WorldWideScience

Sample records for geologic structural analysis

  1. Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site contains a variety of resources for faculty members who teach undergraduate structural geology. You will find links to activities and assignments, internet and computer resources, useful articles and maps, presentations from the summer 2004 workshop on teaching structural geology, working groups and a discussion forum, and lots of creative ideas for teaching structural geology.

  2. Process for structural geologic analysis of topography and point data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Jay R. (Richland, WA); Eliason, Valerie L. C. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative method of geologic structural analysis of digital terrain data is described for implementation on a computer. Assuming selected valley segments are controlled by the underlying geologic structure, topographic lows in the terrain data, defining valley bottoms, are detected, filtered and accumulated into a series line segments defining contiguous valleys. The line segments are then vectorized to produce vector segments, defining valley segments, which may be indicative of the underlying geologic structure. Coplanar analysis is performed on vector segment pairs to determine which vectors produce planes which represent underlying geologic structure. Point data such as fracture phenomena which can be related to fracture planes in 3-dimensional space can be analyzed to define common plane orientation and locations. The vectors, points, and planes are displayed in various formats for interpretation.

  3. Structural Geology Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutch, Steven

    The University of Wisconsin - Green Bay has created this collection of material and instructions on how to analyze and plot structural geology data. Topics covered includes planes, lines, relations between lines and planes, geologic structures, intersection of structures with topography, stereonet techniques, stress and strain, and analysis of complex structures.

  4. Geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle, Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Valentina; Di Achille, Gaetano; Ferranti, Luigi; Rothery, David A.; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present a new geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle (H2) of Mercury, along with a reconnaissance study of the geometry and kinematics of lobate scarps in this area. To this end, we produced a 1:3,000,000 geologic map of the area using the images provided by the NASA spacecraft MESSENGER, which has been orbiting the planet since March, 2011. The geologic map shows the distribution of smooth plains, intermediate plains, intercrater plains units and a classification of crater materials based on an empirical distinction among three stages of degradation. Structural mapping shows that the H2 quadrangle is dominated by N-S faults (here grouped into the Victoria system) to the east and NE-SW faults (Larrocha system) to the west, with the secondary existence of NW-SE-trending faults (Carnegie system) in the north-western area of the quadrangle. A systematic analysis of these systems has led to the following results. 1) the Victoria system is characterized by a main array of faults located along Victoria Rupes - Endeavour Rupes - Antoniadi Dorsum. The segmentation of this array into three different sectors changes from north to south and is spatially linked to the presence of three volcanic vents located at the boundaries between each sector and at the northern end of the Victoria Rupes sector , suggesting that volcanism and faulting are interrelated 2) The main array of Carnegie system is kinematically linked and antithetical to the Victoria system. Both systems have arguably controlled the growth of a longitudinal, fault-free, crustal and gravimetric bulge in the central area of the Victoria quadrangle, which is interpreted as a regional contractional pop-up. 3) The Larrocha system is interrupted against the central bulge and thus is probably older than the Victoria and Carnegie systems. Buffered crater counting performed on the Victoria system confirms the young relative age of its fault segments with respect to the map units. The faults of the Victoria system post-date the smooth plains, even though the morphological evidence suggests a probable syndepositional fault activity. The structural analysis was supplemented by the method by Galluzzi et al. (2014, Geol. Soc. Lond., SP401) to calculate fault slip data using craters cross-cut by lobate scarps. Six analysable faulted craters are located within the H2 quadrangle and reveal that the Carnegie system and the Victoria - Antoniadi array have near-dip-slip kinematics. The former dips 30° eastward, the latter dips 15°-20° westward. Inversion of fault slip data allows estimation of the orientation of the strain field pertaining to the Victoria-Carnegie-systems, whose ?1 kinematic axis (shortening axis) trends 71° N.

  5. Texture analysis for automated classification of geologic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, V.; Rodriguez, J.J.; Gettings, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Texture present in aeromagnetic anomaly images offers an abundance of useful geological information for discriminating between rock types, but current analysis of such images still relies on tedious, human interpretation. This study is believed to be the first effort to quantitatively assess the performance of texture-based digital image analysis for this geophysical exploration application. We computed several texture measures and determined the best subset using automated feature selection techniques. Pattern classification experiments measured the ability of various texture measures to automatically predict rock types. The classification accuracy was significantly better than a priori probability and prior weights-of-evidence results. The accuracy rates and choice of texture measures that minimize the error rate are reported. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  6. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pollard

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology is a textbook that emphasizes modern techniques of field data acquisition and analysis, the principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills necessary to quantitatively describe, model, and explain the deformation of rock in Earth's lithosphere. This site provides an online interface for the book with supplementary materials for readers, instructors, and students. Resources include color photographs of outcrops, textbook figures, and supplementary illustrations for classroom presentations; student exercises to develop Matlab skills; Matlab scripts to make textbook figures dynamic, introduction to the concepts of differential geometry, mechanical models, and the evolution of geologic structures; and research quality data sets and solutions for instructors. The site also includes book information and links to additional resources.

  7. Photos of structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marli Miller

    This page contains four categories of structural geology photos: brittle structures, ductile structures, active tectonics, and unconformities. All photos are freely downloadable and are at resolutions sufficient for power point.

  8. Structural Geology 'Research' Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie Willis

    In this assignment students read and discuss a peer-reviewed journal article and prepare for and attend our class 'research' conference. In the conference they present on an area of current research as discussed in the journal article they read, and they practice formulating questions about other's research. Outcomes: 1. Read and discuss a structural geology peer-reviewed journal article. 2. Prepare a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of a current research topic in structural geology. 3. View and understand several diverse areas within geology and geophysics that use structural geology in research. 4. Ask questions relevant to a research presentation.

  9. Experiencing Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George H.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate structural geology course that incorporates field lab time and research. Lectures, outside readings, and in-class experimentation are coordinated with the field work to prepare a scientific report. (MA)

  10. Stratigraphy and structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Greeley, R.; Guest, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The immediate goal of stratigraphy and structural geology is to reduce the enormous complexity of a planetary surface to comprehensible proportions by dividing the near-surface rocks into units and mapping their distribution and attitude.

  11. Analysis of the Geologic Structure and Compilation of the Geologic Map of the Northern Part of Planet Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Burba, G. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Bobina, N. N.; Shashkina, V. P.; Head, J. W.

    Based on an analysis of the images of the Venusian surface obtained by the side-looking radar of the Magellan orbiter, a geologic map of the northern part of Venus (the region extending to the north of the 35°N latitude) at 1 : 10 000 000 scale is compiled. The map of this vast territory, comprising one-fifth of the planet surface, was compiled using only 12 geologic units, which implies a uniform character of terrains and land- forms on the investigated territory and, therefore, the uniformity of geologic processes that occurred on this planet. These units are the products of four main groups of geologic processes that occurred on Venus during the last 0.51 Myr: (1) basaltic volcanism; (2) tectonic compression and tensile deformation; (3) impact crater- ing; and (4) wind-related mobilization, transportation, and deposition of loose fine-grained materials. Basaltic volcanism is the main process that supplies new material on the surface of Venus. Tectonic deformation struc- tures, superposed on the material of different geologic units, determined the morphology of the units and formed the surfaces of unconformity between neighboring units. Ten of 12 geologic units form an age sequence that is virtually identical over the entire mapped territory of the planet. The possible incon- sistency of this sequence caused by anomalous relations existing between smooth plains (Ps) in the southeastern part of Lakshmi Planum and wrinkle ridged plains (Pwr) in the northern part of Sedna Planitia does not destroy this sequence as a whole. The results of our mapping support the model of global stratigraphy of Venus proposed by Basilevsky and Head (19951998) and provide evidence of the quasi-synchronous character of single-type geologic units on different areas of Venus rather than of the absence of synchronism. An analysis of the distribution of impact craters on different geologic units has shown the proximity of mean absolute ages of the material of the surface of Pwr plains, of the entire studied territory, and of the entire Venusian surface. The results of our analysis suggest that, within the area under study, the intensity of the leading geologic processes at the beginning of the studied segment of the geologic history was relatively high but decreased dramatically later.

  12. Java Structural Geology Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skylar L. Primm

    This website features Java programs that illustrate basic structural geology concepts. This suite of animations includes topics such as shear, stress versus strain, three dimensional strain, flow lines, rotating clasts and others. The animations are downloadable for Mac, PC and Linux.

  13. Structural Geology and Geomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The teaching and research program, Structural Geology and Geomechanics at Stanford University, concentrates on brittle deformation in the earth's crust as well as fracturing and faulting of rocks under ductile conditions. Researchers can learn about the group's research which effectively unites field observations, laboratory experiments, and theoretical modeling. Scientists can learn about the program's software such as the Poly3Dinv which uses triangular dislocations to solve linear inverse problems. The site also publicizes the Stanford Rock Fracture Project, which researches rock fractures, crustal deformation, and fluid flow.

  14. Teaching Resources in Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This portal provides access to an extensive selection of web-based teaching resources in structural geology. It features basic information on rock types, faults, folds, and other structures; virtual maps and field trips; and on strain and rheology. There is also a page of links to external sites on structural geology.

  15. Semi-automatic mapping of geological Structures using UAV-based photogrammetric data: An image analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuki, Yathunanthan; Holden, Eun-Jung; Kovesi, Peter; Micklethwaite, Steven

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in data acquisition technologies, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), have led to a growing interest in capturing high-resolution rock surface images. However, due to the large volumes of data that can be captured in a short flight, efficient analysis of this data brings new challenges, especially the time it takes to digitise maps and extract orientation data. We outline a semi-automated method that allows efficient mapping of geological faults using photogrammetric data of rock surfaces, which was generated from aerial photographs collected by a UAV. Our method harnesses advanced automated image analysis techniques and human data interaction to rapidly map structures and then calculate their dip and dip directions. Geological structures (faults, joints and fractures) are first detected from the primary photographic dataset and the equivalent three dimensional (3D) structures are then identified within a 3D surface model generated by structure from motion (SfM). From this information the location, dip and dip direction of the geological structures are calculated. A structure map generated by our semi-automated method obtained a recall rate of 79.8% when compared against a fault map produced using expert manual digitising and interpretation methods. The semi-automated structure map was produced in 10 min whereas the manual method took approximately 7 h. In addition, the dip and dip direction calculation, using our automated method, shows a mean±standard error of 1.9°±2.2° and 4.4°±2.6° respectively with field measurements. This shows the potential of using our semi-automated method for accurate and efficient mapping of geological structures, particularly from remote, inaccessible or hazardous sites.

  16. Structural Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...

  17. Analysis of Siting Criteria of Overseas Geological Repository (I): Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry are the main technical siting factors of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuels. This paper focused on how rock's different geological conditions, such as topography, soils, rock types, structural geology, and geological events, influence the functions of the geological repository. In the context, the site selection criteria of various countries were analyzed with respect to the geological conditions. Each country established the criteria based on its important geological backgrounds. For example, it was necessary for Sweden to take into account the effect of ice age on the land uplift and sea level change, whereas Japan defined seismic activity and volcanism as the main siting factors of the geological repository. Therefore, the results of the paper seems to be helpful in preparing the siting criteria of geological repository in Korea.

  18. Structural Geology Musical Chairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey Pignotta

    This is a culminating activity designed to have students interpret structures in hand sample. Enough hand samples are chosen for the number of students in the class. Students are given a short amount of time to observe all samples. Music is started and they walk around the samples until the music stops. Each student must then present a description and interpretation of the hand sample in front of them.

  19. Geologic Maps and Geologic Structures: A Texas Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Steinberg

    This Historical Geology lab exercise is an accompaniment to lab class instruction about geologic structures (folding and faulting) and geologic maps. It also serves as an excellent introduction to the Geology of the state of Texas. "Coloring" geologic maps, an important part of the exercise, may seem like a very elementary learning technique. But this lab engages students actively, and since the subject is often already somewhat familiar to them, emphasizing both the geology and geography of Texas, students receive it enthusiastically. This activity could be adapted to other regions, since most states have color 8 1/2 by 11 geologic maps available. A color map could be scanned and modified in Photoshop to create a simplified black and white version as was done in the assignment handout.

  20. SoftStructure: Structural Geology on a PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ze'ev Reches and others

    SoftStructure is a package of more than 20 programs (most under DOS) for Quantitative Analysis in Structural Geology, including: MOHR, SHEAR, STRAIN, FRY, CALCITE_TWINS, STRESS_INVERSION, FOLTING, CRACK, ESHELBY, FAULT_GROWTH, and more. These programs are available for free for research and teaching purposes.

  1. Infrared Analysis of Geological Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan; Clark, E. Roy

    1980-01-01

    Describes the infrared analysis of geological specimens which can form the basis of a laboratory exercise, allowing some minerals to be identified by "fingerprint" technique. Students can gain insight into the concept of symmetry and environment around an atom. (Author/SA)

  2. Structural Geology Mapping/GIS Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Rod

    This site contains Stereographic Projection and Rose Diagram plotting packages (GEOrient); a structural and drillhole calculator (GeoCalculator); strain, and shear zone calculators; geological field database information; and Geographic Information Systems (Mapinfo) software for plotting structural symbols on maps (GeoMapSymbol; previously GeoSymbol]. There are also several animations for teaching structural geology.

  3. A Graphical Approach to Quantitative Structural Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, Declan G.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how computer graphic methods can be used in teaching structural geology. Describes the design of a graphics workstation for the Apple microcomputer. Includes a listing of commands used with software to plot structures in a digitized form. Argues for the establishment of computer laboratories for structural geology classes. (TW)

  4. Gravimetric Study of Geological Structures of Teboursouk Area, Northern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Ayed-Khaled

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gravity data associated with surface geology in the Northern Tunisian Atlas offer better understand to the underlying structures in Teboursouk area and to highlight other deep or unknown structures in surface. The gravity study was based on qualitative and quantitative analysis including the construction of the gravity Bouguer anomaly, upward continuations, residual anomaly, and Horizontal gradient maxima maps. The main results display many positive and negative anomalies as the response of geological structures (J. Cheid Triassic structure, Khalled plain, El Aroussa plain. In addition, the horizontal gradient maxima integrated with geological and structural maps let the identification of major directions of gravimetric lineaments in the study area us NE-SW trending features at the boundaries of J. Cheid structure, NW-SE direction that limit Gaafour plain and Tabet Ech Cherif syncline, and N-S trending that bordered El Aroussa basin. Major results allowed the construction of a new structural map of the study zone.

  5. Google Earth Exercises for Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Dyess

    We use these Google Earth Exercises (GEE) in the undergraduate structural geology course. Students construct a complete geologic map of each 'field area' outside of class; in class, the students display their map and discuss their observations, interpretations, assumptions, and reasoning. This exercise promotes discussion among the students, and also provides students with the opportunity to develop speaking skills, as well as 'on-your feet' reasoning and analysis. Mapping can be done digitally using graphic software such as Adobe IllustratorTM or using hard copy images and overhead transparencies. (Digital mapping requires that the students have knowledge of working with, and access, to a graphics program such as Adobe IllustratorTM). Students also draw stratigraphic columns and cross-sections as needed; and they determine a relative sequence of events for each 'field' area. Cross section lines are included in the .kmz (Google Earth) file (not on the map images). This allows the instructor to move cross-section locations as needed. We have 3-4 students display and discuss maps for each exercise (usually takes about 30-45 min.); we encourage student to question their classmates; with time, our encouragement becomes less necessary. We have students construct geologic maps on transparencies and display the maps via an overhear projector keeping the LCD projector free to run Google Earth. Students can use Google Earth (flying to specific locations, or zooming in and out, or viewing specific locations from different perspectives) during their presentation to illustrate or support their interpretation, and logic path that lead to that interpretation to the class. This provides the opportunity for students to see how different people interpret the same area; they also learn that although each maps is different, each map tells a similar story; that is first-order relationships emerge from the family of maps constructed by their fellow classmates. After each discussion, all of the students display their maps on a side table in the classroom, providing the students with the opportunity to compare all of the maps of the same area. As a result they clearly see that all maps are different, yet each can be valid, and they also see how others handled both geologic relations, and, at a more basic level, clarity and neatness in presentation. As the semester progresses we see a sharp increase in the quality of the maps, both geologically and in terms of clarity and neatness, likely a direct result of students both viewing their classmates maps, and having their maps viewed by classmates. Peer pressure can be a wonderful learning tool. Each exercise focuses on a different area. An individual exercise or any combination of exercises maybe used at the instructor's discretion to compliment topics in either lecture or lab. The exercises, as presented, are ordered in such a way that they take the student progressively from relatively straightforward map areas to increasing complicated map areas. We begin the geologic mapping sequence using a Venus mapping exercise available on the SERC site http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/structure04/activities/3875.html in order to get the students to feel comfortable identifying and delineating patterns; we develop concepts about material units versus structural elements (and in some cases primary verses secondary structures; please see the Venus exercise for the range of students goals, which we do not repeat here). The first Google Earth Exercise, (GEE1) follows the SERC exercise 'Visualizing Inclined Contacts' by Barbara Tewksbury http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/structure/visualizing_inclined.html . Our GEE1 exercise is included below with all credit to Barbara Tewksbury. Subsequent exercises (GEE2, GEE3, etc.) include: faults and topographic interactions; folds and topographic interactions; faults and crosscutting dikes; refolded folds. These exercises may be used in any order and/or positioning within a course. We find that both the repetition of GEE exercises, and the progression of incre

  6. Development of multiple source data processing for structural analysis at a regional scale. [digital remote sensing in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrere, Veronique

    1990-01-01

    Various image processing techniques developed for enhancement and extraction of linear features, of interest to the structural geologist, from digital remote sensing, geologic, and gravity data, are presented. These techniques include: (1) automatic detection of linear features and construction of rose diagrams from Landsat MSS data; (2) enhancement of principal structural directions using selective filters on Landsat MSS, Spacelab panchromatic, and HCMM NIR data; (3) directional filtering of Spacelab panchromatic data using Fast Fourier Transform; (4) detection of linear/elongated zones of high thermal gradient from thermal infrared data; and (5) extraction of strong gravimetric gradients from digitized Bouguer anomaly maps. Processing results can be compared to each other through the use of a geocoded database to evaluate the structural importance of each lineament according to its depth: superficial structures in the sedimentary cover, or deeper ones affecting the basement. These image processing techniques were successfully applied to achieve a better understanding of the transition between Provence and the Pyrenees structural blocks, in southeastern France, for an improved structural interpretation of the Mediterranean region.

  7. GIS-technologies as a mechanism to study geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2014-05-01

    Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various range, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators is the way to aggregate geological knowledge. The south terrain of the Valerianovskaya structure-facies zone (SFZ) of the Torgai paleo-rift structure covered with thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks up to 2,000m is considered a so-called training ground for the development of GIS-technology. Parameters of known magnetite deposits located in the north of the SFZ (Sarybaiskoye, Sokolovskoye, etc.) are used to create the standard model. A meaning of the job implemented involves the following: - A goal-seeking nature of the research being performed and integration of the geological, geo-physical and other data (in many cases, efforts of the Earth scientists are odd, thus, solving only local tasks); - Development of specialized GIS-technology that ensures creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data; - Application of the modern approach to the geological, petrological and genetic modeling of the targets in the geological zone under survey; determination of the structural and tectonic position of the Valerianovskaya SFZ and its relations to the mineralization; - A possibility to apply the GIS created for the region as a desk (local) system integrated to the regional or national bank of geospatial information with a corporate access via local and global networks.

  8. Study on geology on the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Geology and geological structure from the surface to G.L. -300m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project, which is a scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLW), in order to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in the fractured crystalline rock. The MIU Project has three overlapping phases, Surface-based investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III), with a total duration of about 20 years. The goals of the MIU Project from Phase I to Phase III are to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and to develop a range of engineering techniques for deep underground application. Currently, the project is under Phase II and Phase III. One of Phase II goals is set up to develop and revise models of the geological environment using the investigation results obtained during excavation, and to determine and assess changes in the geological environment in response to excavation. This report aims compiling results of study on geology and geological structure from the surface to G.L. -300m in the Phase II and provides the fundamental information on the geology and geological structure for future study. This report are utilized in the updating of the geological models in the Phase II. (author)

  9. Study on geology on the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Geology and geological structure from G.L. -300m to G.L. -500m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project, which is a scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLW), in order to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in the fractured crystalline rock. The MIU Project has three overlapping phases, Surface-based investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III), with a total duration of about 20 years. The goals of the MIU Project from the Phase I to the Phase III are to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and to develop a range of engineering techniques for deep underground application. Currently, the project is under the Phase II and the Phase III. One of the Phase II goals is set up to develop and revise models of the geological environment using the investigation results obtained during excavation, and to determine and assess changes in the geological environment in response to excavation. This report aims at compiling results of study on geology and geological structure from G.L. -300m to G.L. -500m in the MIU construction site, investigated in the fiscal years from FY2008 to FY2012, in the Phase II and provides the fundamental information on the geology and geological structure for future study and modeling of geological environment. (author)

  10. Formation of secondary phases during deep geological final disposal of research reactor fuel elements. Structure and phase analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the assessment of a confident und sustainable final disposal of high level radioactive waste - fuel elements of german research reactors also account for such waste - in suitable, deep geological facilities, processes of the alteration of the disposed of waste and therefore the formation of the corrosion products, i. e. secondary phases must be well understood considering an accident scenario of a potential water inflow. In order to obtain secondary phases non-irradiated research reactor fuel elements (FR-BE) consisting of UAlx-Al were subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine (brine 2, salt repository) and to clay pore solution, respectively and furthermore of the type U3Si2-Al were solely subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine. Considering environmental aspects of final repositories the test conditions of the corrosion experiments were adjusted in a way that the temperature was kept constant at 90 C and a reducing anaerobic environment was ensured. As major objective of this research secondary phases, obtained from the autoclave experiments after appropriate processing and grain size separation have been identified and quantified. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and the application of Rietveld refinement methods allowed the identification of the corrosion products and a quantitative assessment of crystalline and amorphous contents. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were additionally applied as a complementary method for the characterisation of the secondary phases. The qualitative phase analysis of the preprocessed secondary phases of the systems UAlx-Al and U3Si2-Al in brine 2 shows many similarities. Lesukite - an aluminium chloro hydrate - was observed for the first time considering the given experimental conditions. Further on different layered structures of the LDH type, iron oxyhydroxide and possibly iron chlorides, uncorroded residues of nuclear fuel and elementary iron were identified as well. Depending on preceding preparation procedures of the secondary phases the phase mixture resulted in different constituents. By preparation in water the stable phases obtained were aluminium hydroxides and not lesukite. Crystalline phases containing silicon were solely observed in the system U3Si2-Al in brine 2 being prepared with water. Contrary to these observations the system UAlx-Al in Mont Terri solution (clay pore water) qualitatively exhibits distinct different phase contents. Goethite, gypsum, hemi hydrate (bassanite), and accessory hematite were the only crystalline phases observed. Additionally aluminium and UAl4 as residues of nuclear fuel were also found. Considering the quantification of the brine 2 systems many common observations could be made. With respect to the corrosion products of UAlx-Al und U3Si2-Al prepared with isopropanol, lesukite and LDH compounds are the most abundant phases. The amorphous content, elemental iron and uncorroded residues of the nuclear fuel are mainly enriched in the coarse grain size fraction > 63 ?m. The water treatment of the secondary phases resulted in much less yield of solids. Quantitatively aluminium hydroxides exhibited the highest abundance. Clear differences could be observed in the system UAlx-Al in Mont Terri solution in view of the fact that the amorphous phases show the highest content of the corrosion products. The secondary phases could retain radioactive isotopes on the one hand by in situ formation and on the other hand by additionally being placed into stock as backfill, respectively. As special objective for assessing the potential of retention the amount of incorporation of europium into the crystal lattice of LDH compounds has also been investigated. Up to 20 mole percent considering the amount of aluminium were substituted by inactive europium acting as a trivalent simulant homologue for actinides. The refinement of the lattice parameters clearly indicated a linear relationship between the increase of the europium amount and the increase of the lattice parameters. The capacity of the incorporation of repository relevant isotopes in th

  11. Geological structure and hydrogeologic conditions of the Herlany geyser structure (Eastern Slovakia)

    OpenAIRE

    Magyar Július; Rudinec Rudolf

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of new geological data from the surroundings of Herlany resulted in a new concept of geological structure and partly also of Herlany geyser`s mechanism. The concept in based on freatic water percolation and saturation by carbon dioxide ascending along faults into the water - bearing and sealed collector in Upper Badenian sequence.

  12. Geological structure and hydrogeologic conditions of the Herlany geyser structure (Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magyar Július

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of new geological data from the surroundings of Herlany resulted in a new concept of geological structure and partly also of Herlany geyser`s mechanism. The concept in based on freatic water percolation and saturation by carbon dioxide ascending along faults into the water - bearing and sealed collector in Upper Badenian sequence.

  13. Evaluation of ERTS-1 data applications to geologic mapping, structural analysis and mineral resource inventory of South America with special emphasis on the Andes Mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. D. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 data is ideally suited for small-scale geologic mapping and structural analysis of remote, inaccessible areas such as the Andes of South America. The synoptic view of large areas, low sun-angle and multispectral nature of the images provide the right ingredients for improving existing geologic and other maps of the regions. In most areas it has been possible to compile geologic, drainage, and cultural interpretive overlays to individual scenes mainly using MSS bands 4, 5, and 7. A test image mosaic using MSS band 6 is being compiled for Test Area 7 (La Paz, Bolivia). It will be at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and cover 4 x 6 degrees of latitude and longitude and will serve as a compilation base on which to join the overlays. Repetitive data shows changes in river channels and sedimentation plumes, changes in lake shorelines, and surface moisture distribution. Vegetation and snow line changes in the Andes have been recognized. A year of seasonal data, however, has not yet been acquired due to tape recorder failure.

  14. Interpreting geological structure using kriging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors applied kriging (geostatistics) to interpret the structure of basement rock in Yucca Flat, NTS from borehole data. The estimation error for 118 data is 81 m comparable with those based on both gravity and borehole data. Using digitized topographic data, they tested the kriging results and found that the model validation process (Thomas option) on data gave a fair representation of the overall uncertainty of the kriged values

  15. Earth Structure: An Introduction to Structural Geology and Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben van der Pluijm

    This is the home page for Ben van der Pluijm's and Steve Marshak's structural geology textbook. This page contains a brief synopsis of each of the chapters in their text. The chapter summaries in total provide an overview of the basic principles of structural geology and tectonics. Section A. covers Fundamentals such as force, stress, deformation, strain and rheology; Section B. covers Brittle Structures (faults, veins and joints); Section C covers Ductile Structures (folds, fabrics, shear zones etc); and Section D. covers Tectonics and Regional Deformation. The page also contains structural and tectonic animations and links to numerous related web sites and professional organizations.

  16. Three-dimensional Geological and Geo-mechanical Modelling of Repositories for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prove the suitability and safety of underground structures for the disposal of radioactive waste extensive geo-scientific research and development has been carried out by BGR over the last decades. Basic steps of the safety analysis are the geological modelling of the entire structure including the host rock, the overburden and the repository geometry as well as the geo-mechanical modelling taking into account the 3-D modelling of the underground structure. The geological models are generated using the special-construction openGEOTM code to improve the visualisation an d interpretation of the geological data basis, e.g. borehole, mine, and geophysical data. For the geo-mechanical analysis the new JIFE finite-element code has been used to consider large 3-D structures with complex inelastic material behaviour. To establish the finite-element models needed for stability and integrity calculations, the geological models are simplified with respect to homogenous rock layers with uniform material behaviour. The modelling results are basic values for the evaluation of the stability of the repository mine and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier. As an example of application, the results of geological and geo-mechanical investigations of the Morsleben repository based on 3-D modelling are presented. (authors)

  17. Structural effects of C{sub 60}{sup +} bombardment on various natural mineral samples-Application to analysis of organic phases in geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siljestroem, S., E-mail: sandra.siljestrom@sp.se [Department of Chemistry and Materials Technology, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 857, 501 15 Boras (Sweden); Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Lausmaa, J.; Hode, T. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Technology, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 857, 501 15 Boras (Sweden); Sundin, M. [YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, 114 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Sjoevall, P. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Technology, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 857, 501 15 Boras (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    Organic phases trapped inside natural mineral samples are of considerable interest in astrobiology, geochemistry and geobiology. Examples of such organic phases are microfossils, kerogen and oil. Information about these phases is usually retrieved through bulk crushing of the rock which means both a risk of contamination and that the composition and spatial distribution of the organics to its host mineral is lost. An attractive of way to retrieve information about the organics in the rock is depth profiling using a focused ion beam. Recently, it was shown that it is possible to obtain detailed mass spectrometric information from oil-bearing fluid inclusions, i.e. small amounts of oil trapped inside a mineral matrix, using ToF-SIMS. Using a 10 keV C{sub 60}{sup +} sputter beam and a 25 keV Bi{sub 3}{sup +} analysis beam, oil-bearing inclusions in different minerals were opened and analysed individually. However, sputtering with a C{sub 60}{sup +} beam also induced other changes to the mineral surface, such as formation of topographic features and carbon deposition. In this paper, the cause of these changes is explored and the consequences of the sputter-induced features on the analysis of organic phases in natural mineral samples (quartz, calcite and fluorite) in general and fluid inclusions in particular are discussed. The dominating topographical features that were observed when a several micrometers deep crater is sputtered with 10 keV C{sub 60}{sup +} ions on a natural mineral surface are conical-shaped and ridge-like structures that may rise several micrometers, pointing in the direction of the incident C{sub 60}{sup +} ion beam, on an otherwise flat crater bottom. The sputter-induced structures were found to appear at places with different chemistry than the host mineral, including other minerals phases and fluid inclusions, while structural defects in the host material, such as polishing marks or scratches, did not necessarily result in sputter-induced structures. The ridge-like structures were often covered by a thick layer of deposited carbon. Despite the appearance of the sputter-induced structures and carbon deposition, most oil-bearing inclusions could successfully be opened and analysed. However, smaller inclusion (<15 {mu}m) could potentially become entirely covered by sputter-resistant structures and therefore difficult to open. Therefore, it might become necessary, to for example increase the ion energy and rotate the stage to successfully open smaller inclusions for analysis. SIMS, C{sub 60}, carbon deposition, topography, mineral, fluid inclusions, geological samples, depth profiling.

  18. Relationship between hypocentral distribution and geological structure in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the accurate hypocentral distribution and three-dimensional (3-D) geological structure in and around the Horonobe area in northern Hokkaido, Japan. The multiplet-clustering analysis was applied to the 421 micro-earthquakes which occurred from 1 September, 2003 to 30 September, 2007. The 3-D geological structure model was mainly constructed from previous seismic reflection profiles and borehole data. As a result of this analysis, although with slight differences in depth between them, the hypocenters were found to be distributed in the NNW-SSE direction and become deeper from the west toward the east. The distributed pattern of the hypocenters is similar to that of the geological structure. These results indicate that the hypocentral distribution may represent existence of active zone related to the geological structure, and provide effective information which can contribute to establishing methods for estimating the future evolution of the geological environment. (author)

  19. A 3D analysis of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile around Kobe City, Japan: based on ARCGIS 3D Analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Ohwada, M.; Oyama, Y.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakama, J.

    2008-12-01

    Kobe city is located on the northern side of Osaka sedimentary basin, Japan, containing 1,000-2,000 m thick Quaternary sediments. After the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (January 17, 1995), a number of geological and geophysical surveys were conducted in this region. Then high-temperature anomaly of groundwater accompanied with high Cl concentration was detected along fault systems in this area. In addition, dissolved He in groundwater showed nearly upper mantle-like 3He/4He ratio, although there were no Quaternary volcanic activities in this region. Some recent studies have assumed that these groundwater profiles are related with geological structure because some faults and joints can function as pathways for groundwater flow, and mantle-derived water can upwell through the fault system to the ground surface. To verify these hypotheses, we established 3D geological and hydrological model around Osaka sedimentary basin. Our primary goal is to analyze spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data, seismic profiling data, groundwater chemical profile, were reported. We converted these datasets to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. Furthermore, we projected seismic profiling data into three dimensional space and calculated distance between faults and sampling points, using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer. This research project has been conducted under the research contract with the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

  20. Applications of neutron activation analysis in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of reactor neutron activation analysis was developed in the early 1980's in China. It can be widely employed in geological research. the work carried out by authors in recent years were mentioned. The following topics were included: precious metal prospecting and assessment, especially for the minute grain Au and Ag deposits; geochemical prospecting and tracing uranium sources; distinguishing silicolites of different origins; comprehensive utilization of mineral resources; and the research on reference standard samples as well

  1. SEDIMENT ANALYSIS NETWORK FOR DECISION SUPPORT (SANDS) MODIS GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF AL (GSA) ANALYSIS V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support (SANDS) MODIS Geological Survey of AL (GSA) Analysis -- The Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) generated this dataset...

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is an element of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). GAP helps to implement the Department of Interior?s goals of inventory,...

  3. Fracture analysis for engineering geological utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H.I.; Choi, P.Y.; Hong, S.H.; Chi, K.H.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, S.R.; Lee, S.G.; Park, D.W.; Han, J.G. [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The problem of geological hazards (earthquakes) and water or thermal resources urges us to understand the regional tectonic setting or recent tectonics. The Uisong Subbasin is located in one of the seismicity zones in Korea. Because the reactivity of the Gaeum Fault System is an important problem focussing on these faults, we studied their whole extension and timing of faulting in terms of tectonics. Fault tectonic analysis is so effective as to easily reconstruct the tectonic sequence and each stress state at each site, eventually in a region. One can get insights for faulting timing in terms of the restored tectonic sequence, and discriminating the active faults or the faults active in the last (present) tectonics. Examining the filling materials in tension gashes, one can get raw knowledge regarding the thermal states at each site. For this study, we first analyzed the topographic textures (lineament, drainage and circular structures) on the relief map produced based on the topographic maps of 1:100,000 scale. Through investigations of susceptible area along the faults, their existence and movement modes were studied, and we can get information about movement history and whole extension of the faults belonging to the WNW-ESE trending Gaeum Fault System. In order to reconstruct the tectonic sequence, we measured fault slip data, tension gashes and dikes, from which fault populations were classified and stress (and thermal) states were determined. Seven compressional tectonic events and six extensional events were reconstructed. Because coaxial events partially coexisted, we bundled these events in one, finally we get seven tectonic events. Determining the types of minerals filling the tension gashes, we suggested the possibility of investigation of geothermal resources with less efforts. (author). 162 refs., 14 tabs., 51 figs.

  4. Improvement of seismic imaging of complex geologic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquet, B.

    1996-04-11

    Successful imaging of complex geologic structures by pre-stack depth migration requires a correct velocity model of the subsurface. In recent years, it has been proposed to use pre-stack depth migration of the cube of pre-stack depth migrated images and the subsequent use of the interpretation for velocity model update. However, in complex geologic structures, pre-stack depth migration does not yield results of sufficient quality for interpretation. We therefore propose a new wave-field imaging technique based on linearized inversion using the paraxial approximation of the wave equation. Using this technique we can remove the artifacts contaminating the individual depth images by integrating a priori information in the inverse problem. The application of the method to synthetic and real data shows that it allows us to largely improve the quality of the depth images at reasonable cost.We thus obtain an interpretable cube of depth images that makes migration velocity analysis feasible in complex structures. In 3D, due to the size of the problem there is still a large interest in using post stack techniques for velocity model determination. The quality of the results of such techniques relies on the quality of the stacking process. Classical data stacking techniques rely on simplifications that are not valid anymore in case of complex geologic structures. We propose a data stacking technique based on depth domain stacking after pre-stack depth migration, followed by explosive reflector modeling, to obtain the stacked seismic data. This method which is totally automatic yield 3 D stacked data that are suitable for 3D post stack velocity determination techniques.

  5. Comparative analysis of the impact of geological activity on the structural design of telescope facilities in the Canary Islands, Hawaii and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eff-Darwich, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Rodriguez-Losada, J. A.; de La Nuez, J.; Hernández-Gutiérrez, L. E.; Romero-Ruiz, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    An analysis of the impact of seismic and volcanic activity has been carried out at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile), and the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones (Chile). Hazard associated with volcanic activity is low or negligible at all sites, whereas seismic hazard is very high in Chile and Hawaii. The lowest geological hazard in both seismic and volcanic activity is found at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, on the island of La Palma.

  6. Geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrocarbon System Ourd Mya is located in the Sahara Basin. It is one of the producing basins in Algeria. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesosoic, it is about 5000 m thick. In the eastern part, the basin is limited by the Hassi-Messaoud high zone which is a giant oil field produced from the Cambrian sands. The western part is limited Hassi R'mel which is one of the biggest gas field in the world, it is produced from the triassic sands. The Mesozoic section lays on the lower Devonian and in the eastern part, on the Cambrian. The main source rock is Silurian shale with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic matter of 6 % (14 % in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also a source rock but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Triassic sequence which is mainly fluvial deposit with complex alluvial channels, it is the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs within the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential in the east of the basin through a southwest-northeast orientation. The late Triassic-Early Jurassic evaporites overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya Basin. This is considered as a super-seal evaporate package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For Paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column.This paper descr the stratigraphic column.This paper describe the main geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria. (authors)

  7. Geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dobra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocarbon System Ourd Mya is located in the Sahara Basin. It is one of the producing basins in Algeria. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesosoic, it is about 5000 m thick. In the eastern part, the basin is limited by the Hassi-Messaoud high zone which is a giant oil field produced from the Cambrian sands. The western part is limited by Hassi R`mel which is one of the biggest gas field in the world, it is produced from the triassic sands. The Mesozoic section lays on the lower Devonian and in the eastern part, on the Cambrian. The main source rock is Silurian shale with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic matter of 6 % (14 % in some cases. Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also a source rock but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Triassic sequence which is mainly fluvial deposit with complex alluvial channels, it is the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs within the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential in the east of the basin through a southwest-northeast orientation. The late Triassic-Early Jurassic evaporites overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya Basin. This is considered as a super-seal evaporate package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For Paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column.This paper describe the main geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria.

  8. Point and line geologic structure information in "Structure, outcrop, and subcrop of the geologic structure information for the Arapahoe and Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers.

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set consists of points and lines representing symbolization of geologic structure information for the Arapahoe and Laramie-Fox Hills...

  9. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-11-05

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity.

  10. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M andO) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity

  11. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the repository design. These downstream models include the hydrologic flow models and the radionuclide transport models. All the models and the repository design, in turn, will be incorporated into the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of the potential radioactive waste repository block and vicinity to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a host for the repository. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 2

  12. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the repository design. These downstream models include the hydrologic flow models and the radionuclide transport models. All the models and the repository design, in turn, will be incorporated into the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of the potential radioactive waste repository block and vicinity to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a host for the repository. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 2.

  13. Developing Successful Learning Strategies in Structural Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caprariis, Pascal P.

    2002-01-01

    Makes the case that geologic fieldwork requires more than knowledge of basic skills learned in the standard undergraduate curriculum. Argues that synthesis of the skills into a schema must be done before one can address the kinds of problems that arise when doing field investigations. Argues for the use of descriptive geometry and trigonometry in…

  14. Using Computer Spatial Technologies (Geoplus Petra) for Subsurface Geological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Barnes

    The student compiles oil field well data, including spatial locations and digital well logs, for analysis of subsurface, oil reservoir stratigraphy and lithology using computer spatial technologies software, Geoplus Petra. The students create well log cross sections, make lithologic picks, construct structure and isopach maps, and evaluate lithologic properties, including gross reservoir quality from petrophysical logs. These data are used to interpret depositional environment of the subject formation and make predictions for well bore perforations for oil production. The key value of the exercise is an introduction to the use of computer software to analyze geological data, guided by sedimentologic and stratigraphic insights, and make predictions for resource exploitation.

  15. Three-dimensional Morphological Analysis for Geological Bodies and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Zou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To address the spatial Morphological analysis of complex geological bodies in stereoscopic quantitative prediction of concealed ore bodies, a three-dimensional morphological analysis method for geological bodies based on 3-dimensional raster model under visualization environment was put forward by combining mathematical morphology with Euclidean distance transform theory. Firstly, the 3-dimensional visualization models for geological bodies were constructed on the basis of the 3-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM technology; Secondly, the algorithm for extracting the surface shape trend of geological body with the 3-dimensional raster model was proposed by using mathematical morphology filtering. By the combination of morphological filtering, global set operation and three-dimensional Euclidean distance transform, the models for the quantitative analysis and hierarchical extraction of the shape undulance were established. Lastly, as a case study, the three-dimensional morphological analysis method was applied in analyzing quantitatively the Xinwuli magmatic body in Fenghuangshan ore field in Tongling, Anhui Province. By means of the calculation model of Euclidean distance field, the quantitative extraction of the shape trend and shape undulance as well as the angle between geological interface and trend surface, as the quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors, were achieved after building the 3D raster models of the magmatic body. The results show that the morphological analysis method is feasible to calculate various morphological parameters of complex geological bodies and extract quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors successfully for stereoscopic quantitative predication of concealed ore bodies.

  16. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region's geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published

  17. Integrated Field Project in Structural Geology and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Malinconico

    The field project described in the Big Horn Basin is a capstone experience for our innovative full-year course sequence that combines two geologic disciplines traditionally taught separately (in "silos") sedimentology/stratigraphy and structural geology. We feel that a holistic approach that combines an understanding of the processes involved in both disciplines allows students to more easily develop the geologic history of an area from collected field data. The result is a two-semester course sequence that integrates the concepts of the two disciplines through a full year of study. While we have more than ten different field projects during the year, these are simply "snapshots" that allow the student to only see a piece of the geologic puzzle. These exercises do develop skills that the student will use in the capstone experience the geologic synthesis of a specific region currently the Sheep Mountain region of the Big Horn Basin. The field-mapping project in the Big Horn Basin is followed by five weeks of sequenced work that allows each student to synthesize a complete geologic (sedimetologic and structural) history of the region. This includes the construction of a geologic map and cross-sections, understanding the depositional history (including environments of deposition), the syn- or post-depositional deformation of the region and an attempt to put the local geologic history into the context of regional deformation and tectonics. We believe that by integrating the disciplines into the two-semester sequence capped with the field mapping and synthesis better prepares students to "think like a geologist".

  18. Numerical Models for Exploration and Visualization of Complex Geological Phenomena in an Undergraduate Structural Geology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinen, L. A.

    2008-12-01

    Computational science methods are often used to investigate and illustrate complex geological phenomena. To provide geology students with opportunities to both visualize and explore such phenomena, I have incorporated the program Poly3D into an undergraduate Structural Geology course. Poly3D is a three- dimensional boundary-element program developed at Stanford University, and is well suited to modeling joints and faults in a homogeneous, isotropic, linear-elastic whole or half space. In a series of guided inquiries throughout the course, students use Poly3D to explore the relationships between rock properties, joint/fault geometries, applied stresses or displacements, and the resultant deformation. With each subsequent assignment, student independence in the investigation increases, from initial visualizations of stresses at crack tips and investigation of controls on joint spacing, to individual and/or team proposals and research projects investigating specific student-generated questions in structural geology. I will present initial results from this teaching experiment and examples of the projects which have been executed, including the preparation students received to be able to use the program. Discussion and suggestions (particularly about effective means of conducting rigorous long-term assessment of student learning) are strongly encouraged.

  19. Geological Structures As Reflection of Mantle Convection and Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalova, V. B.

    The origin and evolution of geological structures could be a clue for understanding of crust-mantle interaction. For simulation of geological processes and geological struc- tures evolution in connection with deep mantle movements all possible geological- geophysical data were combined and analysed and the mechanical-mathematical mod- els of different rheology were used. Interpretation of petrological, geological, geother- mal and geophysical data was made also on the base of deep drilling and geotransects. Mantle activity of different scale can be reflected in surface dynamics. So on the base- ment of super plume can arise instability of smaller scale (diapirs). As plume is re- sponsible for whole Alpine belt activization as diapirs are connected with evolution of the belt sedimentary basins and rifts. The next problems were considered: form- ing and evolution of sedimentary basins, geothermal evolution of sedimentary cover, interaction of changeable sedimentary cover with crust and mantle lithosphere, re- construction of deep mantle motions by movements of basement surface, simulation of back-arc spreading, geodynamics of collision zones of lithospheric plates, geody- namics of rifts, stress state of the lithosphere, stress distribution and change in the lithosphere and asthenosphere during mantle upwelling and geological structures evo- lution. Modelling gives possibility to calculate P-T parameters distribution in the lay- ers of lithosphere and asthenosphere in the process of the evolution. Some geological effects can be explained by mantle dynamics. The existing of stretching zones in back arc basins can be explained by upwelling of mantle diapirs as a result of geothermal effect and raising of asthenosphere in the process of collision of deep mantle flows. In analitical decision it is possible to find critical parameters of the problem, connecting the form of diapir, its depth and velocity with structure of the Earth's surface. Defin- ing boundary conditions on the basement surface it is possible to make some conclu- sions about deep mooving in asthenosphere. Mantle upwelling can be evaluated by geothermal-gravity data. The results of modelling are investigated on the examples of the Pre-Caspian Depression, Russian Platform, Baikal rift, sedimentary basins of Brazil, Pacific and Alpine belts geological structures and give good agreement with geological-geophysical data.

  20. Using Layer-Cake Geology to Illustrate Structural Topographic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the difficulties of visualizing underlying geologic structural patterns by using maps or wooden blocks. Suggests the use of a modified layer cake to show dipping beds, folds, faults and differential erosion, as well as the relationships of stream valleys to outcrop patterns. (TW)

  1. Evaluation of ERTS-1 data applications to geologic mapping, structural analysis and mineral resource inventory of South America with special emphasis on the Andes Mountain region. [Bolivia, Chile, and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. D. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The La Paz Mosaic and its attendant overlays serve as a model for geologic studies elsewhere in the world. The P.I. and two geologists are mapping the conterminous states at scales of 1:5000,000 and 1:1,000,000. The 1:5 million band 5 mosaic was completed in two days of analysis. The 1:1 million band sheets are being completed at the rate of one per day. Comparison of the preliminary results of the three investigators shows a high correlation of linear and curvilinear features. Comparison with magnetic and gravity data indicates that many features being mapped are deep seated structures that have been active through long periods of geologic time, perhaps dating back to the Precambrian period. A detailed analysis of the El Salvador mining district has been completed. The interpretation is extremely detailed showing a complex pattern of linear features and bedrock outcrop patterns. This is the first product from ERTS-1 to be provided by Chile and shows a high degree of expertise in image interpretation. The Chileans are enthusiastic about their results and are anxious to map the entire country using ERTS.

  2. Indoor Field Study for Structural Geology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jeffrey K.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how basic mapping skills are taught in a large lab space using various arrangements of books to portray structural information. Reports an increase in student confidence and ability to synthesize data during field work. (DDR)

  3. Auscultamiento de estructuras geológicas en la cuenca chacoparanense a partir de la aplicación de métodos potenciales / Analysis of geologic structures in the Chacoparanense basin based on the application of potential methods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.E., Gimenez; P.M., Martínez; F., Ruíz; A., Introcaso.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta en el área de la cuenca Chacopampeana, noroeste de Argentina, un análisis preliminar geológico - geofísico, basado en los métodos potenciales.El área de estudio se ubica hacia el noreste de la ciudad de Santiago del Estero y parte noroeste de la provincia de Chaco, entre los 25° y 27° S [...] de latitud y 61° a 63° O de longitud. Se relevaron aproximadamente 1.000 nuevos puntos gravimétricos, que fueron agregados a la base de datos del Instituto de Física de Rosario, Universidad Nacional de Rosario y del Instituto Geofísico Sismológico Volponi, Universidad Nacional de San Juan. Con los datos obtenidos se preparó una carta de anomalías de Bouguer. La carta de anomalías, fue filtrada y procesada para separar efectos gravimétricos y se confeccionó un modelo cortical para una sección A-A´. El modelo cortical, indica la presencia de una estructura ubicada en la corteza superior. Este modelo justifica la residual de Bouguer.El área de estudio, posee características geológicas adecuadas de presencia de hidrocarburos, pero hasta el momento no se han descubierto estructuras geológicas de interés económico. En el presente estudio, mostramos una anomalía de Bouguer positiva, sin evidencias superficiales que podría interpretarse como una estructura geológica con potencial económico. Abstract in english A preliminary geological-geophysical analysis of the Chacopampeana area of north-eastern Argentina is presented from the application of potential field methods. The study area is located mostly in the north-east of the province of Santiago del Estero, and partly in north-west of the province of Chac [...] o, between latitudes 25° S and 27° S and longitudes 61° W to 63° W. We obtained approximately 1,000 new gravity points, that were added to the database of the Instituto de Física de Rosario, Universidad Nacional de Rosario and of the Instituto Geofísico Sismológico Volponi, Universidad Nacional de San Juan. A Bouguer anomaly map has been prepared from these data. The map was processed and filtered, and a cortical model produced, confirming the residual Bouguer values and indicating the presence of a structure located in upper crust. The study area has geological characteristics appropriate for the presence of hydrocarbons, although geological structures of economic interest have not yet been discovered. A positive gravity anomaly, without superficial expression, could be interpreted as a geological structure with economic potential.

  4. Auscultamiento de estructuras geológicas en la cuenca chacoparanense a partir de la aplicación de métodos potenciales Analysis of geologic structures in the Chacoparanense basin based on the application of potential methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Gimenez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta en el área de la cuenca Chacopampeana, noroeste de Argentina, un análisis preliminar geológico - geofísico, basado en los métodos potenciales.El área de estudio se ubica hacia el noreste de la ciudad de Santiago del Estero y parte noroeste de la provincia de Chaco, entre los 25° y 27° S de latitud y 61° a 63° O de longitud. Se relevaron aproximadamente 1.000 nuevos puntos gravimétricos, que fueron agregados a la base de datos del Instituto de Física de Rosario, Universidad Nacional de Rosario y del Instituto Geofísico Sismológico Volponi, Universidad Nacional de San Juan. Con los datos obtenidos se preparó una carta de anomalías de Bouguer. La carta de anomalías, fue filtrada y procesada para separar efectos gravimétricos y se confeccionó un modelo cortical para una sección A-A´. El modelo cortical, indica la presencia de una estructura ubicada en la corteza superior. Este modelo justifica la residual de Bouguer.El área de estudio, posee características geológicas adecuadas de presencia de hidrocarburos, pero hasta el momento no se han descubierto estructuras geológicas de interés económico. En el presente estudio, mostramos una anomalía de Bouguer positiva, sin evidencias superficiales que podría interpretarse como una estructura geológica con potencial económico.A preliminary geological-geophysical analysis of the Chacopampeana area of north-eastern Argentina is presented from the application of potential field methods. The study area is located mostly in the north-east of the province of Santiago del Estero, and partly in north-west of the province of Chaco, between latitudes 25° S and 27° S and longitudes 61° W to 63° W. We obtained approximately 1,000 new gravity points, that were added to the database of the Instituto de Física de Rosario, Universidad Nacional de Rosario and of the Instituto Geofísico Sismológico Volponi, Universidad Nacional de San Juan. A Bouguer anomaly map has been prepared from these data. The map was processed and filtered, and a cortical model produced, confirming the residual Bouguer values and indicating the presence of a structure located in upper crust. The study area has geological characteristics appropriate for the presence of hydrocarbons, although geological structures of economic interest have not yet been discovered. A positive gravity anomaly, without superficial expression, could be interpreted as a geological structure with economic potential.

  5. Usage of a borehole acoustic image in structural geology.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie

    Praha : P?írodov?decká fak. UK, 2011 - (Bukovská, Z.; Novotná, N.). s. 56 ISBN 978-80-7444-009-0. [Studentská geologická konference 2011. 19.05.2011-20.05.2011, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/367 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : structural geology Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  6. Geologic Analysis of Priority Basins for Exploration and Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Reeves, T.K.

    1999-04-27

    There has been a substantial decline in both exploratory drilling and seismic field crew activity in the United States over the last 10 years, due primarily to the declining price of oil. To reverse this trend and to preserve the entrepreneurial independent operator, the U.S. DOE is attempting to encourage hydrocarbon exploration activities in some of the under exploited regions of the United States. This goal is being accomplished by conducting broad regional reviews of potentially prospective areas within the lower 48 states. Data are being collected on selected areas, and studies are being done on a regional scale generally unavailable to the smaller independent. The results of this work will be made available to the public to encourage the undertaking of operations in areas which have been overlooked until this project. Fifteen criteria have been developed for the selection of study areas. Eight regions have been identified where regional geologic analysis will be performed. This report discusses preliminary findings concerning the geology, early tectonic history, structure and potential unconventional source rocks for the Black Mesa basin and South Central states region, the two highest priority study areas.

  7. Some Peculiarities of the Geological Structure of Strong Earthquake Source Zones of Armenia and Their Seismisity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanesyan, M.; Durgaryan, R.

    2008-12-01

    This article describes the geological structure of some of the source-zones of strong earthquakes which have often occurred on the territory of the Republic of Armenia. On the basis of the analysis of the reached results and their comparison with more than 30 earthquake zones of the Prehistorical, historical and recent periods, which have occurred in the adjacent regions. We have presented the geological structural model of the source zones of strong earthquakes of the Armenian Upland. Armenia Upland is located in the collision zone of the Arabian and Eurasian plates and encompasses a part of the territory of Southern Caucasus, Eastern Anatolia and North-West Iran. This area is characterized by high seismicity. Numerous sources of strong (M>6.0) Prehistorical and historical earthquakes are exerted. About 20 strong earthquakes occurred only in 20th century here. The present paper is dedicated to the geological-structural peculiarities of the sources zone is a part physical-geological model of strong earthquakes sources of Armenian Upland . The Armenian Upland has composite mosaic-bloc frame which has been formed beginning form the Pre- Cambrian period up to the Holocene included. The sources of strong earthquakes are dated for different geological-structural conditions. At the same time definite regularities of the geological structure and tectonic position are observed. Assemblage of these regularities will allow us to create the source zone geological "image." This can be used for seismic hazard assessment and earthquake prediction in this region. In the contemporary structure the juncture zones are represented by sub parallel long live, modern active faults included. Their intensely folded, scaly structure is clearly pronounced. An expansion of ophiolits, olistostrom, as well as a linear (according to a general structure) stretch of intrusive bodies is typical for this zones. Sources of the other earthquakes represent zones of deep faults. These zones are either buried (unseen) or pronounced on the day surface only by individual fault fragments of that zone. While studying the structure of some source zones of strong earthquakes we can notice that went active faults are situated in the place where tectonic mélange and olistostrome level of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age spread. In this work described young ruptures, probably seismogenic natures. Connection of modern geodynamics with geodynamic active structures of the geological past is considered.

  8. A critical review of rock slope failure mechanisms: The importance of structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Doug; Wolter, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Geological structures such as folds, faults, and discontinuities play a critical role in the stability and behaviour of both natural and engineered rock slopes. Although engineering geologists have long recognised the importance of structural geology in slopes, it remains a significant challenge to integrate structural geological mapping and theory into all stages of engineering projects. We emphasise the importance of structural geology to slope stability assessments, reviewing how structures control slope failure mechanisms, how engineering geologists measure structures and include them in slope stability analyses, and how numerical simulations of slopes incorporate geological structures and processes.

  9. Effects of Rock Type and Geologic Process on the Structure and Evolution of Nano, Meso and Micro-Scale Porosity: A (U)SANS, SEM/BSE Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovitz, L.; Wang, H.; Cole, D. R.; Rother, G.

    2012-12-01

    The microstructure and evolution of porosity in time and space play a critical role in many geologic processes, including the migration and retention of water, gas and hydrocarbons, the evolution of hydrothermal systems, weathering, diagenesis and metamorphism, as well as technological processes such as CO2 sequestration, shale gas and secondary oil recovery. The size, distribution and connectivity of these confined geometries collectively dictate how fluids migrate into and through these micro- and nanoenvironments, wet and react with mineral surfaces. (Ultra)small-angle neutron scattering and autocorrelations derived from SEM/BSE imaging provide a method of quantifying pore structures in a statistically significant manner from the nanometer to the centimeter scale. Data from this approach suggests that there are significant primary and evolutionary differences between the multiscale pore structures of carbonate and clastic rocks. Our work on the St. Peter sandstone shows total porosity correlates with changes in pores structure including pore size ratios, surface fractal dimensions, and lacunarity. There is no evidence of mass-fractal scattering and while previous scattering data from sandstones suggest scattering is dominated by surface fractal behavior over many orders of magnitude, our data show both fractal and pseudo-fractals. Larger pores fill at a faster rate than small pores as overgrowths form, leading to an increase in the small/large pore ratio. Overall, therefore, the relative importance of fluid reactions in confined geometries is likely to increase with increased silcrete formation. The changes observed with overgrowth formation in sandstones contrast with available data for metamorphism of chemical sediments (limestones) in both the Marble Canyon contact aureole, TX (Anovitz et al., 2009), and the Hatrurim Fm. (the Mottled Zone), Israel. The unmetamorphosed limestones both show distinct multifractal scattering patterns at larger scales, and true surface fractals at smaller scales. Total porosity increases with metamorphism, as does the surface area to volume ratio. The mass fractal dimension increases with metamorphic grade. In the Hatrurim the surface fractal dimension also increase suggesting that increases in pore mass density and formation of less branching pore networks are accompanied by a roughening of pore/grain interfaces. Ds changes are more complex at Marble Canyon, possibly due to hydrothermal processes. Pore evolution during combustion metamorphism is also characterized by reduced contributions from small-scale pores to the cumulative porosity in the high-grade rocks. The evolution of pore/grain microstructures may be correlated to the growth (nucleation) of high-temperature phases that preferentially close small pores, producing a rougher morphology with increasing temperature. The transition to a rough morphology may be a consequence of pore/grain surface free energies that are smaller than those that arise from heterogeneous phase contacts. Large-scale pores may also develop at the expense of small-scale pores. [1] Anovitz et al. (2009) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 7303-7324. Research sponsored by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Spreadsheet log analysis in subsurface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doveton, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the direct knowledge of the geology of the subsurface is gained from the examination of core and drill-cuttings recovered from boreholes drilled by the petroleum and water industries. Wireline logs run in these same boreholes generally have been restricted to tasks of lithostratigraphic correlation and thee location of hydrocarbon pay zones. However, the range of petrophysical measurements has expanded markedly in recent years, so that log traces now can be transformed to estimates of rock composition. Increasingly, logs are available in a digital format that can be read easily by a desktop computer and processed by simple spreadsheet software methods. Taken together, these developments offer accessible tools for new insights into subsurface geology that complement the traditional, but limited, sources of core and cutting observations.

  11. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: safety analysis of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the safety aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - safety approach: context and general goal, references, design approach by safety functions, safety approach during the construction-exploitation-observation-closure phase, safety analysis during the post-closure phase; 2 - general description: HLLL wastes, granitic environment, general structure of the architecture of a disposal facility; 3 - safety functions and disposal design: general context, safety functions of the long-term disposal, design dispositions retained to answer the functions; 4 - operational safety: people's protection, radiological risks during exploitation, risk analysis in accident situation; 5 - qualitative safety analysis: methodology, main results of the analysis of the features, events and processes (FEP) database; 6 - disposal efficiency evaluation during post-closure phase: calculation models, calculation tools used for the modeling of radionuclides transport, calculation results and main lessons. (J.S.)

  12. Using Concept Maps to Plan an Introductory Structural Geology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    This report presents the results of incorporating constructivist methods, including concept maps, into an undergraduate structural geology curriculum. A concept map is a visual representation of concepts and their relationship to each other in a body of knowledge. They show the hierarchy of these concepts and emphasize the links between them. The overall goal of this project was to encourage students to adopt a deep/holistic approach to learning in order to better understand the concepts of structural geology. The authors sought to determine whether teaching methods became more overtly constructivist, whether there was a change in the order of presentation of topics, and whether the order of presentation normally followed by textbooks was the same as the order determined using concept maps.

  13. Hydrogeologic role of geologic structures. Part 1: the paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Russell L.; Williams, Roy E.; Ralston, Dale R.

    1994-04-01

    Grouting to reduce fracture permeability is one option for minimizing ground water inflow to a large, acid-producing lead-zinc mine in fractured metamorphic rock in north Idaho. For grouting to reduce mine water inflow effectively, the hydrogeologic characteristics of the various scales of structurally controlled fracturing must be identified and a conceptual model of the ground water flow system must be developed. This paper is the first of two papers which use fracture mapping, geologic structural mapping, and a series of underground hydraulic stress tests to develop a conceptual model of structurally controlled ground water flow in the vicinity of the mine. These data were collected in an effort to identify order within the structurally controlled spatial permeability distribution. Geologic structural discontinuities, ranging from joints to faults that extend for several miles, form a geologic structural hierarchy in the rock surrounding the mine. The tiers of the hierarchy control ground water flow into the mine at different scales. The most prominent faults control ground water inflow on the scale of the entire mine. Various levels of hydraulic continuity are evident within the rock mass bounded by two of the most prominent faults. The highest level of hydraulic continuity appears to be associated with a set of sub-parallel, steeply dipping faults. Minor faults, joints, and relict bedding planes to a limited extent connect the fractures of this set and form a lower level of hydraulic continuity. The next lower level of hydraulic continuity within the hierarchy is related to a major fault that is characterized in drill core by abundant gouge. The hydraulic continuity of the matrix within the unfractured quartzite is the lowest level within the hierarchy. These levels constitute the components of the order within the spatial permeability distribution that we have interpreted from the structural and hydraulic stress test data.

  14. Seismicity and Geologic Structures Indubitable in Wadi Hagul, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Seleem

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleo and recent earthquakes have been recorded in Wadi Hagul area and its environs, which have left behind geologic structures of deformation preserved in exposed sedimentary rocks. To evaluate such deformation and surface break, different techniques and data types are used compromising image processing techniques, Geographic Information Systems (GIS, seismicity data, as well as, field investigation. The field investigation clarified that the study area is enriched with soft-sediment deformation structures encompassing two types of geologic structures; brittle and viscoplastic structures. The analysis of the various types of data elucidate that, the earthquakes of Wadi Hagul are frequently distributed at an average depth ranging from (1 to 35 km within the top of the Earth’s crust which are mainly controlled by existing Hagul fault zone. The study gives new insight for a better understanding of the seismic activity in the study area which helps in the seismic hazard assessment

  15. Determination of subsurface geological structure with borehole gravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional gamma-gamma and gravimetric density measurements are routinely gathered for most holes used for underground nuclear tests. The logs serve to determine the subsurface structural geology near the borehole. The gamma-gamma density log measures density of the rock within about 15 cm of the borehole wall. The difference in gravity measured at two depths in a borehole can be interpreted in terms of the density of an infinite, homogeneous, horizontal bed between those depths. When the gravimetric density matches the gamma-gamma density over a given interval it is assumed that the bed actualy exists, and that rocks far from the hole must be the same as those encountered adjacent to the borehole. Conversely, when the gravimetric density differs from the gamma-gamma density it is apparent that the gravimeter is being influenced by a rock mass of different density than that at the hole wall. This mismatch can be a powerful tool to deduce the local structural geology. The geology deduced from gravity mesurements in emplacement hole, U4al, and the associated exploratory hole, UE4al, is an excellent example of the power of the method

  16. Spatial Abilities of High-School Students in the Perception of Geologic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes specific spatial abilities required in geology studies through the examination of the performance of high school students in solving structural geology problems on the geologic spatial ability test (GeoSAT). Concludes that visual penetration ability and the ability to perceive the spatial configuration of the structure are…

  17. Induced seismicity constraints on subsurface geological structure, Paradox Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Lisa V.; Wood, Christopher K.; Yeck, William L.; King, Vanessa M.

    2015-02-01

    Precise relative hypocentres of seismic events induced by long-term fluid injection at the Paradox Valley Unit (PVU) brine disposal well provide constraints on the subsurface geological structure and compliment information available from deep seismic reflection and well data. We use the 3-D spatial distribution of the hypocentres to refine the locations, strikes, and throws of subsurface faults interpre­ted previously from geophysical surveys and to infer the existence of previously unidentified subsurface faults. From distinct epicentre lineations and focal mechanism trends, we identify a set of conjugate fracture orientations consistent with shear-slip reactivation of late-Palaeozoic fractures over a widespread area, as well as an additional fracture orientation present only near the injection well. We propose simple Mohr-Coulomb fracture models to explain these observations. The observation that induced seismicity preferentially occurs along one of the identified conjugate fracture orientations can be explained by a rotation in the direction of the regional maximum compressive stress from the time when the fractures were formed to the present. Shear slip along the third fracture orientation observed near the injection well is inconsistent with the current regional stress field and suggests a local rotation of the horizontal stresses. The detailed subsurface model produced by this analysis provides important insights for anticipating spatial patterns of future induced seismicity and for evaluation of possible additional injection well sites that are likely to be seismically and hydrologically isolated from the current well. In addition, the interpreted fault patterns provide constraints for estimating the maximum magnitude earthquake that may be induced, and for building geomechanical models to simulate pore pressure diffusion, stress changes and earthquake triggering.

  18. Integrating remote sensing and magnetic data for structural geology investigation in pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Ratib; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Khalil, Ahmed; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan. The analysis of surface data, including a digital elevation model (DEM), and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images, was combined with airborne magnetic data to better understand three-dimensional geology in the area. The ETM+ and DEM data were used to map geological structures at the surface, which indicate that the area consists of two main fault systems that trend NNE and E-W. The two trends represent the remnants of reactivated structures that formed under the stress regimes generated during the tectonic evolution of eastern Afghanistan. Magnetic data indicate an NE-SW trending basin. A two-dimensional schematic model shows that the basin gradually deepens toward the SW with depths to the magnetic basement ranging between 2 and 11.5 km. The integration of the results gave new insight into the tectonic evolution and structure patterns near the pegmatites area.

  19. Spatial Coupling Among Landslides, Geological Structures, Cataclinal Slopes, and Fluvial Knick Zones in Nepal Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, T. P.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work aims to identify potential landslide hazard zones in the event of heavy precipitation and seismic activity by examining spatial relationships among existing landslides, earthquake epicenters, fault zones, cataclinal (dip) slopes, anaclinal (escarp) slopes, and river steepness index in the Nepal Himalaya. In order to understand this relationship we have mapped existing landslides on Google Earth images and ESRI base maps, assembled high-resolution digital topographic data by digitizing Nepal Government published topographic maps, and gathered geological data from detailed field mapping and compilation of published geological maps. Slope angle and aspect, and dip direction and angle were extracted from GIS-based digital topographical and geological datasets to develop the new slope maps with cataclinal (dip) and anaclinal (escarp) slope distributions. Longitudinal river profiles were also extracted from high resolution DEM's derived from manually digitized contours. The slope maps with cataclinal and anaclinal slope distributions, earthquake epicenters, major geological structures, longitudinal river profiles, and landslide inventories were visualized in ESRI ArcMap 10.2 to examine the spatial correlation among landslides, fault zones, cataclinal slopes and river steepness index. We have found that landslides are spatially correlated with cataclinal slopes and fluvial knick zones with high steepness index in certain thrust boundaries. The main finding of this work is that the topographic slope threshold alone is a crude measure of landslide susceptibility. The analysis of slope using the geometric relationship among topography and geological bedding is crucial for determining landslide susceptibility in the Himalayan region.

  20. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  1. The results of borehole acoustic imaging from a granite in the Jihlava District, Czech Republic: implications for structural geological research.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie; Novák, P.; Brož, Milan; Sosna, K.; Pitrák, K.; Kasíková, J.; Rukavi?ková, L.; Ma?ák, L.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 4, ?. 4 (2012), s. 92-101. ISSN 1916-9779 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/367 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : acoustic borehole imaging * structural geology * paleostress analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  2. Evaluation of LANDSAT-1 image applications to geologic mapping, structural analysis and mineral resource inventory of South America with special emphasis on the Andes Mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. D. (principal investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The discovery of copper mineralization along a lineament mapped in Area 7 (La Paz) has lent credence to the use of LANDSAT 1 data as a basic step in mineral exploration. In Area 9 (Copiapo Region), a number of lineaments were found to be associated with the largest copper deposits of the region. In Area 12 (Magallanes), the identification of what is believed to be a tertiary basin from LANDSAT 1 data has resulted in a new area for petroleum exploration. Band 7 images, as black and white transparencies, were found to be the most useful for geologic interpretation in both tropical vegetated areas and desert regions. Color composites made by the diazochrome process, chromaline process, and from color additive viewers provided additional information. Mosaics of LANDSAT 1 data covering 4 x 6 degrees of latitude and longitude compiled at the 1:1,000,000 scale were found to be an ideal size and format for most users.

  3. Hydrogeologic role of geologic structures. Part 2: analytical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Russell L.; Williams, Roy E.; Ralston, Dale R.

    1994-04-01

    This paper is the second of two papers that address the influence of geologic structures on ground water flow at various scales in fractured rocks. The ultimate purpose of this research is to investigate the feasibility of grouting preferentially permeable zones as a strategy to minimize the production of acid mine drainage in underground hard rock mines in which the major permeability is structure and fracture controlled. The aim of grouting is to reduce permeability around mined-out openings, to minimize the rate of inflow of ground water into such openings via the structurally controlled preferentially permeable pathways. A series of hydraulic stress tests were conducted to help characterize the role of geologic structures in controlling the ground water flow system in the vicinity of the Bunker Hill Mine in north Idaho. The results of these tests indicate that most of the ground water that flows from the underground drillholes used for hydraulic stress testing is derived from a few discrete, structurally produced fracture zones that are more or less connected through smaller-scale fractures. Four types of analytical models are considered as a means of analyzing the results of multiple drillhole hydraulic stress tests, as follows: cross-hole equivalent porous media; double-porosity equivalent porous media; a solution to flow in and around a single vertical fracture; leaky equivalent porous media, partial penetration. The estimation of hydraulic coefficients in complex fractured rock environments involves the combined application of a number of deterministic analytical models. The models to be used are selected dependent on the location of the drawdown observations relative to the water-producing zone and the length of the test. The result of the tests can be related to the permeability hierarchy discussed in our first paper.

  4. The EVEREST project: sensitivity analysis of geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the EVEREST project is the evaluation of the sensitivity of the radiological consequences associated with the geological disposal of radioactive waste to the different elements in the performance assessment. Three types of geological host formations are considered: clay, granite and salt. The sensitivity studies that have been carried out can be partitioned into three categories according to the type of uncertainty taken into account: uncertainty in the model parameters, uncertainty in the conceptual models and uncertainty in the considered scenarios. Deterministic as well as stochastic calculational approaches have been applied for the sensitivity analyses. For the analysis of the sensitivity to parameter values, the reference technique, which has been applied in many evaluations, is stochastic and consists of a Monte Carlo simulation followed by a linear regression. For the analysis of conceptual model uncertainty, deterministic and stochastic approaches have been used. For the analysis of uncertainty in the considered scenarios, mainly deterministic approaches have been applied

  5. SITE-94. Development of a geological and a structural model of Aespoe, southeastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study is to construct three-dimensional geological and structural models to be used within the SKI SITE-94 project as a base for modelling hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and rock mechanical bedrock conditions, mass transport and layout of a hypothetical repository. The basic input data in the SITE-94 geological and structural models are restricted to geological and structural readings and geophysical measurements made prior to building the Hard Rock Laboratory. 114 refs, 82 figs, 28 tabs

  6. Characteristics of geological structure with the Lira explosions and possible ways of radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaceful nuclear explosions were detonated on the northern side of Karachaganak deposit to create cavities for storing gas condensate. Despite the detailed study of the salt dome by means of drilling, a number of questions were not answered, regarding internal structure of space above the dome, and salt tectonics. These questions are important for prognosis of radionuclide contamination of territory. By means of acquisitions, and analysis of geologic information, and reconstruction of structures, one can forecast four stratigraphic levels for possible migration of radionuclides. It is recommended to use the acquired data during the experimental researches of 'Lira' explosions. (author)

  7. Combined NLCG/SBI magnetotelluric data inversion for recognition of complex geological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Geological interpretation of magnetotelluric data is a subject of some misunderstandings. Simplified geometrically and well contrasted in resistivity models do not response for real geological environment. The aim of outstripping magnetotelluric works widely made in Polish Outer Carpathians, is general structural and lithological recognising of geological environment and distinguishing of areas where oil prospection will be projected. The geological medium is formed by sedimentary formations, strongly deformed and containing relatively thin layers with essentially differentiated parameters, overlying rather flat, high resistivity basement. Application of simplified strongly contrasted interpretation model with fluently changing parameters gives frequently results not corresponding with geological reality. Presented analysis is based on surveys located in marginal zone of Carpathianst in the area relatively well recognised, where interpreted structural and lithologic model rather well reflects real geological medium. Then, it was used as reference model for obtained results of MT data inversion. Magnetotelluric continuous profiling located along reflection seismic profile, between two deep boreholes was made. Set of results of computations allows to evaluate of effectiveness of used procedures and suggest optimum way of dealing. First stage of data interpretation was based on 1D and EMAP inversion. The section was then applied as sversion. The section was then applied as starting model for 2D NLCG inversion. Results of this method give rather generalized resistivity distribution well reflecting structure of flysch cover but not adequate for the basement. This models was applied as starting models for SBI inversion constrained by borehole data. Results of SBI procedure well reflects relatively flat complexes of the basement, but are rather unrealistic for folded flysch cover. The another NLCG inversion was computed with stabilised model of basement obtained from SBI inversion. Obtained resistivity cross section was relatively concordant to reference model. This paper is a result of the statutory research of the Department of General Geology, Environment Protection and Geotourism, project No 11.11.140.447. Results of project supported by grant from the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology under contract no 5T12B 041 25 were also used.

  8. Evaluation of structural behavior, geological and hydrogeological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the behavior of an underground structure properly, this report includes the study on the structural behavior of rock masses surrounding underground openings considering the effect of excavation. Before analyzing the underground structure, the followings are studied: initial stress distribution before excavation, stress release and redistribution due to the sequential excavation, comparison of analysis methods, discussions on numerical simulation techniques for the sequential excavation and an numerical analysis modeling. The underground structure in then analyzed using the finite element and distinct element methods of analysis considering the effect of sequential excavation, Based on the results of the analysis, the followings are discussed: shape of the opening, distance between openings, method and sequence of excavation, and structural reinforcement. (Author)

  9. Hudson Valley Fold and Thrust Belt Field Trip (Structural Geology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha Growdon

    This structural geology field trip in the Hudson Valley region reinforces class discussions about fold and thrust belts and thin-skinned tectonics. Students observed a ramp anticline over a ramp-flat geometry fault. The anticline has minor faulting and veining in the hinge zone and folding occurred by flexural slip (evident from down-dip slickenlines on bedding surfaces). Students make observations and sketches of the outcrop and take strike and dip measurements of bedding and fault surfaces. Students can also look for a very weak cleavage. Students can use attitude measurements to reinforce key principles of stereonets including plotting lines, planes, and poles and interpreting the orientation of the fold axis (or other information) from these nets.

  10. SEDIMENT ANALYSIS NETWORK FOR DECISION SUPPORT (SANDS) LANDSAT GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF AL (GSA) ANALYSIS V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) analyzed changes in the coastal shoreline and sedimentation using Landsat geotiff images as part of the Sediment Analysis...

  11. Study on the Geological Structure around KURT Using a Deep Borehole Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize geological features in study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing the several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drilling since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. Recently, the deep borehole of 500 m depths was drilled to confirm and validate the geological model at the left research module of the KURT. The objective of this research was to identify the geological structures around KURT using the data obtained from the deep borehole investigation. To achieve the purpose, several geological investigations such as geophysical and borehole fracture surveys were carried out simultaneously. As a result, 7 fracture zones were identified in deep borehole located in the KURT. As one of important parts of site characterization on KURT area, the results will be used to revise the geological model of the study area

  12. Large volcanoes on Venus: Examples of geologic and structural characteristics from different classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, J. W.; Aubele, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Large volcanoes characterized by radial lava flows and similar evidence for a topographic edifice are widely distributed over the surface of Venus and geologically diverse. Based on the global identification of more than 165 examples and preliminary geologic mapping, large volcanoes range from those characterized geologically as simple lava edifices to those bearing evidence of complexly developed volcanic and structural histories. Many large volcanoes exhibit characteristics transitional to other large magnetic center types such as coronae and novae. In this study, we examine the geology and structure of several type examples of large volcanoes not addressed in previous studies which are representative of several of the morphological classes.

  13. Multipass SAR interferometry. A tool for geologic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanelli, A.; Russo, L.; Celardo, G.; Murino, P. [Naples Univ. Federico 2., Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza e Ingegneria dello Spazio L. G. Napolitan

    2001-02-01

    This paper investigates how the information content of repeat pass satellite SAR interferometric (INSAR) data can be used to provide the geologist with a tool which can improve his ability and efficacy in the geologic analysis of SAR imagery. INSAR processing produces interferometric fringes, coherence and amplitude images. To produce an interferometric DEM phase unwrapping is a critical step. For phase unwrapping, it is proposed the WLMS (Weighted Least Mean Square) estimation of the phase, which is a generalization of the least-mean square method. The crucial step in WLMS approach is the weighting procedure. It is proposed a weighting algorithm based on the fusion of a priori information extracted from different interferometric products. These different information channels-DEM, amplitude and coherence-can be effectively fused to convey information to the geologic interpreter using 3D stereoscopic visualization; SAR stereo pairs were artificially generated using the interferometric DEM and the intensity image or the coherence image of the area overlaid. In order to ascertain the performance of the procedure a number of tests were carried out over various sites in Matese (Southern Italy), which has a fairly demanding topography, using ERS SAR tandem data. The results demonstrate that WLMS unwrapping method is sufficiently robust in capturing the morphology of the area and that stereoscopic visualization greatly facilities geologic interpretation and the observation of detailed features of the terrain.

  14. Multipass SAR interferometry. A tool for geologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates how the information content of repeat pass satellite SAR interferometric (INSAR) data can be used to provide the geologist with a tool which can improve his ability and efficacy in the geologic analysis of SAR imagery. INSAR processing produces interferometric fringes, coherence and amplitude images. To produce an interferometric DEM phase unwrapping is a critical step. For phase unwrapping, it is proposed the WLMS (Weighted Least Mean Square) estimation of the phase, which is a generalization of the least-mean square method. The crucial step in WLMS approach is the weighting procedure. It is proposed a weighting algorithm based on the fusion of a priori information extracted from different interferometric products. These different information channels-DEM, amplitude and coherence-can be effectively fused to convey information to the geologic interpreter using 3D stereoscopic visualization; SAR stereo pairs were artificially generated using the interferometric DEM and the intensity image or the coherence image of the area overlaid. In order to ascertain the performance of the procedure a number of tests were carried out over various sites in Matese (Southern Italy), which has a fairly demanding topography, using ERS SAR tandem data. The results demonstrate that WLMS unwrapping method is sufficiently robust in capturing the morphology of the area and that stereoscopic visualization greatly facilities geologic interpretation and the observation ologic interpretation and the observation of detailed features of the terrain

  15. Development and improvement of safety analysis code for geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to confirm the long-term safety concerning geological disposal, probabilistic safety assessment code and other analysis codes, which can evaluate possibility of each event and influence on engineered barrier and natural barrier by the event, were introduced. We confirmed basic functions of those codes and studied the relation between those functions and FEP/PID which should be taken into consideration in safety assessment. We are planning to develop 'Nuclide Migration Assessment System' for the purpose of realizing improvement in efficiency of assessment work, human error prevention for analysis, and quality assurance of the analysis environment and analysis work for safety assessment by using it. As the first step, we defined the system requirements and decided the system composition and functions which should be mounted in them based on those requirements. (author)

  16. Geological Interpretation of the Structure and Stratigraphy of the A/M Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological interpretation of the structure and stratigraphy of the A/M Area was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of deeper Cretaceous aged geological strata and structure on shallower Tertiary horizons

  17. Geodetic And Geological Analysis Of The Tandilia Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cogliano, D.; Dallasalda, L.

    2007-05-01

    Keywords: Tandilia-Geoid-Anomaly-Collision-Transamazonic The oldest Precambrian rocks of the south-western Gondwana in South America are cropping out in the Río de la Plata craton, it encompasses the western region of Uruguay, the Martín Garcia island and the Tandilia Ranges in the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The Tandil Ranges are the oldest region in Argentina (1.8- 2.2Ga); however, some features of the crust still remain unknown. These rocks evolved during two main events:Transamazonian and Brasilian tectonic cycles. The local and regional gravitational effects were analyzed on gravity and height anomalies. The studied are extended on 400 km x 400 km area which includes three geological units: the Tandilia ranges, and the Claromecó and Salado basins. Due the dependence of gravity and height anomalies with the distance, the seconds are more suitable to analyze the crust interior. For this reason a very precise cuasi geoid model was calculated using the point masses method, from gravity and GPS/leveling data. Taking into account the topography (less than 500 m high hills) and the Bouguer anomalies values (| AB | < 35 mGal), the differences between the cuasi geoid and the geoid will are less than 1 cm. In consequence the geoid undulations (N) were used. The EIGEN-CG01C geopotential model allowed to remove the wavelengths of more than 1000 km of the local geoid (Nobs=N-Neigen). This made it possible to analyze the signals attributed to the structure of Tandilia, and the Claromecó and Salado basins influence on it. In Tandilia geophysical, geodetic and geologic analysis allowed to postulate an isostatic compensated Airy model (Nisost) with a 42 km thick crust (2.84 gr/cm3) resting on a 3.24 gr/cm3 density mantel. Residuals geoid distribution (Nobs-Nisost) shows a tendency to the eastern edge of the ranges. This anomaly is interpreted as the presence of an upper crust excess of mass, which, from Olavarría and Azul hills (north of Tandilia) it extends to the southwest running mainly along the eastern edge of the ranges until the continental platform. This anomaly is attributed to a basic-ultrabasic tectonic slab, a relict of a suture (oceanic bottom and astenosphere) from a continent-continent collision (Transamazonian orogeny). This collisional model was previously based on the presence of wide areas of gneisses, migmatites and granitoids (leucogranites), of sub volcanic and lava flows, of a polifase metamorphic-deformational style, of swarms of pre-metamorphic belts, and of a strong piling up of the crust, associated to thrusting and transcurrence; as well as minor lenses of ultrabasic rocks, that seem to also be part of the suture as a result of a "mantel pinching" during collision.

  18. Geological structure of the Paradox Valley Region, Colorado, and relationship to seismicity induced by deep well injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Vanessa M.; Block, Lisa V.; Yeck, William L.; Wood, Christopher K.; Derouin, Sarah A.

    2014-06-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) operates a deep injection well at Paradox Valley in western Colorado. Seismicity has been recorded since 1985, with more than 5900 likely induced earthquakes detected since injection operations began in 1991, making this project a unique and valuable case study in the long-term development of injection-induced seismicity. Likely induced earthquakes occur in a complex pattern with clusters separated by aseismic gaps of 2 km or more, and have been observed up to 16 km from the injection well. To evaluate how the subsurface geologic structure may control the occurrence of induced seismicity, we compare the earthquake locations to a set of geologic models that Reclamation commissioned prior to drilling the injection well. Our analysis indicates that many aspects of the observed seismicity pattern can be attributed to the complex geologic structure. The earthquake depths and locations are generally consistent with the structural trends of the primary injection target formation, within the uncertainty of the models, and some of the mapped basement faults appear to serve as boundaries in the earthquake locations, suggesting that they are barriers to flow. Additionally, the majority of events follow the predicted fluid flow pattern, which trends northwest-southeast and wraps around Paradox Valley. Some features of the seismicity pattern, such as the early onset of seismicity to the northwest of the injection well and the distinct clustering, are not explained by the current geologic models and may be related to unmapped geologic features or local variations in the stress field.

  19. Analysis of anions in geological brines using ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, R.M.

    1985-03-01

    Ion chromatographic procedures for the determination of the anions bromide, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and iodide in brine samples have been developed and are described. The techniques have been applied to the analysis of natural brines, and geologic evaporites. Sample matrices varied over a range from 15,000 mg/L to 200,000 mg/L total halogens, nearly all of which is chloride. The analyzed anion concentrations ranged from less than 5 mg/L in the cases of nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate, to 20,000 mg/L in the case of sulfate. A technique for suppressing chloride and sulfate ions to facilitate the analysis of lower concentration anions is presented. Analysis times are typically less than 20 minutes for each procedure and the ion chromatographic results compare well with those obtained using more time consuming classical chemical analyses. 10 references, 14 figures.

  20. A mathematical formulation for large strain analysis of geologic continua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution method is presented for finite-deformation analysis of geologic materials. The principle of virtual work is used to state the equations of equilibrium in a weak form. These equations are linearized about the last-established equilibrium configuration. A material constitutive relationship between the Green-Naghdi stress rate and the rate-of-deformation tensor is used to obtain the current stresses. The finite-element governing equations are expressed in a form suitable for an iterative solution strategy. The obtained gradient matrix contains the effects of both material and geometric nonlinearities. The primary application area of this formulation is the analysis of long-term deformation response of the region adjoining the mining shafts and the waste emplacement rooms within a nuclear waste repository. In this region, the strains are expected to be large, and the infinitesimal strain analysis would introduce inaccuracies in the solution. 19 refs., 6 figs

  1. Geological and Geophysical aspects of the Kurdashi structure, Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper is a case history of the improved characterization of a complex structure in the Azerbaijan offshore achieved by application of advanced seismic tools such as 3 D Pre-Stack Depth Migration and Continuity Depth Cube volumes.The investigation focuses on the Kurdashi Permit and adjacent areas of southern most Azerbaijan, near its boundary with Iran (Fig.1).It considers the techniques used to visualize the subsurface, the resulting subsurface model and implications for its geological history revealed by the more detailed seismic tools.The Kurdashi Permit is operated by AGIP AZERBAIJAN, a subsidiary of the Italian ENI Agip Division.The permit itself encompasses a faulted regional anticlinorium of Neogene series clastic rocks comprising three separate culminations.Seismic imaging in this area is challenged by widespread shallow or near-surface gas, steep dips, and mud volcanoes connected to irregularly shaped mud chambers and associated velocity anomalies.Targets are relatively deep measured in TWT due to both their actual depth and the relatively slow velocities of the sedimentary section.A 3D seismic survey covering about 900 sq km was acquired by Caspian Geophysical over the entire permit.The conventional time processing was executed by Veritas.Subsequently AGIP generated a 3D Pre-Stack Depth Migration and Continuity Cube and the relevant interpretations.

  2. Diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish strategy to handle the spent fuel from the nuclear power plants is direct disposal in a geological repository. The safeguards regime covering all nuclear material in the state will be expanded to cover the new repository, which will require a novel safeguards approach due mainly to the inaccessibility of the fuel after disposal. The safeguards approach must be able to provide a high level of assurance that the fuel in the repository not diverted, but must also be resource efficient. An attractive approach with regards to use of resources is to monitor only the access points to the repository, i.e. the openings. The implementation of such an approach can only be allowed if it is shown to be sufficiently secure. With the purpose of determining the applicability of this 'black box' approach, a diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository has been carried out. The result from the analysis shows that all credible diversion paths could be covered by the black-box safeguards approach provided that the identified boundary conditions can be met

  3. Analysis of integrated geologic data for uranium exploration in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic information system (GIS) related to Nuclear Raw Materials is in current development in the Scient. Inform. Dept. (NMC). Processing of data follows developed criteria in U-exploration. Landsat image interpretation, photo lineaments, field measured joints, faults, folds, foliation, lineation, and deformed pebbles when properly integrated and computerized have pointed out a comprehensive tectonic model related to the CED of Egypt. The area seemed to be subjected to three deformative stages, in the first two; rocks undergone plastic deformation, while in the third one, rocks failed in brittle mode where the Red Sea Transverse Tectonic Trend (ENE-WSW) was developed intersecting the older plastically developed linear elements (NW-SE). Further rejuvenations permit opening the mentioned fractures and occupied by siliceous materials and jasperoid veins and lastly by U-type mineralization, best depicted in the plutons of El Missikat, El Erediya, Um Had and Kab Amiri. The Oligocene Qatrani Formation, north of Lake Qarun, NWD of Egypt is a typical example of fluviatile deposits. The middle clayey member is enclosed between two porous sandy members. The carbonaceous shale related to the clayey member shows abnormal U-concentrations. Statistical analysis of the distribution of uranium and other trace elements in the carbonaceous shale shows that U, Y, Mn and Ca obey the lognormal law while Sr, Rb, Zr, Cr and Ti obey the normal law. A geologic factor is derived that normall A geologic factor is derived that normally distributed elements are stationary, indigenous probably of detrital origin. Meanwhile, other lognormally distributed elements are active and mobile. Subsurface mapping shows that uranium tends to concentrate in the troughs of the flexured carbonaceous shale suggesting an epigenetic origin. 14 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Evaluation of structural behavior, geological and hydrogeological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural behavior of radioactive waste disposal facilities may be greatly influenced by earthquakes through ground shaking and earthquake-induced ground evaluation of radioactive waste repositories. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of computational models considering the effects of discontinuities and an improvement of structural analysis methods are essential in order to predict properly the dynamic behavior of underground rock caverns subjected to seismic loadings. The purpose of this study is to examine the structural behavior of rock cavern within discontinuous rock masses subjected to dynamic loadings with the objective that the results of this study will become a basis for understanding the effects of ground motion associated with earthquakes on underground radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is divided into three parts. In the first part, computational models for discontinuous rock masses and equations of motion for a rigid block model are discussed. In the second part, the distinct element program written for the static and dynamic analysis of discontinuous rock masses is presented. A few practical examples of structural analyses of rock caverns within discontinuous rock masses subjected to dynamic loadings using the distinct element computer program are presented in the third part of this report. (Author)

  5. Entropy-Based Set Pair Analysis Model on Geological Disaster Risk for Military Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Fengshan Wang; Hongjun Zhang; Quanbing Rong

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the geological disaster-risked situation, is a typical non-deterministic decision-making issue in disaster pre- vention and emergency response science for military engineering. Based on the given geological disaster risk analysis mechanism, geological disaster risk monitoring matrix was established, and risk characters’ value was obtained by mining the hidden information in the monitoring matrix with Entropy theory; with Identity, Discrepancy, and Contrary of Set Pair Analysis and d...

  6. Imaging 3D geological structure of the Mygdonian basin (Northern Greece) with geological numerical modeling and geophysical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cédric, Guyonnet-Benaize; Fabrice, Hollender; Maria, Manakou; Alexandros, Savvaidis; Elena, Zargli; Cécile, Cornou; Nikolaos, Veranis; Dimitrios, Raptakis; Artemios, Atzemoglou; Pierre-Yves, Bard; Nikolaos, Theodulidis; Kyriazis, Pitilakis; Emmanuelle, Chaljub

    2013-04-01

    The Mygdonian basin, located 30 km E-NE close to Thessaloniki, is a typical active tectonic basin, trending E-NW, filled by sediments 200 to 400 m thick. This basin has been chosen as a European experimental site since 1993 (European Commission research projects - EUROSEISTEST). It has been investigated for experimental and theoretical studies on site effects. The Mygdonian basin is currently covered by a permanent seismological network and has been mainly characterized in 2D and 3D with geophysical and geotechnical studies (Bastani et al, 2011; Cadet and Savvaidis, 2011; Gurk et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2010; Pitilakis et al, 1999; Raptakis et al, 2000; Raptakis et al, 2005). All these studies allowed understanding the influence of geological structures and local site conditions on seismic site response. For these reasons, this site has been chosen for a verification exercise for numerical simulations in the framework of an ongoing international collaborative research project (Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project - E2VP). The verification phase has been made using a first 3D geophysical and geotechnical model (Manakou, 2007) about 5 km wide and 15 km long, centered on the Euroseistest site. After this verification phase, it has been decided to update, optimize and extend this model in order to obtain a more detailed model of the 3D geometry of the entire basin, especially the bedrock 3D geometry which can affect drastically the results of numerical simulations for site effect studies. In our study, we build a 3D geological model of the present-day structure of the entire Mygdonian basin. This "precise" model is 12 km wide, 65 km long and is 400 m deep in average. It has been built using geophysical, geotechnical and geological data. The database is heterogeneous and composed of hydrogeological boreholes, seismic refraction surveys, array microtremor measurements, electrical and geotechnical surveys. We propose an integrated workflow, adapted to heterogeneous geological, geophysical and geotechnical data in order to integrate this database in 3D. This database is integrated in 3D in a geomodelling software (gocad). We build 3D surfaces with constraining data, using DSI method (Discrete Smooth Interpolation). This 3D geological model led to the 3D geometry of the main geophysical/geological boundaries (bedrock, boundaries in the sedimentary filling) and to a precise quantification of the 3D volume of the sedimentary filling of the basin. The results of this study will be used in the second phase of the E2VP project for numerical simulations at the scale of the entire Mygdonian basin.

  7. Neutron activation analysis of minerals from Cuddapah basin geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green and yellow serpentines along with two associated minerals namely dolomite and intrusive rock dolerite obtained from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India were analyzed by k0-based neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA) method. Gold (197Au) was used as the single comparator. Two reference materials namely USGS W-1 (geological) and IAEA Soil-7 (environmental) were analyzed as control samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method. A total of 21 elements present at major, minor and trace concentrations were determined in serpentines as well as associated minerals. The elemental concentrations were used for distinguishing and characterizing these minerals, and also to understand the extent of segregation of elements from the associated or host mineral rocks to serpentines. (author)

  8. Hydrogen analysis by p-p scattering in geological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been concluded by geologists that a significant amount of hydrogen is stored as point defects in nominally anhydrous minerals. Determination of the amount of hydrogen bound in these minerals is a step towards determining the total water content of the earth mantle as well as comprehending its internal water cycle. The possibility to measure hydrogen in thin geological samples by elastic p-p scattering has been investigated at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe. In this work the development of the experimental procedure and standardisation of data analysis is described. Special emphasis has been put into doing the data analysis as simple as possible and at the same time applicable to all sorts of thin samples, even those of unknown nature. A special annular surface barrier detector composed of two insulated detector halves, which are read out simultaneously, is used to detect the recoiled proton and the scattered proton in coincidence. Conditions on the difference in time and energy of the detected particles, enables us to distinguish true hydrogen events from false or random ones. Homogeneous Mylar foils with known hydrogen content are used as reference material and enables determination of the total amount of hydrogen in the bulk of the geological samples as well as depth profiling, in order to separate contaminations in the surface from the bulk concentrations. The method has been tested with a 2.8 MeV proton beam on thin samples of both Muscovite, which is known tomples of both Muscovite, which is known to have a natural hydrogen concentration of about 0.5 wt%, and Pyroxene, which is a nominally anhydrous mineral

  9. Hydrogen analysis by p-p scattering in geological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegdén, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Pastuovic, Z.; Skogby, H.; Auzelyte, V.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K. G.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2004-06-01

    It has been concluded by geologists that a significant amount of hydrogen is stored as point defects in nominally anhydrous minerals. Determination of the amount of hydrogen bound in these minerals is a step towards determining the total water content of the earth mantle as well as comprehending its internal water cycle. The possibility to measure hydrogen in thin geological samples by elastic p-p scattering has been investigated at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe. In this work the development of the experimental procedure and standardisation of data analysis is described. Special emphasis has been put into doing the data analysis as simple as possible and at the same time applicable to all sorts of thin samples, even those of unknown nature. A special annular surface barrier detector composed of two insulated detector halves, which are read out simultaneously, is used to detect the recoiled proton and the scattered proton in coincidence. Conditions on the difference in time and energy of the detected particles, enables us to distinguish true hydrogen events from false or random ones. Homogeneous Mylar foils with known hydrogen content are used as reference material and enables determination of the total amount of hydrogen in the bulk of the geological samples as well as depth profiling, in order to separate contaminations in the surface from the bulk concentrations. The method has been tested with a 2.8 MeV proton beam on thin samples of both Muscovite, which is known to have a natural hydrogen concentration of about 0.5 wt%, and Pyroxene, which is a nominally anhydrous mineral.

  10. Use of high-resolution satellite images for detection of geological structures related to Calerias geothermal field, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Urzua, L.

    2011-12-01

    Chile has enormous potential to use the geothermal resources for electric energy generation. The main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the LANDSAT and ASTER satellites have been used to delineate the geological structures related to the Calerias geothermal field located at the northern end of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. It was done by applying the lineament extraction technique developed by authors. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament density increases in the areas of the major heat flux indicating that the lineament analysis could be a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  11. Earthquake hazard assessment for Central Greece including local geological structure.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenk, Vladimír; Schenková, Zde?ka; Kottnauer, Pavel; Kalogeras, I.; Stavrakakis, G.

    Santiago : Departemento de Geofisica Universidad de Chile , 2005. [General Assembly of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI). 02.10.2005-08.10.2005, Santiago] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : Dobrá Voda depression * tectonic movements Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. GIS Integration of GPS-Positioned Gravity Data With Geologic Maps and Other Images, Well Control, and Seismic Data for Outcrop to Basin-Scale Structural Analysis: Examples from Marsh and Cache Valleys, Idaho and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Basin and Range Province presents unique challenges for the interpretation of regional to local late Cenozoic structural architecture. A significant amount of geologic mapping has taken place within the ranges, however, mapped Neogene structures are difficult to project into the adjacent basins because younger Quaternary fill generally covers all but the most recent structures. Potential field data has traditionally been used to help with the structural interpretations within the basins, but not with the resolution, accuracy, and speed that can be attained with the use of sub-meter to centimeter-scale Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software readily available today. Spatial integration of potential field data, reflection seismic sections, well control, geologic maps, earthquake epicenters and other data sets such as digital elevation models (DEMs) digital raster graphic maps (DRGs), and remote sensing images among others, provides a powerful means for continuous 2-D to 3-D structural interpretation between the ranges and basins. This relatively detailed interpretation of structure can be used for a variety of purposes, including energy exploration, groundwater resources evaluation, and earthquake hazards investigations. Gravity data previously acquired by the USGS and other agencies, universities, and companies in and around Marsh and Cache Valleys, Idaho and Utah, have been combined with detailed gravity profiles and more regionally spaced stations acquired and reduced with the aid of sub-meter to centimeter-scale GPS equipment, a hand-held laser rangefinder and various scale DEM's. Interpretation of these gravity data and other data sets mentioned previously show a two to three-phase history of late-Cenozoic extensional deformation within Marsh and Cache Valleys, as well as the surrounding ranges. The earliest pre-detachment phase of extension appears along the western margin of Cache Valley as isolated Eocene to Oligocene basins. The major phase of extension, which began 16 to 13 Ma in Cache Valley and surrounding ranges, and before 10 Ma in Marsh Valley and surrounding ranges, resulted in deposition of the Salt Lake Formation. This phase culminated in widespread top-to-the southwest extension above the Bannock detachment fault in both Cache and Marsh Valleys and surrounding ranges between ca. 10 and 4 Ma, waning or ceasing sometime between 5 and 3 Ma. The northeast tilted basins, formed during and possibly before the detachment phase of extension are preserved in the isolated exposures in the ranges, but are also interpreted from gravity, seismic, and well data to occur as mostly half-graben subbasins beneath the Quaternary fill of both Marsh and Cache Valleys. After 3-4 Ma, predominantly east-west extension along relatively steeper-dipping, widely-spaced north-south Basin and Range block faults cut the detachment fault and earlier formed basins. This phase of faulting resulted in the current physiographic expression of Marsh Valley, Cache Valley, and the surrounding ranges. Gravity and other data suggest that faults formed during this phase of deformation occur not only along the margins of the ranges but also within the more central parts of the basins. Gravity and geologic data also suggest that numerous accommodation zones and transfer zones occur within and between Marsh and Cache Valleys, and that the breakaway zone of the Bannock detachment fault may have formed along or above an earlier thrust ramp.

  13. The advanced scenario analysis for performance assessment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First of all, with regard to the FEP information data on the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) developed by JNC, description level and content of the FEPs have been examined from various angles on the basis of the latest research information. Each content of the FEP data has been classified and modified by means of integrating descriptive items, checking detail levels and correlations with other FEPs, collating with the H12 report, and adding technical information after H12 report. Secondly, scenario-modeling process has been studied. The study has been conducted by evaluating representation of the repository system, definition of FEP properties, and process interactions based on the concept of the interaction matrix (RES format) which represents influences between physicochemical characteristics of the repository, followed by an experimental development of the actual RES interaction matrix based on the H12 report as the examination to improve the transparency, traceability and comprehensibility of the scenario analysis process. Lastly, in relation to the geological disposal system, assessment techniques have been examined for more practical scenario analysis on particularly strong perturbations. Possible conceptual models have been proposed for each of these scenarios; seismic, faulting, and dike intrusion. As a result of these researches, a future direction for advanced scenario analysis on performance assessment has been indicated, as well as associated issues to be cated, as well as associated issues to be discussed have been clarified. (author)

  14. Investigation of structural geology and coal mine subsidence potential in Colorado Springs area using remote sensing and GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which remote structures which may affect the location and migration of subsidence over abandoned underground coal mines in the Colorado Springs area. Ultimately, these techniques could be useful for identifying such geologic structures at other abandoned mine land (AML) sites. Landsat satellite images and aerial photographs were used to interpret the geologic structure of the area. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to integrate the diverse data sets involved in the study and to allow reliable and reproducible spatial registration and analysis of the data. The specific study area used was the northern and northeastern Colorado Springs, Colorado, area where coal mining was active from the 1870s until 1957. The results of this study indicate that the subsidence hazard zones projected by Dames and Moore (1985) could be modified to take into account geologic structures as identified through remote sensing. Other AML sites should be investigated through remote sensing and lineament analysis to aid in fully evaluating subsidence potential of the sites. The GIS database also will provide a reasonably reliable source of spatial data for future land-use planning and tracking of subsidence hazards

  15. Structural geology of the North and Middle Caspian sea on the new geophysical data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text:A structural and tectonic map of the North and Middle Caspian Sea is made on the basis of seismic and other geological and geophysical data analysis. According to the plotting results the total amplitude range of the heterogeneous basement depths are in the North Caspian Sea (Ukatnensky depression-over 12 km and Prorva depression-over 16 km). In the middle Caspian Sea the deppest basement point is supposed in Sulak basin (over 12 km). The least basement depths are marked in Karpinsky ridge,Buzachinky and Karabogazsky arches (1-3 km). On the whole the morphology and structure of the basement confirms the conclusion previously made by many researches that the Caspian Sea is a heterogeneous depression superimposed on the junction of regional tectonic elements of various ages.The ancient East-European platform represented by Pricaspiisky depression (Donetsko-Astrakhanskaya fault system limits the latter in the south) is situated on the North. The middle Caspian Sea is occupied with the offshore continuation of Terek-Caspian foredeep is represented by Sulak basin clearly limited in the south by a system of upthrusts and thrusts falling under North Caucasus foreland.Geological interpretation of the Yuzhmorgeologiya Center new geophysical data allows making an assumption about the biohermexistence within TriassicSea sediments on Kuma-Manychsky depression offshore continuation. Seismic exploration works show strike-slip faults and thrust structure development withints and thrust structure development within the sedimentary cover on the offshore continuation of Karpinsky ridge.Some strike-slipped blocks are separated by left-side shifts of the northeast stretch.The pool location at the left-side (east) blocks of the shift areas is marked.

  16. Earthquakes and Geological Structures of the St. Lawrence Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, M.; Ranalli, G.

    2013-12-01

    The St. Lawrence Rift System (SLRS), which includes the Ottawa-Bonnechère and Saguenay grabens, is located well inside the North American plate. Most historic and the some 350 earthquakes recorded yearly occur in three main seismically active zones, namely Charlevoix (CSZ), Western Quebec (WQSZ), and Lower St. Lawrence (LSLSZ)). Outside these areas, most of the Canadian Shield and bordering regions have had a very low level of earthquake activity. In the SLRS, moderate to large earthquakes (Moment magnitude (M) 5.5 to M 7) are known to have occurred since 1663 causing landslides and damage mostly to unreinforced masonry elements of buildings located on ground capable of amplifying ground motions. Most earthquakes in these seismic zones share common characteristics such as mid- to upper crustal focal depths, no known surface ruptures and proximity to SLRS faults. Variations also exist such as vast seismically-active region (WQSZ and LSLSZ), presence of a large water body (CSZ and LSLSZ), and absence of SLRS faults near concentration of earthquakes (WQSZ). The CSZ is the best studied seismic zone and there, earthquakes occur in the Canadian Shield, mostly in a 30 X 85 km rectangle elongated along the trend of the St. Lawrence River with local variations in focal depth distribution. Faults related to the SLRS and to a meteor impact structure exist and earthquakes occur along the SLRS faults as well as in between these faults. Overall, the SLRS faults are probably reactivated by the larger earthquakes (M ? 4.5) of the 20th century (CSZ in 1925; WQCSZ in 1935 and 1944; Saguenay in 1988) for which we have focal mechanisms. We propose that caution be exercised when linking historical events that have uncertain epicentres with SLRS faults. Similarly, SLRS faults should not be necessarily considered to be the reactivated structures for most small to moderate earthquakes (M < 4.5). A good example of this is the earthquakes of the WQSZ that tend to concentrate in a well-defined NW-SE alignment with no obvious geological control, except perhaps, a hypothetical hotspot track. Two local factors can lead to the occurrence of SLRS earthquakes: weak faults or enhanced stress levels. We propose that local conditions, concentrated in a few seismic zones, can alter these factors and lead to the occurrence of earthquakes, especially those with M < 4.5. At a continent-wide scale, the correlation between the SLRS and earthquakes is appealing. We suggest, however, that pre-existing faults related to the SLRS do not explain all features of the seismicity. Seismicity is concentrated in more active areas, some with conspicuous normal faults and some with suspected weakening mechanisms such as intense pre-fracturing (e.g. due to a meteorite impact), the passage over a hot spot, or the presence of intrusions and lateral crustal density variations.

  17. Research and development of methods and technologies for CO2 capture in fossil fuel power plants and storage in geological formations in the Czech Republic, stage E4: Risk analysis. Risk analysis methods for CO2 storage in geological structures. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis for any treatment of this issue is European Directive 2009/31/EC on the geological storage of carbon dioxide. It is demonstrated that the principles of underground storage of radioactive waste can be applied to the storage of CO2, and the same assessment tools, including mathematical models, can be used or modified. (P.A.)

  18. Comparison of structural and least-squares lines for estimating geologic relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G.P.; Troutman, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Two different goals in fitting straight lines to data are to estimate a "true" linear relation (physical law) and to predict values of the dependent variable with the smallest possible error. Regarding the first goal, a Monte Carlo study indicated that the structural-analysis (SA) method of fitting straight lines to data is superior to the ordinary least-squares (OLS) method for estimating "true" straight-line relations. Number of data points, slope and intercept of the true relation, and variances of the errors associated with the independent (X) and dependent (Y) variables influence the degree of agreement. For example, differences between the two line-fitting methods decrease as error in X becomes small relative to error in Y. Regarding the second goal-predicting the dependent variable-OLS is better than SA. Again, the difference diminishes as X takes on less error relative to Y. With respect to estimation of slope and intercept and prediction of Y, agreement between Monte Carlo results and large-sample theory was very good for sample sizes of 100, and fair to good for sample sizes of 20. The procedures and error measures are illustrated with two geologic examples. ?? 1990 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. A brief guide to synchrotron radiation-based microtomography in (structural) geology and rock mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusseis, F.; Xiao, X.; Schrank, C.; De Carlo, F.

    2014-08-01

    This contribution outlines Synchrotron-based X-ray micro-tomography and its potential use in structural geology and rock mechanics. The paper complements several recent reviews of X-ray microtomography. We summarize the general approach to data acquisition, post-processing as well as analysis and thereby aim to provide an entry point for the interested reader. The paper includes tables listing relevant beamlines, a list of all available imaging techniques, and available free and commercial software packages for data visualization and quantification. We highlight potential applications in a review of relevant literature including time-resolved experiments and digital rock physics. The paper concludes with a report on ongoing developments and upgrades at synchrotron facilities to frame the future possibilities for imaging sub-second processes in centimetre-sized samples.

  20. Shorter contributions to stratigraphy and structural geology, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1980-01-01

    PART A: A system of anticlines lies along the trend of the sinuous course of the Colorado River for a distance of 97 km in the central Grand Canyon. Similar anticlines occur in some perennially wet side canyons. The anticlines are most abundant and well developed along northeast-trending reaches of the main canyon where it is floored by the Cambrian Muav Limestone. Dips of the folded strata are as great as 60?, and the folding locally extends more than 250 m from the river. Low-angle thrust faults in the limbs of the anticlines parallel the river and have formed in response to folding of the comparatively brittle carbonate strata. High-angle reverse kink bands, along which rocks are displaced up toward the river, also parallel the anticlines and have develop2d in response to the upward bulging of the canyon floor. The river anticlines are an unloading phenomenon. They result from lateral squeezing toward the river of saturated shaly parts of the Muav Limestone and underlying Bright Angel Shale. The driving mechanism for the deformation is a stress gradient that results from a difference in lithostatic load between the heavily loaded rocks under the 650-m-high canyon walls and the unloaded canyon floor. Saturation appears to weaken the shaly rocks sufficiently to allow deformation to take place. River anticlines are not present in the eastern Grand Canyon, where the Cambrian rocks also occur at river level. Their absence is explained by a lack of shaly rocks that could flow when saturated. PART B: The current interest in contemporary tectonic processes in the Eastern United States is turning up abundant evidence of crustal movements in late geologic time. Topographic analysis of the highland areas from the southern Blue Ridge to the Adirondack Mountains indicates that most of the landforms owe their origin to erosion of rocks of different resistance rather than to tectonic processes. Most areas of high relief and high altitude have been formed on resistant rocks. The Cambrian and Ordovician belt, containing mostly shale and carbonate rock, on the other hand, forms an extensive lowland from Alabama to the Canadian border and girdles the Adirondack Mountains. Differences in altitude can be explained by the presence of resistant rocks outside the belt; these resistant rocks form local base levels on the streams that drain the belt. A few areas may have undergone local uplift at a higher rate than areas nearby--for example, the Piedmont region northwest of Chesapeake Bay. Most estimates of erosion rates, based on the load transported by streams and of uplift rates, based on removal during a known period of time, are of the same order of magnitude, averaging almost 4x 10^-2 millimeters per year. Rates of uplift, based on study of tilted Pleistocene beaches and repeated geodetic traverses, are at least an order of magnitude higher for comparable areas. Tectonic uplift of the highlands has been slow and involves mostly warping or tilting on a large scale. Erosion rates keep up with or exceed the rate of uplift and have been sufficient to mask evidence of faulting or other differential movements. The high rates of uplift that are inferred on tilted water planes in the glaciated regions or that are measured by differences in repeated geodetic traverses cannot have been sustained for long periods of time. PART C: The Hanson Creek Formation southwest of Eureka, Nev., in the Bellevue Peak Quadrangle is composed of three lithostratigraphic members: (1) a basal dark-gray dolomite, (2) a middle silty thin- to thick-bedded, locally nodular, dark-gray, light-yellow-mottled limestone topped by light-gray dolomite, and (3) an upper dark-gray dolomite, which is herein named the Combs Canyon Dolomite Member. Detailed geologic mapping and accompanying fossil collecting prove that the same lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic sequence is present in the Mountain Boy Range and 11 km to the south near Wood Cone Peak. Minor differences in

  1. Using Grand Challenges For Innovative Teaching in Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wysession, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    An innovative approach to teaching involves using the "Big Ideas" or "Grand Challenges" of a field, as determined by the research community in that area, as the basis for classroom activities. There have been several recent efforts in the areas of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics to determine these Grand Challenges, including the areas of seismology ("Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems"), mineral physics ("Unlocking the Building Blocks of the Planet"), EarthScope-related science ("Unlocking the Secrets of the North American Continent: An EarthScope Science Plan for 2010-2020"), and structural geology and tectonics (at the Structural Geology and Tectonics Forum held at Williams College in June, 2012). These research community efforts produced frameworks of the essential information for their fields with the aim of guiding future research. An integral part of this, however, is training the next generation of scientists, and using these Big Ideas as the basis for course structures and activities is a powerful way to make this happen. When activities, labs, and homeworks are drawn from relevant and cutting-edge research topics, students can find the material more fascinating and engaging, and can develop a better sense of the dynamic process of scientific discovery. Many creative ideas for incorporating the Grand Challenges of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics in the classroom were developed at a Cutting Edge workshop on "Teaching Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics in the 21st Century" held at the University of Tennessee in July, 2012.

  2. Geology, structure and uranium mineralisation in Kulu, Himachala Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralisation as uraninite vein filling is seen in joints and fractures in the quartzites exposed within an eroded cover of crystallines, tectonically thrust from east and NE in Kulu-Banjar area of Himachal Pradesh. Analysis of the joints suggests a tensional origin and can be related to the three main folding events identified from the fold structure in the quartzites. It is believed that the mineralisation is essentially under low temperature-pressure conditions as there is a remarkable absence of large scale wallrock alternation. U-Pb dating of six uraninite samples reveals two distinct episodes of mineralisation at 1200-m.y. and 700 m.y. confirming the Precambrian age of uranium mineralisation and associated metasediments. (author)

  3. Finite Element Stress Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Canister in a Deep Geological Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Joo; Choi, Jong Won

    This paper presents the finite element stress analysis of a spent nuclear fuel disposal canister to provide basic information for dimensioning the canister and configuration of canister components and consequently to suggest the structural analysis methodology for the disposal canister in a deep geological repository which is nowadays very important in the environmental waste treatment technology. Because of big differences in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the Canadian deuterium and uranium reactor (CANDU) fuel properties, two types of canisters are conceived. For manufacturing, operational reasons and standardization, however, both canisters have the same outer diameter and length. The construction type of canisters introduced here is a solid structure with a cast insert and a corrosion resistant overpack. The structural stress analysis is carried out using a finite element analysis code, NISA, and focused on the structural strength of the canister against the expected external pressures due to the swelling of the bentonite buffer and the hydrostatic head. The canister must withstand these large pressure loads. Consequently, canisters presented here contain 4 PWR fuel assemblies and 33×9 CANDU fuel bundles. The outside diameter of the canister for both fuels is 122cm and the cast insert diameter is 112cm. The total length of the canister is 483cm with the lid/bottom and the outer shell of 5cm.

  4. Structural geology and geological history of the Perrine and Nun Sulci Quadrangles (Jg-2 and Jg-5), Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgill, George E.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Grooves are the dominant structural features on Ganymede. While single grooves are found in many areas, it is somewhat more common to find them grouped together in groove sets (groupings of grooves with common structural trends). It is generally believed that the grooves are extensional features. Their underlying geologic nature cannot be determined from Voyager images, however. It appears likely that they are grabens, but the images are insufficient to rule out the possibility that they are modified extension fractures or some kind of ductile necking features. The oldest materials within the Nun Sulci and Perrine quadrangles occur within the cratered dark materials unit, as is generally the case for all of Ganymede. This is the most widespread of the dark units mapped in these two quadrangles. Crater densities within cratered dark materials are consistent with an age on the order of several billion years, and thus cratered dark terrain probably represents crust that has survived from the end of the primordial intense bombardment phase of solar system history. The brief geologic history is greatly oversimplified as a result of the poor resolution and unfavorable viewing geometry of the images covering the area.

  5. Automated analysis of carbon in powdered geological and environmental samples by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Robert; Hovius, Niels; Galy, Albert; Kumar, R Vasant; Liu, James T

    2013-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy can be used to assess the structure of naturally occurring carbonaceous materials (CM), which exist in a wide range of crystal structures. The sources of these geological and environmental materials include rocks, soils, river sediments, and marine sediment cores, all of which can contain carbonaceous material ranging from highly crystalline graphite to amorphous-like organic compounds. In order to fully characterize a geological sample and its intrinsic heterogeneity, several spectra must be collected and analyzed in a precise and repeatable manner. Here, we describe a suitable processing and analysis technique. We show that short-period ball-mill grinding does not introduce structural changes to semi-graphitized material and allows for easy collection of Raman spectra from the resulting powder. Two automated peak-fitting procedures are defined that allow for rapid processing of large datasets. For very disordered CM, Lorentzian profiles are fitted to five characteristic peaks, for highly graphitized material, three Voigt profiles are fitted. Peak area ratios and peak width measurements are used to classify each spectrum and allow easy comparison between samples. By applying this technique to samples collected in Taiwan after Typhoon Morakot, sources of carbon to offshore sediments have been identified. Carbon eroded from different areas of Taiwan can be seen mixed and deposited in the offshore flood sediments, and both graphite and amorphous-like carbon have been recycled from terrestrial to marine deposits. The practicality of this application illustrates the potential for this technique to be deployed to sediment-sourcing problems in a wide range of geological settings. PMID:23816131

  6. Seismic hazards: New trends in analysis using geologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in response to expansion of nuclear power plant siting and issuance of a code of federal regullations by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission referred to as Appendix A-10CFR100, the need to characterize the earthquake potential of individual faults for seismic design took on greater importance. Appendix A established deterministic procedures for assessing the seismic hazard at nuclear power plant sites. Bonilla and Buchanan, using data from historical suface-faulting earthquakes, developed a set of statistical correlations relating earthquake magnitude to surface rupture length and to surface displacement. These relationships have been refined and updated along with the relationship between fault area and magnitude and seismic moment and moment magnitude have served as the basis for selecting maximum earthquakes in a wide variety of design situations. In the paper presented, the authors discuss new trends in seismic hazard analysis using geologic data, with special emphasis on fault-zone segmentation and recurrence models and the way in which they provide a basis for evaluating long-term earthquake potential

  7. Hands-On Exercise in Environmental Structural Geology Using a Fracture Block Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Alexander E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of a scale analog model of an actual fractured rock reservoir to replace paper copies of fracture maps in the structural geology curriculum. Discusses the merits of the model in enabling students to gain experience performing standard structural analyses. (DDR)

  8. Information collection and analysis of geological characterization and evaluation technology and application to geological characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has been conducting the Regional Groundwater Investigation and Mizunami Underground Laboratory (MIU) Project in order to develop investigation technologies and evaluation methods of geological environment. At present, towards the next progress reporting on research and development for geological disposal of HLW in Japan, based on the existing research and development results, the projects which are conducted by TGC are required for promoting smoothly and efficiently with regard to the current Japanese HLW program. According to such situation, for planning of the geological environment investigation and research at TGC and the next progress reporting, this study has investigated and summarizes overseas environmental impact assessments for final disposal, overseas site characterization and site selection, and overseas research plan of underground research laboratories. Based on the results of investigation, some technologies which have possibility to be applied to the MIU Project have been studied. Also overseas quality assurance programs have been investigated, and examples of the application of their concepts to MIU project have been considered. (author)

  9. Constructing a large-scale 3D Geologic Model for Analysis of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J; Myers, S

    2008-04-09

    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5{sup o} to -112.6{sup o} and latitude 34.5{sup o} to 39.8{sup o}; the depth ranges from the topographic surface to 150 km below sea level. The model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by both geologic and geophysical studies, while the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The mapped upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks of all ages, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 5 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas geologic maps for California and Utah were scanned and hand-digitized. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and thus estimate the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m lateral resolution DEM elsewhere. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a framework compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is a unique integer index value representing the geologic unit. For seismic studies, the geologic units are mapped to specific seismic velocities. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. For regional seismic simulations we convert this realistic geologic model into elastic parameters. Upper crustal units are treated as seismically homogeneous while the lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized by a smoothly varying velocity profile. In order to mitigate spurious reflections, the lower crust and upper mantle are treated as velocity gradients as a function of depth.

  10. An engineering geological appraisal of the Chamshir dam foundation using DMR classification and kinematic analysis, southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torabi Kaveh Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of engineering geological  investigations and rock mechanics studies carried out at the proposed Chamshir dam site. It is proposed that a 155 m high solid concrete gravity-arc dam be built across the Zuhreh River to the southeast of the city of Gachsaran in south-western Iran. The dam and its associated structures are mainly located on the Mishan formation. Analysis consisted of rock mass classification and a kinematic
    analysis of the dam foundation's rock masses. The studies were carried out in the field and the laboratory. The field studies included geological mapping, intensive discontinuity surveying, core drilling and sampling for laboratory testing. Rock mass classifications were made in line with RMR and DMR classification for the dam foundation. Dam foundation analysis regarding stability using DMR classification and kinematic analysis indicated that the left abutment's rock foundation (area 2 was unstable for planar, wedge and toppling failure modes.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Ranges

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP species range data show a coarse representation of the total areal extent of a species or the geographic limits within which a species can be found (Morrison...

  12. Geological interpretation of Mount Ciremai geothermal system from remote sensing and magneto-teluric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sumintadireja, Prihadi; Irawan, Dasapta E; Irawan, Diky; Fadillah, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of geothermal system at Mount Ciremai has been started since the early 1980s and has just been studied carefully since the early 2000s. Previous studies have detected the potential of geothermal system and also the groundwater mechanism feeding the system. This paper will discuss the geothermal exploration based on regional scale surface temperature analysis with Landsat image to have a more detail interpretation of the geological setting and magneto-telluric or MT survey at prospect zones, which identified by the previous method, to have a more exact and in depth local scale structural interpretation. Both methods are directed to pin point appropriate locations for geothermal pilot hole drilling and testing. We used four scenes of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper or ETM+ data to estimate the surface manifestation of a geothermal system. Temporal analysis of Land Surface Temperature or LST was applied and coupled with field temperature measurement at seven locations. By combining the TTM with ...

  13. The influence of geological loading on the structural integrity of an underground nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stresses are developed in underground nuclear waste repositories as a result of applied loads from geological movements caused by the encroachment of ice sheets or seismic activity for example. These stresses may induce fracturing of the waste matrix, repository vault and nearfield host geology. This fracturing will enhance the advective flow and allow more-rapid transfer of radionuclides from their encapsulation through the repository barriers and nearfield host rock. Geological loads may be applied either gradually as in crustal folding or encroachment of ice sheets, or rapidly as in the case of seismic movements. The analysis outlined in this report is conducted with a view to including the effects of geological loading in a probabilistic repository site assessment computer code such as SYVAC. (author)

  14. Geological characterization of Ia volcanic structure, Boyaca - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iza volcanic structure (5 grades 36 minutes 20 seconds N; 72 grades 59 minutes 33 seconds W) is the result of rising riodacitic to ryolithicmagmatic pulses, which didn't reach the surface, the first of them giving origin to intrusive breccias, interpreted as the result of indirect hot deep magma interaction with a sedimentary aquifer, leading to vapor overpressure and consequent fragmentation of the host rocks. The intrusive breccia form the southern part of the Iza edifice, it is massive beige to light red in color, locally with pseudo columnar joint; it is composed by angular to sub rounded sedimentary and minor igneous rock fragments in a porphyry rhyolitic matrix. This stage is followed by dome emplacement which a riodacitic to rhyolitic in composition. Petrographic analysis shows that they are similar to the matrix breccia; they have a porphiritic texture, phenocrist of sanidine, quartz and plagioclase and glassy matrix. Locally the domes are fractured presenting breccia facies (auto breccia and jig saw breccias, among others). Relationship with the host rock allow to interpreting the volcanic body as a cryptodomes, outcropping at surface by faulting and erosion.

  15. Comparison between radar data and geophysical, geological and hydrological borehole paramenters by multivariate analysis of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the present work is to study the correlation between radar reflectors and geophysical, geological and hydraulical parameters from the boreholes. An additional objective is to show what information can be gained by the borehole radar with respect to waterflow and geological structures in crystalline rock. The tool for making the data modelling is Multivariate Data Analysis (SIMCA). For the data modelling there are two algorithms available in the SIMCA software. One for Principal Component analysis and one for Partial Least Squares regression analysis (PLS and PLS2). The PLS method gives the best result for the purpose of correlation between radar intensity and other variables. The result from the Principal Components, PLS, and PLS2 analysis shows that the strongest correlations results in a division between highly fractured rock and low fractured rock at all sites. Also, PLS and PLS2 analysis show that there is a good correlation between high radar intensity and highly fractured rock in the boreholes at all sites. The correlation between radar intensity and hydraulic condictivity is more ambiguous. Two of the investigated sites. Stripa and Finnsjoen, exhibit good correlation between radar intensity and hydraulic condictivity, while the correlation at Aevroe is lower and at Saltsjoetunnel it is poor. Hydraulic conductivity was not included in the analysis of the Klipperaas data. The best correlaiton in the data from Klipperaas was obtained between radar intensity and fractured lithological contracts. The degree of correlation between radar intensity and lithological contacts at the other four sites was lower than for Klipperaas. (24 figs., 37 tabs., 30 refs)

  16. Structural geology of Amazonian-aged layered sedimentary deposits in southwest Candor Chasma, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The structural geology of an outcropping of layered sedimentary deposits in southwest Candor Chasma is mapped using two adjacent high-resolution (1 m/pixel) HiRISE digital elevation models and orthoimagery. Analysis of these structural data yields new insight into the depositional and deformational history of these deposits. Bedding in non-deformed areas generally dips toward the center of west Candor Chasma, suggesting that these deposits are basin-filling sediments. Numerous kilometer-scale faults and folds characterize the deformation here. Normal faults of the requisite orientation and length for chasma-related faulting are not observed, indicating that the local sediments accumulated after chasma formation had largely ceased in this area. The cause of the observed deformation is attributed to landsliding within these sedimentary deposits. Observed crosscutting relationships indicate that a population of sub-vertical joints are the youngest deformational structures in the area. The distribution of strain amongst these joints, and an apparently youthful infill of sediment, suggests that these fractures have been active in the recent past. The source of the driving stress acting on these joints has yet to be fully constrained, but the joint orientations are consistent with minor subsidence within west Candor Chasma.

  17. The Results of Borehole Acoustic Imaging from a Granite in the Jihlava District, Czech Republic: Implications for Structural Geological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Nováková

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents utilisation of the acoustic borehole imaging method within the frame of structural geology research. Acoustic borehole imaging is a useful tool describing borehole walls. The method allows an identification of various inhomogenieties along the borehole including fractures. Despite the more or less subjective nature of interpretation of the acoustic borehole imaging similar to other geophysical method interpretations, is a careful comparison of the interpreted fractures and the fractures observed on a core allows us to orient both core and fractures. Furthermore it is possible to determine direction of present kinematic indicators on the oriented core (and fracture planes. Identified fault planes and kinematic indicators are valuable information for structural geology research, particularly for paleostress analysis. The procedure described here was applied in the PDV-1 borehole drilled in the immediate vicinity of the quarry near the Panské Dubenky village, Jihlava district, Czech Republic, Europe. The results are consistent with previous standard structural geology research conducted in the quarry. 

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program- Land Cover Data v2.2

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset combines the work of several different projects to create a seamless data set for the contiguous United States. Data from four regional Gap Analysis...

  19. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a scenario analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which would offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply. Geostorage options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and potentially hard rock cavrns. DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an ecocomic analysis methodology to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) a version that is fully arrayed such that all four types of geologic storage options can be assessed at the same time, (2) incorporate specific scenarios illustrating the model's capability, and (3) incorporate more accurate model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules. Drawing from the knowledge gained in the underground large scale geostorage options for natural gas and petroleum in the U.S. and from the potential to store relatively large volumes of CO{sub 2} in geological formations, the hydrogen storage assessment modeling will continue to build on these strengths while maintaining modeling transparency such that other modeling efforts may draw from this project.

  20. Geology and lithology of the early palaeozoic marine impact structures Kärdla and Neugrund (Estonia)

    OpenAIRE

    Suuroja, Kalle-mart

    2008-01-01

    The present doctoral thesis is dedicated to two marine complex meteorite structures in Estonia – Kärdla and Neugrund. These subsurface structures have been observed, distinguished and studied during the last 40 years. Here, geological conditions are favourable for survival and research of early Palaeo­zoic craters, and the two craters belong to this age group. The observed cratering rate in Estonia is the highest worldwide. In Estonia are two large and old complex impact structures ?...

  1. Use of high-resolution satellite images for detection of geological structures related to Central Andes geothermal field, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Rivas, C. L.; Soto-Pinto, C. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the LANDSAT 8 satellite have been used to delineate the geological structures related to the potential geothermal reservoirs located at the northern end of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. It was done by applying the lineament extraction technique, using the ADALGEO software, developed by [Soto et al., 2013]. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament density increases in the areas of the major heat flux indicating that the lineament analysis could be a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or slightly curved feature in the landscape visible satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixel intensity contrast compared to the background. The system features extracted from satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments that are generally determined by ground surveys, however, generally reflects the structure of faults and fractures in the crust. A temporal sequence of eight Landsat multispectral images of Central Andes geothermal field, located in VI region de Chile, was used to study changes in the configuration of the lineaments during 2011. The presence of minerals with silicification, epidotization, and albitization, which are typical for geothrmal reservoirs, was also identified, using their spectral characteristics, and subsequently corroborated in the field. Both lineament analysis and spectral analysis gave similar location of the reservoir, which increases reliability of the results.

  2. Reliable Classification of Geologic Surfaces Using Texture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foil, G.; Howarth, D.; Abbey, W. J.; Bekker, D. L.; Castano, R.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

    2012-12-01

    Communication delays and bandwidth constraints are major obstacles for remote exploration spacecraft. Due to such restrictions, spacecraft could make use of onboard science data analysis to maximize scientific gain, through capabilities such as the generation of bandwidth-efficient representative maps of scenes, autonomous instrument targeting to exploit targets of opportunity between communications, and downlink prioritization to ensure fast delivery of tactically-important data. Of particular importance to remote exploration is the precision of such methods and their ability to reliably reproduce consistent results in novel environments. Spacecraft resources are highly oversubscribed, so any onboard data analysis must provide a high degree of confidence in its assessment. The TextureCam project is constructing a "smart camera" that can analyze surface images to autonomously identify scientifically interesting targets and direct narrow field-of-view instruments. The TextureCam instrument incorporates onboard scene interpretation and mapping to assist these autonomous science activities. Computer vision algorithms map scenes such as those encountered during rover traverses. The approach, based on a machine learning strategy, trains a statistical model to recognize different geologic surface types and then classifies every pixel in a new scene according to these categories. We describe three methods for increasing the precision of the TextureCam instrument. The first uses ancillary data to segment challenging scenes into smaller regions having homogeneous properties. These subproblems are individually easier to solve, preventing uncertainty in one region from contaminating those that can be confidently classified. The second involves a Bayesian approach that maximizes the likelihood of correct classifications by abstaining from ambiguous ones. We evaluate these two techniques on a set of images acquired during field expeditions in the Mojave Desert. Finally, the algorithm was expanded to perform robust texture classification across a wide range of lighting conditions. We characterize both the increase in precision achieved using different input data representations as well as the range of conditions under which reliable performance can be achieved. An ensemble learning approach is used to increase performance by leveraging the illumination-dependent statistics of an image. Our results show that the three algorithmic modifications lead to a significant increase in classification performance as well as an increase in precision using an adjustable and human-understandable metric of confidence.

  3. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are iden interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  4. The Continental Margin of Morocco: Seismic Sequences, Structural Elements and the Geological Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, K; Dostmann, H; Fritsch, J

    1981-01-01

    Seismic sequences, structural elements and the geological development of the Moroccan continental margin, which is subdivided from the south to the north into the North Tarfaya segment, the Tafelney Plateau, the Essaouira segment the Mazagan Plateau, the Prerif segment, are discussed.

  5. Geological structure of the western slope and northern section of the Stavropol anticline as determined from gravimetric and magnetosurvey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.; Gorin, G.I.; Kaverin, N.G.

    1978-01-01

    Results are given for a new geological interpretation of gravimetric survey data of past years for a broad area of northern Stavropol. The geology and structure of Permian-Triassic deposits are described more precisely, and potential oil and gas new submerged structural forms in the Permian-Triassic deposits are suggested. 2 references, 2 figures.

  6. The uranium potential of Greenland - A geological analysis of favourability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for uranium deposits in Greenland is estimated on the basis of the following criteria: (1) the land areas, not covered by inland ice are 340,000 km2, and geologically extremely well exposed; (2) the geological history ranges from the early Archaean to the Quaternary, and a wide range of geological environments and lithologies are present; (3) the level of geological information is generally of a high quality, but the information is heterogeneous; (4) uranium exploration up to the present is mainly of a reconnaissance nature and it has only covered a part of Greenland; (5) only one major uranium deposit is at present known. It is concluded that the area with the highest potential is found in south Greenland and encompasses the early to middle Proterozoic mobile belt and the middle Proterozoic suite of Gardar alkaline igneous plutons. The high favourability of these units is supported by data from recent exploration work in the area as well as by radiometric data of an earlier date. In particular Ketilidian metasedimentary units, and the Ketilidian and post-Ketilidian country rocks of some of the Gardar complexes appear favourable. In view of the limited exploration work carried out, the early Proterozoic mobile belt in north central Greenland as well as the Proterozoic crystalline basement and the overlying suprastrata of the Thule Group in north-west Greenland are classified as being of medium favourability. Further exploration is required witility. Further exploration is required within these areas. (author)

  7. An analysis of spatial relation predicates in U.S. Geological Survey feature definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Holly K.; Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web uses a data model called a triple, which consists of a subject -predicate - object structure. When represented as triples, geospatial data require a spatial relation term to serve as the predicate linking two spatial features. This document summarizes the approaches and procedures used during the identification of spatial relationships common between topographic features using terms from topographic data standards. This project identified verb-predicate arguments that could be used in the creation of data triples and ontologies for The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and also investigated the possibility of deriving ontology from predefined textual definitions. The primary purpose of this report is to present the data used for subsequent analysis. A summary of terms organized by basic categories is provided.

  8. [Recent advances in analysis of petroleum geological samples by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuanbo; Chang, Zhenyang; Dai, Wei; Tong, Ting; Zhang, Wanfeng; He, Sheng; Zhu, Shukui

    2014-10-01

    Abundant geochemical information can be acquired by analyzing the chemical compositions of petroleum geological samples. The information obtained from the analysis provides scientifical evidences for petroleum exploration. However, these samples are complicated and can be easily influenced by physical (e. g. evaporation, emulsification, natural dispersion, dissolution and sorption), chemical (photodegradation) and biological (mainly microbial degradation) weathering processes. Therefore, it is very difficult to analyze the petroleum geological samples and they cannot be effectively separated by traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A newly developed separation technique, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), has unique advantages in complex sample analysis, and recently it has been applied to petroleum geological samples. This article mainly reviews the research progres- ses in the last five years, the main problems and the future research about GC x GC applied in the area of petroleum geology. PMID:25739266

  9. Commentary of Uruguay geological structure - Present status of its mining activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the geological structure of Uruguay and its mining activity. The Rio de la Plata socket basin and the Rivera crystalline island are the oldest geochronological structures in Uruguay. This unit represents the 60% of the crystalline field and belongs to the Uruguay orogenetic Precambrian cycle. In the north there are sedimentary rocks and granites of the Upper Precambrian period.The mining and processing of marble, granite, agate, amethyst and metallic minerals are declared of national interest

  10. Workflows for generating tetrahedral meshes for finite element simulations on complex geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehner, Björn; Börner, Jana H.; Görz, Ines; Spitzer, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Subsurface processing numerical simulations require accurate discretization of the modeling domain such that the geological units are represented correctly. Unstructured tetrahedral grids are particularly flexible in adapting to the shape of geo-bodies and are used in many finite element codes. In order to generate a tetrahedral mesh on a 3D geological model, the tetrahedrons have to belong completely to one geological unit and have to describe geological boundaries by connected facets of tetrahedrons. This is especially complicated at the contact points between several units and for irregular sharp-shaped bodies, especially in case of faulted zones. This study develops, tests and validates three workflows to generate a good tetrahedral mesh from a geological basis model. The tessellation of the model needs (i) to be of good quality to guarantee a stable calculation, (ii) to include certain nodes to apply boundary conditions for the numerical solution, and (iii) support local mesh refinement. As a test case we use the simulation of a transient electromagnetic measurement above a salt diapir. We can show that the suggested workflows lead to a tessellation of the structure on which the simulation can be run robustly. All workflows show advantages and disadvantages with respect to the workload, the control the user has over the resulting mesh and the skills in software handling that are required.

  11. Study of gamma ray analysis software's. Application to activation analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative evaluation of the gamma-ray analysis software VISPECT, in relation to two commercial gamma-ray analysis software packages, OMNIGAM (EG and G Ortec) and SAMPO 90 (Canberra) was performed. For this evaluation, artificial gamma ray spectra were created, presenting peaks of different intensities and located at four different regions of the spectrum. Multiplet peaks with equal and different intensities, but with different channel separations, were also created. The results obtained showed a good performance of VISPECT in detecting and analysing single and multiplet peaks of different intensities in the gamma-ray spectrum. Neutron activation analysis of the geological reference material GS-N (IWG-GIT) and of the granite G-94, used in a Proficiency Testing Trial of Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories, was also performed , in order to evaluate the VISEPCT software in the analysis of real samples. The results obtained by using VISPECT were as good or better than the ones obtained using the other programs. (author)

  12. Geological Structures in the WaIls of Vestan Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David; Nathues, A.; Beck, A. W.; Hoffmann, M.; Schaefer, M.; Williams, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compelling case can be made that Vesta is the parent asteroid for the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites [1], although this interpretation has been questioned [2]. Generalized models for the structure of the crust of Vesta have been developed based on petrologic studies of basaltic eucrites, cumulate eucrites and diogenites. These models use inferred cooling rates for different types of HEDs and compositional variations within the clan to posit that the lower crust is dominantly diogenitic in character, cumulate eucrites occur deep in the upper crust, and basaltic eucrites dominate the higher levels of the upper crust [3-5]. These models lack fine-scale resolution and thus do not allow for detailed predictions of crustal structure. Geophysical models predict dike and sill intrusions ought to be present, but their widths may be quite small [6]. The northern hemisphere of Vesta is heavily cratered, and the southern hemisphere is dominated by two 400-500 km diameter basins that excavated deep into the crust [7-8]. Physical modeling of regolith formation on 300 km diameter asteroids predicts that debris layers would reach a few km in thickness, while on asteroids of Vesta's diameter regolith thicknesses would be less [9]. This agrees well with the estimated =1 km thickness of local debris excavated by a 45 km diameter vestan crater [10]. Large craters and basins may have punched through the regolith/megaregolith and exposed primary vestan crustal structures. We will use Dawn Framing Camera (FC) [11] images and color ratio maps from the High Altitude and Low Altitude Mapping Orbits (HAMO, 65 m/pixel; LAMO, 20 m/pixel) to evaluate structures exposed on the walls of craters: two examples are discussed here.

  13. Mapping Geological Structures In Wadi Ghoweibaarea, Northwest Gulf Of Suez, Egypt, Using Aster-Spot Data Fusion And Aster DEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical and economical constraints prompt the need of obtaining lithological and structural information for development of desert areas with reduced field effort. The fusion of multi-sensor satellite data is an effective mean of exploiting the complimentary nature of different data types. This technique allows fusion of spectral-spectral information of multi-source data with high accuracy. In the present study, fusion of SPOT and ASTER data was applied to test the potentiality of this technique in mapping geological formations and structural lineaments in Wadi Ghoweiba area, to the west of the northwestern tip of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. ASTER data is characterized by a wide range of spectral bands (14 bands), while SPOT panchromatic data is characterized by high (10 meters) spatial resolution. Based on spectral characteristic analysis (SCA) of the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands of ASTER data, two false-color band-ratio images (1/3, 2/5, and 4/ 9) and (1/5, 8/9, and 4/6) in R, G, B were produced for better lithological discrimination. SPOT panchromatic image data was fused with ASTER band ratio images data using principal component (PC) and color normalization or Brovey transformation techniques. The fused images proved to be excellent for lithological discrimination. ASTER data includes bands 3N (Nadir) and 3B (Backward) that are acquired in the spectral range of near infrared region (from 0.78 to 0.86 microns) allowing extraction of digital elevation model (DEM). Thrtion of digital elevation model (DEM). Three-dimensional perspective views were generated by draping SPOT-ASTER ratio fused images over ASTER DEM. This technique was used to enhance morphologically-defined structures. The fused images and the 3D perspective views were interpreted to produce a photo geological-structural map that was verified using the available geological maps and subsequent field check. The produced photo geological map indicates that fusion of SPOT and ASTER ratio image's data is a reliable technique for geological mapping especially in remote and inaccessible areas

  14. Development of computer assisted system for analysis management in the performance assessment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer assisted system for analysis management CAPASA (Computer Assisted Performance Assessment System Analysis) has been developed to insure quality of performance assessment (PA) calculations for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. CAPASA is an integrated system for assembling and executing systems of analysis codes and data sets for the purpose of PA. It provides a graphical user interface which allows the analyst to assemble the direction of flow of data and sequences of execution of the analysis code. Also, CAPASA automatically controls the relation among the used codes and input/output files used in PA calculations to ensure reproducibility and traceability of PA calculations. Input/output data sets and used libraries with auxiliary information are maintained in the system in the form of hierarchical structure. Therefore, an object-oriented method has been introduced in order to efficiently realize CAPASA's function. The use of an integrated computer system like CAPASA is very effective to improve the quality and efficiency of PA calculations. (author)

  15. Investigations for the optimization of the analysis of geological samples by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work an attempt has been made to optimize conditions of sample of preparation and sample form for the analysis of some geological samples using X RF. The results obtained confirmed that pellet form is best in sample preparation for X RF analysis. It was also shown that the best pressure to apply in the pressing machine for obtaining such a pellet is 15 ton.The computer software used for analysis of the samples was QAES prepared by Kump. The calibration performed was based on the geological standard G 308. The results obtained for the analysis of some geological samples using the optimum sample preparation conditions and the performed calibration were in good agreement with results independently determined for the same samples using chemical methods. (Author)

  16. Geological and geophysical aspects of the Kurdashi structure, Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text:The paper is case history of the improved characterization of a complex structure in the Azerbaijan off shore achieved by application of advanced seismic tools such us 3D Pre-Stack Depth Migration and Continuity Depth Cube volumes. The investigation focuses on the Kurdashi Permit and adjacent areas of southern most Azerbaijan, neas its boundary with Iran. The Kurdashi Permit is operated by AGIP AZERBAIJAN, a subsidiary of the Italian ENI Agip Division. The South Caspian Basin in one of the worlds most unusual sedimentary basins. Three major river systems the Volga, Kura and AMU-Darya have converged to provide continuous sediment supply in the Neogene. Structures of the Kurdashi area demonstrate the strong involvement of faulted basement unlike structures in the central SCB. Basement is relatively shallow and the major basin wide detachment level, the thick and over-pressured Maykopian shale changes character, thins, on laps and eventually pinches out between the Kurdashi and Lenkoran areas. Several tectonic events can be observed to impact the Kurdashi geometry. The Pre-Stack Depth Migration was accomplished using the Paradigm Geophysical software Geodepth99. Te target oriented velocity model for migration of the volume was constructed using nine layers with each layer constructed from several iterations of velocity testing, 3D tomography, and migration. The combination of Pre-SDM and Continuity cube volumes used together permits a substantially improved resether permits a substantially improved resolution of faults and a clear indication of how they connect together. The combined observations made in the Continuity Cube volume and the Pre SDM volumes allow us to describe the fols as a classic buckle fold. With continuous tightening of the fold sice Lower Apsheronian time, the shallower surfaces undergo extension synchronous with compression at deeper levels.There is a mappable null surface. A mud volcano occurs where the main faults alternate their dip and tensile stress is greatest

  17. Structural analysis of DAEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    2002-01-01

    Differential algebraic equations (DAEs) constitute a fundamental model class for many modelling purposes in engineering and other sciences, especially for dynamical simulation of component based systems. This thesis describes a practical methodology and approach for analysing general DAE. The methodology is mainly based on strutural index analysis which is not limited by the index of the DAE as other methodologies. As a result of structural index analysis one can perform index reduction of the DAE and obtain the so-called augmented underlying ODE. It is also described, how to use the augmented underlying ODE for finding consistent initial values and solve the initial value problem for the original DAE. As a methodology for integrating the augmented underlying ODE, the dummy derivative method is investigated. The methodology avoids the traditional stability and drift-of problems of using the underlying ODE. The investigations concern the identification of quantities that can trigger the automatic choice of new dummy derivatives during integration. This is a practical problem that needs to be solved before implementations of the method are possible. The general methodology is tested in practice, by the implementation of the Simpy tool box. This is an object oriented system implemented in the Python language. It can be used for analysis of DAEs, ODEs and non-linear equation and uses e.g. symbolic representations of expressions and equations. The presentations of theory and algorithms for structural index analysis of DAE is original in the sense that it is based on a new matrix representation of the structural information of a general DAE system instead of a graph oriented representation. Also the presentation of the theory is found to be more complete compared to other presentations, since it e.g. proves the uniqueness of the structural index reduction process. Also included, is a discussion of criticism and defence of structural analysis.

  18. Structural geology investigation on Massif Central and Parisian Basin (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weecksteen, G. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Band 5 gives the most information concerning the fracturing in the Massif Central and Parisian Basins. Band 6 and 7 show the fractures emphasized by forest boundaries and by the linear trace of water courses. The most remarkable information drawn from the preliminary investigation of two ERTS-1 images covering two different landscapes, a regular relief of shelving plateau bounded by cuestas having a sedimentary origin and a mountainous region built in crystalline and volcanic rocks, is that the deep structural elements under a thick sedimentary cover can be translated on the surface by indirect criteria. MSS imagery has permitted the Metz fault to be extended towards the west and shows clearly, through land use on the Rhone Valley fluvial deposit, the continuation towards the east of the carboniferous basin of St. Etienne.

  19. Multiscale analysis of the structural evolution of the southern flank of the Western Jabal Akhdar anticline, Oman (vein examination, structural mapping and inverse remote sensing)

    OpenAIRE

    Laurich, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Structural geology models greatly benefit from multi-scale investigations. To understand the complex structural geology of the southern flank of the western Jabal Akhdar anticline (Oman Mountains), this thesis presents a multi-scale analysis on structural elements like faults, fractures and veins of two study areas. Therefore observations from vein analysis, mapping and remote sensing are combined. The outcome is compared to recent models of the regional structural history. The study areas un...

  20. Geologic and morphological structure of the Bell region (a photographic map of the surface of Venus, plate V-23)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markov, M.S.; Tyuflin, Yu.S.; Kadnichanskii, S.A.; Kotel' nikov, V.A.; Rzhiga, O.N.; Petrov, G.M.; Sidorenko, A.I.; Aleksandrov, Yu.N.; Rodionova, N.V.; Dubrovin, V.M.; Burba, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    Four geologic and morphological units have been distinguished within the plate: (1) relics of complexes predating the plains; (2) banded plains; (3) smooth plains; and (4) volcanic and tectonic complexes. The Bell rise includes several individual large volcanic structures. Besides, faults of different directions and meteorite craters have been interpreted. The history of the region's geological development has been briefly examined.

  1. Evaluation of structural behavior, geological and hydrogeological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study suggests a quantitative evaluation method of joint roughness coefficient (JRC). It was accomplished by using several statistical parameters to the 10 standard profiles. The results show that some of these parameters (Root mean square gradient, Structure function, and Fractal dimension) are suitable to represent the roughness characteristics. With these selected parameters, further studys have succeeded to examine the variance upon scale effect. The result shows that the fractal dimension is the most correlated parameter of all to JRC. The modified empirical equation of shear strength by introducing fractal dimension to determine JRC was suggested. To prove its validity and to examine the applicable limit of the estimated strength by this equation, the values were compared to those obtained in laboratory works. The results show that the quantification procedure for JRC permits more reliable results when the scale effect is considered. The equation which relates normal stress to shear strength of natural joints developed in gneissic rocks is also suggested. This provides inexpensive method to evaluate rock mass porperty and it can be applied to usual engineering practice. (Author)

  2. Natural pseudowollastonite: Crystal structure, associated minerals, and geological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Sokol, Ella V.; Kokh, Svetlana N.

    2012-03-01

    Pseudowollastonite, an extremely rare constituent of ultrahigh-temperature combustion metamorphic and igneous rocks, has been found as a rock-forming mineral in Ca-rich paralava veins of Nabi Musa fossil mud volcano (Dead Sea area). Pseudowollastonite-bearing paralavas are the products of combustion metamorphism associated with spontaneous burning of methane. The melt began to crystallize at 1480-1500 °C about the ambient pressure. Pseudowollastonite enters two mineral assemblages: (1) rankinite, larnite, nagelschmidtite, wollastonite (1T), gehlenite-rich melilite, Ti-rich andradite, cuspidine, and fluorapatite; (2) parawollastonite (2M), wollastonite (1T), gehlenite-rich melilite, Ti-rich andradite, fluorellestadite. In this study we present the first single-crystal structure determination of natural pseudowollastonite. Pseudowollastonite from Nabi Musa dome is stoichiometric CaSiO3 and belongs to the most widespread four-layer polytype: a = 6.83556(10) Å, b = 11.86962(18) Å, c = 19.6255(3) Å, ? = 90.6805(13)°, V = 1592.21(4) Å3, space group C2/c. We argue that pseudowollastonite is so scarce in nature because its formation requires joint action of several uncommon factors: availability of hot melts of T > 1200 °C that bear free calcium but are poor in Mg and Fe (mostly as Fe3 +) and their crystallization in the shallow crust followed by quenching.

  3. Earth fissures triggered by groundwater withdrawal and coupled by geological structures in Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. Y.; You, G.; Shi, B.; Yu, J.; Li, H. Y.; Zong, K. H.

    2009-05-01

    Earth fissures in Jiangsu Province, China have caused serious damages to properties, farmlands, and infrastructures and adversely affected the local or regional economic development. Under the geological and environmental background in Jiangsu Province, this paper presents the earth fissures caused by excessive groundwater withdrawal and coupled by distinctive geological structures such as Ancient Yellow River Fault in Xuzhou karst area, and Ancient Yangtze River Course and bedrock hills in Suzhou, Wuxi, and Changzhou area. Although all the earth fissures are triggered by groundwater exploitation, the characteristics are strongly affected by the specific geological and hydrogeological settings. In particular, in the water-thirsty Xuzhou city, the cone of depression caused by groundwater extraction enlarged nearly 20 times and the piezometric head of groundwater declined 17 m over a decade. As groundwater is extracted from the shallowly buried karst strata in the Ancient Yellow River Fault zone, the development of earth fissures is highly associated with the development of karstic cavities and sinkholes and their distribution is controlled by the Ancient Yellow River Fault with all the 17 sinkholes on the fault. On the other hand, in the rapidly developing Southern Jiangsu Province, groundwater is mainly pumped from the second confined aquifer in the Quaternary, which is distributed neither homogeneously nor isotropically. The second confined aquifer comprises more than 50 m thick sand over the Ancient Yangtze River Course, but this layer may completely miss on the riverbank and bedrock hills. With a typical drawdown rate of 4-6 m per annum, the piezometric head of groundwater in the second confined aquifer has declined 76 m at Maocunyuan since 1970s and 40 m at Changjing since mid-1980s, and a large land subsidence, e.g., 1,100 mm at Maocunyuan, is triggered. Coupled with the dramatic change of the bedrock topography that was revealed through traditional geological drilling and modern seismic reflection methods, the geological-structure-controlled differential settlement and earth fissures are phenomenal in this area.

  4. Neutronic analysis of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develop a detailed MCNP model of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor. • We present a simplified approach to considering burnup. • The model is validated against available reactor data. • We present evidence of inaccuracies in the ENDF B/VII zirconium libraries. - Abstract: The United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. In support of the GSTR’s relicensing efforts, this project developed and validated a Monte Carlo N-Particle Version 5 (MCNP5) model of the GSTR reactor. The model provided estimates of the excess reactivity, power distribution and the fuel temperature, water temperature, void, and power reactivity coefficients for the current and limiting core. The MCNP5 model predicts a limiting core excess reactivity of $6.48 with a peak rod power of 22.2 kW. The fuel and void reactivity coefficients for the limiting core are strongly negative, and the core water reactivity coefficient is slightly positive, consistent with other TRIGA analyses. The average fuel temperature reactivity coefficient of the full power limiting core is ?0.0135 $/K while the average core void coefficient is ?0.069 $/K from 0% to 20% void. The core water temperature reactivity coefficient is +0.012 $/K

  5. TI-Octree: Spatial index for geological structures TI-Octree: Índice espacial para estructuras geológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Antonio Suárez Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and visualization of three-dimensional geological structures is one of the main activities in the mining industry. Miners and geologists most maintain an exhaustive control of the extracted volume of mineral of a deposit, using computer programs for processing the obtained information. In the mining process, a mineral deposit is commonly represented by a block model, which represents the morphology of the laying geological structures. For modeling those geological structures and the volume of extracted mineral they use tetrahedral networks. The tetrahedral network is an spatial structure that, given it characteristics, allows modeling geological structures in the fields of mining and geology, making easier the volume calculus. Aiming to improve the tetrahedral search process given an spatial region,  this work  presents a proposal of one spatial data structure for indexing tetrahedral networks, demonstrating by some experiments that the searching time over this proposal is less compared with the searching time over a linear structure. La modelación y visualización en tres dimensiones de estructuras geológicas es una de las actividades fundamentales realizadas en la industria minera. Los mineros y geólogos deben mantener un control exhaustivo del volumen de extracción de los minerales de un yacimiento, utilizando generalmente programas de cómputo para procesar la información obtenida. En la minería un yacimiento mineral es habitualmente representado por un modelo de bloques y este modelo debe respetar la morfología de las estructuras geológicas. Para modelar las estructuras geológicas y los volúmenes de extracción de mineral se utilizan mallas de tetraedros. La malla de tetraedros es una estructura espacial  que, por sus características, permite modelar las estructuras geológicas en la rama de la geología y la minería, facilitando el cálculo del volumen del sólido. Con el objetivo de mejorar el rendimiento en la búsqueda de tetraedros dada una región determinada del espacio, el presente artículo propone la implementación de una estructura de datos espaciales para indexar la malla de tetraedros, realizando pruebas que permiten obtener como conclusión que el tiempo de búsqueda de la propuesta realizada disminuye en comparación con el tiempo de búsqueda en una estructura lineal.

  6. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110o - 130o E the direction and 60o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  7. Seismic prediction and imaging of geological structures ahead of a tunnel using surface waves

    OpenAIRE

    Jetschny, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    To improve the performance and safety of tunnel constructions, we introduce a new seismic prediction method utilizing tunnel surface waves to detect relevant geological structures ahead of the tunnel face. On the basis of both synthetic and field data, we investigate the propagation characteristics of such surface waves propagating along the tunnel wall. We further introduce a simple but robust automatic prediction scheme that can estimate the distance to a reflector ahead of the tunnel.

  8. Methods for structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the 62 papers presented in Division M of the SMiRT 4 conference, which was devoted to methods of structural analysis, were concerned with the theory and application of the finite element method, with boundary integral equations and with finite difference techniques. A selection of these papers are reviewed. In addition a brief synopsis is given of each of thirteen papers presented at a seminar, on computational aspects of the finite element method, which followed the conference. (UK)

  9. The 3-D structural geology of the PRZ [Potential Repository Zone]. Proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proof of Evidence by an expert witness is presented in support of the case by Friends of the Earth (FOE) against the proposed construction by UK Nirex Ltd of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at a site in the Sellafield area. The RCF is part of an investigation by Nirex into a suitable site for an underground repository for the disposal of radioactive waste. The objections were raised at a Planning Inquiry in 1995. The need for an accurate geological model of the Potential Repository Zone (PRZ) is explained and deficiencies in the Nirex approach are examined. Inconsistencies in the current structural geological interpretation of the PRZ mean that it is not sufficiently robust to provide a reliable foundation for hydrogeological modelling. Some of these inconsistencies arise as a consequence of Nirex not using the 3D seismic reflection technique which is considered best practice in analogous geological situations. Since perturbation of the PRZ hydrogeological flow is inevitable by the construction of an RCF, a baseline set of geophysical, geological and hydrogeological data must be in place at the outset. (13 figures; 3 tables; 15 references). (UK)

  10. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology

    OpenAIRE

    H L. Vacher; Sarah E. Fratesi

    2008-01-01

    In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over all. Geological research has shifted emphasis over the study period, moving away from economic geology and petroleum geology, towards physics- and ch...

  11. Structural geology mapping using PALSAR data in the Bau gold mining district, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-08-01

    The application of optical remote sensing data for geological mapping is difficult in the tropical environment. The persistent cloud coverage, dominated vegetation in the landscape and limited bedrock exposures are constraints imposed by the tropical climate. Structural geology investigations that are searching for epithermal or polymetallic vein-type ore deposits can be developed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data in tropical/sub-tropical regions. The Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo has been selected for this study. The Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits, but gold mineralization at Bau is much more structurally controlled. Geological analyses coupled with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing data were used to detect structural elements associated with gold mineralization. The PALSAR data were used to perform lithological-structural mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Structural elements were detected along the SSW to NNE trend of the Tuban fault zone and Tai Parit fault that corresponds to the areas of occurrence of the gold mineralization in the Bau Limestone. Most of quartz-gold bearing veins occur in high-angle faults, fractures and joints within massive units of the Bau Limestone. The results show that four deformation events (D1-D4) in the structures of the Bau district and structurally controlled gold mineralization indicators, including faults, joints and fractures are detectable using PALSAR data at both regional and district scales. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide preliminary information for exploration potentially interesting areas of epithermal or polymetallic vein-type mineralization using the PALSAR data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions.

  12. Bedrock geology of snyderville basin: Structural geology techniques applied to understanding the hydrogeology of a rapidly developing region, Summit County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighley, K.E.; Yonkee, W.A.; Ashland, F.X.; Evans, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The availability of ground water is a problem for many communities throughout the west. As these communities continue to experience growth, the initial allocation of ground water supplies proves inadequate and may force restrictions on existing, and future, development plans. Much of this new growth relies on ground water supplies extracted from fractured bedrock aquifers. An example of a community faced with this problem is western Summit County, near Park City, Utah, This area has experienced significant water shortages coupled with a 50% growth rate in the past 10-15 years. Recent housing development rests directly on complexly deformed Triassic to Jurassic sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of the Mount Raymond-Absaroka thrust system. The primary fractured bedrock aquifers are the Nugget Sandstone, and limestones in the Thaynes and Twin Creek Formations. Ground water production and management strategies can be improved if the geometry of the structures and the flow properties of the fractured and folded bedrock can be established. We characterize the structures that may influence ground water flow at two sites: the Pinebrook and Summit Park subdivisions, which demonstrate abrupt changes (less than 1 mi/1.6 km) within the hydrogeologic systems. Geologic mapping at scales of 1:4500 (Pinebrook) and 1:9600 (Summit Park), scanline fracture mapping at the outcrop scale, geologic cross sections, water well data, and structural analysis, provides a clearer picture of the hydrogeologic setting of the aquifers in this region, and has been used to successfully site wells. In the Pinebrook area, the dominate map-scale structures of the area is the Twomile Canyon anticline, a faulted box-like to conical anticline. Widely variable bedding orientations suggest that the fold is segmented and is non-cylindrical and conical on the western limb with a fold axis that plunges to the northwest and also to the southeast, and forms a box-type fold between the middle and eastern limbs with a fold axis that plunges to the northeast. The fold is cut by several faults including the Toll Canyon fault, which we interpret as a west-directed folded hanging-wall splay off the east-directed Mt. Raymond thrust. These complex geometries may be due to at least two phases of deformation. Results from outcrop analyses show that the fractured bedrock aquifers are lithologically heterogeneous, anisotropic, and compartmentalized. Two exposures of the Toll Canyon fault show that even though the fault cores may be thin, extensive damage zones develop in the Nugget Sandstone and Thaynes Limestone, and shale smears form in the Triassic shales. The damaged zones may be regions of enhanced fracture permeability, whereas the shale smears act as flow barriers. The orientation, density, and hydrogeologic characteristics for predominate fracture sets vary within meters. In the Summit Park area, chronic water shortages required new wells to be sited in the northeast-plunging Summit Park anticline. The anticline experienced two phases of folding and at least one episode of faulting. Structural analysis of the fold defined the geometry of the structure, and a down plunge projection along the fold hinge was used to estimate the location of the Nugget Sandstone at a depth of 700 ft (213 m). The crestal region of the anticline was drilled in order to intercept regions of higher fracture density in the fold. The test well penetrated the Nugget Sandstone at 698 ft depth, and two production wells with long-term yields of 120 and 180 gpm completed. One well in the Sliderock Member (Twin Creek Formation) experiences seasonal fluctuations whereas production in the Nugget sandstone has only subdued seasonal variations, suggesting the Nugget may have great storage. Complex structures work against the typical basin yield approach for water budgets, therefore, water supply estimates may benefit from detailed studies within local areas. The results of this study demonstrate how tradition

  13. Geology, Soils and Basin-wide variations in Amazon Forest Structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Phillips, Oliver; Lopes-Gonzales, Gabriela; Lloyd, Jon; Rainfor Team

    2015-04-01

    Forest productivity, tree turnover time and above ground biomass vary across the Amazon Basin in an east-west gradient in a pattern which coincides with variations in soil nutrient availability and geology. Forest productivity rates are higher on the most nutrient rich soils close to the Andes while is lower in the ancient, highly weathered soils of central Amazonia. On the other hand above ground biomass is lower in the most productive forests and higher on the least, this being a consequence of higher tree turnover rates in the forests over less weathered and nutrient rich soils. Major geological events have influenced Amazonian soil characteristics profoundly and play an important role in explaining Basin-wide variations in forest biomass, growth and stem turnover rates. Here we show how geology and soil development combine to shape the functioning of Amazonian forests and its carbon stocks and fluxes. To assess the importance of edaphic properties in affect forest structure and dynamics, soil samples were collected in a total of 154 different forest plots across nine different Amazonian countries. Samples were analyzed for exchangeable cations, C, N, pH with various P fractions and soil physical properties also determined. Overall, forest structure and dynamics were found to be strongly and quantitatively related to edaphic conditions.

  14. A relation among geology, tectonics, and velocity structure, western to central Nevada Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the northwestern to central Nevada Basin and Range, there are correlations between velocity and specific geologic structures of the crust. Mapped range-bounding faults at the surface can be traced to appreciable (10km) depths based on velocity variations and are consistent with subsurface projections of the faults based on seismic reflection images. Correlations between velocity and the surface geology show that in the upper crust the pre-Cenozoic rocks are underlain by high-velocity rocks, whereas the Tertiary ranges are underlain by lower-velocity rocks to depths as great as 10 km. The regional seismicity pattern is consistent with this interpretation, as earthquakes are largely confined within or near the base of the low-velocity rocks. These low-velocity, highly fractured rocks are laterally distributed in discrete zones, suggesting that extension is not uniformly distributed but occurs in discrete, highly extended zones. -from Author

  15. The geological and structural characterization of the Olkiluoto site in a critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report comments on aspects of Posiva's work relating to the interests of the IMGS (Investigations and Modelling of Geological Structures) Group who is concerned with the potential impact of the tectonic and geological setting of the Olkiluoto site, on the construction a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Since the Group's last report (IMGS 2002) a variety of relevant publications have been produced by Posiva. A number of issues have been identified in these documents relating to the procedure for updating the Bedrock model, factors influencing the location and layout of ONKALO, the mapping procedure planned for the access tunnel, the problem of oversimplification and uncertainties and the proposed extension of the repository. These are discussed in the present report. (orig.)

  16. Method of magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. Experimental measurements for geologic structures determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the safety of a deep geologic repository for dangerous materials requires the knowledge of the interstitial system of the surrounding host rock. A method is proposed for the determination of geologic structures (in particular fractures) from the magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated using a SQUID magneto-gradient meter. A measurement tool using a new magnetic susceptibility captor and a testing bench have been developed. This tool allows the measurement of rocks with a magnetic susceptibility greater than 10-5 SI units and can generate magnetic susceptibility maps with 4 x 4 mm2 pixels. A magnetic visibility criterion has been defined which allows to foresee if a structure is visible or not. According to the measurements done, it is shown that any centimeter-scale structure with a sufficient magnetic contrast (20%) with respect to the matrix is visible. Therefore, the dip and the orientation of such structure can be determined with a 3 degree and a 5 degree precision, respectively. The position of the structure along the core axis is known with a 4 mm precision. On the other hand, about half of the magnetic contrasts observed do not correspond to the visual analyses and can be explained by very small variations of the mineralogic composition. This last point offers some interesting ways for future research using magnetic susceptibility mapping. (J.S.). 31 refs., 90 figs., 18 tabs., 2 photos., 6 appends

  17. Structured Analysis - IDEF0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    This note introduces the IDEF0 modelling language (semantics and syntax), and associated rules and techniques, for developing structured graphical representations of a system or enterprise. Use of this standard for IDEF0 permits the construction of models comprising system functions (activities, actions, processes, operations), functional relationships, and data (information or objects) that support systems integration. An IDEF0 model is domain specific in the sense that purpose, viewpoint and context must be identified in the model. The IDEF0 modelling language is recommended for projects that require a modelling technique for the analysis, development, re-engineering, integration, or acquisition of information systems; and incorporate a systems or enterprise modelling technique into a business process analysis or software engineering methodology.This note is a summary of the Standard for Integration Definition for Function Modelling (IDEF0). I.e. the Draft Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 183, 1993, December 21, Announcing the Standard for Integration Definition for Function Modelling (IDEF0).

  18. Combining Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar to study geological structuring of karst Unsaturated Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Simon D.; Chalikakis, Konstantinos; Sénéchal, Guy; Danquigny, Charles; Emblanch, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    This paper highlights the efficiency and complementarity of a light package of geophysical techniques to study the structure of karst Unsaturated Zone (UZ) in typical Mediterranean environment where soil cover is thin or absent. Both selected techniques, 2D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), are widely used in environmental studies and their application is accessible for a lot of scientists/engineers. However, GPR or ERT alone is not able to provide an enhanced characterization of geological features in karst media. In the present study, GPR results supply a near surface high resolution imaging and thus can provide relevant geological information such as stratifications and fractures. Despite the quality of the results GPR's investigation depth remains limited to around 12 m. Apparent and inverted resistivity provided by ERT surveys shows strong lateral and vertical variations. These variations can inform about general geological structuring and feature orientation. ERT is able to prospect down to 40 m but it's a low resolution integrative technique. In the study area the investigated limestone is a commonly electrical resistive formation (more than 2000 ?.m). However deeper than 5-7 m, the ERT profiles reveal several zones of moderate resistivity (around 900 ?.m). In these zones a stratification change corresponding to slanted bedding is clearly identified by GPR results. The combination of both GPR and ERT results can allow a well-established geological interpretation. These moderate resistivity zones with slanted beddings can explain the presence of a perennial water flow point 35 m below the surface of the studied site within the underground gallery of the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory (LSBB).

  19. Quantitative analysis of lunar crater's landscape: automatic detection, classification and geological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Chen, Jianping; He, Shujun; Zhang, Mingchao

    2013-04-01

    Lunar craters are the most important geological tectonic features on the moon; they are among the most studied subjects when it comes to the analysis of the surface of the moon since they provide us with the relative age of the surface unit and more information about lunar geology. Quantitative analysis of landscape on lunar crater is an important approach in lunar geological unit dating which plays a key role in understanding and reconstruction of lunar geological evolution. In this paper, a new approach of automatic crater detection and classification is proposed based on the quantitative analysis of crater's landscape with different spatial resolution digital terrain models. The approach proposed in this paper includes the following key points: 1) A new crater detection method which selects profile similarity parameters as the distinguishing marks is presented. The new method overcomes the high error defect of former DTM based crater detection algorithm; 2) Craters are sorted by the morphological characteristics of profiles. The new quantitative classification method overcomes the subjectivity of the previously descriptive classification method. In order to verify the usefulness of the proposed method the pre-selected landing area of China's Chang'e-III lunar satellite-Sinus Iridum is chosen as the experimental zone. DTM with different resolutions from the Chang'e-I Laser Altimeter, the Chang'e-I Stereoscopic Camera and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) are used for crater detection and classification. Dating results of each geological unit are gotten using crater size-frequency distribution method (CSFD). By comparing the former dating and manual classification data, we found that the results obtained by our method and the former results have the strong consistency. With the combination of automatic crater detection and classification, this paper basically provided a quantitative approach which can analyze the lunar crater's landscape and get geological information from it. And the approach can be widely used on other planets like Mars.

  20. Structural analysis of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirovich, Lawrence; Stoeckle, Mark Y; Zhang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Large, recently-available genomic databases cover a wide range of life forms, suggesting opportunity for insights into genetic structure of biodiversity. In this study we refine our recently-described technique using indicator vectors to analyze and visualize nucleotide sequences. The indicator vector approach generates correlation matrices, dubbed Klee diagrams, which represent a novel way of assembling and viewing large genomic datasets. To explore its potential utility, here we apply the improved algorithm to a collection of almost 17,000 DNA barcode sequences covering 12 widely-separated animal taxa, demonstrating that indicator vectors for classification gave correct assignment in all 11,000 test cases. Indicator vector analysis revealed discontinuities corresponding to species- and higher-level taxonomic divisions, suggesting an efficient approach to classification of organisms from poorly-studied groups. As compared to standard distance metrics, indicator vectors preserve diagnostic character probabilities, enable automated classification of test sequences, and generate high-information density single-page displays. These results support application of indicator vectors for comparative analysis of large nucleotide data sets and raise prospect of gaining insight into broad-scale patterns in the genetic structure of biodiversity. PMID:20195371

  1. Determination of hafnium and zirconium in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, neutron activation analysis was developed for determining hafnium and zirconium in geological materials. The USGS geological standard rocks GSP-1 (granodiorite) and W-1 (di abase). The Brazilian geological standards GB-1 (granite) and BB-1 (basalt) from Instituto de Geociencias da Universidade da Bahia and P-1 a uraniferous rock from Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil were analyzed. Hafnium present in these rocks was analyzed by purely instrumental method by irradiating with both thermal and epithermal neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the case of zirconium depending on the sample a radiochemical separation was required. 154 Eu and 152 Eu radioisotopes emit gamma rays with energies too close to those emitted by 95 Zr and they cause interferences. (author)

  2. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala); Estudios geologico-estructurales y geofisicos en Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R.; Marti, D.; Flecha, I. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume Almera. Barcelona (Spain); Escuder Viruete, J. [Universidad complutense de Madrid. Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  3. Summarized analysis on potential of uranium resources in China and strategy for uranium geologic exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the summarized analysis on the potential of uranium resources and the degree of uranium geologic work, the author proposes the strategy of uranium geologic exploration in China as follows: the Chinese government should make a long-term program for uranium geologic exploration and insist on the basic policy to be based on domestic resources, to meet the domestic demand, to increase of the storage (the increase of storage includes active utilization of uranium resources of foreign countries), and to do the uranium exploration properly in advance. Taking the ISL-amenable sandstone-hosted uranium deposit as the major prospecting target combined with actively exploring other types of economic uranium deposits should be taken as the basic exploration strategy. Guiding by new geologic-metallogenic theory system, using advanced exploration method and technique system, GIS prediction method system and digital geologic map series to do uranium exploration are regarded as basic technical idea to accelerate ascertaining potential uranium resources in China, and to provide powerful resources guarantee for the development of China's nuclear industry. (author)

  4. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological materials from Northern Palawan and Mariduque Island, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological materials comprising of heavy mineral panned concentrates and surface soil samples taken from northern Palawan and Marinduque Island, Philippines was conducted. This work was carried out primarily to determine the distribution of uranium, thorium, rare earths and other trace elements in the Philippine environment in connection with the nationwide geochemical exploration program and the IAEA technical co-operation project on gamma ray spectrometric survey in the country. Moreover, the geochemical data obtained will form part of the national database for nuclear resource assessment, mineral exploration and environmental studies. The utilization of the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique in the multielemental determination of geological materials has been very useful in mineral exploration, environmental studies and other related researches. The sensitivity of this technique has been very effective not only in the determination of the major elements but for the trace elements as well. In this study, about 96 geological samples wee analyzed for 15 elements after the spectral analysis. In all, 810 elemental determinations were completed. In the northern Palawan district, the areas with high radioactivity were disclosed by the relatively high concentrations of thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium. Moreover, areas with possible potential for gold was delineated as well as for the rare earth metals. ted as well as for the rare earth metals. In Marinduque Island, the distribution of the elements are generally sporadic which indicate various lithological sources and a diverse geology. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

  5. A new model of the geological structure and evolution of the North Kara Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, N. A.; Nikishin, V. A.; Nikishin, A. M.; Obmetko, V. V.; Martirosyan, V. N.; Kleshchina, L. N.; Reydik, Yu. V.

    2012-07-01

    Based on the new seismic data, the geological structure and evolution of the North Kara Basin are presented. The North Kara Basin formed as an Early Ordovician rift system. Approximately at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary, the North Kara Basin suffered intraplate compressional deformations, which caused formation of inversion swells, and then it was covered by a thin Carboniferous-Permian or Permian cover. The Urvantsev Trough probably comprising Late Ordovician evaporites was distinguished in the north-eastern part of the basin. Paleozoic folded deformations took place within the limits of the Vize-Ushakov and Central Kara rises.

  6. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, E. I. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Some HCMM images of about 80,000 sq km in northern California were qualitatively evaluated for usefulness in regional geologic investigations of structure and lithology. The thermal characteristics recorded vary among the several geomorphic provinces and depends chiefly on the topographic expression and vegetation cover. Identification of rock types, or groups of rock types, was most successfully carried out within the semi-arid parts of the region; however, extensive features, such as faults, folds and volcanic fields could be delineated. Comparisons of seasonally obtained HCMM images were limited value, except in semi-arid regions.

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological and pedological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study is presented on neutron activation analysis of rock and soil samples using whole reactor neutron spectrum and epithermal neutrons with both relative and monostandard procedures. The latter procedure used with epithermal neutron activation analysis of soil samples necessitated the use of the ''effective resonance integrals'' which were determined experimentally. The incorporation of the ? factor, representing deviation of reactor epithermal neutron flux from 1/E law, is developed. The main criteria for the choice of one or more of the procedures studied for a given purpose are also indicated. Analysis of 15 trace elements, Ca and Fe in the standard Japanese granite JC-1 using monostandard epithermal neutron activation gave results in good agreement with the average literature values. (author)

  8. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratesi, Sarah E.; Vacher, H. L.

    2008-01-01

    In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over…

  9. Review of recently-developed techniques for analysis of rare-earth elements in geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare-earth elements (REE) are increasingly used in other fields besides geology viz. superconductivity and magnets, molecular sieves, etc. The semblance in their geochemical properties besides their occurrence in low-to trace amounts makes it difficult to analyse them by conventional chemical methods and a wide spectrum of analytical techniques have been developed for REE analysis. It has become necessary to review the state-of-art techniques for geological samples. The micro-analytical techniques are not suitable for whole rock or general purpose in view of the small area of sample analysed. Amongst the methods, instrumental neutron activation analysis can detect ultra-trace amounts but of a selective few REE only besides requiring a nuclear reactor. The mass spectrometry type of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is ideal for REE purpose but equipment cost is much higher than the emission spectrometry which is currently better suited for bulk REE analysis. (author). 33 refs., 1 tab

  10. Separation of interfering elements in the neutron activation analysis of lanthanides in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical procedure has been developed for the separation of U, Th, Fe, Sc, Na,Ta, and Mo which interfere in the neutron activation analysis of the lanthanide elements in geological materials. This procedure is based on the solvent extraction of interferents using a solution of tetracycline in benzyl alcohol. The lanthanide elements remaining in the aqueous phase are coprecipitated on calcium oxalate or ferric hydroxide for irradiation and subsequent determination by gamma ray spectrometry. The chemical separation procedure was applied in the analysis of lanthanides in two international geological reference materials GSP-1 (USGS), GS-N (CRPG) and in the analysis of a volcanic rock from Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil. The sensitivities for all the lanthanides were determined. (author)

  11. Comparing Geologic Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping: Desert Rats Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wanda; Evans, Cynthia; Gruener, John; Eppler, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Geologic mapping involves interpreting relationships between identifiable units and landforms to understand the formative history of a region. Traditional field techniques are used to accomplish this on Earth. Mapping proves more challenging for other planets, which are studied primarily by orbital remote sensing and, less frequently, by robotic and human surface exploration. Systematic comparative assessments of geologic maps created by traditional mapping versus photogeology together with data from planned traverses are limited. The objective of this project is to produce a geologic map from data collected on the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 analog mission using Apollo-style traverses in conjunction with remote sensing data. This map is compared with a geologic map produced using standard field techniques.

  12. Structural geology of the Fuegian Andes and Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt - Tierra del Fuego Island

    OpenAIRE

    Menichetti, Marco

    2008-01-01

    A synthesis of the structural geology of the Tierra del Fuego Island, which integrates a new data set derived from field surveys and literature data of the last few years, is presented here. The main geological features of the region developed during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Andean orogenic cycle that started in the Middle to Late Jurassic with a back-arc extension, crustal stretching and widespread volcanism, related to the break-up of Gondwanaland. An extensional fault system deriving from the...

  13. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  14. Evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project and analysis of some technical problems in commercial negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A composite evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project was discussed, this new model consists of polity-economy-technique (PET) synthetic evaluation sub-model and geology-mining-metallurgy (GMM) technique evaluation sub-model. Besides, some key technical problems in commercial negotiation, such as information screening, quoted price and analysis of deadline, were briefly analyzed. (author)

  15. 241Am - XRF analysis of rare earths in geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved but simple method, based on x-ray fluorescence (XRF) using 241Am for determining the concentrations of rare earths in marine sediments is described. The geochemical behaviour of rare earths is of great importance for the determination of fluvial and coastal pollution. The samples are analyzed as thick pellets without any particluar physical or chemical treatment. The analysis is readily carried out and the sensitivity lies in the ppm range after a few hours of data accumulation. (author)

  16. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB's application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth

  17. Geological structures deduced from airborne geophysical surveys around Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogi, Y.; Jokat, W.; Kitada, K.; Steinhage, D.

    2012-12-01

    The area around Syowa Station, the Japanese Antarctic station in Lutzow-Holm Bay, is widely considered to be a junction of the Africa, India, Madagascar, and Antarctic continents, according to the reconstruction model of Gondwana. This area is key to investigating the formation of Gondwana. Joint Japanese-German airborne geophysical surveys were conducted around Syowa Station in January 2006 to reveal the tectonic evolution contributing to the formation of Gondwana in this area. Ice radar, magnetic, and gravity data were obtained from onshore areas. Several characteristic features that may be related to the tectonic evolution of Gondwana were inferred primarily from magnetic anomalies and from gravity anomalies and bedrock topography. The boundaries of the Lutzow-Holm Complex, the Yamato-Belgica Complex, and the Western Rayner Complex are defined, but the inland extension of the boundary between the Lutzow-Holm and the Yamato-Belgica Complexes is unknown south of 71S. The main geological structural trends of the Lutzow-Holm Complex derived from magnetic anomalies are NW-SE and are concordant with the geological results in the coastal region. However, nearly NE-SW-trending magnetic anomalies cut across the NW-SW magnetic anomaly trends, and the NE-SW right lateral strike-slip faults are deduced from the magnetic and the gravity anomaly data in the Lutzow-Holm Complex. The Lutzow-Holm Complex is divided into four blocks based on the estimated strike-slip faults. The strike-slip faults were possibly generated during a younger stage of Pan-African orogeny, after the formation of NW-SE-striking geological structures. These results provide new constraints for the formation of Gondwana.

  18. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, S.A. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-06-01

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB`s application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth. 46 refs, 30 figs, 18 tabs.

  19. Geophysical investigations of geology and structure at the Martis Creek Dam, Truckee, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Paul A.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Minsley, Burke J.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hunter, Lewis E.

    2012-02-01

    A recent evaluation of Martis Creek Dam highlighted the potential for dam failure due to either seepage or an earthquake on nearby faults. In 1972, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed this earthen dam, located within the Truckee Basin to the north of Lake Tahoe, CA for water storage and flood control. Past attempts to raise the level of the Martis Creek Reservoir to its design level have been aborted due to seepage at locations downstream, along the west dam abutment, and at the base of the spillway. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken a comprehensive suite of geophysical investigations aimed at understanding the interplay between geologic structure, seepage patterns, and reservoir and groundwater levels. This paper concerns the geologic structure surrounding Martis Creek Dam and emphasizes the importance of a regional-scale understanding to the interpretation of engineering-scale geophysical data. Our studies reveal a thick package of sedimentary deposits interbedded with Plio-Pleistocene volcanic flows; both the deposits and the flows are covered by glacial outwash. Magnetic field data, seismic tomography models, and seismic reflections are used to determine the distribution and chronology of the volcanic flows. Previous estimates of depth to basement (or the thickness of the interbedded deposits) was 100 m. Magnetotelluric soundings suggest that electrically resistive bedrock may be up to 2500 m deep. Both the Polaris Fault, identified outside of the study area using airborne LiDAR, and the previously unnamed Martis Creek Fault, have been mapped through the dam area using ground and airborne geophysics. Finally, as determined by direct-current resistivity imaging, time-domain electromagnetic sounding, and seismic refraction, the paleotopography of the interface between the sedimentary deposits and the overlying glacial outwash plays a principal role both in controlling groundwater flow and in the distribution of the observed seepage.

  20. An evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis for determination of trace elements in some geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton suppressed neutron activation analysis has been used for a variety of applications, but never has a detailed discussion of its use in far more complex matrices, such as geological samples, been fully addressed. This investigation seeks to serve as a qualitative evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis (CSNAA) and to illustrate the benefits of using Compton suppression with thermal and epithermal neutrons for the analysis of several geological specimens.

  1. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernels approach allows to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to perform in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to construct. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon/gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless to constrain the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for La Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano.

  2. A sensitivity and probability analysis of the safety of deep geological repositories situated in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present the sensitivity and probability analysis of a model of the Czech safety concept of deep geological waste repository. The sensitivity analysis was performed for a set of critical radionuclides, 14C, 36Cl, 79Se, 129I and 226Ra using a variance based method. The main contributors to the variance of model output were identified. It was shown that, if the model output is properly transformed before performing sensitivity analysis, then the calculated sensitivity coefficients are robust indicators of the importance of uncertainties of the individual parameters. (author)

  3. Analysis of geological condition of uranium mineralization in the Xiangshan northern uranium orefield in central region of Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the basic conditions of 'source, guide, transportation, storage' for uranium mineralization in strata and different types of geological structure, departure from the condition, the coupling effect of stratigraphy, lithology and structure are studied in the process of uranium mineralization in northern Xiangshan volcanic basin. Studies show that the northern ore field are of good metallogenic geological conditions and the uranium rich ancient land mass and uranium rich magma generated by the melting of deep metamorphic rocks. The main geologic events are volcanic eruptions, accompanied by repeated subvolcanic magma intrusion and strong faults and nappe tectonics which result in volcanic collapse and volcanic ring structures. These ore-forming geological condition control the structural frame for the formation of main uranium deposit type-subvolcanic rocks in northern Xiangshan ore field. (authors)

  4. Geologic mapping of Indonesian rain forest with analysis of multiple SIR-B incidence angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J. P.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Asmoro, P., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The discrimination and mapping capabilities are to be evaluated for shuttle imaging radar-B (SIR-B) images of geologic features in Indonesia that are covered by equatorial rain forest canopy. The SIR-B backscatter from the rain forest at L-band is to be compared to backscatter acquired by the SEASAT scatterometer system at Ku-band ever corresponding areas. The approach for data acquisition, handling, and analysis and the expected results of the investigation are discussed.

  5. Geological interpretation of Mount Ciremai geothermal system from remote sensing and magneto-teluric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sumintadireja, Prihadi; Saepuloh, Asep; Irawan, Dasapta E.; Irawan, Diky; Fadillah, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of geothermal system at Mount Ciremai has been started since the early 1980s and has just been studied carefully since the early 2000s. Previous studies have detected the potential of geothermal system and also the groundwater mechanism feeding the system. This paper will discuss the geothermal exploration based on regional scale surface temperature analysis with Landsat image to have a more detail interpretation of the geological setting and magneto-telluric...

  6. Geological storage of CO2: risks analysis, monitoring and measures. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To use the CO2 geological storage as a coherent solution in the greenhouse gases reduction it needs to answer to safety and monitoring conditions. In this framework the BRGM presents this study in six chapters: risks analysis, the monitoring methods (geochemistry, geophysics, aerial monitoring, biochemistry, hydrogeology), the metrology, the corrosion problems, the thermal, hydrodynamical, geochemical and mechanical simulation and the today and future regulations. (A.L.B.)

  7. The role of INAA as compared to conventional methods of analysis for geological samples in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumental neutron activation analytical technique (INAA) both competes with and complements conventional commercial analytical methods like X-ray fluorescence emission spectrometry (XRF), direct coupled plasma emission spectrometry (DCP), inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption (A.A.). The major advantages to the use of INAA in the geological field includes the fact that the analysis can be done non-destructively without encountering the many problems inherent in acid dissolution or fire assay techniques. The sensitivity for many elements are still unrivalled by commercially available analytical techniques for gold, platinum-group-elements, many of the rare earth elements and other elements. The multi-element nature of the analysis combined with ease of automation, data collection and spectral analysis procedures allows for rapid turnaround of samples at low cost. This technique competes very favourably with virtually all other analytical techniques. The geological market being served by INAA includes university and government researchers as well as the mineral exploration industry. The needs of these groups varies considerably and will be discussed. The various applications of INAA to the geological community will also be discussed. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  8. Crustal structural survey for the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, utilizing geophysical and geological information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravity, Magnetic (airborne, Magnet and Magsat), heat flow and seismicity available data for the state of Minas Gerais and adjacent regions is here analyzed, discussed and integrated with geologic information. The Late Archean crustal structure is defined as blocks of granite-greenstone separated by belts of high-grade terrains. The belts in eastern and southern Minas Gerais represent the lower parts of the Vitoria, Sao Paulo and Parana Blocks, which were up thrusted over the Brasilia Block through low-angle ductile simple shear Zones. That regional structure is cut and somewhat displaced by NW, ENE, NE and Ns fault sets. These faults are mostly related to the Transamazonian Event, and their geological expression appears to be as high-angle ductile simple shear zones. The development of the Middle/upper proterozoic folded sequences, the incidence of the Brasiliano/Uruacuano thermo tectonic events and the geometry of the Sao Francisco Craton were highly influenced by the preexistent weakness zones. The high-grade terrains, the borders of the Brasilia Block and the Transamazonian lineaments have been preferentially affected. The tectono-magmatic manifestations of the Wealdenian Reactivation, related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, occurred mostly among the uplifted zones (Alto Paranaiba Uplift) that developed partially until the rift stage (Mantiqueira Uplift). These processes clearly reveal the influence of the old structures of the state of Minas Gerais. The Manures of the state of Minas Gerais. The Mantiqueira Uplift presents a more accentuated seismic activity and thermal flow regime than the neighboring regions, so corresponding to the present less stable area of Minas Gerais. (DJM)

  9. The tunnel project. Drill hole logging and structural geologic studies in the Grualia, the Lunner county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the project ''Environmental and community useful tunnels'' the Norwegian Geologic Survey (NGU) has made geologic and geophysical investigations along parts of the tunnel at the Grualia in the Lunner county. The purpose of the geologic studies was to map and investigate weakness zones in the rock foundations. The geophysical studies aimed at testing techniques that was in little use in preliminary studies for tunnel operations. The methods used have been optical inspection of drill holes, measurements of temperature and conductivity in the water and the measuring of the natural gamma radiation in the drill holes. The resistivity in the drill holes is also determined and test pumping with flow measurements is carried out in order to calculate the well water influx capacity. These methods may contribute to information about the rock condition (cracking, water influx). Previously the NGU has made 2D resistivity measurements at the ground in the tunnel in order to map the weakness zones. The results from the measurements in 6 wells show large variations in the rock qualities. The wells are drilled towards indicated weakness zones. Open water conducting cracks and sections with largely cracked rocks are detected in or in the proximity of the tunnel route. The weakness zone between the hornfels and the syenite west of the Langvatnet is largely cracked, has a large water conducting capacity and there are some unstable masses. Further east several open, watele masses. Further east several open, water- conducting cracks are detected in the syenite. Furthest to the east in the route cracked and unstable rocks are found. Several of the holes are blocked by ravines which confirm the poor rock quality. In the particular areas problems are to be expected during the operation with respect to water influx and stability. Methodically the drill hole studies have shown great value for the follow up of the 2D resistivity measurements on the ground. The indicated weakness zones through the 2D have been confirmed and characterised. The testing of the geophysical techniques has so far shown promising results. The 2D resistivity measurements on the ground with subsequent drilling, drill hole logging, pumping and flow measurements would give a good characterisation of the ground where the rock construction is planned. With a good geological foundation (structural mapping) the above techniques would contribute with valuable information concerning what may be expected in front of the hand specimen in tunnel work

  10. Neutron activation analysis applied to the study of the composition of Brazilian geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiochemistry Division of IPEN-CNEN/SP has been applying, for many years, nuclear techniques, mainly neutron activation analysis, to the study of the composition of Brazilian mineral resources. The main elements of interest were the rare earth elements (REEs), uranium and thorium. The REEs were determined mainly by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), using thermal and epithermal activations followed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using Ge(Li) and Ge detectors. The application of radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) led to the analysis of the REEs like Pr, Gd, Dy and Ho. REEs were determined mainly in alkaline rocks from the apatite mine of Jacupiranga, Sao Paulo, and in volcanic rocks from the Parana Basin, for geochemical studies, and in geological samples such as xenotime, tantalite and zircon, for exploration purposes. A delayed neutron counting system was assembled for analysis of uranium in geological materials and also thorium. The other elements mentioned (Sc, Ta, Hf) were determined generally by INAA. In the particular case of iridium, a radiochemical separation procedure was developed for the analysis of marine sediments from the Campos Basin (Rio de Janeiro). Coals from the Southern region of Brazil were analyzed by INAA for 36 elements by using thermal and epithermal activations. (author)

  11. Multielement analysis of geologic materials by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, O.D.; Kroneman, R.L.; Capuano, R.M.

    1980-03-01

    Atomic emission spectroscopy using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source permits the rapid acquisition of multielement geochemical data from a wide variety of geologic materials. Rocks or other solid samples are taken into solution with a four acid digestion procedure and introduced directly into the plasma; fluid samples are acidified or analyzed directly. The entire process is computer-controlled, fully-automated, and requires less than five minutes per sample for quantitative determination of 37 elements. The procedures and instrumentation employed at the ESL for multielement ICP analysis of geologic materials are described and these are intended as a guide for evaluating analytic results reported from this laboratory. The quality of geochemical data can be characterized by precision, limits of quantitative determination, and accuracy. Precision values are a measure of the repeatability of analyses. In general, major element and analyses have precision of better than 5% and trace elements of better than 10% of the amount present. (MHR)

  12. Yasny lode-placer cluster: Geological and structural features and gold potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.

    2014-03-01

    The geological and structural features and gold potential of the Yasny lode-placer cluster in Amur province have been investigated. The lode-placer cluster is an intrusive domal uplift elongated in the nearmeridional direction and surrounded by Neogene loose sediments. The cluster comprises placers that yielded 15 t gold mined from there and small occurrences of gold-quartz and gold-base-metal lodes. Association of native gold with cinnabar in the Yasny Creek placer allows us to forecast a new source of gold-mercury mineralization in the basin of this creek, which could be compared with the Kyuchyus deposit in Yakutia. Gold nuggets 79 kg in total weight were mined from Gar-2 River placer. They are comparable in weight and association with quartz to the world's largest Holtermann Plate nugget from Australia. Gold-quartz lodes have been forecasted in the basin of the Gar-2 Creek.

  13. The effect of geological structure and heterogeneity on CO2 storage in simple 4-way dip structures; a modeling study from the UK Southern North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J.D.O.; Bentham, M.; Jin, M.; Pickup, G.; MAcKAY, E; Gammer, D.; Green, A

    2013-01-01

    The Bunter Sandstone Formation in the Southern North Sea is folded into a number of simple 4-way dip-closed structures (domes). Most of these structures are saline water-bearing, although some of them do contain significant gas accumulations, suggesting that the brine-saturated domes may have potential for the long-term storage of CO2. This study investigates the effect of geological structure and heterogeneity on CO2 storage through the use of geological models and reservoir simulation. Dyna...

  14. Analysis by neutronic activation of samples of a geologic formation of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis by neutronic activation (AAN) is an analytical non destructive technique of high accuracy and sensibility. These advantages are very utilized in the determination of geological multielemental samples. In the job 22 elements are determined in 9 geological samples pertaining to the complex of dams of acid composition that includes the graphitic micaceous schist and the quartzites of the Canada Formation, developed fundamentally in the fasteners of the anticlinal Victoria (Yac. of Wolframio Lela, Island of the Youth, Cuba) The results obtained are of great importance for the evaluation of the potentiality of these rocks as fountains or of uranium adjusting and for the geologic prognostic of the region in study. The irradiation of the samples was carried out during three campaigns, in two occasions (October 1992 and November 1994) in the reactor of investigations of the ININ of Mexico, with a flow of thermic neutrons of 10a the 13 n.s-1 cm-2 and in an occasion in the nuclear reactor of the CAB (september 1994), with a flow of thermic neutrons of 6x 10 to the 12 n.s-1. The results were processed with the program ACTAM in the CEADEN. (S. Grainger)

  15. Thermo-mechanical sensitivity analysis of repository design parameters using Korean geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive sensitivity analysis had been carried out for the seven design parameters, which can influence on the thermal-mechanical coupling behavior because of the stress in deep underground as well as the heat from the high-level radioactive waste. In this study, the three-dimensional commercial code, FLAC3D, was used for analyzing the sensitivity of the design parameters, which are related to disposal tunnel and deposition hole, on the temperature, stress, and displacement. The geological data measured at the two drilling sites, Yusung and Kosung, were used in the modelings. From the modelings, it was possible to investigate the thermal-mechanical coupling behavior of the deep underground repository under Korean geological conditions. Fractional factorial design was utilized for effective experimental design for the sensitivity analysis. Different techniques of sensitivity analysis were applied for the modeling results. From the analysis, it was possible to conclude that the deposition hole spacing is the most important parameter on the thermal-mechanical coupling behavior

  16. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Vacher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over all. Geological research has shifted emphasis over the study period, moving away from economic geology and petroleum geology, towards physics- and chemistry-based topics. The Apollo lunar landings had as much influence on the topics and practice of geological research as the much-cited plate-tectonics revolution. These results reflect the barely-tangible effects of the changes in vocabulary and habit of thought that have pervaded the substance of geology. Geological literature has increased in volume and specialization, resulting in a highly fragmentary literature. However, we infer that "big science," characterized by large amounts of funding, collaboration, and large logistical investments, makes use of this specialization and turns "twigging" into a phenomenon that enhances, rather than inhibits, the enterprise of research.

  17. Structural geology of the Columbia Plateau and environs as related to the waste isolation safety assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information on the structural geology of the Columbia Plateau in regard to selecting a site for radioactive waste disposal. This report describes the folding and faulting that has taken place during the past several million years, thus providing background for the general stress conditions of the area and giving clues to the mechanism of deformation

  18. Google Earth Mapping Exercises for Structural Geology Students--A Promising Intervention for Improving Penetrative Visualization Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgis, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional thinking skills are extremely useful for geoscientists, and at the undergraduate level, these skills are often emphasized in structural geology courses. Google Earth is a powerful tool for visualizing the three-dimensional nature of data collected on the surface of Earth. The results of a 5 y pre- and posttest study of the…

  19. Yucca Mountain thermal response: An evaluation of the effects of modeled geologic structure and thermal property descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the influence of mountain-scale thermal property model variations on predicted host-rock thermal response, a series of heat conduction calculations were run using a representative two-dimensional cross section of Yucca Mountain. The effects of modeled geologic structure were evaluated through comparisons of results from a single-material, homogeneous model with those from a uniformly layered model, a discontinuous sloping-layered model, and a geo-statistical realization of thermal properties. Comparisons indicate that assumed geologic structure can result in up to a 24 degrees C difference in predicted temperature response. Further, thermal simulations of the method used to analyze geostatistical realizations of thermal properties shows promise as an efficient means of capturing geologic structure without the complexities of intricate finite element meshing. The functional representation of two thermal property models were also investigated. The first examines the effect of using a weighting scheme to define properties for a single, homogenous material model. The second investigates the impact of thermal property temperature dependence on predicted response. As with the investigation of geologic structure, noticeable differences in predicted temperatures (up to 29 degrees C) were found to result

  20. Spatial distribution of geological resources in northwestern Serbia, Jadar block terrene, and its relation to tectonic structures

    OpenAIRE

    Filipovi? Ivan

    2005-01-01

    This work presents new information about the interconnection between diverse geological resources and tectonic structures framing the Jadar block terrene. Deep fault zones are found to have been principal bearers of geothermal, thermo mineral and metallic ore resources. Increased bitumen and hydrocarbon concentrations in pre-Tertiary deposits, which may be potential oil/gas zones, are also associated with these areas.

  1. NMR analysis of proteins structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of proteins aims at determining the 3-D folding of the polypeptide chain. Because of the high number of nuclei observed in the samples, the NMR protein spectra are extremely complex. The different steps of the structure determination are: the preparation of the samples, the acquisition and processing of the NMR signal, the analysis and attribution of spectra, and the calculation of the coordinates of the atoms using the NMR spectra parameters. Content: 1 - proteins and peptides (composition and structure, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure); 2 - NMR of proteins in solution (characteristics, structures determination, homonuclear experiments, heteronuclear experiments, proteins with a size higher than 20 kDa, intermolecular interactions, stability factors, internal molecular dynamics); 3 - structures calculation (calculation framework, distance geometry, molecular dynamics and simulated annealing, quality of the structure obtained). (J.S.)

  2. Regularized Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2009-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) has been proposed as a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, GSCA may suffer from multi-collinearity, i.e., high correlations among exogenous variables. GSCA has yet no remedy for this problem. Thus, a regularized extension of GSCA is proposed that integrates a ridge…

  3. Capability of ERTS-1 imagery to investigate geological and structural features in a sedimentary basin (Bassin Parisien, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavelier, C.; Scanvic, J. Y.; Weecksteen, G.; Zizerman, A.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study of the MSS imagery of a sedimentary basin whose structure is regular is reported. Crops and natural vegetation are distributed all over the site located under temperate climate. Ground data available concern plant species geology and tectonic and are correlated with results from ERTS 1 imagery. This comparison shows a good correlation. The main geological units are detected or enhanced by way of agricultural land use and/or natural vegetation. Alluvial deposits are outlined by vegetation grass land and poplar trees. Some spatial relationship of geostructures, suspected until now, are identified or extended in associating results from different spectral bands.

  4. Structural geology investigation in the republics of Dahomey and Togoland, Africa, using ERTS-1 multi-spectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weecksteen, G. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Recent geological studies in the Republics of Dahomey and Togoland put in light a new chronology and propose a schema indicating that the structural geology of this region is very complicated. The new observations made possible by the ERTS images concern the main orientations, the folded units, and the lithology. The correlation between different types of laterite and the petrology of the basement seems possible, and is the most significant result of this investigation but unfortunately conducted with poor quality images because of atmospheric haze.

  5. An automated multidetector system for instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological and environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated multidetector system for instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological and environmental materials is described. The system was evaluated using NBS SRM's 1632a Coal and 1633a Coal Fly Ash. Data are presented to show the precision, accuracy, and stability of the system over a 3-month period from eight Ge(Li) gamma-ray detectors. As a result of the evaluation, elemental concentrations for Dy, La, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, and Ta were determined. These had not been previously assayed in NBS SRM 1633a Coal Fly Ash. The systems were found to have excellent long-term stability which is necessary for the production of high quality data

  6. Nondestructive analysis of individual fluid inclusion based on SRXRF and its application in oil geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental device and methods of nondestructive analysis on individual fluid inclusion by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microprobe are described. With the standard sample NIST612 as reference, the detection limits of some elements are calculated and the typical organic inclusion taken from the western basin of China which contain oil gas are analyzed nondestructively. The semi-quantitative detection results of K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ge, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Pb etc. are given, and the application of the results on oil geology is discussed

  7. Geological techniques used in the siting of South Africa's nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear site selection studies begin with an initial screening phase in order to pick regions which could be potentially suitable. When assessing a potential nuclear site from a structural geological point of view, the most important factors are the presence of 'capable faults', the seismicity of the area, and the existence of good foundation rock. A geological evaluation of a potential site involves a literature survey for all existing geological data on the site, geophysical investigations, structural domain analysis and geological mapping

  8. Structural Analysis of Combustion Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tóth, J; Zsély, I

    2013-01-01

    Using ReactionKinetics, a Mathematica based package a few dozen detailed models for combustion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methanol are investigated. Essential structural characteristics are pulled out, and similarities and differences of the mechanisms are highlighted. These investigations can be used before or parallel with usual numerical investigations, such as pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, or simulation.

  9. Thai Rhetorical Structure Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Somnuk Sinthupoun,; Ohm Sornil

    2010-01-01

    A rhetorical structure tree (RS tree) is a representation of discourse relations among elementary discourse units (EDUs). A RS tree is very useful to many text processing tasks employing relationships among EDUs such as text understanding, summarization, and question-answering. Thai language with its unique linguistic characteristics requires a unique RS tree construction technique. This paper proposes an approach for Thai RS tree construction which consists of three major steps: EDU segmenta...

  10. Structural Analysis of Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Sirovich, Lawrence; STOECKLE, MARK Y; ZHANG, YU

    2010-01-01

    Large, recently-available genomic databases cover a wide range of life forms, suggesting opportunity for insights into genetic structure of biodiversity. In this study we refine our recently-described technique using indicator vectors to analyze and visualize nucleotide sequences. The indicator vector approach generates correlation matrices, dubbed Klee diagrams, which represent a novel way of assembling and viewing large genomic datasets. To explore its potential utility, here we apply the i...

  11. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall be fulfilled: a) demonstrating that those parts of the structure essential for the safety only have little sensitivity with respect to unintentional loads and defects, or b) demonstrating a load case with „removal of a limited part of the structure? in order to document that an extensive failure of the structure will not occur if a limited part of the structure fails, or c) demonstrating sufficient safety of key elements, such that the entire structure with one or more key elements has the same reliability as a structure where robustness is documented by b). Based on investigations with respect to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obtained. Therefore the structure can be considered to behave robust according to the sued probabilistic approach. However, the present probabilistic approach for robustness evaluation has to be further developed for a general application to timber systems, and a simplified approach suitable for day-to-day engineering purposes must be identified.

  12. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, S.; Ikuma, T.; Tanifuji, R. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: safety analysis of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: granite. Tome analyse de surete du stockage geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the safety aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - safety approach: context and general goal, references, design approach by safety functions, safety approach during the construction-exploitation-observation-closure phase, safety analysis during the post-closure phase; 2 - general description: HLLL wastes, granitic environment, general structure of the architecture of a disposal facility; 3 - safety functions and disposal design: general context, safety functions of the long-term disposal, design dispositions retained to answer the functions; 4 - operational safety: people's protection, radiological risks during exploitation, risk analysis in accident situation; 5 - qualitative safety analysis: methodology, main results of the analysis of the features, events and processes (FEP) database; 6 - disposal efficiency evaluation during post-closure phase: calculation models, calculation tools used for the modeling of radionuclides transport, calculation results and main lessons. (J.S.)

  14. Relationship between Magnetic Domain Structures and Shear Stress in Magnetic Minerals of Geological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagyu, E.; Kanamaru, T.; Takemura, T.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic properties of rocks are affected by geomagnetic fields, heat and shearing stresses after formation. The shear stress associated with tectonic stress, for example, from a fault, can cause magnetic domain­-wall displacement. The wall displacement is thought to reflect the magnetic domain structure. Therefore, the hysteresis of strain, which rocks are subjected to in fault movements, can be used to estimate the structural disturbances of the magnetic domain. Previous studies have shown that the stress effect on magnetic domains can be observed by using industrial and synthetic materials, such as Si-Fe alloys (Chikazumi & Suzuki, 1995). However, few studies have used natural geological materials to study the effect of stress on magnetic domains. This study's objective is to verify the shear stress history of rocks by observing the magnetic domain structures via the Bitter method and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Here, the Bitter method is the powder pattern method, whereby a colloidal suspension of the magnetic powder is prepared from magnetic materials, and the patterns of the domain wall produced by ferromagnetic particles are observed under a microscope. On observing the domain structures of industrial and synthetic materials, the remnant stress on the surface layer is removed after mechanical polishing (Hoffmann et al., 1987) because the remnant stress influences the domain structures. There are several technical problems during the observation of rocks compared with those during observation of industrial and synthetic materials. Electrolytical polishing does not work because the electrical conductivity is very low (e.g., Hoffmann et al., 1987). In previous studies of the observation of magnetic domains of rock minerals, the surface strain layer was removed by polishing with colloidal silica (Ozdemir, 1995,etc). In this study, we will attempt to conduct a verification experiment and observations of the magnetic domain structures in natural minerals of rocks, and would like to discuss the relationship between the shear stress and magnetic domain structures. Here, the polishing method was according to Hoffmann et al. (1987), and the magnetic domain was observed by the Bitter method and MFM. As a result, we can observe the magnetic domain walls, and each domain wall has a spacing of 3-5 ?m.

  15. Thai Rhetorical Structure Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sinthupoun, Somnuk

    2010-01-01

    A rhetorical structure tree (RS tree) is a representation of discourse relations among elementary discourse units (EDUs). A RS tree is very useful to many text processing tasks employing relationships among EDUs such as text understanding, summarization, and question answering. Thai language with its unique linguistic characteristics requires a unique RS tree construction technique. This paper proposes an approach for Thai RS tree construction which consists of three major steps: EDU segmentation, Thai RS tree construction, and discourse relation (DR) identification. Two hidden markov models derived from grammatical rules are used to segment EDUs, a clustering technique with its similarity measure derived from Thai semantic rules is used to construct a Thai RS tree, and a decision tree whose features extracted from the rules is used to determine the DR between EDUs. The proposed technique is evaluated using three Thai corpora. The results show the Thai RS tree construction and the DR identification effectiven...

  16. Use of the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) in Determining Realtionship between Geology, Structures and Mineral Prospects, Southern Part of the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa M. Hariri

    2003-01-01

    GIS can be utilized in geology in different fields among them; mineral and petroleum exploration, geological mapping and reconnaissance, environmental studies, and in hydrogeological modeling. In mineral exploration the GIS is used to define a set of characteristics of specific mineral deposit that might be used as a guide to similar deposits in the region. An example is being the spatial relation of igneous intrusions and / or geological structures to the mineral prospect locations. This stu...

  17. Strategies for Mars remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of sulfur in geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key to understanding the sulfur history on Mars is to identify and determine sulfate and sulfide compositions and then to draw from them geologic clues about their environments of formation. To lay a foundation for use of remote LIBS to sulfur analysis in planetary exploration, we have undertaken a focused study of sulfur LIBS in geological samples in a simulated Mars atmosphere, with experimental parameters replicating the ChemCam LIBS instrument. A suite of twelve samples was selected, including rocks rich in minerals representative of sulfates and sulfides that might be encountered on Mars. Univariate analysis of sulfur emission lines did not provide quantitative information. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was successful at modeling sulfur concentrations for a subset of samples with similar matrices. Sulfide minerals were identified on the basis of other siderophile or chalcophile peaks, such as those arising from Zn and Cu. Because the S lines are very weak compared to those of other elements, optimal PLS results were obtained by restricting the wavelength range to channels close to the most intense sulfur lines ? 540-570 nm. Principal components analysis was attempted on the dataset, but did not differentiate the samples into meaningful groups because the sulfur lines are not strong enough. However, areas of the relatively weak S, H, and O peaks may be used to correctly classify all samples. Based on these outcomes, a flowchart that outlines a possiblmes, a flowchart that outlines a possible decision tree for identification and quantification of sulfur in remote LIBS analysis was constructed. Results suggest that LIBS data acquired under Mars conditions can meet the science requirements for the ChemCam instrument.

  18. Release consequence analysis for a hypothetical geologic radioactive waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One subtask conducted under the INFCE program is to evaluate and compare the health and safety impacts of different fuel cycles in which all radioactive wastes (except those from mining and milling) are placed in a geologic repository in salt. To achieve this objective, INFCE Working Group 7 examined the radiologic dose to humans from geologic repositories containing waste arisings as defined for seven reference fuel cycles. This report examines the release consequences for a generic waste repository in bedded salt. The top of the salt formation and the top of the repository are assumed to be 250 and 600 m, respectively, below the surface. The hydrogeologic structure above the salt consists of two aquifers and two aquitards. The aquifers connect to a river 6.2 km from the repository. The regional gradient to the river is 1 m/km in all aquifers. Hydrologic, transport, and dose models were used to model two release scenarios for each fuel cycle, one without a major disturbance and one in which a major geologic perturbation breached the repository immediately after it was sealed. The purpose of the modeling was to predict the rate of transport of radioactive contaminants from the repository through the geosphere to the biosphere, and to determine the potential dose to humans. Of the many radionuclides in the waste, only 129I and 226Ra arrived at the river in sufficient concentrations for a measurable dose calculation. Radionuclide concentrations in the ground water pose no threat to man because the ground water is a concentrated brine and it is diluted by a factor of 106 to 107 upon entering the river

  19. An evaluation of the suitability of ERTS data for the purposes of petroleum exploration. [lithology and geological structure of Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R. J. (principal investigator); Mccown, F. P.; Stonis, L. P.; Petzel, G. J.; Everett, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 data give exploration geologists a new perspective for looking at the earth. The data are excellent for interpreting regional lithologic and structural relationships and quickly directing attention to areas of greatest exploration interest. Information derived from ERTS data useful for petroleum exploration include: linear features, general lithologic distribution, identification of various anomalous features, some details of structures controlling hydrocarbon accumulation, overall structural relationships, and the regional context of the exploration province. Many anomalies (particularly geomorphic anomalies) correlate with known features of petroleum exploration interest. Linears interpreted from the imagery that were checked in the field correlate with fractures. Bands 5 and 7 and color composite imagery acquired during the periods of maximum and minimum vegetation vigor are best for geologic interpretation. Preliminary analysis indicates that use of ERTS imagery can substantially reduce the cost of petroleum exploration in relatively unexplored areas.

  20. Geological structure of the offshore Sumatra forearc region estimated from high-resolution MCS reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Ayanori; Hirata, Kenji; Seeber, Leonard; Arai, Kohsaku; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Rahardiawan, Riza; Udrekh; Fujiwara, Toshiya; Kinoshita, Masataka; Baba, Hisatoshi; Kameo, Katsura; Adachi, Keita; Sarukawa, Hiroshi; Tokuyama, Hidekazu; Permana, Haryadi; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S.; Ashi, Juichiro

    2014-01-01

    To investigate detailed fault distributions and shallow geological structure offshore northwestern Sumatra, we obtained high-resolution Multi-Channel Seismic (MCS) reflection data around the Sunda Trench, trench slope, and forearc high regions offshore northwestern Sumatra. In general, trench-parallel anticlinal ridges are distributed from trench slope region to forearc high region. Two kinds of different vergence systems are characterized in the Sumatra forearc region; landward vergence is dominant in the lower trench slope region, and seaward vergence is dominant in the forearc high region. Moreover, piggyback or slope basins are recognized between anticlinal ridges. Deformation in the uppermost part of these basins, that is referred to ‘recent’ deformation in this paper, can be identified not only along major thrusts but also between major thrusts and the lower trench slope, suggesting these are related to recently active faulting. Several but the largest number of such deformation are distributed along a major thrust located in the middle of the forearc high region, whereas few are done along other major thrusts.

  1. Analysis of geological aspects and visual impact rising from the realisation of a wind power station in an Italian mountain area (Central Appennines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates some aspects of the environmental impacts arising from the wind power station in the Central Appennines of Italy, particularly with reference to the geological and geotechnical conditions of the site and the visual impact on the landscape. Starting from a large-scale analysis that takes into account the Appennines orogeny and their geodynamic process, it is possible to define the geological characteristics of the considered area. It is possible to analyse structural and morphological aspects, in this way it is possible to identify the most suitable location of power generators in the area and to optimise the road network. The geo-stratigraphical study aids decisions about foundations, excavations and works of containments. Considerations on earth traspiration and on rill identify the necessity of controlling surface waters, evolutionary phenomena and the soil stability of the considered areas. Particular attention has been given to analyse effects on the landscape. (author)

  2. The seismic characterization of the geological cut from the Cuban sliding belt. The new structures for the hydrocarbons searching; Caracterizacion sismica del corte geologico en el cinturon sobrecorrido cubano. Nuevas estructuras para la busqueda de hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Sofia; Socorro, Rafael [Digicupet Empresa de Geofisica, La Habna (Cuba)

    1999-07-01

    This work shows how the detailed interpretation of the seismic materials (attribute analysis, older surveys reprocessing) and the integration of all the available geological-geophysical data, allows the characterization of the seismic image - response for the different rock sequences since the oldest until the Tertiary deposits, and to separate and mapping the different structures that have been formed in the Cuban Archipelago. It also presents methodological recommendations to the seismic works during the data acquisition and processing, aiming to improve the image in the seismic cuts in the new exploration surveys to this area and the zones of similar geology.

  3. Geological control of canopy structure and function in Panamanian forests as identified by CAO-AToMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R. E.; Knapp, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Geological formations and their edaphic properties are known to control plant species composition in tropical forests. It has been speculated that these edaphic and compositional patterns might also be translated into functional patterns, but this has been difficult to test due to a lack of broad-scale but detailed canopy structural and functional data. Here we use the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), which combines a 480-band visible-to-shortwave imaging spectrometer (VSWIR) with dual waveform LiDAR, to generate ultra-high resolution data on geomorphology, canopy structure, and canopy chemistry for forests in the vicinity of the Panama Canal. Using these remotely-sensed data, in conjunction with field data on soils and plant species composition, we demonstrate that geological formations regulate forest structure and chemistry in these forests via changes in soils and plant species composition. These chemical properties, moreover, correspond to canopy functional properties including photosynthetic investment and anti-herbivore defenses. Together, our findings indicate that forest canopy structure and function in these forests are an expression their geological history, over which variations due to contemporary variables such as climate are overlaid.

  4. Inference of the structure of karst conduits using quantitative tracer tests and geological information: example of the Swiss Jura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jérôme; Luetscher, Marc

    2008-08-01

    Karst aquifers are known for being particularly heterogeneous with highly transmissive conduits embedded in low permeability volumes of rock matrix. Artificial tracer experiments have been carried out in a complex karst aquifer of the folded Jura Mountains in Switzerland with the aim of deciphering the conduit organisation. It is shown that tracer experiments with multiple injection points under different flow conditions can lead to useful information on the conduits’ structure. This information has been combined with data from structural geology, spring hydrology, and speleological observations. A conceptual model of the conduit network shows that a detailed inference of the conduit organisation can be reached: geology controls conduit location and orientation; spring hydrology, including temporary springs, constrains conduit elevations and relative hydraulic heads in the aquifer subsystems; and tracer tests identify major flow paths and outlets of the system and dilution caused by non-traced tributaries, as well as the presence of secondary flow routes. This understanding of the Aubonne aquifer structure has important implications for the future management of the groundwater resource. Similar approaches coupling geological information, spring hydrology, and multi-tracer tests under various flow conditions may help to characterise the structure of the conduit network in karst aquifers.

  5. Analysis on digital management of uranium geological archives and its second exploitation and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enormous data and examples show that the second exploitation and utilization of geological archives information are important and necessary for geological prospecting. The author deeply studies and analyzes the information service system for uranium geology, it is believed that the traditional management mode of geological archives must be transformed into modernized service mode. The way of how to expand, apply and improve the 'management and analytical system for uranium resources information' is discussed for implementing geo-informational construction. (authors)

  6. Framework for multiple hypothesis testing improves the use of legacy data in structural geological modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soazig Corbel

    2015-06-01

    The concept is applied to a geological model project of the Perth Basin, Australia, where we show how it enables us to quickly revise and update the (previously constructed model with additional data (e.g. newly available digitized legacy data, to evaluate the spatial consistency between different legacy data sets and interpretations, and to test different hypotheses. In our point of view, this is an important aspect towards a sustainable approach for geological modeling as it allows a very flexible and transparent use of different data sets for model construction – and therefore a more sustainable use of legacy data itself in the increasing use of subsurface representations using 3D geological models.

  7. Structural geology and sedimentology of the Sermat Quartzites, Strandja Massif, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaz?c?, Müge; Natal'in, Boris A.

    2015-04-01

    The Strandja Massif, NW Turkey, is the eastern continuation of the Rhodope Massif in Bulgaria. The massif is generally correlated with the Hercynian orogenic belt that was later modified by the Cimmerian orogeny. The basement of the massif is composed by various kinds of gneisses and schists, which are intruded by the metagranites. In the studied area, the Cambrian K-feldspar metagranites are unconformably overlain by metaclastics, where both units have fault contacts with volcano-sedimentary rocks. The metagranite intrusions yield Carboniferous U-Pb zircon ages (Natal'in et al., 2012a). All of them constitute the basement of the Strandja Massif. Cambrian age of metagranites and their subduction related nature as well as the subduction related nature of the Carboniferous igneous rocks suggest a prolong evolution of the Strandja Massif (Natal'in et al., 2012a). The Cambrian metagranites are unconformably overlain by a metasedimetary cover unit, which is known in the literature as the ?ermat Quartzite of presumably Permo-Triassic age (Ça?layan and Yurtsever, 1998). In the studied region, detrital zircons extracted from quartzites show that their depositional age is not younger than the Ordovician (Natal'in et al., 2012a). The basement of the Strandja Massif is subjected to the epidote-amphibolite-greenschist facies of metamorphism and high strain deformation in the late Jurassic - early Cretaceous times. The ?ermat Quartzite forms a transgressive sequence, which starts with metaconglomerates, metasandstones and grades up to quartz-sericite schists. The thickness of bedding changes from thin to medium with parallel bedding planes, containing lens-shaped bodies of massive quartzites. The late Jurassic - early Cretaceous foliation (S1) is generally parallel to the primary bedding plane. Foliations and lineations consistently dip to the northeast and kinematic indicators suggest a tectonic transport in the same direction. High strain in the ?ermat Quartzite prevented the preservation of sedimentary structures such as flute casts and cross-beddings, which can be used to determine the sedimentary environments of the ?ermat Basin. Nevertheless, all available relicts indicate the transportation of sediments from a source area in the south. If the ?ermat Quartzites is Ordovician age, they can be correlated with the Ordovician rocks of the Istanbul Zone, which is interpreted as a south-facing passive continental margin. Sedimentological framework of the ?ermat Quartzites contradicts this correlation. Further studies of the region are necessary in order to determine the connection between the Strandja Massif and the Istanbul Zone. Keywords: Hercynian orogeny, Cimmerides, Strandja Massif, ?stanbul Zone, Sedimentary Basin, Turkey References Ça?layan, M. A. & Yurtsever, A., 1998, Geological map of Turkey at 1:100000 scale, no. 20, 21, 22, 23, Burgaz-A3, Edirne-B2 and -B3, Burgaz A4, and K?rklareli-B4-B5-B6 and -C6 sheets, Mineral Research and Exploration Institute (MTA) of Turkey publications (in Turkish with English abstract). Natal'in, B., Sunal, G., Zhiqing, Y. & Gün, E., 2012a, Late Paleozoic subduction-accretion orogeny in the eastern part of the Turkish Strandja Massif (Vize - K?y?köy region), in Kocbay, A., Esat, K., and Hasancebi, N., eds., 65th Geological Congress of Turkey. Abstracts Book: Ankara, Chamber of Geological Engineers, p. 454-455 Natal'in, B., Sunal, G., Sat?r, M. & Toraman, E., 2012, Tectonics of the Strandja Massif, NW Turkey: History of a Long-Lived Arc at the Northern Margin of Palaeo-Tethys: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 21, p. 755-798.

  8. Structural analysis for LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firstly, we discuss the use of elastic analysis for structural design of LMFBR components. The elastic analysis methods have been used for structural design of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor as well as the proposed prototype Test Breeder Reactor. The design of Fast Breeder Test Reactor which is nearing completion is the same as that of Rapsodie. Nevertheless, the design had to he checked against the latest design codes available, namely the ASME Code case 1592. This paper however, is confined to Structural analysis of PFBR components. The problems faced in the design of some of the components, in particular, the inner vessel (plenum separator) are discussed. As far as design codes are concerned, we make use of ASME Code Section III and the Code Case N-47, for high temperature design. The problem faced in the use of these rules are also described along with the description of analysis. Studies in the field of cyclic loading include extension of Bree's breakdown and plastic cycling criteria for ratchet free operation to biaxial stress fields. In other fields, namely, inelastic analysis, piping analysis in the creep regime etc. we are only at a start

  9. Structural analysis of NPP components and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capabilities for effective structural integrity assessment have been created and extended in several important cases. In the paper presented applications deal with pressurised thermal shock loading, PTS, and severe dynamic loading cases of containment, reinforced concrete structures and piping components. Hydrogen combustion within the containment is considered in some severe accident scenarios. Can a steel containment withstand the postulated hydrogen detonation loads and still maintain its integrity? This is the topic of Chapter 2. The following Chapter 3 deals with a reinforced concrete floor subjected to jet impingement caused by a postulated rupture of a near-by high-energy pipe and Chapter 4 deals with dynamic loading resistance of the pipe lines under postulated pressure transients due to water hammer. The reliability of the structural integrity analysing methods and capabilities which have been developed for application in NPP component assessment, shall be evaluated and verified. The resources available within the RATU2 programme alone cannot allow performing of the large scale experiments needed for that purpose. Thus, the verification of the PTS analysis capabilities has been conducted by participation in international co-operative programmes. Participation to the European Network for Evaluating Steel Components (NESC) is the topic of a parallel paper in this symposium. The results obtained in two other international programmes are summarised in Chapters 5 and 6 of this paper, where PTS tests with a model vessel and benchmark assessment of a RPV nozzle integrity are described. (author)

  10. Progress on 129I analysis and its application in environmental and geological researches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a naturally generated isotope, but anthropogenic releases are the dominated source of 129I in the present environment. Among many measurement techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are only methods used for measurement of 129I in environmental level. Based on its source terms, chemical properties and environmental behaviors, 129Ican be applied for geological dating in a range of 2–80Ma, investigation of formation and migration of hydrocarbon, circulation of ocean water, atmospheric process of iodine, as well as reconstruction of dispersion and migration of short-lived radioisotopes of iodine released from nuclear accidents. This article aims to summarize and critically compare the analytical techniques used for 129I measurement and chemical methods for separation of iodine from various sample matrices, purification from the interferences, as well as preparation of suitable target for AMS measurement. The major applications in environmental and geological researches are reviewed, which mainly focus on the new progress and potential development in the future. The application of 129I in the investigation of radioactive contamination from the Fukushima accident is discussed.

  11. Coda-wave interferometry analysis of time-lapse VSP data for monitoring geological carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, R.; Huang, L.; Rutledge, J.T.; Fehler, M.; Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.

    2009-11-01

    Injection and movement/saturation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a geological formation will cause changes in seismic velocities. We investigate the capability of coda-wave interferometry technique for estimating CO2-induced seismic velocity changes using time-lapse synthetic vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data and the field VSP datasets acquired for monitoring injected CO2 in a brine aquifer in Texas, USA. Synthetic VSP data are calculated using a finite-difference elastic-wave equation scheme and a layered model based on the elastic Marmousi model. A possible leakage scenario is simulated by introducing seismic velocity changes in a layer above the CO2 injection layer. We find that the leakage can be detected by the detection of a difference in seismograms recorded after the injection compared to those recorded before the injection at an earlier time in the seismogram than would be expected if there was no leakage. The absolute values of estimated mean velocity changes, from both synthetic and field VSP data, increase significantly for receiver positions approaching the top of a CO2 reservoir. Our results from field data suggest that the velocity changes caused by CO2 injection could be more than 10% and are consistent with results from a crosswell tomogram study. This study demonstrates that time-lapse VSP with coda-wave interferometry analysis can reliably and effectively monitor geological carbon sequestration.

  12. On risk analysis for repositories in northern Switzerland: extent and probability of geological processes and events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature study assesses, in the form of expert analysis, geological processes and events for a 1200 km2-area of northern Switzerland, with regard to repositories for medium- and high-active waste (depth 100 to 600 m and 600 to 2500 m, respectively) over the next 106 years. The area, which comprises parts of the Tabular Jura, the folded Jura and the Molasse Basin, the latter two being parts of the Alpine Orogene, has undergone a non-uniform geologic development since the Oligocene. Within the next 104 to 105 years a maximum earthquake intensity of VIII-IX (MSK-scale) has been predicted. After this period, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the area, glaciations will probably occur, with associated erosion of possibly 200 to 300 m. Fluvial erosion as a reponse to an uplift could reach similar values after 105 to 106 years; however, there are no data on the recent relative vertical crustal movements of the area. The risk of a meteorite impact is considered small as compared to that of these factors. Seismic activity and the position and extent of faults are so poorly known within the area that the faulting probability cannot be derived at present. Flooding by the sea, intrusion of magma, diapirism, metamorphism and volcanic eruptions are not considered to be risk factors for final repositories in northern Switzerland. For the shallow-type repositories, the risk of denudation and landslides have to be judged when locality-bound projects have been proposed. (Auth.)

  13. Study on the development of geological environmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety performance assessment was carried out in potential geological environment in the conventional research and development of geological disposal, but the importance of safety assessment based on the repository design and scenario considering the concrete geological environment will increase in the future. The research considering the link of the major three fields of geological disposal, investigation of geological environment, repository design, and safety performance assessment, is the contemporary worldwide research theme. Hence it is important to organize information flow that contains the series of information process form the data production to analysis in the three fields, and to systemize the knowledge base that unifies the information flow hierarchically. The purpose of the research is to support the development of the unified analysis system for geological disposal. The development technology for geological environmental model studied for the second progress report by JNC are organized and examined for the purpose of developing database system with considering the suitability for the deep underground research facility. The geological environmental investigation technology and building methodology for geological structure and hydro geological structure models are organized and systemized. Furthermore, the quality assurance methods in building geological environment models are examined. Information which is used and stored in the unified analysis systed and stored in the unified analysis system are examined to design database structure of the system based on the organized methodology for building geological environmental model. The graphic processing function for data stored in the unified database are examined. furthermore, future research subjects for the development of detail models for geological disposal are surveyed to organize safety performance system. (author)

  14. Pixe analysis of the platinum group elements preconcentrated from geological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annegarn, H. J.; Erasmus, C. S.; Sellschop, J. P. F.

    1984-04-01

    A fast multi-elemental method of measuring the platinum group elements (PGEs) in geological samples is needed for the geochemical study and the commercial exploitation of these metals. The application of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the determination of ng-range concentrations of platinum, palladium, rhodium and ruthenium in terrestrial rocks is described. The PGEs are inhomogeneously distributed in sulphide ores and their host rocks, necessitating the analysis of large sample aliquots to obtain representative results. Preconcentration of the sample material is therefore essential for their analysis by PIXE. The noble metals are extracted from a 50 g sample by a modified nickel sulphide fire-assay technique. The resulting NiS button is partly dissolved in hydrochloric acid and the insoluble noble metal sulphides are retained on a Nuclepore filter membrane which is then used directly as a target for PIXE analysis. The method was evaluated by the analysis of serially diluted samples of a standard reference material of a platinum bearing ore. X-ray spectrum optimisation was investigated using differential X-ray absorbers. Detection limits of ˜ 0.5 ng/g were established for the elements Rh, Ru, Pd and Pt. The low detection limits and relative simplicity of analysis by PIXE compare favourably with other recently developed procedures.

  15. Sodium loop framework structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the structural analysis of the Sodium Loop framework in a drop condition. The drop is similar to the US Department of Transportation non-bulk, performance-oriented packaging (Packaging Group I) drop test. The drop height evaluated for the Sodium Loop framework is 5.9 ft

  16. Spatial distribution of geological resources in northwestern Serbia, Jadar block terrene, and its relation to tectonic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipovi? Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents new information about the interconnection between diverse geological resources and tectonic structures framing the Jadar block terrene. Deep fault zones are found to have been principal bearers of geothermal, thermo mineral and metallic ore resources. Increased bitumen and hydrocarbon concentrations in pre-Tertiary deposits, which may be potential oil/gas zones, are also associated with these areas.

  17. Geologic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Graymer

    This web site provides an introduction to geologic maps. Topics covered include what is a geologic map, unique features of geologic maps, letter symbols, faults, and strike and dip. Users may click to view colored geologic maps, the geologic map of the United States and the geologic relief map of the United States.

  18. Airborne magnetometry and gamma spectrometry applied to the geological characterization of the Juruena - Teles Pires - Mato Grosso State (Brazil) structural high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive geophysical data processing of magnetic and gamma-ray spectrometric data from the Jurena - Teles Pires airborne survey supplied information supporting geologic interpretation of the area. In integrated map, obtained from a qualitative analysis of the geophysical information, brought new insight to the geological knowledge of this gold province. (author)

  19. Fast neutron activation analysis of short-living nuclides in some geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast neutron activation analysis was applied to determine major, minor and trace e4lements (Si, Fe, Ti, Al, Zr, Au and U) in geological samples. The samples and standards were irradiated with a monoenergetic neutron flux of 109 n.cm-2s-1 produced by KAMAN type neutron generator. A pneumatic facility was used to transfer the sample and standard from the irradiation to the counting station. The standard was prepared from flint clay obtained from NBS. The gamma-ray activities from samples and standards were measured using a 30 cm3 Ge(Li) detector (FWHM = 2,9 KeV at 1,33 MeV) coupled to an on-line computer facility

  20. Distribution and geology accumulation contamination analysis of heavy metal cadmium in agricultural soil of Zunyi county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pollution of heavy metal Cd in agricultural soils of Zunyi County, Guizhou Province, was investigated and assessed by using geology accumulation indices (igeo) and pollution index method in this study. Results showed that the average content of Cd is 0.356 mg/kg, and the geochemistry baseline content of Cd was 0.147 mg/kg. The Igeos of Cd was 0.691, which suggested that non-contaminated soil accounts for 13.84%, 59.17% of tested soils was between non-polluted and mid-level polluted, 21.37% with mid-level polluted and 5.17% was between mid-level polluted and severely polluted, 0.45% of which was severely polluted. Contamination degree analysis indicated that non-contaminated soil was only 10.57%, 54.44% was influenced by Cd and 34.98% was seriously influenced by Cd. (authors)

  1. SG2PS (structural geology to postscript converter) - A graphical solution for brittle structural data evaluation and paleostress calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasvári, Ágoston; Baharev, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to create an open source cross platform application to process brittle structural geological data with seven paleostress inversion algorithms published by different authors and formerly not available within a single desktop application. The tool facilitates separate processing and plotting of different localities, data types and user made groups, using the same single input file. Simplified data input is supported, requiring as small amount of data as possible. Data rotation to correct for bedding tilting, rotation with paleomagnetic declination and k-means clustering are available. RUP and ANG stress estimators calculation and visualization, resolved shear direction display and Mohr circle stress visualization are available. RGB-colored vector graphical outputs are automatically generated in Encapsulated PostScript and Portable Document Format. Stereographical displays on great circle or pole point plot, equal area or equal angle net and upper or lower hemisphere projections are implemented. Rose plots displaying dip direction or strike, with dip angle distribution of the input data set are available. This tool is ideal for preliminary data interpretation on the field (quick processing and visualization in seconds); the implemented methods can be regularly used in the daily academic and industrial work as well. The authors' goal was to create an open source and self-contained desktop application that does not require any additional third party framework (such as .NET) or the Java Virtual Machine. The software has a clear and highly modular structure enabling good code portability, easy maintainability, reusability and extensibility. A Windows installer is publicly available and the program is also fully functional on Linux. The Mac OS X port should be feasible with minimal effort. The install file with test and demo data sets, detailed manual, and links to the GitHub repositories are available on the regularly updated website www.sg2ps.eu.

  2. Geological and Structural evolution of the Eurasia Africa plate boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz Central Eastern Atlantic Sea.

    OpenAIRE

    D’oriano, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    Iberia Africa plate boundary, cross, roughly W-E, connecting the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Azores triple junction to the Continental margin of Morocco. Relative movement between the two plate change along the boundary, from transtensive near the Azores archipelago, through trascurrent movement in the middle at the Gloria Fracture Zone, to transpressive in the Gulf of Cadiz area. This study presents the results of geophysical and geological analysis on the plate boundary area offshore Gibral...

  3. Analysis of geological material and especially ores by means of a 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were made on the possibilities for analysis by 252Cf activation in the earth sciences and mining research. The results obtained show that while 252Cf activation can only resolve certain very specific geochemical research problems, it does allow the exact and rapid determination of numerous elements whose ores are of great economic importance such as fluorine, titanium, vanadium, manganese, copper, antimony, barium, and tungsten. The utilization of activation analysis methods in the earth sciences is not a recent phenomenon. It has generally been limited to the analysis of traces in relatively small volumes by means of irradiation in nuclear reactors. Traditional neutron sources were little used and were not very applicable. The development of 252Cf isotopic sources emitting more intense neutron fluxes make it possible to consider carrying out more sensitive determinations without making use of a nuclear reactor. In addition, this technique can be adapted for in situ analysis in mines and mine borings. Our work which is centered upon the possibilities of instrumental laboratory analyses of geological materials through 252Cf activation is oriented in two principal directions: the study of the experimental sensitivities of the various elements in different rocks with the usual compositions; and the study of the possibilities for routine ore analyses

  4. High-precision EA-IRMS analysis of S and C isotopes in geological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassineau, Nathalie V. [Department of Geology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nathalie@gl.rhul.ac.uk

    2006-05-15

    The continuous flow elemental analyzer-isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS) technique provides a significant improvement over conventional extraction methods for the determination of C- and S-isotope ratios in geological materials. It is faster and requires much smaller quantities of material for analysis. Sample preparation is simple, with little or no need for chemical or complete mechanical mineral phase separation, and EA-IRMS sample introduction is rapid. However, because of its simplicity and the fact that data quality depends on the control of a variety of factors, the technique requires rigid adherence to a careful sample analysis protocol. The matching of sample and reference peak heights by sample weight adjustment minimizes non-linearity effects. An accurate calibration should be determined by using standards having a wide range of isotopic compositions, ideally bracketing the samples analysed to both low and high isotopic ratios, and a regular analysis of standards undertaken to maintain the accuracy of the calibration. The calibration equation must be monitored throughout the run by regular analysis of standards, and performance of the Cu-reduction reactor regularly checked to avoid O{sub 2} saturation. With this level of attention to analytical detail, measured precision on replicates of isotopic standards is in the order of {+-}0.1 per mille for both C and S isotopic analyses. For S this is a significant improvement over conventional techniques, with 53% of natural samples analysed replicating to better than {+-}0.1 per mille.

  5. An engineering geological appraisal of the Chamshir dam foundation using DMR classification and kinematic analysis, southwest of Iran

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mehdi, Torabi Kaveh; Mojtaba, Heidari.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo describe los resultados de una investigación de ingeniería geológica y estudios de mecánica de roca que se llevo a cabo en el lugar propuesto para le represa Chamshir. Se propone una presa de 155m de altura, de arco gravitacional en concreto de solido, la cua debe ser construida a trav [...] és del rio Zuhreh al sureste de la ciudad de Gachsaran en el suroeste de Irán. La presa y su estructura asociada son localizadas principalmente sobre la formación Mishan. El análisis consistió en la clasificación del macizo rocoso y un análisis cinemático de la fundación de la masa rocosa de la presa. Los estudios se llevaron a cabo en campo y laboratorio. Los estudios de campo incluyeron cartografía geológica, un estudio intensivo de discontinuidad, perforación de núcleo y toma de muestras para pruebas de laboratorio. La clasificación de la masa rocosa se realizo de acuerdo con la clasificación RMR y DMR para la fundación de la presa. El análisis de basamento rocoso de la presa en relación a la estabilidad usando la clasificación DMR y el análisis cinemático indico que el estribo izquierdo del basamento (área 2) es inestable para tipos de fallo planares y de cuña. Abstract in english This paper describes the results of engineering geological investigations and rock mechanics studies carried out at the proposed Chamshir dam site. It is proposed that a 155 m high solid concrete gravity-arc dam be built across the Zuhreh River to the southeast of the city of Gachsaran in south-west [...] ern Iran. The dam and its associated structures are mainly located on the Mishan formation. Analysis consisted of rock mass classification and a kinematic analysis of the dam foundation's rock masses. The studies were carried out in the field and the laboratory. The field studies included geological mapping, intensive discontinuity surveying, core drilling and sampling for laboratory testing. Rock mass classifications were made in line with RMR and DMR classification for the dam foundation. Dam foundation analysis regarding stability using DMR classification and kinematic analysis indicated that the left abutment's rock foundation (area 2) was unstable for planar, wedge and toppling failure modes.

  6. Mathematical and geological approaches to minimizing the data requirements for statistical analysis of hydraulic conductivity. Technical completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, F.M.; Wilson, J.L.; Gutjahr, A.L.; Love, D.W.; Davis, J.M.; Lohmann, R.C.; Colarullo, S.J.; Gotkowitz, M.B.

    1992-12-01

    Field scale heterogeneity has been recognized as a dominant control on solute dispersion in groundwater. Numerous random field models exist for quantifying heterogeneity and its influence on solute transport. Minimizing data requirements in model selection and subsequent parameterization will be necessary for efficient application of quantitative models in contaminated subsurface environments. In this study, a detailed quantitative sedimentological study is performed to address the issue of incorporating geologic information into the geostatistical characterization process. A field air-minipermeameter is developed for rapid in-situ measurements. The field study conducted on an outcrop of fluvial/interfluvial deposits of the Pliocene- Pleistocene Sierra Ladrones Formation in the Albuquerque Basin of central New Mexico. Architectural element analysis is adopted for mapping and analysis of depositional environment. Geostatistical analysis is performed at two scales. At the architectural element scale, geostatistical analysis of assigned mean log-permeabilities of a 0.16 km{sup 2} peninsular region indicates that the directions of maximum and minimum correlation correspond to the directions of the large-scale depositional processes. At the facies scale, permeability is found to be adequately represented as a log-normal process. Log-permeability within individual lithofacies appears uncorrelated. The overall correlation structure at the facies scale is found to be a function of the mean log-permeability and spatial distribution of the individual lithofacies. Based on field observations of abrupt spatial changes in lithology and hydrologic properties, an algorithm for simulating multi-dimensional discrete Markov random fields. Finally, a conceptual model is constructed relating the information inferred from dimensional environment analysis to the various random fields of heterogeneity.

  7. Applicability of statistical eruption analysis to the geological record of Villarrica and Lanín volcanoes, Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmann, Heidi; Dzierma, Yvonne

    2011-03-01

    Standard stochastic failure-analysis techniques are applied to the geological eruption records of Villarrica and Lanín volcanoes in the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone. These statistical methods are used to estimate the probabilities of eruptions large enough to leave a trace in the geological record. For Villarrica, the standard lifetime distributions predict a near 100% probability that such an eruption should have occurred between 489 AD and today. If the VEI = 3 eruptions observed in the historical record are large enough to be preserved in the geological record, the probability of such a future eruption of Villarrica is about 20% in the next 100 years. In the case of Lanín, the applicability of the exponential, Weibull and log-logistic distributions to the geological record is doubtful, since the volcano appears to have experienced alternating high- and low-activity regimes. Only the mixture-of-exponentials distribution can take into account the possible dormancy descending to final extinction, resulting in a probability of about 16% that Lanín will ever erupt again in the future. The contrasting behaviour of the eruption records of these two neighbouring volcanoes in terms of the number of eruptions and the length of the repose-time intervals serves to examine to what extent the method can be applied to geological eruption records. This study contributes to directing statistical eruption analysis towards time scales long enough to investigate large-magnitude eruptions, and it includes the possibility of dormancy/extinction.

  8. Efficient Analysis of Complex Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.

    2000-01-01

    Last various accomplishments achieved during this project are : (1) A Survey of Neural Network (NN) applications using MATLAB NN Toolbox on structural engineering especially on equivalent continuum models (Appendix A). (2) Application of NN and GAs to simulate and synthesize substructures: 1-D and 2-D beam problems (Appendix B). (3) Development of an equivalent plate-model analysis method (EPA) for static and vibration analysis of general trapezoidal built-up wing structures composed of skins, spars and ribs. Calculation of all sorts of test cases and comparison with measurements or FEA results. (Appendix C). (4) Basic work on using second order sensitivities on simulating wing modal response, discussion of sensitivity evaluation approaches, and some results (Appendix D). (5) Establishing a general methodology of simulating the modal responses by direct application of NN and by sensitivity techniques, in a design space composed of a number of design points. Comparison is made through examples using these two methods (Appendix E). (6) Establishing a general methodology of efficient analysis of complex wing structures by indirect application of NN: the NN-aided Equivalent Plate Analysis. Training of the Neural Networks for this purpose in several cases of design spaces, which can be applicable for actual design of complex wings (Appendix F).

  9. Structural Analysis of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Filling a gap in literature, this self-contained book presents theoretical and application-oriented results that allow for a structural exploration of complex networks. The work focuses not only on classical graph-theoretic methods, but also demonstrates the usefulness of structural graph theory as a tool for solving interdisciplinary problems. Applications to biology, chemistry, linguistics, and data analysis are emphasized. The book is suitable for a broad, interdisciplinary readership of researchers, practitioners, and graduate students in discrete mathematics, statistics, computer science,

  10. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies sectiongic Studies section

  11. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic studies consisted of the synthesis and interpretation of regional and local structures, evaluation of subsurface log information, and the interpretation of sedimentological conditions--all of which have influenced the deposition of uranium in the project area. Objectives of geologic studies in the project area were as follows: (1) To characterize the uranium deposit and its host rock; (2) to determine the sedimentological and structural controls that localizaed the deposit; and (3) to identify the combination of evidences that could be used to detect the deposit. The scope of geologic studies in this report is limited to a small area of less than two square miles, and to subsurface information compiled from about 200 drill holes. Subsurface information for stratigraphic, sedimentological, and structural analyses was obtained from gamma-ray, self potential, and resistivity drill-hole logs; and from cores and geophysical surveys conducted over the project area. A vast amount of published literature is available on the San Juan Basin and particularly on the Grants Mineral Belt. However, for the purpose of this study, regional tectonics that affected the project uranium deposit are briefly reviewed. 31 figures

  12. Multimode analysis of traces of niobium in a geological matrix by charged particle activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method of multimode ?-particle activation analysis of traces of niobium in geological materials has been established. Different nuclear reactions, namely, 93Nb(?,n)96Tc, 93Nb(?,2n)95mTc, 93Nb(?,2n)95Tc, 93Nb(?,3n)94mTc, 93Nb(?,3n)94Tc and 93Nb(?,?n)92mNb, that take place due to interactions from a 40 meV beam of ?-particles with niobium at the different degraded energy levels in the target matrix have been utilized to determine traces of niobium in phosphate rocks. Before irradiating the experimental samples, niobium tracers were preconcentrated in an Al2O3 matrix and the effects of the interferences due to the contaminants in the ?-ray spectrometric analysis of the activated samples are discussed in detail. The corroboration of the results derived from different nuclear reactions ensures the reliability and efficiency of the technique of charged particle activation analysis in geochemical as well as geophysical studies of niobium. (Author)

  13. Neutron-activation analysis of several US Geological Survey and National Bureau of Standards reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, several US Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) and National Bureau of Standards (N.B.S.) reference samples have been analyzed in an effort to improve the quality of elemental concentration data available on these materials, so they can be used in a program of verification of factor analysis source resolution procedures. The analyses of these samples were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples analyzed were: U.S.G.S. Green River Shale, N.B.S. 45b Homogeneous River Sediment, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Peridotite N.B.S. 1579 Powdered Lead-based Paint, U.S.G.S. Hawaian Basalt U.S.G.S. Marine Mud, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Cody Shale U.S.G.S. Glass Mountain Rhyolite, N.B.S. Argillaceous Limestone No. 1, and a sample of Spex ultrapure graphite. Neutron activation analysis was employed because of the high sensitivity that can be attained in determining elemental concentrations. Although INAA is a relatively simple method and the reproducibility of the data is good, the method shows some inaccuracies. The basic theory and technique are reviewed in an attempt to show where problems can arise and how they can be dealt with

  14. Summary report of the advanced scenario analysis for performance assessment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First of all, with regard to the FEP information data on the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) developed by JNC, description level and content of the FEPs have been examined from various angles on the basis of the latest research information. Each content of the FEP data has been classified and modified by means of integrating descriptive items, checking detail levels and correlations with other FEPs, collating with the H12 report, and adding technical information after H12 report. Secondly, scenario-modeling process has been studied. The study has been conducted by evaluating representation of the repository system, definition of FEP properties, and process interactions based on the concept of the interaction matrix (RES format) which represents influences between physicochemical characteristics of the repository, followed by an experimental development of the actual RES interaction matrix based on the H12 report as the examination to improve the transparency, traceability and comprehensibility of the scenario analysis process. Lastly, in relation to the geological disposal system, assessment techniques have been examined for more practical scenario analysis on particularly strong perturbations. Possible conceptual models have been proposed for each of these scenarios; seismic, faulting, and dike intrusion. As a result of these researches, a future direction for advanced scenario analysis on performance assessment has been indicated, as well as associated issues to be cated, as well as associated issues to be discussed have been clarified. (author)

  15. The advanced scenario analysis for performance assessment of geological disposal. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the first step of this study, description level and content of the FEPs (Feature, Event, Process) with regard to the FEP information data on the Natural Barrier System developed by JNC have been examined from various angles on the basis of the latest research information. Each content of the FEP data has been classified and modified by means of integrating descriptive items, checking detail levels and correlations with other FEPs, collating with the H12 report, and adding technical information after H12 report. Secondly, scenario analysis method has been studied. As an illustrated example, a procedure for deriving a calculation case by using Connectivity Matrix and PPM (Parameters, Processes, Models) database was applied for buffer in base scenario and then volcanism scenario. Also, another approach based on Correlation Matrix has been comparatively discussed to list up future subjects. Lastly, in relation to the geological disposal system, assessment techniques have been examined for more practical scenario analysis on variant scenario. Possible conceptual models have been proposed for uplift and erosion scenario. As a result of these researches, a future direction for advanced scenario analysis on performance assessment has been indicated, as well as associated issues to be discussed have been clarified. (author)

  16. A study of shallow groundwater flow based on groundwater level and geological structures in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Hideharu; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Maekawa, Keisuke

    For assessing the safety of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is important to understand groundwater flow as a driving force of mass transport. Authors have been carrying out the surface hydrological investigation in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido. Results of groundwater-level observations, and relationship between distributions of groundwater-level and geological structures suggest that constructions of underground facilities have no effect on shallow groundwater-level fluctuations, and that water infiltrate from ground surface into shallow underground in the snow covered season, and that water infiltrate into deeper underground along faults. In the future, it is necessary to be modeling and quantitatively assess the water infiltration and recharge based on directly and/or indirectly observed data of evapotranspiration and soil moisture content by weighing lysimeter and soil moisture meter, and tensiometer.

  17. Aquifer descriptions from the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program, 1978-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Claire B.; Doherty, Helen

    1994-01-01

    The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1978. The overall purpose of this program is to define the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical framework of the Nation's most important aquifers and aquifer systems. This report summarizes the aquifer or aquifer system name, geographic area, rock units, equivalent names, lithology, thickness, hydrologic characteristics, water quality, water use, and references for 157 aquifers in 23 areas of the United States. A .zip file containing the aquifer data and data search programs (in compressed ASCII format) is included in the report.

  18. Two-dimensional spectral analysis of the distribution of terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate evaluated from geological map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial gamma-ray dose-rate maps were derived from the geological maps of Hokkaido and Central Honshu. Two-dimensional Fourier analysis of the two dose-rate maps yielded power spectra, which are nearly isotropic for the most part of the wave number space. The validity of the dose-rate distribution estimated from the geological map was discussed on the basis of magmatic differentiation, and was tested by comparing the estimated values with the observed one-dimensional data. (author)

  19. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

  20. STRUCTURAL MODEL OF THE PANAMA - NORTH ANDES PLATE BOUNDARY ZONE FROM REMOTE SENSING, GEOLOGIC MAPPING AND SEISMIC TOMOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, O.; Vargas, G.; Montes, L. A.; Molano, J. C.; Kammer, A.; Briceño, L. A.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    To advance in the understanding of the tectonic setting of the Panama - North Andres plate boundary zone, an integrated research project is being carried out, including remote sensing, field geology, gravity and magnetic surveys and passive seismic tomography. This program includes the geologic interpretation of C band -RADARSAT, X-band TERRASAR and L-band ALOS PALSAR images with fieldwork verification. The Panama microplate is characterized by intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks or cretaceous and tertiary ages, respectively, while the North Andes is formed by a thick sedimentary sequence of tertiary age. Thick quaternary deposits of the Atrato river and the Gulf of Uraba are covering the plate boundary zone. A seismological network with 25 triaxial broadband stations has been implemented to monitor the seismic activity since January 2009 to present. The registered seismic events have been processed including the determination of first arrival of P and S waves and their wave attenuation, Regional stress and strain estimates and seismic anisotropy are being calculated. Three structural trends are identified: a) NE structures associated with main regional faults b) EW and NE structures associated with secondary regional faults and c) local structures and lineaments associated with major fractures. Mud volcanoes were detected in the northeastern part of the basin. Some of them aligned with NW and EW structures.

  1. Layer Cake Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Wagner

    This classroom activity uses a cake to demonstrate geologic processes and introduce geologic terms. Students will learn how folds and faults occur, recognize the difference in behavior between brittle and ductile rocks, and attempt to predict structures likely to result from application of various forces to layered rocks. They will also attempt to interpret 'core samples' to determine subsurface rock structure.

  2. Dinosaur tectonics : structural geology as a tool to interpret theropod walking dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole; Milàn, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    A dinosaur trackway in the Middle Jurassic eolian Entrada Sandstone of southern Utah, USA, exposes three undertracks that we have modeled as isolated tectonic regimes showing the development of fold-thrust ramp systems induced by the dinosaur's feet. The faulted and folded sequence is comparable to crustal scale tectonics associated with plate tectonics and foreland fold-thrust belts. A structural analysis of the dinosaur tracks shows the timing and direction of the forces exercised on the substrate by the animal's foot during the stride. Based on the structural analysis, we establish a scenario for foot movements and weight distribution in the feet. During the end of the weight-bearing phase of the stride, the weight of the animal was transferred to the front of the digits, creating a rotated disc below the foot that was bounded by an extensional fault at the front and a thrust ramp toward the back. As the body accelerated, the foot was forced backward. The rotated disc was forced backward along a detachmentfault that was bounded by lateral ramps. The interramp segment matches the width of the dinosaur's foot which created an imbricate fan thrust system that extended to the far end of the undertrack. The total length of the tectonic disturbance created by the dinosaur is up to three times that of the original footprint. Early, near-surface cementation gave the substrate the rheological properties necessary for development of the observed structures.

  3. Safety analysis of geologic containment of long life radioactive wastes. Critical assessment of existing methods and proposition of prospective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing methods of risk analysis applied to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in geologic formations are rewieved. A prospective analysis method for containment performances is proposed, deduced in the burial system from the combination of interaction between wastes, repository, host rock, surrounding geosphere, of natural evolution of each component of the system, sudden or chance events that could break waste containment. The method is based on the elaboration of four basic schemes graded in difficulties to facilitate comparisons

  4. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method for determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed.

  5. Teaching Strain Theory in Structural Geology Using Graphics Programs for the Apple Macintosh Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachran, David Ballard; Marshak, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Describes three microcomputer programs that allow geology students to deform two-dimensional images on a computer screen and then to measure changes in angular relationships. Two of the programs simulate pure and simple shear and the third simulates variations in shear strain that occur in shear zones. (ML)

  6. Analysis on the use of engineered barriers for geologic isolation of spent fuel in a reference salt site repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloninger, M.O.; Cole, C.R.; Washburn, J.F.

    1980-12-01

    A perspective on the potential durability and effectiveness requirements for the waste form, container and other engineered barriers for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. This perspective is based on calculated potential doses to individuals who may be exposed to radioactivity released from a repository via a groundwater transport pathway. These potential dose commitments were calculated with an integrated geosphere transport and bioshpere transport model. A sensitivity analysis was accomplished by varying four important system parameters, namely the waste radionuclide release rate from the repository, the delay prior to groundwater contact with the waste (leach initiation), aquifer flow velocity and flow path length. The nuclide retarding capacity of the geologic media, a major determinant of the isolation effectiveness, was not varied as a parameter but was held constant for a particular reference site. This analysis is limited to looking only at engineered barriers whose net effect is either to delay groundwater contact with the waste form or to limit the rate of release of radionuclides into the groundwater once contact has occurred. The analysis considers only leach incident scenarios, including a water well intrusion into the groundwater near a repository, but does not consider other human intrusion events or catastrophic events. The analysis has so far been applied to a reference salt site repository system and conclusions are presented.Basically, in nearly all cases, the regional geology is the most effective barrier to release of radionuclides to the biosphere; however, for long-lived isotopes of carbon, technetium and iodine, which were poorly sorbed on the geologic media, the geology is not very effective once a leach incident is initiated.

  7. Integrated geophysical survey for the geological structural and hydrogeothermal study of the North-western Gargano promontory (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schiavone

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A multimethodological geophysical survey was performed in the north-western part of the Gargano promontory to study the geological structural setting and the underground fluid flow characteristics. The area has a complex tectonics with some magmatic outcrops and shallow low-enthalpy waters. Electrical, seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic surveys were carried out to reconstruct the geological structures; and in order to delineate the hydrogeothermal characteristics of the area, the self-potential survey was mainly used. Moreover magnetic and self-potential measurements were also performed in the Lesina lake. The joint three-dimensional interpretation of the geophysical data disclosed a large horst and graben structure covering a large part of the area. In the central part of the horst a large ramified volcanic body was modelled. The models show some intrusions rising from it to or near to the surface. The main structures are well deep-seated in the Crust and along them deep warm fluids rise as the SP data interpretation indicates.

  8. GEMAS results from the Pannonian Basin - geochemical signatures in a transnational geological structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, Edith; Jordan, Gyozo; Slaninka, Igor; Sorsa, Ajka; Gulan, Aleksandra; Gosar, Mateja; Hratovic, Hazim; Klos, Volodymyr

    2014-05-01

    The Pannonian Basin, also referred to as Carpathian Basin, has its geological origins in the Pannonian Sea which was part of the Parathetys Sea, from which it was separated around 10 Ma ago. It spreads over large part of the southeastern part of Central Europe. The centre of the Pannonian Basin is located in Hungary and extends to the adjoining countries Austria, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraine, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The basin is surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps, the Dinarides and the Balkan mountains. The Pannonian Basin is filled by Molasse sediments, which were deposited during the Alpine orogenesis and originating from the rising Alpine and Carpathian Mountain chains. The orogenesis continued during the sedimentation into the Molasse basin. The tectonic movements resulted in several cycles of trans- and regressions of the Parathetys, the sedimentation of marine and freshwater sediments as well as a multitude of fractures and cleavages during the orogensis and the subsidence of different parts of the basin. Even if the Pannonian Basin was formed during a complex orogenesis, it can be regarded as a geo- and hydrodynamic unit. In accordance with the geological history, the soils in the Pannonian Basin developed on loose sediments - including significant loess deposits - and are dominated by soil types which also reflect the continental and steppe climate in this area - Planosols, Luvisols, Cambisols, Calcisols, Chernozems and Phaeozems. The basin is extensively used for agricultural purposes. The geochemical patterns Pannonian Basin are considerably different compared to its surroundings due to its geological development. The spatial distribution of some elements (REE (La, Ce), Y, Th, V, Cd, Pb) are clearly different inside and outside the basin area. For this transnational geological and geographical area, the GEMAS results are compiled and multivariate statistics are applied to find common geochemical signatures in relation to the geological history of the Basin.

  9. Thermal and structural analysis of PWT linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal and structural analysis of 20-cell, 12-cell, and 8-cell Plane Wave Transformer (PWT) type LINear ACcelerator (LINAC) structures have been carried out using the finite element software ANSYS to find out the maximum temperature rise, temperature distribution, and structural deformations resulting from temperature rise and self weight in these structures. This paper presents detailed results of the thermal and structural analysis. (author)

  10. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElianaBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  11. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1

  12. Azimuth F inder: a software for data reading in structural geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lopes Queiroz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Here is presented a computational tool named AzimuthFinder, for functioning inside the set of programs of ArcGis®. The developed program is intended to facilitate and optimize the generation of azimuth data tables, using structural lineaments previously traced in maps that are being worked on that automatic information system. The characteristics of AzimuthFinder allow that, upon the user’s choice, different tables get generated for the same analysis object, depending on the relative weight attributed to the lineaments, giving for example greater weight to those of greater extension. Another characteristic of the tool is the file exportation in TXT format, which is universal to several types of programs, with specific formatting to one the software between Stereo32, Win Tensor, OpenStereo and StereoNet7, which are all free software prepared to the confection of rose diagrams. Tests with the program showed that it is very efficient and fast for generating the azimuth data tables, effectively allowing easier confection of rose diagrams, which are necessary for the structural analysis in areas submitted to fragile deformation.

  13. Study on systematizing technology on the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. Japanese Fiscal Year, 2006 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this year the following studies were carried out with the aim of systematizing the technology on the investigation and analysis to understand deep underground geological environment in relation to the radioactive waste disposal. (1) The study on the research and development (R and D) subjects which turned to the practical investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. (2) The study on the advanced technical basis for the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. From the studies, the following results were obtained. Regarding (1), the concrete investigation, measurements, numerical analyses and chemical analyses were performed with respect to research subjects 1) the repository design and engineering technology, 2) the safety assessment and 3) the geological environment. And from the viewpoint of radioactive waste disposal, specific subjects were selected. More over the discussion on the collaborative research program for niche area between each fields 1), 2) and 3) was given. One of the important subjects was 'redefinition of the near field concept (NFC)'. Consequently the specific study on the NFC redefinition was carried out as well as the element research on niche area between the research fields. On 2), the evaluation of research results and its practical use for the R and D activities were considered based on the fundamental and elemental technology which the study group performed. The practical research programs to characterize the geological environment and engineering technologies, which were applied to the Tono Geoscience Center, were also discussed. Concurrently opportunities to exchange information and opinions on the 2nd phase (the Shaft Construction Phase) of the MIU (Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory) research program were often opened up in the JAEA. (author)

  14. To the Application of LiDAR to Detect the Geological Structures in Sulphurets Property, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohzare, A.; Rezaeian, M.; McIntosh, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Kerr Sulphurets property in North Western British Columbia has been explored primarily as a placer gold holding since the 1880s; and, potentially includes one of Canada's largest gold deposits (e.g. the Mitchell Zone). The Sulphurets camp has been classified by Taylor in 2007 as a prominent global epithermal high-sulphidation subtype with 10 million tonnes of ore (reserves + production) containing approximately 10 g/t gold. The geological and geophysical observations of this deposit indicate intrusion- related mineralized veins which are known to overlap as the result of structural complexities. Faulting predates mineralization and alteration and dramatically dominates the location of the mineralization for this porphyry- epithermal high-sulphidation deposit (Britton and Alldrick 1988, British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1992; Margolis, 1993). However, the surface trace of these structures and lineaments within the site is obscured by vegetation, glacial cover and steep topographic relief. We used high resolution LiDAR airborne bare-earth sensing (vegetative data deleted) in an effort to detect the surface geological features and lineaments in the Kerr Sulphurets site. The LiDAR flight was designed to acquire high density data with 2 points per square meter using a 150 kHz multipulse system. High resolution LiDAR data provides a level of detail not achievable by other digital terrain modelling techniques, whether extracted from aerial photography, low-resolution topographic contour maps, 10-30 meter USGS, or SRTM digital elevation models. LiDAR bare-earth data spectacularly revealed hidden geological structures within the property district, which in turn assisted in identifying the high potential zones for mineralization in Sulphurets.

  15. Mine-Tunnel Design & Monitoring Analysis for Major Faults and Complex Geological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-dong ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining operations at Nanyang-Slope Coal Mine are considerably challenging. The Nanyang- Slope Coal Field has a complex tectonic structure; having major faults, large fissures and fracture- zones, and great changes in coal-seam thickness. Mine tunnel-way 301 traverses multiple complex faults with developed fractures, broken surrounding rock, and high tectonic stresses. The original rectangular-section tunnel design using anchor-bolt-mesh retainment was prone to rib-spalling, and the problem could not be controlled by use of additional encryption anchors on the tunnel sides. The mud-rock above the tunnel-ceiling is soft and argillized, which expands and softens on contact with water. This caused problems with the epoxy bonding agent failing to effectively secure bolt-anchors to the rock, resulting in anchor-bolt-mesh failure. In consideration of the complex geological conditions, a tunnel construction utilizing a curved wall arch-section and anchor-bolt- mesh-concrete spray was proposed. MJ-40 anchor-rod dynamometers were used to measure the forces in the tunnel rock-anchor bolts; and tunnel-rock deformation and surface displacement was monitored over the course of several weeks using a measuring station. Results show that the construction design effectively lowers the effects of the tectonic stresses on any one part of the tunnel, and demonstrates the safety and reliability of the tunnel-retainment and support design.

  16. neutron activation analysis using thermochromatography. II. thermochromatographic separation of elements in the analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gas thermochromatography (GTC) in the radioactivation analysis of difficulty soluble samples with a strongly activating substrate is discussed. The effect of sample coarseness and ore type on the rate of extraction of gold and accompanying elements was studied. The limits of detection of 22 elements were compared using neutron activation analysis with GTC and INAA. The analytical parameters of the procedure were estimated

  17. Mapping magnetized geologic structures from space: The effect of orbital and body parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Taylor, P. T.; Langel, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    When comparing previous satellite magnetometer missions (such as MAGSAT) with proposed new programs (for example, Geopotential Research Mission, GRM) it is important to quantify the difference in scientific information obtained. The ability to resolve separate magnetic blocks (simulating geological units) is used as a parameter for evaluating the expected geologic information from each mission. The effect of satellite orbital altitude on the ability to resolve two magnetic blocks with varying separations is evaluated and quantified. A systematic, nonlinear, relationship exists between resolution and distance between magnetic blocks as a function of orbital altitude. The proposed GRM would provide an order-of-magnitude greater anomaly resolution than the earlier MAGSAT mission for widely separated bodies. The resolution achieved at any particular altitude varies depending on the location of the bodies and orientation.

  18. Bedrock geologic and structural map through the western Candor Colles region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    The Candor Colles are a population of low, conical hills along the southeast flank of Ceti Mensa, in west Candor Chasma, within the Valles Marineris system of Mars (fig. 1). Ceti Mensa and the adjacent Candor Mensa are mounds of layered sedimentary deposits and are the most prominent landforms within west Candor Chasma. Prior to the arrival of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) in orbit around Mars in 2006 (Zurek and Smrekar, 2007), geologic maps of the area utilized the relatively low resolution Viking Orbiter photomosaics (20–150 m/pixel). Geologic maps covering west Candor Chasma were created at scales of 1:15,000,000 for the western equatorial region of Mars (Scott and Tanaka, 1986), 1:2,000,000 for the Valles Marineris region (Witbeck and others, 1991), and 1:500,000 for the far eastern part of west Candor Chasma (Mars Transverse Mercator quadrangle–05072; Lucchitta, 1999). 

  19. Shakedown analysis of frame structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many fields of advanced technology, such as nuclear, space and aeronautic activities or off-shore exploration oil, very high requirements are imposed on structural safety and reliability. Because of the complexity of the practical loading, the response of structure to variable loading is quite different from that to the proportional load, and the failure forms are not the same. Generally there exist local failure due to plastic fatigue (alternating plasticity) and a gradual divergence of the deformed configuration (incremental collapse of ratchetting). Prager once gave the word of shakedown to a safety structure and he pointed out that an elasto-plastic structure subjected to cyclic histories of loads and/or temperature distributions is said to shake down if its plastic work is bounded. This means that the structure attains at a finite time or approaches asymptotically a situation of purely clastic cycling. When this is not the case, nonadaptation will occur. Since Melan and Koiter produced the upper and lower shakedown theorems respectively, a great achievements have been obtained in the area of theoretical and practical shakedown analysis, especially since Maier pointed out the linear program method, a lot of unsolved problems have been analyzed on the basis of shakedown theorems. In this paper, we studied the linear program formula of upper and lower bound theorem, on the basis of comparison of these two formula, a conclusion was obtained that the shakedown parausion was obtained that the shakedown parameter solved by lower bound theorem is a complete solution when surplus variables arc not basic ones. Therefore it is unnecessary to solve a problem using upper bound theorem if surplus variables arc zeros when it is solved by lower bound theorem, and this easilizes somewhat what is considered

  20. A simple analysis of potential radiological exposure from geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL has submitted an environmental impact statement (EIS) describing its proposal for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The EIS presents a detailed analysis of potential radiation exposure of an individual of a critical group of people in a hypothetical case. In this report, we provide a simpler analysis of potential exposure in the hope that the inherent safety of the disposal will be more readily evident from the analysis. A key to the simplification is the elimination from the analysis of the complex transport processes through disposal vault sealing materials and the geosphere. We also eliminate the relatively complex function describing the failure of the thin-walled titanium containers in the case study presented in the EIS. We therefore conceptually replace the thin-walled titanium containers with thicker-walled copper containers, are expected to remain intact much longer than 10,000 a, the period for which a quantitative estimate of individual exposure is made. However, about 1 in 5000 containers could have small defects that were undetected during manufacture. Our analysis applies only to the case of an undisrupted vault. We assume that the vault and geosphere barriers remain intact and prevent immobile radionuclides from reaching the biosphere. However, we also assume that the three most important mobile radionuclides can escape through an undected manufacturing defect in the container wall, and that the flux of these radionuclides is diluted by well water being used by people. We have focused on 129I, 36Cl and 14C, because these nuclides are found to be the dominant source of exposure in more complex analyses. If a single container released radionuclides to well water, we estimate dose rates of about 1 ?Sv.a-1 from drinking water and 29 ?Sv.a-1, which the Atomic Eenrgy Control Board has adopted as a de minimis dose rate, i.e., a dose rate so small as to not warrant institutional control. We believe that the dose rates are greatly overestimated because of the many conservative assumptions and simplifications used in the analysis. (author) 51 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Identification of significant parameters through sensitivity analysis in biosphere assessment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation doses to human beings are calculated by modeling the radionuclide migration processes and the exposure pathways at surface environment in the biosphere assessment of geological disposal. A great effort is necessary when all of the biosphere parameters need to be collected at the actual surface environment of any proposed repository, because a great number of biosphere parameters, such as element-specific parameters, parameters specific to the surface environment or human behavior, are used in the biosphere assessment. Therefore, it is helpful to identify the biosphere parameters that should be collected at the actual environment in advance. For this purpose, the following approaches were developed in this study: (1) Extraction of the significant biosphere parameters through sensitivity analysis including estimation of the influences of variation of element-specific parameters (e.g. soil-to-plant transfer factors, concentration coefficients to animal products) on flux-to-dose conversion factors. (2) Checking the data sources of the significant biosphere parameters on the present dataset. (3) Making the priority list in future data acquisition. So far, steps (1) and (2) have been done, therefore this report summarizes the results obtained from these steps. (author)

  2. Simultaneous determination of the noble metals in geological material by radiochemical neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple procedure is described for determining the noble metals in geological samples rich in chromium and copper. Powdered rock samples (0.1 to 0.3 g) are irradiated in an epithermal neutron flux, under a cadmium filter, to reduce interference from 51Cr and 64Cu. After digestion with a peroxide fusion, the noble metals are separated on Srafion NMRR ion-exchange resin. Activity from chromium(VI), retained on the resin, is eliminated by reduction to chromium(III) with iron(II) sulphate before separation. The gamma-ray activity is measured with a lithium-drifted germanium detector for palladium (109Pd), platinum (199Au), iridium (194Ir) and gold (198Au). The separation yield (iridium 40%, palladium 80%, gold 90%) is determined for each sample by irradiating the resin to activate a stable noble metal carrier. Multi-element noble metal standards (0.1 to 8 ?g) are prepared from dilute solutions (100 ?l) evaporated on resin (1 ml). The practical detection limits are 2.5 ng of palladium and platinum, 0.1 ng of iridium and 0.01 ng of gold. The reliability of the procedure was confirmed by analysing sulphide standards (PTM, PTC) and standard rocks (PCC-1, DTS-1). The method has been applied to the analysis of chrome-spinels. (author)

  3. Safety analysis of engineered barrier in geologic disposal of high-level waste, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports represents analysis conditions for performance assessment of engineered barrier system of geologic disposal. The conditions for both far field and near field were analyzed by appropriate simulation models and the main results are as follows. 1) Far field conditions: By considering the initial stress state in rock formation and the mechanical stability of the disposal tunnel, the repository were assumed to be located at 500 m in depth. The application of the NATM drilling method can be possible if the rock axial compressibility is more than 250 kg/cm2. 2) Near filed conditions: Assuming glass solidified waste, dimensions of overpack and disposal pit filled with buffer material were critically determined through analyses of corrosion life, groundwater flow, temperature distribution, and radiation filed. 3) Dominant nuclides: The nuclides to be determined were selected by a simple analytical migration model in far field. The model took into account sorption effect of medium and the results were converted to the relative hazard by accounting ALI values. The maximum hazard for each nuclide under pesimistic condition (instantaneous discharge, less sorption) indicates the followings are dominant; 99-Tc, 126-Sn, 79-Se, 93-Zr, 135-Cs for FP and 241-Am, 243-Am, 239-Pu, 240-Pu, 242-Pu, 237-Np, 245-Cm, 246-Cm for TRU. (author)

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Quality-Assurance Project for Sediment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Newland, Carla

    2000-01-01

    Introduction Sediment is derived primarily from natural weathering of rock and is an assemblage of individual mineral grains that are then deposited by some physical agent, such as water, wind, ice, or gravity (Fetter, 1988). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) samples sediments and collects data on the amount of sediment in selected waterways. The most pressing sediment-related problems are associated with environmental questions, such as the transport and fate of attached pollutants, effects of sediment on aquatic biota and their habitats, and effects on sediment transport from land-use changes. Current (2000) sediment issues require that sediment studies address multiple objectives in water-resources management (Koltun and others, 1997). To support sediment research, the USGS operates laboratories for the analysis of the physical characteristics of sediment. Sediment laboratories producing data for the USGS have two principal functions: (1) the determination of suspended-sediment concentration in samples and (2) the determination of sand/fine separations. The reliability of these determinations and the usefulness of the data are dependent on the accuracy and reliability of the laboratory analyses (Guy, 1969).

  5. Microtremor Measurements in Borg El Arab city, Alexandria, Egypt: Analysis of the Correlation with local Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezz Elarab, Mohamed; Mohamed, Abouela. A.; Elshat, Adel; Helal, Abdelnasser; Skokry, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Seventy-eight microtremor measurements have been done in Burg Elarab city, Alexandria, Egypt. The dataset has been processed using the horizontal to vertical spectral analysis (H/V). In most sites, H/V curve for amplitude spectra display a clear peak suggesting the presence of a soil-bedrock impedance contrast. Other sites, however, show more than one peak indicating the presence of more than one impedance contrast through sedimentary cover. Two groups of fundamental frequencies range can be discriminated; the majority group varies from 1.0 Hz to 1.36 and the minority group from 3.9 to 4.35 Hz. The presence of the two groups of frequencies range is interpreted based on the geology of study area. As the majority group is corresponding to Quaternary deposit and the minority one is overly on the Calcarinate bars. Additionally, the estimated values for the fundamental frequency from microtremor data are compared with that from data estimated from SPT-N values of a few boreholes within the area of interest where it is shown a good agreement.

  6. Geological modeling of aquifer gas storage structures method and application; Modelisation geologique des stockages de gaz en nappe aquifere methodologie et application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escare, L.; Giouse, H. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France); Wielzerbin, L. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. Production Transport, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    The description and understanding of a natural reservoir used for aquifer gas storage requires the acquisition of many different kinds of data, with various resolution levels (seismic, well logs and cores,...). Interpreting and making these pieces of information coherent must lead to an accurate image of the geological structure in which gas will be stored. This paper describes the geological modeling methods used at Gaz de France, and briefly presents a synthetic case study. (authors)

  7. Platinum stable isotope analysis of geological standard reference materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creech, J.B.; Baker, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    We report a method for the chemical purification of Pt from geological materials by ion-exchange chromatography for subsequent Pt stable isotope analysis by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using a Pt-Pt double-spike to correct for instrumental mass bias. Double-spiking of samples was carried out prior to digestion and chemical separation to correct for any mass-dependent fractionation that may occur due to incomplete recovery of Pt. Samples were digested using a NiS fire assay method, which pre-concentrates Pt into a metallic bead that is readily dissolved in acid in preparation for anion-exchange chemistry. Pt was recovered from anion-exchange resin in concentrated HNO acid after elution of matrix elements, including the other platinum group elements (PGE), in dilute HCl and HNO acids. The separation method has been calibrated using a precious metal standard solution doped with a range of synthetic matrices and results in Pt yields of ?90% with purity of ?95%. Usingthis chemical separation technique, we have separated Pt from 11 international geological standard reference materials comprising of PGE ores, mantle rocks, igneous rocks and one sample from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary layer. Pt concentrations in these samples range from ca. 5ngg to 4?gg. This analytical method has been shown to have an external reproducibility on ?Pt (permil difference in the Pt/Pt ratio from the IRMM-010 standard) of ±0.040 (2sd) on Pt solution standards (Creech et al., 2013, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28, 853-865). The reproducibility in natural samples is evaluated by processing multiple replicates of four standard reference materials, and is conservatively taken to be ca. ±0.088 (2sd). Pt stable isotope data for the full set of reference materials have a range of ?Pt values with offsets of up to 0.4‰ from the IRMM-010 standard, which are readily resolved with this technique. These results demonstrate the potential of the Pt isotope system as a tracer in geochemical systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Platinum stable isotope analysis of geological standard reference materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, J.B.; Baker, J.A.; Handler, M.R.; Bizzarro, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a method for the chemical purification of Pt from geological materials by ion-exchange chromatography for subsequent Pt stable isotope analysis by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using a 196Pt-198Pt double-spike to correct for instrumental mass bias. Double-spiking of samples was carried out prior to digestion and chemical separation to correct for any mass-dependent fractionation that may occur due to incomplete recovery of Pt. Samples were digested using a NiS fire assay method, which pre-concentrates Pt into a metallic bead that is readily dissolved in acid in preparation for anion-exchange chemistry. Pt was recovered from anion-exchange resin in concentrated HNO3 acid after elution of matrix elements, including the other platinum group elements (PGE), in dilute HCl and HNO3 acids. The separation method has been calibrated using a precious metal standard solution doped with a range of synthetic matrices and results in Pt yields of ?90% with purity of ?95%. Using this chemical separation technique, we have separated Pt from 11 international geological standard reference materials comprising of PGE ores, mantle rocks, igneous rocks and one sample from the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary layer. Pt concentrations in these samples range from ca. 5 ng g?1 to 4 ?g g?1. This analytical method has been shown to have an external reproducibility on ?198Pt (permil difference in the 198Pt/194Pt ratio from the IRMM-010 standard) of ±0.040 (2 sd) on Pt solution standards (Creech et al., 2013, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28, 853-865). The reproducibility in natural samples is evaluated by processing multiple replicates of four standard reference materials, and is conservatively taken to be ca. ±0.088 (2 sd). Pt stable isotope data for the full set of reference materials have a range of ?198Pt values with offsets of up to 0.4‰ from the IRMM-010 standard, which are readily resolved with this technique. These results demonstrate the potential of the Pt isotope system as a tracer in geochemical systems. PMID:25684781

  9. The nappe structure's geologic character and ore-controlling effect of mountain-Xiang ore-field in middle part of Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the base of analyzing the nappe structure's geologic distribution, it roundly discusses the nappe structure's geologic character, and systematically summarizes the effect on uranium mineralization of the nappe structure. The nappe structure not only creates the self-contained 3D structure network system, including transmitting, transiting, shifting and reserve, but also trains a combine Interchange structure of the multilayer structure and the lithologic characters difference, at the same time which forms a close, half-close lithologic characters. Those structure applies such as pipe, screen and the store space for the liquid ore transport, moreover it protects the uranium mine. Depends on all of this, concluding the fields of uranium mineralization of the nappe structure, and the enrichment law. (authors)

  10. Preliminary analysis on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological formations of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that deep geological formations are the most promising solution - technical and economical - for the safe disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. In order to obtain the necessary information to assess on the use of geological sites in Brazil - for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by the brazilian nuclear industry - a careful survey on the basalt and granite rocks of Sao Paulo State was made. The data obtained were evaluated according to guidelines established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The favourable and unfavourable characteristics of the basalts, granites and their respective occurrence areas in the Sao Paulo state territory - as potential waste disposal sites - were analysed. This preliminary and regional characterization is not a conclusive study whether these two rocks types are definitively the most suitable geological formations for use as nuclear waste repository or not. It is the subsidy for a more detailed analysis. Other factors such as social, political and economical aspects, ecological effects, engineering geology, heat generation rate of the waste, type of radiation emitted and corrosive nature of the waste must also be taken into account. (author)

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Distribution Models

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP distribution models represent the areas where species are predicted to occur based on habitat associations. GAP distribution models are the spatial arrangement...

  12. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a user's tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which could offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply or changing seasonal demands. The geostorage site options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and hard rock caverns. The DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of geologic hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an economic analysis methodology and subsequent spreadsheet analysis to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) incorporate more site-specific model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules, (2) develop a version that matches the general format of the HDSAM model developed and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory, and (3) incorporate specific demand scenarios illustrating the model's capability. Four general types of underground storage were analyzed: salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers, and hard rock caverns/other custom sites. Due to the substantial lessons learned from the geological storage of natural gas already employed, these options present a potentially sizable storage option. Understanding and including these various geologic storage types in the analysis physical and economic framework will help identify what geologic option would be best suited for the storage of hydrogen. It is important to note, however, that existing natural gas options may not translate to a hydrogen system where substantial engineering obstacles may be encountered. There are only three locations worldwide that currently store hydrogen underground and they are all in salt caverns. Two locations are in the U.S. (Texas), and are managed by ConocoPhillips and Praxair (Leighty, 2007). The third is in Teeside, U.K., managed by Sabic Petrochemicals (Crotogino et al., 2008; Panfilov et al., 2006). These existing H{sub 2} facilities are quite small by natural gas storage standards. The second stage of the analysis involved providing ANL with estimated geostorage costs of hydrogen within salt caverns for various market penetrations for four representative cities (Houston, Detroit, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles). Using these demand levels, the scale and cost of hydrogen storage necessary to meet 10%, 25% and 100% of vehicle summer demands was calculated.

  13. The use of microtomography in structural geology: A new methodology to analyse fault faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Patricia D.; Nummer, Alexis Rosa; Heck, Richard J.; Machado, Rômulo

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes a new methodology to kinematically analyze faults in microscale dimensions (voxel size = 40 ?m), using images obtained by X-ray computed microtomography (?CT). The equipment used is a GE MS8x-130 scanner. It was developed using rocks samples from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and constructing micro Digital Elevation Models (?DEMs) for the fault surface, for analysing microscale brittle structures including striations, roughness and steps. Shaded relief images were created for the ?DEMs, which enabled the generation of profiles to classify the secondary structures associated with the main fault surface. In the case of a sample with mineral growth that covers the fault surface, it is possible to detect the kinematic geometry even with the mineral cover. This technique proved to be useful for determining the sense of movement of faults, especially when it is not possible to determine striations in macro or microscopic analysis. When the sample has mineral deposit on the surface (mineral cover) this technique allows a relative chronology and geometric characterization between the faults with and without covering.

  14. Geological structure of Osaka basin and characteristic distributions of structural damage caused by earthquake; Osaka bonchi kozo to shingai tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, K.; Shiono, K.; Inoue, N.; Senda, S. [Osaka City University, Osaka (JP. Faculty of Science); Ryoki, K. [Osaka Polytechnic Collage, Osaka (Japan); Shichi, R. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The paper investigates relations between the damage caused by the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and the deep underground structures. A characteristic of the earthquake damage distribution is that the damage concentrated near faults. Most of the damages were seen on the side of faults` relatively falling rather than right above the faults and of their slightly slanting to the seaside. Distribution like this seems to be closely related to underground structures. Therefore, a distribution map of the depth of basement granite in Osaka sedimentary basin was drawn, referring to the data on basement rock depth obtained from the distribution map of gravity anomaly and the result of the survey using the air gun reflection method. Moreover, cubic underground structures were determined by 3-D gravity analysis. The result was concluded as follows: when observing the M7 zone of the low land, in particular, where the damage was great from an aspect of gravity anomaly, the basement rock below the zone declined near the cliff toward the sea, which indicates a great possibility of its being a fault. There is a high possibility that the zone suffered mostly from the damage caused by focusing by refraction and total reflection of seismic wave rays. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  15. High resolution seismic stratigraphic analysis: An integrated approach to the subsurface geology of the SE Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Farzadi, Pourdad

    2006-01-01

    Papers included in this dissertation: Paper 1: Farzadi, P. 2006a. The development of Middle Cretaceous carbonate platforms, Persian Gulf, Iran: Constraints from seismic stratigraphy, well and biostratigraphy. Petroleum Geoscience, 12, 59-68. Paper 2: Farzadi, P. 2006b. Seismic facies analysis based on 3D multi-attribute volume classification, Dariyan Formation, SE Persian Gulf. Journal of Petroleum Geology,29/2, 159-174. Paper 3: Farzadi, P. & Hesthammer, J. (Submitted 2006)...

  16. High resolution seismic stratigraphic analysis:An integrated approach to the subsurface geology of the SE Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Farzadi, Pourdad

    2006-01-01

    Papers included in this dissertation: Paper 1: Farzadi, P. 2006a. The development of Middle Cretaceous carbonate platforms, Persian Gulf, Iran: Constraints from seismic stratigraphy, well and biostratigraphy. Petroleum Geoscience, 12, 59-68. Paper 2: Farzadi, P. 2006b. Seismic facies analysis based on 3D multi-attribute volume classification, Dariyan Formation, SE Persian Gulf. Journal of Petroleum Geology,29/2, 159-174. Paper 3: Farzadi, P. & Hesthammer, J. (Submitted 2006)...

  17. Structural geology of Ordos basin mineralization and mineralization of uranium deposits in the Huianbao region, west of Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis discussed the geotectonic setting of west Ordos Basin, classification of tectonic units, geology of west fault-fold belt and structural feature in Majiatan region. The stable tectonic region was overall guidance thoughts and ideas for the uranium deposits in the structure relative activities region. Based on exploration and research of uranium geology for many years, the over-thrust nappe belt was favorable region for uranium mineralization. Two oxidation layers which the ancient oxidation was red and oxidation alteration was yellow existed in this region, the uranium ore was controlled on by two oxidation layers. Early red oxidized sandstone was experienced post-reformation such as thrust pushover, lifting, erosion, superimposed depth and separation of block fault. Late yellow oxidation which tended to inherit the early red oxidation and carry on the superposition modification distributed both wings of anticline. The thesis was to summarized the uranium features and metallogenic regularity, which has some guidance for uranium deposits in the basin. (authors)

  18. Earthquakes and Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Ozsvath

    In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

  19. Geologic Mapping Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Smith

    This exercise is designed to simulate how a basic geological investigation of a site takes place. A basic geological investigation includes familiarizing yourself with the unconsolidated sediments, rocks, structural geology, and groundwater present at your site. As part of this exercise you will have to properly identify a variety of rock types and sediments, create maps that represent data you collected at each location, and complete a basic report of your findings (optional). Once completed, this exercise should give students a basic understanding of how the various concepts used throughout the semester are applied in the real world in the form of a geological investigation.

  20. Geology, structure, and statistics of multi-ring basins on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Richard A.; Frey, Herbert V.

    1990-01-01

    Available data on Martian multi-ring basins were compiled and evaluated using the new 1:15 million scale geologic maps of Mars and global topography was revised as base maps. Published center coordinates and ring diameters of Martian basins were plotted by computer and superimposed onto the base maps. In many cases basin centers or ring diameters or both had to be adjusted to achieve a better fit to the revised maps. It was also found that additional basins can explain subcircular topographic lows as well as map patterns of old Noachian materials, volcanic plains units, and channels in the Tharsis region.

  1. Mercury's hollows: Constraints on formation and composition from analysis of geological setting and spectral reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, David T.; Vaughan, William M.; Xiao, Zhiyong; Chabot, Nancy L.; Denevi, Brett W.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Helbert, JöRn; D'Amore, Mario; Maturilli, Alessandro; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2013-05-01

    unique to Mercury, hollows are shallow, flat-floored irregular depressions notable for their relatively high reflectance and characteristic color. Here we document the range of geological settings in which hollows occur. Most are associated with impact structures (simple bowl-shaped craters to multiring basins, and ranging from Kuiperian to Calorian in age). Hollows are found in the low-reflectance material global color unit and in low-reflectance blue plains, but they appear to be absent from high-reflectance red plains. Hollows may occur preferentially on equator- or hot-pole-facing slopes, implying that their formation is linked to solar heating. Evidence suggests that hollows form because of loss of volatile material. We describe hypotheses for the origin of the volatiles and for how such loss proceeds. Intense space weathering and solar heating are likely contributors to the loss of volatiles; contact heating by melts could promote the formation of hollows in some locations. Lunar Ina-type depressions differ from hollows on Mercury in a number of characteristics, so it is unclear if they represent a good analog. We also use MESSENGER multispectral images to characterize a variety of surfaces on Mercury, including hollows, within a framework defined by laboratory spectra for analog minerals and lunar samples. Data from MESSENGER's X-Ray Spectrometer indicate that the planet's surface contains up to 4% sulfur. We conclude that nanophase or microphase sulfide minerals could contribute to the low reflectance of the low-reflectance material relative to average surface material. Hollows may owe their relatively high reflectance to destruction of the darkening agent (sulfides), the presence of alteration minerals, and/or physical differences in particle size, texture, or scattering behavior.

  2. Methodology for the biosphere analysis in the evaluation of deep geological repositories for high radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the work done and the achievements reached within the R and D Project that IMA/CIEMAT has had with ENRESA during 1993-1995. The overal R and D Project has a wide radiological protection context, but the work reported here relates only to the development of a Methodology for considering the Biosphere sub-system in the assessments of deep geological repositories for high radioactive wastes (HLW). The main areas concerned within the Methodology have to do with Biosphere structure and morphology in the long-term relevant to deep disposal of HLW: in the contexts of the assessment of these systems, and appropiate modelling of the behaviour of radionuclides released to the biosphere system and with the associated human exposure. This document first provides a review of the past and present international and national concerns about the biosphere modelling and its importance in relation to the definition of safety criteria. A joint ENRESA/ANDRA/IPSN/CIEMAT study about the definition and proactical descriptions of the biosphere systems under different climatic states is then summarized. The Methodology developed by IMA/CIEMAT is outlined with an illustration of the way it works. Different steps and procedures are included for a better proactical understanding of the software tools developed within the project to support the application of the Methologoy. This Methodology is widely based on an international working group on Reference Biospheres part national work for ENRESA has been supported under a collaborative agreement with QuantiSci Ltd. Specific software development have been carried out in collaboration with QuantiSci Ltd and with the Polytechnical University of Madrid. Most of the items included within the Methodology and moreover the Methodology as a whole, follows a continuos progressive development. It is increasinaly recognized that assessment capabilities, establisment of safety criteria and regulatory framework and the steps in a regulatory development programme should all proceed in parallel. (Author)

  3. Three-Dimensional Geologic Model of Complex Fault Structures in the Upper Seco Creek Area, Medina and Uvalde Counties, South-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Cole, James C.; Smith, Bruce D.; Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Smith, David V.

    2008-01-01

    This multimedia report shows and describes digital three-dimensional faulted geologic surfaces and volumes of the lithologic units of the Edwards aquifer in the upper Seco Creek area of Medina and Uvalde Counties in south-central Texas. This geologic framework model was produced using (1) geologic maps and interpretations of depositional environments and paleogeography; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from 31 drill holes; (3) rock core and detailed lithologic descriptions from one drill hole; (4) helicopter electromagnetic geophysical data; and (5) known major and minor faults in the study area. These faults were used because of their individual and collective effects on the continuity of the aquifer-forming units in the Edwards Group. Data and information were compared and validated with each other and reflect the complex relationships of structures in the Seco Creek area of the Balcones fault zone. This geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Seco Creek area of the Balcones fault zone and to show the connectivity of hydrologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults. The software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, on this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  4. Use of the GIS (Geographic Information Systems in Determining Realtionship between Geology, Structures and Mineral Prospects, Southern Part of the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M. Hariri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available GIS can be utilized in geology in different fields among them; mineral and petroleum exploration, geological mapping and reconnaissance, environmental studies, and in hydrogeological modeling. In mineral exploration the GIS is used to define a set of characteristics of specific mineral deposit that might be used as a guide to similar deposits in the region. An example is being the spatial relation of igneous intrusions and / or geological structures to the mineral prospect locations. This study aimed at using the GIS to find out the relationship of the different geological features through the layers (coverages. These features include faults, intrusions and mineral locations in the Southern Arabian Shield. Coverages (layers for the digitized material were created using ARC INFO and consequently edited, cleaned and built. Coverages were also imported and exported in order to be read by ARC VIEW. Results of study indicated an excellent association of the faults and other structures to the known mineral locations. Positive correlation can also be concluded from the spatial distribution of the mineral locations and igneous intrusions. These results may imply that igneous intrusions and structural features control mineralizations. The conclusion can help in discorving mineralizaiton in similar geological and structural setting within the Arabian Shield area.

  5. The analysis of thallium in geological materials by radiochemical neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier-based radiochemical neutron activation (RNAA) is a precise and accurate technique for the analysis of Tl in geological materials. For about a decade, until the mid-80s, a procedure modified from Keays et al. (1974) was used at the University of Melbourne to analyse for Tl in a wide variety of geological materials. Samples of powdered rock weighing several hundred milligrams each were irradiated in HIFAR for between 12 hours and 1 week, and subsequently fused with a sodium hydroxide - sodium peroxide mixture and several milligrams of inactive Tl carrier. Following acid digestion of the fusion mixture anion exchange resin was used to separate Tl from the major radioactive rock constituents. The Tl was then stripped from the resin and purified as thallium iodide and a yield measured gravimetrically. Activity from 204Tl (a ?-emitter with a 3 8 year half-life) was measured and Tl determined by reference to pure chemical standards irradiated and processed along with the unkowns. Detection limits for the longer irradiations were about one part per billion. Precision was monitored by repeat analyses of 'internal standard' rocks and was estimated to be about five to ten percent (one standard deviation). On the other hand, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was seen as an excellent cost-effective alternative for thallium analysis in geological samples, down to 1 ppm. 6 refs. 1 tab., 1 fig

  6. The analysis of thallium in geological materials by radiochemical neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGoldrick, P.J.; Robinson, P. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Carrier-based radiochemical neutron activation (RNAA) is a precise and accurate technique for the analysis of Tl in geological materials. For about a decade, until the mid-80s, a procedure modified from Keays et al. (1974) was used at the University of Melbourne to analyse for Tl in a wide variety of geological materials. Samples of powdered rock weighing several hundred milligrams each were irradiated in HIFAR for between 12 hours and 1 week, and subsequently fused with a sodium hydroxide - sodium peroxide mixture and several milligrams of inactive Tl carrier. Following acid digestion of the fusion mixture anion exchange resin was used to separate Tl from the major radioactive rock constituents. The Tl was then stripped from the resin and purified as thallium iodide and a yield measured gravimetrically. Activity from {sup 204}Tl (a {beta}-emitter with a 3 8 year half-life) was measured and Tl determined by reference to pure chemical standards irradiated and processed along with the unkowns. Detection limits for the longer irradiations were about one part per billion. Precision was monitored by repeat analyses of `internal standard` rocks and was estimated to be about five to ten percent (one standard deviation). On the other hand, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was seen as an excellent cost-effective alternative for thallium analysis in geological samples, down to 1 ppm. 6 refs. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  7. Open Plot Project: an open-source toolkit for 3-D structural data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tavani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the Open Plot Project, an open-source software for structural data analysis, including a 3-D environment. The software includes many classical functionalities of structural data analysis tools, like stereoplot, contouring, tensorial regression, scatterplots, histograms and transect analysis. In addition, efficient filtering tools are present allowing the selection of data according to their attributes, including spatial distribution and orientation. This first alpha release represents a stand-alone toolkit for structural data analysis.

    The presence of a 3-D environment with digitalising tools allows the integration of structural data with information extracted from georeferenced images to produce structurally validated dip domains. This, coupled with many import/export facilities, allows easy incorporation of structural analyses in workflows for 3-D geological modelling. Accordingly, Open Plot Project also candidates as a structural add-on for 3-D geological modelling software.

    The software (for both Windows and Linux O.S., the User Manual, a set of example movies (complementary to the User Manual, and the source code are provided as Supplement. We intend the publication of the source code to set the foundation for free, public software that, hopefully, the structural geologists' community will use, modify, and implement. The creation of additional public controls/tools is strongly encouraged.

  8. The geological and structural evolution of the Cerro Tuzgle Quaternary stratovolcano in the back-arc region of the Central Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, G.; Cogliati, S.; Baez, W.; Arnosio, M.; Bustos, E.; Viramonte, J.; Groppelli, G.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our paper is to contribute to a better knowledge of the volcanism in the back-arc region of the Central Andes and its relationships with the basement geology, the stress field and the tectonic evolution, by studying in detail the stratigraphy and the structure of the Quaternary Cerro Tuzgle stratovolcano in the Puna Plateau. Field mapping and remote sensing analysis reveal the stratigraphic architecture, the geological evolution and the volcanotectonic interactions in the Cerro Tuzgle area. For the first time in a volcano of the Puna Plateau, synthemic units bounded by unconformity surfaces have been defined, unrevealing the temporal and spatial relationships between constructive and destructive phases of the volcano history. Our study indicates that after the emplacement of a small ignimbrite deposit and of few scattered lava domes, the central Cerro Tuzgle volcano built up throughout three distinct phases of edifice construction. The first of these constructive phases ended with a previously unreported destructive event, consisting of ? 0.5 km3, catastrophic sector collapse of the volcanic edifice, whose stratigraphic position and main characteristics have been identified. The study suggests that the regional stress regime and the topography of the substrata are the main non-magmatic factors controlling the constructive and destructive phases of the volcano, including the directions of magmatic intrusions, faulting and gravitational sector failure of the volcano. The integration of synthemic stratigraphy and volcanotectonic analysis in the study of volcanic edifices showed to be an effective methodological approach for the understanding of the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Puna Plateau.

  9. Comparison of neutron activation analysis techniques for the determination of uranium concentrations in geological and environmental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S; Kapsimalis, R

    2013-03-01

    We have described the determination of uranium in environmental, geological, and agricultural specimens by three different non-destructive nuclear methods. The effectiveness, as defined as the lower limits of detection in this work, of quantifying trace levels of bulk uranium in geological samples was evaluated for several common NAA techniques. These techniques include short-lived and medium-lived neutron activation analysis using thermal and epithermal neutrons; these results were compared with an assessment of Compton suppressed gamma-ray counting. A careful evaluation of three major (n,?) reactions with chlorine, manganese and sodium that could impede determining low levels of uranium due to high Compton continuums was done. The evaluation of Compton suppressed passive gamma counting revealed that uranium concentrations below 50 mg kg(-1) were not adequate to achieve good counting statistics using the (234m)Pa the second daughter product of (238)U. PMID:21924803

  10. Pretreatment technique for siderite removal for organic carbon isotope and C:N ratio analysis in geological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Toti E; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Perkins, George; Chipera, Steve J; Hess, Marcey A

    2008-01-01

    A method for the removal of siderite from geological samples to determine organic carbon isotope compositions using elemental analysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry is presented which includes calculations for % organic carbon in samples that contain diagenetic carbonate. The proposed method employs in situ acidification of geological samples with 6 N HCl and silver capsule sample holders and was tested on modern peach leaf samples (NIST 1547) and ancient lacustrine samples from Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The in situ acidification technique eliminates potential errors associated with the removal of soluble organic material using standard acid decanting techniques and allows for removal of the less soluble siderite, which is not efficiently removed using vapor acidification techniques. PMID:18293285

  11. Development of an Integrated Numerical Simulation System for Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage into a Prospective Storage Site in the Gyeongsang Basin, Korea: from Geologic Modeling to Risk Analysis Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Park, S.; Kihm, J.

    2013-12-01

    An integrated numerical simulation system (package) was developed to predict and analyze geologic carbon dioxide storage. The integrated numerical simulation system consists of the four units such as three-dimensional geologic modeling of target geologic formation systems, prediction modeling of behavior (trapping mechanisms, leakage mechanisms) of carbon dioxide, evaluation modeling of three major performances (storage capacity, seal capacity, injection capacity) of target geologic formation systems, and analysis modeling of leakage risk of deep groundwater and carbon dioxide. This integrated numerical simulation system was then applied to a prospective storage site in the northern part of the Gyeongsang Basin, Korea. A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling of the target geologic formation system at the site was performed first using GOCAD (Paradigm, 2012). The geologic modeling results reveal that the site is composed of the five sedimentary geologic formations such as the Nakdong Formation, Hasandong Formation, Jinju Formation, Iljik Formation, and Hupyungdong Formation in ascending order, and a thick sandstone layer in the Hasandong Formation can be a target formation for geologic carbon dioxide storage. Above the target formation, three more sandstone layers (aquifers) exist, and carbon dioxide can leak into these aquifers. A series of prediction modeling of behavior of carbon dioxide injected into the target formation under various carbon dioxide injection amounts was then performed using TOUGH2 (Pruess et al., 1999). The prediction modeling results show that injected carbon dioxide can not only be stored as a free fluid phase by hydrodynamic trapping but can also be stored as an aqueous phase by solubility trapping. As a result, the carbon dioxide plume (free fluid phase of carbon dioxide) moves upward by buoyancy, whereas the carbon dioxide dissolved groundwater (aqueous phase of carbon dioxide) moves slowly downward by gravity. Finally, a series of analysis modeling of leakage risk of deep groundwater and carbon dioxide through abandoned wells under various locations was performed using CO2-LEAK (Kim, 2012). The analysis modeling results show that carbon dioxide injection can cause deep groundwater (brine) and carbon dioxide (both free fluid and aqueous phases) leakage into the overlying aquifers through the abandoned wells. In that case, brine leaks first, aqueous phase of carbon dioxide then leaks, and free fluid phase of carbon dioxide leaks finally. This work was supported by the Korea CCS 2020 Program funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF), Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, Republic of Korea.

  12. Construction of Subsurface Geological Structures Using a Drilling Database: A Case Study for an Intra-Arc Basin, the Osaka Plain, Southwest Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minao Sakurai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface geological cross sections of 0 - 200 m depth were constructed using a dense drilling database of the Osaka Plain in the intra-arc Osaka Basin of the Japan island arc, an active plate margin. The cross sections revealed the subsurface geological structures and the geometry of folding and faulting in the basin. The comparison between the constructed subsurface cross sections and the seismic sections of the basement and basin fills at a depth of 1500 - 2000 m showed that the basement and shallow subsurface structures are similar; however, the shallow cross sections were of higher resolution than the deep seismic profiles.

  13. Evaluation of LANDSAT-2 (ERTS) images applied to geologic structures and mineral resources of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. D. (principal investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work with the Image 100 clearly demonstrates that radiance values of LANDSAT data can be used for correlation of geologic formations across international boundaries. The Totora Formation of the Corocoro Group of Tertiary age was traced from known outcrops near Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, along the south side of Lake Titicaca westward into Peru where the same rocks are considered to be Cretaceous in age. This inconsistency suggests: (1) that a review of this formation is needed by joint geological surveys of both countries to determine similarities, differences, and the true age; (2) that recognition of the extension of the copper-bearing Totora Formation of Bolivia into Peru may provide Peru with a new target for exploration. Equal radiance maps made by use of the Image 100 system show as many as eight different units within salar deposits (salt flats) of the Bolivian Altiplano. Standard film processed images show them as nearly uniform areas of white because of lack of dynamic range in film products. The Image 100 system, therefore, appears to be of great assistance in subdividing the salt flats on the basis of moisture distribution, surface roughness, and distribution of windblown materials. Field work is needed to determine these relationships to mineral composition and distribution. Images representing seasonal changes should also improve the accuracy of such maps. Radiance values of alteration zones related to the occurrence of porphyry copper ores were measured at the San Juan del Abra deposit of northern Chile using the Image 100 system. The extent to which these same values may be used to detect similar alteration zones in other areas has not yet been tested.

  14. Multielemental analysis of Korean geological reference samples by INAA, ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six Korean geological reference samples (KB-1, KGB-1, KT-1, KD-1, KG-1 and KG-2) prepared by Korea Institutes of Geoscience and Mineral Resources were analyzed by using INAA, ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Some elements could be determined by both INAA and non-INAA methods (ICP-AES and ICP-MS), and these data are consistent with each other. This study confirms that a combination of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is comparable to INAA in determining a wide range of major, minor and trace elements in geological materials. (author)

  15. Micro-XRF : Elemental Analysis for In Situ Geology and Astrobiology Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Abigail; Hodyss, Robert; Wade, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The ability to make close-up measurements of rock chemistry is one of the most fundamental tools for astrobiological exploration of Mars and other rocky bodies of the solar system. When conducting surface-based exploration, lithochemical measurements provide critical data that enable interpretation of the local geology, which in turn is vital for determining habitability and searching for evidence of life. The value of lithochemical measurements for geological interpretations has been repeatedly demonstrated with virtually every landed Mars mission over the past four decades.

  16. Crustal-scale structural architecture in central Chile based on seismicity and surface geology: Implications for Andean mountain building

    Science.gov (United States)

    FaríAs, Marcelo; Comte, Diana; Charrier, Reynaldo; Martinod, Joseph; David, Claire; Tassara, AndréS.; Tapia, Felipe; Fock, AndréS.

    2010-06-01

    We document a crustal-scale structural model for the central Chile Andes based on seismicity and surface geology, which consists in a major east verging ramp-detachment structure connecting the subduction zone with the cordillera. The ramp rises from the subducting slab at ˜60 km depth to 15-20 km below the western edge of the cordillera, extending eastward as a 10 km depth flat detachment. This structure plays a fundamental role in the Andean orogenesis because most of the shortening has been accommodated by structures rooted in it and allows the distribution of crustal thickening in a "simple shear deformation mode." Indeed, despite shortening distribution being very asymmetric (˜16 km versus ˜70 km in the western and eastern side, respectively), the western side is higher and thicker than what is expected. Yield strength envelopes show strong rheological control on this structure. Vp and Vp/Vs variations in the upper mantle and in the deepest limit of the seismogenic interplate contact mark the intersection of the ramp with the slab, which coincides with the blueschist-eclogite transition. Therefore, subduction processes would control the depth where the major east verging structure may merge with the slab. Such a ramp-flat structure is observed in other parts of the Chilean margin; hence, it seems to be a first-order feature in the Andean subduction zone. This structure delimitates upward the rocks, transmitting part of the plate convergence stress from the plate interface, and controls mountain-building tectonics, thus playing a key role in the Andean orogeny.

  17. Seismic analysis of sliding structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To limit seismic effects, structures may be base isolated. A sliding system located between the structure and the support allows differential motion between them. The aim of this paper is the presentation of the method to calculate the response of the structure when the structure is represented by its eigenmodes, and the sliding phenomenon by the Coulomb friction model. Finally, an application to a simple structure shows the influence on the response of the main parameters (friction coefficient and stiffness)

  18. Geology and structure of the North Boqueron Bay-Punta Montalva Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig Silva, Coral Marie

    The North Boqueron Bay-Punta Montalva Fault Zone is an active fault system that cuts across the Lajas Valley in southwestern Puerto Rico. The fault zone has been recognized and mapped based upon detailed analysis of geophysical data, satellite images and field mapping. The fault zone consists of a series of Cretaceous bedrock faults that reactivated and deformed Miocene limestone and Quaternary alluvial fan sediments. The fault zone is seismically active (ML < 5.0) with numerous locally felt earthquakes. Focal mechanism solutions and structural field data suggest strain partitioning with predominantly east-west left-lateral displacements with small normal faults oriented mostly toward the northeast. Evidence for recent displacement consists of fractures and small normal faults oriented mostly northeast found in intermittent streams that cut through the Quaternary alluvial fan deposits along the southern margin of the Lajas Valley, Areas of preferred erosion, within the alluvial fan, trend toward the west-northwest parallel to the on-land projection of the North Boqueron Bay Fault. Beyond the faulted alluvial fan and southeast of the Lajas Valley, the Northern Boqueron Bay Fault joins with the Punta Montalva Fault. The Punta Montalva Fault is defined by a strong topographic WNW lineament along which stream channels are displaced left laterally 200 meters and Miocene strata are steeply tilted to the south. Along the western end of the fault zone in northern Boqueron Bay, the older strata are only tilted 3° south and are covered by flat lying Holocene sediments. Focal mechanisms solutions along the western end suggest NW-SE shortening, which is inconsistent with left lateral strain partitioning along the fault zone. The limited deformation of older strata and inconsistent strain partitioning may be explained by a westerly propagation of the fault system from the southwest end. The limited geomorphic structural expression along the North Boqueron Bay Fault segment could also be because most of the displacement along the fault zone is older than the Holocene and that the rate of displacement is low, such that the development of fault escarpments and deformation all along the fault zone has yet to occur.

  19. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru-Shan Wu, Xiao-Bi Xie, Thorne Lay

    2005-06-06

    In this project, we develop new theories and methods for multi-domain one-way wave-equation based propagators, and apply these techniques to seismic modeling, seismic imaging, seismic illumination and model parameter estimation in 3D complex environments. The major progress of this project includes: (1) The development of the dual-domain wave propagators. We continue to improve the one-way wave-equation based propagators. Our target is making propagators capable of handling more realistic velocity models. A wide-angle propagator for transversely isotropic media with vertically symmetric axis (VTI) has been developed for P-wave modeling and imaging. The resulting propagator is accurate for large velocity perturbations and wide propagation angles. The thin-slab propagator for one-way elastic-wave propagation is further improved. With the introduction of complex velocities, the quality factors Qp and Qs have been incorporated into the thin-slab propagator. The resulting viscoelastic thin-slab propagator can handle elastic-wave propagation in models with intrinsic attenuations. We apply this method to complex models for AVO modeling, random media characterization and frequency-dependent reflectivity simulation. (2) Exploring the Information in the Local Angle Domain. Traditionally, the local angle information can only be extracted using the ray-based method. We develop a wave-equation based technique to process the local angle domain information. The approach can avoid the singularity problem usually linked to the high-frequency asymptotic method. We successfully apply this technique to seismic illumination and the resulting method provides a practical tool for three-dimensional full-volume illumination analysis in complex structures. The directional illumination also provides information for angle-domain imaging corrections. (3) Elastic-Wave Imaging. We develop a multicomponent elastic migration method. The application of the multicomponent one-way elastic propagator and the wide-angle correction preserve more dynamic information carried by the elastic waves. The vector imaging condition solves the polarization problem of converted wave imaging. Both P-P and P-S images can be calculated. We also use converted waves to improve the image of steep sub-salt structures. The synthetic data for the SEG/EAGE salt model are migrated with a generalized screen algorithm and for the converted PSS-wave path. All the sub-salt faults are properly imaged.

  20. Implementation of the k0-standardization method for analysis of geological samples at the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN-IPEN) has been analysing geological samples for many years with the INAA comparative method, for geochemical and environmental research. This study presents the results obtained in the implementation of the k-0-standardization method at LAN-IPEN, for geological samples analysis, by using the program k0-IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The thermal to epithermal flux ratio f and the shape factor ? of the epithermal flux distribution of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and one selected irradiation position, for short and long irradiations, respectively. To obtain these factors, the 'bare triple-monitor' method with 197Au-96Zr-94Zr was used. In order to validate the methodology, the geological reference materials basalts JB-1 (GSJ) and BE-N (IWG-GIT), andesite AGV-1 (USGS), granite GS-N (ANRT), SOIL-7 (IAEA) and sediment Buffalo River Sediment (NIST-BRS-8704), which represent different geological matrices, were analysed. The concentration results obtained agreed with assigned, with bias <10 % except for Zn in AGV-1. The U-score test showed that all results, except Mg in JB-1, are within 95 % confidence interval. These results indicate excellent possibilities of using this parametric method at the LAN-IPEN for geochemical and environmental studies. (author)

  1. Structural Analysis of Steel Structures under Fire Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Crosti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the structural analysis of a steel structure under fire loading. In this framework, the objective is to highlight the importance of the right choice of analyses to develop, and of the finite element codes able to model the resistance and stiffness reduction due to the temperature increase. In addition, the evaluation of the structural collapse under fire load of a real building is considered, paying attention to the global behavior of the structure itself. 

  2. Computer-assisted geometric and kinematic analysis of subsurface faulting in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using balanced geologic cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-assisted geological cross section balancing methods are used in the geometric and kinematic analysis of subsurface structures in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, including underlying listric normal fault and detachment fault geometries and their relationships in a linked fault system. Dips of hanging wall fault blocks are directly related to the shapes of underlying curved normal and detachment faults. Arrays of small faults that are pervasively distributed through the hanging wall blocks are interpreted to be the bulk deformation mechanism of the block. As the hanging wall slides over the underlying fault surface, the fault block deforms to accommodate itself to the shape of the fault. Distributed slip on the small fault array is assumed to accomplish this shape change. The deformation is modeled as general simple shear, such that changes in shape of the model fault blocks take place by distributed slip on uniformly oriented slip surfaces that are evenly spaced through the area of the block, replicating the behavior of a deck of cards. Computed listric normal fault trajectories and surface geologic data constrain the range of compatible depths to potential detachment fault zones below Yucca Mountain to between about 3.5 and 6 kilometers. This is at least 1 to 2 kilometers deeper than the contact between the base of the Tertiary volcanics and the Paleozoic section. Preliminary balanced versions of sections A-A' and B-B' of Scott and Bonk show that assu and B-B' of Scott and Bonk show that assumption of a vertical simple shear deformation mechanism for fault block distortion will produce geologically reasonable subsurface models of faulting

  3. Seismic response of the geologic structure underlying the Roman Colosseum and a 2-D resonance of a sediment valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Labak

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic response of the geologic structure beneath the Colosseum is investigated using a two-dimensional modeling for a vertically incident plane SH wave. Computations indicate that the southern part of the Colosseum may be exposed to a seismic ground motion with significantly larger amplitudes, differential motion and longer duration than the northern part. because the southern part of the Colosseum is underlain by a sedimentfilled valley created by sedimentary filling of the former tributary of the River Tiber. A 2-D resonance may develop in the valley. Unlike the previous theoretical studies on 2-D resonance in sediment-filled valleys, an effect of heterogeneous valley surroundings on the resonance is partly investigated. A very small sensitivity of the maximum spectral amplifications connected with the fundamental and first higher modes to the presence of a horizontal surface layer (with an intermediate velocity in the valley surroundings is observed in the studied models.

  4. Analysis of piezoelectric structures and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Weiqiu; Wang, Ji

    2013-01-01

    This edited work covers piezoelectric materials in the form of beams, plates, shells, and other structural components in modern devices and structures. Applications are frequency control and detection functions in resonators, sensors, actuators, oscillations, and other smart and intelligent structures. The contributions cover novel methods for the analysis of piezoelectric structures including wave propagation, high frequency vibration, material characterization, and optimization of structures. Understanding of these methods is increasingly important in the design and modelling of next generat

  5. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock, approaches to within 5 km of the Olkiluoto site. The results of gravimetric surveys have indicated that the margin of the Eurajoki stock slopes westward underneath the site, but to depths in excess of 3000 m. Plate tectonic reconstructions of the Precambrian of Finland, partly based on the results of major deep seismic sounding experiments, such as the international GGT/SVEKA project (along a NE-SW transect through the Satakunta area), indicate the pelitic and psammitic migmatite belts in Satakunta represent parts of the early Proterozoic Southern Finland and Central Finland continental arcs, respectively. Collision of these arc complexes took place 1890 - 1880 Ma ago, when the rocks were deformed and metamorphosed for the first time. The highT/lowP metamorphism was caused by mafic underplating, which led to a strong increase in temperature, and recrystallisation and partial remelting of the rocks in the upper crust. The collision of the arc complexes is characterised by an intense magmatic activity, which appears as synorogenic granitoids. In the next stage, 1860 - 1810 Ma ago, mafic underplating caused a second high-temperature metamorphic event and partial melting of the sedimentary rocks in southern Finland, producing the late-orogenic potassium. granites, dated at 1840 - 1830 Ma. The Subjotnian rapakivi granites associated with mafic rocks, the Jotnian Satakunta sandstone formation and the Postjotnian diabase dykes and sills represent the cratonisation stages of the Svecofennides. Rapakivi granites and related mafic rocks were generated in an anorogenic extensional regime by partial melting of the upper mantle and lower crust. The Jotnian Satakunta sandstone is a fluvial sediment formation deposited in a deltaic environment. The development of the graben or rift valley, where the sandstone was deposited, may have begun already during the Subjotnian, ca. 1650 Ma ago. The olivine diabase dykes represent the feeding channels of Postjotnian flood basalts. However, no such volcanic rocks have preserved in the area. The intrusion of the diabase dykes caused the sinki

  6. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock, approaches to within 5 km of the Olkiluoto site. The results of gravimetric surveys have indicated that the margin of the Eurajoki stock slopes westward underneath the site, but to depths in excess of 3000 m. Plate tectonic reconstructions of the Precambrian of Finland, partly based on the results of major deep seismic sounding experiments, such as the international GGT/SVEKA project (along a NE-SW transect through the Satakunta area), indicate the pelitic and psammitic migmatite belts in Satakunta represent parts of the early Proterozoic Southern Finland and Central Finland continental arcs, respectively. Collision of these arc complexes took place 1890 - 1880 Ma ago, when the rocks were deformed and metamorphosed for the first time. The highT/lowP metamorphism was caused by mafic underplating, which led to a strong increase in temperature, and recrystallisation and partial remelting of the rocks in the upper crust. The collision of the arc complexes is characterised by an intense magmatic activity, which appears as synorogenic granitoids. In the next stage, 1860 - 1810 Ma ago, mafic underplating caused a second high-temperature metamorphic event and partial melting of the sedimentary rocks in southern Finland, producing the late-orogenic potassium. granites, dated at 1840 - 1830 Ma. The Subjotnian rapakivi granites associated with mafic rocks, the Jotnian Satakunta sandstone formation and the Postjotnian diabase dykes and sills represent the cratonisation stages of the Svecofennides. Rapakivi granites and related mafic rocks were generated in an anorogenic extensional regime by partial melting of the upper mantle and lower crust. The Jotnian Satakunta sandstone is a fluvial sediment formation deposited in a deltaic environment. The development of the graben or rift valley, where the sandstone was deposited, may have begun already during the Subjotnian, ca. 1650 Ma ago. The olivine diabase dykes represent the feeding channels of Postjotnian flood basalts. However, no such volcanic rocks have preserved in the area. The intrusion of the diabase dykes caused the

  7. Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination--Part III: X-ray Crystal Structure Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesick, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is single crystal X-ray crystal structure analysis. A common link between the NMR imaging and the traditional X-ray crystal structure analysis is reported. Claims that comparisons aid in the understanding of both techniques. (MVL)

  8. Comparative investigation of schemes of geological sample preparation for flame atomic absorption analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative investigation of 6 schemes of decomposition of geological materials (rocks, concentrates and minerals) is carried out. The samples were attacked by inorganic acids to partial or complete dissolution. With the sample complete decomposition Cd, V, Mo, Be, Cs, Sr et al. elements may be quantitatively analysed using atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry methods

  9. Effects of Karst and geological structure on groundwater flow: The case of Yarqon-Taninim Aquifer, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafny, Elad; Burg, Avi; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2010-08-01

    SummaryThis study demonstrates the significant influences of the geological structure (especially folding and lithology) and the karst system on groundwater flow regime. Folds divert groundwater flow from the general hydraulic gradient; marly layers sustain several perched sub-aquifers above the regional aquifer; and karstification increases the hydraulic conductivity by several orders of magnitude. These phenomena are quantitatively demonstrated within the Yarqon-Taninim (YT) basin, Israel, which is a complex groundwater system, combining several (extremely) opposite characteristics: humid and arid recharge zones, phreatic and confined parts, shallow and deep sub-aquifers, stratified and relatively-homogeneous sub-basins, saline and fresh water bodies, as well as stagnant and fast-flowing groundwater regions. We have introduced a 3D geological-based grid for the basin (for the first time). It was implemented into a numerical code (FEFLOW), which was used thereafter to analyze quantitatively the flow regime, the groundwater mass balance, and the aquifer hydraulic properties. We present up to date conceptual understanding and numerical modeling of the YT flow field, especially at its mountainous parts. Based on the calibration procedure and the sensitivity analyses, we obtained the best-fitted hydraulic conductivity values for the aquifer mesh. The general phenomenon observed is that as groundwater flow quantity increases, the hydraulic conductivity also increases. We interpret this result by the karstification mechanism (including paleo-karst). Thus, where groundwater flow-lines converge and where groundwater discharge amount increases, the karstification process intensifies and permeability increases. Consequently, at the mountainous region, along the syncline axes, where groundwater flow-lines converge, higher conductivities are found. Modeling results also exhibit that at the lowland confined area, the geological structure does not play a major role in directing groundwater flow. Rather, the flow field is controlled by the well-developed karst system and the relatively homogenous carbonate section. It is hypothesizes that the extensive karstification took place at the Messinian Salinity Crises, ˜5.5 Ma, during which groundwater heads as well as sea level were lowered by several 100 m.

  10. New insights on shallow and deep crustal geological structures of BABEL line 7 marine reflection seismic data revealed from reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhi, H.; Malehmir, A.; Sopher, D.

    2012-04-01

    The BABEL project (Baltic And Bothnian Echoes from the Lithosphere) was a collaboration among British, Danish, Finnish, German and Swedish geoscientists to collect deep-crustal reflection and wide-angle refraction profiles in Baltic Shield and Gulf of Bothnia. The acquisition of 2,268km of deep marine reflection seismic data was carried out in 1989. The BABEL line 7 runs in E-W direction in the Bothnian Sea, north of the Åland islands and east of the city of Gävle. Several authors presented the seismic results but with a main focus of imaging and interpreting deep crustal geological structures and the nature and the depth of Moho discontinuity along line 7. Based on this seismic data, several publications about velocity distributions within the crust, the depth and texture of Moho discontinuity and seismic reflectivity patterns in the crust were presented. Some evidence from the reflection seismic data was also presented to suggest Early Proterozoic plate tectonics in the Baltic Shield. Previous seismic images of the BABEL line 7 reflection data show a dramatic change in the reflectivity pattern from weakly reflective lower crust in the west to a more reflective lower crust in the east, which was attributed to a change from a rigid crust to a plastic crust from the west to the east. The BABEL line 7 reflection data were acquired with a total profile length of 174km, a set of 48 airguns towed at 7.5m depth, and 3000m long streamer with 60 channels spaced with 50m intervals and towed at 15m depth. Seismic data were recorded for 25s using 4ms sampling interval and 75m shot interval. Seismic data is characterized by strong source-generated noise at shallow travel times and strong but randomly distributed spurious spikes at later arrival times. In this study, we have recovered and reprocessed the seismic data along BABEL line 7. Using modern processing and imaging techniques, which were not available at the time, and with a focus on the shallow parts of the seismic data, we have managed to reveal reflections as shallow as 1s in the data. Some of these reflections appear to be a continuation of deeper reflections but now they appear to reach to the surface, allowing correlation with the near-surface geology. At least two major moderately dipping shear zones are visible in the reprocessed data in comparison with the previous results. Deeper reflections are also improved which together with the improvements in the shallow parts of the data should allow small-scale geological structures encounter along the BABEL line 7 to be refined.

  11. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in rocks and their relationships with the geological structure of Johor state, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K) and their radiological hazard effect in rocks collected from the state of Johor, Malaysia were determined by gamma spectroscopy using a high-purity germanium detector. The highest values of 238U, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations (67±6, 85±7 and 722±18 Bg kg-1, respectively) were observed in the granite rock. The lowest concentrations of 238U, 232Th (2±0.1 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 2±0.1 Bq kg-1 for 232Th) were observed in gabbro rock. The lowest concentration of 40K (45±2 Bq kg-1) was detected in sandstone. The radium equivalent activity concentrations for all rock samples investigated were lower than the internationally accepted value of 370 Bq kg-1. The highest value of radium equivalent in the present study (239±17 Bq kg-1) was recorded in the area of granite belonging to an acid intrusive rock geological structure. The absorbed dose rate was found to range from 4 to 112 nGy h-1. The effective dose ranged from 5 to 138 ?Sv h-1. The internal and external hazard index values were given in results lower than unity. The purpose of this study is to provide information related to radioactivity background levels and the effects of radiation on residents in the study area under investigation. Moreover, the relationships between the radioactivity levels in the rocks within the geological structure of the studied area are discussed. (authors)

  12. The dry-erase cube: an educational tool in structural geology for making three-dimensional visualization easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Y. D.

    2007-12-01

    Many students are challenged by the three-dimensional problems they have to solve in geoscience courses such as structural geology and geological mapping. A simple cube constructed from white dry- (or wet-) erase material provides a solution to these problems. Maps, cross sections and block diagrams can be drawn and seen in three dimensions, before the students construct the two-dimensional projections. An individual dry-erase cube can be used as a three-dimensional model for a block diagram. One concept that appears to confuse students is that of apparent dips, which are essential in the construction of cross sections and block diagrams. Plotting these angles on block diagrams is especially difficult, because angles in block diagrams are distorted by their projections. The dry-erase cube provides an intermediate step. Students can first draw the actual apparent dip on the cube and subsequently think about how to construct the same angle on the projection of the block on paper. This can be made especially easy if the edges of the cube have the same length as the edges of an isometric block diagram on paper, so that the edges of the cube can simply be lined up with the edges of the block diagram. Multiple dry-erase cubes can serve as a three-dimensional model for showing the relationship between maps and their associated cross sections. Furthermore, multiple levels of maps, and parallel and perpendicular cross sections can be constructed. The cubes are also an aid in the understanding of stereographic projections, because structural data can be made visible as real planes and lines before they are plotted. Besides application in geoscience courses, the dry-erase cubes would also be a useful tool for anyone teaching or dealing with geometries and block diagrams, e.g. engineering and math departments, engineering companies, the petroleum industry, mining companies, hydrologists and K-12 teachers.

  13. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

  14. Comparison of neutron activation analysis techniques for the determination of uranium concentrations in geological and environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have described the determination of uranium in environmental, geological, and agricultural specimens by three different non-destructive nuclear methods. The effectiveness, as defined as the lower limits of detection in this work, of quantifying trace levels of bulk uranium in geological samples was evaluated for several common NAA techniques. These techniques include short-lived and medium-lived neutron activation analysis using thermal and epithermal neutrons; these results were compared with an assessment of Compton suppressed gamma-ray counting. A careful evaluation of three major (n,?) reactions with chlorine, manganese and sodium that could impede determining low levels of uranium due to high Compton continuums was done. The evaluation of Compton suppressed passive gamma counting revealed that uranium concentrations below 50 mg kg?1 were not adequate to achieve good counting statistics using the 234mPa the second daughter product of 238U. -- Highlights: ? Determination of uranium concentrations in geological, environmental, and agricultural specimens. ? Use of several NAA and passive counting methods. ? Identified several key interferences. ? Use of Compton suppression to minimize effects of interferences

  15. Eye-Tracking Investigations Exploring How Students Learn Geology from Photographs and The Structural Setting of Hydrothermal Gold Deposits in the San Antonio Area, B.C.S., MX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyan, Joshua

    Geoscience educators commonly teach geology by projecting a photograph in front of the class. Geologic photographs often contain animals, people, and inanimate objects that help convey the scale of features in the photograph. Although scale items seem innocuous to instructors and other experts, the presence of such items is distracting and has a profound effect on student learning behavior. To evaluate how students visually interact with distracting scale items in photographs and to determine if cueing or signaling is an effective means to direct students to pertinent information, students were eye tracked while looking at geologically-rich photographs. Eye-tracking data revealed that learners primarily looked at the center of an image, focused on faces of both humans and animals if they were present, and repeatedly returned to looking at the scale item (distractor) for the duration an image was displayed. The presence of a distractor caused learners to look at less of an image than when a distractor was not present. Learners who received signaling tended to look at the distractor less, look at the geology more, and surveyed more of the photograph than learners who did not receive signaling. The San Antonio area in the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula is host to hydrothermal gold deposits. A field study, including drill-core analysis and detailed geologic mapping, was conducted to determine the types of mineralization present, the types of structures present, and the relationship between the two. This investigation revealed that two phases of mineralization have occurred in the area; the first is hydrothermal deposition of gold associated with sulfide deposits and the second is oxidation of sulfides to hematite, goethite, and jarosite. Mineralization varies as a function of depth, whereas sulfides occurring at depth, while minerals indicative of oxidation are limited to shallow depths. A structural analysis revealed that the oldest structures in the study area include low-grade to medium-grade metamorphic foliation and ductile mylonitic shear zones overprinted by brittle-ductile mylonitic fabrics, which were later overprinted by brittle deformation. Both primary and secondary mineralization in the area is restricted to the later brittle features. Alteration-bearing structures have an average NNW strike consistent with northeast-southwest-directed extension, whereas unaltered structures have an average NNE strike consistent with more recent northwest-southeast-directed extension.

  16. The seabed geomorphology and geological structure of the Firth of Lorn, western Scotland, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, John; Arosio, Riccardo; Dove, Dayton; Anderton, Roger; Bradwell, Tom

    2014-05-01

    We present recently collected swath bathymetry from the Firth of Lorn. 553km2 of data were collected during 2012-2013 as part of the INIS Hydro project (Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland Hydrographic Survey). The inshore waters covered by this survey represent a priority area for the renewable industry, shipping and tourism and encompass a number of Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) including for rocky reef habitat. Surprisingly, given this interest, this project is the first comprehensive bathymetric survey of the area. This region of near shore continental shelf is revealed as a predominantly bedrock-dominated seabed, characterised by a series of narrow, stratigraphically constrained basins eroded into the Proterozoic and Palaeozoic-age bedrock. The principal basement of the region is composed of deformed Dalradian-age metasediments overlain unconformably by ?Silurian-age Old Red Sandstones and lavas. The resistant, uneroded igneous extrusives have formed raised rock platforms. Most strikingly the central region of the Firth of Lorn is dominated by an up to 150m high vertical cliff extending for approximately 20km. The origin of this prominent feature, here termed the Insh Fault, is not well understood however it may have resulted from a combination of Dalradian-age faulting and erosion of exposed softer metasediments in the central basin. Extensive seabed faulting also occurs; possibly as Dalradian-age syn-sedimentary faults. Carboniferous and Tertiary-age minor intrusives are common throughout the region in particular the Tertiary-age dolerite dyke swarms can be traced for many kilometres, exposed on the sediment-free bedrock surfaces. The survey region includes the Corryvreckan Whirlpool and Great Race, beneath the tidal flows of which there are active submarine sand dunes. Evidence for past glaciation is widespread and well preserved in the Firth of Lorn with preserved moraines and over-deepened basins common across the area. Initial geological and geomorphological mapping shows that our understanding of the offshore outcrop geology can be greatly improved by the collection of these new high-resolution bathymetric datasets.

  17. The 3-D structural geology of the PRZ [Potential Repository Zone]. Supplementary proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplementary Proof of Evidence by an expert witness is presented in support of the case by Friends of the Earth (FOE) against the proposed construction by UK Nirex Ltd of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at a site in the Sellafield area. The RCF is part of an investigation by Nirex into a suitable site for an underground repository for the disposal of radioactive waste. The objections were raised at a Planning Inquiry in 1995. Various points raised by a Nirex witness in connection with earlier evidence to the Inquiry by FOE are addressed. This evidence dealt with the need for an accurate hydrogeological model of the Potential Repository Zone (PRZ) and the perceived inadequacies of the Nirex approach. The issues addressed in this supplementary evidence are: disagreements over 3D seismic surveys; inconsistencies in the Nirex geological interpretation; the evolution of interpretation of the PRZ; the oil exploration analogy; site potential; the need for deterministic models; and the selective use of information. (2 figures; 1 table). (UK)

  18. Comparison of seismic sources for imaging geologic structures on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, five non-invasive swept sources, three non-invasive impulsive sources and one invasive impulsive source were compared. Previous shallow seismic source tests (Miller and others, 1986, 1992, 1994) have established that site characteristics should be considered in determining the optimal source. These studies evaluated a number of invasive sources along with a few non-invasive impulsive sources. Several sources (particularly the high frequency vibrators) that were included in the ORR test were not available or not practical during previous tests, cited above. This study differs from previous source comparisons in that it (1) includes many swept sources, (2) is designed for a greater target depth, (3) was conducted in a very different geologic environment, and (4) generated a larger and more diverse data set (including high fold CMP sections and walkaway vertical seismic profiles) for each source. The test site is centered around test injection well HF-2, between the southern end of Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG 5) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

  19. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STRUCTURAL AND GEOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIP ASSESSMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE OMBLA UNDERGROUND HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Prelogovi?

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction design of the underground hydroelectric plant Ombla required geological and structural investigations to he carried out. Due to past earthquakes in the area permanent tectonic movements were inferred. Therefore, in the wider and adjacent surroundings of the Ombla spring it was necessary to analyze the structural fabric and the geodynamic characteristics of the area. The most active zone encountered is the front part of a thrust fault belonging to the Dinaricum regional structural unit. The compressive regime is maintained as a response to the regional stress of an approximately S-N orientation. Different displacements of various parts of the Dinaricum unit are present. Along the rim of the structural blocks, the Hum-Om-bla fault zone extends, accompanied by left transcurrent faults, Through this zone the main groundwater drainage occurs supplying the Ombla spring. In the local Ombla spring area this zone is characterized by three sub-blocks and three major faults. The most important fault for the vital facilities of the Ombla hydroelectric power plant is the Plo?ice fault which divides the structural sub-blocks. Along this fault zone there are four mutually connected. The lowest two arc active groundwater draining systems supplying the Ombla spring. The data on local stress implies the following deformation of sub-blocks: sub-blocks 2c and 2f are displaced along normal faults from 20° to 30° to the left, downwards, while the sub-block 2 d is displaced along the Plo?ice thrust fault of 100° to 130° to the left, upwards. The structural data confirmed that the building of an underground dam with a height from 100 to 130 m was feasible. The connection between the caverns and the fault zone was determined. The unfavorable position of the active Plo?ice fault zone imposes the construction of vital Ombla power plant facilities underground.

  20. 3D Geological Modeling under Extremely Complex Geological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlin Shao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D modeling method is divided into geospatial modeling and 3D geological modeling. 3D geological modeling technique has become a favorable tool for people to observe and analyze the geological body enriched in mineral resources. Unlike geospatial modeling, 3D geological modeling must consider various geological conditions affecting spatial shape and petrophysical distribution of geological body for its complexity. This article analyzes the uncertainty, complexity and diversity of geological body, and lists complex geological conditions controlling spatial shape and petrophysical distributions of geological body. And then 3D geological modeling method under the control of complex geological conditions is proposed, and corresponding modeling workflow is set up. Finally, taking 3D geological modeling of petroleum exploration and development for example, 3D geological model of Shu II district in the Liaohe oil-field is built. Based on this model, some applications are realized, such as 3D visualization of structural model and petrophysical model, reserves calculation and drilling design, etc.

  1. Decision analysis for deteriorating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures that improve durability of a structure usually increase its initial cost. Thus, in order to make a decision about a cost-effective solution the life-cycle cost of a structure including cost of structural failure needs to be considered. Due to uncertainties associated with structural properties, loads and environmental conditions the cost of structural failure is a random variable. The paper derives probability distributions of the cost of failure of a single structure and a group of identical structures when single or multiple failures are possible during the service life of a structure. The probability distributions are based on cumulative probabilities of failure of a single structure over its service life. It is assumed that failures occur at discrete points in time, the cost of failure set at the time of decision making remains constant for a particular design solution and the discount rate is a deterministic parameter not changing with time. The probability distributions can be employed to evaluate the expected life-cycle cost or the expected utility, which is then used in decision making. An example, which considers the selection of durability specifications for a reinforced concrete structure built on the coast, illustrates the use of the derived probability distributions

  2. Non-linear analysis of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work in progress on the inelastic analysis of concrete structures using the finite element method is described. The study serves two objectives, the working stress design and the ultimate load analysis. The distribution of temperature, of particular importance in nuclear structures, is studied. The basis for the non linear analysis of instantaneous deformations is given, based in plasticity theory. Linear and non linear viscoelasticity based in the state variables approach are studied. Several numerical examples are presented. (Author)

  3. Comparative analysis of the impact of geological activity on astronomical sites of the Canary Islands, Hawaii and Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Eff-Darwich, A; Rodriguez-Losada, J A; de la Nuez, J; Hernandez-Gutierrez, L E; Romero-Ruiz, M C

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of seismic and volcanic activity was carried out at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile) and the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones (Chile). Hazard associated to volcanic activity is low or negligible at all sites, whereas seismic hazard is very high in Chile and Hawaii. The lowest geological hazard in both seismic and volcanic activity was found at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, in the island of La Palma.

  4. Integrated geophysical and geological methods to investigate the inner and outer structures of the Quaternary Mýtina maar (W?Bohemia, Czech Republic).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flechsig, C.; Heinicke, J.; Mrlina, Jan; Kämpf, H.; Nickschick, T.; Schmidt, A.; Bayer, Tomáš; Günther, T.; Rücker, C.; Seidel, E.; Seidl, Michal

    -, - (2015), s. 1-19. ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Eger Rift * Quaternary maar volcanism * Mýtina maar * geophysical and geological survey Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.084, year: 2013

  5. NMR analysis of proteins structure; Structure des proteines par RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malliavin, Th. [Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, Lab. de Biochimie Theorique, 75 - Paris (France); Dardel, F. [Paris-5 Univ., Faculte de Pharmacie, Lab. de Cristallographie et RMN Biologiques, 75 (France)

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of proteins aims at determining the 3-D folding of the polypeptide chain. Because of the high number of nuclei observed in the samples, the NMR protein spectra are extremely complex. The different steps of the structure determination are: the preparation of the samples, the acquisition and processing of the NMR signal, the analysis and attribution of spectra, and the calculation of the coordinates of the atoms using the NMR spectra parameters. Content: 1 - proteins and peptides (composition and structure, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure); 2 - NMR of proteins in solution (characteristics, structures determination, homonuclear experiments, heteronuclear experiments, proteins with a size higher than 20 kDa, intermolecular interactions, stability factors, internal molecular dynamics); 3 - structures calculation (calculation framework, distance geometry, molecular dynamics and simulated annealing, quality of the structure obtained). (J.S.)

  6. Information on prospecting and analysis of the geological uraniferous favourability of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities carried out in Peru from 1958 until 1975 in search of uranium deposits are described. In 1976 the 'Peruvian Nuclear Plan' was approved, and the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy/Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) was given the responsibility of organizing and carrying out all activities related to uranium exploration and production in the country. The programme is under implementation and comprises organization of infrastructural support, training of technical personnel, selection of favourable areas, and exploration and adoption of the most favourable national policy to permit development of the national uranium resources. The criteria applied for definition of the 'uranium favourability' of the main Peruvian geological environments are described, taking into account geological composition and concepts relating to the matallogenesis and control of uranium deposits. The results of this area selection are reported. (author)

  7. The role of inherited structures in the evolution of the Meknassy Basin, Central Tunisia, based on geological-geophysical transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Taoufik; Zouaghi, Taher; Boukadi, Noureddine

    2014-08-01

    This paper uses seismic data, well data, and surface geologic data to present a detailed description of the Meknassy Basin in the Atlas fold and thrust belt of central Tunisia. These data reveal that the Meknassy Basin is bounded by major faults, along which Triassic evaporites have been intruded. The anticlines and synclines of the basin are delimited by two N-S main faults (the North-South Axis and the Sidi Ali Ben Oun fault) and are subdivided by associated N120° and N45° trending fault-related anticlines. The Meknassy Basin is characterized by brittle structures associated with a deep asymmetric geometry that is organized into depressions and uplifts. Halokinesis of Triassic evaporites began during the Jurassic and continued during the Cretaceous period. During extensional deformation, salt movement controlled the sediment accumulation and the location of pre-compressional structures. During compressional deformation, the remobilization of evaporites accentuated the folded uplifts. A zone of decollement is located within the Triassic evaporites. The coeval strike-slip motion along the bounding master faults suggests that the Meknassy Basin was initiated as a pull-apart basin with intrusion of Triassic evaporites. The lozenge structure of the basin was caused by synchronous movements of the Sidi Ali Ben Oun fault and the North-South Axis (sinistral wrench faults) with movement of NW-SE first-order dextral strike-slip faults. Sediment distribution and structural features indicate that a major tectonic inversion has occurred at least since Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. The transpressional movements are marked by reverse faults and folds associated with unconformities and with remobilization of Triassic evaporites. The formation of different structural features and the evolution of the Meknassy Basin and its neighboring uplifts have been controlled by conjugate dextral and sinistral strike-slip movements and thrust displacement.

  8. Application of HCMM data to regional geologic analysis for mineral and energy resource evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a thermal-inertia mapping algorithm which provides greater discrimination capability than those in current use, a geologic feature was detected in the Cabeza Prieta, Arizona, area. Initially seen on an image formed as a difference of two thermal-inertia images, it was found to be the extension of a bilaterally symmetrical aeromagnetic feature which trends northeast for a distance of at least 1200 km

  9. Application of HCMM data to regional geologic analysis for mineral and energy resource evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, K. (principal investigator); Miller, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Using a thermal-inertia mapping algorithm which provides greater discrimination capability than those in current use, a geologic features was detected in the Cabeza Prieta, Arizona, area. Initially seen on an image formed as a difference of two thermal-inertia images, it was found to be the extension of a bilaterally symmetrical aeromagnetic feature which trends northeast for a distance of at least 1200 km.

  10. Imaging Geological Structures Up to the Acquisition Surface Using a Hybrid Refraction-Reflection Seismic Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes M.; Mari J.-L.; Hayet M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of seismic imaging is to reconstruct the reflectivity associated with subsurface structures. In standard imaging techniques, the reflectivity model usually starts a few meters below the surface, the actual depth being dependent on data acquisition parameters and the mute used to remove stretching of first arrivals after normal moveout correction. In this paper, we describe a method to image the reflectivity of near-surface structures...

  11. Geology and Geomorphology of the Manipur Valley Using Digitally Enhanced Satellite Image and SRTM DEM in the Eastern Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Khan; Sarfaraz Ahmad; Shadab Khurshid

    2012-01-01

    Landsat ETM+ data and SRTM DEM data were used to delineate the geological, structural and geomorphological features in the intermontane Imphal Valley in Manipur, India. This area has simple geology, structural features and there- fore provides an ideal site to test the utility of remote sensing and GIS techniques in geological studies. The various techniques such as band ratioing, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and generation of FCC (False Colour Composite) were employed on ETM+ data. The...

  12. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic structures in architecture follows a new trend which is emerging in responsive architecture coined by Nicholas Negroponte when he proposed that architecture may benefit from the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational buildings would be the.

  13. Structural analysis of DNA by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 10 years, molecular biology has rapidly been developing owing to easy structural analysis of DNA, a fundamental substance involved in life function. The application of highly sensitive RI with the production of large amounts of DNA and with no change in the chemical property of the substance to be tested has greatly contributed to molecular biology. For the development of life science and biotechnology, it is essential to analyze basic arrangement of DNA, identify genes, predict amino acid arrangement of proteins, and clarify regulation mechanism involved in genes. To understand DNA function sufficiently, analysis of secondary or tertiary structure, as well as primary structure of DNA, is extremely important. In this paper, the primary DNA structural analysis is provided in relation to RI application. Structural analysis of DNA can be classified into (1) hybridization method and (2) basic arrangement determination method. The application of DNA analysis is discussed in terms of the following: (1) varified analysis of the antibody, (2) isolation and analysis of carcinogenic genes, and (3) gene diagnosis. There is a problem with manual process in the structural analysis of DNA. Currently, automatic apparatuses for extraction, purification, reaction, isolation, and detection of DNA have been developing. (N.K.)

  14. Determination of iridium at low levels (sub ng g-1) in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the platinum group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt) in geological materials is difficult, due to the low concentrations of these elements (ng g-1 or sub ng g-1) and their heterogeneous distribution in many geological matrices. The determination of PGE has attracted great interest due not only to the increasing utilization of these elements in modern industry, but also to the information that these elements can provide on mantle processes. The determination of very low amounts of iridium is particularly important on account of some anomalous concentrations of iridium in sedimentary rock samples, related to the impact of an extraterrestrial object responsible for extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. In the present paper, a radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of iridium in geological materials is presented. The procedure consisted of thermal neutron irradiation of about 500 mg of the sample, followed by sintering with sodium peroxide, precipitation with tellurium and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a hyper-pure Ge detector. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were evaluated by analysis of the certified reference material SARM-7 (South Africa Bureau of Standards) and W-1 (USGS). The detection limit for the analytical conditions employed was 0.004 ng g-1. The procedure was applied to the reference materials TDB-1 and WGB-1 (CANMET), which present provisional values for Ir, and to the reference materials GXR-3, GXR-5 and GXR- 6 (USGS), which do not present information values for Ir. This work is a contribution to Ir values in these reference materials. As an example of application of the method to real samples, the developed procedure was employed in the determination of iridium in basalts from Parana basin, collected in Bom Guara do Sul, Santa Catarina, provided by the Geosciences Institute of the University of Campinas. (author)

  15. Geological-economic analysis on the exploration of backup resources for depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the geological-economic evaluation program for pithead heap-leaching mining uranium deposits developed by the authors and the data of column-leaching tests and the geological reserve, the geological-economic evaluation is made to the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit, and the geological reserves of Yangjiaonao deposit of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China. The results of static analysis on these reserves show that the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit belong to sub-profitable type, but the ones of Yangjiaonao deposit is profitable with 26.56% tax-before profit. 1 tU profitable type of ore from Yangjiaonao deposit can use 2.40-3.79 tU subprofitable type of ores from Lujing and Huangfengling deposit. In order to solving the problem on scarcity of backup resources of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field and using the existing sub-profitable type of geological reserves, it is suggested that the high grade of profitable type of deposits should be explored around the exhausting mines so that the production of the mines could be profitable by the pithead heap-leaching mining method with arrangement groups of both sub-profitable and profitable type of ores. (authors)

  16. Structural Analysis of the Upper Internal Structure in PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upper internal structure (UIS) is a package of hardware suspended from the rotating plug to about 20 cm above the core assemblies. The functions of the UIS are to support shroud tubes containing the primary and secondary control rod drivelines and preserve critical alignments between these drivelines and the core lattice, under normal and off-normal conditions. In addition, the UIS produces sufficient coolant mixing to mitigate thermal transients to downstream components and provides an opening for the In-Vessel transfer machine to access inner core positions without interfacing with the control rod drive lines and the upper core instrumentation package. The radial position of the shroud tube is fixed by three horizontal guide plates and the lower guide plate is close to the core assemblies and is perforated to permit most of the core effluent to reach the region between guide plates. In this study, the primary stress analysis for dead weight was carried out and the thermal stress analysis considering the coolant temperature around the UIS was performed. In addition, the mode characteristics of the structure by the natural frequency analysis were evaluated. The structural analysis model is developed to evaluate the structural integrity of the UIS. The primary stress analysis, the thermal stress analysis and the natural frequency analysis for the UIS are performed, and the maximum stresses and displacements are evaluated. From the analysis results, it is confirmed that the large local stresses don't occur near the holes and through the wall thicknesses of the structure. In addition, the maximum temperature of the UIS is calculated as 545 .deg. C from the thermal analysis and the structure should be evaluated by the ASME design rules at a high temperature. In the future, the more detailed design will be performed by the high temperature evaluation procedure according to the ASME SEC. III, Div.5

  17. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the length of the island and to American troop movement. This unique topography forced innovative tactics ranging from reverse slope defense to "blowtorch and corkscrew" offense in response. During this exercise, students apply their map-reading and interpretation skills, as well as their critical analysis abilities; the historical context, in turn, provides motivation to refine those skills. Sun Tzu wrote that all warfare is based on deception. What we hope to communicate to students with this activity is that much of warfare, and, more broadly, the way humans interact with the world, is inherently and undeniably based on geology.

  18. Structural analysis of fuel handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper has three aspects: (i) to review 'why' and 'what' types of structural analysis, testing and report are required for the fuel handling systems according to the codes, or needed for design of a product, (ii) to review the input requirements for analysis and the analysis procedures, and (iii) to improve the communication between the analysis and other elements of the product cycle. The required or needed types of analysis and report may be categorized into three major groups: (i) Certified Stress Reports for design by analysis, (ii) Design Reports not required for certification and registration, but are still required by codes, and (iii) Design Calculations required by codes or needed for design. Input requirements for structural analysis include: design, code classification, loadings, and jurisdictionary boundary. Examples of structural analysis for the fueling machine head and support structure are given. For improving communication between the structural analysis and the other elements of the product cycle, some areas in the specification of design requirements and load rating are discussed. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  19. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raj?i?, Vlatka; ?izmar, Dean

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed.

  20. Structural Analysis of Bikunin Glycosaminoglycan

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Lianli; Wolff, Jeremy J.; Laremore, Tatiana N.; Restaino, Odile F.; Xie, Jin; Schiraldi, Chiara; Toida, Toshihiko; Amster, I. Jonathan; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of an intact glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain of the bikunin proteoglycan (PG) was analyzed using a combined top-down and bottom-up sequencing strategy. PGs are proteins with one or more linear, high-molecular weight, sulfated GAG polysaccharides O-linked to serine or threonine residues. GAGs are often responsible for the biological functions of PGs, and subtle variations in the GAG structure have pronounced physiological effects. Bikunin is a serine protease inhibitor found in hum...

  1. Bedrock Geology Mapping Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Miller

    This field mapping and map-making exercise is a capstone project for a course on Geological Maps. Over a weekend (~12 hours of field work), students collect lithologic and structural data from outcrops scattered over a one square mile area. Back in the classroom, students digitally compile their field data (outcrop, structure measurements, traverse locations) into ArcMAP. They infer geologic linework (faults and contacts) and units from this data in ArcMAP and then export these data layers into Illustrator. In Illustrator, they add ancillary map components (a cross section, description of map units, correlation diagram, map symbol legend,...) to create a final map at a 1:10,000 scale. Their maps are printed out on 11"x17" paper and saved as a pdf file. This exercise helps the students to appreciate how field data is collected and how these geologic facts are interpretively organized into a four-dimensional picture that is a geologic map.

  2. Rare earth elements content in geological samples from eastern desert, Egypt, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A

    2010-09-01

    Twenty representative geological samples (tonalite, granodiorite, adamellite, syenogranite, rapakivi syenogranite, alkali feldspar granite and monzogranite) were collected from G. Kattar area in Eastern Desert, Egypt, for analysis by instrumental neutron activation as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of 14 rare earth elements (REEs) and to find out the following: (1) what information could be obtained about the REEs and distribution patterns of REEs in geological samples under investigation, (2) to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of the INAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standard reference material and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7x10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The gamma spectra were collected by an HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of a computerized multichannel analyzer. The choice of the nuclear reaction, irradiation and decay times, and of the proper gamma radiation in counting are presented and discussed. The results are found to be in good agreement with certified values. PMID:20236830

  3. Rare earth elements content in geological samples from eastern desert, Egypt, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty representative geological samples (tonalite, granodiorite, adamellite, syenogranite, rapakivi syenogranite, alkali feldspar granite and monzogranite) were collected from G. Kattar area in Eastern Desert, Egypt, for analysis by instrumental neutron activation as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of 14 rare earth elements (REEs) and to find out the following: (1) what information could be obtained about the REEs and distribution patterns of REEs in geological samples under investigation, (2) to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of the INAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standard reference material and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7x1011 n/cm2 s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The gamma spectra were collected by an HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of a computerized multichannel analyzer. The choice of the nuclear reaction, irradiation and decay times, and of the proper gamma radiation in counting are presented and discussed. The results are found to be in good agreement with certified values.

  4. Rare earth elements content in geological samples from eastern desert, Egypt, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taher, A., E-mail: Atef_Eltaher@hotmail.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit Branch 71542 Assuit (Egypt)

    2010-09-15

    Twenty representative geological samples (tonalite, granodiorite, adamellite, syenogranite, rapakivi syenogranite, alkali feldspar granite and monzogranite) were collected from G. Kattar area in Eastern Desert, Egypt, for analysis by instrumental neutron activation as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of 14 rare earth elements (REEs) and to find out the following: (1) what information could be obtained about the REEs and distribution patterns of REEs in geological samples under investigation, (2) to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of the INAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standard reference material and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7x10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The gamma spectra were collected by an HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of a computerized multichannel analyzer. The choice of the nuclear reaction, irradiation and decay times, and of the proper gamma radiation in counting are presented and discussed. The results are found to be in good agreement with certified values.

  5. A Simple Device to Aid Plotting of Pi Diagrams in Structural Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Grenville

    1984-01-01

    A simple device that aids in plotting poles to planes on structural equal-area diagrams (pi diagrams) is described. It is used in conjunction with a standard equal area Schmidt net to assist students in understanding principles of plotting pi diagrams and for rapid plotting of large amounts of data. (BC)

  6. Testing the hydrologic utility of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic properties across large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, B. B.; Halford, K. J.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Fenelon, J.

    2014-12-01

    The utility of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic conductivities to length scales that are commensurate with hydraulic data has been assessed at the Nevada National Security Site in highly-faulted volcanic rocks. Observed drawdowns from eight, large-scale, aquifer tests on Pahute Mesa provided the necessary constraints to test assumed relations between hydraulic conductivity and interpretations of the geology. The investigated volume of rock encompassed about 40 cubic miles where drawdowns were detected more than 2 mi from pumping wells and traversed major fault structures. Five sets of hydraulic conductivities at about 500 pilot points were estimated by simultaneously interpreting all aquifer tests with a different geologic framework for each set. Each geologic framework was incorporated as prior information that assumed homogeneous hydraulic conductivities within each geologic unit. Complexity of the geologic frameworks ranged from an undifferentiated mass of rock with a single unit to 14 unique geologic units. Analysis of the model calibrations showed that a maximum of four geologic units could be differentiated where each was hydraulically unique as defined by the mean and standard deviation of log-hydraulic conductivity. Consistency of hydraulic property estimates within extents of investigation and effects of geologic frameworks on extrapolation were evaluated qualitatively with maps of transmissivity. Distributions of transmissivity were similar within the investigated extents regardless of geologic framework except for a transmissive streak along a fault in the Fault-Structure framework. Extrapolation was affected by underlying geologic frameworks where the variability of transmissivity increased as the number of units increased.

  7. Micromorphological analysis of deformation structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Amanda; Meer, Jaap J. M.; Phillips, Emrys

    2011-01-01

    Micromorphology is increasingly being used by glaciologists and Quaternary geologists as a primary tool for the analysis of glacial sediments. This type of analysis, which utilises a standard petrological microscope (van der Meer, 1983; Carr, 2004; van der Meer and Menzies, 2011), can provide far greater detail of the depositional and deformation histories recorded by these sediments than can be obtained from macro?scale studies alone. Published studies have used micromorphology...

  8. Structural geology of the proposed site area for a high-level radioactive waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.J.; Day, W.C.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Geologic mapping and fracture studies have documented the fundamental patterns of joints and faults in the thick sequence of rhyolite tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed site of an underground repository for high-level radioactive waste. The largest structures are north-striking, block-bounding normal faults (with a subordinate left-lateral component) that divide the mountain into numerous 1-4-km-wide panels of gently east-dipping strata. Block-bounding faults, which underwent Quaternary movement as well as earlier Neogene movement, are linked by dominantly northwest-striking relay faults, especially in the more extended southern part of Yucca Mountain. Intrablock faults are commonly short and discontinuous, except those on the more intensely deformed margins of the blocks. Lithologic properties of the local tuff stratigraphy strongly control the mesoscale fracture network, and locally the fracture network has a strong influence on the nature of intrablock faulting. The least faulted part of Yucca Mountain is the north-central part, the site of the proposed repository. Although bounded by complex normal-fault systems, the 4-km-wide central block contains only sparse intrablock faults. Locally intense jointing appears to be strata-bound. The complexity of deformation and the magnitude of extension increase in all directions away from the proposed repository volume, especially in the southern part of the mountain where the intensity of deformation and the amount of vertical-axis rotation increase markedly. Block-bounding faults were active at Yucca Mountain during and after eruption of the 12.8-12.7 Ma Paintbrush Group, and significant motion on these faults postdated the 11.6 Ma Rainier Mesa Tuff. Diminished fault activity continued into Quaternary time. Roughly half of the stratal tilting in the site area occurred after 11.6 Ma, probably synchronous with the main pulse of vertical-axis rotation, which occurred between 11.6 and 11.45 Ma. Studies of sequential formation of tectonic joints, in the context of regional paleostress studies, indicate that north- and northwest-striking joint sets formed coevally with the main faulting episode during regional east-northeast-west-southwest extension and that a prominent northeast-striking joint set formed later, probably after 9 Ma. These structural analyses contribute to the understanding of several important issues at Yucca Mountain, including potential hydrologic pathways, seismic hazards, and fault-displacement hazards. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  9. Criticality analysis of aggregations of actinides from commerical nuclear waste in geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An underground nuclear-waste terminal-storage facility for either spent fuel elements or high level waste from a reprocessing plant will contain large amounts of fissionable actinides. Such a facility must be designed to preclude the concentration of these isotopes into a critical mass. Information on the critical masses of the various isotopes present in spent fuel or high level waste is required as part of such a design effort. This study provides this information. The results of this study will be used, in conjunction with geologic transport rates of the actinide compounds, to estimate mass formation probabilities in waste repositories. A computational model was developed as part of the study to perform criticality calculations rapidly and efficiently and to produce tables and plots of actinide concentration in geologic material versus critical mass. The criticality model uses a discrete ordinates approximation to neutron transport theory and treats six energy groups and spherical geometry. Neutron cross sections were obtained from ENDF/B-IV or ENDF/B-V cross section libraries. Critical masses calculated with the computational model were checked against experimental values and against more detailed calculational values and were found to be from 30 percent less to 10 percent greater. Critical mass calculations were made for five waste types, five waste ages, five actinide elements, and four geologic compositions. Minimum critical masses were calculated for over 400 combinations of the above variables. The relative importance for criticality of the various actinides and waste types is presented in terms of the number of possible critical masses per waste container

  10. Environmental geologic analysis of Rio de las Taguas basin Departmento Iglesia San Juan Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mineral environmental research project results where it has been located in Rio de las Taguas basin, Departamento Iglesia, Provincia de San Juan, Argentina. It has been placed in frontal Andean mountain in San Juan. In this geographic framework has been developed Au and Ag mineral project in order the world scale. The aim of this article is has been related the mineral and geological units bet wen the basin chemistry as well as to carry out future measurements mines impacts in this area. (author)

  11. Analysis of rare earth elements on geological samples using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A routine method has been developed for ICP-MS determination of the REE for geological samples. Separation of REE as a group using cation exchange column has removed interferences caused by transition groups of elements and minimized the background due to complex matrix. Isobaric interferences caused by lighter REE were measured using the single pure element solutions and a correction procedure evolved. Thus using ICP-MS good quality REE data set can be acquired on rock samples with sample size not a limiting factor

  12. Analysis of siliceous geologic materials by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe in siliceous geologic samples by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence is investigated using the most adequate excitation conditions: direct excitation mode (rhodium anode X-ray tube) for the former two elements, and the secondary targets titanium for K and Ca, and germanium for Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe. For the correction of matrix effects the use of ratio methods has been tested. Procedure files have been defined allowing the automatic simultaneous acquisition and processing of spectra. (author)

  13. Imaging Geological Structures Up to the Acquisition Surface Using a Hybrid Refraction-Reflection Seismic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of seismic imaging is to reconstruct the reflectivity associated with subsurface structures. In standard imaging techniques, the reflectivity model usually starts a few meters below the surface, the actual depth being dependent on data acquisition parameters and the mute used to remove stretching of first arrivals after normal moveout correction. In this paper, we describe a method to image the reflectivity of near-surface structures starting from the acquisition surface. This is achieved by processing both the first arrivals and the reflected phases present in data collected for refraction surveys. The proposed imaging procedure works in three steps. First, we obtain a velocity model for the shallow region by combining the Plus-Minus method of refraction interpretation with tomographic inversion of first arrival times. Second, by processing reflection events present in the refraction data, we obtain a standard reflectivity section for the deeper region. Finally, we compute reflectivity for the shallow region using the velocity model estimated from first arrival information in step 1. This velocity model is used both to compute reflectivity and to convert it in time. The reflectivity obtained for the shallow region is associated with velocity contrasts. In order to merge it with the reflectivity section for the deeper region a scaling factor between the two sets of reflectivity sections must be computed and applied. The novelty of this contribution is the use the tomographic velocity model in evaluating reflectivity for the upper part of the section. This improves the continuity of information about all near-surface structures in comparison with previous works that were limited to reflection data. Three field examples illustrate the proposed procedure showing continuous information about reflectivity of structures starting from the acquisition surface.

  14. Geological indicators for impact: The anomalous case of the Vredefort structure, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, L. A. G.; Reimold, W. U.

    1988-01-01

    The Vredefort Dome is located within and almost central to the Witwatersrand basin in its presently known extent. It exposes a central Archean granite core which is surrounded by a collar of supracrustal rocks. These collar rocks outline a strong polygonal geometry. The Archean core is comprised of two concentric zones, the Outer Granite Gneiss (OGG), and the core central Inlandsee Leucogranofels (ILG). The rocks of the inner core display granulite facies metamorphism, while the OGG is in amphibolite facies. The inner core is believed from recent drill hole information to be underlain by mafic and ultramafic gneisses, the extent of which cannot be assessed at present. A fairly broad zone of charnockites separates the OGG and ILG domains. This zone is characterized by a high concentration of pseudotachylite and ductile shearing. Whereas a number of other domical structures are located within or surrounding the Witwatersrand basin, the Vredefort structure is anomalous, in that it has: a partly polygonal geometry; extensive alkali intrusives in the northwestern sector; granophyre dykes (ring-dykes peripheral to the contact collar-basement and NW-SE or NE-SW trending dykes within the Archean basement); contact metamorphism of the collar supracrustal rocks; the overturning of collar supracrustals in the northern sectors; deformation phenomena widely regarded as representing shock metamorphism (pseudotachylite, (sub)planar microdeformation features in quartz, shatter cones and occurrences of high-P quartz polymorphs); a positive 30 mgal gravity anomaly; and high amplitude magnetic anomalies. Recent geophysical, structural and petrological evidence pertinent for the identification of the processes that led to the formation of the Vredefort structure are summarized.

  15. Structural geology and mineralization of uranium deposits in the Huianpu area, west of Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis discussed the geotectonic setting of west Ordos basin, classification of structural units, fault-fold belt and structural feature of Majiatan region. Finding the stable segment in the strong structural activation region was used as the overall guidance for the uranium research and exploration, the fore-part of an over-thrust nappe belt was proposed as the favorable segment for uranium mineralization in the west of Ordos basin after several years research and exploration. Two oxidation layers of red and yellow colour was identified which the earlier oxidation was red and later oxidation alteration was yellow. The uranium ore was controlled by these two oxidation layers. The early red oxidized sandstone was experienced post-reformation such as thrust pushover, lifting, erosion and bury, block fault separation, the late yellow oxidation tended to inherit the early red oxidation and carried on the superposition modification distributed along the both wings of anticline. The thesis summarized the uranium features and metallogenic which can be used as the guidance for uranium exploration in the basin. (authors)

  16. Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the Hanford site (Washington) as a nuclear production, power, and waste disposal site has led to generation of a vast quantity of geophysical and remote sensing data sets of the central Columbia Plateau. To data, these various studies, including at least 13 independent magnetic linear and image lineament studies, have not been adequately correlated. Therefore, these studies provide a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the viability of the different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlated lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model DEM image. Geologic structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM

  17. Estimating the supply and demand for deep geologic CO2 storage capacity over the course of the 21st Century: A meta-analysis of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.

    2013-08-05

    Whether there is sufficient geologic CO2 storage capacity to allow CCS to play a significant role in mitigating climate change has been the subject of debate since the 1990s. This paper presents a meta- analysis of a large body of recently published literature to derive updated estimates of the global deep geologic storage resource as well as the potential demand for this geologic CO2 storage resource over the course of this century. This analysis reveals that, for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation scenarios that have end-of-century atmospheric CO2 concentrations of between 350 ppmv and 725 ppmv, the average demand for deep geologic CO2 storage over the course of this century is between 410 GtCO2 and 1,670 GtCO2. The literature summarized here suggests that -- depending on the stringency of criteria applied to calculate storage capacity – global geologic CO2 storage capacity could be: 35,300 GtCO2 of “theoretical” capacity; 13,500 GtCO2 of “effective” capacity; 3,900 GtCO2, of “practical” capacity; and 290 GtCO2 of “matched” capacity for the few regions where this narrow definition of capacity has been calculated. The cumulative demand for geologic CO2 storage is likely quite small compared to global estimates of the deep geologic CO2 storage capacity, and therefore, a “lack” of deep geologic CO2 storage capacity is unlikely to be an impediment for the commercial adoption of CCS technologies in this century.

  18. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  19. Computational structural analysis and finite element methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kaveh, A

    2014-01-01

    Graph theory gained initial prominence in science and engineering through its strong links with matrix algebra and computer science. Moreover, the structure of the mathematics is well suited to that of engineering problems in analysis and design. The methods of analysis in this book employ matrix algebra, graph theory and meta-heuristic algorithms, which are ideally suited for modern computational mechanics. Efficient methods are presented that lead to highly sparse and banded structural matrices. The main features of the book include: application of graph theory for efficient analysis; extension of the force method to finite element analysis; application of meta-heuristic algorithms to ordering and decomposition (sparse matrix technology); efficient use of symmetry and regularity in the force method; and simultaneous analysis and design of structures.

  20. Structure analysis under impulsive loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the sizing of a structure, the transient dynamic response may, in many cases, be obtained with a linear computation. In this example, we have studied the behavior of the plane cap of a vessel subjected to a sudden increase of the inner pressure. We described here the differents steps of this kind of computation

  1. Analysis of composite structural elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The themes of the study are composite structural components. For this purpose have been designed and built several research positions.Design/methodology/approach: Using different structural materials to build new device components requires multiple tests of the components. Research posts were designed in the advanced graphical program CAx Siemens NX 7.5. Analysed samples were made from the glass fibre, aramid and carbon of various weights. Due to the specific use of composite materials it focuses on the elements in the form of plates and flat bars. For the examination of experimental strain gauge technique was used bead, the force sensor and displacement sensor. The experimental methods were compared with computer simulation using the FEM.Findings: The aim of this study was to determine the basic material constants and a comparison of the experimental method and the method of computer simulation.Research limitations/implications: Change the number of layers and how to connect the laminate with the steel plate changes mechanical properties of the structural component.Practical implications: The ultimate result will be knowledge on the different forms of laminates, such as material properties, the stresses in all layers, strain and comparing the results obtained by two methods.Originality/value: The expected outcome of the study will be the composition and method of joining composite laminate with a steel plate to the possible application in the repair and construction of structural elements of freight wagons.

  2. Dynamic analysis and design of offshore structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This book  attempts to provide readers with an overall idea of various types of offshore platform geometries. It covers the various environmental loads encountered by these structures, a detailed description of the fundamentals of structural dynamics in a class-room style, estimate of damping in offshore structures and their applications in the preliminary analysis and design. Basic concepts of structural dynamics are emphasized through simple illustrative examples and exercises. Design methodologies and guidelines, which are FORM based concepts are explained through a few applied example structures. Each chapter also has tutorials and exercises for self-learning. A dedicated chapter on stochastic dynamics will help the students to extend the basic concepts of structural dynamics to this advanced domain of research. Hydrodynamic response of offshore structures with perforated members is one of the recent research applications, which is found to be one of the effective manner of retrofitting offshore structur...

  3. Structural Controls of the MacFarlane Geothermal System, Humboldt County, Nevada: New Insights Based on Detailed Geologic Mapping, Shallow Temperature Surveys, and Magnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Sabina M.

    Detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, magnetic and two-meter temperature data, integrated with previous datasets, constrain the structural controls of the MacFarlane geothermal system. MacFarlane hot springs and the travertine fissure ridges lie within a relay ramp. The relay ramp is formed between two overlapping, north-northeast-striking, west-dipping Holocene normal faults exposed in Lake Lahontan sediments. Other mapped faults near the hot spring include a north-striking, west-dipping Tertiary fault east of MacFarlane hot springs. The highest temperature gradient is found at the projected intersection between the Tertiary and north-northeast-striking Quaternary fault, ˜2.5 km northeast of the hot spring (Sibbett et al., 1982; Swanberg and Bowers, 1982). Our new data suggest other controls involving the relay ramp geometry of the Holocene faults. The anomalous orientation of the travertine fissure ridge motivated this study of the structural controls of the geothermal system. MacFarlane hot spring is located on the eastern margin of the Black Rock Desert, ˜85 km west of Winnemucca, in Humboldt County, Nevada. The active hot spring emerges from the west end of an east-trending travertine fissure ridge, which is ˜180 m long. The travertine fissure ridge is up to ˜2 m tall and ˜5 m wide, and has a central fissure along its long axis. The orientation of the travertine fissure ridge indicates local north-south extension, which is inconsistent with the regional west-northwest extension of the northwestern Basin and Range province. The anomalous travertine orientation is due to fractures that occurred during formation of a relay ramp between two overlapping fault segments.

  4. The Baltic Basin: structure, properties of reservoir rocks, and capacity for geological storage of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaher, Rein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Baltic countries are located in the limits of the Baltic sedimentary basin, a 700 km long and 500 km wide synclinal structure. The axis of the syneclise plunges to the southwest. In Poland the Precambrian basement occurs at a depth of 5 km. The Baltic Basin includes the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran (Vendian at the base and all Phanerozoic systems. Two aquifers, the lower Devonian and Cambrian reservoirs, meet the basic requirements for CO2 storage. The porosity and permeability of sandstone decrease with depth. The average porosity of Cambrian sandstone at depths of 80–800, 800–1800, and 1800–2300 m is 18.6, 14.2, and 5.5%, respectively. The average permeability is, respectively, 311, 251, and 12 mD. Devonian sandstone has an average porosity of 26% and permeability in the range of 0.5–2 D. Prospective Cambrian structural traps occur only in Latvia. The 16 largest ones have CO2 storage capacity in the range of 2–74 Mt, with total capacity exceeding 400 Mt. The structural trapping is not an option for Lithuania as the uplifts there are too small. Another option is utilization of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The estimated total EOR net volume of CO2 (part of CO2 remaining in the formation in Lithuania is 5.6 Mt. Solubility and mineral trapping are a long-term option. The calculated total solubility trapping capacity of the Cambrian reservoir is as high as 11 Gt of CO2 within the area of the supercritical state of carbon dioxide.

  5. Soil gas 222Rn concentration in northern Germany and its relationship with geological subsurface structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    222Rn in soil gas activity was measured across the margins of two active salt diapirs in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, in order to reveal the impact of halokinetic processes on the soil gas signal. Soil gas and soil sampling were carried out in springtime and summer 2011. The occurrence of elevated 222Rn in soil gas concentrations in Schleswig-Holstein has been ascribed to radionuclide rich moraine boulder material deposits, but the contribution of subsurface structures has not been investigated so far. Reference samples were taken from a region known for its granitic moraine boulder deposits, resulting in 222Rn in soil gas activity of 40 kBq/m3. The values resulting from profile sampling across salt dome margins are of the order of twice the moraine boulder material reference values and exceed 100 kBq/m3. The zones of elevated concentrations are consistent throughout time despite variations in magnitude. One soil gas profile recorded in this work expands parallel to a seismic profile and reveals multiple zones of elevated 222Rn activities above a rising salt intrusion. The physical and chemical properties of salt have an impact on the processes influencing gas migration and surface near radionuclide accumulations. The rise of salt supports the breakup of rock components thus leading to enhanced emanation. This work provides a first approach regarding the halokinetic contribution to the 222e halokinetic contribution to the 222Rn in soil gas occurrence and a possible theoretical model which summarizes the relevant processes was developed. - Highlights: ? 222Rn activity in soil gas was measured across salt structures in northern Germany. ? 222Rn activity ranges up to 105 kBq/m3 across the margins of salt structures. ? Activities caused by moraine boulder material are about 40 kBq/m3. ? We suggest that the salt dome environment has an impact on gas migration. ? A theoretical model was developed which explains the relevant processes.

  6. Geologic setting and tertiary structural evolution of southwestern Arizona and southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Tosdal, Richard M.

    1991-07-01

    Volcanic and sedimentary rocks and structures record the Tertiary structural evolution of the lower Colorado River region in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California. A late Eocene or early Oligocene (prior to ˜33 Ma) episode of faulting is indicated by medium- to coarse-grained arkosic rocks in the Chocolate and southern Trigo Mountains. Much of the area was relatively quiescent tectonically during extrusion of volcanic rocks from ˜33 to 22 Ma, but the southernmost part was periodically uplifted and eroded into its underlying crystalline rocks. A major episode of extensional deformation and tilting occurred after deposition of welded tuff about 22 Ma and affected the entire area from the Palo Verde Mountains on the west to the Kofa Mountains on the east. Extension-related faulting quickly waned and had largely ceased by about 20 Ma in the Kofa Mountains; elsewhere the timing is poorly constrained. By ˜13 Ma, thick alluvial fans filled many grabens and half grabens among tilted fault blocks throughout the area. Volcanism in the lower Colorado River region may have been coincident with a broad structural depression now oriented east-west. The northern limit of the volcanic terrane defines a tilt-domain boundary. The northern boundary, reaching from the New Water Mountains in Arizona to the little Chuckwalla Mountains in California, ultimately evolved to separate a terrane of relatively untilted crystalline horsts on the north from a series of east or northeast dipping fault blocks on the south. The southern margin is less well defined but is subparallel to the northern boundary and to the Chocolate Mountains anticlinorium.

  7. Data Fusion: A decision analysis tool that quantifies geological and parametric uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineering projects such as siting waste facilities and performing remediation are often driven by geological and hydrogeological uncertainties. Geological understanding and hydrogeological parameters such as hydraulic conductivity are needed to achieve reliable engineering design. Information from non-invasive and minimally invasive data sets offers potential for reduction in uncertainty, but a single data type does not usually meet all needs. Data Fusion uses Bayesian statistics to update prior knowledge with information from diverse data sets as the data is acquired. Prior knowledge takes the form of first principles models (e.g., groundwater flow) and spatial continuity models for heterogeneous properties. The variability of heterogeneous properties is modeled in a form motivated by statistical physics as a Markov random field. A computer reconstruction of targets of interest is produced within a quantified statistical uncertainty. The computed uncertainty provides a rational basis for identifying data gaps for assessing data worth to optimize data acquisition. Further, the computed uncertainty provides a way to determine the confidence of achieving adequate safety margins in engineering design. Beyond design, Data Fusion provides the basis for real time computer monitoring of remediation. Working with the DOE Office of Technology (OTD), the author has developed and patented a Data Fusion Workstation system that has been used on jobs at the Hanford, Savannah River, Pantex and Fernald DOE sites. Further applications include an army depot at Letterkenney, PA and commercial industrial sites

  8. Data Fusion: A decision analysis tool that quantifies geological and parametric uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineering projects such as siting waste facilities and performing remediation are often driven by geological and hydrogeological uncertainties. Geological understanding and hydrogeological parameters such as hydraulic conductivity are needed to achieve reliable engineering design. Information form non-invasive and minimal invasive data sets offers potential for reduction in uncertainty, but a single data type does not usually meet all needs. Data Fusion uses Bayesian statistics to update prior knowledge with information from diverse data sets as the data is acquired. Prior knowledge takes the form of first principles models (e.g., groundwater flow) and spatial continuity models for heterogeneous properties. The variability of heterogeneous properties is modeled in a form motivated by statistical physics as a Markov random field. A computer reconstruction of targets of interest is produced within a quantified statistical uncertainty. The computed uncertainty provides a rational basis for identifying data gaps for assessing data worth to optimize data acquisition. Further, the computed uncertainty provides a way to determine the confidence of achieving adequate safety, margins in engineering design. Beyond design, Data Fusion provides the basis for real time computer monitoring of remediation. Working with the DOE Office of Technology (OTD), the authors have developed and patented a Data Fusion Workstation system that has been used on jobs at the Hanford, Savannah Riv used on jobs at the Hanford, Savannah River, Pantex and Fernald DOE sites. Further, applications include an army depot at Letterkenney, PA and commercial industrial sites

  9. Economic analysis of hydrocarbon exploration by simulation with geological uncertainties (exploratory wells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model was developed to help determine the future development of hydrocarbon reserves. The uncertainties of geological parameters were incorporated into the model in an effort to provide an assessment of the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries that are expected to be recovered as a result of exploration activity. The economic parameters were also incorporated into the model in an effort to determine the economic worth of multiple-wells exploration activity. The first part of this study included the geological parameters in the initial field size distribution and the number of fields distribution. Dry hole data was also considered to reflect the exploration risk. The distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries for a selected number of exploratory wells was determined. The second part of the study included the economic parameters such as the price of oil and gas and the cost of exploration, development and production. The distribution of the number of discoveries and the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries was compared to produce a probability distribution of the net present value of a proposed exploration program. The offshore Nova Scotia Shelf basin was chosen for testing the methodology. Several scenarios involving changes in economic parameters were shown. This methodology could help in determining future development programs for hydrocarbon reserves. The methodology can also help governments in policy making decisions regarding taxes and roya making decisions regarding taxes and royalty regimes for exploration programs

  10. Geology, basin analysis, and hydrocarbon potential of Mozambique and the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Alan E. M.; Lerche, Ian; Iliffe, James E.

    1991-03-01

    The Phanerozoic structural and stratigraphic history of Mozambique can be separated into a "Karoo" and a post-Karoo phase. Outcrops of Karoo rocks, limited to the Zambezi valley and small outliers in the Mozambique belt to the north show an eastward facies change marked by an increased argillaceous content and the appearance of carbonates. The wide coastal plain and immediate offshore of southern Mozambique is marked by extensional horsts and grabens with a Mesozoic fill covered by Cenozoic sediments. Little is known of lower stratigraphic horizons. In this coastal province there is a facies transition from continental clastics in the northwest and west to more lacustrine and marine deposits to the southeast and east. Upwards the succession passes into the Cenozoic without a noticeable break. In the offshore in the north seismic lines help define two basins, the Zambezi Delta basin and the Mozambique Channel basin separated by the Beira High. In the south several offshore grabens have been defined, one of which, the South Mozambique graben, has been examined here by an integrated basin analysis technique. The technique, which uses available depositional, structural and thermal data, provides information on maturation and the timing of hydrocarbon maturation. The analysis showed variation in the extension rate with time, and two phases of rifting. The greatest rate of extension, accumulation and subsidence, between 96 and 76 Ma, depends upon interpretational assumptions. During this time interval fault blocks were systematically tilted "domino" fashion. This event broadly coincides with the rifting between Madagascar and Antarctica, a period of plate reorganization. The earlier rifting phase was probably related to the strike-slip separation of Madagascar from Africa. Modelling heat flow suggests that the later event is the more important from the maturation-hydrocarbon standpoint. The offshore, and potentially the deeper, onshore post-Karoo basins have traps, reservoirs and seals with the presumed source rock within Lower Cretaceous or Jurassic strata. There is, at the present time, no means to evaluate the potential of the Karoo rocks.

  11. Fuzzy Clusterwise Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heungsun; Desarbo, Wayne S.; Takane, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA) was recently introduced by Hwang and Takane (2004) as a component-based approach to path analysis with latent variables. The parameters of GSCA are estimated by pooling data across respondents under the implicit assumption that they all come from a single, homogenous group. However, as has been…

  12. Reactor coolant system structural loading analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes in detail the analytical methods that B and W uses for the structural loading analysis of the reactor coolant system for both normal and abnormal loading conditions. The normal conditions considered in the analysis are deadweight, steady-state hydraulic, and thermal expansion effects; the abnormal conditions are the dynamic effects of earthquakes and postulated pipe ruptures

  13. California Geological Survey: Geologic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    This index provides access to a selection of geologic maps of California, as well as an overview of geologic and other mapping activities in the state. The index, which can be accessed by clicking on an interactive map of the state, contains lists of selected geologic maps in California prepared by the Regional Geologic Mapping Project (RGMP). The RGMP staff monitors the literature and collects references that contain geologic mapping that may be useful for future compilations. In addition, the site has information about Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping, The Mineral Resources and Mineral Hazards Mapping Program, North Coast Watersheds Assessment Program, The Timber Harvesting Plan Enforcement Program, and The Seismic Hazards Mapping Program. A set of links is provided to other sources of geologic maps and map information.

  14. Geological heritage of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The soil and subsoil of Morocco are rich in geological phenomena that bear the imprint of a history that goes back in time more than 2000 million years. Very many sites geologically remarkable exposed in accessible outcrops, with good quality remain unknown to the general public and therefore deserve to be vulgarized. It is a memory to acquaint to the present generations but also to preserve for future generations. In total, a rich geological heritage in many ways: Varied landscapes, international stratotypes, various geological structures, varied rocks, mineral associations, a huge procession of fossiles, remnants of oceanic crust (ophiolites) among oldests ones in the world (800my), etc... For this geological heritage, an approach of an overall inventory is needed, both regionally and nationally, taking into account all the skills of the earth sciences. This will put the item on the natural (geological) potentialities as a lever for sustainable regional development. For this, it is necessary to implement a strategy of ''geoconservation'' for the preservation and assessment of the geological heritage.

  15. Finite element analysis of stresses and deformations occurring in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal canister deposited in a deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The weight reduction design of the PWR SNF disposal canister is presented. • The optimal SNF basket rotation angle to minimize canister weight is sought. • Conventional structural analysis and Kriging method are developed for this purpose. • The optimal SNF basket rotation angle is determined to be 45°. • The canister weight is correspondingly reduced by 16% from 25 tons to 21 tons. -- Abstract: Numerical computer experimental methodologies are investigated for the weight reduction of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal canister designed to be deposited in a Korean deep geological repository from a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Finite element analyses of stresses and deformations occurring inside the cylindrical canister under the deposited conditions are performed to assess its structural strength at various rotation angles (?) of the SNF basket. Specifically, the cross sections of four square tube shaped SNF baskets (assemblies) contained in the canister are rotated. Using a conventional structural analysis and a Kriging method, an optimal rotation angle is determined in relation to canister diameter and weight. Both sets of results are in agreement. It was also determined that the computed deformation changes slightly in relation to variances in rotation angle, while the stress incurred inside the cast iron insert of the canister noticeably changes reaching its highest value at ? = 45° while still maintaining safe structural integrity. It is concluded that the diameter of the canister can be reduced from its original design value (102 cm) to 95.8463 cm resulting in a ?16.0% reduction in canister weight for an optimal rotation angle of 45°

  16. Geologic structure generated by large-impact basin formation observed at the South Pole-Aitken basin on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Makiko; Uemoto, Kisara; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Morota, Tomokatsu; Yamamoto, Satoru; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Haruyama, Junichi; Iwata, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Ishihara, Yoshiaki

    2014-04-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin is the largest clearly recognized basin on the lunar surface. Determining the composition and structure of the SPA basin interior provides critical constraints on the deep crustal and/or mantle composition of the Moon and improves our understanding of large-basin-forming impact processes. Here we present a new mineralogical map of the SPA basin interior, based on high-spatial-resolution reflectance spectra using the SELENE (Kaguya) multiband imager, which is combined with topographic data in order to interpret the geologic context. The derived mineralogical map suggests extensive distribution of ejected low-Ca pyroxene-dominant mantle material with the presence of purest anorthosite crustal materials surrounding a possible melt pool of 0.26 to 0.33 of the basin diameter near the basin center, which is significantly smaller than that suggested by the crater-scaling law. The absence of clear evidence of lower crustal material is consistent with recent impact simulation results.

  17. Structural Analysis of a Tracked Vehicle Hull .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mala

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The hull of a tracked military vehicle is complex in geometry and loading pattern. Analytical studies were carried out using numerically integrated elements for system analysis (NISA, a general finite element programme developed by the Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation (EMRC, USA. Structural changes in the initial design were made to bring deflection within acceptable limits. Dynamic stress levels for the hull structure, were determined from strain gauge measurements. The resultant stresses were obtained adding the static and dynamic values. Finite element analysis was found to be very useful to check the rigidity of the structure at design stage and to suggest suitable design stage and to suggest suitable modifications.

  18. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  19. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Ji?í; ?anda, Zden?k; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron-electron annihilation line of 18F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction 19F(?, n)18F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from 45Ti and 34mCl, whereas those from 44Sc and 89Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10-100 ?g g-1.

  20. Investigation of corrosion and analysis of passive films concerning some nickel alloys and stainless steels in reconstructed geological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis addresses the corrosion behaviour of materials which might be used for the fabrication of radioactive waste containers. After a bibliographical study on films formed on Fe-Cr-Ni alloys, this research concentrates on passivation and de-passivation phenomena of three nickel-base alloys among the most resistant to corrosion and which also meet processing and economic criteria: Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625 and ZICNDU 25-20. Titanium and Ti-Pd alloy are also studied. Parameters governing pitting corrosion are notably studied. After a recall of knowledge on passive films formed on Fe-Cr-Ni alloys, and a presentation of experimental and technical conditions, the author reports and discussed the results obtained by electrochemical studies, reports the determination of factors governing alloy passivation in geological waters. The influence of some soluble impurities is notably studied. The author reports the analysis by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry to determine the composition of passive films with respect to geological water nature, the immersion duration and the electrode potential. Additional surface analyses are performed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS or ESCA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Finally, the author uses a dosing method by neutron radio-activation of alloy elements to determine dissolution mechanisms

  1. Sketch on the structural geology and vulcanism in the Central High Plateau of the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, C. E. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite Program has as an objective the development of tectonic maps for Bolivia. Maps were prepared using the images of ERTS-1 in a preliminary study of alignments observed and rapidly interpreted in images 1010-14033-3-4-5-6-7 on a scale of 1:1,000,000, and later verified on the ground with corresponding fault zones. This information was not shown on existing geologial maps. The ERTS-1 imagery was used in volcanology research for drawing the regional limits of volcanic formations as soon as the alignment and the extent of the volcanoes could be determined. The extensive coverage of ERTS-1 images provides an excellent opportunity for developing studies of regional structures.

  2. Three-dimensional gravity modeling of the geologic structure of Long Valley caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    A 48-mGal gravity low coincides with Long Valley caldera and is mainly attributed to low-density caldera fill. A strong regional gravity trend is mainly attributed to isostasy. A "best fitting' (based on regional control of basement densities) Airy-Heiskanen isostatic model was used for the regional correction. Some important points revealed by the three-dimensional gravity modeling are that 1) the volume of ejected magma associated with the Bishop Tuff eruption is greater than previously thought, 2) the caldera structure is strongly influenced by precaldera topography and the extensions of major, active faults, 3) the main west ring fracture is coincident with the Inyo Domes-Mono Craters fracture system, 4) a relatively low-density region probably underlies the caldera, and 5) a silicic magma chamber may underlie Devils Postpile. -from Author

  3. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

  4. Analysis of flexible fabric structures

    OpenAIRE

    Pimm, Andrew James

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is primarily aimed at carrying out analysis of Energy Bags, reinforced fabric bags used for subsea compressed air energy storage. Subsea compressed air energy storage is a completely new method of large-scale energy storage designed to be integrated with direct-compression offshore wind turbines and wave energy converters. Energy Bags are impermeable bags anchored to the seabed at significant depths (e.g. 500m) in which high pressure air, compressed by specially designed wind tu...

  5. Estimation of uncertainties in a 3D geological model of the Sandstone Greenstone Belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, Florian; Murdie, Ruth; Gessner, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Geological models representing the structure of the subsurface are becoming a regular product of geological surveys. 3-D models combine information from geological field mapping and interpretations of geophysical data, including gravity, aerial magnetic surveys, and seismic and magnetotelluric studies. It is widely accepted that the sparse data at depth and the ambiguity of structural interpretations of geophysical data lead to inherent model uncertainties. The analysis and visualisation of model uncertainties is therefore the scope of current research. We apply here a recently developed method to estimate uncertainties in 3D structural geological models to a model of the Sandstone Greenstone Belt in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. The geological modelling method is based on an implicit potential-field approach in order to handle complex structures in this region, including multiply deformed stratigraphic units and complex fault networks. We then identify uncertainties in relevant geological parameters and apply a random method to sample probable structural model realisations. The ensemble of generated models is then used as a basis for uncertainty investigations. We apply several methods for uncertainty quantification and visualisation, including unit probabilities, stratigraphic distances, and cell information entropies. The analysis shows that it is feasible to use these measures as indications of model uncertainties in 3D visualisations, as well as composite measures of uncertainties on maps. With the range of novel approaches analysing uncertainties in structural geological models, we are optimistic that uncertainty evaluations can form an integral part of future geological modelling products of geological surveys.

  6. Thermal Modeling and Performance Analysis of Interim Dry Storage and Geologic Disposal Facilities for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal models are constructed and analyses are performed of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) in interim dry storage and geologic disposal configurations. Two models are developed, referred to as the interim storage model and the codisposal waste package (WP) model. Time-dependent source terms of Al-SNF forms and the defense high-level waste (DHLW) canisters are also developed for thermal performance analysis of the geologic codisposal WP.The interim storage model is a three-dimensional conduction-convection conjugate model to investigate the natural convection cooling of a sealed dry storage canister with vertical orientation in a dry storage vault. The analysis is made for various decay heat sources (equivalent to 25 to 35 kW/m3) using various boundary conditions around the canister wall and with backfilled nitrogen or helium gas. Based on the data obtained from the Savannah River Site experimental work and available from the literature, an improved dimensionless correlation for the external heat transfer of the canister by the airflow crossing normal to the staggered tubes is developed.The codisposal WP model considers heat transfer driven by conduction and convection processes combined with radiation for the thermal performance study of an enclosed WP containing one Al-SNF canister and five DHLW glass canisters. Two-dimensional analysis for a representative cross-sectional area of the codisposal WP is performed because each component has a larperformed because each component has a large aspect ratio of package length to diameter and the package is laid down horizontally in a drift tunnel repository. The results showed that the codisposal disposition options for the helium- and air-filled WPs satisfied the present waste acceptance criteria for the WP design under the reference conditions

  7. Yellowstone Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellowstone National Park

    This Yellowstone National Park website provides geological information about the Park. Links include geologic highlights, hydrothermal features, reports by park geologists, and scientists' talks (videos). A wide array of information can be found on these links and the webpage is expanding as more topics are added.

  8. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru-Shan Wu; Xiao-Bi Xie

    2008-06-08

    Our proposed work on high resolution/high fidelity seismic imaging focused on three general areas: (1) development of new, more efficient, wave-equation-based propagators and imaging conditions, (2) developments towards amplitude-preserving imaging in the local angle domain, in particular, imaging methods that allow us to estimate the reflection as a function of angle at a layer boundary, and (3) studies of wave inversion for local parameter estimation. In this report we summarize the results and progress we made during the project period. The report is divided into three parts, totaling 10 chapters. The first part is on resolution analysis and its relation to directional illumination analysis. The second part, which is composed of 6 chapters, is on the main theme of our work, the true-reflection imaging. True-reflection imaging is an advanced imaging technology which aims at keeping the image amplitude proportional to the reflection strength of the local reflectors or to obtain the reflection coefficient as function of reflection-angle. There are many factors which may influence the image amplitude, such as geometrical spreading, transmission loss, path absorption, acquisition aperture effect, etc. However, we can group these into two categories: one is the propagator effect (geometric spreading, path losses); the other is the acquisition-aperture effect. We have made significant progress in both categories. We studied the effects of different terms in the true-amplitude one-way propagators, especially the terms including lateral velocity variation of the medium. We also demonstrate the improvements by optimizing the expansion coefficients in different terms. Our research also includes directional illumination analysis for both the one-way propagators and full-wave propagators. We developed the fast acquisition-aperture correction method in the local angle-domain, which is an important element in the true-reflection imaging. Other developments include the super-wide angle one-way propagator and special full-wave reverse-time migration method. Finally, we studied the theoretical basis of true-reflection imaging and bridges imaging and inversion with the theory of diffraction tomography.

  9. Kinematic Analysis of a Hybrid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Q.J.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kinematic analysis and simulation of a hybrid structure applied to the new design cable?suspended feed structure (CSFS for the next generation of large spherical radio telescopes. First, considering the requirement that feeds should be tilted from 40° to 60° and that the tracking precision in steady state is 4mm, a novel design of the feed supporting structure including a cable?cabin structure, an AB axis structure and a Stewart platform is performed. Next, kinematic analysis and the simulation of the CSFS are done. Simulations have been developed in combination with the 50m CSFS model, which demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed three?level cable?suspended feed system.

  10. Groundwater Flow Systems at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada: A Synthesis of Potentiometric Contours, Hydrostratigraphy, and Geologic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-01-01

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the hydraulic-head distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. A map of the hydraulic-head distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped and discussed in general terms as being one of two types: alluvial-volcanic, or carbonate. Both aquifer types are subdivided and mapped as independent regional and local aquifers, based on the continuity of their component rock. Groundwater-flow directions, approximated from potentiometric contours that were developed from the hydraulic-head distribution, are indicated on the maps and discussed for each of the regional aquifers and for selected local aquifers. Hydraulic heads vary across the study area and are interpreted to range in altitude from greater than 5,000 feet in a regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,300 feet in regional alluvial-volcanic and carbonate aquifers in the southwestern part of the study area. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly south-southwest with some local deviations. Vertical hydraulic gradients between aquifer types are downward throughout most of the study area; however, flow from the alluvial-volcanic aquifer into the underlying carbonate aquifer, where both aquifers are present, is believed to be minor because of an intervening confining unit. Limited exchange of water between aquifer types occurs by diffuse flow through the confining unit, by focused flow along fault planes, or by direct flow where the confining unit is locally absent. Interflow between regional aquifers is evaluated and mapped to define major flow paths. These flow paths delineate tributary flow systems, which converge to form intermediate and regional flow systems. The implications of these flow systems in controlling transport of radionuclides away from the underground test areas at the Nevada Test Site are briefly discussed. Additionally, uncertainties in the delineation of aquifers, the development of potentiometric contours, and the identification of flow systems are identified and evaluated. Eleven tributary flow systems and three larger flow systems are mapped in the Nevada Test Site area. Flow systems within the alluvial-volcanic aquifer dominate the western half of the study area, whereas flow systems within the carbonate aquifer are most prevalent in the southeastern half of the study area. Most of the flow in the regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer that moves through the underground testing area on Pahute Mesa is discharged to the land surface at springs and seeps in Oasis Valley. Flow in the regional carbonate aquifer is internally compartmentalized by major geologic structures, primarily thrust faults, which constrain flow into separate corridors. Contaminants that reach the regional carbonate aquifer from testing areas in Yucca and Frenchman Flats flow toward downgradient discharge areas through the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek Ranch or Ash Meadows flow systems and their tributaries.

  11. Groundwater Flow Systems at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada: A Synthesis of Potentiometric Contours, Hydrostratigraphy, and Geologic Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-01-25

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the hydraulic-head distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. A map of the hydraulic-head distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped and discussed in general terms as being one of two types: alluvial-volcanic, or carbonate. Both aquifer types are subdivided and mapped as independent regional and local aquifers, based on the continuity of their component rock. Groundwater-flow directions, approximated from potentiometric contours that were developed from the hydraulic-head distribution, are indicated on the maps and discussed for each of the regional aquifers and for selected local aquifers. Hydraulic heads vary across the study area and are interpreted to range in altitude from greater than 5,000 feet in a regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,300 feet in regional alluvial-volcanic and carbonate aquifers in the southwestern part of the study area. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly south-southwest with some local deviations. Vertical hydraulic gradients between aquifer types are downward throughout most of the study area; however, flow from the alluvial-volcanic aquifer into the underlying carbonate aquifer, where both aquifers are present, is believed to be minor because of an intervening confining unit. Limited exchange of water between aquifer types occurs by diffuse flow through the confining unit, by focused flow along fault planes, or by direct flow where the confining unit is locally absent. Interflow between regional aquifers is evaluated and mapped to define major flow paths. These flow paths delineate tributary flow systems, which converge to form intermediate and regional flow systems. The implications of these flow systems in controlling transport of radionuclides away from the underground test areas at the Nevada Test Site are briefly discussed. Additionally, uncertainties in the delineation of aquifers, the development of potentiometric contours, and the identification of flow systems are identified and evaluated. Eleven tributary flow systems and three larger flow systems are mapped in the Nevada Test Site area. Flow systems within the alluvial-volcanic aquifer dominate the western half of the study area, whereas flow systems within the carbonate aquifer are most prevalent in the southeastern half of the study area. Most of the flow in the regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer that moves through the underground testing area on Pahute Mesa is discharged to the land surface at springs and seeps in Oasis Valley. Flow in the regional carbonate aquifer is internally compartmentalized by major geologic structures, primarily thrust faults, which constrain flow into separate corridors. Contaminants that reach the regional carbonate aquifer from testing areas in Yucca and Frenchman Flats flow toward downgradient discharge areas through the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek Ranch or Ash Meadows flow systems and their tributaries.

  12. Relationship between Permeability, Elastic Moduli and Pore Structure in Porous Geological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    The petrophysical properties of porous media, such as the permeability and the elastic moduli, are essentially controlled by the geometry of the pore space. Enormous amounts of research have been devoted over the past several decades to understanding and quantifying the relationship between pore structure and petrophysical properties (for example, see Zimmerman, Compressibility of Sandstones, 1991; Dullien, Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Pore Structure, 1992; Adler, Porous Media: Geometry and Transports, 1992; Mavko et al., The Rock Physics Handbook, 1998; etc.) Although much is now known in terms of general trends, bounds, etc., the state of knowledge is still such that existing theories can rarely provide accurate numerical estimates of the permeability or bulk modulus of a given rock. To a great extent the problem lies in the fact that micromechanics-based rock physics theories typically utilize idealized pore shapes such as circular, elliptical or triangular cylinders, for which analytical solutions can readily be obtained, whereas actual pores are irregular. In this talk I will describe recent work that utilizes actual pore geometries, as observed in electron micrographs, along with some scaling laws based on the pore areas and perimeters, and simple effective medium approximations, to predict the permeability and elastic moduli of porous sedimentary rocks. The hydraulic conductivity of the individual pores are estimated from the hydraulic radius approximation, which correlates the conductance with area3/perimeter2, with the proportionality constant chosen so as to make the relation exact for a circle. Kirkpatrick's effective medium approximation for networks of conductors is used to upscale the individual pore-scale hydraulic conductivities to yield the core-scale permeability. When applied to several data sets of sandstones and carbonates, with permeabilities ranging from 0.5-1500 milliDarcies, the methodology typically predicts the permeability to within a factor of two. The compressibilities of the individual pores are estimated from a scaling law based on perimeter2/area, with the proportionality constant again found from the known case of a circular tube. The individual pore compressibilities are then averaged, weighted by area, and the differential effective medium approximation is used to convert the mean pore compressibility into the macroscopic bulk modulus. This methodology has been applied to Berea and Fontainebleau sandstone, and typically predicts the bulk modulus to within about 10%.

  13. Analysis of MELCOR code structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MELCOR executes in two parts. The first is a MELGEN program, in which most of the input is specified, processed, and checked. The second part of MELCOR is the MELCOR program itself, which advances the program through time based on the database generated by MELGEN and any additional MELCOR input. In particular, MELCOR execution involves two steps: (1) a setup mode in MEXSET, during which the database is read from the restart file and any additional input is processed, and (2) a run mode in MEXRUN, which advances the simulation through time, updating the time-dependent portion of the database each cycle. MELGEN and MELCOR share a structured and modular architecture that facilitates the incorporation of additional or altenative phenomenological modes. This structure consists of four primary levels: executive level, database manager routine level, package level, and utility level. MELCOR is composed of 24 different packages, each of which models a different portion of the accident phenomenology or program control. To identify the relation of the MELCOR subroutines with the packages, first two or three letters of the package's name are duplicated in the name of the subroutines. The same rule applies to the naming of the common block. Data flows and the specific subroutines in the MELGEN and MELCOR are analyzed by their functions according to the hierarchy of four levels for model improvement and replacement during the integral code development project

  14. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for determination of Au, Ag, Pt and Pd in geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for separation of Au, Ag, Pt, and Pd in geological samples has been developed. After irradiation, samples were fused with Na2O2 and silver was separated by filtering through a PbCl2 filter in 4M nitric acid solution. Au, Pt and Pd were concentrated with rhodium and thiourea as rhodium sulfide and the separation process of these elements was carried out by a chromatographic method. Au, Pt and Pd were retained on a Dowex-1x8 anion column in 1M HCl. Pd was eluted from the column by using a mixture of 75% HCl acid - 25% acetone. Au was eluted by using a mixture of 10% HCl - 90% acetone. In the gold fraction, Pt was also determined through the photopeak of 199Au radionuclide (158 keV). The method was simple and rapid. (author) 4 refs.; 2 tabs

  15. ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS USING METALLIC NANOSHELLED STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Kumari and S.C. Jha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the metallic nanoshelled structures with rigorous electromagnetic analysis. Two metallic nanoshelled structures are investigated; namely, single nano-shelled cylinder, and nano-shelled photonic crystals. A rigorous Maxwell’s equations solver is used to get insights into the optical properties of the structures. Our numerical simulations show that it is difficult to shift the plasmon resonance to long wavelength in such a structure. Flat bands are found in the metallic nanoshelled photonic crystals when the lattice constants are much smaller than the operating wavelength.

  16. Geological structure impact on the exchange between fractures and matrix for the fractured porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractured porous media are characterized by the presence of fractures at several scales with heterogeneous properties implying areas highly permeable by comparison with the rock. Hydraulically, these media are characterized by short reaction times, due to the fractures, and long reaction times, due to the rock. These media are important for several topics as contaminated sites, element storage and resources exploitation. The main challenge of fracture porous media modeling is the representation of the geometrical and physical heterogeneities. As an exact representation of the medium is not possible, it is necessary to determine the key properties of the medium. This study aims at determining the impact of the geometrical and physical properties of the fractures and the matrix from the local to the global scales. A first part consists in creating methods to evaluate structure effects on the exchange between the fractures and the matrix and a second part consists in using these methods on several media. Finally, we describe a new discrete dual-porosity model taking into account the properties of the media characterizing its behavior. (author)

  17. Geology and structural evolution of the Muruntau gold deposit, Kyzylkum desert, Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Berger, B.R.; Kurbanov, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    The Muruntau gold deposit in the Kyzylkum desert of Uzbekistan is the largest single deposit (??? 1100 tonnes of gold) of the class of low-sulfide syndeformation/synigenous gold deposits formed in the brittle/ductile transition zone of the crust within transpressional shear zones. Hosted by the Cambrian to Ordovician Besopan Suite, the ores were deposited in pre-existing thrust-fault- and metamorphism-related permeabilities and in synmineralization dilational zones created in a large fault-related fold. The Besopan Suite is a 5,000-m-thick sequence of turbiditic siltstones, shales and sandstones. The ore is primarily localized at the base of the Besopan-3 unit, which is a 2,000-m-thick series of carbonaceous shales, siltstones, sandstones and cherts. Initial gold deposition took place within the Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear zone, which was developed along the stratigraphic contact between the Besopan-3 and Besopan-4 units. During the mineralization process, folding of the Besopan Suite and a left-step adjustment in the Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear zone were caused by two concurrent events: (1) the activation of the left-lateral Muruntau-Daugyztau shear zone that developed at nearly a 90?? angle to the preceding shear zone and (2) the intrusion of granitoid plutons. These structural events also resulted in the refocusing of hydrothermal fluid flow into new zones of permeability.

  18. The regional geological and structural setting of the uraniferous granitic provinces of Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium-bearing granites, comprising both potentially economic deposits and source rocks for uranium deposits is duricrustal and sedimentary sequences, are confined chiefly to the mobile belts of Southern Africa and to the Cape granites emplaced during late Precambrian times. The direct uranium potential of the mobile belts, i.e. the Damara, Namaqua-Natal and Limpopo belts, decreases with an increase in the age of associated ensialic diastrophism. This review paper is thus mainly confined to the Damara Belt, although a brief discussion of the potential of the Namaqua Belt is presented. Aspects of the Damara Belt that are discussed in detail, with particular reference to the occurrence of uraniferous granite, include regional tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, metamorphism and the patterns and origin of the uranium mineralization. Initial concentrations of uranium in basement and Nosib rocks have led, through ultrametamorphism and fractionation, to uraniferous granites of both economic and sub-economic grade. These granites, in turn, have acted as source of secondary mineralization in overlying superficial calcareous and gypsiferous deposits. The Damara Belt thus provides a good example of multicyclic processes of ore formation. With regard to the uraniferous granites of Namaqualand it is concluded that the porphyroblastic gneisses and late-intrusive Concordia granites, although not of direct economic interest, represent major sources of uranium for secondary superficial deposits. Smaller bodies of late-phase differentiates associated with the Concordia granitic gneiss may themselves, however, represent potentially economically viable deposits

  19. Geologic mapping using integrated AIRSAR, AVIRIS, and TIMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    1993-01-01

    The multi-sensor aircraft campaign called the 'Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment' (GRSFE), conducted during 1989 in the southwestern United States, collected multiple airborne remote sensing data sets and associated field and laboratory measurements. The GRSFE airborne data sets used in this study include the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS). Each sensor's unique characteristics were used for this study in a combined analysis scheme for geologic mapping. AIRSAR was used to map structures and landforms, AVIRIS was used to map mineralogy, and TIMS was used to map lithology. Visual data integration using IHS transforms and combined numerical analysis using derived geophysical and geologic parameters with 'multispectral' techniques resulted in improved geologic mapping over that possible using each data set individually.

  20. Timan-Pechora petroliferous province: Geological structure, scale of generation and accumulation of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belonin, M.D.; Bogatsky, V.J.; Shimansky, O.M.; Kovalenko, V.S.; Tarasov, P.P.; Yaralov, B.A.; Prischepa, O.M. (Ministry of Geology, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-08-01

    The Timas-Pechora petroliferous province (TPP) is a marginal system of the East Europe platform and includes the Pechora plate and Pre-Ural depression. It contains alternative mobil and stable blocks which determine the tectonic and oil and gas regions for six petroliferous complexes (PGC) in the sedimentary cover. Six petroliferous regions are in TPP. The regions consists of areas as well as zones of oil and gas generation and accumulation. A wide stratigraphic and lithological spectrum (from Ordovician to Triassic) of commercial, multizone oil and gas general and accumulation is in every region in carbonate and terrigenous reservoirs with depths ranging from 500-600 m to 5 km and more. The generation potential of TPP was determined by comparative analysis of geochemical indices of humic and sapropel organic matter with simultaneous determination of catagenesis grade of rocks and organic matter. The main zones of oil generation (with lower limits 3.5-5.3 km for different PGCs) and gas generation also was determined. The areas of oil and gas generation and accumulation were separated on the basis of production-genetic indexes as well as by generation potential. Accumulative possibilities of natural reservoirs in different kinds of traps were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively.

  1. THE STRUCTURED MODEL FOR FUNCTION ALLOCATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNG-GYUN OH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For successful function allocation analysis, there is a need for collaboration of all stakeholders affected by the life cycle of the system. This Article presents the structured design model that can support the functional analysis activities of multidisciplinary team and their communication. We created the human task and system functional model by using the Design Structure Matrix. Also, by using this model, we built the automation model supporting the human perception, decision and Action. For the efficiency of analysis activities, we ensured convertibility with the IDEF-0, the conventional system design modeling language. To validate the effectiveness of the analysis activities using this model, we applied the analysis activities to specific task for safety personnel among the subway station fire response scenarios. Based on the results, we defined the automation function of safety personnel’s task.

  2. Geology of drill hole USW VH-2, and structure of Crater Flat, southwestern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1219 meter (4000 ft) drill hole in Crater Flat shows the absence of buried Pliocene or Quaternary volcanic rocks, and penetrates a section of Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, and the upper part of the Crater Flat Tuffs, similar to that exposed adjacent to Crater Flat. A prominent negative aeromagnetic anomaly between the drill hole and Bare Mountain is attributed to a westward thickening section of a reversely magnetized Miocene basalt. The relatively shallow depth of this basalt in the west-central part of Crater Flat indicates that no large amount of tectonic movement has occurred in approximately the last 10 m.y. Massive brecciated wedges of Paleozoic rocks are penetrated in two stratigraphic intervals in the drill hole; the older one, between the Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff, correlates with the time of maximum faulting east of Crater Flat in the Yucca Mountain area. The younger slide masses are correlated with a large slide block of probable late Miocene age exposed along the southwestern rim of Crater Flat. The structural pattern and style buried beneath central and western Crater Flat is deduced to be similar to that exposed at Yucca Mountain, but less developed. The major fault system controlling the steep east face of Bare Mountain, though probably still active, is believed to have developed mainly as a result of caldera collapse between 13 and 14 m.y. ago. Relations between faulting and four ago. Relations between faulting and four episodes of basalt eruption in the Crater Flat area strongly suggest contemporaneity of the two processes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. The geologic character of nappe structure and its relation to uranium mineralization of Xiangshan ore-field in the middle of Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Started with the spatial distribution of nappe structure, the geologic features are discussed and its effect on uranium mineralization in systematically summarized for Xiangshan ore-field in the middle of Jiangxi Province. The nappe structure not only formed a 'cross-over' lithologic combination which creates a network system which can connect, transport, migrate the mineralized matter, but also formed some close or semi-close geologic setting beneath the nappe which can act as the store ore shield space for the mineralized liquid to form uranium deposit. The mineralization is concentrated at the varied place of occurrences or shape of sub-volcanic rocks and the intersection of concealed overthrust and NE strike basic fractures. (authors)

  4. Structural Analysis Of Offshore Structures Exposed To Blast Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Jakup; Thygesen, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Numerical methods for simulations of blast loads and resulting structural response are investigated and compared to results obtained from tests. The CFD code EXSIM is used for the simulation of the blast load. This code provides a load profile wich is entered in the FEM analysis model.

  5. Thermal-Structural Analysis of Sunshield Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John; Parrish, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Future large infrared space telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), will require deployable sunshields to provide passive cooling for optics and instruments. Deployable sunshield structures for such applications typically consist of multiple thin-film membrane layers supported by deployable booms. The mechanical design of the sunshield must accommodate thermal strains due to layer-to-layer temperature differences as well as potentially large in-plane temperature gradients within individual film layers. This paper describes a thermal-structural analysis for predicting the stress state in a thin-film membrane subject to both mechanical thermal loads that could aid in the mechanical design of future sunshield structures. First the temperature field predicted by a thermal analysis is mapped to a structural finite element model, and then the structural response is predicted using a nonlinear static analysis. The structural model uses membrane elements in conjunction with a tension field material model to predict the response of the thin-film membrane layer. The tension field material model accounts for no-compression behavior associated with wrinkling and slackness. This approach was used to study the problem of a single membrane layer from the NASA reference concept for the JWST sunshield. Results from the analysis show that the membrane can experience a loss of tensile preload due to the presence of an in-plane temperature gradient representative of the cold-side layer temperature distribution predicted for the reference concept JWST.

  6. Neutron activation analysis of multiple large geological samples by in-pool irradiation using a SLOWPOKE-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis technique has been developed for the determination of As, Au, Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Sb, Ta, Th, U, W and Zn in large (10-15 g) geological samples using in-pool irradiation with a SLOWPOKE-2 reactor. The technique allows for the simultaneous irradiation of multiple samples using a neutron flux of between 4*1013 and 8*1013 n*m-2*s-1. The detection limits obtained using the analytical methodology described in this paper are acceptable for exploration geochemistry and technique has been used to analyze samples collected as part of a metallic minerals survey of Jamaica. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  7. Nuclear probes in geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study and understanding of the structure and evolution of the earth and its cosmic environment many different parameters are of importance and among these the measurement of elemental concentrations plays a major role. It is here in the disciplines of geochemistry and cosmochemistry that nuclear probes have undoubtedly made their major contribution. In fact among the earliest applications of neutron activation analysis, the most widely used and successful nuclear analytical method, were the determination of trace elements in meteorites. Today there are a large number of different nuclear methods, diverse both in type and in application. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, because of its capabilities for multi-element trace analyses has been applied to establish trace element patterns characteristic of particular geological formations. It has also been applied in a multitude of other problems; in the study of phenocryst-matrix partition functions, differentiation, metamorphism, lunar geology, geochemical prospecting, ore evaluation, and the assay of samples. Other areas where nuclear methods have had an impact, include isotope geochemistry, age determinations and mineralogy. All of these methods have particular properties which have enabled them to make significant contributions in the understanding of geological problems and they promise to enjoy a rapid increase in use in the future. The topics concerned are many and the number of publications is legion and the number of publications is legion and a comprehensive review will not be attempted. Some of the characteristics of the nuclear methods are however described and some specific examples of applications are given, in an attempt to illustrate how the use of these methods has been able to contribute materially to our understanding of geology, taken in a broad sense

  8. San Rafael, Peru: geology and structure of the worlds richest tin lode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczyk, Michael S. J.; Sherlock, Ross L.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2003-08-01

    The San Rafael mine exploits an unusually high grade, lode-type Sn-Cu deposit in the Eastern Cordillera of the Peruvian Central Andes. The lode is centered on a shallow-level, Late Oligocene granitoid stock, which was emplaced into early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. It has a known vertical extent exceeding 1,200 m and displays marked vertical primary metal zoning, with copper overlying tin. The tin mineralization occurs mainly as cassiterite-quartz-chlorite veins and as cassiterite in breccias. The bulk of it is hosted by a K-feldspar megacrystic, biotite- and cordierite-bearing leucomonzogranite, which is the most distinctive phase of the pluton. Copper mineralization occurs predominantly in the veins that straddle the metasedimentary rock-intrusion contact or are hosted entirely by slates. Both tin and copper mineralization are associated with strong chloritic alteration, which is superimposed on an earlier episode of sericitization and tourmaline-quartz veining. Based on the distribution of alteration and ore mineralogy, cassiterite deposition and subsequent chalcopyrite precipitation are believed to have been the result of a single, prolonged hydrothermal event. The source of the metals is inferred to be a highly evolved, peraluminous magma, related to the leucomonzogranitic phase of the San Rafael pluton. Preliminary fluid inclusion microthermometry suggests that ore deposition took place during the mixing of moderate and low salinity fluids, which were introduced in a series of pulses. Several large fault-jogs, created by sinistral-normal, strike-slip movement, are interpreted to have focused synkinematic magmatic fluids and permitted their effective mixing with meteoric waters. It is proposed that this mixing led to rapid oxidation of Sn (II) chloride species and caused supersaturation of the fluids in cassiterite, resulting in the development of localized, high-grade ore shoots. A favorable structural regime that promoted large-scale mixing of two fluids originating under very different physico-chemical conditions appears to have been the key factor responsible for the unusual richness of the deposit.

  9. Sloshing analysis method using existing FEM structural analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical analysis method for acoustic field solutions to fluid-structure interaction problems has been successfully developed and applied to many problems. In the method, the small dynamic motion of compressible fluid can be analyzed by using a structural analysis code based on the finite-element displacement method using an analogy relating the scalar wave equation to elasticity ones, where compressible fluid is represented by using structural finite elements with pressure as the unknown nodal point variable. In this paper, the idea is applied to linear sloshing analysis. Theoretical consideration shows that the present method is equivalent to the conventional finite-element formulation based on the linear potential theory. The results of numerical analysis of liquid sloshing in a cubic tank and of fluid vibration in a U-tube under gravitational force are shown to be in excellent agreement with the theoretical values. (author)

  10. Sedimentary Basins of the Republic of Yemen : Their Structural Evolution and Geological Characteristics Evolution structurelle et caractéristiques géologiques des bassins sédimentaires de la république du Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Beydoun Z. R.; As-Saruri M. L.; Baraba R. S.

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and evolution of the sedimentary basins of Yemen was, until recently, poorly understood as this was based entirely on surface geology and correlations of the older stratigraphic units which were exposed only in the deeply dissected bordering uplifts of the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea or the high plateau of the north west. Elsewhere cover by the tabular Tertiary sedimentary blanket and the Tertiary Volcanic Group lavas masked the major underlying pre-Cenozoic structural elements ...

  11. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R. (INEEL); Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K. (SNL); Rath, J.S. (New Mexico Engineering Research Institute)

    1998-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  12. Methodological aspects and development of techniques for neutron activation analysis of microcomponents in materials of geologic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the activation analysis methodology applied to geological samples activated in nuclear reactors were studied, and techniques were developed for the determination of various elements in different types of matrixes, using gamma spectrometry for the measurement of the products. The consideration of the methodological aspects includes the study of the working conditions, the preparation of samples and standards, irradiations, treatment of the irradiated material, radiochemical separation and measurement. Experiments were carried out on reproducibility and errors in relation to the behaviour of the measurement equipment and that of the methods of area calculation (total area, Covell and Wasson), as well as on the effects of geometry variations on the results of the measurements, the RA-3 reactors's flux variations, and the homogeneity of the samples and standards. Also studied were: the selection of the conditions of determination, including the irradiation and decay times; the irradiation with thermal and epithermal neutrons; the measurement with the use of absorbers, and the resolution of complex peaks. Both non-destructive and radiochemical separation techniques were developed for the analysis of 5 types of geological materials. These methods were applied to the following determinations: a) In, Cd, Mn, Ga and Co in blende; b) La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in fluorites; c) La, Ca, Eu, Tb, Yb, Se and Th in barites and celestites; d) Cu and Zn in soils. The spectral interferences or those due to nuclear reactions were studied and evaluated by mathematical calculation. (M.E.L.)

  13. Structural Design and Analysis of Mounting Structure for Flight Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalla Shirley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The project deals with the structural design and analysis of mounting structure for assembling of electronic packages in a flight vehicle section. The flight vehicle consists of various sections assembled to form an integrated vehicle. Different types of electronic packages to meet the requirements are assembled in different flight vehicle sections based on the flight vehicle configuration. One such type of flight vehicle section needs to be assembled with different electronic packages. The packages have to be rigidly mounted on a mounting structure in the flight vehicle section. The launch of a flight vehicle can be one of the most rigorous loads environments for which to design hardware. The high random vibration loads imparted on vehicle by the electronic packages during launch create an adverse design requirement that all hardware have a natural frequency greater than that of the vehicle, in order to avoid damage and failure due to dynamic coupling. Maximizing natural frequency is generally accomplished by creating as stiff and lightweight a design as possible. However, designing for the resultant high loads also requires a high strength intermediate structure for mounting the various components and subassemblies to the vehicle structure. These two opposing design requirements drive an optimization between a lightweight and high strength structure. The project comprises of design and analysis of the mounting structure. The mounting structure has to be designed to withstand the loads generated by the electronic packages. It also includes the design of mounting plate and brackets to withstand the given loads using CAD and CAE tools. Unigraphics software is used for modeling the flight vehicle section, packages and the mounting plate with brackets. The mounting plate and brackets are imported to ANSYS software for structural analysis. The mounting plate with brackets is applied with specified loads in different flight conditions like Pitch, Yaw and Roll moments. A finite element model was created to manually iterate several aspects of the design, such as geometric characteristics like thicknesses and fillet radii, to analyze the effects on weight and stress and converge on a successful design .The project elucides in detail the methodology adopted for the analysis of mounting structures for flight vehicles.

  14. Airborne magnetometry and gamma spectrometry applied to the geological characterization of the Juruena - Teles Pires - Mato Grosso State (Brazil) structural high; Magnetometria e gamaespectrometria aerotransportadas aplicadas a caracterizacao geologica do alto estrutural Juruena - Teles Pires - MT (Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parro, P.S.; Moraes, R.A.V. de; Pires, A.C.B. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geofisica Aplicada

    1999-07-01

    Extensive geophysical data processing of magnetic and gamma-ray spectrometric data from the Jurena - Teles Pires airborne survey supplied information supporting geologic interpretation of the area. In integrated map, obtained from a qualitative analysis of the geophysical information, brought new insight to the geological knowledge of this gold province. (author)

  15. Dynamic Analysis of Structures Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, neural networks are considered as the best candidate for fast approximation with arbitrary accuracy in the time consuming problems. Dynamic analysis of structures against earthquake has the time consuming process. We employed two kinds of neural networks: Generalized Regression neural network (GR and Back-Propagation Wavenet neural network (BPW, for approximating of dynamic time history response of frame structures. GR is a traditional radial basis function neural network while BPW categorized as a wavelet neural network. In BPW, sigmoid activation functions of hidden layer neurons are substituted with wavelets and weights training are achieved using Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG algorithm. Comparison the results of BPW with those of GR in the dynamic analysis of eight story steel frame indicates that accuracy of the properly trained BPW was better than that of GR and therefore, BPW can be efficiently used for approximate dynamic analysis of structures.

  16. Value of Information Analysis in Structural Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    Pre-posterior analysis can be used to assess the potential of an experiment to enhance decision making by providing information on parameters characterized by uncertainty. The present paper describes a framework for pre-posterior analysis for support of decisions related to maintenance of structural systems. In this context, experiments may refer to inspections or techniques of structural health monitoring. The Value of Information concept provides a powerful tool for determining whether the experimental cost is justified by the expected benefit and for identifying the optimal among different possible experimental schemes. This concept is elaborated through principal examples for structural components and system models. Sensitivity analyses are performed to investigate how the decision problem is influenced by the level of uncertainty that characterizes the structural properties, the amount and quality of information and the probabilistic dependencies between components of a system.

  17. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, D. F. [Paul C. Kizzo and Associates Inc., Seismic Structural Group, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Razavi, H. [AREVA Inc., Civil Seismic Group, San Jose, CA 95119 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  18. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  19. Soil structure interaction analysis by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a contribution to the continued discussion on appropriate methods for seismic soil-structure interaction analysis. A circular PWR-building is analized using a plane strain finite element model, an axisymmetric finite element model, and a lumped parameter model. The structure weighs 1600 MN, it is about 65 meters high, 60 meters in diameter, and very stiff. It is founded 18 meters below the ground surface on alluvial deposits which are several hundred meters thick. (orig.)

  20. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs for the protocol. All along this process, we discover vulnerabilities and unstated assumptions of the protocol. As the method is intuition based, the quality of results depends on the expertise of the ...

  1. RNA Secondary Structure Analysis Using RNAstructure

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, David H.

    2006-01-01

    RNAstructure is a user-friendly program for the prediction and analysis of RNA secondary structure. It is available as a web server, as a program with a graphical user interface, or as a set of command line tools. The programs are available for Microsoft Windows, Macintosh OS X, or Linux. This unit provides protocols for RNA secondary structure prediction (using the web server or the graphical user interface) and prediction of high affinity oligonucleotide biding sites to a ...

  2. Plastic analysis of concrete containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overpressure capacity of a box type concrete containment structure is evaluated. Plastic analysis of the finite element model is performed using a quadrilateral plate element of homogeneous material. A special approach is used to represent nonlinear properties of reinforced concrete, such as concrete cracking and crushing and steel yielding. Those properties are represented by a set of idealized stress-strain curves of equivalent homogeneous sections. The analysis allows for a better estimate of the overpressure capacity of the containment structure while keeping the computer cost low by avoiding the use of the more expensive reinforced concrete brick element

  3. Data structures and algorithm analysis in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Shaffer, Clifford A

    2012-01-01

    With its focus on creating efficient data structures and algorithms, this comprehensive text helps readers understand how to select or design the tools that will best solve specific problems. It uses Java as the programming language and is suitable for second-year data structure courses and computer science courses in algorithm analysis. Techniques for representing data are presented within the context of assessing costs and benefits, promoting an understanding of the principles of algorithm analysis and the effects of a chosen physical medium. The text also explores tradeoff issues, familiari

  4. Data structures and algorithm analysis in C++

    CERN Document Server

    Shaffer, Clifford A

    2012-01-01

    With its focus on creating efficient data structures and algorithms, this comprehensive text helps readers understand how to select or design the tools that will best solve specific problems. It uses Microsoft C++ as the programming language and is suitable for second-year data structure courses and computer science courses in algorithm analysis.Techniques for representing data are presented within the context of assessing costs and benefits, promoting an understanding of the principles of algorithm analysis and the effects of a chosen physical medium. The text also explores tradeoff issues, f

  5. Long term climate change and a deep geological repository in the Canadian Shield: issues and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past million years of Earth history, the Canadian Shield has experienced a continuous process of glaciation and deglaciation, events that have significantly altered the landscape of the northern half of the North American continent. This sequence of events, ultimately due to small changes in received solar radiation due to the influence of gravitational many body effects upon the earths orbit around the sun, should they continue, constitute an important phenomena with respect to developing an understanding of groundwater flow system evolution in Shield terrain as it may influence the long-term performance of a Deep Geologic Repository for used nuclear fuel. In this paper a description is provided of the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model, which is being applied to yield geophysically constrained predictions of the last Laurentide (North American) glacial event. In particular, the GSM is providing unique insight into the time rate of change, magnitude and uncertainty of surface boundary conditions and permafrost occurrence at a hypothetical Shield repository site. These predictive estimates of boreal, peri-glacial and ice-sheet history are offering an innovative and reasoned basis to explore flow system characteristics and attributes that govern hydrodynamic and geochemical stability within deep-seated Shield flow domains. (author)

  6. Limit analysis of solid reinforced concrete structures

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Semidefinite Programming (SDP) can be used effectively for limit analysis of isotropic cohesive-frictional continuums using the classical Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion. In this paper we expand on this previous research by adding reinforcement to the model and a solid element for lower bound analysis of reinforced concrete structures is presented. The method defines the stress state at a point within the solid as a combination of concrete- and reinforcement stress...

  7. The structurally-controlled rockslide of Barmasse (Valais, Switzerland): structural geology, ground-based monitoring and displacement vs. rainfall modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, C.; Abellan, A.; Baillifard, F.-J.; Demierre, J.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Jakubowski, J.; May-Delasoie, F.

    2012-04-01

    In this communication, we show a case study on the Barmasse rockslide (Val de Bagnes, Valais, Switzerland), which is an active structurally-controlled instability that threaten roads and inhabitants. The entire slope is included within the Middle Penninic unit. According to regional tectonic stresses, the micaschists that compose the instability have been intensively deformed and metamorphised leading to an important foliation and fracturing. Structural settings have been extracted from 3D points-clouds of the crown area. These datasets were acquired with a terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) and processed with Coltop-3D software. The landslide can be defined as a complex instability, with a continuous movement on a basal surface. This deformation also generates a frequent rockfall activity in the upper part of the slope. The landslide was monitoring using different remote sensing techniques (TLS, GNSS and GB-InSAR): a) regarding TLS measurements, we monitored long term 3D displacements comparing two different TLS points clouds acquired in 2009 and 2011, showing more than 3 m displacements in two years in the upper part of the slope (crown area); b) differential GNSS measures were obtained at the toe of the slide, validating TLS measurements in those areas were vegetation hampered remote sensing measurement; c) finally the landslide was also monitored by a GB-InSAR in order to investigate short term displacements. The experiment was carried out during summer 2011, recording displacement rates exceeding 7 mm in 12 h in the main scarp, and confirmed the high amplitude of daily displacements. We are also continuously recording landslide displacements at a daily rate over the most active part of the slope using one crackmeter. The kinematics of the landslide is characterized by a continuous displacement (3rd creep state) which is clearly controlled by external forces (rainfall episodes): on the one side, landslide velocity sharply increases it value after rainfall episodes; on the other side, landslide velocity is progressively reduced during dry periods, tending to a horizontal asymptote of null displacement. In order to model landslide kinematics, we obtained a response function that reproduces the landslide displacements based on a convolution of daily precipitation during a certain time window (50 days in this case study). Two different response functions following exponential and power laws were tested. The variables of these functions were optimized in Matlab in order to minimize the error between the real and the modeled displacements. The hydrological model shows close resemblance to reality during the calibration period (2007-2008) and is able to forecast landslide displacements during subsequent years. Using both kinematic settings and hydrological approach enables to forecast future displacements according to weather conditions and to establish threshold values a possible early warning system of the Barmasse rockslide.

  8. Digital Geologic Map of New Mexico - Formations

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The geologic map was created in GSMAP at Socorro, New Mexico by Orin Anderson and Glen Jones and published as the Geologic Map of New Mexico 1:500,000 in GSMAP...

  9. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis of geological samples for rare earths using internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Instrumental neutron-activation analysis os one of a few modern analytical techniques, being applied to solve difficult analytical tasks, such as mineral resources analysis for rare earth element content. No other analytical technique can be used with the latter end in view, since Instrumental neutron-activation analysis is possessed of the highest precision among them. In order to check experimentally the stated approach to REE content calculation by the internal standard method, relative bias values of this approach should be estimated. This approach will be verified further with a number of different rock samples simultaneously analyzed by an instrumental neutron-activation analysis certified analytical technique

  10. Structural Analysis of a Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim Schroeder

    This project applies basic geologic skills to the development of an alternative energy project. The project starts with an interpretation of the basic geology of the site, which is a simplified geologic map of the Front Range structures near Golden, CO. Students are required to construct a cross section and determine the depth of an initial bore hole. They then analyze stresses in that hole for hydrofracturing, and predict the geometry of produced fractures. The final part of the project is to perform three point problems to calculate the depth that the fractures will be encountered at two additional boreholes. There is also a writing component to the project in the reporting of results.

  11. Experimental modal analysis. [for vibrating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemang, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental modal analysis is extremely important with regard to verification of analytical models, identification of vibration and acoustic problems, and structural modification and sensitivity analysis. With the expanding access of the testing environment to computational power, the complexity of existing approaches, as well as the development of new approaches, to the estimation of modal parameters has grown tremendously. Currently, the state of the art in experimental modal analysis involves methods that can be grouped in four categories: forced normal mode excitation method, frequency response function method, damped complex exponential function method, and mathematical input-output model methods. The theoretical basis of each of these general approaches, with appropriate references, is reviewed briefly.

  12. Engineering geologic and geotechnical analysis of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects: Field examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R.A.; Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The greatest impediments to the widespread acceptance of back-calculated ground motion characteristics from paleoliquefaction studies typically stem from three uncertainties: (1) the significance of changes in the geotechnical properties of post-liquefied sediments (e.g., "aging" and density changes), (2) the selection of appropriate geotechnical soil indices from individual paleoliquefaction sites, and (3) the methodology for integration of back-calculated results of strength of shaking from individual paleoliquefaction sites into a regional assessment of paleoseismic strength of shaking. Presented herein are two case studies that illustrate the methods outlined by Olson et al. [Engineering Geology, this issue] for addressing these uncertainties. The first case study is for a site near Memphis, Tennessee, wherein cone penetration test data from side-by-side locations, one of liquefaction and the other of no liquefaction, are used to readily discern that the influence of post-liquefaction "aging" and density changes on the measured in situ soil indices is minimal. In the second case study, 12 sites that are at scattered locations in the Wabash Valley and that exhibit paleoliquefaction features are analyzed. The features are first provisionally attributed to the Vincennes Earthquake, which occurred around 6100 years BP, and are used to illustrate our proposed approach for selecting representative soil indices of the liquefied sediments. These indices are used in back-calculating the strength of shaking at the individual sites, the results from which are then incorporated into a regional assessment of the moment magnitude, M, of the Vincennes Earthquake. The regional assessment validated the provisional assumption that the paleoliquefaction features at the scattered sites were induced by the Vincennes Earthquake, in the main, which was determined to have M ??? 7.5. The uncertainties and assumptions used in the assessment are discussed in detail. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Appendix P: analysis of geological and geophysical data in selected areas of the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1979 we initiated a comprehensive assessment of existing marine geological and geophysical data for the northwest Pacific (PAC 1; 200 to 500N; 1450 to 1800E). The purpose of these studies is to locate, if possible, several 10 x 10 (latitude x longitude) areas which may qualify as candidate waste-disposal sites. Some of these 10 x 10 sites will then be surveyed in detail on future cruises. We have examined all 3.5 and 12 kHz echogram data through the PAC 1 area contained in the Lamont-Doherty, Scripps, and Univ. of Hawaii echogram libraries. These data comprise the vast majority of data that exist for the northwest Pacific. Using these data we were able to classify and map the distribution of various types of microtopography and acoustic reflectivity (echo character) throughout the PAC 1 area. These studies revealed (1) the nature of stratification in the upper 25 to 100 m of the sea floor; (2) nature of the microtopography of the sea floor and areal distribution of basement outcrops; (3) locations of areas affected by bottom currents and mass-wasting process. We have also compiled and evaluated all D.S.D.P. drilling information and L-DGO piston core, bottom camera, heat-flow, sonobuoy, and low frequency seismic-reflection data for the PAC 1 area. We are continuing to compile additional acoustic and station data from other sources including US Navy, NOAA, Japan, and N.G.S.D.Cluding US Navy, NOAA, Japan, and N.G.S.D.C., DMA. Our studies in the PAC 1 area to date have enabled us to locate at least 10 10 x 10 areas which appear to be potentially suitable sites for further waste disposal studies. Three of these potential sites will be surveyed in detail on an upcoming VEMA cruise in spring 1980. Remaining areas will be surveyed during future cruises

  14. Principal component analysis within nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Sayed, A

    2015-01-01

    The principal component analysis (PCA) of different parameters affecting collectivity of nuclei predicted to be candidate of the interacting boson model dynamical symmetries are performed. The results show that, the use of PCA within nuclear structure can give us a simple way to identify collectivity together with the parameters simultaneously affecting it.

  15. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs for the protocol. All along this process, we discover vulnerabilities and unstated assumptions of the protocol. As the method is intuition based, the quality of results depends on the expertise of the security analyst, however, the structured intuition has two major advantages: Firstly we get a precise specification of security in terms of FLAGs; and secondly the outcome can be used to transform basic protocol narrations into more detailed specifications, which makes a subsequent formal analysis much more meaningful.

  16. Structural reliability analysis and seismic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a reliability analysis method for safety evaluation of nuclear structures. By utilizing this method, it is possible to estimate the limit state probability in the lifetime of structures and to generate analytically the fragility curves for PRA studies. The earthquake ground acceleration, in this approach, is represented by a segment of stationary Gaussian process with a zero mean and a Kanai-Tajimi Spectrum. All possible seismic hazard at a site represented by a hazard curve is also taken into consideration. Furthermore, the limit state of a structure is analytically defined and the corresponding limit state surface is then established. Finally, the fragility curve is generated and the limit state probability is evaluated. In this paper, using a realistic reinforced concrete containment as an example, results of the reliability analysis of the containment subjected to dead load, live load and ground earthquake acceleration are presented and a fragility curve for PRA studies is also constructed

  17. Shape analysis of simulated breast anatomical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contijoch, Francisco; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2012-03-01

    Recent advances in high-resolution 3D breast imaging, namely, digital breast tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT, have enabled detailed analysis of the shape and distribution of anatomical structures in the breast. Such analysis is critically important, since the projections of breast anatomical structures make up the parenchymal pattern in clinical images which can mask the existing abnormalities or introduce false alarms; the parenchymal pattern is also correlated with the risk of cancer. As a first step towards the shape analysis of anatomical structures in the breast, we have analyzed an anthropomorphic software breast phantom. The phantom generation is based upon the recursive splitting of the phantom volume using octrees, which produces irregularly shaped tissue compartments, qualitatively mimicking the breast anatomy. The shape analysis was performed by fitting ellipsoids to the simulated tissue compartments. The ellipsoidal semi-axes were calculated by matching the moments of inertia of each individual compartment and of an ellipsoid. The distribution of Dice coefficients, measuring volumetric overlap between the compartment and the corresponding ellipsoid, as well as the distribution of aspect ratios, measuring relative orientations of the ellipsoids, were used to characterize various classes of phantoms with qualitatively distinctive appearance. A comparison between input parameters for phantom generation and the properties of fitted ellipsoids indicated the high level of user control in the design of software breast phantoms. The proposed shape analysis could be extended to clinical breast images, and used to inform the selection of simulation parameters for improved realism.

  18. Open Plot Project: an open-source toolkit for 3-D structural data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tavani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the Open Plot Project, a software for structural data analysis including a 3-D environment. This first alpha release represents a stand-alone toolkit for structural data analysis and, due to many import/export facilities and to the presence of a 3-D environment, also candidates as a tool to be incorporated in workflows for 3-D geological modelling.

    The software (for both Windows and Linux O.S., the User Manual, a set of example movies, and the source code are provided as Supplement. It is our purpose that the publication of the source code sets the base for the development of a public and free software that, hopefully, the structural geologists community will use, modify, and implement. The creation of additional public controls/tools is strongly encouraged.

  19. Nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures loaded in the short-term up until failure. A profound discussion of constitutive modelling on concrete is performed; a model, applicable for general stress states, is described and its predictions are compared with experimental data. This model is implemented in the AXIPLANE-program applicable for axisymmetrick and plane structures. The theoretical basis for this program is given. Using the AXIPLANE-program various concrete structures are analysed up until failure and compared with experimental evidence. These analyses include panels pressure vessel, beams failing in shear and finally a specific pull-out test, the Lok-Test, is considered. In these analyses, the influence of different failure criteria, aggregate interlock, dowel action, secondary cracking, magnitude of compressive strenght, magnitude of tensile strenght and of different post-failure behaviours of the concrete are evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that a suitable analysis of the theoretical data results in a clear insight into the physical behaviour of the considered structures. Finally, it is demonstrated that the AXISPLANE-program for widely different structures exhibiting very delicate structural aspects gives predictions that are in close agreement with experimental evidence. (author)

  20. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  1. Analysis of aircraft impact to concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of aircraft impact to nuclear power plant structures is discussed utilizing a simplified model of a 'fictitious nuclear building' to perform analyses using LS-DYNA software, representing the loading: (i) by the Riera force history method and (ii) by modeling the crash by impacting a model of a plane similar to Boeing 747-400 to the structure (i.e., 'missile-target interaction method'). Points discussed include: (1) comparison of shock loading within the building as obtained from the Riera force history analysis versus from the missile-target interaction analysis, (2) sensitivity of the results on the assumed Riera force loading area, (3) linear versus nonlinear modeling and (4) on failure criteria

  2. The determination of certain major and minor elements in geological samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Some interference problems with the analysis of geological standard reference materials and nutrition supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeisaenen, A.; Matilainen, R.; Tummavuori, J. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-08-01

    Direct ICP-AES measurements of the digested geological standard reference material samples yielded the wrong information about their composition. The differences between certified and measured concentrations of the samples were due to the complicated sample matrix. The measured concentrations can be successfully corrected by using a multiple linear regression technique. The correction is based on the multiple regression line calculated from the analytical results at synthetic mixtures of matrix elements, where concentrations varied on five levels. There were no significant (P = 0.05) differences between certified and measured concentrations in standard reference materials after the correction. The same method was used in the analysis of nutrition supplements. (orig.)

  3. LIBS analysis of geological samples at low pressures : application to Mars, the Moon, and asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, D. A. (David A.); Sevostiyanova, E. V. (Ekaterina V.); Gibson, L. E. (Leslie E.); Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.)

    2004-01-01

    Recently, LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) has been proposed as a new method for elemental analysis in space exploration with Mars specifically targeted. there are many reasons for this including rapid analysis (< 2 min.), in-situ and stand-off analysis (< 20 meters) capability, and the ability to readily combine LIBS with other spectroscopic methods (Raman, fluorescence) that provide data complementary to LIBS. In comparison with past and current elemental analysis methods used on planetary surfaces, these capabilities of LIBS should greatly increase the scientific return from future missions. They are characterizing the LIBS method for space exploration applications with emphasis on analysis at reduced pressures ({approx} 7 Torr CO{sub 2} for Mars) and near vacuum (50 mTorr for asteroids and the Moon; at pressures below about 50 mTorr no significant changes in the plasma are observed). This characterization is important because the excitation properties of the LIBS plasma are strongly dependent on pressure of the surrounding atmosphere. Topics addressed include: (1) calibration curves and detection limits for major and minor elements of interest to geochemistry at the two lower pressures as well as atmospheric pressure (for comparison), (2) using short (<22 cm for in-situ) and medium length (4 m for stand-off) light paths for analysis, and (3) characterization of the LIBS plasma at different pressures.

  4. MBS Analysis Of Kinetic Structures Using ADAMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, SØren R.K.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers multibody system (MBS) analysis of kinetic structures using the software package ADAMS. Deployable, foldable, expandable and reconfigurable kinetic structures can provide a change in the geometric morphology of the envelope by contributing to making it adaptable to e.g. changing external climate factors, in order to improve the indoor climate performance of the building. The derivation of equations of motion for such spatial mechanical systems is a challenging issue in scientific community. However, with new symbolic tools one can automatically derive equations in so-called multibody system (MBS) formalism. The present paper considers MBS modeling of kinetic architectural structures using the software packages ADAMS. As a result, it is found that symbolic MBS simulation tools facilitate a useful evaluation environment for MBS users during a design phase of responsive kinetic structures.

  5. Methods Of Geological Risks Assessment During Conduction Of Exploration Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Turdiev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas industry, being complex manufacturing system, is characterized by a number of specific peculiarities distinguishing it from other productive industries.The most significant of these peculiarities characterize oil and gas industry as complex, multi-staged, dynamic and semi-structured object and precondition occurrence of different risks at corresponding stagesof operational lifetime. Initial stage of lifetime of examined industry is geological exploration – geological and geophysical surveys and accuracy and reliability degree of explorationdefines reasonability and efficiency of subsequent stages conduction in decisive manner [1]. Therefore, identification, analysis and assessment of risk related to geological and geophysical surveys (referred to as geological risks as well as its management in order to decrease risk extent to minimally possible and acceptable becomes extremely important and urgent [2].

  6. AUTOMATIC DOCUMENT STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURED PDF FILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmayati Mohemad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Portable Document Format (PDF is the most comfortable way to publish information because of its operating system independent. However, information on PDF document is unstructured and are applicable only for human reader. In addition, PDF consists of non-tagged internal structure which make the extraction task difficult. Automatically details analyzing and recognizing of PDF document structures especially paragraph and tabular area is vital for extracting relevant information precisely for use in other domain applications. Motivation of this study is to support knowledge extraction and exploit its actual semantic for improving further analysis. This paper proposed an intelligent approach to identify and recognize automatically the layout and structure of PDF documents together with their text and then structure the extracted information into ontological- based representation. An experimental study has been conducted using a collection of construction tender documents in PDF to test the performance of the proposed approach. The accuracies of precision, recall and f-measures have shown significant results when detecting tabular and paragraph structure.

  7. Electromagnetic and structural interaction analysis of curved shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a finite element formulation of the eddy current and structure coupled problem for curved shell structures. Coupling terms produced by curved geometry as well as flat plate geometry were obtained. Both matrix equations for eddy current and structure were solved simultaneously using coupling sub-matrices. TEAM Workshop bench mark problem 16 was solved to verify the formulation and the computer code. Agreement with experimental results was very good for such plate problem. A coupled problem for cylindrical shell structure was also analyzed. Influence of each coupling term was examined. The next topic is the eigenvalues of the coupled equations. Although the coupled matrix equations are not symmetric, symmetry was obtained by introducing a symmetrizing variable. The eigenvalues of the coupled matrix equations are different from those obtained from the uncoupled equations because of the influence of the coupling sub-matrix components. Some parameters obtained by the eigenvalue analysis have characteristics of parameters which indicate the intensity of electromagnetic structural coupling effect. (author)

  8. Analysis of the Thermal and Structural Stability for the CANDU Spent Fuel Disposal Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In deep geological disposal system, the integrity of a disposal canister having spent fuels is very important factor to assure the safety of the repository system. This disposal canister is one element of the engineered barriers to isolate and to delay the radioactivity release from human beings and the environment for a long time so that the toxicity does not affect the environment. The main requirement in designing the deep geological disposal system is to keep the buffer temperature below 100 .deg. C by the decay heat from the spent fuels in the canister in order to maintain the integrity of the buffer material. Also, the disposal canister can endure the hydraulic pressure in the depth of 500 m and the swelling pressure of the bentonite as a buffer. In this study, new concept of the disposal canister for the CANDU spent fuels which were considered to be disposed without any treatment was developed and the thermal stability and the structural integrity of the canister were analysed. The result of the thermal analysis showed that the temperature of the buffer was 88.9 .deg. C when 37 years have passed after emplacement of the canister and the spacings of the disposal tunnel and the deposition holes were 40 m and 3 m, respectively. In the case of structural analysis, the result showed that the safety factors of the normal and the extreme environment were 2.9 and 1.33, respectively. So, these results reveal that the canister meets the thermal and the structural requireets the thermal and the structural requirements in the deep geological disposal system.

  9. Present status of structural analysis computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer programs for the structural analysis by finite element method have been used widely, and the authors carried out the bench mark test on the computer programs for finite element method already. As the result, they pointed out a number of problems concerning the use of the computer programs for finite element method. In this paper, the details of their development, the analytical function and the examples of calculation are described centering around the versatile computer programs used for the previous study. As the versatile computer programs for finite element method, ANSYS developed by Swanson Analysis System Co., USA, ASKA developed by ISD, West Germany, MARC developed by MARC Analysis Research Institute, NASTRAN developed by NASA, USA, SAP-4 developed by University of California, ADINA developed by MIT, NEPSAP developed by Lockheed Missile Space Co., BERSAFE developed by CEGB, Great Britain, EPACA developed by Franklin Research Institute, USA, and CREEP-PLAST developed by GE are briefly introduced. As the exampled of calculation, the thermal elastoplastic creep analysis of a cylinder by ANSYS, the elastoplastic analysis of a pressure vessel by ASKA, the analysis of a plate with double cracks by MARC, the analysis of the buckling of a shallow arch by MSC-NASTRAN, and the elastoplastic analysis of primary cooling pipes by ADINA are explained. (Kako, I.)

  10. New insights into the geology under London through the analysis of 3D models

    OpenAIRE

    Royse, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper will describe firstly the combined cognitive and geostatistical modelling methodology that was developed in order to produce a structural model of the Chalk under London and secondly how the resultant model has improved our understanding of how the London Basin evolved during the Cretaceous period.

  11. Advances in Nuclear Geophysical Methods in Oil Geology and Rock Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques have been developed for the analysis of rocks in the laboratory and in the earth surrounding boreholes drilled to search for oil and other useful minerals. A combination of neutron methods offers the possibility of giving analysis for most of the common elements found in igneous and sedimentary rocks. A summary is presented of two-year extensive study of the combination neutron method for analysing surface rocks of the moon and planets. The combination method uses a pulsed accelerator source of 14- MeV neutrons and measurement of prompt gamma-rays, capture gamma-rays, activation gamma-rays, and thermal and epithermal neutron die-away. From this work has come the new technique of cyclic neutron activation, which is applicable to lunar surface analysis, borehole logging and on-stream analysis of rocks and minerals. Rock analysis studies have been made with a high resolution lithium-drifted germanium detector and a pulsed accelerator source of neutrons. The detector resolution of 0.5% at 1.3 MeV is about an order of magnitude better than for a good sodium iodide detector. Gamma-rays arising from inelastic scattering of fast neutrons, capture of fast and slow neutrons, and activation were studied. From the results with the high resolution detector some interesting conclusions and speculations are made concerning the future of nuclear elemental analysis in the field. The present activity in the United States of America in commercial nuclear logging is sumerica in commercial nuclear logging is summarized including neutron logging (steady-state and pulsed methods), scattered gamma-ray logging, and combinations of logs for identifying lithology and non-metallic minerals. A new small-diameter pulsed accelerator neutron tool for logging through 2½ -in. tubing is described, and a pulsed neutron source using a plurality of alpha sources and beryllium targets with a rotatable shutter between them. (author)

  12. Structural Analysis of a wing box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layston Ferroni Soares,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural analysis is an important tool that allows the research for weight reduction, the choose of the best materials and to satisfy specifications and requirements. In an aircraft’s design, several analyzes are made to prove that this aircraft will stand the set of maneuvers that it was designed to accomplish. This work will consider the preliminar project of an aircraft seeking to check the behavior of the wing under certain loading conditions in the flight envelope.To get to this load set, it has been done all the process of specification of an aircraft, such as mission definition, calculation of weight and c.g. envelope, definition of the geometric characteristics of the aircraft, the airfoil choice, preliminary performance equations, aerodynamic coefficients and the aircraft’s balancing for the equilibrium condition, but such things will not be considered in this article. For the structural analysis of the wing will be considered an arbitrary flight condition, disregarding the effect of gusts loads. With the acquisition of the items mentioned, the main forces acting on the wing structure and their equations will be calculated. The use of finite element method will enable the application of loads obtained just as the development of a method of calculation, along with the construction of a three-dimensional model that represents a chosen condition. The results will be discussed in order to explain the influence of the applied loads in the structural behavior of the wing principal structure.

  13. Preliminary Structural Analysis of High Temperature Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural evaluation of the high temperature vessel concept has been performed in general accordance with Subsection NB and NH. For the high temperature vessel concept, modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is considered for the chosen material which has a variety of applications in pressure retaining components in service at elevated temperature. Since the maximum temperature of the high temperature vessel calculated by the thermal hydraulic analysis is below 371 .deg. C for a normal operation, the creep damage and deformation are not significant and ASME Section III, Subsection NB is applied. Two cases of accident conditions are considered for the structural integrity evaluation. During the accident conditions such as HPCC and LPCC, the maximum temperature reached above 371 .deg. C. Thus, the high temperature design rule of Subsection NH is applied. A reactor vessel is evaluated for thermal and mechanical loads during a normal operation and the accident conditions. The adequacy of the reactor vessel structures to sustain a normal operation load and the given accident loads is demonstrated through comparison of their structural responses with the ASME Code stress limits and