system studied and the analog modelling of the exchanges of radioactivity between compartments may be used in order to determine ingestion and assimilation rates. This method is illustrated by the study of a system composed of the bacteria Lactobacillus sp. and the filter-feeding bivalve Venerupis decussata. The advantages and drawbacks of this approach relative to other existing methods are briefly discussed. (Author)

  9. Interaction of Glucose with ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Samanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of the extent of interaction as well as the formation of a bioconjugate of glucose with Zinc Oxide nano particles (ZnO NPs to understand the non-invasive monitoring of glucose by semiconductor NPs. We performed an array of photophysical as well as microscopic measurements to quantify the interaction between ZnO NPs and glucose. We have found that time constant of interaction (t1 ? 18.47 min for the binding glucose with surface of ZnO NPs and follows a single exponential association process.

  10. How Analogy Drives Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many new ideas in theoretical physics come from analogies to older ideas in physics. For instance, the abstract notion of 'isospin' (or isotopic spin) originated in the prior concept of 'spin' (quantized angular momentum); likewise, the concept of 'phonon' (quantum of sound, or quantized collective excitation of a crystal) was based on the prior concept of 'photon' (quantum of light, or quantized element of the electromagnetic field). But these two examples, far from being exceptions, in fact represent the bread and butter of inventive thinking in physics. In a nutshell, intraphysics analogy-making -- borrowing by analogy with something already known in another area of physics -- is central to the progress of physics. The aim of this talk is to reveal the pervasiveness -- indeed, the indispensability -- of this kind of semi-irrational, wholly intuitive type of thinking (as opposed to more deductive mathematical inference) in the mental activity known as 'doing physics'. Speculations as to why wild analogical leaps are so crucial to the act of discovery in physics (as opposed to other disciplines) will be offered.

  11. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  12. Towards analogy in toponyms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Št?pán, Pavel

    Cluj : Mega, 2013 - (Felecan, O.), s. 379-383 ISBN 978-606-543-343-4. [Name and Naming /2./ Onomastics in Contemporary Public Space. Baia Mare (RO), 09.05.2013-11.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R GPP406/12/P600 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : onomastics * toponyms * analogy Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  13. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most commonly confirmed by G6PC (GSDIa or SLC37A4 (GSDIb gene analysis, and the indications of liver biopsy to measure G6P activity are getting rarer and rarer. Differential diagnoses include the other GSDs, in particular type III (see this term. However, in GSDIII, glycemia and lactacidemia are high after a meal and low after a fast period (often with a later occurrence than that of type I. Primary liver tumors and Pepper syndrome (hepatic metastases of neuroblastoma may be evoked but are easily ruled out through clinical and ultrasound data. Antenatal diagnosis is possible through molecular analysis of amniocytes or chorionic villous cells. Pre-implantatory genetic diagnosis may also be discussed. Genetic counseling should be offered to patients and their families. The dietary treatment aims at avoiding hypoglycemia (frequent meals, nocturnal enteral feeding through a nasogastric tube, and later oral addition of uncooked starch and acidosis (restricted fructose and galactose intake. Liver transplantation, performed on the basis of poor metabolic control and/or hepatocarcinoma, corrects hypoglycemia, but renal involvement may continue to progress and neutropenia is not always corrected in type Ib. Kidney transplantation can be performed in case of severe renal insufficiency. Combined liver-kidney grafts have been performed in a few cases. Prognosis is usually good: late hepatic and renal complications may occur, however, with adapted management, patients have almost normal life span. Disease name and synonyms Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency or G6P deficiency or glycogen storage disease type I or GSDI or type I glycogenosis or Von Gierke disease or Hepatorenal glycogenosis.

  14. Demographic and metabolic characteristics of individuals with progressive glucose tolerance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.L., Mendes; M.L., Santos; C.R., Padovani; W.P., Pimenta.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated changes in glucose tolerance of 17 progressors and 62 non-progressors for 9 years to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Changes in anthropometric measurements and responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were analyzed. We identified 14 p [...] airs of individuals, one from each group, who were initially normal glucose tolerant and were matched for gender, age, weight, and girth. We compared initial plasma glucose and insulin curves (from OGTT), insulin secretion (first and second phases) and insulin sensitivity indices (from hyperglycemic clamp assay) for both groups. In the normal glucose tolerant phase, progressors presented: 1) a higher OGTT blood glucose response with hyperglycemia in the second hour and a similar insulin response vs non-progressors; 2) a reduced first-phase insulin secretion (2.0 ± 0.3 vs 2.3 ± 0.3 pmol/L; P

  15. Study of diabetes using naturally enriched 13C-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the work undertaken by Duchesne et al. since 1968, results from the use of a new method in the area of glucose metabolism are presented. Because of differences in their photosynthetic pathway, some vegetables, e.g., maize and sugarcane, are a little richer in 13C than most common foodstuffs. This weak, but significant, enrichment allows the use of maize glucose as a natural and nonradioactive tracer. In this procedure the variations of the 13C/12C ratio of exhaled CO2 are measured by mass spectrometry. By this method, we can follow, in man, the complete conversion of an oral glucose load into CO2 during a glucose tolerance test. At the same time, measurements of blood glucose and of respiratory quotient are made. They permit a useful comparison of the level of glucose in blood, the total amount of glucose consumed, and the fraction of exogenous glucose burned in the hours following oral administration. New information was obtained from these studies concerning glucose metabolism. The method was used in normal subjects and in obese and diabetic patients. Some of the diabetics were receiving an oral antidiabetic treatment. Significant differences were obtained in these cases, not only between them but also with the information given by the classical methods

  16. Glucose Regulates the Expression of the Apolipoprotein A5 Gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchart, Jamila; Nowak, Maxime; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Moitrot, Emmanuelle; Rommens, Corinne; Pennacchio, Len A.; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2008-04-07

    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) is a key player in determining triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. Since diabetes is often associated with hypertriglyceridemia, this study explores whether APOA5 gene expression is regulated by alteration in glucose homeostasis and the related pathways. D-glucose activates APOA5 gene expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes, and the glycolytic pathway involved was determined using D-glucose analogs and metabolites. Together, transient transfections, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that this regulation occurs at the transcriptional level through an increase of USF1/2 binding to an E-box in the APOA5 promoter. We show that this phenomenon is not due to an increase of mRNA or protein expression levels of USF. Using protein phosphatases 1 and 2A inhibitor, we demonstrate that D-glucose regulates APOA5 gene via a dephosphorylation mechanism, thereby resulting in an enhanced USF1/2-promoter binding. Last, subsequent suppressions of USF1/2 and phosphatases mRNA through siRNA gene silencing abolished the regulation. We demonstrate that APOA5 gene is up regulated by D-glucose and USF through phosphatase activation. These findings may provide a new cross talk between glucose and lipid metabolism.

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produces daily around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to ... We Can Help Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness ... Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of ...

  19. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are below 100 mg/dL before meals and fasting and are less than 140 mg/dL two hours after meals. People with diabetes should consult their doctor or health care provider to set appropriate blood glucose goals. ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... to Give Do-It-Yourself Fundraising & Local Events Promotions that Give Back Donate Your Collectibles Donate Stocks ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels ... Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness of breath Breath that smells fruity ...

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency is a hereditary condition in which red blood cells ... doesn't have enough of an enzyme called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which helps red blood cells ...

  3. Structure-function relationships affecting the sensing mechanism of monolayer-protected cluster doped xerogel amperometric glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPasquale, Luke T; Poulos, Nicholas G; Hall, Jackson R; Minocha, Aastha; Bui, Tram Anh; Leopold, Michael C

    2015-07-15

    A systematic study of the structure-function relationships critical to understanding the sensing mechanism of 1st generation amperometric glucose biosensors with an embedded nanoparticle (NP) network is presented. Xerogel-based films featuring embedded glucose oxidase enzyme and doped with alkanethiolate-protected gold NPs, known as monolayer protected clusters (MPCs), exhibit significantly enhanced performance compared to analogous systems without NPs including higher sensitivity, faster response time, and extended linear/dynamic ranges. The proposed mechanism involves diffusion of the glucose to glucose oxidase within the xerogel, enzymatic reaction production of H2O2 with subsequent diffusion to the embedded network of MPCs where it is oxidized, an event immediately reported via fast electron transfer (ET) through the MPC system to the working electrode. Various aspects of the film construct and strategy are systematically probed using amperometry, voltammetry, and solid-state electronic conductivity measurements, including the effects of MPC peripheral chain length, MPC functionalization via place-exchange reaction, MPC core size, and the MPC density or concentration within the xerogel composite films. The collective results of these experiments support the proposed mechanism and identify interparticle spacing and the electronic communication through the MPC network is the most significant factor in the sensing scheme with the diffusional aspects of the mechanism that may be affected by film/MPC hydrophobicity and functionality (i.e., glucose and H2O2 diffusion) shown to be less substantial contributors to the overall enhanced performance. Understanding the structure-function relationships of effective sensing schemes allows for the employment of the strategy for future biosensor design toward clinically relevant targets. PMID:25819004

  4. Antarctic analogs for Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A. E.; Andersen, D. T.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is a new world for Astrobiology. The Cassini discovery of the icy plume emanating from the South Polar region indicates an active world, where detection of water, organics, sodium, and nano-particle silica in the plume strongly suggests that the source is a subsurface salty ocean reservoir. Recent gravity data from Cassini confirms the presence of a regional sea extending north to 50°S. An ocean habitat under a thick ice cover is perhaps a recurring theme in the Outer Solar System, but what makes Enceladus unique is that the plume jetting out into space is carrying samples of this ocean. Therefore, through the study of Enceladus' plumes we can gain new insights not only of a possible habitable world in the Solar Systems, but also about the formation and evolution of other icy-satellites. Cassini has been able to fly through this plume - effectively sampling the ocean. It is time to plan for future missions that do more detailed analyses, possibly return samples back to Earth and search for evidence of life. To help prepare for such missions, the need for earth-based analog environments is essential for logistical, methodological (life detection) and theoretical development. We have undertaken studies of two terrestrial environments that are close analogs to Enceladus' ocean: Lake Vida and Lake Untersee - two ice-sealed Antarctic lakes that represent physical, chemical and possibly biological analogs for Enceladus. By studying the diverse biology and physical and chemical constraints to life in these two unique lakes we will begin to understand the potential habitability of Enceladus and other icy moons, including possible sources of nutrients and energy, which together with liquid water are the key ingredients for life. Analog research such as this will also enable us to develop and test new strategies to search for evidence of life on Enceladus.

  5. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber. PMID:19403705

  6. Dynamics of water molecules in glucose solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the solution of glucose molecules on the dynamics of solvent water have been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements on solutions of selectively deuterated glucose in natural water. The data are fitted to two Lorentzians ascribed to pure translational and mixed translational and rotational character, respectively. The addition of the glucose to the water causes a substantial slowing down, by a factor 10 for the translational diffusion and 3-4 for the rotational motion at the highest concentration studied, 1:11 C6H12O6:H2O. The values obtained for water diffusion constants are consistent with previous QENS and NMR experiments on monosaccharide solutions but an order of magnitude higher than those derived from a recent molecular dynamics simulation.

  7. The Young Solar Analogs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard O.; Saken, J. M.; Corbally, C. J.; Fuller, V.; Kahvaz, Y.; Lambert, R.; Newsome, I.; Seeds, M.

    2013-01-01

    We are carrying out a long-term project of measuring chromospheric activity and brightness variations in 31 young solar analogs (YSAs) using facilities at the Dark Sky Observatory (DSO - Appalachian State University) and the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT). These YSAs are solar-type (spectral types F8 - K2) stars with ages ranging from 0.3 - 1.5 Gyr. The goal of this project is to gain better understanding of the magnetic activity of the early Sun, and especially how that activity may have impacted the development of life on the Earth. This project will also yield insights into the space environments experienced by young Earth analogs. We are currently in the 6th year of spectroscopic measurements of these stars: these data include Ca II H & K chromospheric flux measurements, and narrow-band measurements in the photospheric G-band, both obtained with the G/M spectrograph on the DSO 32-inch telescope. We will present evidence of activity cycles in a number of our stars, as well as periods determined from rotational modulation of the spectroscopic indices. The relationship between the Ca II activity index and the G-band index will be explored. NSF support for our project has provided funds for the construction of a robotic photometric telescope to monitor the program stars in a 5-passband system (Strömgren-v, Johnson-Cousins B, V, and R, and a 3-nm wide H? filter). The robotic telescope has been functional since April 2012 and observes the program stars on every clear night; combined with the Piggy-back telescope attached to the DSO 32-inch, we now have photometric observations on over 130 nights stretching over nearly 2 years. We will examine the relationships between variations in the Ca II H & K index, the G-band index and the photometric bands. This project is supported by the National Science Foundation, grant AST-1109158.

  8. Whole body glucose kinetics in type I diabetes studied with [6,6-2H] and [U-13C]-glucose and the artificial B-cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic aspects of whole body glucose metabolism were assessed in ten young adult insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic men. Using a primed, continuous intravenous infusion of [6,6-2H]glucose and [U-13C]glucose, endogenous production, tissue uptake, carbon recycling, and oxidation of glucose were measured in the postabsorptive state. These studies were undertaken after blood glucose had been maintained overnight at 5.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/L (n = 10), and on another night at 10.5 +/- 0.4 mmol/L (n = 4) or 15.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/L (n = 6). In the normoglycemic state, endogenous glucose production averaged 2.15 +/- 0.13 mg x kg-1 x min-1. This value, as well as the rate of glucose carbon recycling (0.16 +/- 0.04 mg x kg-1 x min-1) and glucose oxidation (1.52 +/- 0.16 mg x kg-1 x min-1) are comparable to those found in nondiabetic controls. In the hyperglycemic states at 10 or 15 mmol/L, endogenous glucose production was increased by 11% (P less than .01) and 60% (P less than .01) compared to the normoglycemic states, respectively. Glucose carbon recycling contributed only a small percentage to this variation in glucose production (15% at the 15 mmol/L glucose level). This suggests that if gluconeogenesis participates in the increased glucose output, it is not dependent on a greater systemic supply of three-carbon precursors. The increased rate of glucose production in the hyperglycemic state was quantitatively offset by a rise in urinary glucose excretion. Glucose tissue uptake, as well as glucose oxidation, did not vary between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic states

  9. Evaluation and clinically relevant applications of a fluorescent imaging analog to fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Sheth, Rahul A; Josephson, Lee; Mahmood, Umar

    2009-01-01

    A fluorescent analog to 2-deoxy-2 [18F] fluoro-D-glucose position emission tomography (FDG-PET) would allow for the introduction of metabolic imaging into intraoperative and minimally invasive settings. We present through in vitro and in vivo experimentation an evaluation of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), a fluorescently labeled glucose molecule, as a molecular beacon of glucose utilization. The competitive inhibition of 2-NBDG uptake by excess free gl...

  10. Interaction of ZnS nanoparticles with flavins and glucose oxidase: A fluorimetric investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Anindita; Priyam, Amiya; Ghosh, Debasmita; Mondal, Somrita [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Bhattacharya, Subhash C. [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Saha, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit@alpha.iuc.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2012-03-15

    Interactions of luminescence, water soluble ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) with flavins and glucose oxidase have been thoroughly investigated through optical spectroscopy. The photoluminescence of ZnS nanoparticles was quenched severely ({approx}60%) by riboflavin while other flavins such as flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) show quenching to different extents under analogous conditions. However, interestingly no effect in luminescence intensity of ZnS NPs was observed with protein bound flavins such as in glucose oxidase. Fluorescence lifetime measurement confirmed the quenching to be static in nature. Scavenging of photo-generated electron of ZnS nanoparticles by the flavin molecules may be attributed to the decrease in luminescence intensity. Quenching of ZnS nanoparticles with flavins follows the linear Stern-Volmer plot. The Stern-Volmer constants decreased in the following order: K{sub S-V} (Riboflavin)> K{sub S-V} (FAD)> K{sub S-V} (FMN). This interaction study could generate useful protocol for the fluorimetric determination of riboflavin (vitamin B{sub 2}) content and also riboflavin status in biological systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unique interaction specificity of ZnS nanoparticles with flavins has been explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unlike protein-bound flavin, fluorescence of free flavins was quenched by ZnS nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FMN and FAD show quenching to different extents under analogous conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence lifetime measurement confirmed the quenching to be static in nature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is useful for probing riboflavin in biological systems.

  11. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Labrune Philippe; Gajdos Vincent; Eberschweiler Pascale; Hubert-Buron Aurélie; Petit François; Vianey-Saban Christine; Boudjemline Alix; Piraud Monique; Froissart Roseline

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, betw...

  12. Entry rates and recycling of glucose in buffalo calves fed on urea molasses liquid diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry rates of glucose have been measured in buffalo calves by using a dual-isotope dilution method based on continuous infusion of (U-14C)D-glucose and (6-3H)D-glucose into the blood at a precise controlled rate for 540 min. After 5 h a plateau was obtained in the specific radioactivity of the plasma glucose from which glucose synthesis and entry rates were calculated. The average entry rates of glucose were 112 and 145 mg/min measured by 14C and 3H labelled glucose respectively. About 23 percent of the glucose carbon was recycled in the pool. The average recycling rate was 33 mg/min. (author)

  13. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  14. HAPS, a Handy Analog Programming System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Kristian Søe

    1975-01-01

    HAPS (Hybrid Analog Programming System) is an analog compiler that can be run on a minicomputer in an interactive mode. Essentially HAPS is written in FORTRAN. The equations to be programmed for an ana log computer are read in by using a FORTRAN-like notation. The input must contain maximum and minimum values for the variables. The output file includes potentiometer coefficients and static-test 'measuring values.' The file format is fitted to an automatic potentiometer-setting and static-test pr...

  15. Factors Associated with Increases in Glucose Levels in the Perioperative Period in Non-Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Manasee Sant; Alejandro F. Castro III; Catherine Schoenberg; Vasanti Tilak

    2013-01-01

    Background: Blood glucose levels are elevated during the perioperative period as a result of the neuro-endocrine response to the stress of surgery. In nondiabetic patients, blood glucose levels are not a part of routine preoperative testing nor are they monitored during surgery or in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU). We measured blood glucose levels in nondiabetic patients during the perioperative period to identify how many patients had high glucose levels and what factors were associat...

  16. A predictive and feedback control algorithm maintains a constant glucose concentration in fed-batch fermentations.

    OpenAIRE

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J.J.; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-01-01

    A combined predictive and feedback control algorithm based on measurements of the concentration of glucose on-line has been developed to control fed-batch fermentations of Escherichia coli. The predictive control algorithm was based on the on-line calculation of glucose demand by the culture and plotting a linear regression to the next datum point to obtain a predicted glucose demand. This provided a predictive "coarse" control for the glucose-based nutrient feed. A direct feedback control us...

  17. Quality assessment of patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose in community pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Kjome RL; Granas AG; Nerhus K; Sandberg S

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate diabetes patients’ selfmonitoring of blood glucose using a community pharmacy-based quality assurance procedure, to investigate whether the procedure improved the quality of the patient performance of self monitoring of blood glucose, and to examine the opinions of the patients taking part in the study. Methods: The results of patient blood glucose measurements were compared to the results obtained with HemoCue Glucose 201+ by pharmacy empl...

  18. Copper-incorporated SBA-15 with peroxidase-like activity and its application for colorimetric detection of glucose in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jianshuai; He, Yun; Wang, Yan

    2016-02-01

    The copper incorporated SBA-15 (Cu-SBA-15) materials with different amount of Cu in framework were synthesized, and the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and N2 adsorption/desorption. The Cu contents incorporated into the framework of SBA-15 were measured by inductively coupling plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Cu-SBA-15 samples were found to exhibit the peroxidase-like activity, similar to the natural peroxidase. The effect of various parameters such as the content of Cu incorporated, pH and temperature on the peroxidase-like activity was studied. Based on the peroxidase-like activity, the Cu-SBA-15 was applied to the determination of H2O2. The linear range for detecting H2O2 was from 0.8 to 60mM with a detection limit of 3.7µM. Coupled with glucose oxidase, the Cu-SBA-15 was successfully used for the determination of glucose with the linear range of 2-80mM and a detection limit of 5.4µM. The determination of glucose in human serum showed high accuracy, good reproducibility, as well as high selectivity against uric acid, ascorbic acid, dopamine and glucose analogs including fructose, maltose and lactose. PMID:26653419

  19. Deuterated prostaglandin analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of deuterated prostaglandin analogs which are superior to the natural compounds regarding their pharmacological activity is described. They can be used as antihypertensive, antihtrombogenic and antifertile agent, furthermore as antineoplastic agent, bronchodilators or bronchoconstricters. Besides the type of compound, 9?, 13?-bisdeuterio-9?, 11?, 15?-trihydroxy-13-trans-prostenic acid, 9?, 13?-bisdeuterio-9?, 11?, 15?-trihydroxy-5-cis, 13-trans-prostadiene acid and 15?-deuterio-9?, 11?, 13?-trihydroxy-5 cis-13-trans-prostadiene acid are claimed, i.e. the preparation of each compound. Prescriptions for pharmaceutic preparations are described. (UWI)

  20. Discrete Calculus by Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Izadi, F A; Bagirov, G

    2009-01-01

    With its origins stretching back several centuries, discrete calculus is now an increasingly central methodology for many problems related to discrete systems and algorithms. The topics covered here usually arise in many branches of science and technology, especially in discrete mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and probability theory as well as in electrical engineering, but our viewpoint here is that these topics belong to a much more general realm of mathematics; namely calculus and differential equations because of the remarkable analogy of the subject to this branch of mathemati

  1. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  2. Alternansucrase acceptor reactions with D-tagatose and L-glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Gregory L; Dunlap, Christopher A; Appell, Michael; Momany, Frank A

    2005-02-01

    Alternansucrase (EC 2.4.1.140) is a d-glucansucrase that synthesizes an alternating alpha-(1-->3), (1-->6)-linked d-glucan from sucrose. It also synthesizes oligosaccharides via d-glucopyranosyl transfer to various acceptor sugars. Two of the more efficient monosaccharide acceptors are D-tagatose and L-glucose. In the presence of d-tagatose, alternansucrase produced the disaccharide alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->1)-beta-D-tagatopyranose via glucosyl transfer. This disaccharide is analogous to trehalulose. We were unable to isolate a disaccharide product from L-glucose, but the trisaccharide alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-l-glucose was isolated and identified. This is analogous to panose, one of the structural units of pullulan, in which the reducing-end D-glucose residue has been replaced by its L-enantiomer. The putative L-glucose disaccharide product, produced by glucoamylase hydrolysis of the trisaccharide, was found to be an acceptor for alternansucrase. The disaccharide, alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-L-glucose, was a better acceptor than maltose, previously the best known acceptor for alternansucrase. A structure comparison of alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-L-glucose and maltose was performed through computer modeling to identify common features, which may be important in acceptor affinity by alternansucrase. PMID:15639245

  3. Identification and quantification of sophorolipid analogs using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsep, Peter; Shah, Vishal

    2009-09-01

    An ultra-fast liquid chromatographic method combined with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass detection (UHPLC/APCI-MS) has been developed for the separation and quantification of sophorolipid analogs produced by the yeast Candida bombicola. The sophorolipid mixture was produced by growing the yeast in the presence of glucose and oleic acid under higher aeration. It was found that more than 95% of the analogs are lactonic sophorolipids and all the produced sophorolipids produced were either mono- or di-acetylated. Also observed was a sophorolipid analog with a tri-unsaturated fatty acid, which has not been reported previously. PMID:19559734

  4. Epigenome-wide association study of fasting measures of glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Bertha; Irvin, M Ryan; Sha, Jin; Zhi, Degui; Aslibekyan, Stella; Absher, Devin; Tiwari, Hemant K; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Ordovas, Jose M; Arnett, Donna K

    2014-02-01

    Known genetic susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) explain only a small proportion of heritable T2D risk. We hypothesize that DNA methylation patterns may contribute to variation in diabetes-related risk factors, and this epigenetic variation across the genome can contribute to the missing heritability in T2D and related metabolic traits. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study for fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) among 837 nondiabetic participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study, divided into discovery (N = 544) and replication (N = 293) stages. Cytosine guanine dinucleotide (CpG) methylation at ?470,000 CpG sites was assayed in CD4(+) T cells using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 Beadchip. We fit a mixed model with the methylation status of each CpG as the dependent variable, adjusting for age, sex, study site, and T-cell purity as fixed-effects and family structure as a random-effect. A Bonferroni corrected P value of 1.1 × 10(-7) was considered significant in the discovery stage. Significant associations were tested in the replication stage using identical models. Methylation of a CpG site in ABCG1 on chromosome 21 was significantly associated with insulin (P = 1.83 × 10(-7)) and HOMA-IR (P = 1.60 × 10(-9)). Another site in the same gene was significant for HOMA-IR and of borderline significance for insulin (P = 1.29 × 10(-7) and P = 3.36 × 10(-6), respectively). Associations with the top two signals replicated for insulin and HOMA-IR (P = 5.75 × 10(-3) and P = 3.35 × 10(-2), respectively). Our findings suggest that methylation of a CpG site within ABCG1 is associated with fasting insulin and merits further evaluation as a novel disease risk marker. PMID:24170695

  5. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayikci, Omur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression.

  6. Regional differences in adipocyte lactate production from glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newby, F.D.; Sykes, M.N.; DiGirolamo, M. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Having shown that lactate is an important product of glucose metabolism by rat epididymal adipocytes, the authors investigated possible regional differences in adipocyte lactate production and the role of the animals' nutritional state and stage of development. (U-{sup 14}C)glucose metabolism, lactate production, and response to insulin were measured in fat cells isolated from four adipose regions from young lean and older fatter rats, killed either in the fed state or after fasting for 48 h. In the absence of insulin, mesenteric fat cells from either age group metabolized significantly more glucose per cell and converted more glucose to lactate than cells from other depots, regardless of nutritional state. Adipocytes from fasted lean rats showed a significant increase in the relative glucose conversion to lactate in all depots when compared with cells from fed lean rats. Fasting of older fatter rats, however, had limited effects on the relative adipocyte glucose conversion to lactate since lactate production was already high. Mesenteric fat cells had the lowest relative response to insulin, possibly due to the high basal rate of glucose metabolism. These findings indicate that differences exist among adipose regions in the rates of glucose metabolism, lactate production and response to insulin. The anatomical location of the mesenteric adipose depot, coupled with a high metabolic rate and blood perfusion, suggests that mesenteric adipocytes may provide a unique and more direct contribution of metabolic substrates for hepatic metabolism than adipocytes from other depots.

  7. Regional differences in adipocyte lactate production from glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having shown that lactate is an important product of glucose metabolism by rat epididymal adipocytes, the authors investigated possible regional differences in adipocyte lactate production and the role of the animals' nutritional state and stage of development. [U-14C]glucose metabolism, lactate production, and response to insulin were measured in fat cells isolated from four adipose regions from young lean and older fatter rats, killed either in the fed state or after fasting for 48 h. In the absence of insulin, mesenteric fat cells from either age group metabolized significantly more glucose per cell and converted more glucose to lactate than cells from other depots, regardless of nutritional state. Adipocytes from fasted lean rats showed a significant increase in the relative glucose conversion to lactate in all depots when compared with cells from fed lean rats. Fasting of older fatter rats, however, had limited effects on the relative adipocyte glucose conversion to lactate since lactate production was already high. Mesenteric fat cells had the lowest relative response to insulin, possibly due to the high basal rate of glucose metabolism. These findings indicate that differences exist among adipose regions in the rates of glucose metabolism, lactate production and response to insulin. The anatomical location of the mesenteric adipose depot, coupled with a high metabolic rate and blood perfusion, suggests that mesenteric adipocytes may provide a unique and more direct contribution of metabolic substrates for hepatic metabolism than adipocytes from other depots

  8. [Intelligent interpretation of home monitoring blood glucose data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dió, Mihály; Deutsch, Tibor; Biczók, Tímea; Mészáros, Judit

    2015-07-19

    Self monitoring of blood glucose is the cornerstone of diabetes management. However, the data obtained by self monitoring of blood glucose have rarely been used with the highest advantage. Few physicians routinely download data from memory-equipped glucose meters and analyse these data systematically at the time of patient visits. There is a need for improved methods for the display and analysis of blood glucose data along with a modular approach for identification of clinical problems. The authors present a systematic methodology for the analysis and interpretation of self monitoring blood glucose data in order to assist the management of patients with diabetes. This approach utilizes the followings 1) overall quality of glycemic control; 2) severity and timing of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia; 3) variability of blood glucose readings; 4) various temporal patterns extracted from recorded data and 5) adequacy of self monitoring blood glucose data. Based on reliable measures of the quality of glycaemic control and glucose variability, a prioritized problem list is derived along with the probable causes of the detected problems. Finally, problems and their interpretation are used to guide clinicians to choose therapeutic actions and/or recommend behaviour change in order to solve the problems that have been identified. PMID:26170181

  9. Evidence that downregulation of hexose transport limits intracellular glucose in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitesell, R.R.; Regen, D.M.; Pelletier, D.; Abumrad, N.A. (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Measurements of initial glucose entry rate and intracellular glucose concentration in cultured cells are difficult because of rapid transport relative to intracellular volume and a substantial extracellular space from which glucose cannot be completely removed by quick exchanges of medium. In 3T3-L1 cells, we obtained good estimates of initial entry of ({sup 14}C)methylglucose and D-({sup 14}C)glucose with (1) L-({sup 3}H)glucose as an extracellular marker together with the ({sup 14}C)glucose or ({sup 14}C)methylglucose in the substrate mixture, (2) sampling times as short as 2 s, (3) ice-cold phloretin-containing medium to stop uptake and rinse away the extracellular label, and (4) nonlinear regression of time courses. Methylglucose equilibrated in two phases--the first with a half-time of 1.7 s and the second with a half-time of 23 s; it eventually equilibrated in an intracellular space of 8 microliters/mg protein. Entry of glucose remained almost linear for 10 s, making its transport kinetics easier to study (Km = 5.7 mM, Vmax = 590 nmol.s-1.ml-1 cell water). Steady-state intracellular glucose concentration was 75-90% of extracellular glucose concentration. Cells grown in a high-glucose medium (24 mM) exhibited a 67% reduction of glucose-transport activity and a 50% reduction of steady-state ratio of intracellular glucose to extracellular glucose.

  10. Methodology of effective glucose-specific signal extraction in complicated sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenliang; Deng, Bin; Liu, Rong; Gu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Kexin

    2007-02-01

    In the area of noninvasive human blood glucose concentration detecting, it has always been a critical task to extract the glucose-specific signal from the highly overlapped and disturbed near-infrared spectrum. In this paper, the methodology of effective glucose-specific signal extraction in complicated non-scattering sample is studied. By analyzing the impact of water displacement upon dissolution of glucose, the relationship between glucose concentration and absorption coefficient of the sample is deduced. Then, the reference wavelength where the absorption coefficient is insensitive to the changes of glucose concentration is put forward theoretically. Accordingly, the validating experiments in aqueous glucose solutions are executed. Both the theoretical and laboratorial results show that the reference wavelength of glucose appears at 1525nm. Based on the reference wavelength, an effective method for extracting the glucose-specific signal in complicated non-scattering samples is proposed and the corresponding validating experiments are constructed with different glucose and albumin concentration. Two different methods, traditional and the novel reference wavelength method are used to extract glucose signal and the corresponding root mean square error of prediction are 19.86mg/dl and 9.87mg/dl respectively. The experiment results indicate that the reference wavelength method can effectively eliminate the influence of various noises on the glucose-specific signal extraction, and thus can remarkably improve the measuring precision in noninvasive near-infrared glucose detecting.

  11. Continuous glucose monitoring in interstitial subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle reflects excursions in cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Kruse; Djurhuus, Christian Born

    2005-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is being explored using several types of glucose sensors. Some are designed for subcutaneous adipose tissue. It is important to determine to which extent these glucose fluctuations in different tissues reflect changes taking place in the central nervous system, where glucose sensing is thought to occur. We studied the ability of subcutaneous adipose interstitial fluid measurements to parallel glucose propagations in blood, muscle, and central nervous system (CNS) during hyper- and hypoglycemia. A subcutaneous CGM system was applied in the CNS, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle of nine Vietnamese potbellied pigs, and data were compared with frequent sampling in blood. Alterations in glucose levels were induced with intravenous glucose and insulin. During hyperglycemia, no difference was detected in delay between blood and interstitial glucose levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (18.0 +/- 0.8 min), muscle (18.0 +/- 0.9 min), and CNS (20.3 +/- 1.2 min), respectively. During hypoglycemia, we found no time difference between interstitial parameters in the three tissues. However, the amplitude of glucose changes varied considerably, with a smaller magnitude of glucose change taking place in the brain. The timing of glucose excursions in subcutaneous adipose tissue and muscle reflect excursions in CNS. The reduced magnitude of glucose excursions in the brain suggests that different mechanisms of glucose transport are operative in CNS compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue and muscle.

  12. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayikci, Omur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective...

  13. Análise de diferentes medidas antropométricas na identificação de síndrome metabólica, com ou sem alteração do metabolismo glicídico Analysis of several anthropometric measurements for the identification of metabolic syndrome, with or without disturbance of glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Pereira da Rocha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo comparou parâmetros antropométricos e de resistência à insulina de indivíduos sem e com síndrome metabólica (SM, subestratificados pela presença de anormalidades glicêmicas. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 454 indivíduos (66% mulheres, 54% brancos, sendo 155 alocados para o grupo 1 (sem SM, sem anormalidade glicêmica, 32 para o grupo 2 (sem SM, com anormalidade glicêmica, 104 no grupo 3 (com SM, sem anormalidade glicêmica e 163 no grupo 4 (com SM e anormalidade glicêmica. Os grupos foram comparados por ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Os grupos com SM (3 e 4 apresentaram os piores perfis antropométrico e lipídico; no grupo 2, apesar de glicemias significantemente mais elevadas, as médias das variáveis antropométricas e lipídicas não diferiram do grupo 1. Os maiores valores médios de HOMA-IR foram encontrados nos grupos com SM, enquanto o grupo 2 apresentou o menor HOMA-?. A trigliceridemia foi a variável metabólica com coeficientes de correlação mais elevados com a antropometria. Porém, as correlações mais fortes foram da circunferência da cintura (r = 0,503 e da razão cintura-altura (r = 0,513 com o HOMA-IR (p OBJECTIVE: This study compared anthropometric measurements and insulin resistance indexes of individuals with or without metabolic syndrome (MS, stratified by the presence of glycemic abnormalities. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 454 individuals (66% women, 54% Caucasians were included, being 155 allocated to group 1 (without MS, without glycemic abnormality, 32 to group 2 (without MS, with glycemic abnormality, 104 to group 3 (with MS, without glycemic abnormality, and 163 to group 4 (with MS, with glycemic abnormality. Groups were compared by ANOVA. RESULTS: Those with MS (3 e 4 showed the worst anthropometric and lipid profiles; in group 2, despite higher plasma glucose levels, the mean values of anthropometric variables and lipids did not differ from group 1. The highest mean values of HOMA-IR were found in the groups with MS, while group 2 showed the lowest HOMA-?. Triglyceride was the metabolic variable with the highest correlation coefficients with anthropometry. However, the strongest correlations were those of waist circumference (r = 0.503 and waist-to-height ratio (r = 0.513 with HOMA-IR (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that, in a sample of the Brazilian population, any anthropometric measure identifies individuals with MS, but such measurements seem to be unable to differentiate those with glycemic disturbance. We reinforce the strongest relationship of measures of central adiposity with insulin resistance, suggesting utility for the waist-to-height. An autoimmune component may be contributing to the deterioration of glucose metabolism of individuals from group 2.

  14. Insulin Induces an Increase in Cytosolic Glucose Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells with Inhibited Glycogen Synthase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena H. Chowdhury

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is an important source of energy for mammalian cells and enters the cytosol via glucose transporters. It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the levels of free glucose are very low, beyond the detection level. However, the introduction of new fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based glucose nanosensors has made it possible to measure intracellular glucose more accurately. Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation, insulin induced a robust increase in cytosolic free glucose. The insulin-induced increase in cytosolic glucose in these cells is due to an imbalance between the glucose transported into the cytosol and the use of glucose in the cytosol. In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic glucose level. This is the first report of dynamic measurements of cytosolic glucose levels in cells devoid of the glycogen synthesis pathway.

  15. Glucose metabolism in ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined the myocardial metabolic rate for glucose (MMRGlc) in the ischemic or infarcted myocardium using 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET), and studied energy metabolism in the ischemic myocardium. In some cases, we compared glucose metabolism images by 18-FDG with myocardial blood flow images using 15-oxygen water. Two normal subjects, seven patients with myocardial infarction and four patients with angina pectoris were studied. Coronary angiography was performed within two weeks before or after the PET study to detect ischemic areas. PET studies were performed for patients who did not eat for 5 to 6 hours after breakfast. Cannulation was performed in the pedal artery to measure free fatty acid, blood sugar, and insulin. After recording the transmission scan for subsequent correction of photon attenuation, blood pool images were recorded for two min. after the inhalation of carbon monoxide (oxygen-15) which labeled the red blood cells in vivo. After 20 min., oxygen-15 water (15 to 20 mCi) was injected for dynamic scans, and flow images were obtained. Thirty min. after this procedure, 18-FDG (5 to 6 mCi) was injected, and 60 min later, a static scan was performed and glucose metabolism images were obtained. Arterial blood sampling for the time activity curve of the tracer was performed at the same time. According to the method of Phelps et al, MMRGlc was calculated in each of the region of interest (ROI) which was located in the left ventricular wall. MMRGlc obtained from each ROI was 0 to 17 mg/100 ml/min. In normal subjects MMRGlc was 0.4 to 7.3 mg/100 ml/min. In patients with myocardial infarction, it ranged from 3 to 5 mg/100 ml/min in the infarcted lesion. In patients with angina pectoris and subendocardial infarction, MMRGlc was 7 to 17 mg/100 ml/min in the ischemic lesion. In this lesion, myocardial blood flow was relatively low by oxygen-15 imagings (so-called mismatch). (J.P.N.)

  16. Effects of intrapartum maternal glucose infusion on the normal fetus and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola, J; Grylack, L J; Scanlon, J W

    1982-01-01

    The effect of maternal intravenous glucose infusion on the newborn's glucose, insulin, and neurobehavioral performance was studied prospectively in 56 normal mother-newborn pairs. Maternal blood glucose levels at the time of delivery, umbilical venous blood glucose and insulin levels, and neonatal blood glucose levels were measured. Neurobehavioral assessment of the newborns was performed at 4 and 24 hours of life. The median value for total amount of glucose infused to the mother was 32.5 g, the median rate of glucose infusion was 8 g/h, and the median maternal blood glucose concentration at delivery was 110 mg/dl. Median umbilical venous blood glucose concentrations were 104 mg/dl and median insulin concentration was 15 microunits/ml. Six babies were hypoglycemic at 1 hour of age. Umbilical venous glucose and insulin levels correlated significantly (p less than 0.001) with the rate of glucose infusion to the mother and her blood glucose level. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia was significantly related (p less than 0.05) to a maternal blood glucose level greater than 120 mg/dl, to a glucose infusion rate of 20 g/hr or greater and to an umbilical venous insulin level of greater than 40 microunits/ml. There were no major differences in neurobehavior that distinguished hypoglycemic neonates. It is recommended that the normal parturient be given less than 20 g/hr of intravenous glucose before delivery and have a blood glucose level less than 120 mg/dl at the time of delivery. Newborns delivered to mothers with hyperglycemia or excessive glucose infusion should be tested for hypoglycemia at 1 and 2 hours of age. PMID:7032366

  17. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  18. ESD design for analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, Vladislav A

    2010-01-01

    This book is on high voltage and system level circuit design. It covers many challenging ESD topics related to analog circuit design for both ESD device and ESD circuits at the network level. Included is extensive discussion of analog design for DC-DC buck/boost converters, level shifters, digital-analog converters, high speed and precision power amplifiers, and system level cable specs for interface applications.

  19. Boron analogs of ?-amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have been concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and definition of a class of novel isoelectronic and isostructural boron analogs of the ?-amino acids, glycine, alanine and betaine. This paper presents a brief review of the preparation and characterization of some of the first examples of the analogs and related compounds and describes their antitumor activity. The results of preliminary testing at Brookhaven as to the suitability of these analogs for use in BNCT are presented

  20. The relationship between gluconeogenic substrate supply and glucose production in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between gluconeogenic precursor supply and glucose production has been investigated in 14-h and 86-h fasted humans. In protocols 1 and 2 [6,6-2H]glucose and [15N2]urea were infused to measure glucose and urea production rates (Ra) in response to infusions of glycerol and alanine. In protocol 3 first [15N]alanine, [3-13C]lactate, and [6,6-2H]glucose were infused before and during administration of dichloroacetate (DCA) to determine the response of glucose Ra to decreased fluxes of pyruvate, alanine, and lactate, then alanine was infused with DCA and glucose Ra measured. After a 14-h fast, neither alanine nor glycerol increased glucose Ra. Basal glucose Ra decreased by one-third after 86 h of fasting, yet glycerol and alanine infusions had no effect on glucose Ra. Glycerol always reduced urea Ra (P less than 0.05), suggesting that glycerol competitively inhibited gluconeogenesis from amino acids. DCA decreased the fluxes of pyruvate, alanine (P less than 0.01), and glucose Ra (P less than 0.01), which was prevented by alanine infusion. These findings suggest that (1) the reduction in glucose Ra after an 86-h fast is not because of a shortage of gluconeogenic substrate; (2) nonetheless, the importance of precursor supply to maintain basal glucose Ra is confirmed by the response to DCA; (3) an excess of one gluconeogenic substrate inhibits gluconeogenesis from others

  1. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects. PMID:7587920

  2. Scattering by interstellar graphite dust analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of optical scattering data of interstellar carbonaceous graphite dust analog at 543.5 nm, 594.5 nm and 632.8 nm laser wavelengths by using an original laboratory light scattering setup is presented. The setup primarily consisted of a laser source, optical units, aerosol sprayer, data acquisition system and associated instrumentation. The instrument measured scattered light signals from 10° to 170° in steps of 1°. The results of the measurements of the volume scattering function ?(?) and degree of linear polarization P(?) of the carbonaceous graphite dust particles that were sprayed in front of the laser beam by using an aerosol sprayer were subsequently compared with theoretically generated Mie plots with estimated parameters. - Highlights: • A detector array incorporated laser based light scattering instrument was designed. • Light scattering studies were performed on interstellar graphite dust analog. • Measurements were taken from 10° to 170° in steps of 1°. • Experimental results were compared with theoretically generated Mie plots

  3. Role of Counterregulatory Hormones for Glucose Metabolism in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Akiko; Kobayashi, Kisho; Yagasaki, Hideaki; Saito, Tomohiro; NAGAMINE, KENJIRO; Mitsui, Yumiko; Mochizuki, Mie; Satoh, Kazumasa; Kobayashi, Koji; Sano, Tomoaki; Ohta, Masanori; Cho, Hideo; Ohyama, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of insulin resistance due to insulin counterregulatory hormones (ICRHs) and evaluate ICRH secretion kinetics, ICRH concentrations were measured and correlated with blood glucose levels in 28 type 1 diabetic patients. Blood glucose was measured before bedtime. Early morning urine samples were collected the next morning before insulin injection and breakfast. Fasting blood glucose, cortisol, glucagon and HbA1c levels were measured. Growth hormone (GH), ...

  4. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Praful P.; Sanki, Pradyut K.; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  5. Relationships between obesity, lipids and fasting glucose in the menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoncig-Netjasov Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Menopause leads to the development of central adiposity, a more atherogenic lipid profile and increased incidence of metabolic syndrome independent of age and other factors. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between anthropometric characteristics, sex hormones, lipids and fasting glucose in menopausal women. Methods. The study included 87 menopausal women, who where divided into groups according to two criteria: BMI?26.7 kg/m2 and BMI?25 kg/m2. Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were measured. Blood was taken at 08.00 h for fasting glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein(a (Lp(a, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG. Results. Significant differences between groups were found for weight, BMI, waist, hips circumference, waist/hip ratio (WHR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Lp(a, FSH, LH, PRL (for systolic blood pressure p<0.05, for the rest p<0.01 and fasting glucose (p<0.05. In obese and overweight women with BMI?26.7kg/m2 significant negative correlations were found for FSH and glucose, SHBG and LDL, SHBG and total cholesterol, SHBG and glucose, BMI and HDL, WC and HDL. In obese and overweight women with BMI?25kg/m2 significant negative correlations were found for BMI and HDL, waist circumference (WC and HDL, WHR and HDL, FSH and glucose, SHBG and glucose; significant positive correlations were between BMI and glucose, WC and glucose and WHR with triglycerides. Conclusion. Gaining weight and decreased SHBG are related to dyslipidemia and increased fasting glucose confirming increased incidence of metabolic abnormalities in the menopause.

  6. A possible mechanism of insulin resistance in the rat adipose cell in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Depletion of intracellular glucose transport systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Karnieli, E; Hissin, P J; Simpson, I. A.; Salans, L B; Cushman, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus on glucose transport activity and on the concentrations of glucose transport systems in the plasma and low density microsomal membranes in adipose cells isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats have been examined. Glucose transport activity was assessed by measuring 3-O-methylglucose transport and the concentration of glucose transport systems estimated by measuring specific D-glucose-inhibitable cytochalasin B-binding. Basal glucos...

  7. Numerical Modeling on Non-enzymatic, Potentiometric Glucose Sensor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Kanagasabapathy; G.N.K., Ramesh Bapu; Praveen, Lingac; R.M., Gnanamuthud.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel, enzymeless electrochemical sensing mechanism for glucose based on potentiometric measurement was proposed using the mediator hexacyanoferrate. In this methodology, EMF of the cell exclusively depends on glucose concentration and independent on reference half-cell electrode potential or medi [...] ator concentration or any other interfering factors. Electrochemical as well as mathematical models were proposed. Numerical computations along with boundary conditions were evaluated for the proposed models, to reduce the deviation in the interpolated results. Molar ratio of mediator to glucose was correlated with EMF cell. Numerical simulations, Legendre polynomials and Lagrange coefficients iterations can be executed through computer programs.

  8. Optical coherence tomography for glucose monitoring in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hafeez; Hussain, Fayyaz; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-08-01

    In this review, we have discussed the potential application of the emerging imaging modality, i.e., optical coherence tomography (OCT) for glucose monitoring in biological tissues. OCT provides monitoring of glucose diffusion in different fibrous tissues like in sclera by determining the permeability rate with acceptable accuracy both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes. The maximum precision of glucose measurement in Intralipid suspensions, for example, with the OCT technique yields the accuracy up to 4.4 mM for 10 % Intralipid and 2.2 mM for 3 % Intralipid.

  9. Exercise training improves fasting glucose control

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis N; Norton K; Norton L

    2012-01-01

    Lynda Norton,1 Kevin Norton,2 Nicole Lewis21School of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia; 2School of Health Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, AustraliaPurpose: Numerous studies have measured changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in response to physical activity (PA) interventions. While studies involving clinical populations such as type 2 diabetics typically report significant reductions, most others report no change in FBG. This study investigated cha...

  10. Analogic fiber optic position sensor with nanometric resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarque, Frédéric; Prelle, Christine

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a miniature analogic position sensor. This sensor is dedicated to high resolution displacement measurement (10 nm) between two positions on long range (few millimeters). The working principle of the sensor is presented as well as experimentation results.

  11. Glucose metabolism in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flückiger, J; Ettlinger, L

    1977-08-26

    Acetobacter aceti NCIB 8554 grows on a minimal medium with ethanol but not with glucose as carbon and energy source. Addition of glucose to a wild type culture on ethanol has no influence on growth of the organism. Growth of a glucose sensitive mutant A5 is inhibited by the addition of glucose until all glucose has disappeared from the medium. In order to determine the routes by which glucose is metabolised in wild type and mutant, radiorespirometric, enzymatic, and uptake experiments have been performed. For the radiorespirometric experiments of the "continuous substrate feeding" type as apparatus has been constructed. Of the glucose entering the cells about 30% is excreted as gluconate and 6% metabolised with liberation of C-1 as CO2. The rest is accumulated intracellularly. No differences were found between wild type and mutant. Under different growth conditions and with different enzymatic assay methods no pyruvate kinase activity (EC 2.7.1.40) could be detected. This might explain the inability of A. aceti to grow on glucose. PMID:907428

  12. Fabrication of Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper Electrodes for Application in Glucose Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Papa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive glucose detection method was developed using functionalized carbon nanotube buckypaper as a free standing electrode in an electrochemical biosensor. Glucose oxidase was immobilized onto various buckypaper samples in order to oxidize glucose resulting in a measureable current/voltage signal output of the biosensor. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and amperometry were utilized to determine the sensitivity of these buckypaper electrodes. Sensors of three different types of buckypaper were prepared and compared. These modified buckypaper electrode-based sensors showed much higher sensitivity to glucose compared to other electrochemical glucose sensors.

  13. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  14. 21 CFR 168.120 - Glucose sirup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glucose sirup. 168.120 Section 168.120 Food and...Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.120 Glucose sirup. (a) Glucose sirup is the purified, concentrated,...

  15. Parking Structures: Fuss Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoades, Brendon

    2012-01-01

    For any irreducible real reflection group $W$ with Coxeter number $h$, Armstrong, Reiner, and the author introduced a pair of $W \\times \\ZZ_h$-modules which deserve to be called {\\sf $W$-parking spaces} which generalize the type A notion of parking functions and conjectured a relationship between them. In this paper we give a Fuss analog of their constructions. For a Fuss parameter $k \\geq 1$, we define a pair of $W \\times \\ZZ_{kh}$-modules which deserve to be called {\\sf $k$-$W$-parking spaces} and conjecture a relationship between them. We prove the weakest version of our conjectures for each of the infinite families ABCDI of finite reflection groups, together with proofs of stronger versions in special cases. Whenever our weakest conjecture holds for $W$, we have the following corollaries. First, there is a simple formula for the character of either $k$-$W$-parking space. Second, we recover a cyclic sieving result due to Krattenthaler and M\\"uller which gives the cycle structure of a generalized rotation a...

  16. Fat distribution and glucose intolerance among Greenland inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Stolk, Ronald; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A high amount of subcutaneous fat is suggested to explain the observation of lower obesity-associated metabolic risk among Inuit than among Europeans. We examined the association between measures of obesity (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], subcutaneous adipose tissue [SAT], BMI, waist circumference [WC], and percentage of body fat) and the indices of glucose metabolism (fasting and 2-h glucose levels, insulin resistance per homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR], and the insulin sensiti...

  17. Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Glucose and Uric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhya, P.C.; Shen, Y. C.; Davies, A.G.; . . . Linfield, E. H

    2003-01-01

    We report the use ofterahertz time-domain spectroscopy for thestudy of two therapeutic bio-molecules:glucose and uric acid. Terahertztransmission spectra of crystalline samplesof both molecules were measured between 0.1–3.0 THz using an evacuated spectroscopysystem. We propose that the stereo-isomersof glucose show spectral featuresoriginating from intermolecular vibrationalmodes, as do uric acid and its derivativemolecule, allantoin. In addition, wepresent a full temperature dependence ofthe...

  18. Home blood glucose concentrations in maturity-onset diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Paisey, R. B.; Bradshaw, P.; Hartog, M.

    1980-01-01

    Blood glucose concentrations during normal daily activities were measured in 106 patients with maturity-onset diabetes from capillary blood samples collected on to filter paper. Samples were taken before and two hours after main meals, before going to bed, and, in 51 cases, during the night. Fasting and mid-morning values were closely correlated with the mean values over 24 hours irrespective of the type of anti-diabetic treatment being given. Postprandial blood glucose concentrations remaine...

  19. Development of a glucose sensor for diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wientjes, Klaas Jan Cornelis,

    2000-01-01

    his thesis describes the development of a glucose measurement system designed to monitor the glucose concentration of diabetic patients continuously. Diabetes Mellitus is a disorder of metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein associated with a relative or absolute insufficiency of insulin and protein associated with a relative or absolute insufficiency of inslun secretion and with various degrees of insulin resistance. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has estimated that diabetes affects...

  20. Glucose Sensing Neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa H. Routh

    2010-01-01

    Neurons whose activity is regulated by glucose are found in a number of brain regions. Glucose-excited (GE) neurons increase while glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons decrease their action potential frequency as interstitial brain glucose levels increase. We hypothesize that these neurons evolved to sense and respond to severe energy deficit (e.g., fasting) that threatens the brains glucose supply. During modern times, they are also important for the restoration of blood glucose levels following i...

  1. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on t...

  2. Glucose-stat, a glucose-controlled continuous culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J.J.; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-01-01

    A predictive and feedback proportional control algorithm, developed for fed-batch fermentations and described in a companion paper (G. L. Kleman, J. J. Chalmers, G. W. Luli, and W. R. Strohl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:910-917, 1991), was used in this work to control a continuous culture on the basis of the soluble-glucose concentration (called the glucose-stat). This glucose-controlled continuous-culture system was found to reach and maintain steady state for 11 to 24 residence times when ...

  3. The exoplanets analogy to the Multiverse

    OpenAIRE

    Kinouchi, Osame

    2015-01-01

    The idea of a Mutiverse is controversial, although it is a natural possible solution to particle physics and cosmological fine-tuning problems (FTPs). Here I explore the analogy between the Multiverse proposal and the proposal that there exist an infinite number of stellar systems with planets in a flat Universe, the Multiplanetverse. Although the measure problem is present in this scenario, the idea of a Multiplanetverse has predictive power, even in the absence of direct e...

  4. Abnormalities of glucose metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.M.F.B., Gouveia; I.C., Kettelhut; M.C., Foss.

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in glucose metabolism and insulin action are frequently detected in patients with essential hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have been used as an experimental model to understand this pathological condition. The objective of the present study was to assess glucose me [...] tabolism and insulin action in SHR and Wistar rats under fed and fasting conditions. Peripheral glucose utilization was estimated by kinetic studies with [6-³H]-glucose and gluconeogenetic activity was measured during continuous [14C]-bicarbonate infusion. Plasma glucose levels were higher in the SHR group. Plasma insulin levels in the fed state were higher in the SHR group (99.8 ± 6.5 µM) than in the control group (70.4 ± 3.6 µM). Muscle glycogen content was reduced in SHR compared to control under the various experimental conditions. Peripheral glucose utilization was slightly lower in the SHR group in the fed state (8.72 ± 0.55 vs 9.52 ± 0.80 mg kg-1 min-1 in controls). Serum free fatty acid levels, hepatic glycogen levels, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and gluconeogenetic activity were similar in the two groups. The presence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and the slightly reduced peripheral glucose utilization suggest the presence of resistance to the action of insulin in peripheral tissues of SHR. Hepatic gluconeogenesis does not seem to contribute to the metabolic alterations detected in these animals.

  5. Capillary versus venous bedside blood glucose estimations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, R; Leigh, B; Stuart, P. (Pamela)

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the mean difference and correlation between capillary and venous bedside glucose estimation in comparison to laboratory blood glucose analysis in emergency department (ED) patients.

  6. Project for a codable central unit for analog data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumentation for a 256 channel codable central processor intended for an operation in connection with a computer is presented. The computer indicates the adresses of the channels to be measured, orders the conversion, and acquires the results of measurements. The acquisition and computer coupling unit is located in a standard rock CAMAC (6 U 19inch., 25 positions); an example of configuration is given. The measurement velocity depends on the converter speed and dead time of analog circuits; for a ADC 1103 converter the total dead time is 6.5s min. The analog circuits are intended for +-10V range, the accuracy is 1/2n (2n is the number of bits). The result is acquired in words of 12 bits maximum. The information transfer and analog commutation (through integrated analog gates) are discussed

  7. Degree of abnormality is associated with rate of change in measures of beta-amyloid, glucose metabolism and cognition in an autopsy-verified Alzheimer's disease case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almkvist, Ove; Kadir, Ahmadul; Nordberg, Agneta

    2015-12-01

    The degree of abnormality and rate of change in cognitive functions, positron emission tomography Pittsburg compound B (PET PIB), and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measures were studied for 8 years in an autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient, who died 61 years old (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score 7). At first encounter with medical care, the patient was very mildly demented (MMSE score 27). She had four cognitive assessments and two examinations with PET PIB and FDG in 23 bilateral brain regions. The onset of cognitive decline was retrospectively estimated to have started in the early forties. The degree of impairment was inversely related to the rate of decline. A similar relationship was seen between the rate of change and the level of abnormality in both PIB and FDG. To conclude, rate of change in cognition, PIB, and FDG was associated with the degree of abnormality. PMID:25494540

  8. Data assimilation of glucose dynamics for use in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedigh-Sarvestani, Madineh; Albers, David J; Gluckman, Bruce J

    2012-01-01

    We know much about the glucose regulatory system, yet the application of this knowledge is limited because simultaneous measurements of insulin and glucose are difficult to obtain. We present a data assimilation framework for combining sparse measurements of the glucose regulatory system, available in the intensive care unit setting, with a nonlinear computational model to estimate unmeasured variables and unknown parameters. We also demonstrate a method for choosing the best variables for measurement. We anticipate that this framework will improve glucose maintenance therapies and shed light on the underlying biophysical process. PMID:23367159

  9. Fasting tests of insulin secretion and sensitivity predict future prediabetes in Japanese with normal glucose tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Onishi, Yukiko; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Ogihara, Takehide; Kuzuya, Nobuaki; Anai, Motonobu; Tsukuda, Katsunori; Boyko, Edward J; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y.; Kikuchi, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Aims/Introduction:? Reduced insulin sensitivity and secretion are important in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Their relationships to prediabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) have been previously studied with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We investigated whether or not baseline measures of insulin secretion and sensitivity obtained from fasting blood specimens were related to the development of prediabetes and how these measures compared ...

  10. Glucose metabolism of lactobacillus divergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compile an optimal growth and selective medium for Lactobacillus divergens and to determine the pathway by which it metabolised glucose. The optimum growth temperature is 25oC which is lower than that of most other lactobacilli. Citrate stimulates growth up to a concentration of 1% while acetate inhibits the organism at neutral pH, but it stimulates growth at pH 8.5 up to a concentration of 0.8%. MRS medium was therefore modified in order to obtain maximum growth of the organism. The acetate was omitted, sucrose was substituted for glucose and the pH was adjusted to 8.5. Sucrose was used, since a neutral pH is obtained after sterilisation of glucose in alkaline (pH ? 7.5) solution due to the degradation of glucose by the Maillard reaction. Various inhibitors and dyes were tested in order to formulate a selective medium. In the present study differently labelled glucose precursors were fermented by L. divergens and the fermentation products isolated by HPLC. The concentrations of acetate and formate were determined by comparison to a standard while the concentration of lactate and glucose was determined by enzymic assay. The radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and the positional labelling in lactate and acetate by chemical degradation. Fermentation of D-[U-14C]-glucose was included to correct for endogenous product dilution

  11. An optimized analog to digital converter for WLAN analog front end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10 bit 80 MSPS analog to digital converter optimized for WLAN analog front end is presented. In contrast to conventional 1.5 bit pipeline architecture, four optimized multi-bit multiply digital to analog converter stages are implemented. An on-chip low-noise reference buffer is proposed for SoC integration purposes, and a wide-bandwidth wide swing sample and hold amplifier is also presented for achieving a good dynamic range. The converter was fabricated in 0.18 ?m 1P6M CMOS technology, and the core area occupies approximately 0.85 mm2. Measured results show that with an 11 MHz input signal, it provides a 9.4 bit effective number of bits and a 72 dBc spurious frequency dynamic range when sampled at 80 MHz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Richa; Hivert, Marie-France

    2010-01-01

    Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2-h glucose level (rs10423928, beta (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 x 10(-15)). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased insulin secretion (n = 22,492; insulinogenic index, P = 1.0 x 10(-17); ratio of insulin to glucose area under the curve, P = 1.3 x 10(-16)) and diminished incretin effect (n = 804; P = 4.3 x 10(-4)). We also identified variants at ADCY5 (rs2877716, P = 4.2 x 10(-16)), VPS13C (rs17271305, P = 4.1 x 10(-8)), GCKR (rs1260326, P = 7.1 x 10(-11)) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, P = 4.2 x 10(-10)) associated with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15, P = 4.8 x 10(-18)).

  13. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  14. Dysregulated hepatic expression of glucose transporters in chronic disease: contribution of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase to hepatic glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Sumera; Liaskou, Evaggelia; Fear, Janine; Garg, Abhilok; Reynolds, Gary; Claridge, Lee; Adams, David H; Newsome, Philip N; Lalor, Patricia F

    2014-12-15

    Insulin resistance is common in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Serum levels of soluble vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) are also increased in these patients. The amine oxidase activity of VAP-1 stimulates glucose uptake via translocation of transporters to the cell membrane in adipocytes and smooth muscle cells. We aimed to document human hepatocellular expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and to determine if VAP-1 activity influences receptor expression and hepatic glucose uptake. Quantitative PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to study human liver tissue and cultured cells. We also used tissue slices from humans and VAP-1-deficient mice to assay glucose uptake and measure hepatocellular responses to stimulation. We report upregulation of GLUT1, -3, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9, -10, -11, -12, and -13 in CLD. VAP-1 expression and enzyme activity increased in disease, and provision of substrate to hepatic VAP-1 drives hepatic glucose uptake. This effect was sensitive to inhibition of VAP-1 and could be recapitulated by H2O2. VAP-1 activity also altered expression and subcellular localization of GLUT2, -4, -9, -10, and -13. Therefore, we show, for the first time, alterations in hepatocellular expression of glucose and fructose transporters in CLD and provide evidence that the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity of VAP-1 modifies hepatic glucose homeostasis and may contribute to patterns of GLUT expression in chronic disease. PMID:25342050

  15. Sex differences in glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to examine whether sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-OGTT plasma glucose (2hPG) and HbA(1c) could be explained by differences in body size and/or body composition between men and women in a general non-diabetic Danish population. Moreover, we aimed to study to what degree the newly suggested high-risk HbA(1c) criteria overlapped with the current OGTT-based criteria of glucose intolerance. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 6,006 non-diabe...

  16. Analog Systems for Gravity Duals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2014-01-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog ...

  17. Analog systems for gravity duals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore suggests a duality between different condensed matter systems.

  18. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease with or without dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of positron emission tomography, the cerebral glucose metabolism in 5 patients with Parkinson's disease with dementia was compared with that in 9 patients without dementia, and that in 5 normal volunteers. The metabolic rates for glucose were measured by placing one hundred regions of interest. In the demented patients, cerebral glucose metabolism was diffusely decreased compared with that of the non-demented patients and the normal controls. The most significant decrease in glucose metabolism was observed in the angular gyrus (49.7% of the normal controls). The glucose metabolism in the cingulate, pre- and postcentral, occipital and subcortical regions was relatively spared (62.1 to 85.5% of the normal controls). In the patients without dementia, the glucose metabolism in each region was not significantly different from that in the normal controls. These results suggest that diffuse glucose hypometabolism in the cerebral cortex may correlate with that of patients with Parkinson's disease with dementia. (author)

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GLUCOMETER AND LABORATORY GLUCOSE OXIDASE METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS IN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Hypoglycemia is one of the most common metabolic problems encountered in neonates. Hypoglycemia in neonates can be symptomatic and asymptomatic. Hypoglycemia is known to be associated with brain dysfunction and neuromotor developmental retardation. The gl ucose oxidase method used in the laboratory for determining the blood glucose concentration is precise and specific for glucose. As it is usually performed in the main laboratory, the results are not available quickly enough for timely appropriate manageme nt. The glucometers are often used for blood glucose estimation in NICU. Many studies have shown that their results co - relate well with the laboratory measured glucose levels in the normoglycemic and hyperglycemic range but are not satisfactory in the lowe r range. OBJECTIVES: This is a prospective study done to determine the efficacy of glucometer in estimation of blood glucose levels in neonates in comparison with the laboratory values. METHOD S : 250 neonates admitted in NICU, KIMS hospital, Bangalore with varied symptomatology were enrolled in this study. Blood glucose estimation was done by glucometer and laboratory method using the same venous sample at the time of admission. For the last 50 cases glucometer estimation of capillary blood was also done. St atistical analysis was done by using Pearson correlation. Hypoglycemia was defined as blood glucose level 45mg%[0.756] and when the value is <45mg%, there is just a moderate correlation[0.417] . Though the pick - up rate of hypoglycemia by venous blood glucometer [28%] was slightly better compared to the capillary blood glucometer value [22%] , the overa ll pick - up rate of hypoglycemia by glucometer is very low compared to the laboratory method [56%]. CONCLUSION : The glucometer as a sole measuring device to screen neonatal hypoglycemia is not satisfactory and confirmation with the laboratory measurements o f plasma glucose is still of up most importance.

  20. Labelled antibody assays for measuring free triiodothyronine: evaluation and comparison with a labelled analog method. Dosages de la triiodothyronine libre utilisant un anticorps marque: evaluation et comparaison a un dosage avec traceur analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapin, R.; Gasser, F.; Schlienger, J.L.; Chambron, J. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France))

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated analytically and clinically two new one-step labelled antibody assays for measuring free triiodothyronine (FT3): the first, radiolabelled with [sup 125] I, Amerlex-MAB (MAB) from Kodak diagnostic, and the second, labelled with peroxidase, Enzymum-test FT3 (BM) from Boehringer Mannheim adapted for the Boehringer ES 600 analyzer. The clinical results were compared with those obtained with a radiolabelled analog tracer kit, Amerlex-M (M) from Kodak diagnostic. The latter kit is known to give low FT3 results in sera with low albumin concentrations. Analytical performances of the automated method (BM) were better than those obtained with the manual method (MAB): intra-assay reproducibility (CV<3% vs CV about 5%), inter-assay reproducibility (CV<4% vs CV between 4 and 8%) and mean drift (+1.25% vs -4.3%). The detection limit was low for both kits (<1 pmol/l). In the euthyroid reference group (n = 98) we observed a significant difference between outpatient and hospitalized patient FT3 concentrations as measured with the M kit only. Clinical sensitivity for hyperthyroidism (n = 38) was better for the MAB (92%) than for the BM kit (76%). Specificity in euthyroid L-thyroxine (T4) treated patients (n = 26) was good for both kits (MAB: 92%; BM: 88%) . Hypoalbuminemia (n = 8) decreased FT3 results as follows: M, very significantly; BM, significantly; MAB, only slightly. In patients treated with amiodarone (n = 5), a drug known to lower the metabolic conversion of T4 to T3, the increase of the MAB FT3 results contrasted with the decrease of the BM and M results. In conclusion, results of the two new kits were not strongly influenced by hypoalbuminemia. The MAB results showing lack of decrease in patients with non-thyroidal illness without hypoalbuminemia and in amiodarone-treated patients were unexpected.

  1. Heterotrophic utilization of acetate and glucose in Swartvlei, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of dissolved organic compounds in Swartvlei was measured by the addition of single concentrations of 14C-labelled acetate and glucose to water samples. The results indicated acetate uptake was greatest in the aerobic zone while glucose was predominantly utilized in the anaerobic zone. With the exception of two months, integral glucose uptake was usually greater than the uptake of acetate. In August and September 1971 acetate was indicated as being utilized predominantly by flagellates and in December 1971 by dinoflagellates. During the remainder of the study, bacteria were assumed to be responsible for the uptake of acetate. The extensive weed beds which surround the upper reaches of Swartvlei may be a major source of acetate and glucose in the pelagic water column

  2. Hybrid CARS for Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Pestov, Dmitry; Zhang, Aihua; Murawski, Robert; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Laane, Jaan; Scully, Marlan

    2007-10-01

    We develop a spectroscopy technique that combines the advantages of both the frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and the time-resolved CARS. We use broadband preparation pulses to get an instantaneous coherent excitation of multiplex molecular vibration levels and subsequent optically shaped time-delayed narrowband probing pulse to detect these vibrations. This technique can suppress the nonresonant background and retrieve the molecular fingerprint signal efficiently and rapidly. We employ this technique to glucose detection, the final goal of which is accurate, non-invasive (i.e. painless) and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration in the Diabetes diagnosis to replace the current glucose measurement process, which requires painful fingerpricks and therefore cannot be performed more than a few times a day. We have gotten the CARS spectra of glucose aqueous solution down to 2 mM.

  3. Prediction methods for blood glucose concentration design, use and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, John; Renard, Eric; Re, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    This book tackles the problem of overshoot and undershoot in blood glucose levels caused by delay in the effects of carbohydrate consumption and insulin administration. The ideas presented here will be very important in maintaining the welfare of insulin-dependent diabetics and avoiding the damaging effects of unpredicted swings in blood glucose – accurate prediction enables the implementation of counter-measures. The glucose prediction algorithms described are also a key and critical ingredient of automated insulin delivery systems, the so-called “artificial pancreas”. The authors address the topic of blood-glucose prediction from medical, scientific and technological points of view. Simulation studies are utilized for complementary analysis but the primary focus of this book is on real applications, using clinical data from diabetic subjects. The text details the current state of the art by surveying prediction algorithms, and then moves beyond it with the most recent advances in data-based modeling o...

  4. Towards a Wearable Non-invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every day, about 150 Million people worldwide face the problem of diabetic metabolic control. Both the hypo- and hyper- glycaemic conditions of patients have fatal consequences and warrant blood glucose monitoring at regular interval. Existing blood glucose monitors can be widely classified into three classes viz., invasive, minimally invasive, and noninvasive. Invasive monitoring requires small volume of blood and are inappropriate for continuous monitoring of blood glucose. Minimally invasive monitors analyze tissue fluid or extract few micro litre of blood only. Also the skin injury is minimal. On the other hand, noninvasive devices are painless and void of any skin injury. We use an indigenously developed polarization sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography to measure the blood glucose levels. Current trends and recent results with the device are discussed.

  5. 'We want analog signals'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes several transducers based on nuclear radiation, ranging from simple level detection to on-line measurement of flow and water content of wood shavings on a conveyor belt. (J.H.H.)

  6. Sleep duration and sleep quality are associated differently with alterations of glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims? Studies suggest that inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality increase the risk of impaired glucose regulation and diabetes. However, associations with specific markers of glucose homeostasis are less well explained. The objective of this study was to explore possible associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and glucose tolerance status in a healthy population-based study sample. Methods? The study comprised 771 participants from the Danish, population-based cross-sectional ‘Health2008’ study. Sleep duration and sleep quality were measured by self-report. Markers of glucose homeostasis were derived from a 3-point oral glucose tolerance test and included fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, HbA1c, two measures of insulin sensitivity (the insulin sensitivity index0,120 and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity), the homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function and glucose tolerance status. Associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and tolerance were analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression. Results? A 1-h increment in sleep duration was associated with a 0.3 mmol/mol (0.3%) decrement in HbA1c and a 25% reduction in the risk of having impaired glucose regulation. Further, a 1-point increment in sleep quality was associated with a 2% increase in both the insulin sensitivity index0,120 and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity, as well as a 1% decrease in homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function. Conclusions? In the present study, shorter sleep duration was mainly associated with later alterations in glucose homeostasis, whereas poorer sleep quality was mainly associated with earlier alterations in glucose homeostasis. Thus, adopting healthy sleep habits may benefit glucose metabolism in healthy populations.

  7. Is Reality Digital or Analog?

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, Jarmo

    2011-01-01

    Comment: This essay, written in a form of a fictitious dialogue with Isaac Newton, received the First Prize in the Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi) essay contest "Is Reality Digital or Analog?"

  8. Analysis: New Point-of-Care Blood Glucose Monitoring System for the Hospital Demonstrates Satisfactory Analytical Accuracy Using Blood from Critically Ill Patients—An Important Step toward Improved Blood Glucose Control in the Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jefrey I

    2013-01-01

    Patients managed in the intensive care units (ICUs) and general wards of the hospital experience a high incidence of hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability, despite significant hospital resources devoted to glucose control. Optimized glucose meters and monitoring systems are required to improve the safety and efficacy of insulin delivery and glucose control in the hospital. Safe insulin dosing requires timely and accurate glucose measurements, especially during dynamic changes ...

  9. HAPS, a Handy Analog Programming System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØjberg, Kristian SØe

    1975-01-01

    HAPS (Hybrid Analog Programming System) is an analog compiler that can be run on a minicomputer in an interactive mode. Essentially HAPS is written in FORTRAN. The equations to be programmed for an ana log computer are read in by using a FORTRAN-like notation. The input must contain maximum and minimum values for the variables. The output file includes potentiometer coefficients and static-test 'measuring values.' The file format is fitted to an automatic potentiometer-setting and static-test program. Patch instructions are printed by HAPS. The article describes the principles of HAPS and emphasizes the limitations HAPS puts on equation structure, types of computing circuit, scaling, and static testing.

  10. Learning Plate Tectonics Using a Pre-Analogy Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, G. B.; Sandoval, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that children tend to demonstrate lower performance on analogical reasoning tasks at a causal relations level compared to most adults (Gentner & Toupin, 1986). This tendency is an obstacle that geoscience educators must overcome because of the high frequency of analogies used in geoscience pedagogy. In particular, analog models are used to convey complex systems of non-everyday/non-observable events found in nature, such as plate tectonics. Key factors in successful analogical reasoning that have been suggested by researchers include knowledge of the causal relations in the base analog (Brown & Kane, 1988; Gentner, 1988; Gentner & Toupin, 1986), and development of learning strategies and metaconceptual competence(Brown & Kane, 1988). External factors, such as guiding cues and hints have been useful cognitive supports that help students reason through analogical problems (Gick & Holyoak, 1980). Cognitive supports have been seen by researchers to decrease processing demands on retrieval and working memory (Richland, Zur, & Holyoak, 2007). We observed third and fourth graders learning about plate tectonics beginning with a pre-analogy step-a cognitive support activity a student can do before working with an analogy to understand the target. This activity was designed to aid students in developing their understanding of object attributes and relations within an analog model so that more focus can be placed on mapping the corresponding higher-order relations between the base and target. Students learned targeted concepts of plate tectonics, as measured by pre to post gains on items adapted from the Geosciences Concept Inventory. Analyses of classroom interaction showed that students used the object attributes and higher-order relations highlighted in the pre-analogy activity as resources to reason about plate boundaries and plate movement during earthquakes.

  11. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation of infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study ...

  12. Estimation of gluconeogenesis and glucose utilization in carbohydate deficient growing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbohydrate deficient diet based on food grade oleic acid and soybean oil and a minimally adequate level of casein protein was supplemented with graded levels of glucose (0, 4, 10, 65%), and casein protein (12% basal level plus 4, 6, 20%). Weanling rats were fed the respective diets for 28 days. Under anesthesia in fed state, the right jugular vein and left carotid artery were cannulated. NaH14CO3 and 3H-glucose labelled on C6 were injected into aorta via carotid and blood samples taken from vena cava via jugular over a period of 30 minutes. Rate of increase of blood 14C-glucose was the indicator of gluconeogenesis (GLNG). Disappearance of blood 3H-glucose was the measure of glucose flux. Relative rate of GLNG was very high in basal unsupplemented rats, and glucose flux was very low. Rats growing rapidly with minimum supplementation (4% glucose or 6% casein) showed the lowest relative rate of GLNG and maximum glucose flux, of the order of 10 mg min-1 kg-1. GLNG increased with higher levels of glucose and casein, but flux did not increase. The fed state glucose flux extrapolated to 24 hour basis was approximately 2X greater than the dietary intake of glucose and its equivalent of glucogenic precursors in rats fed the basal diet and low levels of supplements. Adjustment for lower flux in post absorptive state, based on flux in fasted rats, reduced the differences between observed flux and intake

  13. An ozone budget for the UK: using measurements from the national ozone monitoring network; measured and modelled meteorological data, and a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy model of dry deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, M.; Smith, R.; Fowler, D

    2003-05-01

    A method of calculating a mass budget for O{sub 3} in the UK boundary layer is presented which shows that the spatial scale of the UK is small relative to the footprint of the atmosphere influenced by UK emissions. - Data from the UK national air-quality monitoring network are used to calculate an annual mass budget for ozone (O{sub 3}) production and loss in the UK boundary layer during 1996. Monthly losses by dry deposition are quantified from 1 kmx1 km scale maps of O{sub 3} concentration and O{sub 3} deposition velocities based on a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy. The quantity of O{sub 3} deposition varies from {approx}50 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1} in the winter to over 200 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1} in the summer when vegetation is actively absorbing O{sub 3}. The net O{sub 3} production or loss in the UK boundary layer is found by selecting days when the UK is receiving 'clean' Atlantic air from the SW to NW. In these conditions, the difference in O{sub 3} concentration observed at Mace Head and a rural site on the east coast of the UK indicates the net O{sub 3} production or loss within the UK boundary layer. A simple box model is then used to convert the concentration difference into a mass. The final budget shows that for most of the year the UK is a net sink for O{sub 3} (-25 to -800 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1}) with production only exceeding losses in the photochemically active summer months (+45 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1})

  14. An ozone budget for the UK: using measurements from the national ozone monitoring network; measured and modelled meteorological data, and a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy model of dry deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of calculating a mass budget for O3 in the UK boundary layer is presented which shows that the spatial scale of the UK is small relative to the footprint of the atmosphere influenced by UK emissions. - Data from the UK national air-quality monitoring network are used to calculate an annual mass budget for ozone (O3) production and loss in the UK boundary layer during 1996. Monthly losses by dry deposition are quantified from 1 kmx1 km scale maps of O3 concentration and O3 deposition velocities based on a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy. The quantity of O3 deposition varies from ?50 Gg-O3 month-1 in the winter to over 200 Gg-O3 month-1 in the summer when vegetation is actively absorbing O3. The net O3 production or loss in the UK boundary layer is found by selecting days when the UK is receiving 'clean' Atlantic air from the SW to NW. In these conditions, the difference in O3 concentration observed at Mace Head and a rural site on the east coast of the UK indicates the net O3 production or loss within the UK boundary layer. A simple box model is then used to convert the concentration difference into a mass. The final budget shows that for most of the year the UK is a net sink for O3 (-25 to -800 Gg-O3 month-1) with production only exceeding losses in the photochemically active summer months (+45 Gg-O3 month-1)

  15. Construction of a Glucose Biosensor by Immobilizing Glucose Oxidase within a Poly(o-phenylenediamine Covered Screen-printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yuqing

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The glucose biosensors were prepared by the electropolymerization of the non-conductive polymer, Poly(o-phenylenediamine, onto a planar screen-printed electrode. A fabrication procedure was performed to decrease the waste of expensive enzyme. The amperometric glucose response was measured by the potensiostating of the prepared glucose biosensors at a potential of 0.3 V with ferrocene as mediator. Results show that the obtained biosensors have a linear range up to 25 mM glucose, fast response time (100s and high sensitivities (16.6 nA/mM. Also, the effects of applied potential and sweeping number of Cyclic voltammograms for electropolymerization were systematically investigated and optimal values were recorded.

  16. Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery Reverses Insulin-Induced Increases in Brain Glucose Metabolism of the Morbidly Obese

    OpenAIRE

    Tuulari, Jetro J.; Karlsson, Henry K.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Bucci, Marco; Helmiö, Mika; Ovaska, Jari; Soinio, Minna; Salminen, Paulina; Savisto, Nina; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with altered brain glucose metabolism. Here, we studied brain glucose metabolism in 22 morbidly obese patients before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Seven healthy subjects served as control subjects. Brain glucose metabolism was measured twice per imaging session: with and without insulin stimulation (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose scanning. We found that during fasting, brain glucose metabolism was not dif...

  17. Screening for hypoglycemia at the bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with the Abbott PCx glucose meter

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaila Afisi; Grey Vijaylaxmi; Balion Cynthia; Blatz Susan; Seidlitz Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Point of care (POC) glucose meters are routinely used as a screening tool for hypoglycemia in a neonatal setting. Glucose meters however, lack the same accuracy as laboratory instruments for glucose measurement. In this study we investigated potential reasons for this inaccuracy and established a cut off value for confirmatory testing. Methods In this prospective study, all patients in the neonatal intensive care unit who had a plasma glucose test ordered were eligible to ...

  18. Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... la Diabetes Sign Up forJoslin Newsletters Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous? Low blood glucose or hypoglycemia is one of the most common ... pills. In general, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dl. Low blood glucose ...

  19. Cyclic Correlation of Diffuse Reflected Signal with Glucose Concentration and scatterer size

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Jitendra; Andrews, Joseph Thomas; Thareja, Kamal Kishore; 10.4236/jmp.2012.31009

    2012-01-01

    The utility of optical coherence tomography signal intensity for measurement of glucose concentration has been analysed in tissue phantom and blood samples from human subjects. The diffusion equation based calculations as well as in-vivo OCT signal measurements confirms the cyclic correlation of signal intensity with glucose concentration and scatterer size.

  20. Regulation of glycolysis and sugar phosphotransferase activities in Streptococcus lactis: growth in the presence of 2-deoxy-D-glucose.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, J.; Chassy, B M

    1983-01-01

    Streptococcus lactis K1 has the capacity to grow on many sugars, including sucrose and lactose, in the presence of high levels (greater than 500 mM) of 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Initially, growth of the organism was transiently halted by the addition of comparatively low concentrations (less than 0.5 mM) of the glucose analog to the culture. Inhibition was coincident with (i) rapid accumulation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate (ca. 120 mM) and preferential utilization of phosphoenolpyruvate via the ...

  1. Glucose-fructose likely improves gastrointestinal comfort and endurance running performance relative to glucose-only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P B; Ingraham, S J

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether glucose-fructose (GF) ingestion, relative to glucose-only, would alter performance, metabolism, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and psychological affect during prolonged running. On two occasions, 20 runners (14 men) completed a 120-min submaximal run followed by a 4-mile time trial (TT). Participants consumed glucose-only (G) or GF (1.2:1 ratio) beverages, which supplied ??1.3?g/min of carbohydrate. Substrate use, blood lactate, psychological affect [Feeling Scale (FS)], and GI distress were measured. Differences between conditions were assessed using magnitude-based inferential statistics. Participants completed the TT 1.9% (-1.9; -4.2, 0.4) faster with GF, representing a likely benefit. FS ratings were possibly higher and GI symptoms were possibly-to-likely lower with GF during the submaximal period and TT. Effect sizes for GI distress and FS ratings were relatively small (Cohen's d?=??0.2 to 0.4). GF resulted in possibly higher fat oxidation during the submaximal period. No clear differences in lactate were observed. In conclusion, GF ingestion - compared with glucose-only - likely improves TT performance after 2?h of submaximal running, and GI distress and psychological affect are likely mechanisms. These results apply to runners consuming fluid at 500-600?mL/h and carbohydrate at 1.0-1.3?g/min during running at 60-70% VO2peak . PMID:25556817

  2. A classical analog for the electron spin state

    OpenAIRE

    Wharton, K. B.; Linck, R. A.; Salazar-Lazaro, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Despite conventional wisdom that spin-1/2 systems have no classical analog, we introduce a set of classical coupled oscillators with solutions that exactly map onto the dynamics of an unmeasured electron spin state in an arbitrary, time-varying, magnetic field. While not addressing the quantum measurement problem (discrete outcomes and their associated probabilities), this new classical analog yields a classical, physical interpretation of Zeeman splitting, geometric phase, ...

  3. Analog approach to mixed analog-digital circuit simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodzki, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Logic simulation of digital circuits is a well explored research area. Most up-to-date CAD tools for digital circuits simulation use an event driven, selective trace algorithm and Hardware Description Languages (HDL), e.g. the VHDL. This techniques enable simulation of mixed circuits, as well, where an analog part is connected to the digital one through D/A and A/D converters. The event-driven mixed simulation applies a unified, digital-circuits dedicated method to both digital and analog subsystems. In recent years HDL techniques have been also applied to mixed domains, as e.g. in the VHDL-AMS. This paper presents an approach dual to the event-driven one, where an analog part together with a digital one and with converters is treated as the analog subsystem and is simulated by means of circuit simulation techniques. In our problem an analog solver used yields some numerical problems caused by nonlinearities of digital elements. Efficient methods for overriding these difficulties have been proposed.

  4. Elevating blood glucose level increases the retention of information from a public safety video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Neil

    2008-05-01

    Seventy-two undergraduates, 41 female and 31 male, aged 19-38, who had eaten breakfast had their blood glucose levels measured at 10.00 a.m. Following this they watched a presentation on safety when living away from home and had their recall of this material tested. Then half the participants imbibed a drink containing 50 g of glucose while the other participants imbibed a drink containing saccharine. A 20 min lecture followed to allow absorption and then blood glucose level was again measured and a second safety presentation was followed by another memory test. The two groups did not differ in initial blood glucose levels but only the group drinking the glucose drink had significantly elevated blood glucose at second test. The two groups did not differ in memory recall at the first test but the glucose drink group recalled approximately 20% more material after the drink. Analysis of covariance on the memory data with post-drink blood glucose level as a covariate attenuated the glucose effect suggesting that there is a relationship between glucose level and memory performance on this task. It is concluded that, although the precise mechanism by which enhanced memory performance occurs cannot be elucidated by these data, the results have practical significance for education. It is suggested that breakfast consisting of low glycaemic index foods may aid in challenging learning situations. PMID:18406040

  5. Enhancing students' science text learning and motivation through analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy Lewis

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role that analogies can play in enhancing middle-school students' learning of science text and their motivation to learn it. The students were 73 sixth graders and 85 eighth graders from a rural public school in the southeastern United States. It was hypothesized that the use of constructivist learning methods which involve analogies, particularly analogies enhanced by students' written elaborations or students' drawings, would improve students' text learning and their motivation to learn. Text learning was measured by conceptual understanding, recall, and recognition. Motivation to learn was measured by self-reported activity flow experience. Data were examined through univariate analyses of covariance, content analysis, and Pearson correlations for both immediate and delayed measures. The results indicated that the sixth graders in the analogy condition had significantly higher recall than the sixth graders in the control condition. Based on prior text reading experiences, the sixth graders reported higher levels of flow than the eighth graders. The sixth graders and eighth graders reported equivalent levels of flow in the analogy and control conditions immediately after the actual text study. In the other conditions, where the students were asked to elaborate or draw, the sixth graders reported lower levels of flow suggesting that elaborating and drawing perhaps taxed their limited abilities. Future research should provide higher levels of scaffolding and techniques to encourage the most effective use of written elaboration and drawing when using analogies to learn from science text.

  6. A mathematical model of brain glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura Hidenori; Gaohua Lu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The physiological fact that a stable level of brain glucose is more important than that of blood glucose suggests that the ultimate goal of the glucose-insulin-glucagon (GIG) regulatory system may be homeostasis of glucose concentration in the brain rather than in the circulation. Methods In order to demonstrate the relationship between brain glucose homeostasis and blood hyperglycemia in diabetes, a brain-oriented mathematical model was developed by considering the brain ...

  7. Regulation of glycolytic rate in Streptococcus sanguis grown under glucose-limited and glucose-excess conditions in a chemostat.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwami, Y; T. Yamada

    1985-01-01

    The biochemical mechanisms of the acidogenic potential of Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556 grown in glucose-excess and glucose-limited continuous culture were studied. The rate of acid production during the glucose metabolism by the cells grown under glucose limitation (glucose-limited cells) was 2.1 to 2.6 times that by the cells grown in an excess of glucose (glucose-excess cells). When the glucose-limited cells were metabolizing glucose, intracellular concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate,...

  8. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Hanus, Michael D

    2014-04-29

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

  9. Glucose effectiveness in nondiabetic relatives : dysglycemia and ?-cell function at 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, M B; Henriksen, J-E

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Reduced glucose effectiveness is a predictor of future glucose tolerance in individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes. We examined retrospectively at 10 years in normoglycemic relatives of diabetic subjects (RELs) the pathophysiological role of glucose effectiveness in the development of isolated impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and acute insulin release. METHODS: At 0 years, 19 RELs and 18 matched control subjects had glucose effectiveness (GE), insulin sensitivity, acute insulin release (AIR)IVGTT, and disposition index measured during an iv glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), using the minimal model analysis. At 0 and 10 years, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and AIROGTT were determined. RESULTS: At 0 years, fasting glucose (FG) and GE were raised in RELs, but insulin sensitivity and AIROGTT were reduced (P ? .05) compared with controls. At 10 years, RELs developed raised fasting and 2-hour OGTT glucose. FG10y correlated significantly with FG0y and body mass index0y and negatively with ?GE and 2-hour OGTT glucose10y with FG0y and negatively with AIRIVGTT0y and AIROGTT0y. Log AIROGTT10y correlated with ?GE, log AIRIVGTT0y and log AIROGTT0y. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated the following: REL FG10y was predicted by combined FG0y, ?GE and body mass index0y (radj(2) = 56%; P ? .001) and 2-hour OGTT glucose10y weakly related by FG0y,and ?GE (r(adj)(2) = 25%; P = .06). Log AIROGTT10y was predicted by AIRIVGTT0y and ?GE (r(adj)(2) = 46%; P ? .004). CONCLUSION: In normoglycemic RELs, a relative reduction of glucose effectiveness is an important contributor over 10 years to the development of isolated impaired fasting glucose and reduced acute insulin secretion.

  10. LC/MS quantitative study of glucose by iodine attachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogatsky, Eduard [Analytical Core Laboratory, General Clinical Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University (United States)]. E-mail: rogatsky@aecom.yu.edu; Tomuta, Vlad [Analytical Core Laboratory, General Clinical Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University (United States); Stein, Daniel T. [Analytical Core Laboratory, General Clinical Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University (United States)

    2007-05-22

    We explored the potential of iodine attachment to improve the sensitivity of glucose measurement by LC/MS. After sample preparation, glucose was separated by normal phase chromatography, followed by anionization by I{sup -}-attachment prior to MS by post-column addition of a methanolic solution of iodoform. Iodine is capable of forming an anionic adduct with neutral monosaccharides in negative ion mode electrospray mass spectrometry. Quasi-molecular ions [M + I]{sup -} of glucose, and [6,6-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]glucose (abbreviated d{sub 2}-glucose) internal standard were quantitated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Iodine attachment LC/MS analysis provided high sensitivity, superior to GC/MS. It greatly simplified sample preparation and increased throughput. The advantages of iodine attachment can be realized even on old mass spectrometers. A LOD of 50 pg glucose on column was achieved. Due to iodine's predisposition to sublimate, the iodoform concentration must be minimized, which adds complexity to method development. To optimize reagent concentration we developed an efficient and flexible gradient-based delivery platform. Strategy for method development with iodoform is given.

  11. Theory of analogous force on number sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general statistical thermodynamic theory that considers given sequences of x-integers to play the role of particles of known type in an isolated elastic system is proposed. By also considering some explicit discrete probability distributions px for natural numbers, we claim that they lead to a better understanding of probabilistic laws associated with number theory. Sequences of numbers are treated as the size measure of finite sets. By considering px to describe complex phenomena, the theory leads to derive a distinct analogous force fx on number sets proportional to (?px/?x)T at an analogous system temperature T. In particular, this yields to an understanding of the uneven distribution of integers of random sets in terms of analogous scale invariance and a screened inverse square force acting on the significant digits. The theory also allows to establish recursion relations to predict sequences of Fibonacci numbers and to give an answer to the interesting theoretical question of the appearance of the Benford's law in Fibonacci numbers. A possible relevance to prime numbers is also analyzed. (author)

  12. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Decreases Glucose Metabolism but Increases Acetate Uptake in the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora. D.; Kim, Sung Won; WANG, GENE-JACK; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Wong, Christopher; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication results in marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism, which we hypothesized reflect not just its GABAergic enhancing effects but also metabolism of acetate as an alternative brain energy source. To test this hypothesis we separately assessed the effects of alcohol intoxication on brain glucose and acetate metabolism using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We found that alcohol intoxication significantly decreased whole brain glucose metabolism (measured with FDG) wi...

  13. Overnight Control of Blood Glucose in People with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Madsbad, Sten; Skyggebjerg, Ole; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and test a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for overnight stabilization of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The controller uses glucose measurements from a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and its decisions are implemented by a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pump. Based on a priori patient information, we propose a systematic method for computation of the model parameters in the MPC. Safety layers improve the controller robustness and redu...

  14. Heterogeneous Distribution of Microbial Activity in Methanogenic Aggregates: pH and Glucose Microprofiles

    OpenAIRE

    Lens, PNL Piet; Beer, D Dirk de; Cronenberg, CCH Carel; Houwen, FP Frans; Ottengraf, SPP Simon; Verstraete, WH Willy

    1993-01-01

    Methanogenic aggregates, harvested from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating potato starch wastewater, were acclimatized to either glucose or a mixture of sugars and organic nitrogen compounds (i.e., diluted molasses). Both types of granules exhibited internal pH and substrate concentration gradients in mineral medium (pH 7.0, 30°C) as was measured with microelectrodes. Glucose-acclimatized granules suspended in a mineral medium lacking glucose exhibited a distinct internal pH ...

  15. The synthesis of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate from glucose decreases during amino acid starvation of human lymphoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rib-5-P and PP-Rib-P may be produced from glucose via the oxidative and nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway. The autthors attempt to know which of these two pathways provides most of the PP-Rib-P needed for nuceotide synthesis and try to determine the regulation of Rib-5-P synthesis from glucose. The effect of amino acid starvation on the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway was examined by measuring 14CO2 production from (1-14C) glucose

  16. Activation-induced resetting of cerebral oxygen and glucose uptake in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Linde, R; Hasselbalch, S G; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1998-01-01

    In the clinical setting it has been shown that activation will increase cerebral glucose uptake in excess of cerebral oxygen uptake. To study this phenomenon further, this study presents an experimental setup that enables precise determination of the ratio between cerebral uptake of glucose and oxygen in the awake rat. Global CBF was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique, and the ratio between cerebral uptake rates for oxygen, glucose, and lactate was calculated from cerebral arterial-venous di...

  17. Kinetics of Sugar Transport and Phosphorylation Influence Glucose and Fructose Cometabolism by Zymomonas mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, C.; Peekhaus, N; Zhang, X.; Conway, T.

    1997-01-01

    The competitive inhibition of fructokinase by glucose has been proposed as the mechanism by which Zymomonas mobilis preferentially consumes glucose from mixtures of glucose and fructose and accumulates fructose when growing on sucrose. In this study, incorporation of radioactive fructose into biomass was used as a measure of fructose catabolism. It was determined that the rate of fructose incorporation by Z. mobilis CP4 was somewhat lower in the presence of an equimolar concentration of gluco...

  18. Fasting Glucose, Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes, and Depression: The Vietnam Experience Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Catharine R; Kivimaki, Mika; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C; Batty, G. David

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent findings suggest that both low and very high fasting blood glucose concentrations may be linked with depression, though whether type 2 diabetes is associated with depression may depend on awareness of the diagnosis. We explored the association between fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes (undiagnosed and diagnosed) and depression in middle-aged men. Methods: Participants were 4293 US veterans who underwent an examination during which fasting blood glucose was measured, ...

  19. New light upon non-invasive blood glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Shaw, D.; Davies, N.

    2006-02-01

    We at Fibersense and Signals are pleased to report the research and development of novel multiple-wavelength and multi-spectral techniques and devices to distinguish glucose from a comprehensive panel of other spectrally evident and interactive blood components such as: albumin, salts, urea and amino acids. A highly selective, glucose-specific bio-spectroscopic technique has been developed to provide clinically-relevant information regarding glucose concentrations. Furthermore, this work has resulted in novel multi-wavelength technology and techniques for the non-invasive detection and continuous non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels. As a developer of fiber optic, photonic and laser-related products as well as optical test and measurement instrumentation, Fibersense has used an essentially problem-solving approach to address practical issues that have long hindered progress in non-invasive glucose detection and monitoring, and has overcome the limitations of previous techniques. We have fabricated and optimized optical sources for this application, specifically with respect to useful wavelength ranges, transmittance rates, reflectance, absorption and scattering/dispersion. We have also characterized a multi-wavelength combination and procedure to address and screen out the spectral overlapping of glucose and common blood compounds within physiological criteria. Furthermore, attention has been paid to the viable optical launching of effective wavelengths and the ultra-sensitive optical pick up and detection within very tight wavelength margins to generate useful blood glucose information. The culmination of these techniques has been the design and fabrication of miniaturized, non-invasive multi-channel glucose sensors with dynamic self-calibration features for use in in vitro and experimental in vivo applications.

  20. The effect of metformin on glucose homeostasis during moderate exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merethe; PalsØe, Marie K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of metformin on glucose kinetics during moderate exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Before, during, and after a 45-min bout of exercise at 60% VO2max, glucose kinetics were determined by isotope tracer technique in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with metformin treatment (DM2+Met) or without metformin treatment (DM2) and in healthy control subjects (CON) matched for BMI and age. Glucoregulatory hormones and metabolites were measured throughout the study. RESULTS: Plasma glucose concentration was unchanged during exercise in CON but decreased in DM2. No significant change was found in DM2+Met. Hormones and metabolites showed no differences among the groups except for elevated exercise-induced concentrations of lactate in DM2 (area under the curve [AUC] 31 ± 1% vs. CON) and glucagon in DM2 (AUC 5 ± 1% vs. DM2+Met). Free fatty acid levels were lower in DM2+Met than in DM2 (AUC -14 ± 1%). Absolute values of the baseline glucose rate of appearance (Ra) were elevated in DM2 and DM2+Met, but the increase in glucose Ra relative to baseline was blunted in DM2 (19 ± 1%) and DM2+Met (18 ± 4%) compared with CON (46 ± 4%). Glucose rate of disappearance relative to baseline increased more in CON (31 ± 3%) than in DM2 (6 ± 1%) and DM2+Met (21 ± 2%), showing a small increase caused by metformin. Glucose metabolic clearance rate relative to baseline was similar during exercise in DM2 (33 ± 1%) and CON (35 ± 3%) but was improved in DM2+Met (37 ± 3%) compared with DM2. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin has a positive effect on glucose homeostasis during exercise.

  1. Vascular effects of rapid-acting insulin analogs in the diabetic patient: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Fordan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Steve Fordan, Philip RaskinDepartment of Medicine, Division, of Endocrinology, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: The insulin analogs lispro, aspart, and glulisine are the only commercially available rapid-acting insulins to treat diabetes. We review the evidence for treating hyperglycemia, using insulin, and specifically using rapid-acting analogs in diabetic individuals, on the prevention of vascular events. We review the beneficial effects of insulin on the vascular system, which include vasodilation and anti-inflammatory actions. The effects of treating hyperglycemia and intensive blood glucose control on vascular outcomes are reviewed.Keywords: lispro, aspart, glulisine, nitric oxide synthetase, nuclear factor kappa B 

  2. Biomimetic Analogs for Collagen Biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, L.; Kim, Y.K.; Liu, Y.; Ryou, H.; Wimmer, C.E.; Dai, L.; Arola, D.D.; Looney, S.W.; Pashley, D.H.; Tay, F.R.

    2011-01-01

    Inability of chemical phosphorylation of sodium trimetaphosphate to induce intrafibrillar mineralization of type I collagen may be due to the failure to incorporate a biomimetic analog to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphates (ACP) as nanoprecursors. This study investigated adsorption/desorption characteristics of hydrolyzed and pH-adjusted sodium trimetaphosphate (HPA-Na3P3O9) to collagen. Based on those results, a 5-minute treatment time with 2.8 wt% HPA-Na3P3O9 was used in a single-layer reconstituted collagen model to confirm that both the ACP-stabilization analog and matrix phosphoprotein analog must be present for intrafibrillar mineralization. The results of that model were further validated by complete remineralization of phosphoric-acid-etched dentin treated with the matrix phosphoprotein analog and lined with a remineralizing lining composite, and with the ACP-stabilization analog supplied in simulated body fluid. An understanding of the basic processes involved in intrafibrillar mineralization of reconstituted collagen fibrils facilitates the design of novel tissue engineering materials for hard tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:20940362

  3. Analogies of form between chunks in japanese are massive and far from being misleading

    OpenAIRE

    Lepage, Yves; Migeot, Julien; Guillerm, Erwan

    2007-01-01

    This paper relates to the assessment of the argument of the poverty of the stimulus in that we measure the number of true proportional analogies between chunks in a language with case markers, Japanese. On a bicorpus of 20,000 sentences, we show that at least 96% of the analogies of form between chunks are also analogies of meaning, thus reporting the presence of at least two million true analogies between chunks in this corpus. As the number of analogies between chunks grows nearly quadratic...

  4. When to Prove Theorems by Analogy?

    OpenAIRE

    Melis, Erica

    1999-01-01

    In recent years several computational systems and techniques fortheorem proving by analogy have been developed. The obvious prac-tical question, however, as to whether and when to use analogy hasbeen neglected badly in these developments. This paper addresses thisquestion, identifies situations where analogy is useful, and discussesthe merits of theorem proving by analogy in these situations. Theresults can be generalized to other domains.

  5. Portable system for the detection of micromolar concentrations of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose in non-invasively collected biofluids is generally in the micromolar range and thus, requires sensing methodologies capable of measuring glucose at these levels. Here, we present a small fluorometer system that can quantify glucose in the range of 0–5 µM with resolution of ?0.07 µM. It relies on the glucose binding protein (GBP) fluorescently labeled with two fluorophores. Fluorescence signals from the dual-labeled GBP are utilized in a ratiometric mode, making the measurements insensitive to variations in protein concentration and other systematic errors. Fluorescence is quantified by a miniature, dedicated ratiometric fluorometer that is powered via USB. Concentration is calculated using an ultra-mobile personal computer. The whole system is designed to be pocket sized suitable for point-of-care or bedside applications. Test results suggest that the system is a promising tool for accurate measurements of low glucose concentrations (0.1–10 µM) in biological samples. (paper)

  6. Laser diode applications in a continuous blood glucose sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yizhong; Crothall, Katherine D.; Jahn, L. G.; DeStefano, Mark A.

    2003-07-01

    Animas Corporation is developing a long-term (>5 years), implantable optical, blood glucose sensor based on near-infrared absorption spectroscopy. While the glucose sensing R & D community tends to over promise results to the general public without convincing scientific evidence due to the business potential for the sensing market, Animas would like to present solid data showing robust glucose calibration and prediction. In vitro data from whole blood in more than 500 patients, with various medical histories, shows an excellent correlation (R2=0.94) between glucose concentrations determined using sensor prediction and traditional fingerstick measurement. The numbers of outliers identified in the thousands of measurements from the 500 patient population are less than 1%. Better than 13 mg/dl accuracy was achieved in dogs in in-vivo testing. Glucose data showing excellent tracking between measurements with the Animas sensor and a Hemocue glucometer will be presented. One of the technical challenges of developing the Animas implantable sensor is to fabricate laser diodes that have stable emission spectra, especially for those that emit in wavelength above 2 ?m. Requirements for various kinds of diode light sources will be discussed.

  7. Glucose and insulin variations in patients during the time course of a FDG-PET study and implications for the 'glucose-corrected' SUV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: 2-Deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has an established role in the evaluation of cancer. Generally, tumor uptake and response to treatment are evaluated using the standardized uptake value (SUV). Some authors have proposed correcting SUV for glucose levels. Insulin is also thought to influence tumor uptake by changing uptake in other tissues. However, little attention has been paid to understanding the variability of glucose or insulin during a single PET study. Method: We studied the biological and instrumental variability of glucose and insulin measurements in 71 nondiabetic patients undergoing FDG-PET studies. Multiple glucose measurements were obtained in all 71 subjects, and in 69 of these 71 subjects, multiple serum insulin measurements were made. We determined the coefficient of observed variation (CVow) and the coefficient of variation attributable to biological variability (CVbv) for both glucose and insulin. Results: The mean glucose concentration was 78.9±13.5 mg/dl. The mean insulin value was 6.49±5.92 ?U/ml. The weighted mean CVow and CVbv was 5.0% and 3.6%, respectively, for glucose and 14.2% and 8.3%, respectively, for insulin. Conclusions: Variations in the range of 3.6% are observed in glucose measurements during the time course of an FDG scan even after accounting for analytical error; larger variations of 8.3% are observed in insulin levels. Therefore, corrections of SUV for blood glucose, especially if obtained from single measurements, can introduce additional errors of at least this much

  8. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MAGNESIUM IONIC LIQUID ANALOGOUS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Huaiyou, Wang; Yongzhong, Jia; Xiaohua, Wang; Jun, Ma; Yan, Jing.

    Full Text Available In this paper, the solubility of Choline chloride (ChCl) in ethylene glycol (EG) was measured by isothermal method in the temperature range between 0°C and 120°C. The solubility of MgCl2 in saturated ChCl-EG mixture was measured by isothermal method at 20°C, 50°C and 70°C, respectively. Ionic liquid [...] analogous containing MgCl2 was prepared based on the measured solubility data. The structure of the ionic liquid analogous is preliminarily investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The physical and electrochemical properties of the ionic liquid such as viscosity, conductivity, molar conductivity and density were measured as function of temperature and compositions. It was found that magnesium ionic liquid analogous was highly conducting and low viscosity. The ChCl and MgCl2 had a great effect on the studied properties.

  9. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MAGNESIUM IONIC LIQUID ANALOGOUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyou Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the solubility of Choline chloride (ChCl in ethylene glycol (EG was measured by isothermal method in the temperature range between 0°C and 120°C. The solubility of MgCl2 in saturated ChCl-EG mixture was measured by isothermal method at 20°C, 50°C and 70°C, respectively. Ionic liquid analogous containing MgCl2 was prepared based on the measured solubility data. The structure of the ionic liquid analogous is preliminarily investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The physical and electrochemical properties of the ionic liquid such as viscosity, conductivity, molar conductivity and density were measured as function of temperature and compositions. It was found that magnesium ionic liquid analogous was highly conducting and low viscosity. The ChCl and MgCl2 had a great effect on the studied properties.

  10. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples

    OpenAIRE

    Bushman, Brad J.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Pond, Richard S.; Hanus, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    People are often the most aggressive against the people to whom they are closest—intimate partners. Intimate partner violence might be partly a result of poor self-control. Self-control of aggressive impulses requires energy, and much of this energy is provided by glucose derived from the food we eat. We measured glucose levels in 107 married couples over 21 days. To measure aggressive impulses, participants stuck 0–51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse each night, dependin...

  11. Why Have So Many Intravascular Glucose Monitoring Devices Failed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John L; Rice, Mark J

    2015-07-01

    Secondary to the inherent limitations of both point-of-care and central laboratory glucose technologies, continuous glucose measurement has recently enjoyed a high level of investment. Because of the perceived advantages by some of measuring in the intravascular space compared to the subcutaneous tissue, a number of technologies have been developed. In this review, we evaluate nine systems that have shown promise, although only one of these has been cleared for sale in the United States. The detection methodology, regulatory status, technical issues, and company circumstance surrounding each technology are examined. PMID:26129733

  12. Infrared spectra of lunar soil analogs. [spectral reflectance of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The infrared spectra of analogs of lunar soils were investigated to further the development of methodology for interpretation of remotely measured infrared spectra of the lunar surface. The optical constants of dunite, bytownite, augite, ilmenite, and a mare glass analog were obtained. The infrared emittance spectra of powdered minerals were measured and compared with spectra calculated by the reflectance theory using a catalog of optical constants. The results indicate that the predictions of the theory closely simulate the experimental measurements if the optical constants are properly derived.

  13. Rapid enhancement of brush border glucose uptake after exposure of rat jejunal mucosa to glucose.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, P A; Debnam, E S; Srai, S K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased jejunal glucose transport after ingestion of carbohydrate rich diets may reflect higher concentrations of lumenal glucose. Normal processing of carbohydrate causes wide fluctuations in glucose concentration in the jejunal lumen and this raises the question of whether the high lumenal concentrations seen at peak digestion affect glucose uptake. AIMS: To study the effects of 30 minute exposure of rat jejunal mucosa to glucose on sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT1) mediated ...

  14. Analog video to ARINC 818

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Many commercial and military aircraft still use analog video, such as RS-170, RS-343, or STANEG 3350. Though the individual digital components many be inexpensive, the cost to certify and retrofit an entire aircraft fleet may be prohibitively expensive. A partial or incremental upgrade program where analog cameras remain in use but data is converted and processed digitally can be an attractive option. This paper describes Great River Technology's experience in converting multiple channels of RS-170 and multiplexing them through a concentrator to put them onto a single fiber or cable. The paper will also discuss alternative architectures and how ARINC 818 can be utilized with legacy systems.

  15. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucose-stimulated insulin response to exercise training and diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Brooks, Latina M

    2009-01-01

    Aging and obesity are characterized by decreased beta-cell sensitivity and defects in the potentiation of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP. Exercise and diet are known to improve glucose metabolism and the pancreatic insulin response to glucose, and this effect may be mediated through the incretin effect of GIP. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 12-wk exercise training intervention (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, 75% Vo(2 max)) combined with a eucaloric (EX, n = 10) or hypocaloric (EX-HYPO, pre: 1,945 +/- 190, post: 1,269 +/- 70, kcal/day; n = 9) diet on the GIP response to glucose in older (66.8 +/- 1.5 yr), obese (34.4 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2)) adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In addition to GIP, plasma PYY(3-36), insulin, and glucose responses were measured during a 3-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Both interventions led to a significant improvement in Vo(2 max) (P <0.05). Weight loss (kg) was significant in both groups but was greater after EX-HYPO (-8.3 +/- 1.1 vs. -2.8 +/-0.5, P = 0.002). The glucose-stimulated insulin response was reduced after EX-HYPO (P = 0.02), as was the glucose-stimulated GIP response (P <0.05). Furthermore, after the intervention, changes in insulin (DeltaI(0-30)/DeltaG(0-30)) and GIP (Delta(0-30)) secretion were correlated (r = 0.69, P = 0.05). The PYY(3-36) (Delta(0-30)) response to glucose was increased after both interventions (P <0.05). We conclude that 1) a combination of caloric restriction and exercise reduces the GIP response to ingested glucose, 2) GIP may mediate the attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin response after exercise/diet interventions, and 3) the increased PYY(3-36) response represents an improved capacity to regulate satiety and potentially body weight in older, obese, insulin-resistant adults.

  16. A ``plasmonic cuvette'': dye chemistry coupled to plasmonic interferometry for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Vince S.; Feng, Jing; Flanigan, Patrick W.; Palmore, G. Tayhas R.; Pacifici, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    A non-invasive method for the detection of glucose is sought by millions of diabetic patients to improve personal management of blood glucose over a lifetime. In this work, the synergistic advantage of combining plasmonic interferometry with an enzyme-driven dye assay yields an optical sensor capable of detecting glucose in saliva with high sensitivity and selectivity. The sensor, coined a "plasmonic cuvette," is built around a nano-scale groove-slit-groove (GSG) plasmonic interferometer coupled to an Amplex-red/Glucose-oxidase/Glucose (AR/GOx/Glucose) assay. The proposed device is highly sensitive, with a measured intensity change of 1.7×105%/m (i.e., one order of magnitude more sensitive than without assay) and highly specific for glucose sensing in picoliter volumes, across the physiological range of glucose concentrations found in human saliva (20-240 ?m). Real-time glucose monitoring in saliva is achieved by performing a detailed study of the underlying enzyme-driven reactions to determine and tune the effective rate constants in order to reduce the overall assay reaction time to ˜2 min. The results reported suggest that by opportunely choosing the appropriate dye chemistry, a plasmonic cuvette can be turned into a general, real-time sensing scheme for detection of any molecular target, with high sensitivity and selectivity, within extremely low volumes of biological fluid (down to femtoliters). Hereby, we present the results on glucose detection in artificial saliva as a notable and clinically relevant case study.

  17. Investigating the effect of glucose on aortic pulse wave velocity using pancreatic clamping methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzantian, Houry; Teff, Karen; Townsend, Raymond R

    2015-05-01

    Aortic stiffness, determined by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), independently predicts cardiovascular outcomes. Recent studies suggest that glucose levels influence arterial stiffness indices. It is not clear, however, whether glucose affects cfPWV independently of glucoregulatory hormones. The aim of this study was to utilize a pancreatic clamping approach to determine whether plasma glucose independently predicts cfPWV. Healthy participants (N = 10) underwent pancreatic clamping to control glucose at varying concentrations using a 20% dextrose infusion while suppressing endogenous glucagon, insulin, and growth hormone by octreotide and replacing the hormones intravenously to achieve basal concentrations. Tonometric cfPWV, blood pressure, heart rate, plasma glucose, glucagon, insulin, growth hormone, and vasoactive biomarkers were measured. Plasma glucose levels of 150 mg/dl at 1 hr and 200 mg/dl at 2 hr postbaseline were achieved. There were no significant changes in cfPWV (5.8 m/s at 0 hr, 5.9 m/s at 1 hr, and 5.9 m/s at 2 hr) with increased glucose levels. There were small increases in insulin secretion. A definitive role for glucose in cfPWV modulation was not determined; there is a potential role for insulin as a cfPWV modulator. Continued efforts in clarifying the independent roles of glucose and insulin can elucidate novel vessel-related targets for cardiovascular disease prevention and management in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. PMID:25802385

  18. Glucose metabolism in sheep fed grass supplemented with gliricidia sepium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritive feed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionate and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteens sheep (18 months old) were used in the experiment. These are were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group), Gliricidia (GS group), and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group). D-[U-14C]glucose infusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01). Glucose entry rate (GER) increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that the utilisation of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed) to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention. (author)

  19. READ - Remote Analog ASIC Design System

    OpenAIRE

    Auer, Michael E.; Zutin, Danilo G.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this work is to present a solution to implement a remote electronic laboratory for testing and designing analog ASICs (ispPAC10). The application allows users to create circuit schematics, upload the design to the device and perform measurements. The software used for designing circuits is the PAC-Designer and it runs on a Citrix server. The signals are generated and the responses are acquired by a data acquisition board controlled by LabView. The virtual instruments interact wi...

  20. The proton spin crisis: an electroweak analogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We pose a problem analogous to the spin crisis within the electroweak theory. It is shown that the forward matrix elements of j?B, the baryonic current, do not only measure the generally understood baryon number but also include a helicity dependent W-boson piece due to the anomaly. The anomalous contribution is explicitly calculated for the W-boson and the electron. We also demonstrate the correct procedure to extract the anomalous W-boson contribution to the forward matrix element of j+B. ((orig.))

  1. Silicon-based nanochannel glucose sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xihua; Gibney, Katherine A; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanochannel biological field effect transistors have been developed for glucose detection. The device is nanofabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a top-down approach and surface functionalized with glucose oxidase. The differential conductance of silicon nanowires, tuned with source-drain bias voltage, is demonstrated to be sensitive to the biocatalyzed oxidation of glucose. The glucose biosensor response is linear in the 0.5-8 mM concentration range with 3-5 min response time. This silicon nanochannel-based glucose biosensor technology offers the possibility of high density, high quality glucose biosensor integration with silicon-based circuitry.

  2. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism associated with mental deterioration in multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral glucose metabolism of 18 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) and 10 age-matched normal subjects were examined with positron emission tomography and the 18-F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose technique. MID patients had significantly lower glucose metabolsim in all the grey matter regions measured and were also characterized by more individuality in metabolic pattern. MID patients were also evaluated as to intelligence quotient (IQ). A positive correlation between IQ as shown by the Tanaka-Binet test and glucose metabolism for the entire grey matter was found. The clinical applicability of this test for predicting cerebral metabolism is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Glucose Levels in Newborns with Special Reference to Hypoglycemia: A Study from Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Edwin; Gada, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is one of the common metabolic problems in neonatal medicine. There is association between blood glucose levels and neurological development. The study involved 100 mothers and neonates blood glucose levels were measured using a standard glucometer in mother delivering babies within half an hour of delivery and in newborns at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 h of life. Blood glucose levels were low at 0th and 6th h and maximum at 24th h. Neonates born to mothers with high maternal blood glucose l...

  4. Functionalised ZnO-nanorod-based selective electrochemical sensor for intracellular glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Asif, Muhammad H.; Syed M. Usman Ali; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus; Brännmark, Cecilia; STRÅLFORS, Peter; Englund H, Ulrika; Elinder, Fredrik; Danielsson, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we report a functionalised ZnO-nanorod-based selective electrochemical sensor for intracellular glucose. To adjust the sensor for intracellular glucose measurements, we grew hexagonal ZnO nanorods on the tip of a silver-covered borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 mu m diameter) and coated them with the enzyme glucose oxidase. The enzyme-coated ZnO nanorods exhibited a glucose-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode. The potentia...

  5. Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring Techniques: A review and current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Poddar, Raju; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Sen, Pratima

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex group of syndromes that have in common a disturbance in the body's use of glucose, resulting in an elevated blood sugar. Once detected, sugar diabetes can be controlled by an appropriate regimen that should include diet therapy, a weight reduction program for those persons who are overweight, a program of exercise and insulin injections or oral drugs to lower blood glucose. Blood glucose monitoring by the patient and the physician is an important aspect in the control of the devastating complications (heart disease, blindness, kidney failure or amputations) due to the disease. Intensive therapy and frequent glucose testing has numerous benefits. With ever improving advances in diagnostic technology, the race for the next generation of bloodless, painless, accurate glucose instruments has begun. In this paper, we reviewed various methods, techniques and approaches successfully demonstrated for measuring or monitoring blood glucose. Invasive, minimally invasive and noninvasive tec...

  6. Effect of ?-radiation on the ratio of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy- D-glucose to glucose utilization in human glioblastoma cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glucose consumption in tumours in vitro as reflected by uptake of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) using positron emission tomography (PET) is currently under investigation as a measure of tumour response to radiotherapy. The calculation of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose from 18FDG-PET data requires a proportionality factor referred to as the lumped constant. In the present in vitro study, the utilizations of 18FDG and glucose have been measured in a human glioblastoma cell line (86HG-39) as a function of ?-radiation dose with various post-irradiation times and of different fractionation modes. The ratio of utilization of 18FDG to that of glucose (RF/G), assumed to correspond to the lumped constant, was observed to increase 12 and 24 h after single fraction ?-exposure by factors ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 compared with the non-irradiated controls. It decreased after multiple fraction ?-exposure (4 x 2 Gy) by a factor of 0.7 compared with the single fraction schedule (1 x 8 Gy). The results suggest that the affinities of glucose transporters or hexokinase enzyme or both for 18FDG and glucose could be influenced by ?-irradiation in this tumour cell line in vitro. Apparent changes of the glucose consumption determined with PET in human tumours following radiotherapy may, therefore, not be solely due to changes in cellular metabolism or cell number but may also be due to changes in RF/G. (author)

  7. Toward minimally invasive, continuous glucose monitoring in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancic, Christian; Gretz, Norbert; Kröger, Niels; Neudecker, Sabine; Pucci, Annemarie; Petrich, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of glucose metabolism and it is one of the most challenging diseases, both from a medical and economic perspective. People with diabetes can benefit from a frequent or even continuous monitoring of their blood glucose concentrations. The approach presented here takes advantage of the observational nature of biomedical vibrational spectroscopy in contrast to chemical reactions which consume glucose. The particular technique employed here is based on the high sensitivity of mid-infrared transmission spectroscopy where strong vibrational bands of glucose can be monitored at wavelengths around 10 ?m. The strong absorption of water in this spectral region was mitigated by the use of quantum cascade lasers and very short interaction path lengths below 50 ?m. Various sensor concepts have been explored. In one of the concepts, the interaction of mid-infrared radiation with glucose is established within a miniature measurement cavity, formed by a gap between two silver halide fibers. In recent experiments, an additional quantum cascade laser was used for reference purposes. The long-term drift could significantly be reduced for time intervals > 1000 s, e. g., by more than 60% for a 3 hour interval. This extension for the compensation of long-term drifts of the measurement system in vitro is an important contribution towards the applicability in vivo.

  8. Modulation of parathion toxicity by glucose feeding: Is nitric oxide involved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose feeding can markedly exacerbate the toxicity of the anticholinesterase insecticide, parathion. We determined the effects of parathion on brain nitric oxide and its possible role in potentiation of toxicity by glucose feeding. Adult rats were given water or 15% glucose in water for 3 days and challenged with vehicle or parathion (18 mg/kg, s.c.) on day 4. Functional signs, plasma glucose and brain cholinesterase, citrulline (an indicator of nitric oxide production) and high-energy phosphates (HEPs) were measured 1-3 days after parathion. Glucose feeding exacerbated cholinergic toxicity. Parathion increased plasma glucose (15-33%) and decreased cortical cholinesterase activity (81-90%), with no significant differences between water and glucose treatment groups. In contrast, parathion increased brain regional citrulline (40-47%) and decreased HEPs (18-40%) in rats drinking water, with significantly greater changes in glucose-fed rats (248-363% increase and 31-61% decrease, respectively). We then studied the effects of inhibiting neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) by 7-nitroindazole (7NI, 30 mg/kg, i.p. x4) on parathion toxicity and its modulation by glucose feeding. Co-exposure to parathion and 7NI led to a marked increase in cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality, regardless of glucose intake. Thus, glucose feeding enhanced the accumulation of brain nitric oxide following parathion exposure, but inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis was ineffective at counteracting increased parathion toxicity associated with glucose feeding. Evidence is therefore presented to suggest that nitric oxide may play both toxic and protective roles in cholinergic toxicity, and its precise contribution to modulation by glucose feeding requires further investigation

  9. Electrical analog to projectile motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Mark

    1998-04-01

    This article describes an electrical analog to traditional projectile problems given in high school and introductory college classes. It also discusses the importance of stressing the understanding of physical laws and principles to students, and that the physics behind a problem is more important than being able to memorize and use various equations.

  10. Geometrical Analogies in Mathematics Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    A typical form of thinking to approach problem solutions humanly is thinking in analogous structures. Therefore school, especially mathematical lessons should help to form and to develop corresponding heuristic abilities of the pupils. In the contribution, a summary of possibilities of mathematics lessons regarding this shall particularly be…

  11. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  12. Mars Aeolian Analog: Instrument Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R. K.; Titus, T. N.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    2015-05-01

    As part of a study of flux rates at a Mars analog site, we installed an experimental sediment collector equipped with a time-lapse camera. We will evaluate the suitability of the experimental instrument for sediment flux studies on Mars.

  13. Components of Geometric Analogy Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Timothy M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Adults' geometric analogy solution was investigated as a function of systematic variations in the information structure of items. Latency data from verification of true and false items were recorded. A model incorporating assumptions about the form of item representation, working memory factors, and processing components and strategies was…

  14. Paper Analogies Enhance Biology Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to use paper analogies as models to illustrate various concepts in biology, human anatomy, and physiology classes. Models include biochemical paper models, protein papergrams, a paper model of early brain development, and a 3-D paper model of a eukaryotic cell. (AIM)

  15. A highly performing electrochemiluminescent biosensor for glucose based on a polyelectrolyte-chitosan modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly performing ECL glucose biosensor was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) onto a membrane modified glassy carbon electrode, which was prepared by using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) doped with chitosan. In order to obtain the optimal performance of the ECL biosensor, the composition of modified membranes and a series of measurement conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, this ECL biosensor was able to detect glucose in the range of 0.5-4.0 x 104 nM with a detection limit of 0.1 nM (defined as the concentration that could be detected at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The relative standard deviation was 0.99% for 5 x 10-8 mol/L glucose in repetitive measurements in the primary 12 potential cycles. This ECL biosensor offered the effectively improved stability of the electron transfer mediator and exhibited excellent properties for the ultrasensitive and selective determination of glucose with good reproducibility and stability. The present biosensor has also been used to determine the glucose concentrations in real serum samples. The recovery value for the assay of glucose ranged from 96.2 to 107% in the serum samples. The present biosensor displayed both specificity for glucose and retention of signal response even in a complex environment. Therefore, it provided an approach to the sensitive determination of glucose.

  16. Effect of subcutaneous insulin detemir on glucose flux, lipolysis and electroencephalography in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, R; Knight, R; Shojaee-Moradie, F; Johnsen, S; Umpleby, A M; Jackson, N; Jones, R; Dijk, D-J; Russell-Jones, D L

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of subcutaneous detemir on glucose flux, lipid metabolism and brain function. Twelve people with type 1 diabetes received, in random order, 0.5?units/kg body weight detemir or NPH insulin. Glucose concentration was clamped at 5?mmol/l then increased to 10?mmol/l. Glucose production rate (glucose Ra), glucose uptake (glucose Rd) and glycerol production (glycerol Ra) were measured with a constant intravenous infusion of [6,6(2) H2 ]glucose and [(2) H5 ]glycerol. Electroencephalography direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) potentials were measured. While detemir induced similar effects on glucose Ra, glucose Rd and glycerol Ra during euglycaemia compared with NPH, it triggered a distinct negative shift in DC potentials, with a significant treatment effect in frontal cerebrocortical channels (p?NPH in people with type 1 diabetes. This may be an important mechanism behind the limitation of weight gain with detemir. PMID:26272173

  17. Impact of Partial Pressure of Oxygen in Blood Samples on the Performance of Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Tesar, Martina; Freckmann, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Background: The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect glucose measurements with oxygen-sensitive systems. In this study, we assessed the influence of different pO2 levels on blood glucose (BG) measurements with five glucose oxidase (GOD) systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. All selected GOD systems were indicated by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased oxygen content of the blood sample.

  18. Impact of glucose excursion and mean glucose concentration in oral glucose-tolerance test on oxidative stress among Japanese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi S.; Yoneda M; Maeda S

    2013-01-01

    Shuhei Nakanishi, Masayasu Yoneda, Shusaku Maeda Department of Molecular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan Aim: To evaluate the impact of glucose excursion (GE) and mean glucose concentration (MGC) on oxidative stress among persons with or without diabetes. Materials and methods: We examined 775 Japanese Americans who had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes according to the 75 g ...

  19. Análise de diferentes medidas antropométricas na identificação de síndrome metabólica, com ou sem alteração do metabolismo glicídico / Analysis of several anthropometric measurements for the identification of metabolic syndrome, with or without disturbance of glucose metabolism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natália Pereira da, Rocha; Antonela, Siqueira-Catania; Camila Risso, Barros; Milena Monfort, Pires; Luciana D., Folchetti; Sandra Roberta G., Ferreira.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo comparou parâmetros antropométricos e de resistência à insulina de indivíduos sem e com síndrome metabólica (SM), subestratificados pela presença de anormalidades glicêmicas. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 454 indivíduos (66% mulheres, 54% brancos), sendo 155 alocados para [...] o grupo 1 (sem SM, sem anormalidade glicêmica), 32 para o grupo 2 (sem SM, com anormalidade glicêmica), 104 no grupo 3 (com SM, sem anormalidade glicêmica) e 163 no grupo 4 (com SM e anormalidade glicêmica). Os grupos foram comparados por ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Os grupos com SM (3 e 4) apresentaram os piores perfis antropométrico e lipídico; no grupo 2, apesar de glicemias significantemente mais elevadas, as médias das variáveis antropométricas e lipídicas não diferiram do grupo 1. Os maiores valores médios de HOMA-IR foram encontrados nos grupos com SM, enquanto o grupo 2 apresentou o menor HOMA-?. A trigliceridemia foi a variável metabólica com coeficientes de correlação mais elevados com a antropometria. Porém, as correlações mais fortes foram da circunferência da cintura (r = 0,503) e da razão cintura-altura (r = 0,513) com o HOMA-IR (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study compared anthropometric measurements and insulin resistance indexes of individuals with or without metabolic syndrome (MS), stratified by the presence of glycemic abnormalities. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 454 individuals (66% women, 54% Caucasians) were included, being 155 allocated [...] to group 1 (without MS, without glycemic abnormality), 32 to group 2 (without MS, with glycemic abnormality), 104 to group 3 (with MS, without glycemic abnormality), and 163 to group 4 (with MS, with glycemic abnormality). Groups were compared by ANOVA. RESULTS: Those with MS (3 e 4) showed the worst anthropometric and lipid profiles; in group 2, despite higher plasma glucose levels, the mean values of anthropometric variables and lipids did not differ from group 1. The highest mean values of HOMA-IR were found in the groups with MS, while group 2 showed the lowest HOMA-?. Triglyceride was the metabolic variable with the highest correlation coefficients with anthropometry. However, the strongest correlations were those of waist circumference (r = 0.503) and waist-to-height ratio (r = 0.513) with HOMA-IR (p

  20. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assay. 864.7360 Section 864.7360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the activity of the enzyme...

  1. Kinetic Parameters for the Noncatalyzed and Enzyme-Catalyzed Mutarotation of Glucose Using a Blood Glucometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, John R.; Delgado, Bryan; Jones, Wray

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic parameters for the conversion of alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-glucose were measured using a blood glucometer. The reaction order, rate constant, and Arrhenius activation energy are reported for the noncatalyzed reaction and turnover number and Michaelis constant are reported for the reaction catalyzed by porcine kidney mutarotase. The…

  2. Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography for Blood Glucose Monitoring in Human Subjects

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Jitendra; Sen, Pratima; Andrews, Joseph Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A device based on Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography is developed to monitor blood glucose levels in human subjects. The device was initially tested with tissue phantom. The measurements with human subjects for various glucose concentration levels are found to be linearly dependent on the degree of circular polarization obtainable from the PS-OCT.

  3. [Glucose control in cardiac disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, O

    2006-01-01

    The early and differentiated optimization of glucose level is essential for the improvement of the cardiovascular outcome. In all stages of cardiac disease, the primary goal is to reach near-normoglycemia. The DIGAMI-1 and 2 studies as well as the Munich Myocardial Infarction Registry successfully demonstrate, that the intensification of treatment with insulin therapy reduces the mortality of myocardial infarction. Glucose-insulin-infusion is advantageous with regard to the use of a well-controllable therapeutic approach. In non-acute cardiac disease, oral treatment strategies and insulin therapy are successful alone or in combination. Acarbose and metformin have been shown to be able to successfully prevent cardiovascular disease. New evidence of positive effects of glitazones with regard to reduction of the rate of restenosis and optimization of endothelial function is currently emerging. Prognosis of cardiovascular disease is significantly influenced by glucose control. There is evidence that the relationship between glycemia and cardiovascular events extends far beyond the diabetic threshold. This can be detected even in impaired glucose tolerance and the non-diabetic range. There is evidence that postprandial glycemia is crucial for the extent of cardiovascular risk. This has also been emphasized by the DECODE-study. PMID:16598553

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) raises blood-brain glucose transfer capacity and hexokinase activity in human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Gejl; Lerche, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    In hyperglycemia, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) lowers brain glucose concentration together with increased net blood-brain clearance and brain metabolism, but it is not known whether this effect depends on the prevailing plasma glucose (PG) concentration. In hypoglycemia, glucose depletion potentially impairs brain function. Here, we test the hypothesis that GLP-1 exacerbates the effect of hypoglycemia. To test the hypothesis, we determined glucose transport and consumption rates in seven healthy men in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over experimental design. The acute effect of GLP-1 on glucose transfer in the brain was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) during a hypoglycemic clamp (3 mM plasma glucose) with (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) as tracer of glucose. In addition, we jointly analyzed cerebrometabolic effects of GLP-1 from the present hypoglycemia study and our previous hyperglycemia study to estimate the Michaelis-Menten constants of glucose transport and metabolism. The GLP-1 treatment lowered the vascular volume of brain tissue. Loading data from hypo- to hyperglycemia into the Michaelis-Menten equation, we found increased maximum phosphorylation velocity (V max) in the gray matter regions of cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum, as well as increased blood-brain glucose transport capacity (T max) in gray matter, white matter, cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum. In hypoglycemia, GLP-1 had no effects on net glucose metabolism, brain glucose concentration, or blood-brain glucose transport. Neither hexokinase nor transporter affinities varied significantly with treatment in any region. We conclude that GLP-1 changes blood-brain glucose transfer and brain glucose metabolic rates in a PG concentration-dependent manner. One consequence is that hypoglycemia eliminates these effects of GLP-1 on brain glucose homeostasis.

  5. ATF4 mediates necrosis induced by glucose deprivation and apoptosis induced by 2-deoxyglucose in the same cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Annicchiarico, Clara Lucía; Ramírez-Peinado, Silvia; Domínguez-Villanueva, Dídac; Gonsberg, Anika; Lampidis, Theodore J; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Altered metabolism is a hallmark of cancer that opens new therapeutic possibilities. 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) is a non-metabolizable glucose analog tested in clinical trials and is frequently used in experimental settings to mimic glucose starvation. However, in the present study, conducted in a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, we find that 2-DG induces classical nuclear apoptotic morphology and caspase-dependent cell death, whereas glucose deprivation drives cells toward necrotic cell death. Necrosis induced by glucose deprivation did not resemble necroptosis or ferroptosis and was not prevented by antioxidants. Both stimuli promote endoplasmic reticulum stress. Moreover, the transcription factor ATF4 is found to mediate both the apoptosis induced by 2-DG and the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin, as well as the necrosis provoked by glucose withdrawal. Several hexoses partially prevented glucose deprivation-induced necrosis in rhabdomyosarcoma, although only mannose prevented apoptosis induced by 2-DG. In both cases, a reduction of cell death was associated with decreased levels of ATF4. Our results confirm previous data indicating the differential effects of these two forms with respect to inhibiting glucose metabolism, and they place endoplasmic reticulum stress as the critical mediator of glucose starvation-induced cell death. PMID:26172539

  6. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) Print friendly version Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Table of Contents Overview ... of the National Institutes of Health. Overview Listen Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a hereditary ...

  7. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  8. Direct conversion of glucose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural in ionic liquids with lanthanide catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Tim; Sørensen, Mathilde Grau; Riisager, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The direct conversion of glucose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) in ionic liquids with lanthanide catalysts was examined in search of a possibly more environmentally feasible process not involving chromium. The highest HMF yield was obtained with ytterbium chloride or triflate together with alkylimidazolium chlorides. Notably, a higher reactivity was observed when the hydrophobicity of the imidazolium cation was increased, in contrast to analogous chromium catalyst systems. This indicates a d...

  9. Appetite Sensations, Appetite Signaling Proteins, and Glucose in Obese Adolescents with Subclinical Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Adamo, Kristi B; Wilson, Shanna L.; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Éric; Goldfield, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulati...

  10. Direct conversion of glucose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural in ionic liquids with lanthanide catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Tim; SØrensen, Mathilde Grau

    2010-01-01

    The direct conversion of glucose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) in ionic liquids with lanthanide catalysts was examined in search of a possibly more environmentally feasible process not involving chromium. The highest HMF yield was obtained with ytterbium chloride or triflate together with alkylimidazolium chlorides. Notably, a higher reactivity was observed when the hydrophobicity of the imidazolium cation was increased, in contrast to analogous chromium catalyst systems. This indicates a different reaction mechanism for the lanthanides than for the chromium catalyst systems.

  11. Fat distribution and glucose intolerance among Greenland inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A high amount of subcutaneous fat is suggested to explain the observation of lower obesity-associated metabolic risk among Inuit than among Europeans. We examined the association between measures of obesity (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], subcutaneous adipose tissue [SAT], BMI, waist circumference [WC], and percentage of body fat) and the indices of glucose metabolism (fasting and 2-h glucose levels, insulin resistance per homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR], and the insulin sensitivity index [ISI0,120]) among Greenland Inuit. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 3,108 adult Inuit participated in a population-based study. The examination included a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measurements. VAT and SAT were measured by ultrasound according to a validated protocol. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors was obtained by interview. RESULTS Mean SATs were 1.8 and 3.5 cm in men and women, respectively. Mean VATs were 7.0 and 6.3 cm in men and women, respectively. The total prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 9%. Percentage of body fat generally was most strongly associated with all outcomes. Both SAT and VAT were significantly associated with glucose intolerance, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR, and ISI0,120. VAT was more strongly associated with all outcomes than was SAT. After further adjustment for BMI or WC, VAT was associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend toward a negative or no association with SAT. CONCLUSIONS High mean values of SAT may to a large extent explain the high WC in Inuit populations, and this is suggested to contribute to the lower observed metabolic risk for a given level of obesity.

  12. Glucose Metabolism during Liver Transplantation in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    DeWolf, Andre M.; Kang, Yoo G.; Todo, Satoru; Kam, Igal; Francavilla, Antonio J.; POLIMENO, LORENZO; Lynch, Steve; Starzl, Thomas E.

    1987-01-01

    Arterial and hepatic venous blood levels of glucose were studied in 12 dogs during orthotopic liver transplantation performed under ketamine anesthesia without exogenous glucose administration. During the early part of surgery, arterial blood glucose levels were stable: 161 ± 12 mg/dl (mean ± SEM) after laparotomy and 183 ± 16 Mg/dl 5 min before the anhepatic stage. During the anhepatic stage, arterial blood glucose levels decreased progressively to 135 ± 9 and 88 ± 8 mg/dl, 5 min in the anhe...

  13. Drug-induced disorders of glucose metabolism. Mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J C; Cockram, C S; Critchley, J A

    1996-08-01

    Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between the release and action of insulin, and the counterregulatory responses mediated principally by glucagon, catecholamines, growth hormone and cortisol. Hence, the effects of a drug on glucose metabolism may be mediated by any of these agents singly or in combination. Host factors, such as inherent glucoregulatory mechanisms, concurrent diseases, organ function and concomitant medications also increase the risk of drug-induced disturbances of glucose homeostasis in susceptible individuals. By far the most important agents causing hypoglycaemia are insulin and the sulphonylureas. Alcohol (ethanol), over-zealous glycaemic control, hypoglycaemic unawareness, detective counterregulation especially in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), and renal and liver impairment are all important predisposing factors. Although antihyperglycaemic agents such as metformin and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors do not cause hypoglycaemia alone, they may enhance the hypoglycaemic effects of potent hypoglycaemic agents such as insulin and sulphonylureas. On the other hand, the potential hypoglycaemic effects of ACE inhibitors, alpha-blockers, lipid-lowering agents and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor demonstrated in experimental settings, are of potential therapeutic interest. Iatrogenic hypoglycaemia and intensive insulin treatment are associated with hypoglycaemic unawareness which may be obviated by meticulous avoidance of hypoglycaemia. Effective patient education remains an important preventive measure. Oral glucose is used to treat mild hypoglycaemic episodes while more severe episodes are treated by intravenous glucose or glucagon. Nasal glucagon and theophylline are other experimental measures to improve recovery from hypoglycaemia. In refractory hypoglycaemia due to hyperinsulinaemia such as during sulphonylurea overdosage or quinine treatment, the long-acting somatostatin, octreotide, may suppress insulin release and restore euglycaemia. Diuretics, beta-blockers, sympathomimetics, corticosteroids and sex hormones are commonly prescribed drugs which may have adverse effects on carbohydrate metabolism especially in patients with diabetes mellitus or those who are at risk of developing glucose intolerance. Pentamidine was frequently associated with dysglycaemia due to its pancreatic beta-cell cytotoxic effects but is now used less often to treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients. Despite the large number of anecdotal reports of drug-induced disturbances of glucose metabolism, many of the so-called adverse drug reactions were either idiosyncratic or coincidental. Nevertheless, they emphasise the complex nature of glucose homeostasis and its potential interactions with drugs, host factors and disease states. An understanding of these relationships may allow more critical interpretation of these clinical observations, better prediction of drug induced adverse effects on carbohydrate metabolism and the implementation of more rational therapy. Hence, the hypoglycaemic effects of a drug may be turned to a therapeutic advantage in patients with glucose intolerance. Similarly, the hyperglycaemic effect of a drug may help to treat refractory hypoglycaemia. PMID:8884164

  14. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  15. Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolic rate in the rat with high-resolution animal positron emission tomography (PET). A novel in vivo approach for assessing drug action in the brains of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in rats were estimated noninvasively with a high-resolution animal positron emission tomography (PET) system that we recently developed. Quantifications of CMRglc and CBF were attempted with radiotracers, 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose and 15O-water, respectively. From the data obtained with PET, the CMRglc and CBF values under pretreatment conditions were respectively calculated as 51±14 ?mol/min/100 g and 61±7 ml/min/100 g under pentobarbital-anesthesia. These values were in close agreement with published data obtained with the autoradiographic technique. Moreover, an increase of 69% (mean) in CBF was detected after i.v. acetazolamide administration. The results indicate that this high-resolution animal PET scanner holds great potential for the assessment of drug-related metabolic and circulatory effects in infact and experimental animals. (author)

  16. Enhanced intestinal glucose and alanine transport in cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, P; Goldhill, J; Hardcastle, J.; Hardcastle, P. T.; Taylor, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    The rise in short-circuit current associated with the active transport of glucose and alanine was measured in intestinal biopsy samples from children with cystic fibrosis. The glucose-induced increase in the short-circuit current was greater in the cystic fibrosis tissues than in control samples over the whole range of concentrations tested (2.5-35 mM), a reflection of an increased maximum rate of transport. Similar results were obtained with alanine. These findings suggest that active Na(+)-...

  17. Glucose oxidase immobilization on different modified surfaces of platinum nanowire for application in glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Tuyen Le, Thi; Duy Tran, Phu; Pham, Xuan Tung; Hien Tong, Duy; Chien Dang, Mau

    2010-09-01

    In this work, the surface of platinum (Pt) nanowires was modified by using several chemicals, including a compound of gelatin gel with SiO2, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with Prussian blue (PB) mediator and cysteamine self-assembled monolayers (SAM). Then, glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme was immobilized on the modified surfaces of Pt nanowire electrodes by using techniques of electrochemical adsorption and chemical binding. The GOD immobilized Pt nanowires were used for application in glucose detection by performing a cyclic voltammetry measurement. The detection results showed that GOD was immobilized on all of the tested surfaces and the highest glucose detection sensitivity of 60??M was obtained when the Pt nanowires were modified by PVA with PB mediator. Moreover, the sensors showed very high current response when the Pt nanowires were modified with the cysteamine SAM. The stability and catalyst activity of GOD are also reported here. For instance, the catalyst activity of GOD retained about 60% of its initial value after it was stored at 4?°C in a 100?mM PBS buffer solution with a pH of 7.2 for a period of 30 days.

  18. Glucose oxidase immobilization on different modified surfaces of platinum nanowire for application in glucose detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the surface of platinum (Pt) nanowires was modified by using several chemicals, including a compound of gelatin gel with SiO2, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with Prussian blue (PB) mediator and cysteamine self-assembled monolayers (SAM). Then, glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme was immobilized on the modified surfaces of Pt nanowire electrodes by using techniques of electrochemical adsorption and chemical binding. The GOD immobilized Pt nanowires were used for application in glucose detection by performing a cyclic voltammetry measurement. The detection results showed that GOD was immobilized on all of the tested surfaces and the highest glucose detection sensitivity of 60??M was obtained when the Pt nanowires were modified by PVA with PB mediator. Moreover, the sensors showed very high current response when the Pt nanowires were modified with the cysteamine SAM. The stability and catalyst activity of GOD are also reported here. For instance, the catalyst activity of GOD retained about 60% of its initial value after it was stored at 4?°C in a 100?mM PBS buffer solution with a pH of 7.2 for a period of 30 days

  19. suPAR associates to glucose metabolic aberration during glucose stimulation in HIV-infected patients on HAART.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have recently shown that the level of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), which is associated with the immune status of HIV-infected patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), correlates with the insulin action of such patients. Here we extend these findings by investigating the association of suPAR to glucose metabolic insufficiency during an oral glucose challenge (OGTT). METHODS: In 16 HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy and 15 HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (ISI(composite)), prehepatic insulin secretion, proinsulin level and suppression of free fatty acids (FFA) were determined during an OGTT. Stability of suPAR was tested in 6 HIV-infected patients during a 3h OGTT. RESULTS: Lipodystrophy was associated with a 70% increase in plasma suPAR (P<0.05). During the OGTT, plasma suPAR correlated inversely with ISI(composite) and positively with 2h plasma glucose, fasting insulin secretion, fasting intact proinsulin and FFA level during the OGTT (all P<0.05). In multiple regression analyses, in which anthropometric measures (BMI, limbadiposity and fat mass), immune markers (CD4, HIV-RNA, duration of HIV infection), and dyslipidemia (plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid level during the OGTT) were included, suPAR remained a significant marker of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Plasma suPAR exhibited a small CV (11%) during the 3h OGTT. CONCLUSIONS: suPAR associated to important glucose metabolic aberrations in HIV-infected patients on HAART. Moreover, suPAR was stable after a glucose challenge. Future research is required to confirm these findings and explore the potential of suPAR as marker of dysmetabolism in HIV-infected patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7

  20. Impact of reversible trapping of tracer and the presence of blood metabolites on measurements of myocardial glucose utilization performed by PET and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose using the Patlak method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we demonstrated that significant egress of FDG from myocardium occurs within the first hour after tracer injection leading to nonlinear Patlak plots. There are also significant amounts of acidic FDG metabolites present in the blood. However, the impact of these metabolites on the estimates of myocardial glucose utilization (MGU) is negligible. Although further studies will be required to elucidate the reason for the egress of tracer from myocardium, not accounting for it will result in erroneous estimates of MGU