WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Structural Geology  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, this site describes the basics of structural geology with text and images. The page includes the discussion of stress, strain, strike and dip, faults, folds, mountain building, erosion, economic geology, and environmental geology. This is a nice introduction to the basic topics in geology. Images from the field help to enhance the topics on the site. Instructors can use this resource to help create or simply enhance their curriculum.

2009-05-21

2

Process for structural geologic analysis of topography and point data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A quantitative method of geologic structural analysis of digital terrain data is described for implementation on a computer. Assuming selected valley segments are controlled by the underlying geologic structure, topographic lows in the terrain data, defining valley bottoms, are detected, filtered and accumulated into a series line segments defining contiguous valleys. The line segments are then vectorized to produce vector segments, defining valley segments, which may be indicative of the underlying geologic structure. Coplanar analysis is performed on vector segment pairs to determine which vectors produce planes which represent underlying geologic structure. Point data such as fracture phenomena which can be related to fracture planes in 3-dimensional space can be analyzed to define common plane orientation and locations. The vectors, points, and planes are displayed in various formats for interpretation.

Eliason, Jay R. (Richland, WA); Eliason, Valerie L. C. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01

3

Structural Geology  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

2011-05-01

4

Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km{sup 3}. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that the borehole investigations may not represent the site outside the covered volume. Finally five different uncertainty indices were calculated for regional and site scale, borehole data, representativity and structural knowledge. High uncertainty exists for all site volumes in terms of structural knowledge. Uncertainty in representativity is rather high at Aberg. Beberg and Ceberg has high uncertainty indices when regional scale models are concerned 30 refs, 36 figs, 8 tabs

Saksa, P.; Nummela, J. [FINTACT Oy (Finland)

1998-10-01

5

Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km3. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that the borehole investigations may not represent the site outside the covered volume. Finally five different uncertainty indices were calculated for regional and site scale, borehole data, representativity and structural knowledge. High uncertainty exists for all site volumes in terms of structural knowledge. Uncertainty in representativity is rather high at Aberg. Beberg and Ceberg has high uncertainty indices when regional scale models are concerned

1998-01-01

6

Applications of multifractal analysis of dipmeter microresistivity curves for characterisation of geological structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We use multifractal analysis as a geostatistical tool to characterise microresistivity signals produced by dipmeter well-logging tolls. A sliding window of a fixed length is placed along the signals. For each window, the irregularity of the microresistivity signals is quantified in terms of what we refer to as texture indices. These indices are calculated using multifractal statistics. Texture indices are plotted as a function of depth to form texture logs. In this manner, the rich information contained in microresistivity logs is synthesised in texture logs which are compared to sedimentological logs and to depositional environment interpretations. Texture logs are calculated for five wells from the North Sea and we show that the texture logs relate to the geological interpretations and that in certain cases they can be used as an useful additional tool assisting geological interpretations of log data.

Huseby, Olaf; Muller, Jiri [Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway)

1996-07-01

7

Quantitative analysis and geological meaning of spatial distribution patterns of structural lineaments in the Huaibei area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the method of quantitative analysis of spatial distribution patterns of structural lineaments, quantitatively analyzes the spatial distribution feature of structural lineaments in the Huaibei concealed coalfield, and studies the meanings of the extracted information. At the end, some new understandings about the structural development history and distribution feature of igneous bodies are given. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Wang Silong; Liu Yurong; Yang Xiaoqin; Ning Shunian; Liu Bo; Xi Xiaoting [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Beijing Graduate School

1997-07-01

8

Seismic structural analysis of a conceptual waste package design for disposal of high level nuclear waste in a geologic repository  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the methodology used to perform seismic structural analyses on a conceptual waste package design for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a geologic respository. The waste package design analyzed is intended to hold uncanistered spent fuel. The purpose of this analysis is to determine if the proposed waste package design can withstand the seismic loads caused by nearby fault movement during the preclosure period of the repository without breaching the inner or outer waste package barriers or damaging the internal structures, which would affect their ability to separate the waste forms. For uncanistered spent fuel waste packages, this is interpreted to mean that no yielding of the basket structure is permitted.

Ceylan, Z.; Bennett, S.M.; Doering, T.W.

1995-12-31

9

SoftStructure: Structural Geology on a PC  

Science.gov (United States)

SoftStructure is a package of more than 20 programs (most under DOS) for Quantitative Analysis in Structural Geology, including: MOHR, SHEAR, STRAIN, FRY, CALCITE_TWINS, STRESS_INVERSION, FOLTING, CRACK, ESHELBY, FAULT_GROWTH, and more. These programs are available for free for research and teaching purposes.

Others, Ze'Ev R.

10

The geological situation of the Federal Republic of Germany. A seismic risk analysis for safe structural design of technical systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report describes the present state-of-the-art seismic risk evaluation for the Federal Republic of Germany, and deals with a safe structural design against seismic events. The study is subdivided into 5 sections: Plate tectonics and resulting geological forces, asperity-model and seismological terms and problems, the seismological situation of the Federal Republic of Germany, geological tasks for a safe structural design, engineering tasks for a safe structural design. Several subjects for research work to be done are discussed. (orig.) With 15 figs

1987-01-01

11

Seismic hazard analysis of nuclear power plant site using geological structure data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The seismic hazard assessment for the nuclear power plant is mainly controlled by the instrumental earthquake data, the record of historical earthquake damages, and the data of recent faulting. The important problems of the seismic hazard analysis in Korea are the evaluation of the Quaternary fault activities and the calculation of earthquake potential from the faults. Generally, the evaluation of earthquake potential from the fault parameters could be obtained from the empirical relationship equations among the fault rupture length, fault displacement, fault area and earthquake magnitude. In spite of the these empirical equations have some problems, these equations have been usefully applied to the siting of the nuclear power plant in Japan and the academic research. However, because of these equations are not considered the characteristics of fault behavior, there are some problems of overestimation and uncertainty to evaluate the earthquake potential. Ultimately, to evaluate the adequate earthquake potential we suggest that the characteristics of fault behavior should be considered in analyzing the seismic hazard

2001-01-01

12

Seismic interpretation of circular geological structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

3D seismic data provide images of geological features which are approximately circular in plan view but whose shape and origin may be possible to constrain using 2D seismic data. As 3D seismic data become more commonly employed in hydrocarbon exploration, the number of demonstrably 'circular' structures will increase. At least ten different geological processes can result in seismically resolvable 'circular' structures in sedimentary basins. These include salt/shale diapirs, salt withdrawal basins, polygonal fault blocks, dissolution collapse hollows, breccia pipes, calderas, gas pockmarks, bioherms, sand volcanoes, pull-aparts, impact craters and tectonic folds. Geometrical and geological criteria for each are summarized to facilitate identification of such features should they be encountered in the course of a 3D seismic interpretation. Certain types of geological feature have distinctive properties, others are less straightforward to recognize on the basis of individual criteria. (Author)

Stewart, S.A. [Amerada Hess Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

1999-08-01

13

The need for the geologic hazard analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The parameters which are considered in the hazard analysis associated with the movements of the Earth Crust are considered. These movements are classified as: fast movements or seismic movements, which are produced in a certain geologic moment at a speed measured in cm/sg, and slow movements or secular movements, which take place within a long span of time at a speed measured by cm/year. The relations space/time are established after Poisson and Gumbel's probabilistic models. Their application is analyzed according to the structural gradient fields, which fall within Matteron's geostatistics studies. These statistic criteria should be analyzed or checked up in each geo-tectonic environment. This allows the definition of neotectonic and seismogenetic zones, because it is only in these zones where the probabilistic or deterministic criteria can be applied to evaluate the hazard and vulnerability, that is, to know the geologic hazard of every ''Uniform'' piece of the Earth Crust. (author)

1984-01-01

14

Geologic stereo mapping of geologic structures with SPOT satellite data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SPOT imaging system, launched in 1986 by the French National Space Agency (CNES), provides two significant advances for mapping geological structures from satellite imagery: increased spatial resolution of key structural and stratigraphic elements, and stereoscopic capabilities for making strike-and-dip measurements. Quantitative stereo mapping with SPOT data may be done using hard-copy images and conventional equipment, such as stereo plotters, or by displaying images on a video monitor in stereo-viewing format. The latter method is a new remote-sensing technique particularly relevant to the exploration community. This technique allows development, with minor expenditure and training, of an effective stereo mapping capability on existing image-processing systems or on stand-alone personal computers. SPOT stereo data is particularly useful for mapping low-amplitude and highly deformed structures. Surface structure maps generated from stereo imagery data can be applied to exploration at two levels. At early stages, such maps can be used to establish the style, trend, size, and spatial distribution of structures in a basin, and to investigate key tectonic elements. At more advanced prospecting stages, these maps can be used to constrain subsurface mapping of structures located in areas of poor seismic data quality. This latter technique, however, may require the support of higher resolution stereo aerial photography.

Berger, Z. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Williams, T.H.L. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States)); Anderson, D.W. (Anderson Geological Corp., Westminster, CO (United States))

1992-01-01

15

Need for the geologic hazard analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The parameters which are considered in the hazard analysis associated with the movements of the Earth Crust are considered. These movements are classified as: fast movements or seismic movements, which are produced in a certain geologic moment at a speed measured in cm/sg, and slow movements or secular movements, which take place within a long span of time at a speed measured by cm/year. The relations space/time are established after Poisson and Gumbel's probabilistic models. Their application is analyzed according to the structural gradient fields, which fall within Matteron's geostatistics studies. These statistic criteria should be analyzed or checked up in each geo-tectonic environment. This allows the definition of neotectonic and seismogenetic zones, because it is only in these zones where the probabilistic or deterministic criteria can be applied to evaluate the hazard and vulnerability, that is, to know the geologic hazard of every ''Uniform'' piece of the Earth Crust.

Mingarro, E. (Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain))

1984-01-01

16

Geomechanical numerical simulations of complex geologic structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ability to predict mechanical response of rock in three dimensions over the spatial and time scales of geologic interest would give the oil and gas industry the ability to reduce risk on prospects, improve pre-project initial reserve estimates, and lower operating costs. A program has recently been initiated, under the auspices of the Advanced Computational Technology Initiative (ACTI), to achieve such a computational technology breakthrough by adapting the unique advanced quasistatic finite element technology developed by Sandia to the mechanics applications important to exploration and production activities within the oil and gas industry. As a precursor to that program, in an effort to evaluate the feasibility of the approach, several complex geologic structures of interest were analyzed with the existing two-dimensional quasistatic finite element code, SANTOS, developed at Sandia. Examples are presented and discussed.

Arguello, J.G.; Stone, C.M.; Lorenz, J.C.

1996-05-01

17

Stereography of geological and geothermal structure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer system for the stereography has been developed and applied to the Nishiyama geothermal field. The Nishiyama geothermal field is located 30 km west of Lake Inawashiro, Fukushima. The geology consists of Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks. The basement rock is considered to be Pre-tertiary granitoid. The sedimentary rocks including lava and pyroclastics are divided into five formations. The Ogino formation consists of mainly of rhyolitic pyroclastic rocks, and partially of andesitic to basaltic pyroclastics. Urushikubo formation consists of mudstone, tuffaceous sandstone, basaltic pyroclastics and rhyolitic lava. The Sunagohara formation of a lake deposit is composed of sandstone, mudstone, siltstone and conglomerate. The gravity data suggests that the basement is shallow in the southeastern area, and deep in the northwestern one. Roughly speaking, the formation shows the same trend. However, the structure does not always coincide with that of the basement. The formations are folded, and form locally many domes, basins, anticlines, and synclines. The fracture system consists of two groups. The one strikes northwestwards, and the other northeastwards. The geothermal structure was analyzed using the data obtained from 32 drill holes. The high temperature zone is localized along two geologic faults,and Nishiyama hot spring is located in these districts. Some examples of stereoimage of geothermal structures were shown. 2 refs., 7 figs.

Shoji, T. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

1988-11-10

18

Discrete computer analysis in petroleum geology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computer analysis must not be resembling on geologist`s work, having its own way because of uncertainty and shortness of geological information even on mature stage of exploration, when our original system of formal discrete computer analysis, realised on {open_quotes}FoxPro for Windows{close_quotes} with not substantial but probabilistic (without ever driving the usual maps) representation of geological situation was used for picking out the sets of best points for exploration drilling in south part of Dheprovsko-Donetzky oil-gas basin.

Zakharian, A.Z.

1995-08-01

19

Hierarchical cluster structures - mathematical fundamentals, characteristics, modelling and geological application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents details of the CLUSTER and DENDRO computer programs, developed at the Freiberg Fuel Institute, both written in Fortran following steps according to cluster structure analysis (L.A. Zadeh, 1977). Hierarchical cluster structures are graphically displayed as dendrographs (R.B. McCammon, G. Wenninger, 1970). The cluster analysis can be employed in geological assessment of deposits. As an example, mineral content in the ash of brown coal as well as petrographic properties, including lithotype, xylite content, gelification and lamination were set into relation. Results of the CLUSTER program provided values of coal property similiarity, to be used for technological classification of coal quality. (3 refs.) (In German)

Rasemann, W.

1983-01-01

20

A 3D analysis of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile around Kobe City, Japan: based on ARCGIS 3D Analyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kobe city is located on the northern side of Osaka sedimentary basin, Japan, containing 1,000-2,000 m thick Quaternary sediments. After the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (January 17, 1995), a number of geological and geophysical surveys were conducted in this region. Then high-temperature anomaly of groundwater accompanied with high Cl concentration was detected along fault systems in this area. In addition, dissolved He in groundwater showed nearly upper mantle-like 3He/4He ratio, although there were no Quaternary volcanic activities in this region. Some recent studies have assumed that these groundwater profiles are related with geological structure because some faults and joints can function as pathways for groundwater flow, and mantle-derived water can upwell through the fault system to the ground surface. To verify these hypotheses, we established 3D geological and hydrological model around Osaka sedimentary basin. Our primary goal is to analyze spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data, seismic profiling data, groundwater chemical profile, were reported. We converted these datasets to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. Furthermore, we projected seismic profiling data into three dimensional space and calculated distance between faults and sampling points, using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer. This research project has been conducted under the research contract with the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

Shibahara, A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Ohwada, M.; Oyama, Y.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakama, J.

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
21

Geology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region's geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published

2008-01-01

22

Deep geological disposal system development; thermal stress analysis and nonlinear structural analysis of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister under sudden rock movement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work constitutes a summary of research and development made for design and dimensioning of the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. Since the spent nuclear fuel disposal emits high temperature heats and much radiation, its careful treatment is required. For that, a long term(usually 10,000 years) safe repository for the spent nuclear fuel disposal should be secured. Usually this repository is expected to locate at a depth of 500m underground. In this work the thermal stress analysis of the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister in a deep repository at 500m underground is performed for the underground pressure variation. Thermal stresses of the canister due to thermal loads of the heat generation of spent nuclear fuels inside baskets are computed. The thermal stress analysis result shows that even though some high thermal stresses occur due to the heat generation of nuclear fuels inside baskets, the canister is still structurally safe because the maximum stress occurred in the canister is smaller than the yield strength of the cast iron. In this work, the nonlinear structural analysis for the composite structure of the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister and the 50cm thick bentonite buffer is also carried out to predict the collapse of the canister while the sudden rock movement of 10cm is applied on the composite structure. Elastoplastic material model is adopted. Drucker-Prager yield criterion is used for the material yield prediction of the bentonite buffer and von-Mises yield criterion is used for the material yield prediction of the canister(cast iron insert, copper outer shell and lid and bottom). The analysis result shows that even though very large deformations occur beyond the yield point in the bentonite buffer, the canister structure still endures elastic small strains and stresses below the yield strength. Analysis results also show that bending deformations occur in the canister structure due to the shear deformation of the bentonite buffer. 24 refs., 59 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

Kwon, Young Joo; Kim, Jin An; Ha, Jun Yong [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea)

2002-04-01

23

Geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydrocarbon System Ourd Mya is located in the Sahara Basin. It is one of the producing basins in Algeria. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesosoic, it is about 5000 m thick. In the eastern part, the basin is limited by the Hassi-Messaoud high zone which is a giant oil field produced from the Cambrian sands. The western part is limited by Hassi R`mel which is one of the biggest gas field in the world, it is produced from the triassic sands. The Mesozoic section lays on the lower Devonian and in the eastern part, on the Cambrian. The main source rock is Silurian shale with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic matter of 6 % (14 % in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also a source rock but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Triassic sequence which is mainly fluvial deposit with complex alluvial channels, it is the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs within the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential in the east of the basin through a southwest-northeast orientation. The late Triassic-Early Jurassic evaporites overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya Basin. This is considered as a super-seal evaporate package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For Paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column.This paper describe the main geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria.

Eduard Dobra; Ján Pinka; Jacek Engel; Eliška Horniaková

2007-01-01

24

Geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrocarbon System Ourd Mya is located in the Sahara Basin. It is one of the producing basins in Algeria. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesosoic, it is about 5000 m thick. In the eastern part, the basin is limited by the Hassi-Messaoud high zone which is a giant oil field produced from the Cambrian sands. The western part is limited Hassi R'mel which is one of the biggest gas field in the world, it is produced from the triassic sands. The Mesozoic section lays on the lower Devonian and in the eastern part, on the Cambrian. The main source rock is Silurian shale with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic matter of 6 % (14 % in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also a source rock but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Triassic sequence which is mainly fluvial deposit with complex alluvial channels, it is the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs within the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential in the east of the basin through a southwest-northeast orientation. The late Triassic-Early Jurassic evaporites overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya Basin. This is considered as a super-seal evaporate package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For Paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column.This paper describe the main geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria. (authors)

2007-01-01

25

Neutron activation analysis of geological material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In neutron activation analysis the precision and accuracy of results are often misleading, since only the statistical errors which accompany the measuring of radioactivity are taken into consideration. Several other factors can, however, also influence precision and accuracy. It was found that a geological sample was contaminated with the construction material of the mill in which it had been pulverised. Several geometrical differences which could possibly play a role were also investigated. Impurities in the irradiation containers affect the determination of some elements in the samples; the contamination materials in quarts irradiation tubes were determined. The flux gradients which may effect the relative activities of the samples and standards were measured. Suitable standards are necessary to ensure accurate analyses of geological material. Available natural standards were critically evaluated and several methods were investigated by which synthetic standards may be prepared. In order to accurately determine gallium, lanthanum and samarium by means of neutron activation analysis, sodium first had to be removed. After irradiation the sample was dissolved in a mixture of acids and the soidium absorbed from the solution on a hydrated antimony pentoxide column. Gallium, lanthanum and samarium activities were measured by means of precision gamma-spectrometry

1977-01-01

26

Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the repository design. These downstream models include the hydrologic flow models and the radionuclide transport models. All the models and the repository design, in turn, will be incorporated into the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of the potential radioactive waste repository block and vicinity to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a host for the repository. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 2.

2000-01-01

27

MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity.

S.E. Salzman

1999-11-05

28

Comparative analysis of data of geological-structural interpreting of photo scanner space photographs and the structural plan of the Paleozoic within the Volga-Ural oil and gas province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are presented of interpreting space photographs of the 18th, 28th ''Meteor'' and ''Landsat-1.'' Considerable discrepancies are shown in the structural Palezoic plan with geological objects interpreted on the space photographs, and good correspondence of the latter with the neotectonic structures.

Savin, V.Ye.

1981-01-01

29

Three-dimensional Morphological Analysis for Geological Bodies and Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To address the spatial Morphological analysis of complex geological bodies in stereoscopic quantitative prediction of concealed ore bodies, a three-dimensional morphological analysis method for geological bodies based on 3-dimensional raster model under visualization environment was put forward by combining mathematical morphology with Euclidean distance transform theory. Firstly, the 3-dimensional visualization models for geological bodies were constructed on the basis of the 3-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM) technology; Secondly, the algorithm for extracting the surface shape trend of geological body with the 3-dimensional raster model was proposed by using mathematical morphology filtering. By the combination of morphological filtering, global set operation and three-dimensional Euclidean distance transform, the models for the quantitative analysis and hierarchical extraction of the shape undulance were established. Lastly, as a case study, the three-dimensional morphological analysis method was applied in analyzing quantitatively the Xinwuli magmatic body in Fenghuangshan ore field in Tongling, Anhui Province. By means of the calculation model of Euclidean distance field, the quantitative extraction of the shape trend and shape undulance as well as the angle between geological interface and trend surface, as the quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors, were achieved after building the 3D raster models of the magmatic body. The results show that the morphological analysis method is feasible to calculate various morphological parameters of complex geological bodies and extract quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors successfully for stereoscopic quantitative predication of concealed ore bodies.

Yanhong Zou; Xiancheng Mao; Wenfeng Xi

2011-01-01

30

Using Computer Spatial Technologies (Geoplus Petra) for Subsurface Geological Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The student compiles oil field well data, including spatial locations and digital well logs, for analysis of subsurface, oil reservoir stratigraphy and lithology using computer spatial technologies software, Geoplus Petra. The students create well log cross sections, make lithologic picks, construct structure and isopach maps, and evaluate lithologic properties, including gross reservoir quality from petrophysical logs. These data are used to interpret depositional environment of the subject formation and make predictions for well bore perforations for oil production. The key value of the exercise is an introduction to the use of computer software to analyze geological data, guided by sedimentologic and stratigraphic insights, and make predictions for resource exploitation.

Barnes, Dave

31

Structural-Geologic and Hydrogeological Model of the Kochani Depression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The numerous regional geologic and hydrogeological explorations carried out in the Kochani depression by the end of the last century and those carried out lately indicate that the area possesses large thermal potentiality. The paper presents two physical models that explain the correlation between the structural-geologic and hydrogeological structures, based on data obtained during the drill holes performed in the Kochani depression. The models offer a clear picture on the thermal energy, which becomes important for the economies in developing and developed countries. (Author)

2005-01-01

32

The geological structure at Clearlake, California: A preliminary review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The compilation of geologic exploration data from a complex Franciscan terrain near Clearlake, California, was systematized by dividing the geology into three constituent geometric systems, which are a fault system, a lithotope, and a structural vector field. It is inferred the high heat flow is due to a deepseated magma that fed a line of cinder cones and andesite flows. The country rock of the proposed Hot Dry Rock facility will be autochthonous Franciscan metagreywackes on the south limb of the High Valley antiform. The metagreywacke has a foliate texture resulting in a strong mechanical axial anisotropy that caused exceptional deviation of the Audrey A-1 well.

Burns, K.L.

1992-01-01

33

Deep geological disposal system development; mechanical structural stability analysis of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister under the internal/external pressure variation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work constitutes a summary of the research and development work made for the design and dimensioning of the canister for nuclear fuel disposal. Since the spent nuclear fuel disposal emits high temperature heats and much radiation, its careful treatment is required. For that, a long term(usually 10,000 years) safe repository for spent fuel disposal should be securred. Usually this repository is expected to locate at a depth of 500m underground. The canister construction type introduced here is a solid structure with a cast iron insert and a corrosion resistant overpack, which is designed for spent nuclear fuel disposal in a deep repository in the crystalline bedrock, which entails an evenly distributed load of hydrostatic pressure from undergroundwater and high pressure from swelling of bentonite buffer. Hence, the canister must be designed to withstand these high pressure loads. Many design variables may affect the structural strength of the canister. In this study, among those variables array type of inner baskets and thicknesses of outer shell and lid and bottom are tried to be determined through the mechanical linear structural analysis, thicknesses of outer shell is determined through the nonlinear structural analysis, and the bentonite buffer analysis for the rock movement is conducted through the of nonlinear structural analysis Also the thermal stress effect is computed for the cast iron insert. The canister types studied here are one for PWR fuel and another for CANDU fuel. 23 refs., 60 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

Kwen, Y. J.; Kang, S. W.; Ha, Z. Y. [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea)

2001-04-01

34

Structural geology of the Earth's interior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seismology is providing a more sharply focused picture of the Earth's internal structure that should lead to improved models of mantle dynamics. Lateral variations in seismic wave speeds have been documented in all major layers of the Earth external to its core, with horizontal scale lengths ranging from 10 to 10(4) km. These variations can be described in terms of three types of heterogeneity: compositional, aeolotropic, and thermobaric. All three types are represented in the lithosphere, but the properties of the deeper inhomogeneities remain hypothetical. It is argued that sublithospheric continental root structures are likely to involve compositional as well as thermobaric heterogeneities. The high-velocity anomalies characteristic of subduction zones-seismic evidence for detached and sinking thermal boundary layers-in some areas appear to extend below the seismicity cutoff and into the lower mantle or mesosphere. Mass exchange between the upper and lower mantles is implied, but the magnitude of the flux relative to the total mass flux involved in plate circulations is as yet unknown. Other observations, such as the vertical travel time anomalies seen in the western Pacific, may yield additional constraints on the flow geometries, but further documentation is necessary. Thermobaric heterogeneities associated with a thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle could provide the explanation for some of the observations of heterogeneities in the deep mantle. The evidence for very small scale inhomogeneities (<50 km) in region D'' and for topography on the core-mantle interface motivate the speculation that there is a chemical boundary layer at this interface, as well as a thermal one.

Jordan TH

1979-09-01

35

Use of space imagery for studying geologic structure of the North-Ustyurtskaya oil and gas-bearing region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Overview of issues concerning landscape and geomorphologic analysis of space imagery and the subsequent interpretation of structural and geologic values with use of geophysical data. Examples of clues of different value structural elements on images of differing generalization levels. Potential for studying overall patterns for local structures on the basis of structural and geomorphologic zonation is discussed.

Lion, Yu.A.; Solovyova, L.I.

1981-01-01

36

Use of space photographs to study the geological structure of the North Ustyurt gas and oil region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

General method questions are examined of landscape-geomorphical analysis of a photo image of space photographs and subsequent structural-geological interpretation using geophysical data. Examples are presented of indicating different-order structural elements on photographs of different levels of generalization. Possibilities are covered of studying general laws governing indication of local structures based on structural geomorphical zoning.

Lion, Yu.A.; Solov' yeva, L.I.

1981-01-01

37

2005 dossier: granite. Tome: safety analysis of the geologic disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the safety aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - safety approach: context and general goal, references, design approach by safety functions, safety approach during the construction-exploitation-observation-closure phase, safety analysis during the post-closure phase; 2 - general description: HLLL wastes, granitic environment, general structure of the architecture of a disposal facility; 3 - safety functions and disposal design: general context, safety functions of the long-term disposal, design dispositions retained to answer the functions; 4 - operational safety: people's protection, radiological risks during exploitation, risk analysis in accident situation; 5 - qualitative safety analysis: methodology, main results of the analysis of the features, events and processes (FEP) database; 6 - disposal efficiency evaluation during post-closure phase: calculation models, calculation tools used for the modeling of radionuclides transport, calculation results and main lessons. (J.S.)

2005-01-01

38

Known geologic structures as related to onshore oil and gas leasing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) administers the onshore oil and gas leasing program for federally administered lands. The basis of this program is the 1920 Mineral Leasing Act. This law requires that oil and gas leases be issued competitively in areas designated as a Known Geologic Structure (KGS). Leases may be issued noncompetitively through the Simultaneous Oil and Gas filing (SIMO) system or by over-the-counter lease offers in areas outside known producing geologic structures. The petroleum industry and the general public may nominate areas for leasing. The BLM determines whether those nominated areas are, or should be, within a KGS. The KGS study areas are established where new or existing geologic information is evaluated in accordance with the KGS classification criteria. After a geologic analysis is prepared, the lands within a KGS study area are available for leasing by either competitive or noncompetitive methods. The purpose of this presentation is to inform the interested parties where KGS study areas exist in the Ventura and Santa Maria basins, to indicate where competitive leasing is proposed, and to promote the development of a geologic database for those areas to assist in completing the KGS studies.

Moore, T.S.

1988-03-01

39

Geomass: geological modelling analysis and simulation software for the characterisation of fractured hard rock environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the development and functionality of a suite of applications which are being developed to support the geological investigations in the Tono URL. GEOMASS will include 3D geological modelling, 3D fluid flow and solute transport and 3D visualisation capabilities. The 3D geological modelling in GEOMASS will be undertaken using a commercially available 3D geological modelling system, EarthVision. EarthVision provides 3D mapping, interpolation, analysis and well planning software. It is being used in the GEOMASS system to provide the geological framework (structure of the tectonic faults and stratigraphic and lithological contacts) to the 3D flow code. It is also being used to gather the geological data into a standard format for use throughout the investigation programme. The 3D flow solver to be used in GEOMASS is called Frac-Affinity. Frac-Affinity models the 3D geometry of the flow system as a hybrid medium, in which the rock contains both permeable, intact rock and fractures. Frac-Affinity also performs interpolation of heterogeneous rock mass property data using a fractal based approach and the generation of stochastic fracture networks. The code solves for transient flow over a user defined sub-region of the geological framework supplied by EarthVision. The results from Frac-Affinity are passed back to EarthVision so that the flow simulation can be visualized alongside the geological structure. This work-flow allows rapid assessment of the role of geological features in controlling flow. This paper will present the concepts and approach of GEOMASS and illustrate the practical application of GEOMASS using data from Tono 2 refs, 7 figs

White, M.J.; Humm, J.P. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Todaka, N.; Takeuchi, S. [PNC Corporation (Japan). Tono Geosciences Centre; Oyamada, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

1998-09-01

40

Seismicity and Geologic Structures Indubitable in Wadi Hagul, North Eastern Desert, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paleo and recent earthquakes have been recorded in Wadi Hagul area and its environs, which have left behind geologic structures of deformation preserved in exposed sedimentary rocks. To evaluate such deformation and surface break, different techniques and data types are used compromising image processing techniques, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), seismicity data, as well as, field investigation. The field investigation clarified that the study area is enriched with soft-sediment deformation structures encompassing two types of geologic structures; brittle and viscoplastic structures. The analysis of the various types of data elucidate that, the earthquakes of Wadi Hagul are frequently distributed at an average depth ranging from (1 to 35 km) within the top of the Earth’s crust which are mainly controlled by existing Hagul fault zone. The study gives new insight for a better understanding of the seismic activity in the study area which helps in the seismic hazard assessment

Tarek A. Seleem; Hamdy A. Aboulela

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Problems of solidificated radioactive wastes burial into deep geological structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Perspectives are noted of the radioactive wastes burial into deep geopogical structures. For these purposes it has been proposed to investigate severap types of rocks, which do not have intensive gas-generation when beeng heated; salt deposits and clays. Basing on the results of calculations it has been shown that the dimentions of zones of substantial deformations in the case of the high-level radioactive wastes burial to not exceed several hundreds of meters. Conclusion is made that in the case of choosing the proper geotogicat structure for burial and ir the case of inclusion in the structure of the burial site a zone of sanitary alienation, it is possible to isolate wastes safely for all the period of preservation. Preliminary demands have been formulated to geological structures and underground burial sites. As main tasks for optimizatiop of burial sited are considered: determination of necessary types, number and reliability of barriers which ensure isolation of wastes; to make prognoses of the stressed and deformed state of a geological massif on the influence of thermal field; investigation in changes of chemical and physical properties of rocks under heat, radiative and chemical influence; estimation of possible diffusion of radioactivity in a mountin massif; development of a rational mining-thechnological schemes of the burual of wastes of different types. A row of tasks in the farmeworks of this probtem are sotved successfutty. Some resutts are given of the theoretical investigations in determination of zones of distructions of rocks because of heat-load

1981-01-01

42

X-ray fluorescent analysis in industry and geology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An optimization method was developed for finding the optimal filter materials and filter thickness in x-ray fluorescence analysis used in industry and geology. Soules' method was applied to calculate and fit the filtration parameters. Some characteristic results obtained by the new method and equipment are reported. (D.Gy.)

1985-01-01

43

Santos Basin Geological Structures Mapped by Cross-gradient Method  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction We mapped regional-scale geological structures localized in offshore zone Santos Basin, South-East Brazilian Coast. The region is dominated by transition zone from oceanic to continental crust. Our objective was to determine the imprint of deeper crustal structures from correlation between bathymetric, gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. The region is extensively studied for oil and gas deposits including large tectonic sub-salt traps. Our method is based on gradient directions and their magnitudes product. We calculate angular differences and cross-product and access correlation between properties and map structures. Theory and Method We used angular differences and cross-product to determine correlated region between bathymetric, free-air gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. This gradient based method focuses on borders of anomalies and uses its morphological properties to access correlation between their sources. We generated maps of angles and cross-product distribution to locate correlated regions. Regional scale potential fields maps of FA and MA are a reflection of the overlaying and overlapping effects of the adjacent structures. Our interest was in quantifying and characterizing the relation between shapes of magnetic anomalies and gravity anomalies. Results Resulting maps show strong correlation between bathymetry and gravity anomaly and bathymetry and magnetic anomaly for large strictures including Serra do Mar, shelf, continental slope and rise. All maps display the regional dominance of NE-SW geological structures alignment parallel to the shore. Special interest is presented by structures transgressing this tendency. Magnetic, gravity anomaly and bathymetry angles map show large correlated region over the shelf zone and smaller scale NE-SW banded structures over abyssal plane. From our interpretation the large band of inverse correlation adjacent to the shore is generated by the gravity effect of Serra do Mar. Disrupting structures including bathymetric anomaly generated by landslides responsible for smaller depth over continental rise has show strong inverse correlation with gravity anomaly and strong correlation with magnetic anomaly over continental rise. This indicates the influence of sedimentary deposits on deeper crustal structures. Methods and result are discussed.

Jilinski, P.; Fontes, S. L.

2011-12-01

44

Geological structure of the Japan Sea and its tectonic implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the geologic structure and the tectonic evolution of the Japan Sea were discussed based on the extensive marine geological and geophysical data of the Japan Sea. There are four major basins, and the ages of formation of the basins are estimated 30 to 10 Ma from sediment stratigraphy, basement depth, and heat flow data. Topographic heights in the Japan Sea are classified into four groups: continental fragments, rifted continental fragments, tectonic ridges, and volcanic seamounts. The tectonic evolution of the Japan Sea is inferred not to be a single rift type, but a multi rife type of back arc spreading system. Through the development of the spreading system, many continental fragments were left within the basins. The large tensional stresses are necessary for such tectonic evolution, and considered to be possible only by the retreat of the continental plate from the island arc, which due to India-Eurasia collision and associated lithospheric deformation in East Asia. (54 figs, 130 refs)

Tamaki, Kensaku

1988-07-27

45

SITE-94. Development of a geological and a structural model of Aespoe, southeastern Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the present study is to construct three-dimensional geological and structural models to be used within the SKI SITE-94 project as a base for modelling hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and rock mechanical bedrock conditions, mass transport and layout of a hypothetical repository. The basic input data in the SITE-94 geological and structural models are restricted to geological and structural readings and geophysical measurements made prior to building the Hard Rock Laboratory. 114 refs, 82 figs, 28 tabs

1996-01-01

46

Hudson Valley Fold and Thrust Belt Field Trip (Structural Geology)  

Science.gov (United States)

This structural geology field trip in the Hudson Valley region reinforces class discussions about fold and thrust belts and thin-skinned tectonics. Students observed a ramp anticline over a ramp-flat geometry fault. The anticline has minor faulting and veining in the hinge zone and folding occurred by flexural slip (evident from down-dip slickenlines on bedding surfaces). Students make observations and sketches of the outcrop and take strike and dip measurements of bedding and fault surfaces. Students can also look for a very weak cleavage. Students can use attitude measurements to reinforce key principles of stereonets including plotting lines, planes, and poles and interpreting the orientation of the fold axis (or other information) from these nets.

Growdon, Martha

47

Combined NLCG/SBI magnetotelluric data inversion for recognition of complex geological structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Geological interpretation of magnetotelluric data is a subject of some misunderstandings. Simplified geometrically and well contrasted in resistivity models do not response for real geological environment. The aim of outstripping magnetotelluric works widely made in Polish Outer Carpathians, is general structural and lithological recognising of geological environment and distinguishing of areas where oil prospection will be projected. The geological medium is formed by sedimentary formations, strongly deformed and containing relatively thin layers with essentially differentiated parameters, overlying rather flat, high resistivity basement. Application of simplified strongly contrasted interpretation model with fluently changing parameters gives frequently results not corresponding with geological reality. Presented analysis is based on surveys located in marginal zone of Carpathianst in the area relatively well recognised, where interpreted structural and lithologic model rather well reflects real geological medium. Then, it was used as reference model for obtained results of MT data inversion. Magnetotelluric continuous profiling located along reflection seismic profile, between two deep boreholes was made. Set of results of computations allows to evaluate of effectiveness of used procedures and suggest optimum way of dealing. First stage of data interpretation was based on 1D and EMAP inversion. The section was then applied as starting model for 2D NLCG inversion. Results of this method give rather generalized resistivity distribution well reflecting structure of flysch cover but not adequate for the basement. This models was applied as starting models for SBI inversion constrained by borehole data. Results of SBI procedure well reflects relatively flat complexes of the basement, but are rather unrealistic for folded flysch cover. The another NLCG inversion was computed with stabilised model of basement obtained from SBI inversion. Obtained resistivity cross section was relatively concordant to reference model. This paper is a result of the statutory research of the Department of General Geology, Environment Protection and Geotourism, project No 11.11.140.447. Results of project supported by grant from the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology under contract no 5T12B 041 25 were also used.

2009-01-01

48

Geological structure and environmental geology of the Yamagata basin; Yamagata bonchi no chishitsu kozo to kankyo chigaku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crustal movement of the latest geological age that has been contributing to the formation of the Yamagata basin and its impact on geological environment are outlined. The Yamagata basin is constituted of a Quaternary sedimentary layer deposited thick in pockets formed in the syncline surface on the foundation of the layer that developed after the Pliocene. This basin is quite young geologically, and has been actively subsiding throughout the second half of the Quaternary period. The active fault on the western periphery of the basin is deemed to be a reverse fault with a fault plane inclining toward the west. As for the fault presumed to exist on the eastern periphery of the basin, on the contrary, there is no evidence to indicate that such has ever been active since the middle part of the Quaternary period. It is inferred therefore that the active fault on the western periphery contributes more to the subsidence of the basin. As an effect of the basin active structure on environmental geology, it is mentioned that a different type of crustal movement leads to a different type of alluvial fan terrain. For instance, the alluvial fan of the Sagae river does not assume a terrace form, which threatens a flood and debris flow all over the fan surface. An anticline structure if present in the ground will cause spring water since such blocks groundwater. Possibilities are that an active structure may amplify the damage of earthquakes. 23 refs., 7 fig.

Komatsubara, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

1997-04-01

49

Multipass SAR interferometry. A tool for geologic analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates how the information content of repeat pass satellite SAR interferometric (INSAR) data can be used to provide the geologist with a tool which can improve his ability and efficacy in the geologic analysis of SAR imagery. INSAR processing produces interferometric fringes, coherence and amplitude images. To produce an interferometric DEM phase unwrapping is a critical step. For phase unwrapping, it is proposed the WLMS (Weighted Least Mean Square) estimation of the phase, which is a generalization of the least-mean square method. The crucial step in WLMS approach is the weighting procedure. It is proposed a weighting algorithm based on the fusion of a priori information extracted from different interferometric products. These different information channels-DEM, amplitude and coherence-can be effectively fused to convey information to the geologic interpreter using 3D stereoscopic visualization; SAR stereo pairs were artificially generated using the interferometric DEM and the intensity image or the coherence image of the area overlaid. In order to ascertain the performance of the procedure a number of tests were carried out over various sites in Matese (Southern Italy), which has a fairly demanding topography, using ERS SAR tandem data. The results demonstrate that WLMS unwrapping method is sufficiently robust in capturing the morphology of the area and that stereoscopic visualization greatly facilities geologic interpretation and the observation of detailed features of the terrain

2001-01-01

50

Multipass SAR interferometry. A tool for geologic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates how the information content of repeat pass satellite SAR interferometric (INSAR) data can be used to provide the geologist with a tool which can improve his ability and efficacy in the geologic analysis of SAR imagery. INSAR processing produces interferometric fringes, coherence and amplitude images. To produce an interferometric DEM phase unwrapping is a critical step. For phase unwrapping, it is proposed the WLMS (Weighted Least Mean Square) estimation of the phase, which is a generalization of the least-mean square method. The crucial step in WLMS approach is the weighting procedure. It is proposed a weighting algorithm based on the fusion of a priori information extracted from different interferometric products. These different information channels-DEM, amplitude and coherence-can be effectively fused to convey information to the geologic interpreter using 3D stereoscopic visualization; SAR stereo pairs were artificially generated using the interferometric DEM and the intensity image or the coherence image of the area overlaid. In order to ascertain the performance of the procedure a number of tests were carried out over various sites in Matese (Southern Italy), which has a fairly demanding topography, using ERS SAR tandem data. The results demonstrate that WLMS unwrapping method is sufficiently robust in capturing the morphology of the area and that stereoscopic visualization greatly facilities geologic interpretation and the observation of detailed features of the terrain.

Fanelli, A.; Russo, L.; Celardo, G.; Murino, P. [Naples Univ. Federico 2., Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza e Ingegneria dello Spazio L. G. Napolitan

2001-02-01

51

Geological and Geophysical aspects of the Kurdashi structure, Azerbaijan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: This paper is a case history of the improved characterization of a complex structure in the Azerbaijan offshore achieved by application of advanced seismic tools such as 3 D Pre-Stack Depth Migration and Continuity Depth Cube volumes.The investigation focuses on the Kurdashi Permit and adjacent areas of southern most Azerbaijan, near its boundary with Iran (Fig.1).It considers the techniques used to visualize the subsurface, the resulting subsurface model and implications for its geological history revealed by the more detailed seismic tools.The Kurdashi Permit is operated by AGIP AZERBAIJAN, a subsidiary of the Italian ENI Agip Division.The permit itself encompasses a faulted regional anticlinorium of Neogene series clastic rocks comprising three separate culminations.Seismic imaging in this area is challenged by widespread shallow or near-surface gas, steep dips, and mud volcanoes connected to irregularly shaped mud chambers and associated velocity anomalies.Targets are relatively deep measured in TWT due to both their actual depth and the relatively slow velocities of the sedimentary section.A 3D seismic survey covering about 900 sq km was acquired by Caspian Geophysical over the entire permit.The conventional time processing was executed by Veritas.Subsequently AGIP generated a 3D Pre-Stack Depth Migration and Continuity Cube and the relevant interpretations.

2002-01-01

52

A mathematical formulation for large strain analysis of geologic continua  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solution method is presented for finite-deformation analysis of geologic materials. The principle of virtual work is used to state the equations of equilibrium in a weak form. These equations are linearized about the last-established equilibrium configuration. A material constitutive relationship between the Green-Naghdi stress rate and the rate-of-deformation tensor is used to obtain the current stresses. The finite-element governing equations are expressed in a form suitable for an iterative solution strategy. The obtained gradient matrix contains the effects of both material and geometric nonlinearities. The primary application area of this formulation is the analysis of long-term deformation response of the region adjoining the mining shafts and the waste emplacement rooms within a nuclear waste repository. In this region, the strains are expected to be large, and the infinitesimal strain analysis would introduce inaccuracies in the solution. 19 refs., 6 figs

1987-01-01

53

Diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Swedish strategy to handle the spent fuel from the nuclear power plants is direct disposal in a geological repository. The safeguards regime covering all nuclear material in the state will be expanded to cover the new repository, which will require a novel safeguards approach due mainly to the inaccessibility of the fuel after disposal. The safeguards approach must be able to provide a high level of assurance that the fuel in the repository not diverted, but must also be resource efficient. An attractive approach with regards to use of resources is to monitor only the access points to the repository, i.e. the openings. The implementation of such an approach can only be allowed if it is shown to be sufficiently secure. With the purpose of determining the applicability of this 'black box' approach, a diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository has been carried out. The result from the analysis shows that all credible diversion paths could be covered by the black-box safeguards approach provided that the identified boundary conditions can be met

2008-01-01

54

Diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Swedish strategy to handle the spent fuel from the nuclear power plants is direct disposal in a geological repository. The safeguards regime covering all nuclear material in the state will be expanded to cover the new repository, which will require a novel safeguards approach due mainly to the inaccessibility of the fuel after disposal. The safeguards approach must be able to provide a high level of assurance that the fuel in the repository not diverted, but must also be resource efficient. An attractive approach with regards to use of resources is to monitor only the access points to the repository, i.e. the openings. The implementation of such an approach can only be allowed if it is shown to be sufficiently secure. With the purpose of determining the applicability of this 'black box' approach, a diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository has been carried out. The result from the analysis shows that all credible diversion paths could be covered by the black-box safeguards approach provided that the identified boundary conditions can be met

Fritzell, Anni (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)); Meer, Klaas Van Der (Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK.CEN (BG))

2008-02-15

55

Characteristics of the Cenozoic and Mesozoic Geological Structure Development in North and South China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The book is a summarization of a part of the field and laboratory work of the Research Laboratory of Structural Geology, Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, from 1963 to 1965. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is the gene...

Huang Chen-Hui

1968-01-01

56

Geophysical methods in studying the geological structure of different regions of the Siberian platform  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the ancient Siberian platform, the Leno-Tungusskiy and Khatangsko-Vilyuyskiy regions are isolated. Their geological-geophysical features are examined and complexes of geophysical methods are proposed for studying their geological structure in order to search for oil and gas accumulations.

Surkov, V.S.; Lopatin, S.S.; Mandel' daum, M.M.; Rabinovich, B.I.; Savinskiy, K.A.; Sibgatullin, V.G.; Tokarev, A.S.; Umperovich, N.V.

1981-01-01

57

Geographic information systems and their value for geological analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past 5 years, a new technology has emerged for the automated storage, analysis, manipulation, and display of large volumes of geographic information. This new technology, known as Geographic Information System (GIS), consists of a series of generic software tools which run on a variety of computing environments. These tools can be of great assistance in the interpretation of geographic relationships in both map and tabular form. The essence of the technology is that it enables users to build relationships among disparate sets of information commonly stored on maps and information data sets central to the GIS concept and the integration of Data Base Management Software tools for storage, analysis, and manipulation of the data. This presentation concentrates on the introduction of the generic tools for GIS as well as a variety of applications for which it is used, including land use planning, geological exploration, and thematic mapping.

Dangermond, J.

1987-05-01

58

Geological Structures of the South Okinawa Trough based on Seismic Reflection Data  

Science.gov (United States)

The Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) located offshore northeastern Taiwan is an extensional basin north of the Ryukyu Island Arc that opens toward Taiwan. In order to better understand the geological processes in the Southern Okinawa Trough, we collect all the available multi-channel seismic reflection data, reprocess some of them to improve the data quality, and interpret 22 seismic reflection profiles. A structural map, which shows the distribution of fault structures and submarine volcanoes in the study area, is compiled with the aid of seismic sequence analysis. We found that normal faults developed in both the northern and southern flanks of the SOT, and also in the axial area where volcanic extrusions are abundant, suggesting that the SOT is presently undergoing active extension. Some deeply rooted compressional structures are observed below the younger normal faults, which may indicate that the area offshore northern Taiwan was once in a convergent tectonic environment. We use seismic and bathymetry data to discuss the fault activities and related tectonic processes, also examine the volcanic activities and their geological environment.

Fan, M.; Liu, C.; Teng, L. S.

2011-12-01

59

Geological images  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from Marli Bryant Miller, a professor at the University of Oregon, presents images of geological features from around the world. Photographs of glacial features, igneous and metamorphic rocks and processes, and structural geology are featured.

Miller, Marli B.; Oregon, University O.

60

Entropy-Based Set Pair Analysis Model on Geological Disaster Risk for Military Engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measuring the geological disaster-risked situation, is a typical non-deterministic decision-making issue in disaster pre- vention and emergency response science for military engineering. Based on the given geological disaster risk analysis mechanism, geological disaster risk monitoring matrix was established, and risk characters’ value was obtained by mining the hidden information in the monitoring matrix with Entropy theory; with Identity, Discrepancy, and Contrary of Set Pair Analysis and distance measurement, geological disaster-risked model was erected for military engineering, and the steps were given for measuring geological disaster risk, which determined geological disaster-risked SPA force and order relationship of military engineering. Finally, case showed that model has the feasibility and effectiveness over measuring the geological disaster-risked situation for military engineering.

Quanbing Rong; Hongjun Zhang; Fengshan Wang

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Structural geology of the earth's interior  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current research in the stuctural geology of the earth's interior is reviewed with emphasis on global models of the mantle, regional models of the lithosphere, the mapping of boundaries in the deep mantle, and the mapping of elastic anisotropy. Particular consideration is given to several planned seismic experiments, including Iris, Pascal, Geoscope, and Orpheus. 8 references.

Vinnik, L.P.

1988-05-01

62

Analysis of integrated geologic data for uranium exploration in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geologic information system (GIS) related to Nuclear Raw Materials is in current development in the Scient. Inform. Dept. (NMC). Processing of data follows developed criteria in U-exploration. Landsat image interpretation, photo lineaments, field measured joints, faults, folds, foliation, lineation, and deformed pebbles when properly integrated and computerized have pointed out a comprehensive tectonic model related to the CED of Egypt. The area seemed to be subjected to three deformative stages, in the first two; rocks undergone plastic deformation, while in the third one, rocks failed in brittle mode where the Red Sea Transverse Tectonic Trend (ENE-WSW) was developed intersecting the older plastically developed linear elements (NW-SE). Further rejuvenations permit opening the mentioned fractures and occupied by siliceous materials and jasperoid veins and lastly by U-type mineralization, best depicted in the plutons of El Missikat, El Erediya, Um Had and Kab Amiri. The Oligocene Qatrani Formation, north of Lake Qarun, NWD of Egypt is a typical example of fluviatile deposits. The middle clayey member is enclosed between two porous sandy members. The carbonaceous shale related to the clayey member shows abnormal U-concentrations. Statistical analysis of the distribution of uranium and other trace elements in the carbonaceous shale shows that U, Y, Mn and Ca obey the lognormal law while Sr, Rb, Zr, Cr and Ti obey the normal law. A geologic factor is derived that normally distributed elements are stationary, indigenous probably of detrital origin. Meanwhile, other lognormally distributed elements are active and mobile. Subsurface mapping shows that uranium tends to concentrate in the troughs of the flexured carbonaceous shale suggesting an epigenetic origin. 14 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

1988-01-01

63

Information collection and analysis of geological characterization and evaluation technology and application to geological characterization study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has been conducting the Regional Groundwater Investigation and Mizunami Underground Laboratory (MIU) Project in order to develop investigation technologies and evaluation methods of geological environment. At present, towards the next progress reporting on research and development for geological disposal of HLW in Japan, based on the existing research and development results, the projects which are conducted by TGC are required for promoting smoothly and efficiently with regard to the current Japanese HLW program. According to such situation, for planning of the geological environment investigation and research at TGC and the next progress reporting, this study has investigated and summarizes overseas environmental impact assessments for final disposal, overseas site characterization and site selection, and overseas research plan of underground research laboratories. Based on the results of investigation, some technologies which have possibility to be applied to the MIU Project have been studied. Also overseas quality assurance programs have been investigated, and examples of the application of their concepts to MIU project have been considered. (author)

2003-01-01

64

Automated analysis of carbon in powdered geological and environmental samples by Raman spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Raman spectroscopy can be used to assess the structure of naturally occurring carbonaceous materials (CM), which exist in a wide range of crystal structures. The sources of these geological and environmental materials include rocks, soils, river sediments, and marine sediment cores, all of which can contain carbonaceous material ranging from highly crystalline graphite to amorphous-like organic compounds. In order to fully characterize a geological sample and its intrinsic heterogeneity, several spectra must be collected and analyzed in a precise and repeatable manner. Here, we describe a suitable processing and analysis technique. We show that short-period ball-mill grinding does not introduce structural changes to semi-graphitized material and allows for easy collection of Raman spectra from the resulting powder. Two automated peak-fitting procedures are defined that allow for rapid processing of large datasets. For very disordered CM, Lorentzian profiles are fitted to five characteristic peaks, for highly graphitized material, three Voigt profiles are fitted. Peak area ratios and peak width measurements are used to classify each spectrum and allow easy comparison between samples. By applying this technique to samples collected in Taiwan after Typhoon Morakot, sources of carbon to offshore sediments have been identified. Carbon eroded from different areas of Taiwan can be seen mixed and deposited in the offshore flood sediments, and both graphite and amorphous-like carbon have been recycled from terrestrial to marine deposits. The practicality of this application illustrates the potential for this technique to be deployed to sediment-sourcing problems in a wide range of geological settings.

Sparkes R; Hovius N; Galy A; Kumar RV; Liu JT

2013-07-01

65

Dynamic SIMS analysis of cryo-prepared biological and geological specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modification of a dynamic magnetic sector secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instrument to permit the analysis of frozen biological and geological samples is described. The SIMS instrument used for this study combines SIMS analysis with the generation of ion-induced secondary electron images, allowing direct superposition of the SIMS image onto the image of cellular structures. Secondary ion maps have been acquired with sub-micron resolution, permitting the characterisation of sub-cellular elemental distributions in plant cells and human fibroblast cells, as well as the distribution of chemical impurities at grain boundaries in polar ice samples. This cryo-preparation technique clearly extends the applicability of SIMS analysis to a wide range of samples.

2006-07-30

66

Constructing a large-scale 3D Geologic Model for Analysis of the Non-Proliferation Experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5{sup o} to -112.6{sup o} and latitude 34.5{sup o} to 39.8{sup o}; the depth ranges from the topographic surface to 150 km below sea level. The model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by both geologic and geophysical studies, while the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The mapped upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks of all ages, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 5 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas geologic maps for California and Utah were scanned and hand-digitized. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and thus estimate the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m lateral resolution DEM elsewhere. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a framework compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is a unique integer index value representing the geologic unit. For seismic studies, the geologic units are mapped to specific seismic velocities. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. For regional seismic simulations we convert this realistic geologic model into elastic parameters. Upper crustal units are treated as seismically homogeneous while the lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized by a smoothly varying velocity profile. In order to mitigate spurious reflections, the lower crust and upper mantle are treated as velocity gradients as a function of depth.

Wagoner, J; Myers, S

2008-04-09

67

ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS USED TO PROVE THE STABILITY OF HIGH CUTS IN COMPACT ROCKS ON THE ROAD MC-11, SOLIN-KLIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the engineering geological characteristics of the rock massif in charge to compute and provide the stability of high cuts in solid fractured rocks. The data for the structural geological processing have been obtained by measuring and analyzing the system of fissures. In addition to the supposed and simulated straight fracture the maximum slope of the high cut has been determined considering additional forces which were introduced into the rock mass.

Karlo Braun; Slobodan Šestanovi?; Duško Bar?ot; Ivica Samaržija

1992-01-01

68

Analysis of naturally produced technetium and plutonium in geologic materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In uncontaminated natural materials, plutonium and technetium exist exclusively as products (daughters) of nuclear reactions in which uranium is the principal reactant (parent). Under conditions of chemical stability over geologic periods of time, the relative abundances of daughter and parent elements are fixed by the rates of nuclear reactions and the decay of the daughter radionuclide. The state of this nuclear secular equilibrium condition is the primary basis of the geochemical study of these elements in nature. Thus, it is critical that nuclear parent and daughter abundances are measured in the same sample. We have developed a quantitative procedure for measuring subpicogram quantities of plutonium and technetium in gram quantities of geologic matrices such as uranium ores. The procedure takes advantage of the aggressive properties of sodium peroxide/hydroxide fusion to ensure complete dissolution and homogenization of complex materials, the precision provided by isotope dilution techniques, and the extreme sensitivity offered by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Using this technique, a quantitative aliquot can be removed for uranium analysis by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry or ? spectrometry. Although the application of the procedure is unique, the analytical concepts may find more general application in studies of environmental contamination by nuclear materials. To assess the precision and accuracy of the analytical results, blanks and standards were analyzed routinely for a 1-year period to ensure quality control of our sample analyses. The average technetium blank is 5 ± 4 fg (n = 8), and that for plutonium is 0.17 ± 0.15 pg (n = 7). Thus, the detection limit for technetium (defined as 3 times the standard deviation of the average blank) is 11 fg, and that for plutonium is 0.44 pg. To assess the procedural precision, Canadian Reference Material BL-5 was analyzed routinely with samples. The results of seven replicate analyses for technetium in this standard reference material yield a technetium concentration of 59.0 fg/g, with a remarkably small standard deviation of 0.6 fg, 1.0% of the average value. The results of six replicate analyses for the concentration of plutonium in BL-5 give 1.012 pg/g, with an equally small standard deviation of 0.016, 1.6% of the average value. No direct measure of accuracy can be done on the technetium or plutonium analyses, because no standard reference material exists for these elements. To help constrain the accuracy of our measurements, equilibrium technetium/uranium and plutonium/uranium abundances were calculated using the nuclear reaction code MCNP. For technetium, such calculations are relatively insensitive to variations in model parameters, and measurements fall within a 21% high/low bias. For plutonium, the calculations are very sensitive to model parameters and hence inherently less precise. Indirectly, spike and isotope mix calibrations made from weighted quantities of certified isotopes (both technetium and plutonium) can be used to determine the bias of the measurement system for these elements. These calibrations show that the measurement system is biased by no more than ±1.5%.

Dixon P; Curtis DB; Musgrave J; Roensch F; Roach J; Rokop D

1997-05-01

69

The geology of fluvial deposits. Sedimentary facies, basin analysis, and petroleum geology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluvial deposits represent the preserved record of one of the major nonmarine environments. They accumulate in large and small mountain-girt valleys, in the broad valleys of trunk rivers, in the wedges of alluvial fans flanking areas of uplift, in the outwash plains fronting melting glaciers, and in coastal plains. The composition of fluvial detritus depends on the geology of the source aras from which the sediment was derived, and the climatic influences to which the detritus was subjected before final burial. The nature of the fluvial assemblage - its lithofacies composition, vertical stratigraphic record and architecture - reflects an interplay of many processes, from the wandering of individual channels across a floodplain, to the long-term effects of uplift and subsidence. Fluvial deposits are a sensitive indicator of tectonic processes, and also carry subtle signatures of the climate at the time of deposition. They are the hosts for many petroleum and mineral deposits. This book is about all these subjects. (orig./SR). 504 figs., 30 tabs.

Miall, A.D. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geology

1996-04-01

70

Comparison between radar data and geophysical, geological and hydrological borehole paramenters by multivariate analysis of data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The object of the present work is to study the correlation between radar reflectors and geophysical, geological and hydraulical parameters from the boreholes. An additional objective is to show what information can be gained by the borehole radar with respect to waterflow and geological structures in crystalline rock. The tool for making the data modelling is Multivariate Data Analysis (SIMCA). For the data modelling there are two algorithms available in the SIMCA software. One for Principal Component analysis and one for Partial Least Squares regression analysis (PLS and PLS2). The PLS method gives the best result for the purpose of correlation between radar intensity and other variables. The result from the Principal Components, PLS, and PLS2 analysis shows that the strongest correlations results in a division between highly fractured rock and low fractured rock at all sites. Also, PLS and PLS2 analysis show that there is a good correlation between high radar intensity and highly fractured rock in the boreholes at all sites. The correlation between radar intensity and hydraulic condictivity is more ambiguous. Two of the investigated sites. Stripa and Finnsjoen, exhibit good correlation between radar intensity and hydraulic condictivity, while the correlation at Aevroe is lower and at Saltsjoetunnel it is poor. Hydraulic conductivity was not included in the analysis of the Klipperaas data. The best correlaiton in the data from Klipperaas was obtained between radar intensity and fractured lithological contracts. The degree of correlation between radar intensity and lithological contacts at the other four sites was lower than for Klipperaas. (24 figs., 37 tabs., 30 refs)

1989-01-01

71

Structural geology of Swift reservoir culmination, Sawtooth Range, Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Northwest-trending, thrusted and folded rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age comprise the Sawtooth Range of northwestern Montana. The Sawtooth Range is a part of the northern disturbed belt and is characterized by thin-skinned deformation. Stratigraphy plays an important role in the location and character of the various thrust sheets. Major decollement surfaces include the Upper Cambrian, the top of the Devonian, and several horizons within the Mississippian. In the Swift Reservoir area, a broad culmination exposes Cambrian through Cretaceous strata in a series of imbricately stacked, west-dipping thrust sheets. The structural configuration of the culmination appears to be a compound duplex zone with structures north and south of Swift Reservoir dipping away from the culmination. Mapping of the culmination reveals vertical stacking of thrust sheets, and a lateral ramp that forms the southern boundary of the duplex. A structural high in the basement may have resulted in ramping of the thrust sheets and formation of the culmination. Deformation within the thrust sheets is controlled by structural position and by ductility contrasts between the stratigraphic units. Deformation varies widely, ranging from tight overturned folds in the Cambrian units to broad open folds and fractures within the Mississippian. Because of the variation in lithology and ductility, the most intense deformation is observed within the Cambrian units. This deformation is characterized by overturning of folds in the direction of thrust transport, and the development of small-scale kink folds, cleavage, pencil structures, and boundinage.

Singdahlsen, D.S.

1984-07-01

72

Simulations of neutrino and muon interaction in matter for geological structures radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutrino and muon radiography seems to provide a method complementary to the more conventional seismic studies for getting information on the very deep geological structures. Here we describe the status of the simulations of neutrino and muon interaction in matter. (author)

2010-01-01

73

Structural geology practice and learning, from the perspective of cognitive science  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial ability is required by practitioners and students of structural geology and so, considering spatial skills in the context of cognitive science has the potential to improve structural geology teaching and practice. Spatial thinking skills may be organized using three dichotomies, which can be linked to structural geology practice. First, a distinction is made between separating (attending to part of a whole) and combining (linking together aspects of the whole). While everyone has a basic ability to separate and combine, experts attend to differences guided by experiences of rock properties in context. Second, a distinction is made between seeing the relations among multiple objects as separate items or the relations within a single object with multiple parts. Experts can flexibly consider relations among or between objects to optimally reason about different types of spatial problems. Third, a distinction is made between reasoning about stationary and moving objects. Experts recognize static configurations that encode a movement history, and create mental models of the processes that led to the static state. The observations and inferences made by a geologist leading a field trip are compared with the corresponding observations and inferences made by a cognitive psychologist interested in spatial learning. The presented framework provides a vocabulary for discussing spatial skills both within and between the fields of structural geology and cognitive psychology.

Shipley, Thomas F.; Tikoff, Basil; Ormand, Carol; Manduca, Cathy

2013-09-01

74

A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

2010-01-01

75

Mass transport analysis in the near field of geologic repository  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-dimensional model for the groundwater flow and the contaminant transport has been developed. A water-saturated, deep geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) is considered. The region containing a waste canister, a backfill material around the canister, and the near-field rock (NFR) surrounding the backfill is considered. Discrete-Fracture Network (DFN) is generated in the NFR based on distribution functions of the fracture geometry parameters by random sampling. Flow-bearing fracture network is identified, and is transformed into an equivalent continuous porous medium in two different ways without calculating flow rates through individual fractures. The first transformation is applied locally, generating a heterogeneous porous medium. The second transformation is applied for the entire NFR, resulting in a homogeneous porous medium. While the heterogeneous porous medium is considered to represent characteristics of water flow in DFN better than the homogeneous porous medium, the homogeneous porous medium was often used in previous performance assessment studies for its simplicity. After these transformations, the spatial distribution of groundwater flow rate is calculated by a finite element method. The numerical results for the total discharge at the outer boundary of the homogenized NFR after the second transformation are benchmarked by analytical solutions with a relative difference smaller than 0.55%. The contaminant transport is simulated by a random-walk particle-tracking method, based on the obtained flow-rate distribution. Previous study for a step equation that determines the movement of contaminant particles has been critically reviewed. Numerical results obtained by the first and second transformations have been compared. The second transformation gives smaller mean values of the residence time of particles in the NFR and greater mean values of the mass absorption rate at the outer boundary of NFR than the first one does. Thus, if a contaminant transport analysis is to be made to obtain a conservative worst-case prediction, the second transformation is appropriate. However, because the second transformation yields nearly the same results for rocks with various kinds of heterogeneity, for site selection, in which performance of various kinds of host rocks needs to be differentiated, a transport model with the second transformation is not appropriate.

Lim, Doo-Hyun

76

Method and apparatus for drilling horizontal holes in geological structures from a vertical bore  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drilling horizontal holes in geological strata from a vertical position. The geological structures intended to be penetrated in this fashion are coal seams, as for in situ gasification or methane drainage, or in oil-bearing strata for increasing the flow rate from a pre-existing well. Other possible uses for this device might be for use in the leaching of uranium ore from underground deposits or for introducing horizontal channels for water and steam injections.

Summers, David A. (Rolla, MO); Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO); Keith, H. Dean (Rolla, MO)

1982-01-01

77

Relationship Between Heat Flows and Geological Structures in the Sichuan Basin, P.R. China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on an extensive data collection and analysis, this research has provided reliable representations of the features of the geothermal fields, their heat flow, and relationships with geological structures in the Sichuan Basin. The isotherms below a depth of 1,000 m show high values in the Central Uplift and the Southwest Uplift, and low values in the Northwest and Southeast Depressions. These features probably indicate undulation of crystalline basement and structural depression. At depths greater than 3,000 m, the isotherms tend to become simpler and regionalized. The mean heat flow in the basin is 69.1 mW/m{sup 2}. In the Central Uplift, the Northwest Depression and the East of the basin, heat-flow values range from 58.6 to 71.2 mW/m{sup 2}, with a mean value of 66.1 mWE/m{sup 2}. In the south and southwest, it varies from 76.6 to 100.5 mW/m{sup 2}, with a mean value of 86.2 mW/m{sup 2}. High heat-flow values occur within the uplift of the crystalline basement in the southwest Sichuan, and the heat flow decreases from the south, through the central area, to the northwest.

Zeng, Y.; Yu, H.; Wang, X.

1995-01-01

78

An engineering geological appraisal of the Chamshir dam foundation using DMR classification and kinematic analysis, southwest of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the results of engineering geological  investigations and rock mechanics studies carried out at the proposed Chamshir dam site. It is proposed that a 155 m high solid concrete gravity-arc dam be built across the Zuhreh River to the southeast of the city of Gachsaran in south-western Iran. The dam and its associated structures are mainly located on the Mishan formation. Analysis consisted of rock mass classification and a kinematicanalysis of the dam foundation's rock masses. The studies were carried out in the field and the laboratory. The field studies included geological mapping, intensive discontinuity surveying, core drilling and sampling for laboratory testing. Rock mass classifications were made in line with RMR and DMR classification for the dam foundation. Dam foundation analysis regarding stability using DMR classification and kinematic analysis indicated that the left abutment's rock foundation (area 2) was unstable for planar, wedge and toppling failure modes.

Torabi Kaveh Mehdi; Heidari Mojtaba

2011-01-01

79

Carbonate reservoir characterization a geologic-engineering analysis, p.1  

CERN Multimedia

This book integrates those critical geologic aspects of reservoir formation and occurrence with engineering aspects of reservoirs, and presents a comprehensive treatment of the geometry, porosity and permeability evolution, and producing characteristics of carbonate reservoirs. The three major themes discussed are: the geometry of carbonate reservoirs and relationship to original depositional facies distributions the origin and types of porosity and permeability systems in carbonate reservoirs and their relationship to post-depositional diagenesis the relationship between dep

Dominguez, GC; Mazzullo, SJ; Chilingarian, GV; Rieke, HH

1992-01-01

80

Commentary of Uruguay geological structure - Present status of its mining activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is about the geological structure of Uruguay and its mining activity. The Rio de la Plata socket basin and the Rivera crystalline island are the oldest geochronological structures in Uruguay. This unit represents the 60% of the crystalline field and belongs to the Uruguay orogenetic Precambrian cycle. In the north there are sedimentary rocks and granites of the Upper Precambrian period.The mining and processing of marble, granite, agate, amethyst and metallic minerals are declared of national interest

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Geological and geophysical aspects of the Kurdashi structure, Azerbaijan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text:The paper is case history of the improved characterization of a complex structure in the Azerbaijan off shore achieved by application of advanced seismic tools such us 3D Pre-Stack Depth Migration and Continuity Depth Cube volumes. The investigation focuses on the Kurdashi Permit and adjacent areas of southern most Azerbaijan, neas its boundary with Iran. The Kurdashi Permit is operated by AGIP AZERBAIJAN, a subsidiary of the Italian ENI Agip Division. The South Caspian Basin in one of the worlds most unusual sedimentary basins. Three major river systems the Volga, Kura and AMU-Darya have converged to provide continuous sediment supply in the Neogene. Structures of the Kurdashi area demonstrate the strong involvement of faulted basement unlike structures in the central SCB. Basement is relatively shallow and the major basin wide detachment level, the thick and over-pressured Maykopian shale changes character, thins, on laps and eventually pinches out between the Kurdashi and Lenkoran areas. Several tectonic events can be observed to impact the Kurdashi geometry. The Pre-Stack Depth Migration was accomplished using the Paradigm Geophysical software Geodepth99. Te target oriented velocity model for migration of the volume was constructed using nine layers with each layer constructed from several iterations of velocity testing, 3D tomography, and migration. The combination of Pre-SDM and Continuity cube volumes used together permits a substantially improved resolution of faults and a clear indication of how they connect together. The combined observations made in the Continuity Cube volume and the Pre SDM volumes allow us to describe the fols as a classic buckle fold. With continuous tightening of the fold sice Lower Apsheronian time, the shallower surfaces undergo extension synchronous with compression at deeper levels.There is a mappable null surface. A mud volcano occurs where the main faults alternate their dip and tensile stress is greatest

2002-01-01

82

Geospatial modeling: A breakthrough 3-D technology for understanding complexly faulted geologic structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today`s geoscientists are required to find hydrocarbons in increasingly complicated geologic structures. These structures are usually faulted and contain complex geometric relationships. Their complexity requires modeling and mapping capabilities beyond traditional surface mapping tools. Geospatial modeling enables geoscientists to create models of complex geologic structures, calculate distributions of properties therein, visualize models in three dimensions, and analyze models through volumetric calculations. Faults and horizons are treated as individual surfaces in three-dimensional space. Fault relationships are controlled by hierarchies, and relationships between stratigraphic layers are specified by simple geologic rules. The following features can thus be accommodated: depositional layers; layers truncated by unconformities; layers cut by channels; channel in-fill; and salt diapirs. Although the resulting model is calculated from a fixed set of geological relationships, input data may change as data are added or existing interpretations altered, allowing for quick update. Property models may be calculated for each layer and/or each fault block. The three-dimensional property modeling utilizes fault and horizon surfaces as boundaries. Properties are correctly calculated near faults and show appropriate displacements across faults. Unique three-dimensionally consistent contour maps and cross sections are extracted from the models. The three-dimensional contouring process determines the spatial extent of layers, defines geometries of fault and unconformity truncation wedge zones, and accurately portrays fault gaps. Increased success is important in today`s market. Geospatial modeling technology can address the sizeable problems facing geoscientists working with complexly faulted geologic structures, and can significantly increase overall understanding in a timely manner.

Hoffman, K.S. [Dynamic Graphics, Houston, TX (United States); Belcher, R.C. [Dynamic Graphics, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

83

Geospatial modeling: A breakthrough 3-D technology for understanding complexly faulted geologic structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today's geoscientists are required to find hydrocarbons in increasingly complicated geologic structures. These structures are usually faulted and contain complex geometric relationships. Their complexity requires modeling and mapping capabilities beyond traditional surface mapping tools. Geospatial modeling enables geoscientists to create models of complex geologic structures, calculate distributions of properties therein, visualize models in three dimensions, and analyze models through volumetric calculations. Faults and horizons are treated as individual surfaces in three-dimensional space. Fault relationships are controlled by hierarchies, and relationships between stratigraphic layers are specified by simple geologic rules. The following features can thus be accommodated: depositional layers; layers truncated by unconformities; layers cut by channels; channel in-fill; and salt diapirs. Although the resulting model is calculated from a fixed set of geological relationships, input data may change as data are added or existing interpretations altered, allowing for quick update. Property models may be calculated for each layer and/or each fault block. The three-dimensional property modeling utilizes fault and horizon surfaces as boundaries. Properties are correctly calculated near faults and show appropriate displacements across faults. Unique three-dimensionally consistent contour maps and cross sections are extracted from the models. The three-dimensional contouring process determines the spatial extent of layers, defines geometries of fault and unconformity truncation wedge zones, and accurately portrays fault gaps. Increased success is important in today's market. Geospatial modeling technology can address the sizeable problems facing geoscientists working with complexly faulted geologic structures, and can significantly increase overall understanding in a timely manner.

Hoffman, K.S. (Dynamic Graphics, Houston, TX (United States)); Belcher, R.C. (Dynamic Graphics, Inc., Denver, CO (United States))

1996-01-01

84

Natural pseudowollastonite: Crystal structure, associated minerals, and geological context  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudowollastonite, an extremely rare constituent of ultrahigh-temperature combustion metamorphic and igneous rocks, has been found as a rock-forming mineral in Ca-rich paralava veins of Nabi Musa fossil mud volcano (Dead Sea area). Pseudowollastonite-bearing paralavas are the products of combustion metamorphism associated with spontaneous burning of methane. The melt began to crystallize at 1480-1500 °C about the ambient pressure. Pseudowollastonite enters two mineral assemblages: (1) rankinite, larnite, nagelschmidtite, wollastonite (1T), gehlenite-rich melilite, Ti-rich andradite, cuspidine, and fluorapatite; (2) parawollastonite (2M), wollastonite (1T), gehlenite-rich melilite, Ti-rich andradite, fluorellestadite. In this study we present the first single-crystal structure determination of natural pseudowollastonite. Pseudowollastonite from Nabi Musa dome is stoichiometric CaSiO3 and belongs to the most widespread four-layer polytype: a = 6.83556(10) Å, b = 11.86962(18) Å, c = 19.6255(3) Å, ? = 90.6805(13)°, V = 1592.21(4) Å3, space group C2/c. We argue that pseudowollastonite is so scarce in nature because its formation requires joint action of several uncommon factors: availability of hot melts of T > 1200 °C that bear free calcium but are poor in Mg and Fe (mostly as Fe3 +) and their crystallization in the shallow crust followed by quenching.

Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Sokol, Ella V.; Kokh, Svetlana N.

2012-03-01

85

Mapping Geological Structures In Wadi Ghoweibaarea, Northwest Gulf Of Suez, Egypt, Using Aster-Spot Data Fusion And Aster DEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Practical and economical constraints prompt the need of obtaining lithological and structural information for development of desert areas with reduced field effort. The fusion of multi-sensor satellite data is an effective mean of exploiting the complimentary nature of different data types. This technique allows fusion of spectral-spectral information of multi-source data with high accuracy. In the present study, fusion of SPOT and ASTER data was applied to test the potentiality of this technique in mapping geological formations and structural lineaments in Wadi Ghoweiba area, to the west of the northwestern tip of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. ASTER data is characterized by a wide range of spectral bands (14 bands), while SPOT panchromatic data is characterized by high (10 meters) spatial resolution. Based on spectral characteristic analysis (SCA) of the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands of ASTER data, two false-color band-ratio images (1/3, 2/5, and 4/ 9) and (1/5, 8/9, and 4/6) in R, G, B were produced for better lithological discrimination. SPOT panchromatic image data was fused with ASTER band ratio images data using principal component (PC) and color normalization or Brovey transformation techniques. The fused images proved to be excellent for lithological discrimination. ASTER data includes bands 3N (Nadir) and 3B (Backward) that are acquired in the spectral range of near infrared region (from 0.78 to 0.86 microns) allowing extraction of digital elevation model (DEM). Three-dimensional perspective views were generated by draping SPOT-ASTER ratio fused images over ASTER DEM. This technique was used to enhance morphologically-defined structures. The fused images and the 3D perspective views were interpreted to produce a photo geological-structural map that was verified using the available geological maps and subsequent field check. The produced photo geological map indicates that fusion of SPOT and ASTER ratio image's data is a reliable technique for geological mapping especially in remote and inaccessible areas

2009-01-01

86

Geologic report for the Beaufort Sea planning area, Alaska: regional geology, petroleum geology, environmental geology. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 192-page report provides a summary of the geologic framework, hydrocarbon potential, and physical environment of the offshore area tentatively scheduled for Federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 97. The geologic interpretation is based on high-quality, gridded seismic reflection data and publicly available exploration wells. Seven regional seismic lines, released by Western Geophysical Company for this report, illustrate the geology of the petroleum provinces within the planning area. Hydrocarbon play concepts for large, untested areas of the continental margin off northern Alaska are developed from a detailed analysis of the structural and stratigraphic evolution. Environmental geology is described along with implications for future offshore petroleum activities.

Craig, J.D.; Sherwood, K.W.; Johnson, P.P.

1985-12-01

87

Earth fissures triggered by groundwater withdrawal and coupled by geological structures in Jiangsu Province, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Earth fissures in Jiangsu Province, China have caused serious damages to properties, farmlands, and infrastructures and adversely affected the local or regional economic development. Under the geological and environmental background in Jiangsu Province, this paper presents the earth fissures caused by excessive groundwater withdrawal and coupled by distinctive geological structures such as Ancient Yellow River Fault in Xuzhou karst area, and Ancient Yangtze River Course and bedrock hills in Suzhou, Wuxi, and Changzhou area. Although all the earth fissures are triggered by groundwater exploitation, the characteristics are strongly affected by the specific geological and hydrogeological settings. In particular, in the water-thirsty Xuzhou city, the cone of depression caused by groundwater extraction enlarged nearly 20 times and the piezometric head of groundwater declined 17 m over a decade. As groundwater is extracted from the shallowly buried karst strata in the Ancient Yellow River Fault zone, the development of earth fissures is highly associated with the development of karstic cavities and sinkholes and their distribution is controlled by the Ancient Yellow River Fault with all the 17 sinkholes on the fault. On the other hand, in the rapidly developing Southern Jiangsu Province, groundwater is mainly pumped from the second confined aquifer in the Quaternary, which is distributed neither homogeneously nor isotropically. The second confined aquifer comprises more than 50 m thick sand over the Ancient Yangtze River Course, but this layer may completely miss on the riverbank and bedrock hills. With a typical drawdown rate of 4-6 m per annum, the piezometric head of groundwater in the second confined aquifer has declined 76 m at Maocunyuan since 1970s and 40 m at Changjing since mid-1980s, and a large land subsidence, e.g., 1,100 mm at Maocunyuan, is triggered. Coupled with the dramatic change of the bedrock topography that was revealed through traditional geological drilling and modern seismic reflection methods, the geological-structure-controlled differential settlement and earth fissures are phenomenal in this area.

Wang, G. Y.; You, G.; Shi, B.; Yu, J.; Li, H. Y.; Zong, K. H.

2009-05-01

88

The growth of geological structures by repeated earthquakes, 1, conceptual framework  

Science.gov (United States)

In many places, earthquakes with similar characteristics have been shown to recur. If this is common, then relatively small deformations associated with individual earthquake cycles should accumulate over time to create geological structures. It is shown that existing models developed to describe leveling line changes associated with the seismic cycle can be adapted to explain geological features associated with a fault. In these models an elastic layer containing the fault overlies a viscous half-space with a different density. Fault motion associated with an earthquake results in immediate deformation followed by a long period of readjustment as stresses relax in the viscous layer and isostatic equilibrium is restored. The flexural rigidity of the crust (or the apparent elastic thickness) provides the main control of the width of a structure. The loading due to erosion and deposition of sediment determines the ratio of uplift to subsidence between the two sides of the fault. -Authors

King, G. C. P.; Stein, R. S.; Rundle, J. B.

1988-01-01

89

New data on the geological structure of the southern part of the Prikumskaya zone of upheavals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An interpretation is given of the geological structure of the sedimentary cover in the territory between the Mektevskaya and Neftekumskaya subzones based on a structural map of the roof of the penetrated section of formation I of Lower Cretaceous deposits of the region, which was made with consideration of new seismic and geological and geophysical data. It is assumed that beds of a formational zone type can be detected in formations I, IX and in collectors of ''green colored strata'' (basal layers of the Lower Cretaceous), and in formation VIII one can find similar beds with elements of lithological screening, and one can find beds of solid mass in Valangian carbonate rocks.

Poddayev, V.I.

1980-01-01

90

Structural geology of the Fuegian Andes and Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt - Tierra del Fuego Island  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A synthesis of the structural geology of the Tierra del Fuego Island, which integrates a new data set derived from field surveys and literature data of the last few years, is presented here. The main geological features of the region developed during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Andean orogenic cycle that ...

Menichetti, Marco

91

Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities. Volume 14, Basin analysis, formation and stability of gas hydrates of the Timor Trough.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geological factors controlling the formation, stability, and distribution of gas hydrates in the Timor Trough region were investigated by basin analysis. Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data from the region were assembled and evaluated to determi...

P. D. Finley J. Krason

1989-01-01

92

Consolidating and sealing porous and fragile geological formations or artificial structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is provided for consolidating and sealing porous and fragile geologic formations or artificial structures, wherein an aqueous dispersion of a setting agent is introduced by means of pressure or via the hydrostatic pressure into the formation or artificial structure. A setting agent also is provided for use in such a method. For the building and construction industry, in particular in the case of foundation works and construction engineering, it is necessary to seal geologic formations (i.e., to stop water flow or even to consolidate soft geologic formations) in order to increase their load bearing capacity. It has been found that collagen decomposition products are suitable as setting agents, and by variations setting agents can be prepared in situ at the construction site, which furthermore can be varied as desired as regards their properties depending on the given objective. It has been found that such collagen decomposition products also exhibit an excellent bonding to silicate formations and are extremely stable to alkalis and weak acids, such as may occur in the soil. In this connection, the setting time and the achievable setting hardness may be varied according to requirements by adding various hardeners. 15 claims.

Diehn, W.

1980-12-17

93

Combining Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar to study geological structuring of karst Unsaturated Zone  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper highlights the efficiency and complementarity of a light package of geophysical techniques to study the structure of karst Unsaturated Zone (UZ) in typical Mediterranean environment where soil cover is thin or absent. Both selected techniques, 2D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), are widely used in environmental studies and their application is accessible for a lot of scientists/engineers. However, GPR or ERT alone is not able to provide an enhanced characterization of geological features in karst media. In the present study, GPR results supply a near surface high resolution imaging and thus can provide relevant geological information such as stratifications and fractures. Despite the quality of the results GPR's investigation depth remains limited to around 12 m. Apparent and inverted resistivity provided by ERT surveys shows strong lateral and vertical variations. These variations can inform about general geological structuring and feature orientation. ERT is able to prospect down to 40 m but it's a low resolution integrative technique. In the study area the investigated limestone is a commonly electrical resistive formation (more than 2000 ?.m). However deeper than 5–7 m, the ERT profiles reveal several zones of moderate resistivity (around 900 ?.m). In these zones a stratification change corresponding to slanted bedding is clearly identified by GPR results. The combination of both GPR and ERT results can allow a well-established geological interpretation. These moderate resistivity zones with slanted beddings can explain the presence of a perennial water flow point 35 m below the surface of the studied site within the underground gallery of the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory (LSBB).

Carrière, Simon D.; Chalikakis, Konstantinos; Sénéchal, Guy; Danquigny, Charles; Emblanch, Christophe

2013-07-01

94

Indeterminate structural analysis  

CERN Document Server

This textbook covers the analysis of indeterminate structures by force method, displacement method and stiffness method in a total of six chapters which can be covered in a single course on indeterminate structural analysis. It includes an as-needed discussion of the unit load method, which is arguably the best method to calculate deflections when solving problems by the force method.

Derucher, Kenneth; Kim, Uksun

2013-01-01

95

Seismic analysis of structures  

CERN Multimedia

While numerous books have been written on earthquakes, earthquake resistance design, and seismic analysis and design of structures, none have been tailored for advanced students and practitioners, and those who would like to have most of the important aspects of seismic analysis in one place. With this book, readers will gain proficiencies in the following: fundamentals of seismology that all structural engineers must know; various forms of seismic inputs; different types of seismic analysis like, time and frequency domain analyses, spectral analysis of structures for random ground motion, res

Datta, T K

2010-01-01

96

Quantitative analysis of lunar crater's landscape: automatic detection, classification and geological applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Lunar craters are the most important geological tectonic features on the moon; they are among the most studied subjects when it comes to the analysis of the surface of the moon since they provide us with the relative age of the surface unit and more information about lunar geology. Quantitative analysis of landscape on lunar crater is an important approach in lunar geological unit dating which plays a key role in understanding and reconstruction of lunar geological evolution. In this paper, a new approach of automatic crater detection and classification is proposed based on the quantitative analysis of crater's landscape with different spatial resolution digital terrain models. The approach proposed in this paper includes the following key points: 1) A new crater detection method which selects profile similarity parameters as the distinguishing marks is presented. The new method overcomes the high error defect of former DTM based crater detection algorithm; 2) Craters are sorted by the morphological characteristics of profiles. The new quantitative classification method overcomes the subjectivity of the previously descriptive classification method. In order to verify the usefulness of the proposed method the pre-selected landing area of China's Chang'e-III lunar satellite-Sinus Iridum is chosen as the experimental zone. DTM with different resolutions from the Chang'e-I Laser Altimeter, the Chang'e-I Stereoscopic Camera and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) are used for crater detection and classification. Dating results of each geological unit are gotten using crater size-frequency distribution method (CSFD). By comparing the former dating and manual classification data, we found that the results obtained by our method and the former results have the strong consistency. With the combination of automatic crater detection and classification, this paper basically provided a quantitative approach which can analyze the lunar crater's landscape and get geological information from it. And the approach can be widely used on other planets like Mars.

Li, Ke; Chen, Jianping; He, Shujun; Zhang, Mingchao

2013-04-01

97

Pattern of the main tectonic trends from remote geophysics, geological structures and satellite imagery, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The area under study lies in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt and is covered by exposed Precambrian basement rocks to the east and Phanerozoic cover sediments to the west. The technique of using the autocovariance function was applied to remote geophysics (aeromagnetic and aeroradiometric data), and statistical trend analysis was conducted on data of geological structures and satellite imagery. Seven main trends, N, NNW, NW, WNW, NNE, NE and ENE, were recorded from the four types of data concerned for the area under consideration. The data from remote geophysics and geological structures were registered for only three out of the seven trends, while the data from satellite imagery were recorded on six out of the seven trends outlined in this study. The NNW, NE, WNW and NW trends can be considered important from the point of view of the radiometrically and magnetically detectable mineralogy of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The remaining three trends, N, NNE, and ENE, can be considered barren as possible channels for magnetically and radiometrically detectable sites of mineralization in the study area.

Rabie, Said I.; Ammar, Ahmed A.

1990-04-01

98

Application of laser microspectral analysis in geological survey of uranium deposit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of laser microspectral analysis in geologic survey of uranium deposit is described by means of case history. It is not only a quick and reliable method to determine composition of uranium microminerals but a quick and economic means to study rock formation and mineralization

1989-01-01

99

Determination of REE in geological samples at MNSR reactor by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The instrumental neutron activation analysis at MNSR reactor was used for determination of 10 rare earth elements in geological samples. Considerations were given to those systematic errors resulting from selfshielding effects, uranium-fission interference, as well as disturbances from fast neutron reactions (n, p) and (n, ?). The measurement conditions and detection limits for other four REEs were also indicated

1990-01-01

100

How 3D modelling helps to understand complex geological structures : example of the Champtoceaux area (Brittany, France)  

Science.gov (United States)

Tools combining use of geology and geophysics data improve the reliability of geological interpretation, especially when structures are non-cylindrical. By integrating cross-sections, seismic profiles, gravity anomaly maps, etc., 3D geometric modelling is a way to better understand complex geological systems. 3D modelling enables to (i) validate the 3D consistency of an interpretation coming from separate 2D sources such as map and cross-sections, (ii) construct a 3D model coherent with all available geometric data including positions and structural dips, (iii) refine 3D interpretation by comparing the measured field anomaly, e.g. Bouguer anomaly, with the one derived from the model, (iv) calculate a 3D probabilistic description of the geology using inversion method. This methodology is illustrated on the Champtoceaux area (Brittany, western France). The Geological Editor is used to build the 3D model of the studied area. This software, developed in BRGM (French Geological Survey), uses a pseudo-stratigraphic pile in order to reproduce geological history and structural relationships (erosion, deposit, etc.) The description of the geological space is achieved through a 3D potential field geostatistical formulation in which geological boundaries are iso-potential surfaces. This original method allows to take into account structural dips as gradient inputs for the 3D potential field calculation. The geological map and 7 cross-sections are used to construct the 3D geometric model. These cross-sections are interpreted in a 2D way using the recent Armor2 seismic profile and the measured Bouguer anomaly. The coherency between map and cross-sections is checked and ensured before computing the 3D model. In order to validate the geometry of the model, its gravity contribution is calculated by allocating density to geological formations. The comparison with the measured Bouguer anomaly leads to local 3D reinterpretation. This interactive validation by trial and error ensures a 3D geological interpretation consistent with the measured field. The Bouguer anomaly map is also used together with the final model to perform a 3D stochastic inversion. A description of the possible models is computed using a Monte-Carlo (Metropolis) algorithm. This method gives probabilistic quantification on the position of geological objects.

Calcagno, P.; Martelet, G.; Gumiaux, C.; Guillen, A.; Courrioux, G.

2003-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Landslides analysis using geological, geotechnical and geophysical data from experimental measurements in Prahova County  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The landslide that is the subject of this paper occurred inPrahova County. The present work was carried out to study the spatialinfluence of geological and morphological factors upon landslideoccurrence on a local scale by using geotechnical and geophysical methods in order to determine local trigger parameters. The input data for the slopestability analysis were collected from topographic investigations, geological mapping. In addition, soil geotechnical parameters were collated from a series of in situ tests. A geophysical survey was applied by using vertical electrical soundings in order to detect the existence and continuity of a potential sliding surface.

Cornelia Dobrescu; Elena C?l?ra?u; Marius Stoica

2011-01-01

102

X-ray fluorescence analysis in geological and geochemical investigations (review)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The x-ray fluorescence (XRF) method is characterized by a high degree of automation, productivity, reproducibility, and accuracy. However, in terms of detectibility limits, XRF is inferior to several techniques for geological and geochemical investigations. This work reviews the development of the instrumentation and the perfection of the methodology and quantification of XRF analysis as applied to geochemical and geological problems. The two basic types of crystal-diffracting x-ray spectrometers that are discussed are multichannel and scanning x-ray spectrometers. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

1992-01-01

103

Potential structures for CO2 geological storage in the Baltic Sea: case study offshore Latvia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is focused on two structures in the Baltic offshore region (E6 and E7 structures in Latvia) prospective for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2). Their CO2 storage capacities were estimated recently with different levels of reliability. Petrophysical, geophysical, mineralogical and geochemical parameters of reservoir rocks represented by quartz sandstones of the Deimena Formation of Middle Cambrian in two wells and properties of Silurian and Ordovician cap rocks were additionally studied and interpretedin the present contribution. Extended methodology on rock measurements and estimation of conservative and optimistic storage capacity are presented. Uncertainties and risks of CO2 storage in the offshore structure E6 estimated as the most prospective for CO2geological storage in the Baltic Region, and the largest among all onshore and offshore structures studied in Latvia, were discussed. We re-estimated the previous optimistic capacity of the E6 structure (265–630 Mt) to 251–602 Mt. Considering fault system within the E6 structure we estimated capacity of two compartments of the reservoirseparately (E6-A and E6-B). Estimated by the optimistic approach CO2storage capacity of the E6-A part was 243–582 Mt (mean 365 Mt) and E6-B part 8–20 Mt (mean 12 Mt). Conservative capacity was 97–233 Mt (mean 146 Mt) in the E6-A, and 4–10 Mt (mean 6 Mt) in the E6-B. The conservative average capacity of the E6-B part was in the same range as this capacity in the E7 structure (6 and 7 Mt respectively). The total capacity of the two structures E6 and E7, estimated using the optimistic approach was on average 411 Mt, and using the conservative approach, 159 Mt.

Kazbulat Shogenov; Alla Shogenova; Olga Vizika-Kavvadias

2013-01-01

104

Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geological factors controlling the formation, stability, and distribution of gas hydrates in the Timor Trough region were investigated by basin analysis. Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data from the region were assembled and evaluated to determine the relationships of geological environments and gas hydrates. The Timor Trough is located between the Indonesian island of Timor and the northwest margin of Australia. The floor of the Timor Trough is 1800 m to 3400 m deep and ranges in width from 3 to 20 km. The trough extends for about 600 km. The Timor Trough is part of the Banda Arc system; it is bounded to the west by the Java Trench and the Aru Basin to the east. 36 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

Finley, P.D.; Krason, J.

1989-10-01

105

Log analysis of subsurface geology: Concepts and computer methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a text for engineers/graduate students studying petroleum engineering. It provides introduction to log analysis and review of logging tools. It describes common graphical methods of multiple log interpretation, basic concepts of matrix algebra, and examples of statistical analysis and signal processing techniques. It reviews remedial methods directed to the suppression of measurement error associated with logs. The mapping of mineralogies and lithofacies are included.

Doveton, J.H.

1986-01-01

106

Geology and structure of the Malpaso caldera and El Ocote ignimbrite, Aguascalientes, Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new caldera, named Malpaso, is reported west of the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico. The Malpaso caldera is a volcano-tectonic depression, highly fractured and faulted, and was filled by voluminous pyroclastic products related to the caldera collapse. Due to these characteristics it as a graben caldera. It is truncated by younger normal faults of the Calvillo and Aguascalientes grabens. In this work we present a summary of the geologic and structural observations on this caldera, as well as a description of the main caldera product, the high-grade El Ocote ignimbrite.

2008-10-01

107

On geological structure and mineralization in Carboniferous rocks north of Litija, Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper data on development of Carboniferous beds, the geological structure and polymetallic deposits in the area north of Litija are presented.Special attention is devoted to composition of quartz-limpnitic rocks from Gavgen hrib-Kržac south of Va?e and to their genesis. Establishment of relative succession of crystallization of minerals and of their deformations permitted to prove the existence of a tectonical-erosional phase which corresponds to the Asturianorogeny. The mineralization processes are connected with development of tectonic trenches at that time.

Ivan Mlakar & Dragomir Skaberne; Dragomir Skaberne; Matija Drovenik

1992-01-01

108

Formational analysis in petroleum geology. Formatsionnyy analiz v neftyanoy geologii  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Factual material is generalized regarding the characteristics of specific formations in order to develop a classification of them and to clarify the laws governing oil and gas content of carbonaceous, carboniferous and certain other formations. The structural features and oil and gas content of specific formation and formational series of major oil and gas regions of Ciscuacasia, Mangyshlak, Central Asia, West and East Siberia, the Russian platform and the near-Ural region are covered.

1981-01-01

109

Study of gamma ray analysis software's. Application to activation analysis of geological samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A comparative evaluation of the gamma-ray analysis software VISPECT, in relation to two commercial gamma-ray analysis software packages, OMNIGAM (EG and G Ortec) and SAMPO 90 (Canberra) was performed. For this evaluation, artificial gamma ray spectra were created, presenting peaks of different intensities and located at four different regions of the spectrum. Multiplet peaks with equal and different intensities, but with different channel separations, were also created. The results obtained showed a good performance of VISPECT in detecting and analysing single and multiplet peaks of different intensities in the gamma-ray spectrum. Neutron activation analysis of the geological reference material GS-N (IWG-GIT) and of the granite G-94, used in a Proficiency Testing Trial of Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories, was also performed , in order to evaluate the VISEPCT software in the analysis of real samples. The results obtained by using VISPECT were as good or better than the ones obtained using the other programs. (author)

1998-01-01

110

Modified FILTERSIM Algorithm for Unconditional Simulation of Complex Spatial Geological Structures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facies and fracture network modeling need robust, realistic and multi scale methods that can extract and reproduce complex relations in geological structures. Multi Point Statistic (MPS) algorithms can be used to model these high order relations from a visually and statistically explicit model, a training image. FILTERSIM as a pattern based MPS method attracts much attention. It decreases the complexity of computation, accelerates search process and increases CPU per-formance compare to other MPS methods by transferring training image patterns to a lower dimensional space. The results quality is not however as satisfactory. This work presents an improved version of FILTERSIM in which pattern extraction, persisting and pasting steps are modified to enhance visual quality and structures continuity in the realiza-tions. Examples shown in this paper give visual appealing results for the reconstruction of stationary complex struc-tures.

Peyman Mohammadmoradi; Mohammadreza Rasaei

2012-01-01

111

Neutron activation analysis in geological research and mineral exploration - the Finnish experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of neutron activation analysis in geological research and mineral exploration in Finland during the years 1970-1990 is described in the form of case histories. These are the analysis of lunar samples from the Apollo missions, research on rare earth element geochemistry, exploration for uranium and gold and geochemical multi-element mapping. The development of methods and instrumentation is also described. The benefits and drawbacks of the method are discussed for each case. (author).

Rosenberg, R.J. (Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Otaniemi (Finland). Reaktorilaboratorio)

1991-01-01

112

Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB`s application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth. 46 refs, 30 figs, 18 tabs.

Tiren, S.A. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

1996-06-01

113

Geological storage of CO2: sensitivity analysis and risk assessment using arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion  

Science.gov (United States)

Geological storage of CO2 is a proposed solution for fighting the climate change. The considerable costs and potential hazards of the technique requires feasibility studies to assess all possible risks embedded in the process. Modeling of CO2 storage, requires working with large time and space scales, which in practice are accompanied by huge geological uncertainties. In this work, we practice a study of geological CO2 storage for injection and early migration time. A typical CO2 injection scenario is implemented on a set of geological realizations. A number of uncertain parameters are chosen with an assumed knowledge of probability. A framework based on arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion is used for projection of flow responses on high-dimensional orthonormal polynomial bases, which forms a so-called response surface. This approach works with arbitrary probability knowledge and treats available input data directly without additional assumption on shape of uncertainty distribution. Sensitivity analysis is used to rank the model parameters by their influence in the modeling outcome. For global sensitivity analysis we use Sobol indices which are robust for a general problem in terms of non-linearity and complexity. The reduced model represented by the response surface is vastly faster than the full original model and used for probabilistic risk assessment via Monte-Carlo post-process.

Ashraf, M.; Oladyshkin, S.; Nowak, W.

2012-04-01

114

Geological structures from televiewer logs of GT-2, Fenton Hill, New Mexico: Part 1, Feature extraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Patterns in reflected sonic intensity recognized during examination of televiewer logs of basement gneiss at the Hot Dry Rock Site, Fenton Hill, New Mexico, are due to geological fractures and foliations and to incipient breakouts. These features are obscured by artifacts caused by wellbore ellipticity, tool off-centering, and tool oscillations. An interactive method, developed for extraction of the structural features (fractures and foliations), uses human perception as a pattern detector and a chi-square test of harmonic form as a pattern discriminator. From imagery of GT-2, 733 structures were recovered. The acceptance rate of the discriminator was 54%. Despite these positive results, the general conclusion of this study is that intensity-mode imagery from Fenton Hill is not directly invertible for geological information because of the complexity of the televiewer imaging process. Developing a forward model of the intensity-imaging process, or converting to caliper-mode imagery, or doing both, will be necessary for high-fidelity feature extraction from televiewer data.

Burns, K.L.

1987-07-01

115

Dynamic structure and data sets of a GIS database for geological riskanalysis in the Azores volcanic islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geological hazards in the Azores archipelago include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, degassing phenomena and landslides, being the cause of thousands of deaths and severe damage and loss. To reduce the impact of future events it is necessary to improve the emergency response and reinforce land-use planning, and this has given rise to the development of AZORIS, a GIS database for risk analysis in the Azores. At present this computer-based system comprises nine main dynamic data sets where elemental, monitoring and historical data are grouped in layers of first and second order. The logical structure of the database was conceived in order to facilitate interactivity between data sets and to guarantee the evolution of the system, as determined by the input and the generation of new and more detailed information. Archive organization was designed taking into account regional and local aspects of geological hazard. In order to ensure consistency of the database and the quality of the data within it, an internal process of validation was included.

J. L. Gaspar; C. Goulart; G. Queiroz; D. Silveira; A. Gomes

2004-01-01

116

Dynamic structure and data sets of a GIS database for geological riskanalysis in the Azores volcanic islands  

Science.gov (United States)

Geological hazards in the Azores archipelago include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, degassing phenomena and landslides, being the cause of thousands of deaths and severe damage and loss. To reduce the impact of future events it is necessary to improve the emergency response and reinforce land-use planning, and this has given rise to the development of AZORIS, a GIS database for risk analysis in the Azores. At present this computer-based system comprises nine main dynamic data sets where elemental, monitoring and historical data are grouped in layers of first and second order. The logical structure of the database was conceived in order to facilitate interactivity between data sets and to guarantee the evolution of the system, as determined by the input and the generation of new and more detailed information. Archive organization was designed taking into account regional and local aspects of geological hazard. In order to ensure consistency of the database and the quality of the data within it, an internal process of validation was included.

Gaspar, J. L.; Goulart, C.; Queiroz, G.; Silveira, D.; Gomes, A.

2004-04-01

117

Geological structure and origin of the Kaochaison hot spring in Phattalung, Southern Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geophysical measurements were conducted in the Kaochaison hot spring area in southern Thailand. The purpose ofthis work is to determine subsurface geological structures related to the hot spring. Ninety-five gravity points and thirtysevenresistivity soundings were measured in the study area. A positive gravity anomaly is observed in the same area of highresistive bedrock over the Kaochaison hot spring. Both anomalies have an elongated shape with its major axis in N010Wdirection. A shallow Permian limestone of about 1 km thickness was modeled to explain this positive gravity anomaly. ThisPermian limestone is likely to be a part of a horst and graben structure related to the regional tectonics and the normal faultsact as pathways of the hot waters from a deeper heat source.

Sukrit Jonjana2; Worawut Lohawijarn2; Helmut Dürrast1

2012-01-01

118

Basic feasibility study with overseas geological structure survey in FY 1999 - Kalewa area, Myanmar (Summary)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purpose of evaluating coal resource in the Kalewa area southwest of Sagaing about 300km northwest of Mandalay city, Myanmar, survey was conducted on geology, test boring, specimen analysis, infrastructure, etc. The range of geological survey is approximately 5.5km{sup 2}, and test boring was carried out for 9 holes (total length: 2,046.74m). For the coal analysis, 8 specimens were used, and measurement was made of the combustion calorie, sulfur content, water content, density, ash, ash melting temperature, etc. Survey was also conducted on drilling conditions/methods for coal mines in the periphery, roads for coal transportation, barge loading ports, etc. The results of the survey are as follows. The thickness of the minable main coal seam is 2.1-2.9m, and the inclination angle is 40-42 degrees. Specimens from coal seams indicate low ash, low sulfur content and high combustion calorie. The estimated coal reserves are 7,730,000 tons, and they total 15,300,000 tons including those from other coal seams. In the development by the 100m-width longwall mining which was proposed, it is possible to produce 130,000 tons/year for more than 20 years. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

119

Characterization of multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA) system at JAEA for elemental analysis of geological and cosmochemical samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The newly installed multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA) system at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was characterized for nondestructive multi-element analysis of geological and cosmochemical samples. Analysis of the hydrogenous meteorite Orgueil by both MPGA and PGA implies that MPGA can be used for elemental determination with sufficient accuracy. For some elements which cannot be determined by conventional PGA due to the spectral interference or lower sensitivity, it was shown that they could be determined by MPGA.

Islam MA; Ebihara M; Toh Y; Murakami Y; Harada H

2012-08-01

120

Applications of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for geological samples in AMD for uranium exploration programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Non-destructive Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has been used over last three decades in AMD for analysis of geological samples for estimation of Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Zr, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Au, Th and U. The estimation has been done using various international standards. The irradiation of samples has been done in Cirus/Apsara Reactor in BARC, Mumbai. The measurement of desired gamma emission are carried out by Huge detector. The various geological samples from different parts of India are: 1. granites 2. charnokites 3. Basalts 4. Carbonatites 5. Xenotime 6. Monazite 7. Core samples 8. Black slabs. The efficiency modelling of HPGe detector was done using different sources and mathematical and statistical techniques. (author)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The tunnel project. Drill hole logging and structural geologic studies in the Grualia, the Lunner county  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In connection with the project ''Environmental and community useful tunnels'' the Norwegian Geologic Survey (NGU) has made geologic and geophysical investigations along parts of the tunnel at the Grualia in the Lunner county. The purpose of the geologic studies was to map and investigate weakness zones in the rock foundations. The geophysical studies aimed at testing techniques that was in little use in preliminary studies for tunnel operations. The methods used have been optical inspection of drill holes, measurements of temperature and conductivity in the water and the measuring of the natural gamma radiation in the drill holes. The resistivity in the drill holes is also determined and test pumping with flow measurements is carried out in order to calculate the well water influx capacity. These methods may contribute to information about the rock condition (cracking, water influx). Previously the NGU has made 2D resistivity measurements at the ground in the tunnel in order to map the weakness zones. The results from the measurements in 6 wells show large variations in the rock qualities. The wells are drilled towards indicated weakness zones. Open water conducting cracks and sections with largely cracked rocks are detected in or in the proximity of the tunnel route. The weakness zone between the hornfels and the syenite west of the Langvatnet is largely cracked, has a large water conducting capacity and there are some unstable masses. Further east several open, water- conducting cracks are detected in the syenite. Furthest to the east in the route cracked and unstable rocks are found. Several of the holes are blocked by ravines which confirm the poor rock quality. In the particular areas problems are to be expected during the operation with respect to water influx and stability. Methodically the drill hole studies have shown great value for the follow up of the 2D resistivity measurements on the ground. The indicated weakness zones through the 2D have been confirmed and characterised. The testing of the geophysical techniques has so far shown promising results. The 2D resistivity measurements on the ground with subsequent drilling, drill hole logging, pumping and flow measurements would give a good characterisation of the ground where the rock construction is planned. With a good geological foundation (structural mapping) the above techniques would contribute with valuable information concerning what may be expected in front of the hand specimen in tunnel work

2001-01-01

122

Sensitivity analysis concerning dose equivalents associated with the disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Even if dose calculations may be performed for nuclear waste repositories in deep geological formations, it is unavoidable that the credibility of the obtained results might be affected by huge incertitudes in connection in particular with a lack of precise knowledge of the different components of the performed evaluations (scenarios, models, parameters). In consequence, this paper presents the approach adopted at the CEA/IPSN for performing sensitivity analysis and some obtained results.

1989-01-01

123

Dynamic simulations of geologic materials using combined FEM/DEM/SPH analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of the Lawrence Discrete Element Code (LDEC) is presented, and results from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geologic materials using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC) are detailed. LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses using large numbers of polyhedral blocks. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model this class of problems, LDEC now includes implementations of Cosserat point theory and cohesive elements. This approach directly simulates the transition from continuum to discontinuum behavior, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture within a combined finite element/discrete element framework. In addition, there are many application involving geologic materials where fluid-structure interaction is important. To facilitate solution of this class of problems a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) capability has been incorporated into LDEC to simulate fully coupled systems involving geologic materials and a saturating fluid. We will present results from a study of a broad range of geomechanical problems that exercise the various components of LDEC in isolation and in tandem.

Morris, J P; Johnson, S M

2008-03-26

124

The geology and structural controls of the Olkaria geothermal system, Kenya  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Olkaria is a high-temperature geothermal system located within the central sector of the Kenya Rift Valley and associated with an area of late Quaternary rhyolitic volcanism. The geology is dominated by Pleistocene-Holocene comenditic rhyolite flows on the surface and basalts, trachytes and tuffs in the subsurface. The Olkaria field can be separated into east and west stratigraphic zones with the divide through the Olkaria Hill. The reservoir characteristics also follow this zonation. The geothermal reservoir in the east is hosted within Pleistocene Plateau Trachytes, while in the west it is within the Pliocene Mau Tuffs. Structural, geochemical, and hydrothermal alteration patterns indicate that the west field is at the margin of the larger Olkaria system. The anomalous bicarbonate enrichment in the west sector is due to additional adsorbed carbon dioxide from the mantle. (Author)

Omenda, Peter A. [Kenya Power Company, Naivasha (Kenya)

1998-02-01

125

Geology of coronae and domal structures on Venus and models of their origin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coronae (160 to 670 km across) and domal structures (greater than 1000 km across) are complex topographic highs on Venus that were affected by volcanic and topographic processes. The geology of coronae and a major domal structure, Beta Regio, are documented using Pioneer Venus, Arecibo, and Venera 15/16 data. The evolution and possible models of origin of these features are also investigated. Beta Regio is a 2000 x 2300 km topographic high located in the equatorial region of Venus that rises over 5 km above the surrounding region. Within Beta Regio lie two large volcanic shields, Theia and Rhea Mons. Coronae are circular to elongate structures on Venus, characterized by an annulus of concentric compressional ridges and relatively raised topography surrounded by a peripheral trough. Volcanic domes, flows and edifices, as well as tectonic lineaments characterize the interiors of coronae. Thirty one coronae were detected on Venus. Two analytical models were developed that are consistent with the general characteristics and evolution of coronae: hotspot or rising mantle diapir model and sinking mantle diapir model. Coronae appear to be part of a continuum of thermally produced features on Venus, along with volcanic complexes and domal structures such as Beta Regio.

Stofan, E.R.

1989-01-01

126

Determination of Iron and Nickel in Geological Samples by Activation Analysis with Reactor Fast Neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Threshold reactions induced by reactor fast neutrons are well recognized. The concentration of Fe and Ni were determined in nine geological samples by activation analysis with reactor fast neutrons using the threshold reactions 54Fe( n,p)54Mn and 58Ni ( n, p )'58Co respectively. The fast neutron flux was determined using the reactions 92Mo(n, 2n)92mNb and 95Mo(n,p)95Nb. The determined concentration of Fe and Ni in the samples were checked by determining them in the GSJ JB-1 reference material using the same , ( p, n) reactions. There are a good agreement between the measured and recommended values. The concentrations of Fe were also determined by the ) , ( n, ?) capture reactions in the geological samples and the JB-1 reference material using the K?- NAA method. There are good agreements between the determined concentrations from the ) , ( p, n) and the ( ?, n) reactions.

2009-01-01

127

Techniques developed for geologic analysis of hyperspectral data applied to near-shore hyperspectral ocean data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Imaging spectrometers or {open_quotes}Hyperspectral Sensors{close_quotes} simultaneously collect spectral data as both images and as individual spectra. A broad range of techniques have been examined, refined, and put into operational practice for analysis of geologic problems. This paper describes a successful geologic case history using an end-to-end approach on Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, including data calibration to reflectance, use of a linear transformation to minimize noise and determine data dimensionality, location of the most spectrally pure pixels, extraction of end member spectra, and spatial mapping of specific end members. Several supporting case studies using AVIRIS data of near-shore marine environments demonstrate the viability of these methods for studying the coastal zone. The methods described provide a starting point for image segmentation, material identification, and mapping of marine processes in the near-shore environment.

Kruse, F.A. [Analytical Imaging and Geophysics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Richardson, L.L. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Ambrosia, V.G. [JCWS, Inc., Moffett Field, CA (United States)

1997-06-01

128

Structural analysis of DAEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Differential algebraic equations (DAEs) constitute a fundamental model class for many modelling purposes in engineering and other sciences, especially for dynamical simulation of component based systems. This thesis describes a practical methodology and approach for analysing general DAE. The methodology is mainly based on strutural index analysis which is not limited by the index of the DAE as other methodologies. As a result of structural index analysis one can perform index reduction of the DAE and obtain the so-called augmented underlying ODE. It is also described, how to use the augmented underlying ODE for finding consistent initial values and solve the initial value problem for the original DAE. As a methodology for integrating the augmented underlying ODE, the dummy derivative method is investigated. The methodology avoids the traditional stability and drift-of problems of using the underlying ODE. The investigations concern the identification of quantities that can trigger the automatic choice of new dummy derivatives during integration. This is a practical problem that needs to be solved before implementations of the method are possible. The general methodology is tested in practice, by the implementation of the Simpy tool box. This is an object oriented system implemented in the Python language. It can be used for analysis of DAEs, ODEs and non-linear equation and uses e.g. symbolic representations of expressions and equations. The presentations of theory and algorithms for structural index analysis of DAE is original in the sense that it is based on a new matrix representation of the structural information of a general DAE system instead of a graph oriented representation. Also the presentation of the theory is found to be more complete compared to other presentations, since it e.g. proves the uniqueness of the structural index reduction process. Also included, is a discussion of criticism and defence of structural analysis.

Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

2002-01-01

129

Comparison of multiple prompt ?-ray analysis and prompt ?-ray analysis for the elemental analysis of geological and cosmochemical samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multiple prompt ?-ray analysis (MPGA) and conventional neutron-induced prompt ?-ray analysis (PGA) are nondestructive analytical methods for bulk chemical compositions, and their analytical capabilities were compared for elemental analyses of geological and cosmochemical samples. Detection sensitivities of PGA are often restricted by poor signal-to-noise ratios and interferences from different origins. MPGA can substantially reduce the background level, especially for hydrogenous samples, relative to PGA, which opens up a possibility to use lower energy prompt ?-rays of some trace elements. Although it is one of the major constituent elements of rock samples, Mg is hard to be determined by PGA. With MPGA, Mg contents could be determined with reasonable consistency with their corresponding recommended values in geological and cosmochemical samples by carefully selecting suitable coincident prompt ?-ray energy pairs without interference correction. MPGA was applied to a hydrogenous meteorite, Ivuna, which contains H at 2% mass level. MPGA detection limits for most of the elements studied can be reduced up to 1 order of magnitude when compared with PGA detection limits under the present experimental conditions.

Islam MA; Ebihara M; Toh Y; Harada H

2011-10-01

130

Geologic structure of Middle Mountain within the San Andreas Fault zone near Parkfield, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of the geometry and history of motion of rock bodies within fault zones such as the San Andreas fault (SAF) is essential input into mechanical models of earthquake rupture dynamics and fault evolution. The Parkfield segment of the SAF is the focus of significant geophysical characterization and borehole studies. In order to enhance the geologic information about the SAF structure in this area, we undertook an intensive high-resolution geologic mapping effort (1:6000 scale) of the Middle Mountain area (about 40 km^2). The geologic structure differs dramatically across the San Andreas fault zone. The northeast side contains numerous sub-parallel faults that likely accommodated significant strike slip motion. These high-angle faults bound granite, marble, and sedimentary rock slivers. The density and complexity of these faults increases toward the center of the fault zone. The Gold Hill reverse fault on the northeast side of the SAF is a low-angle southwest-dipping fault that locally displaces the older Tertiary Monterey Formation over the younger Tertiary Etchegoin Formation. Folds with axes trending parallel to the strike of the Gold Hill reverse fault are present within the hanging wall. The Plio-Pleistocene Paso Robles Formation dominates the southwest side of the SAF and is a formidable cover. Fault-bounded granitoid slivers are also present within the southwest terrain. One fault striking nearly normal to the SAF cuts rock units near the mid-section of Middle Mountain. To the northwest of this fault, older Tertiary formations are present. The folds within the hanging wall of the Gold Hill reverse fault and the reverse fault itself indicate SAF-normal shortening near the SAF zone. The Gold Hill fault most likely cuts the numerous high-angle sub-parallel faults at depth. With the northeastward-verging nature of this fault, the cross-section on the northeast side is a roughly hewn half-flower structure. The sedimentary basin into which the Paso Robles Formation was deposited has been inverted due to subsequent deformation adjacent to the SAF and now comprises the eroding apex of Middle Mountain. Cross-sections of the southwest side of the fault vary remarkably and increase in complexity to the northwest. In the southeastern half, a pronounced syncline within the Paso Robles Formation trends sub-parallel to the SAF. In the northwestern portion, the steeply dipping Buzzard Canyon fault repeats some Tertiary units. Apatite fission track dating of the granitoid blocks will provide us with the exhumation history of the basement blocks and thus an indication of their motion and vertical offset within the fault zone. Intensive field mapping is the essential tool that allows scientists to link varying thicknesses and other intrinsic characteristics of a fault zone to the mechanical properties of the actual rock bodies. This high-resolution study significantly constrains the geology and geometry of the crustal blocks of this area and allows us to better understand the tectonic history of the Middle Mountain uplift feature. This in turn provides us with a greater knowledge of how mechanical properties of these blocks influence the observed geophysical and geodetic properties within the area.

Thayer, M. R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Young, J.; Fayon, A.; Rymer, M.

2004-12-01

131

Structural geology and evolution of the Mississippi Fan fold belt, deep Gulf of Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mississippi Fan fold belt, located in the deep Gulf of Mexico beneath the upper and middle Mississippi Fan, is characterized mainly by basinward-verging anticlines and associated thrust faults. The fold belt extends approximately 300 km eastward and is approximately 50 km wide. Based on correlations with deep Gulf of Mexico seismic sequences (Challenger, Campeche, Lower Mexican Ridges, Middle Mexican Ridges, and Upper Mexican Ridges), the folded strata are interpreted to be Upper Jurassic through Miocene. Salt tongues or sheets in the lower slope have overridden and partly masked parts of the fold belt. In this paper, the authors concentrate on the Mississippi Fan fold belt, and (1) describe the structural geology of the Mississippi Fan fold belt, (2) document the relationships of tectonics and sedimentation within the fold belt, (3) show the timing of structural growth and evolution of the fold belt based on new ages for deep Gulf of Mexico sequences, and (4) present a model for the evolution of the fold belt. Geometric and detailed kinematic descriptions of the fold belt and their relationship to syntectonic sedimentation are not included here, but are the subject of current research. These fold belts are of particular interest to the petroleum industry because of the large size of the structures and the potential for large petroleum accumulations.

Weimer, P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Buffler, R.T. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1992-02-01

132

Analysis by neutronic activation of samples of a geologic formation of Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis by neutronic activation (AAN) is an analytical non destructive technique of high accuracy and sensibility. These advantages are very utilized in the determination of geological multielemental samples. In the job 22 elements are determined in 9 geological samples pertaining to the complex of dams of acid composition that includes the graphitic micaceous schist and the quartzites of the Canada Formation, developed fundamentally in the fasteners of the anticlinal Victoria (Yac. of Wolframio Lela, Island of the Youth, Cuba) The results obtained are of great importance for the evaluation of the potentiality of these rocks as fountains or of uranium adjusting and for the geologic prognostic of the region in study. The irradiation of the samples was carried out during three campaigns, in two occasions (October 1992 and November 1994) in the reactor of investigations of the ININ of Mexico, with a flow of thermic neutrons of 10a the 13 n.s-1 cm-2 and in an occasion in the nuclear reactor of the CAB (september 1994), with a flow of thermic neutrons of 6x 10 to the 12 n.s-1. The results were processed with the program ACTAM in the CEADEN. (S. Grainger)

1997-01-01

133

Determination of trace rhodium in geological samples by fire assay and neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two pre-concentration methods for rhodium in geological samples, lead fire assay and nickel sulfide fire assay, were briefly described. Using fire assay combined with neutron activation analysis (NAA), rhodium in 5 certified reference materials were measured. The recoveries of rhodium by lead and nickel sulfide fire assay were 81.5%± 1.2% and 75.1%±3.9%, respectively, and the latter was proved to be independent on matrices of chemical standards and geological standard materials. The analytical results of rhodium in 5 geological standard materials are well agreed with the certified values. Rhodium of 10-9 level was accurately measured by NAA combined with lead fire assay, and 10-10 level was accurately measured by NAA combined with nickel sulfide fire assay. Interference factors in the two pre-concentration methods were discussed, and correction for lead absorption was also carried out. Calculations of the detection limits show that a higher sensitivity is available with a planar germanium detector and a nickel sulfide fire assay. (authors)

2008-01-01

134

Missouri Geological Survey Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission of the Geological Survey Program is to assist Missourians, industry, and government in the wise use of the state's minerals, land, and water resources, and to apply the principles of geology toward a beneficial use of these resources for a better standard of living, and for a better environment in which Missourians can live. This site contains sections on wellhead protection, environmental geology, and general geological data. Reports provide information about fossils, the Ozarks, the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, lead, oil, gas, mineral resources, and specific state areas that have interesting geological features. Maps indicate state topography, geology, structural features, groundwater and minerals. There are links provided for additional resources.

135

How Students and Field Geologists Reason in Integrating Spatial Observations from Outcrops to Visualize a 3-D Geological Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

Geologists and undergraduate students observed eight artificial "rock outcrops" in a realistically scaled field area, and then tried to envision a geological structure that might plausibly be formed by the layered rocks in the set of outcrops. Students were videotaped as they selected which of fourteen 3-D models they thought best represented the…

Kastens, Kim A.; Agrawal, Shruti; Liben, Lynn S.

2009-01-01

136

Yucca Mountain thermal response: An evaluation of the effects of modeled geologic structure and thermal property descriptions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To assess the influence of mountain-scale thermal property model variations on predicted host-rock thermal response, a series of heat conduction calculations were run using a representative two-dimensional cross section of Yucca Mountain. The effects of modeled geologic structure were evaluated through comparisons of results from a single-material, homogeneous model with those from a uniformly layered model, a discontinuous sloping-layered model, and a geo-statistical realization of thermal properties. Comparisons indicate that assumed geologic structure can result in up to a 24 degrees C difference in predicted temperature response. Further, thermal simulations of the method used to analyze geostatistical realizations of thermal properties shows promise as an efficient means of capturing geologic structure without the complexities of intricate finite element meshing. The functional representation of two thermal property models were also investigated. The first examines the effect of using a weighting scheme to define properties for a single, homogenous material model. The second investigates the impact of thermal property temperature dependence on predicted response. As with the investigation of geologic structure, noticeable differences in predicted temperatures (up to 29 degrees C) were found to result

1995-01-01

137

Geologic framework, structure, and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Knippa Gap area in eastern Uvalde and western Medina Counties, Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Edwards aquifer is the primary source of potable water for the San Antonio area in south-central Texas. The Knippa Gap was postulated to channel or restrict flow in the Edwards aquifer in eastern Uvalde County, and its existence was based on a series of numerical simulations of groundwater flow in the aquifer. To better understand the function of the area known as the Knippa Gap as it pertains to its geology and structure, the geologic framework, structure, and hydrogeologic characteristics of the area were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Fort Worth District. The principal structural feature in the San Antonio area is the Balcones Fault Zone, which is the result of Miocene age faulting. In Medina County, the faulting of the Balcones Fault Zone has produced a relay-ramp structure that dips to the southwest from the Edwards aquifer recharge zone and extends westward and below land surface from Seco Creek. Groundwater flow paths in the Edwards aquifer are influenced by faulting and geologic structure. Some faults act as barriers to groundwater flow paths where the aquifer is offset by 50 percent or more and result in flow moving parallel to the fault. The effectiveness of a fault as a barrier to flow changes as the amount of fault displacement changes. The structurally complex area of the Balcones Fault Zone contains relay ramps, which form in extensional fault systems to allow for deformation changes along the fault block. In Medina County, the faulting of the Balcones Fault Zone has produced a relay-ramp structure that dips to the southwest from the Edwards aquifer recharge zone. Groundwater moving down the relay ramp in northern Medina County flows downgradient (downdip) to the structural low (trough) from the northeast to the southwest. In Uvalde County, the beds dip from a structural high known as the Uvalde Salient. This results in groundwater moving from the structural high and downgradient (dip) towards a structural low (trough) to the northeast. These two opposing structural dips result in a subsurface structural low (trough) locally referred to as the Knippa Gap. This trough is located in eastern Uvalde County beneath the towns of Knippa and Sabinal. By using data that were compiled and collected for this study and previous studies, a revised map was constructed depicting the geologic framework, structure, and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Knippa Gap area in eastern Uvalde and western Medina Counties, Tex. The map also shows the interpreted structural dip directions and interpreted location of a structural low (trough) in the area known as the Knippa Gap.

Clark, Allan K.; Pedraza, Diana E.; Morris, Robert R.

2013-01-01

138

An evaluation of co-planar lineament analysis and some thoughts on using surface geological data to predict sub-surface geology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computerized method of detecting lineaments on the Earth's surface from digital topographic data was evaluated for its usefulness in exploration and development of natural gas from tight sandstones. The method, known as co-planar lineament analysis, was applied to the topography of the Douglas Creek Arch of northwestern Colorado, where significant amounts of natural gas have been produced from the Upper Cretaceous Mancos B sandstone. The locations of the co-planar lineaments detected correspond poorly with the locations of linear trends on contour maps of cumulative production and initial production. Because co-planar lineaments are reflections of surface features that are mostly the results of surface geology, it is not too surprising to see a lack of correlation with natural gas production, which depends upon aspects of sub-surface geology. The conclusion of this study is not that co-planar lineament analysis will never work in the search for tight gas. Rather it is that its application to natural gas exploration and development will not work everywhere. Areas where the technique would be best employed would probably be those where the reservoir is relatively shallow, the surface rocks and reservoir rocks are similar in age and lithology, and where the subsurface geology is relatively simple with no unconformities, thrust faults, or plastic layers such as salt or soft shale between the surface and gas reservoir. In addition, it must be demonstrated that straight stream segments within a given area are indeed caused by joints in the surface rocks and not some other geological phenomenon such as the strike of an easily eroded bed. 31 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

Smith, A.C.

1990-06-01

139

Imaging the underground geologic structures by improved downward continuation of MT fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose an improved method of downward continuation of MT field to interpret underground geologic structures faster and accurately. MT fields observed at the surface can be separated into downgoing and upgoing components : the former is generated from source and the latter from geoelectric boundaries. Both upgoing and downgoing components of MT fields at any depth inside the earth were calculated by solving a diffusion equation. The phase differences between upgoing and downgoing components of MT fields are independent of frequencies at geoelectric boundaries, so that we could find the position and conductivities of anomalous bodies. Until recently, the method involving downward continuing scheme was sensitive just at the shallowest anomalous body because it separated MT fields only at the surface. To overcome this shortcoming, we separated the fields at every geoelectric boundaries by using information on the position and with the conductivities of anomalous bodies obtained sequentially. Using this revised downward continuation algorithm, we could interpret underground structure with accuracy comparable to inversion method, but much faster. (author). 3 refs., 15 figs.

Seo, Ki-Weon [University of Texas, Texas(United States); Kwon, Byung-Doo [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea)

2000-10-31

140

Phylogeographic structure in an Australian freshwater shrimp largely pre-dates the geological origins of its landscape.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phylogeographic structure of cryptic lineages within the freshwater shrimp Caridina indistincta Calman, 1926 (Decapoda: Atyidae) was investigated in an attempt to unravel any potential genetic influences of Quaternary sea-level oscillations. The study was based on mitochondrial DNA sequences from specimens from lakes and creeks in the sand dune areas of southeast Queensland, eastern Australia. Four divergent lineages were identified, two of which were from Moreton and North (N.) Stradbroke Islands. Lineage 'C1' has been found only on Moreton Island and the western part of N. Stradbroke Island, whereas 'C2' was found on the eastern side of N. Stradbroke Island and a few locations on the mainland. These diverged from each other during the Late Miocene/Pliocene and so are older than the current landscape in which they are found. Small-scale phylogeographic analysis of C1 identified four separate geographic areas, within the two islands, whose divergences date to the Pleistocene (approximately 100-300 thousand years ago ('kya')). The N. Stradbroke Island population of C2 also diverged from the mainland during the Pleistocene, as did a sympatric freshwater fish Rhadinocentrus ornatus Regan, 1914 (Melanotaeniidae). This implies that the ice-age sea-level changes may have structured these populations, although there is little observable influence of the last glacial maximum (approximately 18 kya). Most estimates for the age of the landscape (dunes, lakes) also fall within the Pleistocene and so the effect of sea-level change may be seen both in biology and geology.

Page TJ; Hughes JM

2007-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Experimental performance evaluation of a compton suppression system by an analysis of geological reference materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compton scattering is one of major sources inducing a high background when a gamma ray spectrum is acquired from a radioactive sample. The high background spectrum deteriorates the detection sensitivity for an analysis of the nuclide of interest. To improve the detection sensitivity by the reduction of the spectrum background, a Compton suppression system (CSS) applying an anti coincidence mode was developed and has been used for a neutron activation analysis. A Compton suppression system (CSS) was implemented for an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at an NAA laboratory of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 2009. The CSS consists of a high purity Ge (HPGe) detector and bismuth germinate (BGO) with electronic modules. An evaluation of the performance of the CSS was carried out based on the measurement of the gamma ray emitting source and the detectable nuclides created thorough neutron activation of biological reference materials. This study was executed to evaluate the performance of the CSS for geological standard reference materials (SRMs). Four geological SRMs produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA were selected and irradiated using an NAA 1 irradiation hole at HANARO. Gamma ray spectra with normal mode and anti coincidence mode were acquired at the same time, and advantage factors of CSS for each nuclide detected were calculated on the basis of the signal to noise ratio

2012-01-01

142

Experimental performance evaluation of a compton suppression system by an analysis of geological reference materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compton scattering is one of major sources inducing a high background when a gamma ray spectrum is acquired from a radioactive sample. The high background spectrum deteriorates the detection sensitivity for an analysis of the nuclide of interest. To improve the detection sensitivity by the reduction of the spectrum background, a Compton suppression system (CSS) applying an anti coincidence mode was developed and has been used for a neutron activation analysis. A Compton suppression system (CSS) was implemented for an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at an NAA laboratory of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 2009. The CSS consists of a high purity Ge (HPGe) detector and bismuth germinate (BGO) with electronic modules. An evaluation of the performance of the CSS was carried out based on the measurement of the gamma ray emitting source and the detectable nuclides created thorough neutron activation of biological reference materials. This study was executed to evaluate the performance of the CSS for geological standard reference materials (SRMs). Four geological SRMs produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA were selected and irradiated using an NAA 1 irradiation hole at HANARO. Gamma ray spectra with normal mode and anti coincidence mode were acquired at the same time, and advantage factors of CSS for each nuclide detected were calculated on the basis of the signal to noise ratio.

Moon, J. H.; Sun, G. M.; Kim, S. H.; Chung, Y. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

143

Simulations of Fracture and Fragmentation of Geologic Materials using Combined FEM/DEM/SPH Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of the Lawrence Discrete Element Code (LDEC) is presented, and results from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geologic materials using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC) are detailed. LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses using large numbers of polyhedral blocks. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model this class of problems, LDEC now includes implementations of Cosserat point theory and cohesive elements. This approach directly simulates the transition from continuum to discontinuum behavior, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture within a combined finite element/discrete element framework. In addition, a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) capability has been incorporated into LDEC, permitting the simulation of fluid-structure interaction. We will present results from a study of detonation-induced fracture and fragmentation of geologic media surrounding a tunnel using LDEC.

Morris, J P; Johnson, S M

2007-04-05

144

Simulations of Fracture and Fragmentation of Geologic Materials using Combined FEM/DEM Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are presented from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geological media using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC). LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses with large numbers of intact polyhedral blocks. However, underground structures in jointed rock subjected to explosive loading can fail due to both rock motion along preexisting interfaces and fracture of the intact rock mass itself. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model these types of problems, we have implemented Cosserat point theory and cohesive element formulations into the current version of LDEC, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture and combined finite element/discrete element simulations. Results of a large-scale LLNL simulation of an explosive shock wave impacting an elaborate underground facility are also discussed. It is confirmed that persistent joints lead to an underestimation of the impact energy needed to fill the tunnel systems with rubble. Non-persistent joint patterns, which are typical of real geologies, inhibit shear within the surrounding rock mass and significantly increase the load required to collapse a tunnel.

Morris, J P; Rubin, M B; Block, G I; Bonner, M P

2005-05-26

145

Geological structures from televiewer logs of GT-2, Fenton Hill, New Mexico: Part 3, Quality control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A procedure has been developed for extracting geological structures from paper prints of intensity-mode televiewer logs. It was applied to old logs of drill hole GT-2 at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock Site. A series of tests have also been developed for measuring the resultant data quality, and this report describes these tests and applies them to evaluate the procedure. A test for measurement accuracy shows that locations were measured to better than 0.1 ft and orientations to within 1/sup 0/. The root-mean-square error in fitting a trace rarely exceeded 0.2 ft. The second set of tests, for reproducibility, measures the amount of association between two different runs of the same length of hole, in this case a distance of 275 ft. Two new measures of association are defined, termed coplanarity and collinearity. The lack of any recurrences requires explanation and leads to a third set of tests, for repetition rate. The low repetition rate is explained by random errors in location and orientation, which are different on each run. A fourth set of tests consists of fitting a model of the feature-extraction process to the data and estimating data reliability from quality parameters of the model. A perception model yielded an estimate of data quality at 91.5%.

Burns, K.L.

1987-12-01

146

Information on subsoil geological structure in the city of Catania (Eastern Sicily) from microtremor measurements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nakamura?s technique, or the H/V spectral ratio method, has been applied to microtremor measurements carried out in the urban area of Catania (Eastern Sicily) to obtain information on the geological structure of some sites,and to make a hypothesis on their seismic response. In general, sites located on soft soils or anthropic debris fillings have shown greater amplification at high frequencies (above 1 Hz). However, a strong lateral variation was observed in the frequency band, thus a denser grid of measurement points is necessary for a precise mapping of the resonant frequencies. In the low frequency range, between 0.1 and 1 Hz, a common peak around 0.2 Hz was observed. The fundamental resonant frequency inferred from the main peak in the H/V spectrum has been used to calculate the depth of the interface between the clays and the main reflector on the basis of the shear-wave velocity: it has been estimated as about 700 m.

E. Giampiccolo; S. Gresta; M. Mucciarelli; G. De Guidi; M. R. Gallipoli

2001-01-01

147

Information on subsoil geological structure in the city of Catania (Eastern Sicily) from microtremor measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nakamura's technique, or the H/V spectral ratio method, has been applied to microtremor measurements carried out in the urban area of Catania (Eastern Sicily) to obtain information on the geological structure of some sites, and to make a hypothesis on their seismic response. In general, sites located on soft soils or anthropic debris fillings have shown greater amplification at high frequencies (above 1 Hz). However, a strong lateral variation was observed in the frequency band, thus a denser grid of measurement points is necessary for a precise mapping of the resonant frequencies. In the low frequency range, between 0.1 and 1 Hz, a common peak around 0.2 Hz was observed. The fundamental resonant frequency inferred from the main peak in the H/V spectrum has been used to calculate the depth of the interface between the clays and the main reflector on the basis of the shear-wave velocity: it has been estimated as about 700 m.

Giampiccolo, E.; Gresta, S.; De Guidi, G. [Catania Univ., Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Geologiche; Gallipoli, M. R. [Potenza Univ. della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Strutture, Geotecnica e Geologia Applicata; Mucciarelli, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientale, Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy)

2001-02-01

148

Lithospheric Structure of Antarctica and Implications for Geological and Cryospheric Evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent broadband seismic deployments, including the AGAP/GAMSEIS array of 24 broadband seismographs over the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) in East Antarctica and the POLENET/ANET deployment of 33 seismographs across much of West Antarctica, reveal the detailed crust and upper mantle structure of Antarctica for the first time. The seismographs operate year-around even in the coldest parts of Antarctica, due to novel insulated boxes, power systems, and modified instrumentation developed in collaboration with the IRIS PASSCAL Instrument Center. We analyze the data using several different techniques to develop high-resolution models of Antarctic seismic structure. We use Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods of 20-180 s determined using a modified two-plane wave decomposition of teleseismic Rayleigh waves to invert for the three dimensional shear velocity structure. In addition, Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities obtained by ambient seismic noise correlation methods provide constraints at shorter periods and shallower depths. Receiver functions provide precise estimates of crustal structure beneath the stations, and P and S wave tomography provides models of upper mantle structure down to ~ 500 km depth along transects of greater seismic station density. The new seismic results show that the high elevations of the GSM are supported by thick crust (~ 55 km), and are underlain by thick Precambrian continental lithosphere that initially formed during Archean to mid-Proterozoic times. The absence of lithospheric thermal anomalies suggests that the mountains were formed by a compressional orogeny during the Paleozoic, thus providing a locus for ice sheet nucleation throughout a long period of geological time. Within West Antarctica, the crust and lithosphere are extremely thin near the Transantarctic Mountain Front and topographic lows such as the Bentley Trench and Byrd Basin, which represent currently inactive Cenozoic rift systems. Slow seismic velocities beneath Marie Byrd Land at asthenospheric depths suggest a major thermal anomaly, possibly due to a mantle plume. Volcanic earthquakes detected in this region indicate the presence of currently active magma systems. The results suggest large lateral changes in parameters needed for glaciological models, including lithospheric thickness, mantle viscosity, and heat flow. Extremely high heat flow is predicted for much of West Antarctica, consistent with recent results from the WAIS ice drilling. Using the seismic results to estimate mantle viscosity, we find several orders of magnitude difference in viscosity between East and West Antarctica, with lowest viscosities found beneath Marie Byrd Land and the West Antarctic Rift System. Realistic glacial isostatic adjustment models must take these large lateral variations into account.

Wiens, Douglas; Heeszel, David; Sun, Xinlei; Lloyd, Andrew; Nyblade, Andrew; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Aster, Richard; Chaput, Julien; Huerta, Audrey; Hansen, Samantha; Wilson, Terry

2013-04-01

149

Strategies for Mars remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of sulfur in geological samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The key to understanding the sulfur history on Mars is to identify and determine sulfate and sulfide compositions and then to draw from them geologic clues about their environments of formation. To lay a foundation for use of remote LIBS to sulfur analysis in planetary exploration, we have undertaken a focused study of sulfur LIBS in geological samples in a simulated Mars atmosphere, with experimental parameters replicating the ChemCam LIBS instrument. A suite of twelve samples was selected, including rocks rich in minerals representative of sulfates and sulfides that might be encountered on Mars. Univariate analysis of sulfur emission lines did not provide quantitative information. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was successful at modeling sulfur concentrations for a subset of samples with similar matrices. Sulfide minerals were identified on the basis of other siderophile or chalcophile peaks, such as those arising from Zn and Cu. Because the S lines are very weak compared to those of other elements, optimal PLS results were obtained by restricting the wavelength range to channels close to the most intense sulfur lines ? 540-570 nm. Principal components analysis was attempted on the dataset, but did not differentiate the samples into meaningful groups because the sulfur lines are not strong enough. However, areas of the relatively weak S, H, and O peaks may be used to correctly classify all samples. Based on these outcomes, a flowchart that outlines a possible decision tree for identification and quantification of sulfur in remote LIBS analysis was constructed. Results suggest that LIBS data acquired under Mars conditions can meet the science requirements for the ChemCam instrument.

2011-01-01

150

Geological structure of Charity Shoal crater, Lake Ontario, revealed by multibeam bathymetry  

Science.gov (United States)

Acoustic images of Charity Shoal in Lake Ontario, derived from a 1 × 1 m grid model of bathymetry assembled by the Canadian Hydrographic Service in 2010-2011, confirm the existence of a crater, as revealed by its surface morphology. With these higher quality data, it is possible to describe the crater in much greater detail, and arrive at a better interpretation of the geology than was possible using the earlier bathymetry of Lake Ontario. This new bathymetry of Charity Shoal reveals a continuous rim encircling an ovoid-shaped crater floor 1,200-1,500 m in diameter, with the crater floor being largely devoid of relief. Extending 3-4 km southwest of the crater is a ridge capped by a linear zone of unstratified debris that resembles a medial moraine. NE-SW erosional valleys cut across the crater rim in its southwestern sector. Apparently, glacial erosion has stripped the soil zone off stratified bedrock beneath the crater rim, exposing an intricate pattern of micro-ridges and grooves that bear the record of differential resistance to erosion of successive beds within the sequence of rock strata. Mapping of the shallow structure of the bedrock reveals a continuous ring anticline coinciding with the crater rim, with rock strata dipping gently in both directions away from the rim axis. In combination with existing evidence on the regional stratigraphy, these observations and interpretations are consistent with the Charity Shoal crater having formed in a shallow marine environment by an extraterrestrial impact event in the Middle Ordovician, followed by post-impact sedimentation, and much later, erosion during Pleistocene glaciations. Apparently, post-impact sediments infilled the crater and eventually covered the crater rim, leaving only a diminished structural expression of a crater having no more than 20 m of surface relief. Further details of crater history and origin, and a test of the hypothesis of impact, will likely come from acoustic reflection profiling and direct sampling.

Holcombe, Troy L.; Youngblut, Scott; Slowey, Niall

2013-08-01

151

Geologic Structure Detection by High Resolution Seismic Reflection Methods Near the Custer Hill Landfill.  

Science.gov (United States)

A seismic reflection survey was undertaken to detect geologic faults near the Custer Hill landfill at Fort Riley, Kansas. The survey was terminated after initial testing revealed that shallow seismic reflection was not an appropriate technique for the sit...

D. Steeples

2000-01-01

152

2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Asakawa, S.; Ikuma, T.; Tanifuji, R. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1996-05-01

153

Integrated geophysical and geological modelling: insights in the 3D structure and kinematics of the Hercynian Suture Zone in the Champtoceaux area (Brittany, France)  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the Editeur Géologique, a software specifically developed for the purpose of 3D geological modelling by the French Geological Survey (BRGM), we model a segment of the Hercynian suture zone of western Europe, in Champtoceaux area (Brittany, western France). The area shows exposures of strongly deformed eclogite-bearing gneisses and micaschists. These units were stacked during collision and exhumed during late Devonian to early Carboniferous times. Regional-scale dextral simple shear accompanied strike-slip movements along the SASZ (South Armorican Shear Zone). It produced a km-scale antiformal structure in the Champtoceaux metamorphic units with a steeply-dipping axial plane and a steeply eastward-plunging axis. Interpretation of the recent Armor2 seismic profile shows that the well-recognized north-dipping early lithological structuration is cross-cut by Carboniferous south-dipping inverse tectonics of crustal extension. In order to precise and extend in 3D the structures interpreted in the seismic profile, we model seven radial gravity profiles throughout Champtoceaux periclinal termination, based on data from the French gravity database. Direct 2D modelling is performed at a crustal scale, based on seismic constraints and geological field observations, as well as density measurements on samples or in drill holes. Input in the Editeur Géologique, the consistency of cross-sections, digitized geological map and structural information (foliation dips) is first checked. From the surface to the Moho, available spatialised 2D information is then interpolated in the whole 3D space using adapted geostatistical analysis. Finally, taking into account densities associated to each modelled geological body, the computation of the 3D gravity effect of the model is compared to the measured Bouguer anomaly, which insures that all complex 3D gravity effects are well taken into account. Results emphasise the usefulness of integrated geological and geophysical 3D modelling for the interpretation of crustal-scale tectonics and kinematics. Important geological results derived from this modelling are: (i) the 3D imaging of the south-dipping thrust band interpreted in the seismic profile; its compatibility with a kinematic model in which the folding of the Champtoceaux metamorphic complex and global thrust movements toward the north during late strike-slip movements along the SASZ are contemporaneous, (ii) the relatively shallowly rooted character of the northern limb of Champtoceaux anticline, a feature which was not expected from geological data, (iii) the 3D shape of granitic massifs sheared along the SASZ strike-slip: Vigneux syntectonic leucogranite rooted in the southern branch of the SASZ down to about 10-15 km and spread in subsurface, in the core of Champtoceaux arc, and Lanvaux orthogneiss, elongated along the hanging wall of the south-dipping thrust for more than 150 km, in subsurface as well.

Martelet, G.; Calcagno, Ph.; Gumiaux, C.; Truffert, C.; Bitri, A.; Gapais, D.; Brun, J. P.

2003-04-01

154

Progress on 129I analysis and its application in environmental and geological researches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Iodine-129 is a naturally generated isotope, but anthropogenic releases are the dominated source of 129I in the present environment. Among many measurement techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are only methods used for measurement of 129I in environmental level. Based on its source terms, chemical properties and environmental behaviors, 129Ican be applied for geological dating in a range of 2–80Ma, investigation of formation and migration of hydrocarbon, circulation of ocean water, atmospheric process of iodine, as well as reconstruction of dispersion and migration of short-lived radioisotopes of iodine released from nuclear accidents. This article aims to summarize and critically compare the analytical techniques used for 129I measurement and chemical methods for separation of iodine from various sample matrices, purification from the interferences, as well as preparation of suitable target for AMS measurement. The major applications in environmental and geological researches are reviewed, which mainly focus on the new progress and potential development in the future. The application of 129I in the investigation of radioactive contamination from the Fukushima accident is discussed.

Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin

2013-01-01

155

Image Gallery for Geology  

Science.gov (United States)

These images of geologic phenomena are used to supplement introductory geology classes at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The images are categorized under plutonic, volcanic and sedimentary rocks; structural geology; weathering; and coastlines. There are photographs of different kinds of volcanoes; lavas and pyroclastic rocks; volcanic hazards; different types of sedimentary rocks and sedimentary structures; folds and faults; beach processes; and barrier islands.

Glazner, Allen

156

Consideration on the applicability of the boundary element method to groundwater flow analysis for geological disposal of nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wide-area groundwater flow analysis for the geological disposal of nuclear waste is conducted in areas 10 to 100 km square at a depth of several kilometers. In Japan with complex topography and geological environment, numerical analyses by segmentation based on the region including FE analysis as a typical example involve difficulty in modeling. This study therefore aims at improving simplicity and preciseness of modeling using BEM through segmentation based on the boundary. Test analyses are conducted to organize data on precision and the characteristics of modeling. Then, this paper describes that the proposed method is fully applicable. (author)

2012-01-01

157

Radiocarbon analysis of hydrological, geological and archaeological samples by liquid scintillation spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

/sup 14/C a radioactive isotope of carbon is produced in the upper atmosphere by interaction of thermal neutrons produced by cosmic rays or nuclear weapon tests with atmospheric nitrogen. On oxidation into carbon dioxide, it joins the natural carbon cycle thereby labelling the carbonaceous materials directly or indirectly. /sup 14/C decays with a half life of 5730 years by emitting beta particles having maximum energy of 156 keV. Determination of /sup 14/C content of total dissolved inorganic carbon of hydrological samples helps in dating groundwater and understanding its recharge mechanism. This method is extensively used for dating geological and archaeological samples. For /sup 14/C analysis, the carbon content of samples is extracted and converted into benzene by intricate chemical process. The activity of the radiocarbon in the synthesized benzene is measured by a liquid scintillation spectrometer. (author) 4 figs.; 22 refs.

1995-01-01

158

Rare earths in environment and geologic samples determined by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation analysis allows to determine rare earth elements (REE) with a sensivity much higher than non-nuclear methods. In this work, this technique has been applied to the determination of REE in environmental samples, such as marine suspended particulate matter and sea, lake and river sediments. The importance of lanthanides in the environmental field is due to the fact that some REE, because of their nearly identical physico-chemical behaviour, can simulate the environmental behaviour of actinides, generated by activation or fission processes. Am(III) can be simulated by Eu(III) and Nd(III), that can simulate also Cm(III). As regardes REE in geological studies, their distribution and fractionation in rocks provide information about the genesis and the evolution of the rocks themselves. In this work, some data relevant to Kenya rocks are presented.

1985-01-01

159

The use of the MCNP code for the quantitative analysis of elements in geological formations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Monte Carlo modelling calculations using the MCNP code have been performed, which support the spectrometric neutron-gamma (SNGL) borehole logging. The SNGL enables the lithology identification through the quantitative analysis of the elements in geological formations and thus can be very useful for the oil and gas industry as well as for prospecting of the potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal. In the SNGL experiment, gamma-rays induced by the neutron interactions with the nuclei of the rock elements are detected using the gamma-ray probe of complex mechanical and electronic construction. The probe has to be calibrated for a wide range of the elemental concentrations, to assure the proper quantitative analysis. The Polish Calibration Station in Zielona Gora is equipped with a limited number of calibration standards. An extension of the experimental calibration and the evaluation of the effect of the so-called side effects (for example the borehole and formation salinity variation) on the accuracy of the SNGL method can be done by the use of the MCNP code. The preliminary MCNP results showing the effect of the borehole and formation fluids salinity variations on the accuracy of silicon (Si), calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) content determination are presented in the paper. The main effort has been focused on a modelling of the complex SNGL probe situated in a fluid filled borehole, surrounded by a geological formation. Track length estimate of the photon flux from the (n,gamma) interactions as a function of gamma-rays energy was used. Calculations were run on the PC computer with AMD Athlon 1.33 GHz processor. Neutron and photon cross-sections libraries were taken from the MCNP4c package and based mainly on the ENDF/B-6, ENDF/B-5 and MCPLIB02 data. The results of simulated experiment are in conformity with results of the real experiment performed with the use of the main lithology models (sandstones, limestones and dolomite). (authors)

Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Woynicka, U. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Zorski, T. [University of Mining and Metallurgy, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Krakow (Poland)

2003-07-01

160

Characterization of Geologic Structures and Host Rock Properties Relevant to the Hydrogeology of the Standard Mine in Elk Basin, Gunnison County, Colorado  

Science.gov (United States)

The Standard Mine Superfund Site is a source of mine drainage and associated heavy metal contamination of surface and groundwaters. The site contains Tertiary polymetallic quartz veins and fault zones that host precious and base metal sulfide mineralization common in Colorado. To assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in its effort to remediate mine-related contamination, we characterized geologic structures, host rocks, and their potential hydraulic properties to better understand the sources of contaminants and the local hydrogeology. Real time kinematic and handheld global positioning systems were used to locate and map precisely the geometry of the surface traces of structures and mine-related features, such as portals. New reconnaissance geologic mapping, field and x-ray diffraction mineralogy, rock sample collection, thin-section analysis, and elemental geochemical analysis were completed to characterize hydrothermal alteration, mineralization, and subsequent leaching of metallic phases. Surface and subsurface observations, fault vein and fracture network characterization, borehole geophysical logging, and mercury injection capillary entry pressure data were used to document potential controls on the hydrologic system.

Caine, Jonathan S.; Manning, Andrew H.; Berger, Byron R.; Kremer, Yannick; Guzman, Mario A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Schuller, Kathryn

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Possible uranium mineralization in the light of recognized geological and geotectonic structures in Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibilities for uranium mineralizations in the geological setting of Norway, i.e. parts of the Baltic Shield and the Caledonian mountain belt, are discussed. Experience from the limited prospecting carried out so far is that the uranium concentrations in the Precambrian rocks increase towards the Caledonian front. The area along the Caledonian front, in both the Baltic Shield and the Eocambrian sediments, is regarded as favourable for uranium prospecting. The intersections of this geological discontinuity and large geotectonic lineaments, in addition to Precambrian discontinuities, are singled out as the most interesting prospecting objects. Some of the geotectonic lineaments have been mapped from ERTS photos. (author)

1975-11-21

162

Evaluation and analysis of geological condition of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ore geological condition, hydrogeological condition, engineering geological condition and technological mineralogical character of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium are analyzed, and it is considered that the implementation of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium technology is decided by different geological factor. Previously prospecting and geological condition evaluation of uranium ore is based on traditional mining method. If in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium method is adopted, one must re-evaluate previously prospected deposits before they are mined, or one must evaluate new prospecting deposits according to geological conditions of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium method. The feasibility evaluation method of uranium deposit by in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium put forward by B. N. Mociniets is introducd, and it is considered that B. N. Mociniets method has guidable significance for geological condition evaluation before uranium deposits are mined. A feasibility study is done by applying B. N. Mociniets method to a uranium deposit. (authors)

2003-01-01

163

Geology for engineers  

CERN Multimedia

No engineering structure can be built on the ground or within it without the influence of geology being experienced by the engineer. Yet geology must remain an ancillary subject to students of engineering and it is therefore essential that their training is supported by a concise, reliable and usable text on the subject of geology and its relationship to engineering. In this book all the fundamental aspects of geology are described and explained, but within the limits thought suitable for engineers.Thus the structure of the Earth and the operation of its internal processes are describe

Blyth, FGH

1984-01-01

164

Review of the Geological and Structural Setting Near the Site of the Proposed Transuranic Waste Facility (TRUWF) Technical Area 52 (TA-52), Los Alamos National Laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of Los Alamos National Laboratorys proximal location to active geologic structures, assessment of seismic hazards, including the potential for seismic surface rupture, must occur before construction of any facilities housing nuclear or other hazar...

E. S. Schultz-Fellenz J. N. Gardner

2007-01-01

165

Geologic map and structure sections of the Cokeville 30-minute quadrangle, Lincoln and Sublette Counties, Wyoming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A geologic map of the Cokeville quadrangle in Lincoln and Sublette Counties, Wyoming is presented. The map's scale is 1:62,500, and mines and dry holes drilled for oil and natural gas are shown. Also included are 14 cross-sections of the quadrangle. (JMT)

Rubey, W.W.; Oriel, S.S.; Tracey, J.I. Jr.

1980-01-01

166

Maps Showing Geology and Shallow Structure of Eastern Rhode Island Sound and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents results of marine studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during the summers of 1975 and 1976 in eastern Rhode Island Sound and Vineyard Sound (fig. 1) located off the southeastern coast of Massachusetts. The study was made in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Public Works and the New England Division of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. It covered an area of the Atlantic Inner Continental Shelf between latitude 41 deg 12' and 41 deg 33'N, and between longitude 70 deg 37' and 71 deg 15'W (see index map). Major objectives included assessment of sand and gravel resources, environmental impact evaluation both of offshore mining of these resources and of offshore disposal of solid waste and dredge spoil material, identification and mapping of the offshore geology, and determination of the geologic history of this part of the Inner Shelf. A total of 670 kilometers (km) of closely spaced high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, 224 km of side-scan sonar data, and 16 cores totaling 90 meters (m) of recovered sediment, were collected during the investigation. This report is companion to geologic maps published for Cape Cod Bay (Oldale and O'Hara, 1975) and Buzzards Bay, Mass. (Robb and Oldale, 1977).

O'Hara, Charles J.; Oldale, Robert N.

1980-01-01

167

The Beaverhead impact structure, SW Montana and Idaho: Implications for the regional geology of the western U.S.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Beaverhead impact structure in SW Montana and Idaho is an allochthonous fragment of a large impact structure ({approximately} 100 km diameter) that was transported some distance eastward during the Cretaceous Sevier orogeny. It is the first tectonic fragment of a large impact structure identified in the geologic record. The present evidence for impact consists of shatter cones, pseudotachylites, and planar deformation features in quartz. The age of the impact is not well constrained but is estimated to be Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (1000-500 Ma). The Beaverhead impact event must have created other features that may be preserved, elsewhere in western Montana and Idaho. These include proximal and distal ejecta (which may be misinterpreted as diamictites and/or tuff horizons) and other fragments of the crater floor containing shatter cones and pseudotachylite. A large circular gravity, magnetic and topographic anomaly, which could be the root of the impact structure, has been identified near Challis, Idaho. An enigmatic lithic tuff, identified in drill cores from the Challis area and an intraformational quartzite breccia in the Leaton Gulch area may be impact-related deposits, but no definitive evidence of shock metamorphism has been observed in these materials. The discovery of more pieces of the Beaverhead puzzle, as well as the recognition of other large impacts in the geologic record, are likely once the regional geologic community grows to accept the incidence of such events and becomes more familiar with the features of shock metamorphism in the field. To that end, the community of geologists in this area should integrate the Beaverhead structure into their research and teaching curriculum.

Fiske, P.S.; Hargaves, R.B.

1994-03-17

168

On risk analysis for repositories in northern Switzerland: extent and probability of geological processes and events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The literature study assesses, in the form of expert analysis, geological processes and events for a 1200 km2-area of northern Switzerland, with regard to repositories for medium- and high-active waste (depth 100 to 600 m and 600 to 2500 m, respectively) over the next 106 years. The area, which comprises parts of the Tabular Jura, the folded Jura and the Molasse Basin, the latter two being parts of the Alpine Orogene, has undergone a non-uniform geologic development since the Oligocene. Within the next 104 to 105 years a maximum earthquake intensity of VIII-IX (MSK-scale) has been predicted. After this period, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the area, glaciations will probably occur, with associated erosion of possibly 200 to 300 m. Fluvial erosion as a reponse to an uplift could reach similar values after 105 to 106 years; however, there are no data on the recent relative vertical crustal movements of the area. The risk of a meteorite impact is considered small as compared to that of these factors. Seismic activity and the position and extent of faults are so poorly known within the area that the faulting probability cannot be derived at present. Flooding by the sea, intrusion of magma, diapirism, metamorphism and volcanic eruptions are not considered to be risk factors for final repositories in northern Switzerland. For the shallow-type repositories, the risk of denudation and landslides have to be judged when locality-bound projects have been proposed. (Auth.)

1981-01-01

169

An engineering geological appraisal of the Chamshir dam foundation using DMR classification and kinematic analysis, southwest of Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este articulo describe los resultados de una investigación de ingeniería geológica y estudios de mecánica de roca que se llevo a cabo en el lugar propuesto para le represa Chamshir. Se propone una presa de 155m de altura, de arco gravitacional en concreto de solido, la cua debe ser construida a través del rio Zuhreh al sureste de la ciudad de Gachsaran en el suroeste de Irán. La presa y su estructura asociada son localizadas principalmente sobre la formación Mishan (more) . El análisis consistió en la clasificación del macizo rocoso y un análisis cinemático de la fundación de la masa rocosa de la presa. Los estudios se llevaron a cabo en campo y laboratorio. Los estudios de campo incluyeron cartografía geológica, un estudio intensivo de discontinuidad, perforación de núcleo y toma de muestras para pruebas de laboratorio. La clasificación de la masa rocosa se realizo de acuerdo con la clasificación RMR y DMR para la fundación de la presa. El análisis de basamento rocoso de la presa en relación a la estabilidad usando la clasificación DMR y el análisis cinemático indico que el estribo izquierdo del basamento (área 2) es inestable para tipos de fallo planares y de cuña. Abstract in english This paper describes the results of engineering geological investigations and rock mechanics studies carried out at the proposed Chamshir dam site. It is proposed that a 155 m high solid concrete gravity-arc dam be built across the Zuhreh River to the southeast of the city of Gachsaran in south-western Iran. The dam and its associated structures are mainly located on the Mishan formation. Analysis consisted of rock mass classification and a kinematic analysis of the dam f (more) oundation's rock masses. The studies were carried out in the field and the laboratory. The field studies included geological mapping, intensive discontinuity surveying, core drilling and sampling for laboratory testing. Rock mass classifications were made in line with RMR and DMR classification for the dam foundation. Dam foundation analysis regarding stability using DMR classification and kinematic analysis indicated that the left abutment's rock foundation (area 2) was unstable for planar, wedge and toppling failure modes.

Torabi Kaveh, Mehdi; Heidari, Mojtaba

2011-12-01

170

Neutron-activation analysis of several US Geological Survey and National Bureau of Standards reference materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, several US Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) and National Bureau of Standards (N.B.S.) reference samples have been analyzed in an effort to improve the quality of elemental concentration data available on these materials, so they can be used in a program of verification of factor analysis source resolution procedures. The analyses of these samples were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples analyzed were: U.S.G.S. Green River Shale, N.B.S. 45b Homogeneous River Sediment, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Peridotite N.B.S. 1579 Powdered Lead-based Paint, U.S.G.S. Hawaian Basalt U.S.G.S. Marine Mud, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Cody Shale U.S.G.S. Glass Mountain Rhyolite, N.B.S. Argillaceous Limestone No. 1, and a sample of Spex ultrapure graphite. Neutron activation analysis was employed because of the high sensitivity that can be attained in determining elemental concentrations. Although INAA is a relatively simple method and the reproducibility of the data is good, the method shows some inaccuracies. The basic theory and technique are reviewed in an attempt to show where problems can arise and how they can be dealt with.

Daly, A.T.

1981-01-01

171

Two-dimensional spectral analysis of the distribution of terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate evaluated from geological map  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terrestrial gamma-ray dose-rate maps were derived from the geological maps of Hokkaido and Central Honshu. Two-dimensional Fourier analysis of the two dose-rate maps yielded power spectra, which are nearly isotropic for the most part of the wave number space. The validity of the dose-rate distribution estimated from the geological map was discussed on the basis of magmatic differentiation, and was tested by comparing the estimated values with the observed one-dimensional data. (author).

1993-01-01

172

Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

Kodge B. G.; Hiremath P. S.

2011-01-01

173

Mathematical and geological approaches to minimizing the data requirements for statistical analysis of hydraulic conductivity. Technical completion report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field scale heterogeneity has been recognized as a dominant control on solute dispersion in groundwater. Numerous random field models exist for quantifying heterogeneity and its influence on solute transport. Minimizing data requirements in model selection and subsequent parameterization will be necessary for efficient application of quantitative models in contaminated subsurface environments. In this study, a detailed quantitative sedimentological study is performed to address the issue of incorporating geologic information into the geostatistical characterization process. A field air-minipermeameter is developed for rapid in-situ measurements. The field study conducted on an outcrop of fluvial/interfluvial deposits of the Pliocene- Pleistocene Sierra Ladrones Formation in the Albuquerque Basin of central New Mexico. Architectural element analysis is adopted for mapping and analysis of depositional environment. Geostatistical analysis is performed at two scales. At the architectural element scale, geostatistical analysis of assigned mean log-permeabilities of a 0.16 km{sup 2} peninsular region indicates that the directions of maximum and minimum correlation correspond to the directions of the large-scale depositional processes. At the facies scale, permeability is found to be adequately represented as a log-normal process. Log-permeability within individual lithofacies appears uncorrelated. The overall correlation structure at the facies scale is found to be a function of the mean log-permeability and spatial distribution of the individual lithofacies. Based on field observations of abrupt spatial changes in lithology and hydrologic properties, an algorithm for simulating multi-dimensional discrete Markov random fields. Finally, a conceptual model is constructed relating the information inferred from dimensional environment analysis to the various random fields of heterogeneity.

Phillips, F.M.; Wilson, J.L.; Gutjahr, A.L.; Love, D.W.; Davis, J.M.; Lohmann, R.C.; Colarullo, S.J.; Gotkowitz, M.B.

1992-12-01

174

Integrated geophysical survey for the geological structural and hydrogeothermal study of the North-western Gargano promontory (Southern Italy)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A multimethodological geophysical survey was performed in the north-western part of the Gargano promontory to study the geological structural setting and the underground fluid flow characteristics. The area has a complex tectonics with some magmatic outcrops and shallow low-enthalpy waters. Electrical, seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic surveys were carried out to reconstruct the geological structures; and in order to delineate the hydrogeothermal characteristics of the area, the self-potential survey was mainly used. Moreover magnetic and self-potential measurements were also performed in the Lesina lake. The joint three-dimensional interpretation of the geophysical data disclosed a large horst and graben structure covering a large part of the area. In the central part of the horst a large ramified volcanic body was modelled. The models show some intrusions rising from it to or near to the surface. The main structures are well deep-seated in the Crust and along them deep warm fluids rise as the SP data interpretation indicates.

M. Loddo; R. Quarto; D. Schiavone

1996-01-01

175

Phylogeographic structure of Terminalia franchetii (combretaceae) in southwest China and its implications for drainage geological history.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the reorganization of the major river drainages in southwest China was primarily caused by river capture events. However, the impact of these past changes in drainage patterns on the current distribution and genetic structure of the endemic flora of this region remains largely unknown. Here we report a survey of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in Terminalia franchetii, an endemic shrub or small tree of the deep and dry-hot river valleys of this region. We surveyed AFLP variation within and among 21 populations (251 individuals) of T. franchetii, distributed disjunctively between northern and southern drainage systems. Using STRUCTURE, principal coordinates analysis, and genetic distance methods, we identified two main population genetic groups (I and II) and four subgroups within the species, as follows: (I) the Upper Jinshajiang Valley (subgroup I((north))) and the Honghe drainage area (subgroup I((south))); (II) the Middle and Lower Jinshajiang and Yalongjiang Valleys (subgroup II((north))) and the Nanpanjiang drainage area (subgroup II((south))). Genetic diversity was lower in group I than in group II. According to the genetic diversity and genetic structure results, we suggest that the modern disjunctive distribution and associated patterns of genetic structure of T. franchetii result from vicariance caused by several historical drainage capture events, involving the separation of the Upper Jinshajiang, Yalongjiang and Daduhe from the Honghe or Nanpanjiang in southwest China. PMID:20625791

Zhang, Ticao; Sun, Hang

2010-07-13

176

Phylogeographic structure of Terminalia franchetii (combretaceae) in southwest China and its implications for drainage geological history.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Following the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the reorganization of the major river drainages in southwest China was primarily caused by river capture events. However, the impact of these past changes in drainage patterns on the current distribution and genetic structure of the endemic flora of this region remains largely unknown. Here we report a survey of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in Terminalia franchetii, an endemic shrub or small tree of the deep and dry-hot river valleys of this region. We surveyed AFLP variation within and among 21 populations (251 individuals) of T. franchetii, distributed disjunctively between northern and southern drainage systems. Using STRUCTURE, principal coordinates analysis, and genetic distance methods, we identified two main population genetic groups (I and II) and four subgroups within the species, as follows: (I) the Upper Jinshajiang Valley (subgroup I((north))) and the Honghe drainage area (subgroup I((south))); (II) the Middle and Lower Jinshajiang and Yalongjiang Valleys (subgroup II((north))) and the Nanpanjiang drainage area (subgroup II((south))). Genetic diversity was lower in group I than in group II. According to the genetic diversity and genetic structure results, we suggest that the modern disjunctive distribution and associated patterns of genetic structure of T. franchetii result from vicariance caused by several historical drainage capture events, involving the separation of the Upper Jinshajiang, Yalongjiang and Daduhe from the Honghe or Nanpanjiang in southwest China.

Zhang T; Sun H

2011-01-01

177

Study on systemizing technology on investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. Japanese fiscal year, 2007 (Contract research)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this year, the following studies were carried out with the aim of systemizing the technology on the investigation and analysis to understand the deep underground geological environment in relation to the radioactive waste disposal. (1) The study on the research and development (R and D) subjects which turned to the practical investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. (2) The study on the advanced technical basis for the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. The results obtained from the studies are as follows: Regarding (1), the specific investigations, measurements and numerical and chemical analyses were performed particularly for research subjects: 1) engineering technology and 2) geological environment. Based on the results on (1), 3) tasks of collaboration research on intermediate area between the research fields, including the safety assessment field, were selected. Also redefinition of the NFC (Near Field Concept) were discussed. Regarding (2), based on the extracted tasks of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) research project, the study was implemented considering previous R and D results and detailed research at the research field was carried out. This study contributed to the R and D development for its practical application. Concurrently, information exchange and discussion on the 2nd phase (the Construction Phase) of the MIU (Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory) research program were often held. (author)

2009-01-01

178

Treatment of geological attributes in risk analysis applied to the appraisal phase of petroleum fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The appraisal phase of a petroleum development project is characterized by many uncertainties, high investment and critical decisions. This paper presents the results of a risk analysis study applied to the development of an oil field. The objective was to examine ways to simplify the process by numerical simulation and reservoir modelling. Risks regarding exploration and production can be obtained by quantifying the impact of uncertainties on the performance of oil fields. Risk analysis is critical because most investments are realized during the phase of greatest uncertainties in terms of the geological model, economic conditions and technological developments. A numerical simulation allows a detailed look at the reservoir performance through a probabilistic approach. It is difficult to quantify the impact of uncertainties because of the many variables that must be considered. The model presented in this paper can be applied to complex and simple reservoirs in a reasonable amount of time to quantify the impact of treatments; sensitivity studies; gradual combination of the less critical attributes in the sensitivity study; and, the influence of the number of critical attributes. Simulation results were combined to calculate the net present value and to define the risk curve. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

Costa, A.P.A.; Schiozer, D.J. [State Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil)

2003-07-01

179

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of Moroccan geological samples using the k0-standardization method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for traces and major elements of several geological samples from 'Zgounder' region in Morocco was performed utilizing the k0-standardization method. Sample irradiation has been done by the 250 kW Triga Mark II reactor at Jozef Stefan Institute in Slovenia. Due to its accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, the k0-standardization method is the most suitable method for non-destructive multielement analysis mainly for trace elements in rocks. It requires an accurate knowledge of the parameters of the irradiation facilities and other instrumentation parameters. It is an absolute standardization method, where the absolute nuclear data are replaced by a nuclear constant, the k0-factor, determined experimentally with high accuracy. More than 40 elements were determined using about 30-second short and about 7-hour long irradiations. Gamma-rays emitted from the irradiated samples have been determined by a high purity germanium detector. Accuracy was assessed using the standard reference material AGV-1. This was less than 1% for major elements and about 5% for traces. (author)

2004-01-01

180

Maps Showing Geology and Shallow Structure of Western Rhode Island Sound, Rhode Island  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the results of a high-resolution, seismic-reflection, and sidescan-sonar survey conducted in western Rhode Island Sound south of Narragansett Bay (fig. 1 inset) by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1980. The study defines the geologic framework of the Atlantic Inner Continental Shelf between lat. 41 deg 09' and 41 deg 32'N and long. 71 deg 07' and 71 deg 37'W. A total of 580 kilometers (km) of seismic-reflection profiles and 580 km of sidescan sonographs was collected aboard the RV Neecho. Trackline spacing was 1 to 2 km at the mouth of Narragansett Bay, and dip lines were 2 km apart with widely spaced strike lines in Rhode Island Sound (fig. 1). The maps in this report adjoin those for eastern Rhode Island Sound and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts, of O'Hara and Oldale (1980).

Needell, Sally W.; O'Hara, Charles J.; Knebel, Harley J.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Reactor neutron activation analysis of geological samples and a comparison with other non-nuclear analytical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in geological research is discussed. The technique was developed as far back as the beginning of the 1970s, though since then no improvement in detectable elements or accuracy has taken place. Approximately 40 elements can be analysed by instrumental activation analysis. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed increases to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in geological research, activation analysis has some unique features. It thus continues to have a strong position in basic geochemical research. About half of all the publications dealing with basic research includes activation analysis determinations. In routine geochemical surveys and mineral exploration, NAA is much less frequently used. However, a few examples of geochemical surveys, especially for uranium, but also gold and other elements, can be found in the literature. (author). 48 refs, 8 tabs.

1991-01-01

182

Analysis on the use of engineered barriers for geologic isolation of spent fuel in a reference salt site repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A perspective on the potential durability and effectiveness requirements for the waste form, container and other engineered barriers for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. This perspective is based on calculated potential doses to individuals who may be exposed to radioactivity released from a repository via a groundwater transport pathway. These potential dose commitments were calculated with an integrated geosphere transport and bioshpere transport model. A sensitivity analysis was accomplished by varying four important system parameters, namely the waste radionuclide release rate from the repository, the delay prior to groundwater contact with the waste (leach initiation), aquifer flow velocity and flow path length. The nuclide retarding capacity of the geologic media, a major determinant of the isolation effectiveness, was not varied as a parameter but was held constant for a particular reference site. This analysis is limited to looking only at engineered barriers whose net effect is either to delay groundwater contact with the waste form or to limit the rate of release of radionuclides into the groundwater once contact has occurred. The analysis considers only leach incident scenarios, including a water well intrusion into the groundwater near a repository, but does not consider other human intrusion events or catastrophic events. The analysis has so far been applied to a reference salt site repository system and conclusions are presented.Basically, in nearly all cases, the regional geology is the most effective barrier to release of radionuclides to the biosphere; however, for long-lived isotopes of carbon, technetium and iodine, which were poorly sorbed on the geologic media, the geology is not very effective once a leach incident is initiated

1980-01-01

183

Safety analysis of geologic containment of long life radioactive wastes. Critical assessment of existing methods and proposition of prospective approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing methods of risk analysis applied to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in geologic formations are rewieved. A prospective analysis method for containment performances is proposed, deduced in the burial system from the combination of interaction between wastes, repository, host rock, surrounding geosphere, of natural evolution of each component of the system, sudden or chance events that could break waste containment. The method is based on the elaboration of four basic schemes graded in difficulties to facilitate comparisons.

1983-01-01

184

A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

Daly, M. (BP Exploracion de Venezuela, Stockley Park, Middlesex (United Kingdom)); Audemard, F. (Intevep, Miranda (Venezuela)); Valdes, G. (Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-09-01

185

Mine-Tunnel Design & Monitoring Analysis for Major Faults and Complex Geological Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mining operations at Nanyang-Slope Coal Mine are considerably challenging. The Nanyang- Slope Coal Field has a complex tectonic structure; having major faults, large fissures and fracture- zones, and great changes in coal-seam thickness. Mine tunnel-way 301 traverses multiple complex faults with developed fractures, broken surrounding rock, and high tectonic stresses. The original rectangular-section tunnel design using anchor-bolt-mesh retainment was prone to rib-spalling, and the problem could not be controlled by use of additional encryption anchors on the tunnel sides. The mud-rock above the tunnel-ceiling is soft and argillized, which expands and softens on contact with water. This caused problems with the epoxy bonding agent failing to effectively secure bolt-anchors to the rock, resulting in anchor-bolt-mesh failure. In consideration of the complex geological conditions, a tunnel construction utilizing a curved wall arch-section and anchor-bolt- mesh-concrete spray was proposed. MJ-40 anchor-rod dynamometers were used to measure the forces in the tunnel rock-anchor bolts; and tunnel-rock deformation and surface displacement was monitored over the course of several weeks using a measuring station. Results show that the construction design effectively lowers the effects of the tectonic stresses on any one part of the tunnel, and demonstrates the safety and reliability of the tunnel-retainment and support design.

Xiang-dong ZHANG; Shi-xing FAN; Hu-wei ZHANG; Yu ZHANG

2013-01-01

186

Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1

1997-01-01

187

Risk analysis and prospective geology in matters of underground storage of the nuclear industrial wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal choice concerning the radioactive waste management is to bury it in geological formations. To substantiate the validity of this choice and to persuade the public opinion of it, we must assess the risks the future populations may run. It is, therefore, necessary to foresee the behaviour and the interactions of three types of surroundings: 1. the wastes, their packaging and wrappings; 2. the geological system of confinements; 3. the external environment. A review is given of the hypothesis and methods of forecasting used or considered in this field, with a special emphasis on the prospective geology and the probabilistic approaches. (AF)

1983-01-01

188

Protein structure analysis online.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Computational biology/chemistry tools are used in most areas of life/health science research. These methods are continually being developed and their use can present difficulties for both experienced and novice investigators. To facilitate the use of these applications, many packages have been implemented online during these last 5 years. This unit focuses on online computational methods with a special emphasis on structural refinement/atomic simulations, protein electrostatic calculations, searches for functional sites, searches for druggable pockets, protein docking and small molecule docking, and prediction of potential impact of amino acid variations on the structure and function of the protein molecules.

Miteva MA; Alexov E; Villoutreix BO

2007-11-01

189

Study on systematizing technology on the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. Japanese Fiscal Year, 2006 (Contract research)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this year the following studies were carried out with the aim of systematizing the technology on the investigation and analysis to understand deep underground geological environment in relation to the radioactive waste disposal. (1) The study on the research and development (R and D) subjects which turned to the practical investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. (2) The study on the advanced technical basis for the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. From the studies, the following results were obtained. Regarding (1), the concrete investigation, measurements, numerical analyses and chemical analyses were performed with respect to research subjects 1) the repository design and engineering technology, 2) the safety assessment and 3) the geological environment. And from the viewpoint of radioactive waste disposal, specific subjects were selected. More over the discussion on the collaborative research program for niche area between each fields 1), 2) and 3) was given. One of the important subjects was 'redefinition of the near field concept (NFC)'. Consequently the specific study on the NFC redefinition was carried out as well as the element research on niche area between the research fields. On 2), the evaluation of research results and its practical use for the R and D activities were considered based on the fundamental and elemental technology which the study group performed. The practical research programs to characterize the geological environment and engineering technologies, which were applied to the Tono Geoscience Center, were also discussed. Concurrently opportunities to exchange information and opinions on the 2nd phase (the Shaft Construction Phase) of the MIU (Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory) research program were often opened up in the JAEA. (author)

2008-01-01

190

Determination of hafnium and zirconium in geological materials by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, neutron activation analysis was applied to analyze the geological standard materials: GSP-1 and W-1 from USGS, GB-1 and BB-1 from the University of Bahia, Brazil and a sample of uraniferous rock. Hf was determined by instrumental method and the obtained results was shown with relative standard deviations varying from 1.1 to 14%. In the case of Zr analyses, both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation were used. The interference of 154Eu radioisotope that emits ?-rays too close to those emitted by 95Zr was eliminated by retention of Zr in an anionic exchange resin column. The contribution of uranium fission product was considered in the Zr determination by using an interference factor. Results of Zr were presented with relative standard deviations varying from 2.0 to 25.7%. More precise results were obtained by using radiochemical separation. The concentration obtained for Hf and Zr in reference materials agreed well with respective certified values or information values. (author).

1997-01-01

191

Environmental geologic analysis of Rio de las Taguas basin Department of Iglesia San Juan, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this work has been stablished a relation betwwen geological units and mineralizations related with the aim to understand the hydrochemistry in this area for future environmental impact projects measurement

2007-01-01

192

A simple analysis of potential radiological exposure from geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AECL has submitted an environmental impact statement (EIS) describing its proposal for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The EIS presents a detailed analysis of potential radiation exposure of an individual of a critical group of people in a hypothetical case. In this report, we provide a simpler analysis of potential exposure in the hope that the inherent safety of the disposal will be more readily evident from the analysis. A key to the simplification is the elimination from the analysis of the complex transport processes through disposal vault sealing materials and the geosphere. We also eliminate the relatively complex function describing the failure of the thin-walled titanium containers in the case study presented in the EIS. We therefore conceptually replace the thin-walled titanium containers with thicker-walled copper containers, are expected to remain intact much longer than 10,000 a, the period for which a quantitative estimate of individual exposure is made. However, about 1 in 5000 containers could have small defects that were undetected during manufacture. Our analysis applies only to the case of an undisrupted vault. We assume that the vault and geosphere barriers remain intact and prevent immobile radionuclides from reaching the biosphere. However, we also assume that the three most important mobile radionuclides can escape through an undected manufacturing defect in the container wall, and that the flux of these radionuclides is diluted by well water being used by people. We have focused on 129I, 36Cl and 14C, because these nuclides are found to be the dominant source of exposure in more complex analyses. If a single container released radionuclides to well water, we estimate dose rates of about 1 ?Sv.a-1 from drinking water and 29 ?Sv.a-1, which the Atomic Eenrgy Control Board has adopted as a de minimis dose rate, i.e., a dose rate so small as to not warrant institutional control. We believe that the dose rates are greatly overestimated because of the many conservative assumptions and simplifications used in the analysis. (author) 51 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

1996-01-01

193

Three-dimensional inversion of travel time data for structurally complex geology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modeling and inversion techniques for the seismic prospecting problem are described. A concisely-parametrized geological model of the site under study is constructed, and the forward problem'' of simulating the effects of shots on this model is solved by ray-tracing. We then use constrained optimization techniques to choose values for the model parameters so that the predicted response to the shots matches the observed response in either the least-squares or least {ell}{sub 1} sense. Numerical experience is reported. 14 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

Pereyra, V. (Weidlinger Associates, Los Altos, CA (USA)); Wright, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-08-01

194

Geological modeling of aquifer gas storage structures method and application; Modelisation geologique des stockages de gaz en nappe aquifere methodologie et application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The description and understanding of a natural reservoir used for aquifer gas storage requires the acquisition of many different kinds of data, with various resolution levels (seismic, well logs and cores,...). Interpreting and making these pieces of information coherent must lead to an accurate image of the geological structure in which gas will be stored. This paper describes the geological modeling methods used at Gaz de France, and briefly presents a synthetic case study. (authors)

Escare, L.; Giouse, H. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France); Wielzerbin, L. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. Production Transport, 75 - Paris (France)

2000-07-01

195

Geology and structural outline of the Lagoa Real Complex, BA, Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lagoa Real Complex is constituted by 1.7 Ga granitoids that occur along the Paramirim valley. The granitoids are formed by the Sao Timoteo Granite and a set of alkali-gneisses that were crystallized during a compressional sin-metamorphic deformation episode. The carried out structural analysis has identified two deformation patterns. The compressional episode is represented by shear zones, compositional layering, milonite foliation and folds. The extensional episode is characterized by the nucleation of normal shear zones. The geometric patterns of the finite deformation are similar to the ones that occur in the Ituacu synclinal where the Salitre e Bebedouro formations of Una Group outcrop. An ancient geometric pattern was not found in the area; consequently we propose that the deformation episodes were related to the neoproterozoic Orogeny. (author)

2007-01-01

196

The analysis of cracked structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review of the general problem of stable crack systems in many classes of structures, notably reinforced concrete structures, is made. Very simple methods of analysis are derived and some elaboration is described, as well as methods of optimising the calculations. Analytical methods are compared with experiments

1974-01-01

197

3D imaging of geological structures by R-VSP utilizing vibrations caused by shaft excavations at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency is now conducting the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project. The MIU consists of two shafts (main shaft: 6.5m, ventilation shaft: 4.5m diameter) and horizontal research galleries, in sedimentary and granitic rocks at Mizunami City, Central Japan. The MIU project is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment providing the basis for research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. One of the main goals is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock. As a part of the MIU project, we carried out the Reverse-Vertical Seismic Profile (R-VSP) using vibrations from the blasting for the shaft excavations and drilling of boreholes in the horizontal research galleries and examined the applicability of this method to imaging of geological structures around underground facilities, such as the unconformity between the sedimentary rocks and the basal granite, and faults and fracture zones in the granite. R-VSP method is a seismic method utilizing the receiver arrays on surface and seismic sources underground (e.g. in boreholes). This method is advantageous in that planning of 3-dimensional surveys is easy compared with reflection seismic surveying and conventional VSP because seismic source arrays that are major constraint for conducting surveys on surface are unnecessary. The receiver arrays consist of six radial lines on surface with a central focus on the main shaft. Seven blast rounds for the main shaft excavation from GL-52.8m to GL-250m and the borehole drilling in the GL-200m horizontal research gallery were observed. Three types of data processing, conventional VSP data processing (VSP-CDP transform and VSP migration), Reflection data processing utilizing Seismic interferometry method (“Seismic interferometry”) and Reflection mapping utilizing Image Point transform method (“IP transform”), were performed to obtain reflection images from heterogeneous geological structure. As the results, the reflective events that seemed to correspond with sedimentary layers, the unconformity between sedimentary rocks and granite, and fracture zones in granite could be detected by reflection profiles using “conventional VSP data processing” and “Seismic interferometry”. However, it is difficult to identify the faults around the MIU because they are generally at a high-angle. “IP transform” is one type of Radon transform which change common shot gather to IP domain. Image Points are defined through geometries of sources and reflectors. Reflection signals in time domain can be accumulated and enhanced in IP domain by “IP transform” on the condition of the right angle to a fault. So, by a search of the direction that reflection signals are enhanced using “IP transform”, the locations of faults can be inferred. By this method, the distribution of faults that correspond with faults in the current geological model constructed from investigation data in the MIU project could be detected.

Matsuoka, T.; Hodotsuka, Y.; Ishigaki, K.; Lee, C.

2009-12-01

198

Capabilities of LIBS for analysis of geological samples at stand-off distances in a Mars atmosphere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of LIBS for stand-off elemental analysis of geological and other samples in a simulated Mars atmosphere is being evaluated. Analytical capabilities, matrix effects, and other factors effecting analysis are being determined. Through funding from NASA's Mars Instrument Development Program (MIDP), we have been evaluating the use of LIBS for future use on landers and rovers to Mars. Of particular interest is the use of LIBS for stand-off measurements of geological samples up to 20 meters from the instrument. Very preliminary work on such remote LIBS measurements based on large laboratory type equipment was carried out about a decade ago. Recent work has characterized the capabilities using more compact instrumentation and some measurements have been conducted with LIBS on a NASA rover testbed.

Cremers, D. A. (David A.); Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.); Ferris, M. J. (Monty J.); Brennetot, R. (Rene); Maurice, S. (Sylvestre)

2002-01-01

199

Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall be fulfilled: a) demonstrating that those parts of the structure essential for the safety only have little sensitivity with respect to unintentional loads and defects, or b) demonstrating a load case with „removal of a limited part of the structure? in order to document that an extensive failure of the structure will not occur if a limited part of the structure fails, or c) demonstrating sufficient safety of key elements, such that the entire structure with one or more key elements has the same reliability as a structure where robustness is documented by b). Based on investigations with respect to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obtained. Therefore the structure can be considered to behave robust according to the sued probabilistic approach. However, the present probabilistic approach for robustness evaluation has to be further developed for a general application to timber systems, and a simplified approach suitable for day-to-day engineering purposes must be identified.

Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2008-01-01

200

Thai Rhetorical Structure Analysis  

CERN Multimedia

A rhetorical structure tree (RS tree) is a representation of discourse relations among elementary discourse units (EDUs). A RS tree is very useful to many text processing tasks employing relationships among EDUs such as text understanding, summarization, and question answering. Thai language with its unique linguistic characteristics requires a unique RS tree construction technique. This paper proposes an approach for Thai RS tree construction which consists of three major steps: EDU segmentation, Thai RS tree construction, and discourse relation (DR) identification. Two hidden markov models derived from grammatical rules are used to segment EDUs, a clustering technique with its similarity measure derived from Thai semantic rules is used to construct a Thai RS tree, and a decision tree whose features extracted from the rules is used to determine the DR between EDUs. The proposed technique is evaluated using three Thai corpora. The results show the Thai RS tree construction and the DR identification effectiven...

Sinthupoun, Somnuk

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Methodology for the biosphere analysis in the evaluation of deep geological repositories for high radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the work done and the achievements reached within the R and D Project that IMA/CIEMAT has had with ENRESA during 1993-1995. The overal R and D Project has a wide radiological protection context, but the work reported here relates only to the development of a Methodology for considering the Biosphere sub-system in the assessments of deep geological repositories for high radioactive wastes (HLW). The main areas concerned within the Methodology have to do with Biosphere structure and morphology in the long-term relevant to deep disposal of HLW: in the contexts of the assessment of these systems, and appropiate modelling of the behaviour of radionuclides released to the biosphere system and with the associated human exposure. This document first provides a review of the past and present international and national concerns about the biosphere modelling and its importance in relation to the definition of safety criteria. A joint ENRESA/ANDRA/IPSN/CIEMAT study about the definition and proactical descriptions of the biosphere systems under different climatic states is then summarized. The Methodology developed by IMA/CIEMAT is outlined with an illustration of the way it works. Different steps and procedures are included for a better proactical understanding of the software tools developed within the project to support the application of the Methologoy. This Methodology is widely based on an international working group on Reference Biospheres part national work for ENRESA has been supported under a collaborative agreement with QuantiSci Ltd. Specific software development have been carried out in collaboration with QuantiSci Ltd and with the Polytechnical University of Madrid. Most of the items included within the Methodology and moreover the Methodology as a whole, follows a continuos progressive development. It is increasinaly recognized that assessment capabilities, establisment of safety criteria and regulatory framework and the steps in a regulatory development programme should all proceed in parallel. (Author)

1997-01-01

202

Structural Analysis of Combustion Models  

CERN Document Server

Using ReactionKinetics, a Mathematica based package a few dozen detailed models for combustion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methanol are investigated. Essential structural characteristics are pulled out, and similarities and differences of the mechanisms are highlighted. These investigations can be used before or parallel with usual numerical investigations, such as pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, or simulation.

Tóth, J; Zsély, I

2013-01-01

203

The new structure-genetic classification system in tectonically deformed coals and its geological significance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the site measured data, laboratory tests and existing classification, a new structure-genetic classification system of tectonically deformed coals was put forward which is suitable for both development of coalbed gas and prevention and harness of coal and gas outbursts. The hand specimens or the core coal samples for drilling wells were taken as the scale, tectonically deformed coals formed by different deformational mechanisms were divided into three series of deformation and ten classes: the series of brittle deformation include cataclysmic structure coal, mortar structure coal, granulitic structure coal and mealy structure coal, and schistose structure coal, thin section structure coal; the series of ductile deformation includes wrinkle structure coal, mylonitic structure coal and ductile structure coal; the series of brittle-ductile include scale structure coal. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

Ju, Y.; Jiang, B.; Hou, Q.; Wang, G. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). College of Geoscience

2004-10-01

204

X-ray diffraction/electron microprobe analysis of surface films formed on alloys during hydrothermal reaction with geologic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis were used in combination to identify reaction phases that formed on the surfaces of low-carbon steel specimens reacted with a 75% basalt-25% bentonite mixture and anion-doped water in sealed pressure vessels at 1000C and 2500C. Reaction phases on specimen surfaces and in adhering geologic material were identified by conventional X-ray diffraction scans of entire specimens with intact reaction layers.

1984-08-03

205

Geological structure of Osaka basin and characteristic distributions of structural damage caused by earthquake; Osaka bonchi kozo to shingai tokusei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper investigates relations between the damage caused by the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and the deep underground structures. A characteristic of the earthquake damage distribution is that the damage concentrated near faults. Most of the damages were seen on the side of faults` relatively falling rather than right above the faults and of their slightly slanting to the seaside. Distribution like this seems to be closely related to underground structures. Therefore, a distribution map of the depth of basement granite in Osaka sedimentary basin was drawn, referring to the data on basement rock depth obtained from the distribution map of gravity anomaly and the result of the survey using the air gun reflection method. Moreover, cubic underground structures were determined by 3-D gravity analysis. The result was concluded as follows: when observing the M7 zone of the low land, in particular, where the damage was great from an aspect of gravity anomaly, the basement rock below the zone declined near the cliff toward the sea, which indicates a great possibility of its being a fault. There is a high possibility that the zone suffered mostly from the damage caused by focusing by refraction and total reflection of seismic wave rays. 3 refs., 8 figs.

Nakagawa, K.; Shiono, K.; Inoue, N.; Senda, S. [Osaka City University, Osaka (JP. Faculty of Science); Ryoki, K. [Osaka Polytechnic Collage, Osaka (Japan); Shichi, R. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science

1996-05-01

206

Marine geology of Korean Seas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Korean Seas have major geological applications to Japan and China, as well as to Korea. Recent research on mineral and hydrocarbon resources suggests hydrocarbon potential. The author focuses on the geological structure and tectonics, sedimentary facies and processes, and history and characteristics of the seas. He briefly describes the geology of the peninsula itself. International studies on the geological data of the seas are described, plus work published previously in the Korean language.

Chough, S.K.

1984-01-01

207

Use of the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) in Determining Realtionship between Geology, Structures and Mineral Prospects, Southern Part of the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available GIS can be utilized in geology in different fields among them; mineral and petroleum exploration, geological mapping and reconnaissance, environmental studies, and in hydrogeological modeling. In mineral exploration the GIS is used to define a set of characteristics of specific mineral deposit that might be used as a guide to similar deposits in the region. An example is being the spatial relation of igneous intrusions and / or geological structures to the mineral prospect locations. This study aimed at using the GIS to find out the relationship of the different geological features through the layers (coverages). These features include faults, intrusions and mineral locations in the Southern Arabian Shield. Coverages (layers) for the digitized material were created using ARC INFO and consequently edited, cleaned and built. Coverages were also imported and exported in order to be read by ARC VIEW. Results of study indicated an excellent association of the faults and other structures to the known mineral locations. Positive correlation can also be concluded from the spatial distribution of the mineral locations and igneous intrusions. These results may imply that igneous intrusions and structural features control mineralizations. The conclusion can help in discorving mineralizaiton in similar geological and structural setting within the Arabian Shield area.

Mustafa M. Hariri

2003-01-01

208

Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock, approaches to within 5 km of the Olkiluoto site. The results of gravimetric surveys have indicated that the margin of the Eurajoki stock slopes westward underneath the site, but to depths in excess of 3000 m. Plate tectonic reconstructions of the Precambrian of Finland, partly based on the results of major deep seismic sounding experiments, such as the international GGT/SVEKA project (along a NE-SW transect through the Satakunta area), indicate the pelitic and psammitic migmatite belts in Satakunta represent parts of the early Proterozoic Southern Finland and Central Finland continental arcs, respectively. Collision of these arc complexes took place 1890 - 1880 Ma ago, when the rocks were deformed and metamorphosed for the first time. The highT/lowP metamorphism was caused by mafic underplating, which led to a strong increase in temperature, and recrystallisation and partial remelting of the rocks in the upper crust. The collision of the arc complexes is characterised by an intense magmatic activity, which appears as synorogenic granitoids. In the next stage, 1860 - 1810 Ma ago, mafic underplating caused a second high-temperature metamorphic event and partial melting of the sedimentary rocks in southern Finland, producing the late-orogenic potassium. granites, dated at 1840 - 1830 Ma. The Subjotnian rapakivi granites associated with mafic rocks, the Jotnian Satakunta sandstone formation and the Postjotnian diabase dykes and sills represent the cratonisation stages of the Svecofennides. Rapakivi granites and related mafic rocks were generated in an anorogenic extensional regime by partial melting of the upper mantle and lower crust. The Jotnian Satakunta sandstone is a fluvial sediment formation deposited in a deltaic environment. The development of the graben or rift valley, where the sandstone was deposited, may have begun already during the Subjotnian, ca. 1650 Ma ago. The olivine diabase dykes represent the feeding channels of Postjotnian flood basalts. However, no such volcanic rocks have preserved in the area. The intrusion of the diabase dykes caused

2002-01-01

209

Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock, approaches to within 5 km of the Olkiluoto site. The results of gravimetric surveys have indicated that the margin of the Eurajoki stock slopes westward underneath the site, but to depths in excess of 3000 m. Plate tectonic reconstructions of the Precambrian of Finland, partly based on the results of major deep seismic sounding experiments, such as the international GGT/SVEKA project (along a NE-SW transect through the Satakunta area), indicate the pelitic and psammitic migmatite belts in Satakunta represent parts of the early Proterozoic Southern Finland and Central Finland continental arcs, respectively. Collision of these arc complexes took place 1890 - 1880 Ma ago, when the rocks were deformed and metamorphosed for the first time. The highT/lowP metamorphism was caused by mafic underplating, which led to a strong increase in temperature, and recrystallisation and partial remelting of the rocks in the upper crust. The collision of the arc complexes is characterised by an intense magmatic activity, which appears as synorogenic granitoids. In the next stage, 1860 - 1810 Ma ago, mafic underplating caused a second high-temperature metamorphic event and partial melting of the sedimentary rocks in southern Finland, producing the late-orogenic potassium. granites, dated at 1840 - 1830 Ma. The Subjotnian rapakivi granites associated with mafic rocks, the Jotnian Satakunta sandstone formation and the Postjotnian diabase dykes and sills represent the cratonisation stages of the Svecofennides. Rapakivi granites and related mafic rocks were generated in an anorogenic extensional regime by partial melting of the upper mantle and lower crust. The Jotnian Satakunta sandstone is a fluvial sediment formation deposited in a deltaic environment. The development of the graben or rift valley, where the sandstone was deposited, may have begun already during the Subjotnian, ca. 1650 Ma ago. The olivine diabase dykes represent the feeding channels of Postjotnian flood basalts. However, no such volcanic rocks have preserved in the area. The intrusion of the diabase dykes caused the

Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

2002-02-01

210

The analysis of thallium in geological materials by radiochemical neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: a comparison  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carrier-based radiochemical neutron activation (RNAA) is a precise and accurate technique for the analysis of Tl in geological materials. For about a decade, until the mid-80s, a procedure modified from Keays et al. (1974) was used at the University of Melbourne to analyse for Tl in a wide variety of geological materials. Samples of powdered rock weighing several hundred milligrams each were irradiated in HIFAR for between 12 hours and 1 week, and subsequently fused with a sodium hydroxide - sodium peroxide mixture and several milligrams of inactive Tl carrier. Following acid digestion of the fusion mixture anion exchange resin was used to separate Tl from the major radioactive rock constituents. The Tl was then stripped from the resin and purified as thallium iodide and a yield measured gravimetrically. Activity from {sup 204}Tl (a {beta}-emitter with a 3 8 year half-life) was measured and Tl determined by reference to pure chemical standards irradiated and processed along with the unkowns. Detection limits for the longer irradiations were about one part per billion. Precision was monitored by repeat analyses of `internal standard` rocks and was estimated to be about five to ten percent (one standard deviation). On the other hand, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was seen as an excellent cost-effective alternative for thallium analysis in geological samples, down to 1 ppm. 6 refs. 1 tab., 1 fig.

McGoldrick, P.J.; Robinson, P. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

1993-12-31

211

Evaluating vertical variability analysis (VVA) for estimating the hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, and transmissivity of four simulated geologic configurations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aquifer systems derived from fluvial, eolian, glacial, or mass movement processes may have considerable vertical and areal variability in saturated thickness, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, and bed thickness. Frequently, hydraulic data from aquifer tests are not readily available, whereas lithologic and grain-size information from drillers' logs is generally abundant. Therefore, the vertical variability method was devised to evaluate the aquifer properties for individual lithologic units based on drillers' information. These estimates provide vital information about aquifer characterization and are useful for hydraulic analysis and computer modeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the VVA for estimating the hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, and transmissivity of four simulated geological configurations. The objectives were to: (1) test the validity of VVA using the method of moments and the 0.5 criterion for relative center of gravity (RCOG); and (2) conduct a sensitivity analysis of material parameters relative to the RCOG. Results show that the 0.5 criterion for RCOG is valid only on a case-by-case basis depending primarily on the geometry of the geologic deposits, and secondarily on the thickness of individual geologic units. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the parameters of hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity are insensitive to changes in RCOG to plus or minus two to three orders of magnitude. Additional results indicate that the variance of RCOG for eolian, glacial, and incomplete two-cycle fluvial deposits is minimal as compared to the those for single and multiple fluvial cycles.

Witt, G.D. (Wright Water Engineers, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)); Kolm, K.E. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States))

1992-01-01

212

High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project, we develop new theories and methods for multi-domain one-way wave-equation based propagators, and apply these techniques to seismic modeling, seismic imaging, seismic illumination and model parameter estimation in 3D complex environments. The major progress of this project includes: (1) The development of the dual-domain wave propagators. We continue to improve the one-way wave-equation based propagators. Our target is making propagators capable of handling more realistic velocity models. A wide-angle propagator for transversely isotropic media with vertically symmetric axis (VTI) has been developed for P-wave modeling and imaging. The resulting propagator is accurate for large velocity perturbations and wide propagation angles. The thin-slab propagator for one-way elastic-wave propagation is further improved. With the introduction of complex velocities, the quality factors Qp and Qs have been incorporated into the thin-slab propagator. The resulting viscoelastic thin-slab propagator can handle elastic-wave propagation in models with intrinsic attenuations. We apply this method to complex models for AVO modeling, random media characterization and frequency-dependent reflectivity simulation. (2) Exploring the Information in the Local Angle Domain. Traditionally, the local angle information can only be extracted using the ray-based method. We develop a wave-equation based technique to process the local angle domain information. The approach can avoid the singularity problem usually linked to the high-frequency asymptotic method. We successfully apply this technique to seismic illumination and the resulting method provides a practical tool for three-dimensional full-volume illumination analysis in complex structures. The directional illumination also provides information for angle-domain imaging corrections. (3) Elastic-Wave Imaging. We develop a multicomponent elastic migration method. The application of the multicomponent one-way elastic propagator and the wide-angle correction preserve more dynamic information carried by the elastic waves. The vector imaging condition solves the polarization problem of converted wave imaging. Both P-P and P-S images can be calculated. We also use converted waves to improve the image of steep sub-salt structures. The synthetic data for the SEG/EAGE salt model are migrated with a generalized screen algorithm and for the converted PSS-wave path. All the sub-salt faults are properly imaged.

Ru-Shan Wu, Xiao-Bi Xie, Thorne Lay

2005-06-06

213

Ground subsidence geo-hazards induced by rapid urbanization: implications from InSAR observation and geological analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the convenient transportation and construction, cities are prone to be situated in areas with flat terrain and unstable sediments, resulting in the concurrence of ground subsidence and urbanization. Here the interaction between geology, anthropogenic processes and ground subsidence geo-hazards were investigated in the Greater Pearl River Delta region of China. Geological evidences and 2006–2010 persistent scatterer data indicate that anthropogenic activities are dominant, although the distribution of river system and Quaternary sediments are also highly related to significant displacements (primarily at a rate of ?15 to 15 mm a?1). The surface displacements derived by synthetic aperture radar interferometry suggest that the urbanization rhythm has to be routinely monitored. Considering analogous urbanization modes, particularly in developing countries, ground subsidence monitoring together with the analysis of its driving force are critical for geo-hazards early-warning, city planning as well as sustainable urbanization.

F. Chen; H. Lin; Y. Zhang; Z. Lu

2012-01-01

214

Comparison of neutron activation analysis techniques for the determination of uranium concentrations in geological and environmental materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have described the determination of uranium in environmental, geological, and agricultural specimens by three different non-destructive nuclear methods. The effectiveness, as defined as the lower limits of detection in this work, of quantifying trace levels of bulk uranium in geological samples was evaluated for several common NAA techniques. These techniques include short-lived and medium-lived neutron activation analysis using thermal and epithermal neutrons; these results were compared with an assessment of Compton suppressed gamma-ray counting. A careful evaluation of three major (n,?) reactions with chlorine, manganese and sodium that could impede determining low levels of uranium due to high Compton continuums was done. The evaluation of Compton suppressed passive gamma counting revealed that uranium concentrations below 50 mg kg(-1) were not adequate to achieve good counting statistics using the (234m)Pa the second daughter product of (238)U.

Landsberger S; Kapsimalis R

2013-03-01

215

3D Geological Modeling under Extremely Complex Geological Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 3D modeling method is divided into geospatial modeling and 3D geological modeling. 3D geological modeling technique has become a favorable tool for people to observe and analyze the geological body enriched in mineral resources. Unlike geospatial modeling, 3D geological modeling must consider various geological conditions affecting spatial shape and petrophysical distribution of geological body for its complexity. This article analyzes the uncertainty, complexity and diversity of geological body, and lists complex geological conditions controlling spatial shape and petrophysical distributions of geological body. And then 3D geological modeling method under the control of complex geological conditions is proposed, and corresponding modeling workflow is set up. Finally, taking 3D geological modeling of petroleum exploration and development for example, 3D geological model of Shu II district in the Liaohe oil-field is built. Based on this model, some applications are realized, such as 3D visualization of structural model and petrophysical model, reserves calculation and drilling design, etc.

Yanlin Shao; Ailing Zheng; Youbin He; Keyan Xiao

2012-01-01

216

Exploratory borehole Boettstein: geology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nagra, the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, is carrying out a comprehensive geological research programme in Northern Switzerland. The Boettstein well was the first borehole in the drilling programme. Its total depth is 1501 m. Drilling operations at Boettstein started in October 1982 and continued until june 1983. Both sediment and basement rocks were continuously cored. The cores from the Boettstein well were studied in detail both at the drill-site and in the laboratory. Apart from stratigraphic, sedimentologic, mineralogic and petrographic studies, the investigations included structural mapping of the cores, absolute and mercury injection porosimetry, permeability, fluorescence microscopy, specific surface, cation exchange capacity, thermal conductivity, geomechanic properties, main and trace element analysis, stable and radioactive isotope analysis, fluid inclusion studies, maturation of organic material (in sediments only). The present report contains a complete synopsis of the data obtained up to October 1984. They are interpreted with regard to a reconstruction of the geological evolution of the Boettstein area and with regard to a characterization of ground-water flow systems in sedimentary and crystalline rocks. The report also contains comments on the methodology applied. (author)

1986-01-01

217

Quantitative roughness characterization of geological surfaces and implications for radar signature analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stochastic surface models are useful for analyzing in situ roughness profiles and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of geological terrain. In this paper, two different surface models are discussed: surfaces with a stationary random roughness (conventional model) and surfaces with a power-law roughness spectrum (fractal model). In the former case, it must be considered that for short profiles (L

Dierking, Wolfgang

1999-01-01

218

Probabilistic risk analysis of radioactivity release and transport from geologic disposal of radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An integrated modeling system for calculating radionuclide release and biosphere transport processes from geologic depositories to man, is presented. Because of large uncertainties in the major input data, a probabilistic approach has been followed, giving the results in form of histograms. This technique allows the identification of those parameters which control the model results and on which major effort may be focused

1978-05-10

219

Comparison of seismic sources for imaging geologic structures on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, five non-invasive swept sources, three non-invasive impulsive sources and one invasive impulsive source were compared. Previous shallow seismic source tests (Miller and others, 1986, 1992, 1994) have established that site characteristics should be considered in determining the optimal source. These studies evaluated a number of invasive sources along with a few non-invasive impulsive sources. Several sources (particularly the high frequency vibrators) that were included in the ORR test were not available or not practical during previous tests, cited above. This study differs from previous source comparisons in that it (1) includes many swept sources, (2) is designed for a greater target depth, (3) was conducted in a very different geologic environment, and (4) generated a larger and more diverse data set (including high fold CMP sections and walkaway vertical seismic profiles) for each source. The test site is centered around test injection well HF-2, between the southern end of Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG 5) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

1997-01-01

220

Comparison of seismic sources for imaging geologic structures on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, five non-invasive swept sources, three non-invasive impulsive sources and one invasive impulsive source were compared. Previous shallow seismic source tests (Miller and others, 1986, 1992, 1994) have established that site characteristics should be considered in determining the optimal source. These studies evaluated a number of invasive sources along with a few non-invasive impulsive sources. Several sources (particularly the high frequency vibrators) that were included in the ORR test were not available or not practical during previous tests, cited above. This study differs from previous source comparisons in that it (1) includes many swept sources, (2) is designed for a greater target depth, (3) was conducted in a very different geologic environment, and (4) generated a larger and more diverse data set (including high fold CMP sections and walkaway vertical seismic profiles) for each source. The test site is centered around test injection well HF-2, between the southern end of Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG 5) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

Doll, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)

1997-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range.

McKee, E.H.

1998-02-01

222

ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY LEVELS IN ROCKS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF JOHOR STATE, MALAYSIA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The distribution of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) and their radiological hazard effect in rocks collected from the state of Johor, Malaysia were determined by gamma spectroscopy using a high-purity germanium detector. The highest values of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations (67±6, 85±7 and 722±18 Bg kg(-1), respectively) were observed in the granite rock. The lowest concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th (2±0.1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U and 2±0.1 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th) were observed in gabbro rock. The lowest concentration of (40)K (45±2 Bq kg(-1)) was detected in sandstone. The radium equivalent activity concentrations for all rock samples investigated were lower than the internationally accepted value of 370 Bq kg(-1). The highest value of radium equivalent in the present study (239±17 Bq kg(-1)) was recorded in the area of granite belonging to an acid intrusive rock geological structure. The absorbed dose rate was found to range from 4 to 112 nGy h(-1). The effective dose ranged from 5 to 138 ?Sv h(-1). The internal and external hazard index values were given in results lower than unity. The purpose of this study is to provide information related to radioactivity background levels and the effects of radiation on residents in the study area under investigation. Moreover, the relationships between the radioactivity levels in the rocks within the geological structure of the studied area are discussed.

Alnour IA; Wagiran H; Ibrahim N; Hamzah S; Elias MS; Laili Z; Omar M

2013-08-01

223

Shakedown analysis of elastoplastic structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Classical shakedown analysis rests on the assumptions of perfectly plastic, associative temperature-independent constitutive laws, negligible inertia and damping forces and negligible geometric effects. This paper provides a survey of the recent literature on the structural behaviour under variable repeated loads, with emphasis on the developments which relaxed some of the above assumptions, but preserved the character of generalization of limit analysis typical of the 'classical' shakedown theory and methods of analysis and design (in contrast to evolutive, step-by-step approaches of incremental plasticity). (orig.)

1981-01-01

224

Sodium loop framework structural analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides the structural analysis of the Sodium Loop framework in a drop condition. The drop is similar to the US Department of Transportation non-bulk, performance-oriented packaging (Packaging Group I) drop test. The drop height evaluated for the Sodium Loop framework is 5.9 ft.

Nguyen, P.M.

1995-06-06

225

Sodium loop framework structural analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides the structural analysis of the Sodium Loop framework in a drop condition. The drop is similar to the US Department of Transportation non-bulk, performance-oriented packaging (Packaging Group I) drop test. The drop height evaluated for the Sodium Loop framework is 5.9 ft.

1995-01-01

226

Retroposon analysis and recent geological data suggest near-simultaneous divergence of the three superorders of mammals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a consequence of recent developments in molecular phylogenomics, all extant orders of placental mammals have been grouped into 3 lineages: Afrotheria, Xenarthra, and Boreotheria, which originated in Africa, South America, and Laurasia, respectively. Despite this advancement, the order of divergence of these 3 lineages remains unresolved. Here, we performed extensive retroposon analysis with mammalian genomic data. Surprisingly, we identified a similar number of informative retroposon loci that support each of 3 possible phylogenetic hypotheses: the basal position for Afrotheria (22 loci), Xenarthra (25 loci), and Boreotheria (21 loci). This result indicates that the divergence of the placental common ancestor into the 3 lineages occurred nearly simultaneously. Thus, we examined whether these molecular data could be integrated into the geological context by incorporating recent geological data. We obtained firm evidence that complete separation of Gondwana into Africa and South America occurred 120 +/- 10 Ma. Accordingly, the previous reported time frame (division of Pangea into Gondwana and Laurasia at 148-138 Ma and division of Gondwana at 105 Ma) cannot be used to validate mammalian divergence order. Instead, we use our retroposon results and the recent geological data to propose that near-simultaneous divisions of continents leading to isolated Africa, South America, and Laurasia caused nearly concomitant divergence of the ancient placental ancestor into 3 lineages, Afrotheria, Xenarthra, and Boreotheria, approximately 120 Ma.

Nishihara H; Maruyama S; Okada N

2009-03-01

227

Retroposon analysis and recent geological data suggest near-simultaneous divergence of the three superorders of mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a consequence of recent developments in molecular phylogenomics, all extant orders of placental mammals have been grouped into 3 lineages: Afrotheria, Xenarthra, and Boreotheria, which originated in Africa, South America, and Laurasia, respectively. Despite this advancement, the order of divergence of these 3 lineages remains unresolved. Here, we performed extensive retroposon analysis with mammalian genomic data. Surprisingly, we identified a similar number of informative retroposon loci that support each of 3 possible phylogenetic hypotheses: the basal position for Afrotheria (22 loci), Xenarthra (25 loci), and Boreotheria (21 loci). This result indicates that the divergence of the placental common ancestor into the 3 lineages occurred nearly simultaneously. Thus, we examined whether these molecular data could be integrated into the geological context by incorporating recent geological data. We obtained firm evidence that complete separation of Gondwana into Africa and South America occurred 120 +/- 10 Ma. Accordingly, the previous reported time frame (division of Pangea into Gondwana and Laurasia at 148-138 Ma and division of Gondwana at 105 Ma) cannot be used to validate mammalian divergence order. Instead, we use our retroposon results and the recent geological data to propose that near-simultaneous divisions of continents leading to isolated Africa, South America, and Laurasia caused nearly concomitant divergence of the ancient placental ancestor into 3 lineages, Afrotheria, Xenarthra, and Boreotheria, approximately 120 Ma. PMID:19286970

Nishihara, Hidenori; Maruyama, Shigenori; Okada, Norihiro

2009-03-13

228

Geology Fieldnotes: Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

This Guadalupe Mountains National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the geologic history of Guadalupe Mountains' ancient marine fossil reef and the structural geology of the Mountains' Western Escarpment (including the Frijole Ranch area, the Pine Springs area, and the Capitan Limestone structures). The park maps section includes a map of the Capitan Reef today.

229

Crystal structure analysis of biominerals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biominerals are nanocomposite materials containing minerals. They are synthesized in biological systems at ambient temperature and pressure with limited elements such as Ca2+, PO43-, CO32-, etc. Most biominerals, shells, egg shells, pearls, etc., are not merely simple mixtures of organic and inorganic materials. They are nanocomposite assemblies with complicated structures and novel function. Many material scientists have been attracted to develop biomimetic materials. We propose that controlling the crystal structure in biomineralization should be also taken into accounts for adapting the materials to function. In order to clarify the difference between biominerals and usual synthetic inorganic materials, time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction, X-ray diffraction, fluorescent X-ray analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ICP emission spectrochemical analysis were carried out. Results indicated that the crystal structure parameters of aragonite and calcite in biominerals cannot be explained by a simple elemental substitution. (author)

2000-11-02

230

EFFECT OF GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES ON THE HYDROGEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF QUATERNARY DEPOSITS IN BARANJA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shifts of structural units, which started in Pliocene are specifically expressed during the Quaternary. They last still today and affected the hydrogeological relations in the region of Baranja. Lithological development is dominated by one or maximum two layers of uniform midium grained sand which in places exceeds to fine grained sand, and in some places in the sand with gravel. Mentioned structures have impacted the natural quality of groundwater. Considering individual episodes of uplift and lowering of sediments, caused by movements along a particular structures, led to changes in oxidative and reductive conditions of deposition. Consequently, different quality of water occurs in wellfields of Baranja

Željko Dui?; Maja Briški

2010-01-01

231

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STRUCTURAL AND GEOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIP ASSESSMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE OMBLA UNDERGROUND HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The construction design of the underground hydroelectric plant Ombla required geological and structural investigations to he carried out. Due to past earthquakes in the area permanent tectonic movements were inferred. Therefore, in the wider and adjacent surroundings of the Ombla spring it was necessary to analyze the structural fabric and the geodynamic characteristics of the area. The most active zone encountered is the front part of a thrust fault belonging to the Dinaricum regional structural unit. The compressive regime is maintained as a response to the regional stress of an approximately S-N orientation. Different displacements of various parts of the Dinaricum unit are present. Along the rim of the structural blocks, the Hum-Om-bla fault zone extends, accompanied by left transcurrent faults, Through this zone the main groundwater drainage occurs supplying the Ombla spring. In the local Ombla spring area this zone is characterized by three sub-blocks and three major faults. The most important fault for the vital facilities of the Ombla hydroelectric power plant is the Plo?ice fault which divides the structural sub-blocks. Along this fault zone there are four mutually connected. The lowest two arc active groundwater draining systems supplying the Ombla spring. The data on local stress implies the following deformation of sub-blocks: sub-blocks 2c and 2f are displaced along normal faults from 20° to 30° to the left, downwards, while the sub-block 2 d is displaced along the Plo?ice thrust fault of 100° to 130° to the left, upwards. The structural data confirmed that the building of an underground dam with a height from 100 to 130 m was feasible. The connection between the caverns and the fault zone was determined. The unfavorable position of the active Plo?ice fault zone imposes the construction of vital Ombla power plant facilities underground.

Renato Buljan; Eduard Prelogovi?

1997-01-01

232

Geologic and engineering analysis of blanket-geometry tight gas sandstones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative survey of over 30 blanket-geometry tight gas sandstones in 16 sedimentary basins was prepared for the Gas Research Institute. For each stratigraphic unit a uniform set of information was obtained on general attributes, economic factors, geologic parameters of the basin and the formation, reservoir engineering data, and operating conditions. Each tight gas reservoir was considered within a sedimentary framework of associated lithogenetic facies that make up a depositional system. In contrast to lenticular sandstones, which are primarily fluvial deposits, blanket-geometry tight gas sandstones were deposited as deltaic, barrier strandplain, and shelf systems. The reservoir geometry resulting from the depostion of blanket sandstones is expected to mitigate selected reservoir engineering problems associated with tight gas sand development. Results of this survey are being utilized in a more detailed study, now underway, which will ultimately lead to the selection of two prospective field test areas, possibly consisting of individual stratigraphic units, geologic basins, or depositional systems.

Finley, R.J.; O' Shea, P.A.

1983-03-01

233

Yellowstone Geology  

Science.gov (United States)

This Yellowstone National Park website provides geological information about the Park. Links include geologic highlights, hydrothermal features, reports by park geologists, and scientists' talks (videos). A wide array of information can be found on these links and the webpage is expanding as more topics are added.

Park, Yellowstone N.

234

Structural analysis of syndiotactic polystyrene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the stereostructure of a high-molecular compound includes three types of isotactic, atactic and sydiotactic structures, a high-molecular compound with excellent properties can be produced by controlling the stereogularity of the compound with the identical composition. The stereoregularity of a stereogular polystyrene, or syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS), which had been successfully synthesized recently was quantitatively determined and the open chain structure by polymerization was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Two SPSs were synthesized from cis-beta-d/sub/1-styrene and trans-beta-d/sub/1-styrene with alpha, beta, beta-d/sub/3-styrene. The results of spectral analysis of these two SPSs indicate that the former is of trans-conformation and the latter is of gauche conformation and that accordingly the open chain structure by polymerization of SPS is of cis-open chain and SPS has a planar zigzag structure even in the solution. (5 figs, 9 refs)

Mitani, Masahiro

1988-09-01

235

SLIVISU, a concept of an interactive visualization framework for the analysis of geological data  

Science.gov (United States)

The geological record of past sea levels is unevenly distributed, both temporally and spatially. Further interrogation of this data (e.g. for geophysical or glacial-isostatic modeling purpose) necessitates compiling data from literature or data repositories and amounts to the collection of thousands of individual sea-level index points. The spatio-temporal context is often lost during this process. The heterogeneity of the data with respect to significance and content also prevents the application of many statistical techniques. A solution to this problem is the application of advanced visualization concepts, which maintain the connection between data points and associated metadata (e.g. location, dating control, type of sample, etc.) during modeling. This allows fore a more complete overview and communication of sea-level data and modeling output. We present the visualization framework, SLIVISU, developed by GFZ-Potsdam, which provides multiple linked views including synoptic analyses of the geological data, model configurations and predictions. SLIVISU is applied to variations in past sea levels during the last glacial cycles using geological and archaeological data.

Klemann, Volker; Unger, Andrea; Hibbert, Fiona; Dransch, Doris

2013-04-01

236

Analysis of possible geological storage of CO{sub 2} and nuclear waste in Lithuania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lithuania is currently dealing with two major problems in energy sector: final closure of Ignalina Nuclear Power plant (Ignalina NPP) in the end of 2009 and nuclear waste disposal and climate change mitigation issues having in mind replacement of nuclear capacities with fossil one and anticipated increase in GHG emissions. Lithuania has two options: to construct new nuclear power plant also taking into account nuclear waste disposal issue or to burn fossil fuel and to apply carbon capture and storage (CCS) for GHG emission reduction. These two options need to be investigated in Lithuania based on various studies conducted in Lithuania and abroad dealing with geological carbon storage and nuclear waste disposal potentials. There are no long-lived nuclear waste geological storage capacities in Lithuania and there is no pilot project on CCS developed in Lithuania. The aim of the article is to analyse and compare geological carbon and nuclear waste storage opportunities in Lithuania and to assess nuclear and carbon capture and storage technologies in terms of costs. (author)

Streimikiene, Dalia; Mikalauskiene, Asta [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos 3, LT-44403, Kaunas (Lithuania)

2010-08-15

237

Stress Analysis for the Formation of En Echelon Veins and Vortex Structures: a Lesson Plan with a Brief Illumination  

Science.gov (United States)

An English lesson plan exploring stress analysis of En Echelon veins and vortex structures used in the bilingual course in Structural Geology at the National Science Training Base of China is described. Two mechanical models are introduced in class and both mathematical and mechanical analyses are conducted. Samples, pictures and case studies are selected from Britain, Switzerland, and China. These case studies are augmented from the previous research results of the first author. Students are guided through the entire thought process, including methods and procedures used in the stress analysis of geologic structures. The teaching procedures are also illustrated. The method showed is effective to help students to get the initial knowledge of quantitative analysis for the formation of geological structures. This work is supported by the Ministry of Education of China, the Education Bureau of Hubei Province of China and China University of Geosciences (Wuhan).

Zeng, Z.; Birnbaum, S.

2006-12-01

238

Structural Analysis of Complex Networks  

CERN Multimedia

Filling a gap in literature, this self-contained book presents theoretical and application-oriented results that allow for a structural exploration of complex networks. The work focuses not only on classical graph-theoretic methods, but also demonstrates the usefulness of structural graph theory as a tool for solving interdisciplinary problems. Applications to biology, chemistry, linguistics, and data analysis are emphasized. The book is suitable for a broad, interdisciplinary readership of researchers, practitioners, and graduate students in discrete mathematics, statistics, computer science,

Dehmer, Matthias

2011-01-01

239

Comparative analysis of the impact of geological activity on astronomical sites of the Canary Islands, Hawaii and Chile  

CERN Document Server

An analysis of the impact of seismic and volcanic activity was carried out at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile) and the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones (Chile). Hazard associated to volcanic activity is low or negligible at all sites, whereas seismic hazard is very high in Chile and Hawaii. The lowest geological hazard in both seismic and volcanic activity was found at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, in the island of La Palma.

Eff-Darwich, A; Rodriguez-Losada, J A; de la Nuez, J; Hernandez-Gutierrez, L E; Romero-Ruiz, M C

2009-01-01

240

Nuclear plants and geothermal energy: seismology and geologic structures in the site selection of nuclear plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The role of seismology in nuclear plant site selection is presented. It is necessary for the geologists to extend their knowledge of earthquake phenomena which are generally neglected in France, and have to be taken into account in the study of power plants. Seismotectonic structures have to be investigated[fr] Le role de la sismologie dans le choix des sites des centrales nucleaires est presente. On montre la necessite pour les geologues d'approfondir leurs connaissances des phenomenes sismiques, generalement negliges en France et dont il est necessaire de tenir compte dans les etudes des centrales. Il faut definir des structures sismotectoniques

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Geologic repository work breakdown structure and dictionary---Development and evaluation phase (PE-02)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Revision 2 of the OGR Work Breakdown Structure and Dictionary -- Development and Evaluation Phase (PE-02) supersedes Revision 1, August 1989, in its entirety. The revision is to delete the Exploratory Shaft Facility'' work scape and replace it with Exploratory Studies Facility'' work scape.

1991-08-01

242

Geologic repository work breakdown structure and dictionary---Development and evaluation phase (PE-02)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Revision 2 of the OGR Work Breakdown Structure and Dictionary -- Development and Evaluation Phase (PE-02) supersedes Revision 1, August 1989, in its entirety. The revision is to delete the ''Exploratory Shaft Facility'' work scape and replace it with ''Exploratory Studies Facility'' work scape

1991-01-01

243

Eye-Tracking Investigations Exploring How Students Learn Geology from Photographs and The Structural Setting of Hydrothermal Gold Deposits in the San Antonio Area, B.C.S., MX  

Science.gov (United States)

Geoscience educators commonly teach geology by projecting a photograph in front of the class. Geologic photographs often contain animals, people, and inanimate objects that help convey the scale of features in the photograph. Although scale items seem innocuous to instructors and other experts, the presence of such items is distracting and has a profound effect on student learning behavior. To evaluate how students visually interact with distracting scale items in photographs and to determine if cueing or signaling is an effective means to direct students to pertinent information, students were eye tracked while looking at geologically-rich photographs. Eye-tracking data revealed that learners primarily looked at the center of an image, focused on faces of both humans and animals if they were present, and repeatedly returned to looking at the scale item (distractor) for the duration an image was displayed. The presence of a distractor caused learners to look at less of an image than when a distractor was not present. Learners who received signaling tended to look at the distractor less, look at the geology more, and surveyed more of the photograph than learners who did not receive signaling. The San Antonio area in the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula is host to hydrothermal gold deposits. A field study, including drill-core analysis and detailed geologic mapping, was conducted to determine the types of mineralization present, the types of structures present, and the relationship between the two. This investigation revealed that two phases of mineralization have occurred in the area; the first is hydrothermal deposition of gold associated with sulfide deposits and the second is oxidation of sulfides to hematite, goethite, and jarosite. Mineralization varies as a function of depth, whereas sulfides occurring at depth, while minerals indicative of oxidation are limited to shallow depths. A structural analysis revealed that the oldest structures in the study area include low-grade to medium-grade metamorphic foliation and ductile mylonitic shear zones overprinted by brittle-ductile mylonitic fabrics, which were later overprinted by brittle deformation. Both primary and secondary mineralization in the area is restricted to the later brittle features. Alteration-bearing structures have an average NNW strike consistent with northeast-southwest-directed extension, whereas unaltered structures have an average NNE strike consistent with more recent northwest-southeast-directed extension.

Coyan, Joshua

244

Principles of plutonic geology. Osnovy glubinnoi geologii  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A systematic presentation is made of methods, results, and certain problems in plutonic geological studies. An examination is made of the content and subject of plutonic geology. A description is given of geological, geochemical, physical, petrophysical, geophysical, and geolo-geophysical research methods. A description is given of contemporary concepts on the structure and composition of the earth's crust and upper mantle as well as on the origin of seismic boundaries. Materials are given on regional plutonic investigations on the continents and oceans. An analysis is made of the interconnection between plutonic and surface structure of the earth crust. Seismicity, isostasy, thermal field, and time variations in geophysical fields are examined with a view to studying the structure, composition, and status of the earth's interior. Suggestions are made solutions to a series of important geological problems, based on the results of plutonic studies. The book is intended as a teaching aid for senior undergraduates at university geology and geography departments. It might also be useful to a broad spectrum of geologists, geophysicists, and geochemists. 98 references, 80 figures, 6 tables.

Moiseenko, F.S.

1981-01-01

245

Geological events play a larger role than Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in driving the genetic structure of Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleoclimatic and paleogeological events have been identified as being the two main drivers of genetic structuring in extant organisms. We used a montane stream-dwelling frog, Quasipaa boulengeri, to explore the relative roles played by these drivers on species in southern China, a region needing thorough studies. We detected four major matrilines, and no broadly distributed haplotypes occurred. The complex orogenesis of south-western China drove matrilineal divergence in Q. boulengeri into highly structured geographical units. These matrilines subsequently persisted in situ with stable populations rather than undergoing expansions during glacial cycling. The unification of the upper and middle Yangtze River in the Three Gorges mountain region mediated downstream colonization of this frog. Analyses identified geological events as playing a larger role than climatic fluctuations in driving the population history of Q. boulengeri. Nuclear allele analyses indicated gene flow; this maintained genetic cohesion of the species. South-eastern Sichuan Basin was identified as the area of secondary contact for several matrilines, and this area deserves further study and special protection. PMID:23216961

Yan, Fang; Zhou, Weiwei; Zhao, Haitao; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Yunyu; Jiang, Ke; Jin, Jieqiong; Murphy, Robert W; Che, Jing; Zhang, Yaping

2012-12-05

246

Geological events play a larger role than Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in driving the genetic structure of Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paleoclimatic and paleogeological events have been identified as being the two main drivers of genetic structuring in extant organisms. We used a montane stream-dwelling frog, Quasipaa boulengeri, to explore the relative roles played by these drivers on species in southern China, a region needing thorough studies. We detected four major matrilines, and no broadly distributed haplotypes occurred. The complex orogenesis of south-western China drove matrilineal divergence in Q. boulengeri into highly structured geographical units. These matrilines subsequently persisted in situ with stable populations rather than undergoing expansions during glacial cycling. The unification of the upper and middle Yangtze River in the Three Gorges mountain region mediated downstream colonization of this frog. Analyses identified geological events as playing a larger role than climatic fluctuations in driving the population history of Q. boulengeri. Nuclear allele analyses indicated gene flow; this maintained genetic cohesion of the species. South-eastern Sichuan Basin was identified as the area of secondary contact for several matrilines, and this area deserves further study and special protection.

Yan F; Zhou W; Zhao H; Yuan Z; Wang Y; Jiang K; Jin J; Murphy RW; Che J; Zhang Y

2013-02-01

247

Study of the effects of local geological structure on seismic ground motion and building vulnerability with microtremors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Examples of several earthquakes in last decades have shown that the influenceoflocalgeological structure (site effects) on seismic ground motion was often underestimated; the effects of the earthquake were therefore greater than expected. Especially dangerous is the situation when both the fundamental frequency of sediments and of structures are similar and a resonance occurs. Among the other methods for assessing the effects of local geology the use of microtremors achieved a recognition in the last decade. The method is based on measurements of ambient vibration of natural and artificial origin with three-component sensor. Spectral ratio between the records on horizontal and vertical component yield fundamental frequency of soft sediments deposited over hard bedrock. By measurements inside buildings the main building frequency in longitudinal and transverse direction and consequently the range of increased vulnerability is determined. By comparison of thefundamental frequency map of sediments and measurements inside buildings, we can perform quantitative microzonation of urbane areas and identify areas where the danger of soil-structure resonance exists. In Slovenia microtremors investigations are carried out in the frame of a NATO Science for peace project. By measurements in a very dense grid of 200 m x 200 m a new microzonation of Ljubljana will be performed. In the Bovec basin, where the site effects were very prominent during 1998 and 2004 damaging earthquakes, we found out that relative high damage to some buildings were caused by soil-structure resonance effects. In Ilirska Bistrica, which is one of the most seismically active regions in Slovenia, we also established that most of the buildings damaged during stronger earthquakesare located in areas characterised by the fundamental frequency of soil which coincide with the range of the main building frequencies.

Andrej Gosar

2007-01-01

248

Grimsel test site: structural geology and water flow-paths in the migration shear-zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The shear-zone in the ventilation tunnel at VT 420 at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) is a direct continuation of the migration shear-zone AU 96 that is being used for hydraulic and tracer migration experiments. A thick drill-core (diameter 20 cm) was taken from the VT 420 location such that the fragile structures in the central fault breccia remained largely intact. After several hardening steps, thin-sections were produced for all three main deformation planes of the deformation ellipsoid (i.e. parallel/perpendicular to the cleavage and stretching lineation). Vacuum impregnation with fluorescent resin allowed the pore-space to be observed microscopically. The report contains information concerning the ductile shear-zone, brittle deformation, quantitative porosimetry, extrapolation of observed structures to larger scales, implications for water flow and transport, and suggestions for revised conceptual models. 23 figs., 5 tabs., 33 refs

1991-01-01

249

Geologic History  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit introduces younger students to the concept of relative versus absolute time and how geologists determine the age of geologic events and features. Topics include the laws that determine relative age (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, included fragments, and others), and how to re-construct the geologic history of an area using these relationships. There is also information on geologic correlation and the use of index fossils to determine relative age. The section on absolute time discusses some ways of measurement (tree rings, radioactive dating) and introduces the concepts of natural selection and mass extinctions. A vocabulary and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

2010-09-03

250

Environmental geologic analysis of Rio de las Taguas basin Departmento Iglesia San Juan Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A mineral environmental research project results where it has been located in Rio de las Taguas basin, Departamento Iglesia, Provincia de San Juan, Argentina. It has been placed in frontal Andean mountain in San Juan. In this geographic framework has been developed Au and Ag mineral project in order the world scale. The aim of this article is has been related the mineral and geological units bet wen the basin chemistry as well as to carry out future measurements mines impacts in this area. (author)

2007-01-01

251

Analysis of siliceous geologic materials by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The determination of the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe in siliceous geologic samples by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence is investigated using the most adequate excitation conditions: direct excitation mode (rhodium anode X-ray tube) for the former two elements, and the secondary targets titanium for K and Ca, and germanium for Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe. For the correction of matrix effects the use of ratio methods has been tested. Procedure files have been defined allowing the automatic simultaneous acquisition and processing of spectra. (author)

1987-01-01

252

The Geology of Georgia  

Science.gov (United States)

This tutorial introduces students to the geology of the State of Georgia. It discussues major rock types, ages and general geologic structures of the state's four physiographic provinces: Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain. There are also discussions of the Fall Line, the boundary between the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, and the relationship between the geologic settings of the four provinces and patterns of highway construction. A discussion the tectonic history of the state relates the origin of the physiographic provinces to the collision of the North American and African plates, some 300 million years ago, that resulted in the formation of the Appalachian Mountains. A selection of links is provided to other online resources on Georgia geology, and links to additional information are also embedded in the text.

253

Geologic evolution of Arizona  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seven years in the making, the 35 papers in this volume summarize the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic evolution of Arizona from Precambrian through Quaternary time. Intended as a compendium of current knowledge of Arizona geology, the papers synthesize previous work with new data, ideas, and concepts as well as identifying unresolved problems for future research. Emphasis is placed on the geologic evolution of the state as a whole rather than specific local areas. The papers are organized in terms of geologic eras: Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. The concluding section offers topical studies in the areas of geophysics, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas, geothermal resources, hydrogeology, and environmental geology. California readers will find much of interest in this research volume because many of the tectonic processes that formed Arizona also affected the development of this state

1989-01-01

254

Structural geology and tectonic implications of a part of the northern Stillwater Range, Nevada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The east flank of the Stillwater Range adjacent to the Dixie Valley geothermal area near Fallon, Nevada, hosts one of the best exposures of Mesozoic thrust faults in the Basin and Range province. The rangefront comprises four imbricate lithologic packages. The Triassic Star Peak Group sits structurally lowest beneath Triassic phyllite of the Fencemaker-B allochthon. Bedded quartz arenite of the Jurassic Boyer Ranch Formation lies above the phyllite along the Boyer thrust. Rocks of the Humboldt Igneous Complex sit structurally highest in brittle fault contact with both the arenite and phyllite. The Fenoemaker thrust is a major Jurassic structure in west-central Nevada which places Triassic basinal strata northeastward over shelf carbonates of the Star Peak Group, which depositionally overlie the Golconda allochthon. Locally, the Fencemaker thrust lies within a high strain zone characterized by mylonitic marble, phlogopite-bearing calcareous argillite schist, boudinaged siliciclastics, and phyllonite. Consistently southeast-dipping penetrative foliations and down-dip stretching lineations in these Triassic metasedimentary rocks are, however, inconsistent with northeast directed thrusting. This suggests that northwest vergent thrusting also occurred here, possibly along the Willow Creek thrust. In contrast to the Fencemaker thrust, the Boyer thrust is characterized by close folds in the hanging wall, a narrow zone of fault gouge, and crenulation of footwall foliations, indicating a less ductile regime. East dipping Tertiary extensional faults expose these thrusts along the Stillwater rangefront and displace the thrust sheets downdip beneath Dixie Valley. The geometry of these thrust sheets in the subsurface is critical to the production of geothermal wells in the area.

Plank, G.L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1996-06-01

255

Study on the remote sensing geological information of uranium mineralization in Western Liaoning and Northern Hebei  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the whole areal geological map joint application rd exploitation, composite forming map, generalization analysis and field examination in detail of key region that mainly depend on remote sensing information and generalize the data of geology, geophysical and geochemical prospecting, and geohydrology, this paper reveals the structure framework, regional geological background, uranium metallogenic condition and space time distribution rule of orustal evolution and its result, and set up the interpretation marks of arc-shaped structure in different of rock area and discusses its geological genesis. The author also interprets volcanic apparatus, small type closed sedimentary basin, magmatic rock body which relate closely to uranium deposit, ore control structure and occurrence and type of mineralization alteration envelope. The thermal halo point of satellite image is emphatically interpreted and its geological meaning and its relation to uranium deposit is discussed. Remote sensing geological prospecting ore model and synthetic provision model is determined lastly.

1996-01-01

256

Geologic Time  

Science.gov (United States)

This online pamphlet discusses the concept of geologic time. Topics include the relative and radiometric time scales, the use of index fossils in making age determinations, and current thinking on the age of the Earth.

257

Geologic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Geological studies focused on developing a better understanding of the processes which govern movement of pollutants in ground water and seepage basins. A ground water flow model was developed for the Savannah River Plant area

1976-01-01

258

Rare earth elements content in geological samples from eastern desert, Egypt, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty representative geological samples (tonalite, granodiorite, adamellite, syenogranite, rapakivi syenogranite, alkali feldspar granite and monzogranite) were collected from G. Kattar area in Eastern Desert, Egypt, for analysis by instrumental neutron activation as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of 14 rare earth elements (REEs) and to find out the following: (1) what information could be obtained about the REEs and distribution patterns of REEs in geological samples under investigation, (2) to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of the INAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standard reference material and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7x1011 n/cm2 s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The gamma spectra were collected by an HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of a computerized multichannel analyzer. The choice of the nuclear reaction, irradiation and decay times, and of the proper gamma radiation in counting are presented and discussed. The results are found to be in good agreement with certified values.

2010-01-01

259

Evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste storage in geological formations: preliminary applications of fault tree analysis to salt formations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study deals with the applications of fault tree analysis to the evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste storage in geological formations. Two hypothetical formations were investigated: the layer and the dome of salt. Detailed hypotheses were formulated for each of them on the stratigraphical, hydrological and geomorphological conditions. The various phenomena enabling the geological barrier failure were observed by FTA. Failure methods and probabilities were evaluated for 4 time phases, respectively 103, 104, 105 and 106 years[fr] Cette etude a pour but d'illustrer une application de la 'Fault Tree Analysis' a l'evaluation de la surete du stockage de dechets radioactifs en formations geologiques. Deux formations imaginaires ont ete choisies, a savoir la couche et le dome de sel. Pour chacune d'elles des hypotheses tres detaillees sur les conditions stratigraphiques, hydrologiques et geomorphologiques ont ete faites. Avec l'application de la F.T.A. nous avons cherche a mettre en evidence les differents groupes de phenomenes qui peuvent causer la defaillance de la barriere geologique. Les modalites de defaillance et les probabilites associees ont ete evaluees sur quatre intervalles de temps, respectivement 103

1977-05-27

260

Introduction to stratigraphy, structure, and geologic problems in Big Horn basin, Wyoming and Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stratigraphy of the Big Horn basin can be divided generally into (1) the Middle Cambrian clastics, (2) the Paleozoic shelf carbonates, (3) the Mesozoic clastics, (4) the Late Cretaceous to Teritary synorogenic clastics, and (5) the Teritary post-orogenic clastics and volcanics. By far the most economically important formations have been the Permian Phosphoria and Pennsylvanian Tensleep Formations. This dynamic duo consists of porous eolian and shallow marine, oil-rich carbonates of the Phosphoria. The two have combined to produce over 1.5 billion bbl of oil in the Big Horn basin alone. The draping of the Tensleep and Phosphoria over large Laramide structures (closures of over 5,000 + ft, 1,500 m, and areal extents up to 15 mi/sup 2/, 40 km/sup 2/) was the final key. There is a controversy over the morphology of the folds in the foreland. Put simply, there is some disagreement over how much the horizontal or thrusting component contributes to these folds. Concerning other problems, Stone in the October 1967 AAPG bulletin pointed out that the Paleozoic reservoirs often have a common oil-water contact (OWC) within individual structures. He attributed the common OWC to fractures joining the reservoirs. The OWC is commonly tilted; this he attributed to hydrodynamic flow. An understanding of fractures and tilted oil-water contacts is imperative for successful exploration and production programs in the Big Horn basin.

Hollis, S.H.; Fisher, M.P.

1983-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Data Fusion: A decision analysis tool that quantifies geological and parametric uncertainty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Engineering projects such as siting waste facilities and performing remediation are often driven by geological and hydrogeological uncertainties. Geological understanding and hydrogeological parameters such as hydraulic conductivity are needed to achieve reliable engineering design. Information from non-invasive and minimally invasive data sets offers potential for reduction in uncertainty, but a single data type does not usually meet all needs. Data Fusion uses Bayesian statistics to update prior knowledge with information from diverse data sets as the data is acquired. Prior knowledge takes the form of first principles models (e.g., groundwater flow) and spatial continuity models for heterogeneous properties. The variability of heterogeneous properties is modeled in a form motivated by statistical physics as a Markov random field. A computer reconstruction of targets of interest is produced within a quantified statistical uncertainty. The computed uncertainty provides a rational basis for identifying data gaps for assessing data worth to optimize data acquisition. Further, the computed uncertainty provides a way to determine the confidence of achieving adequate safety margins in engineering design. Beyond design, Data Fusion provides the basis for real time computer monitoring of remediation. Working with the DOE Office of Technology (OTD), the author has developed and patented a Data Fusion Workstation system that has been used on jobs at the Hanford, Savannah River, Pantex and Fernald DOE sites. Further applications include an army depot at Letterkenney, PA and commercial industrial sites

1996-01-01

262

Data Fusion: A decision analysis tool that quantifies geological and parametric uncertainty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Engineering projects such as siting waste facilities and performing remediation are often driven by geological and hydrogeological uncertainties. Geological understanding and hydrogeological parameters such as hydraulic conductivity are needed to achieve reliable engineering design. Information form non-invasive and minimal invasive data sets offers potential for reduction in uncertainty, but a single data type does not usually meet all needs. Data Fusion uses Bayesian statistics to update prior knowledge with information from diverse data sets as the data is acquired. Prior knowledge takes the form of first principles models (e.g., groundwater flow) and spatial continuity models for heterogeneous properties. The variability of heterogeneous properties is modeled in a form motivated by statistical physics as a Markov random field. A computer reconstruction of targets of interest is produced within a quantified statistical uncertainty. The computed uncertainty provides a rational basis for identifying data gaps for assessing data worth to optimize data acquisition. Further, the computed uncertainty provides a way to determine the confidence of achieving adequate safety, margins in engineering design. Beyond design, Data Fusion provides the basis for real time computer monitoring of remediation. Working with the DOE Office of Technology (OTD), the authors have developed and patented a Data Fusion Workstation system that has been used on jobs at the Hanford, Savannah River, Pantex and Fernald DOE sites. Further, applications include an army depot at Letterkenney, PA and commercial industrial sites

1995-01-01

263

Modified chromatographic separation scheme for Sr and Nd isotope analysis in geological silicate samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel chromatographic separation technique for Sr and Nd separation from geological silicate samples was established and successfully tested for routine use in Laboratory of Radiogenic Isotopes of the Czech Geological Survey. The separation scheme is based on combination and modification of methods published in papers by Christian Pin and his co-workers. This triple column arrangement enables the isolation of pure Sr and Nd fractions (also Sm if required) from bulk-rock solution in a single step during one working day. The Sr and Nd yields are high, while blank levels remain low. This procedure minimizes the acid consumption and time needed for the separation by more than half compared to the traditional ion exchange separation techniques. The calibration of the Ln.Spec columns should be periodically monitored because the elution of REEs shifts after a period of extensive use of the resin. Suitability of this technique for Sr and Nd separation from silicate rock samples was confirmed by repeated measurements of 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios in three international reference materials BCR-1, JA-1 and JB-3.

Mikova J; Denkova P

2008-01-01

264

The relationship of structures and geological-building of Rudòany ore field to geotechnics features  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The geostructural and geotechnical analysis was aimed at the concrete conditions of the Rudòany ore field at the Spi? region, the part of the Slovak Republic. Our research results make it possible to minimalize the negative influence of moisture liquidation of the mine field from the ecological point of view. The paper is devided into followings parts: present and future moisture liquidations and their influences on surface subsidences, the theoretical principles for the geotechnical evaluation of the subsidences and application of the principles.

?urove Juraj; Sasvári Tibor; Vavrek Pavol

1999-01-01

265

Puzzles and the maximum-effective-moment (MEM) criterion in structural geology  

Science.gov (United States)

The essential difference in the formation between conjugate brittle shear fractures and ductile shear zones is that the intersection angle of conjugate faults in the contractional quadrants in the former is acute (usually ˜60°) and obtuse (usually 110°) in the latter. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is an experimentally validated empirical relationship, which structural geologists use to interpret the stress directions based on the orientation of the brittle shear fractures. However, a simple application of this criterion assuming that the principal stresses are vertical or horizontal throughout the crust fails to explain crustal scale low-angle normal faults, high-angle reverse faults and certain types of conjugate strike-slip faults that have intersection angles in the compressional quadrants greater than 90°. Although the Maximum-Effective-Moment (MEM) criterion has been used to analyze structures in several natural cases and obtained some new evidence in nature and experiments, it is not yet commonly used to interpret non-Mohr-Coulomb features widely distributed in the crust. It is important to review the MEM criterion and its implications for explaining the formation mechanism of naturally occurring faults and shear zones. Behavior of a rock depends on its mechanical properties; the latter in turn depends on pressure and temperature conditions related to crustal depth and strain rates. Conjugate fractures with obtuse angles, ca. 110°, in the contractional direction at different scales and at different crustal levels are consistent with the prediction of the MEM criterion and suggest deformation at low strain rates. Thus, strain-rate clearly plays an important role in the style of crustal deformation and the many observed departures from the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion.

Zheng, Yadong; Zhang, Jinjiang; Wang, Tao

2011-09-01

266

Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

1997-01-01

267

Question of conducting geological exploration for crystalline rocks of the Precambrian (Kuybyshev Volga region)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A question is examined of conducting geological exploration for crystalline rocks of the Precambrian on the territory of the Kuybyshev Volga region. Based on analysis of the available data, including the results of superdeep drilling, substantiation is provided for the possible existence of oil fields in rocks of the Precambrian foundation within the indicated territory. The proposed recommendations for conducting geological exploration on the territory of the three oil geological regions includes productive and ''empty'' structures.

Yelanskiy, L.N.; Andreyev, V.N.; Kozin, A.N.

1983-01-01

268

High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our proposed work on high resolution/high fidelity seismic imaging focused on three general areas: (1) development of new, more efficient, wave-equation-based propagators and imaging conditions, (2) developments towards amplitude-preserving imaging in the local angle domain, in particular, imaging methods that allow us to estimate the reflection as a function of angle at a layer boundary, and (3) studies of wave inversion for local parameter estimation. In this report we summarize the results and progress we made during the project period. The report is divided into three parts, totaling 10 chapters. The first part is on resolution analysis and its relation to directional illumination analysis. The second part, which is composed of 6 chapters, is on the main theme of our work, the true-reflection imaging. True-reflection imaging is an advanced imaging technology which aims at keeping the image amplitude proportional to the reflection strength of the local reflectors or to obtain the reflection coefficient as function of reflection-angle. There are many factors which may influence the image amplitude, such as geometrical spreading, transmission loss, path absorption, acquisition aperture effect, etc. However, we can group these into two categories: one is the propagator effect (geometric spreading, path losses); the other is the acquisition-aperture effect. We have made significant progress in both categories. We studied the effects of different terms in the true-amplitude one-way propagators, especially the terms including lateral velocity variation of the medium. We also demonstrate the improvements by optimizing the expansion coefficients in different terms. Our research also includes directional illumination analysis for both the one-way propagators and full-wave propagators. We developed the fast acquisition-aperture correction method in the local angle-domain, which is an important element in the true-reflection imaging. Other developments include the super-wide angle one-way propagator and special full-wave reverse-time migration method. Finally, we studied the theoretical basis of true-reflection imaging and bridges imaging and inversion with the theory of diffraction tomography.

Ru-Shan Wu; Xiao-Bi Xie

2008-06-08

269

Geologic Framework and Description of Coalbed Gas Plays  

Science.gov (United States)

Coalbed gas currently accounts for about 6 percent of all US natural gas reserves. This 85-page US Geological Survey report describes the geology of these coalbed gas plays, discusses potential for future prospects and provides a brief history of coalbed gas exploration in the US. Copious information about many sedimentary basins, Cretaceous and Tertiary strata, and Laramide structures is included as part of the coalbed methane play analysis.

Rice, Dudley; Survey, Us G.

270

Gravity anomalies, caldera structure, and subsurface geology in the Rotorua area, New Zealand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses a re-examination of gravity which indicates that Rotorua Caldera does not have the circular, negative gravity anomaly typical of other rhyolitic calderas. New gravity measurements and residual gravity anomalies in Rotorua City are consistent with numerous rhyolite domes and ignimbrite sheets, interbedded with a thick sequence of poorly-compacted sediments. Within the city a gravity high extends from the shore of Lake Rotorua south to Whakarewarewa and is associated with a buried ridge, formed by the coalescing of two rhyolite domes. A gravity low centered near Linton Park suggests that rhyolites are thin or absent in this area and sediments extend to a depth of about 1 km. A quantitative analysis of the residual gravity anomalies was limited by insufficient information about the density, extent, and thickness of the material underlying the rhyolites, and the uncertainty in the distribution and density of silicification within the sediments.

Hunt, T.M. (DSIR Geology and Geophysics, Geothermal Research Center, Private Bag 2000, Taupo (NZ))

1992-04-01

271

Estimating the supply and demand for deep geologic CO2 storage capacity over the course of the 21st Century: A meta-analysis of the literature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whether there is sufficient geologic CO2 storage capacity to allow CCS to play a significant role in mitigating climate change has been the subject of debate since the 1990s. This paper presents a meta- analysis of a large body of recently published literature to derive updated estimates of the global deep geologic storage resource as well as the potential demand for this geologic CO2 storage resource over the course of this century. This analysis reveals that, for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation scenarios that have end-of-century atmospheric CO2 concentrations of between 350 ppmv and 725 ppmv, the average demand for deep geologic CO2 storage over the course of this century is between 410 GtCO2 and 1,670 GtCO2. The literature summarized here suggests that -- depending on the stringency of criteria applied to calculate storage capacity – global geologic CO2 storage capacity could be: 35,300 GtCO2 of “theoretical” capacity; 13,500 GtCO2 of “effective” capacity; 3,900 GtCO2, of “practical” capacity; and 290 GtCO2 of “matched” capacity for the few regions where this narrow definition of capacity has been calculated. The cumulative demand for geologic CO2 storage is likely quite small compared to global estimates of the deep geologic CO2 storage capacity, and therefore, a “lack” of deep geologic CO2 storage capacity is unlikely to be an impediment for the commercial adoption of CCS technologies in this century.

Dooley, James J.

2013-08-05

272

Structural analysis of nuclear components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

THe report describes the activities accomplished in the project 'Structural Analysis Project of Nuclear Power Plant Components' during the years 1974-1982 in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The objective of the project has been to develop Finnish expertise in structural mechanics related to nuclear engineering. The report describes the starting point of the research work, the organization of the project and the research activities on various subareas. Further the work done with computer codes is described and also the problems which the developed expertise has been applied to. Finally, the diploma works, publications and work reports, which are mainly in Finnish, are listed to give a view of the content of the project. (author).

1983-01-01

273

Geological structure of the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea (east of 25 Degrees E)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The deformation fronts of the Cyprus arc and the Mediterranean ridge, extending from the Turkey-Syria boundary to north Cyrenacia, are the southernmost superficial expression of the convergence between the Eurasian and African plates. They separate the Eastern Mediterranean deep basin into two different structural units: (1) A thrust belt, northward, with the presence of Cenozoic sedimentary basins which could be considered piggy-back basins (Iskenderun, Adana, Cilicia, and Antalya basins). These basins, filled by 4,000 to 6,000 m of Cenozoic sediments, lie on a substratum composed of south-vergent nappes emplaced between the Late Cretaceous and the late Miocene. (2) A foreland area, southward, where the thick Herodotus and Levantine sedimentary basins, relatively undeformed, lie on the passive and subsident African continental margin initiated during Late Triassic or early Liassic time. Due to the still-active collision between the thrust belt and the Erathosthenes seamount, Cyprus was uplifted and today represents the emerged part of the deformation front. During the Messinian, with the isolation of the Mediterranean Sea, evaporitic deposits including a salt layer (sometimes more than 2,000 m thick) were widely distributed into the Iskenderun, Cilicia, Antalya, Levantine, and Herodotus basins. In these basins, the Messinian sedimentation was directly controlled by basin topography.

Montadert, L.; Sage, L.; Letouzey, J. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France))

1988-08-01

274

Geology of drill hole USW VH-2, and structure of Crater Flat, southwestern Nevada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 1219 meter (4000 ft) drill hole in Crater Flat shows the absence of buried Pliocene or Quaternary volcanic rocks, and penetrates a section of Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, and the upper part of the Crater Flat Tuffs, similar to that exposed adjacent to Crater Flat. A prominent negative aeromagnetic anomaly between the drill hole and Bare Mountain is attributed to a westward thickening section of a reversely magnetized Miocene basalt. The relatively shallow depth of this basalt in the west-central part of Crater Flat indicates that no large amount of tectonic movement has occurred in approximately the last 10 m.y. Massive brecciated wedges of Paleozoic rocks are penetrated in two stratigraphic intervals in the drill hole; the older one, between the Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff, correlates with the time of maximum faulting east of Crater Flat in the Yucca Mountain area. The younger slide masses are correlated with a large slide block of probable late Miocene age exposed along the southwestern rim of Crater Flat. The structural pattern and style buried beneath central and western Crater Flat is deduced to be similar to that exposed at Yucca Mountain, but less developed. The major fault system controlling the steep east face of Bare Mountain, though probably still active, is believed to have developed mainly as a result of caldera collapse between 13 and 14 m.y. ago. Relations between faulting and four episodes of basalt eruption in the Crater Flat area strongly suggest contemporaneity of the two processes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Carr, W.J.; Parrish, L.D.

1985-12-31

275

Correlation of the radiometric analysis with the surface geology of Wadi Fatira,. central eastern desert, egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fatira area built up of a sequence of igneous and metamorphic rocks of late precambrian age. It is un conformably overlain in the western parts by Nubian sands tons mostly of cretaceous age. The radiometric studies of the geological units cropping out in the area, revealed that each rock unit has a characteristic value of activity. The younger units through the basement complex, always possess higher radioactivity relative to the older ones. As a result the emerging geosynclinal volcanics and late orogenic granites attain the highest radiometric values and they could reflect the chemical composition of rock.these studies also revealed the presence of three phases of red pink granites in the eastern desert of egypt, each of them possesses a characteristic radiometric value. This is in agreement with the field, petrographic and petrochemical characteristics of such classification

1988-01-01

276

Seismic refraction analysis of multifold reflection data and applications to interpretation of shallow bedrock geology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two methods of quantifying P-wave arrival times from seismic surveys were discussed. The first method was a generalized linear inversion technique that constrained the roughness of the velocity solution and inverted the propagation across the weathered layer/bedrock boundary. The second approach involved a technique which smoothed the uncorrected times in forward and reverse directions, assuming either a head-wave or diving-wave model for wave propagation within bedrock. Time corrections to compensate for rapid changes in overburden and weathering reduced measurement errors in velocity, and were estimated separately by generalised linear inversion or by reciprocal method. The analyses were evaluated on several high resolution reflection data sets collected for mineral exploration in the vicinity of two base-metal mines in Newfoundland. This provided useful information for geological interpretation.

Leslie, I.; Wright, C. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1995-12-31

277

Automated Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An automated Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis procedure has been developed at ATK Thiokol Propulsion that couples computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and structural finite element (FE) analysis to solve FSI problems. The procedure externally coup...

D. Isaac M. Iverson

2003-01-01

278

Seismic analysis of rack structure with fluid-structure interaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the seismic analysis of rack structure with fluid-structure interaction is performed through use of the Finite Element Method(FEM) code ANSYS. Fluid-structure interaction can specify in terms of an hydrodynamic effect which is defined as the added mass per unit length divided by the area of the cross section. Using the Floor Response Spectrum(FRS) obtained through the time-history analysis, model analysis and seismic analysis under Operating Basis Earthquake(OBE) and Safe Shutdown Earthquake(SSE) condition is carried out. The fluid-structure interaction effects on the rack structure are investigated

2001-01-01

279

Seismic analysis of rack structure with fluid-structure interaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the seismic analysis of rack structure with fluid-structure interaction is performed through use of the Finite Element Method(FEM) code ANSYS. Fluid-structure interaction can specify in terms of an hydrodynamic effect which is defined as the added mass per unit length divided by the area of the cross section. Using the Floor Response Spectrum(FRS) obtained through the time-history analysis, model analysis and seismic analysis under Operating Basis Earthquake(OBE) and Safe Shutdown Earthquake(SSE) condition is carried out. The fluid-structure interaction effects on the rack structure are investigated.

Kim, S. J.; Lee, Y. S.; Ryu, C. H. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, K. H.; Jung, S. H. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2001-07-01

280

Pennsylvania Geology  

Science.gov (United States)

Three decades after it was published, the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania was described as "the most remarkable series of reports ever issued by any survey." Considering the diversity of other geological reports, this was no small compliment. Drawing on support from the Marion and Kenneth Pollock Libraries Program Fund, the Pennsylvania State University Libraries' Digital Preservation Unit was able to digitize not only this fabled Survey, but also the Third and Fourth Surveys as well. Visitors can use the search engine on the homepage to look for items of interest, or they can just browse through the collection at their leisure. The surveys include various maps and illustrations that track mineral deposits and the disposition and location of other natural resources. Additionally, users can look through a miscellaneous set of publications from the early 20th century related to survey work performed by the U.S. Geological Survey.

 
 
 
 
281

Teaching Geology  

Science.gov (United States)

This rather remarkable website contains a great collection of resources for web-based instruction and demonstrations of geology concepts. The collection includes, under Classroom demonstration, the very useful SeisMac 3.0, which is an application for Mac OS X that turns a laptop computer into a " low-resolution strong-motion accelerometer," or a basic seismograph. It works by accessing the computer's Sudden Motion Sensor in order to display real-time, three axis accelerations graphs. Visitors can use the application to watch the seismic waves go up and down just by tapping their feet on the floor nearby. Other resources include Virtual Earth (an "interactive minicourse on thermal convection") and a link to Geology in the news, which collates important news stories with a geological theme.

282

A 3D visualization of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater chemical profile around Iwate volcano, Japan: based on the ARCGIS 3D Analyst  

Science.gov (United States)

We established 3D geological and hydrological model around Iwate volcano to visualize 3D relationships between subsurface structure and groundwater profile. Iwate volcano is a typical polygenetic volcano located in NE Japan, and its body is composed of two stratovolcanoes which have experienced sector collapses several times. Because of this complex structure, groundwater flow around Iwate volcano is strongly restricted by subsurface construction. For example, Kazahaya and Yasuhara (1999) clarified that shallow groundwater in north and east flanks of Iwate volcano are recharged at the mountaintop, and these flow systems are restricted in north and east area because of the structure of younger volcanic body collapse. In addition, Ohwada et al. (2006) found that these shallow groundwater in north and east flanks have relatively high concentration of major chemical components and high 3He/4He ratios. In this study, we succeeded to visualize the spatial relationship between subsurface structure and chemical profile of shallow and deep groundwater system using 3D model on the GIS. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data and groundwater chemical profile, were reported. All these paper data are digitized and converted to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. We also inputted digital elevation model (DEM) around Iwate volcano issued by the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan, and digital geological maps issued by Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer.

Shibahara, A.; Ohwada, M.; Itoh, J.; Kazahaya, K.; Tsukamoto, H.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Oyama, Y.

2009-12-01

283

Neutron activation analysis and the geochemistry of common and trace elements at extinction boundaries in the geological record  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The discovery of the iridium anomaly at the 65-Ma Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction boundary initiated numerous investigations, including the search for the coupling of these extinctions with other astronomical events. One hypothesis is that these periodic extinctions are coupled to terrestrial impacts from cyclic swarms of comets or asteroids. The studies have focused on elucidating the conditions and causes of extinction of life at these geological boundaries using elemental abundance patterns. The authors use instrumental neutron activation methods to determine whole-rock abundances for about 40 trace and common elements in thousands of samples. The platinum group elements (iridium, gold, platinum, and osmium) and nickel are measured by radiochemical activation analysis. The authors can measure iridium at levels down to 1 picogram/gram level

1994-01-01

284

Safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal into geological formations; a preliminary application of fault tree analysis to salt deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The methodology of the fault tree analysis (FTA) has been widely used at the Joint Research Centre of Ispra in nuclear reactor safety studies. The aim of the present work consisted in studying the applicability of this methodology to geological repositories of radioactive wastes, including criteria and approaches for the quantification of probalities of primary events. The present work has just an illustrative purpose. Two ideal cases of saline formations, I.E. a bedded salt and a diapir were chosen as potential disposal sites for radioactive waste. On the basis of arbitrarily assumed hydrogeological features of the salt formations and their surrounding environment, possible phenomena capable of causing the waste to be released from each formation have been discussed and gathered following the logical schemes of the FTA. The assessment of probability values for release events due to natural causes as well as to human actions, over different time periods, up to one million years, has been discussed

1978-01-01

285

Improving the seismic image of the CO2 geological storage in Hontomin (Spain): structure and distribution of the physical properties  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed image of the internal structure and the distribution of the physical properties of the future Spanish technological laboratory for the geological storage of CO2 has been obtained using seismic data. This acquisition experiment located in Hontomin (Burgos, Spain) consists of a multi-seismic characterization of the site including a 35 km2 3D seismic survey and a couple of 3 component orthogonal profiles. Here we focused on the seismic images and the tomographic velocity models resulting from the EW profile. This line consists of 230 new generation 3-component receivers with 25 m interval. A mixed seismic source were used including a 4 15-Tn M22 vibroseis trucks with a 16-sec sweep and 450 gr of explosives for difficult access areas. The distance between consecutive shots was also 25 m. Seismic data processing included static corrections, spherical divergence correction, airwave muting, deconvolution, bandpass time-variant filtering, stack and time migration. The seismic data show two main characteristics related 1) with the presence of a shadow zone, typically related to low velocity layers, where first P-wave arrivals disappear at ~800-1000 m from the shot point, and 2) the presence of a continuous high amplitude reflection at ~400 twts below the shadow zone. This reflection is related to the high impedance contrast between the Purbeck formation and the Middle Jurassic carbonated marine deposits of the Dogger formation that corresponds to the top of the reservoir seal. In order to improve the seismic image a preliminary 3D velocity model has been obtained using the data set recorded in the 3 component EW profile using the shot points of the 3D seismic survey. The final seismic image outlines this Purbeck-Dogger contact and the dome-shape of the reservoir. Toward the West, a ~100-twts thick package with high-amplitude reflections are interpreted as the Lower Jurassic carbonate sequence of the Lias formation, where is planned to inject the CO2.

Martí, D.; Calahorrano, A.; Alcalde, J.; Carbonell, R.; Ayarza, P.; Perez-Estaun, A.

2011-12-01

286

Analysis of Water Flow Paths: Methodology and Example Calculations for a Potential Geological Repository in Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Safety assessment related to the siting of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel deep in the bedrock requires identification of potential flow paths and the associated travel times for radionuclides originating at repository depth. Using the Laxemar candidate site in Sweden as a case study, this paper describes modeling methodology, data integration, and the resulting water flow models, focusing on the Quaternary deposits and the upper 150 m of the bedrock. Example simulations identify flow paths to groundwater discharge areas and flow paths in the surface system. The majority of the simulated groundwater flow paths end up in the main surface waters and along the coastline, even though the particles used to trace the flow paths are introduced with a uniform spatial distribution at a relatively shallow depth. The calculated groundwater travel time, determining the time available for decay and retention of radionuclides, is on average longer to the coastal bays than to other biosphere objects at the site. Further, it is demonstrated how GIS-based modeling can be used to limit the number of surface flow paths that need to be characterized for safety assessment. Based on the results, the paper discusses an approach for coupling the present models to a model for groundwater flow in the deep bedrock.

Werner, Kent [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

2006-12-15

287

Methodological aspects and development of techniques for neutron activation analysis of microcomponents in materials of geologic origin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of the activation analysis methodology applied to geological samples activated in nuclear reactors were studied, and techniques were developed for the determination of various elements in different types of matrixes, using gamma spectrometry for the measurement of the products. The consideration of the methodological aspects includes the study of the working conditions, the preparation of samples and standards, irradiations, treatment of the irradiated material, radiochemical separation and measurement. Experiments were carried out on reproducibility and errors in relation to the behaviour of the measurement equipment and that of the methods of area calculation (total area, Covell and Wasson), as well as on the effects of geometry variations on the results of the measurements, the RA-3 reactors's flux variations, and the homogeneity of the samples and standards. Also studied were: the selection of the conditions of determination, including the irradiation and decay times; the irradiation with thermal and epithermal neutrons; the measurement with the use of absorbers, and the resolution of complex peaks. Both non-destructive and radiochemical separation techniques were developed for the analysis of 5 types of geological materials. These methods were applied to the following determinations: a) In, Cd, Mn, Ga and Co in blende; b) La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in fluorites; c) La, Ca, Eu, Tb, Yb, Se and Th in barites and celestites; d) Cu and Zn in soils. The spectral interferences or those due to nuclear reactions were studied and evaluated by mathematical calculation. (M.E.L.).

1982-01-01

288

GEMINI. Finite Element Structural Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GEMINI calculates the two and three-dimensional static and dynamic response of linear elastic structures using the finite element method. GEMINI is written in a modular format to allow new elements to be inserted and newly-developed equation solvers, eigenvalue routines, and modal analysis techniques to be implemented and evaluated. The current element library consists of a boundary spring, a truss beam element, a straight and curved pipe element, a general stiffness/flexibility matrix element, an axisymmetric shell, a plane stress membrane element, a two-dimensional solid element with temperature dependent orthotropic material properties, a plate bending element, a shell element combining the membrane and bending elements, and a general three-dimensional solid. In addition to standard stress recovery, surface stresses and Von Muses stress may be obtained for the beam, membrane, and shell elements.

Murray, R.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1989-11-01

289

Effects of topographic position and geology on shaking damage to residential wood-framed structures during the 2003 San Simeon earthquake, western San Luis obispo county, California  

Science.gov (United States)

A statistical evaluation of shaking damage to wood-framed houses caused by the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake indicates that both the rate and severity of damage, independent of structure type, are significantly greater on hilltops compared to hill slopes when underlain by Cretaceous or Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This increase in damage is interpreted to be the result of topographic amplification. An increase in the damage rate is found for all structures built on Plio-Pleistocene rocks independent of topographic position, and this is interpreted to be the result of amplified shaking caused by geologic site response. Damage rate and severity to houses built on Tertiary rocks suggest that amplification due to both topographic position and geologic site response may be occurring in these rocks, but effects from other topographic parameters cannot be ruled out. For all geologic and topographic conditions, houses with raised foundations are more frequently damaged than those with slab foundations. However, the severity of damage to houses on raised foundations is only significantly greater for those on hill slopes underlain by Tertiary rocks. Structures with some damage-resistant characteristics experienced greater damage severity on hilltops, suggesting a spectral response to topographic amplification. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

McCrink, T. P.; Wills, C. J.; Real, C. R.; Manson, M. W.

2010-01-01

290

[Research on the application of principal component analysis and improved BP neural network to the determination of Fe and Ti contents in geological samples].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aiming at forecasting elemental contents in geological samples accurately, a principal component analysis and improved BP (PCA-BP) neural network theory is proposed in the present work. The samples from west Tianshan were measured through X-ray fluorescence measurement method, and the X-Ray fluorescence counts of each element such as Fe, Ti, V, Pb, Zn, etc. were input to the PCA-BP neural network as input variables to forecast Fe and Ti contents in uncertified geological samples quantitatively. The results show that the PCA-BP neural network can give an ideal result, and the relative error between the forecast data and chemical analysis data is less than 3%. This method provides a new and effective approach to forecasting elemental contents in geological samples.

Xu LP; Ge LQ; Gu Y; Liu M; Zhang QX; Li F; Luo B

2013-05-01

291

Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

1998-01-01

292

Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R. (INEEL); Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K. (SNL); Rath, J.S. (New Mexico Engineering Research Institute)

1998-10-01

293

Geologic applications of Space Shuttle photography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Space Shuttle astronauts have used handheld cameras to take about 30,000 photographs of the earth as seen from orbit. These pictures provide valuable, true-color depictions of many geologically significant areas. While the photographs have areal coverages and resolutions similar to the more familiar Landsat MSS and TM images, they differ from the latter in having a wide variety of solar illumination angles and look angles. Astronaut photographs can be used as very small scale aerial photographs for geologic mapping and planning logistical support for field work. Astronaut photography offers unique opportunities, because of the intelligence and training of the on-orbit observer, for documenting dynamic geologic activity such as volcanic eruptions, dust storms, etc. Astronauts have photographed more than 3 dozen volcanic eruption plumes, some of which were not reported otherwise. The stereographic capability of astronaut photography also permits three-dimensional interpretation of geologic landforms which is commonly useful in analysis of structural geology. Astronauts have also photographed about 20 known impact craters as part of project to discover presently unknown examples in Africa, South America, and Australia. 18 refs.

Wood, C.A. (Johnson Space Flight Center, Houston, TX (USA))

1989-03-01

294

Open Plot Project: an open-source toolkit for 3-D structural data analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work we present the Open Plot Project, an open-source software for structural data analysis, including a 3-D environment. The software includes many classical functionalities of structural data analysis tools, like stereoplot, contouring, tensorial regression, scatterplots, histograms and transect analysis. In addition, efficient filtering tools are present allowing the selection of data according to their attributes, including spatial distribution and orientation. This first alpha release represents a stand-alone toolkit for structural data analysis. The presence of a 3-D environment with digitalising tools allows the integration of structural data with information extracted from georeferenced images to produce structurally validated dip domains. This, coupled with many import/export facilities, allows easy incorporation of structural analyses in workflows for 3-D geological modelling. Accordingly, Open Plot Project also candidates as a structural add-on for 3-D geological modelling software. The software (for both Windows and Linux O.S.), the User Manual, a set of example movies (complementary to the User Manual), and the source code are provided as Supplement. We intend the publication of the source code to set the foundation for free, public software that, hopefully, the structural geologists' community will use, modify, and implement. The creation of additional public controls/tools is strongly encouraged.

S. Tavani; P. Arbues; M. Snidero; N. Carrera; J. A. Muñoz

2011-01-01

295

Determination of aluminium, silicon and magnesium in geological matrices by delayed neutron activation analysis based on k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, concentrations of silicon, aluminium and magnesium in geological matrices were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis based on k0-IAEA software. The optimum activation and delay times were found to be 5min and 15-20min respectively for the determination of Si via (29)Si (n,p) (29)Al reaction. The adopted irradiation scheme did not work for the determination of magnesium. Each sample was irradiated under a thermal neutron flux density of 5.0×10(11)ncm(-2)s(-1). Cadmium covered activation indicated that a permanent epithermal irradiation site for research reactors would be very useful for routine determination of silicon in environmental samples.

Baidoo IK; Dampare SB; Opata NS; Nyarko BJ; Akaho EH; Quagraine RE

2013-08-01

296

Apollo's geology lesson  

Science.gov (United States)

An historical account of the Apollo Project's lunar rock samples are presented. The discovery of the rocks and the methods and equipment used in analyzing them are discussed. The results of the analysis of the lunar samples are briefly summarized with respect to lunar geology, evolution, and origin.

Goodman, Billy

1994-06-01

297

Seismic analysis of sliding structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To limit the seism effects, structures may be base isolated. A sliding system located between the structure and the support allows differential motion between them. The aim of this paper is the presentation of the method to calculate the response of the structure when the structure is represented by its eigenmodes, and the sliding phenomenon by the Coulomb friction model. Finally, an application to a simple structure shows the influence on the response of the main parameters (friction coefficient, stiffness,...)

1989-01-01

298

Some geological structural features of the South Mangyshlak oil and gas region according to data of interpreting space photographs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The boundaries of the oil and gas region, its inner tectonic zoning, and the links between local elevations and regional faults are examined. The convergence of inter- pretation data and geological-geophysical materials are analyzed, and sections are recommended for setting up oil and gas searches.

Bogorodskiy, S.M.; Lion, Yu.A.

1981-01-01

299

Statistical Analysis and Geologic Evaluation of Laboratory-Derived Physical Property Data for Selected Nevada Test Site Core Samples of Non-Zeolitized Tuffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A statistical analysis and geologic evaluation of recently acquired laboratory-derived physical property data are being performed to better understand and more precisely correlate physical properties with specific geologic parameters associated with non-zeolitized tuffs at the Nevada Test Site. Physical property data include wet and dry bulk density, grain density (i.e., specific gravity), total porosity, and effective porosity. Geologic parameters utilized include degree of welding, lithology, stratigraphy, geographic area, and matrix mineralogy (i.e., vitric versus devitrified). Initial results indicate a very good correlation between physical properties and geologic parameters such as degree of welding, lithology, and matrix mineralogy. However, physical properties appear to be independent of stratigraphy and geographic area, suggesting that the data are transferrable with regards to these two geologic parameters. Statistical analyses also indicate that the assumed grain density of 2.65 grams per cubic centimeter used to calculate porosity in some samples is too high. This results in corresponding calculated porosity values approximately 5 percent too high (e.g., 45 percent versus 40 percent), which can be significant in the lower porosity rocks. Similar analyses and evaluations of zeolitic tuffs and carbonate rock physical properties data are ongoing as well as comparisons to geophysical log values.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2009-04-20

300

The tectonic evolution of the Arctic since Pangea breakup: Integrating constraints from surface geology and geophysics with mantle structure  

Science.gov (United States)

The tectonic evolution of the circum-Arctic, including the northern Pacific, Siberian and North American margins, since the Jurassic has been punctuated by the opening and closing of ocean basins, the accretion of autochthonous and allochthonous terranes and associated deformation. This complexity is expressed in the uncertainty of plate tectonic models of the region, with the time-dependent configurations and kinematic history remaining poorly understood. The age, location, geometry and convergence rates of the subduction zones associated with these ancient ocean basins have implications for mantle structure, which can be used as an additional constraint for refining and evaluating plate boundary models. Here we integrate surface geology and geophysics with mantle tomography models to generate a digital set of tectonic blocks and plates as well as topologically closed plate boundaries with time-dependent rotational histories for the circum-Arctic. We find that subducted slabs inferred from seismic velocity anomalies from global P and S wave tomography models can be linked to various episodes of Arctic subduction since the Jurassic, in particular to the destruction of the South Anuyi Ocean. We present a refined model for the opening of the Amerasia Basin incorporating seafloor spreading between at least 142.5 and 120 Ma, a "windshield" rotation for the Canada Basin, and opening orthogonal to the Lomonosov Ridge for the northern Makarov and Podvodnikov basins. We also present a refined pre-accretionary model for the Wrangellia Superterrane, imposing a subduction polarity reversal in the early Jurassic before accretion to North America at 140 Ma. Our model accounts for the late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic opening and closure of the Cache Creek Ocean, reconstructed between the Wrangellia Superterrane and Yukon–Tanana Terrane. We suggest that a triple junction may also explain the Mid-Palaeozoic opening of the Slide Mountain, Oimyakon and South Anuyi oceans. Our digital tectonic model forms the basis for the development of future plate deformation and geodynamic models and provides a framework for analysing the formation and evolution of regional sedimentary basins and mountain belts.

Shephard, Grace E.; Müller, R. Dietmar; Seton, Maria

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Archaeological elements of Mt. Lykaion Sanctuary of Zeus (southern Peloponnesus) in relation to tectonics and structural geology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sanctuary of Zeus is the focus of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation/Survey (University of Pennsylvania, University of Arizona, and 39th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities). It was described by Pausanias as a sacred place of pan-Hellenic significance, with stadium and hippodrome in which athletic games were held, a sanctuary of Pan, and a formidable temenos and altar of Lykaion Zeus. In picturing human activity on this mountain during ancient times, it is not adequate to treat the mountain as if it were simply a tall, symmetrical, and handy edifice within which rock contents are irrelevant, for the geology within Mt. Lykaion significantly influenced what was built on it, and where! There are contemporary reminders of the 'power' of the site, including the devastating April, 1965, Megalopolis earthquake, the epicenter of which was merely 4 km away. In fact, there are active normal faults within the sanctuary. However the primary geoarchitecture is that of the Pindos fold and thrust belt, fashioned largely in Cretaceous through Eocene. Mt. Lykaion's dome-like summit is a thrust klippe separated from underlying nappes by a major thrust fault (Lykaion thrust), the subhorizontal trace of which encircles the mountain creating a subtle bench in the landscape coinciding closely with archaeological and natural elements important to the sanctuary (e.g., stoa, seatwall, fountains, trails). Late Jurassic through Eocene 'Pindos Group' formations are stacked and repeated by the thrusting. Inter-relationships between bedrock, structure, and archaeology are revealed in a 'geoarchaeological column,' which displays positioning of elements in relation to the thrust, and orientations of rock formations in relation to flat patches in otherwise steep, rocky country, which became sites suitable for placement of hippodrome, baths, temenos, horse pasturing areas, etc. Worked limestone blocks are locally derived and can be matched with formations. The compelling high elevation of the ash altar is testimony to residual crustal buoyancy achieved through 'Pindos' crustal shortening, and the steep processional ascent to the altar speaks to regional active normal faulting and rapid erosion

2008-07-01

302

Reconstructing the geological and structural history of an active geothermal field: A case study from New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilisation of geothermal systems benefits from an understanding of the host-rock geology, locations and controls of permeability pathways, and the nature and timing of magmatic sources providing thermal energy. Kawerau Geothermal Field in the central Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) of New Zealand is currently developed for electricity generation and direct uses of high-temperature steam to ~ 200 MW electrical output. The Kawerau geothermal system is hosted in a sequence of volcanic lithologies (tuffs, lavas and intrusive bodies) and sediments that overlie faulted Mesozoic metasedimentary (greywacke) basement. Identification of lithologies in the volcanic/sedimentary sequence is challenging due to the levels of hydrothermal alteration and lithological similarities. A combination of detailed petrological investigations, consideration of the emplacement processes and greater certainty of crystallisation or eruption ages through U–Pb age determinations on zircons is used to reconstruct the depositional and faulting evolution of the rocks hosting the currently active hydrothermal system. The oldest event inferred is faulting of the greywacke along northwest–southeast orientated, dominantly strike-slip structures to generate half-grabens that were filled with sediments, incorporating two dated ignimbrites (2.38 ± 0.05 and 2.17 ± 0.05 Ma). A 1.46 ± 0.01 Ma ignimbrite was deposited relatively evenly across the field, implying that any topographic relief was subdued at that time. Subsequent deposition of ignimbrites occurred in episodes around 1.0, 0.55–0.6, and 0.32 Ma, interspersed with thin sedimentary sequences that accumulated at average rates of 0.06 mm yr? 1. Andesite lavas from a buried composite cone occur as a conformable package between units dated at 1.0 and 0.6 Ma. Bodies of coherent rhyolite occur at multiple stratigraphic levels: two magma types with associated tuffs were emplaced as domes and sills at 0.36 ± 0.03 Ma, and a third type at 0.138 ± 0.007 Ma as dikes, and domes that are exposed at surface. The andesitic Putauaki composite cone southwest of the field first erupted around 8 ka, but earlier hydrothermal eruption breccias imply that magma was intruded to shallow depths as early as ~ 16 ka.

Milicich, S. D.; Wilson, C. J. N.; Bignall, G.; Pezaro, B.; Bardsley, C.

2013-07-01

303

Use of micro-proton elastic scattering analysis to determine water content in geological powders  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogen in the form of water (H2O), hydroxyl anion (OH?) and H2 is a pervasive component in minerals, affecting geochemical processes from the surface of the earth to its deep interior and the geophysical and rheological properties of the rock. To investigate the application of ion beam techniques to the measurement of structural water (OH? and H2O), purified mineral separates, volcanic glass and synthetic borosilicate glass with known total structural water contents were selected. Mineral and glass particles 1% total water contents.

Trompetter, W. J.; Reyes, A. G.; Kennedy, J.; Markwitz, A.

2013-07-01

304

LIBS analysis of geological samples at low pressures : application to Mars, the Moon, and asteroids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) has been proposed as a new method for elemental analysis in space exploration with Mars specifically targeted. there are many reasons for this including rapid analysis (< 2 min.), in-situ and stand-off analysis (< 20 meters) capability, and the ability to readily combine LIBS with other spectroscopic methods (Raman, fluorescence) that provide data complementary to LIBS. In comparison with past and current elemental analysis methods used on planetary surfaces, these capabilities of LIBS should greatly increase the scientific return from future missions. They are characterizing the LIBS method for space exploration applications with emphasis on analysis at reduced pressures ({approx} 7 Torr CO{sub 2} for Mars) and near vacuum (50 mTorr for asteroids and the Moon; at pressures below about 50 mTorr no significant changes in the plasma are observed). This characterization is important because the excitation properties of the LIBS plasma are strongly dependent on pressure of the surrounding atmosphere. Topics addressed include: (1) calibration curves and detection limits for major and minor elements of interest to geochemistry at the two lower pressures as well as atmospheric pressure (for comparison), (2) using short (<22 cm for in-situ) and medium length (4 m for stand-off) light paths for analysis, and (3) characterization of the LIBS plasma at different pressures.

Cremers, D. A. (David A.); Sevostiyanova, E. V. (Ekaterina V.); Gibson, L. E. (Leslie E.); Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.)

2004-01-01

305

Tripeptide analysis of protein structures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An efficient building block for protein structure prediction can be tripeptides. 8000 different tripeptides from a dataset of 1220 high resolution (? 2.0°A) structures from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) have been looked at, to determine which are structurally rigid and non-rigid. This data has been statistically analyzed, discussed and summarized. The entire data can be utilized for the building of protein structures. Results Tripeptides have been classified into three categories: rigid, non-rigid and intermediate, based on the relative structural rigidity between C? and C? atoms in a tripeptide. We found that 18% of the tripeptides in the dataset can be classified as rigid, 4% as non-rigid and 78% as intermediate. Many rigid tripeptides are made of hydrophobic residues, however, there are tripeptides with polar side chains forming rigid structures. The bulk of the tripeptides fall in the intermediate class while very small numbers actually fall in the non-rigid class. Structurally all rigid tripeptides essentially form two structural classes while the intermediate and non-rigid tripeptides fall into one structural class. This notion of rigidity and non-rigidity is designed to capture side chain interactions but not secondary structures. Conclusions Rigid tripeptides have no correlation with the secondary structures in proteins and hence this work is complementary to such studies. Tripeptide data may be used to predict plausible structures for oligopeptides and for denovo protein design.

Anishetty Sharmila; Pennathur Gautam; Anishetty Ramesh

2002-01-01

306

Structured Sparse Principal Component Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present an extension of sparse PCA, or sparse dictionary learning, where the sparsity patterns of all dictionary elements are structured and constrained to belong to a prespecified set of shapes. This \\emph{structured sparse PCA} is based on a structured regularization recently introduced by [1]....

Jenatton, Rodolphe; Obozinski, Guillaume; Bach, Francis

307

A review of structural system reliability analysis for offshore structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Structural reliability assessment (SRA) can be carried out at both component and system levels. Component level analysis can be applied to individual structural components and there has been significant progress in the applications of SRA for structural integrity assessment and modern design code formulation (both at component level). On the other hand, analysis at system level, which deals with the reliability of complete structures and assemblies in multiple failure modes, has not yet made a significant impact on offshore structural engineering. One of the main problems with complete system level analysis is the large demand on computational power due to the complexity of offshore structures. The demand is large because the number of possible failure paths increases exponentially (in fact, factorially) with the number of components (members and joints) in the structure. In order to reduce the demand on computational power, several search algorithms have been developed. One such algorithm is based on the deterministic reserve strength ratio (RSR) analysis and is gaining popularity. This paper will briefly outline the current understanding in structural system reliability analysis and the basic principles of various search algorithms. Some examples will be referred to in the discussion of the advantages and limitations of various approaches. Finally, the implications of the current state of the art to structural risk management will also be discussed.

Kam, J.C.P.; Snell, R.O.; Shetty, N.K.

1995-12-31

308

Stable isotope analysis by nuclear reaction with applications to medicine and geology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A fast and reliable method has been developed for the determination of the water content in a system using 18O(p, ?)15N nuclear reaction analysis. The method has been applied to the determination of Total Body Water (TBW) in rabbits and mice, and the determination of water dispersion profile in a reservoir core. The analysis can be completed within 30 minutes after samples are obtained from the subject. The necessary correction factor for the use of this method for the measurement of TBW was also determined. The method of determining this correction factor can be applied to any physiological system. The targets for the microanalysis of the biological samples are prepared by the anodic oxidation of tantalum at constant voltage in solutions of urine, serum and plasmas in their natural buffered states. The study of dispersivity of a reservoir has also been done based on stable isotope analysis using 18O(p, ?)15N nuclear reactions. The method was shown to give a reliable dispersion profile of water during a miscible displacement in an oil reservoir core. The analysis of the flow pattern does not require any calibration curve. This method is very sensitive to small concentration changes and was applied to the study of reservoir rock dispersivity

1988-01-01

309

Development of a computer tool to support scenario analysis for safety assessment of HLW geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 'H12 Project to Establishing Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan' a systematic approach that was based on an international consensus was adopted to develop scenarios to be considered in performance assessment. Adequacy of the approach was, in general term, appreciated through the domestic and international peer review. However it was also suggested that there were issues related to improving transparency and traceability of the procedure. To achieve this, improvement of scenario analysis method has been studied. In this study, based on an improvement method for treatment of FEP interaction a computer tool to support scenario analysis by specialists of performance assessment has been developed. Anticipated effects of this tool are to improve efficiency of complex and time consuming scenario analysis work and to reduce possibility of human errors in this work. This tool also enables to describe interactions among a vast number of FEPs and the related information as interaction matrix, and analysis those interactions from a variety of perspectives. (author)

2007-01-01

310

Petrofacies analysis - the petrophysical tool for geologic/engineering reservoir characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petrofacies analysis is defined as the characterization and classification of pore types and fluid saturations as revealed by petrophysical measures of a reservoir. The word {open_quotes}petrofacies{close_quotes} makes an explicit link between petroleum engineers concerns with pore characteristics as arbiters of production performance, and the facies paradigm of geologists as a methodology for genetic understanding and prediction. In petrofacies analysis, the porosity and resistivity axes of the classical Pickett plot are used to map water saturation, bulk volume water, and estimated permeability, as well as capillary pressure information, where it is available. When data points are connected in order of depth within a reservoir, the characteristic patterns reflect reservoir rock character and its interplay with the hydrocarbon column. A third variable can be presented at each point on the crossplot by assigning a color scale that is based on other well logs, often gamma ray or photoelectric effect, or other derived variables. Contrasts between reservoir pore types and fluid saturations will be reflected in changing patterns on the crossplot and can help discriminate and characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Many hundreds of analyses of well logs facilitated by spreadsheet and object-oriented programming have provided the means to distinguish patterns typical of certain complex pore types for sandstones and carbonate reservoirs, occurrences of irreducible water saturation, and presence of transition zones. The result has been an improved means to evaluate potential production such as bypassed pay behind pipe and in old exploration holes, or to assess zonation and continuity of the reservoir. Petrofacies analysis is applied in this example to distinguishing flow units including discrimination of pore type as assessment of reservoir conformance and continuity. The analysis is facilitated through the use of color cross sections and cluster analysis.

Watney, W.L.; Guy, W.J.; Gerlach, P.M. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01

311

Analysis of piezoelectric structures and devices  

CERN Document Server

This edited work covers piezoelectric materials in the form of beams, plates, shells, and other structural components in modern devices and structures. Applications are frequency control and detection functions in resonators, sensors, actuators, oscillations, and other smart and intelligent structures. The contributions cover novel methods for the analysis of piezoelectric structures including wave propagation, high frequency vibration, material characterization, and optimization of structures. Understanding of these methods is increasingly important in the design and modelling of next generat

Chen, Weiqiu; Wang, Ji

2013-01-01

312

Decision analysis for deteriorating structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measures that improve durability of a structure usually increase its initial cost. Thus, in order to make a decision about a cost-effective solution the life-cycle cost of a structure including cost of structural failure needs to be considered. Due to uncertainties associated with structural properties, loads and environmental conditions the cost of structural failure is a random variable. The paper derives probability distributions of the cost of failure of a single structure and a group of identical structures when single or multiple failures are possible during the service life of a structure. The probability distributions are based on cumulative probabilities of failure of a single structure over its service life. It is assumed that failures occur at discrete points in time, the cost of failure set at the time of decision making remains constant for a particular design solution and the discount rate is a deterministic parameter not changing with time. The probability distributions can be employed to evaluate the expected life-cycle cost or the expected utility, which is then used in decision making. An example, which considers the selection of durability specifications for a reinforced concrete structure built on the coast, illustrates the use of the derived probability distributions.

2005-01-01

313

Investigation of geometrical effects in x-ray microfluorescence analysis of geological samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geometrical effects occur when primary x-rays irradiate a mineral inclusion which lies close to the boundary between it and a surrounding mineral having a different chemical composition. An investigation of one of these near-edge effects was performed in the case when x-ray microfluorescence is applied for analysis. Analytical mathematical expressions were developed to correct for this effect and were tested experimentally. 2 figs.

Lankosz, M. [Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland); Pella, P.A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1994-12-31

314

Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Some Geological Samples of Different Origin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Instrumental Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used to investigate the distribution of six major elements and 34 trace elements in a set of eight igneous and metamorphic rocks collected from Carpathian and Macin Mountainsas well as unconsolidated sediments collected from anoxic zone of the Black Sea. All experimental data were interpreted within the Upper Continental Core and Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt model system that allowed getting more information concerning samples origin as well as the environmental peculiarities.

2010-01-21

315

Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Some Geological Samples of Different Origin  

Science.gov (United States)

Instrumental Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used to investigate the distribution of six major elements and 34 trace elements in a set of eight igneous and metamorphic rocks collected from Carpathian and Macin Mountainsas well as unconsolidated sediments collected from anoxic zone of the Black Sea. All experimental data were interpreted within the Upper Continental Core and Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt model system that allowed getting more information concerning samples origin as well as the environmental peculiarities.

Duliu, O. G.; Cristache, C. I.; Oaie, G.; Ricman, C.; Culicov, O. A.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

2010-01-01

316

k0-NAA implementation and application at IPEN neutron activation laboratory by using the k0-IAEA software: application to geological sample analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN-IPEN) has been analysing geological samples such as rocks, soils and sediments, for many years with the INAA comparative method, for geochemical and environmental research. This study presents the results obtained in the implementation of the k0-standardization method at LAN - IPEN, for geological sample analysis, by using the program k0- IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The thermal to epithermal flux ratio f and the shape factor ? of the epithermal flux distribution of the IPEN IEA-R1 nuclear reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and one selected irradiation position, for short and long irradiations, respectively. To obtain these factors, the 'are triple-monitor' method with 197Au- 96Zr-94Zr was used. In order to validate the methodology, the geological reference materials basalts JB-1 (GSJ) and BE-N (IWG-GIT), andesite AGV-1 (USGS), granite GS-N (ANRT), SOIL-7 (IAEA) and sediment Buffalo River Sediment (NIST - BRS-8704), which represent different geological matrices, were analysed. The concentration results obtained agreed with assigned values, with bias less than 10% except for Zn in AGV-1 (11.4%) and Mg in GS-N (13.4%). Three different scores were used to evaluate the results: z-score, zeta-score and Uscore. The z-score showed that the results can be considered satisfactory (z3) for Mn in BE-N, Mg, Ce and La in GS-N, Mg in JB-1, and Th and Eu in Buffalo River Sediment. The U-score test showed that all results, except Mg in JB-1, were within 95% confidence interval. These results indicate excellent possibilities of using this parametric method at the LAN-IPEN for geological samples analysis in geochemical and environmental studies. (author)

2011-01-01

317

Seismic analysis of sliding structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

To limit the seism effects, structures may be base isolated. A sliding system located between the structure and the support allows differential motion between them. The aim of this paper is the presentation of the method to calculate the response of the s...

D. Brochard F. Gantenbein

1989-01-01

318

Vibration characteristics analysis for HANARO reactor structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The first objective of this study is to investigate the vibration characteristic of the HANARO reactor structure. The second one is to generate the dynamic correlation between the fuel assembly and the reactor structure. For these purposes, the in-air and in-water finite element models of the reactor structure were developed and their modal analyses were carried out. The fundamental natural frequency of the in-water reactor structure was obtained as 17.7Hz that is approximately the half of the natural frequency of the in-air reactor structure, 34.9Hz. This natural frequency agree well with the analysis result(17.46Hz) of the AECL. The modal analysis of the reactor model including the piping of the primary cooling system(PCS) show that the effect of the PCS piping on the dynamic characteristics of the reactor structure is negligible. For generating the dynamic correlation between the fuel assembly and the reactor structure, the in-water reactor model including the fuel assemblies was developed, and its modal analysis was performed. The analysis results demonstrate that there are no resonance between the fuel assemblies and the reactor structures. The developed 3-D model of the in-water reactor structure will be used as a base model for the dynamic characteristic and stress analysis when it is necessary to modify the design of the reactor structure or to install additional structures for the irradiation test

2001-01-01

319

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of rare earths in 41 geological samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied for the determination of nine rare-earths (La, Ce, Nd, Sn, Eu, Gd, Dy, Yb, Lu) and three heat-producing elements (U, Th, K) in forty-one samples collected from different parts of Thailand. The IAEA standard reference material, SL-1 and the USGS reference rock, AGV-1, were also analyzed for the purpose of verifying the accuracy of the method. The chondrite normalized distribution patterns are generally smooth. Negative Eu anomaly is observed in all samples

1986-01-01

320

Structural analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CANFLEX fuel bundle has been developed by KAERI/AECL jointly to facilitate the use of various fuel cycles in CANDU-6 reactor. As one of the design evaluations, the structural analysis of the fuel bundles by hydraulic drag force is performed to evaluate the the fuel integrity in the period of the refuelling in CANDU-6. The structural integrity is evaluated by FEM modelling for the complicated bundles configuration in channel. It is noted that the present analysis method is newly developed for the structural integrity evaluation. The analysis results show that the fuel bundle is shown to keep its structural integrity during the refuelling

1995-10-28

 
 
 
 
321

Structural analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CANFLEX fuel bundle has been developed by KAERI/AECL jointly to facilitate the use of various fuel cycles in CANDU-6 reactor. As one of the design evaluations, the structural analysis of the fuel bundles by hydraulic drag force is performed to evaluate the the fuel integrity in the period of the refuelling in CANDU-6. The structural integrity is evaluated by FEM modelling for the complicated bundles configuration in channel. It is noted that the present analysis method is newly developed for the structural integrity evaluation. The analysis results show that the fuel bundle is shown to keep its structural integrity during the refuelling.

Kang, H. Y.; Sim, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, T. H.; Jun, J. S.; Chung, C. H.; Park, J. H.; Suk, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1995-07-01

322

Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan is based on a multibarrier system composed of engineered and natural barriers. In a repository for HLW, complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (THM) phenomena will take place, involving the interactive processes between radioactive decay heat from the vitrified waste, infiltration of ground water and stress generation due to the thermal loading and the swelling pressure of the buffer material. In order to evaluate the performance of the buffer material, the coupled THM behaviors within the compacted bentonite have been modeled. The coupled THM processes in the near field are simulated with fully coupled model. It is indicated from the investigation that re-saturation time of buffer is strongly dependent on the water pressure in the rock mass. However, it is not showed high dependency on the permeability of rock mass if the intrinsic permeability of rock mass is in the 10-13 - 10-18 m2 range. Furthermore, it is found that the maximum temperature in the buffer predicted by the coupled analysis is lower than the uncoupled case. (author)

2001-01-01

323

Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan is based on a multibarrier system composed of engineered and natural barriers. In a repository for HLW, complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (THM) phenomena will take place, involving the interactive processes between radioactive decay heat from the vitrified waste, infiltration of ground water and stress generation due to the thermal loading and the swelling pressure of the buffer material. In order to evaluate the performance of the buffer material, the coupled THM behaviors within the compacted bentonite have been modeled. The coupled THM processes in the near field are simulated with fully coupled model. It is indicated from the investigation that re-saturation time of buffer is strongly dependent on the water pressure in the rock mass. However, it is not showed high dependency on the permeability of rock mass if the intrinsic permeability of rock mass is in the 10{sup -13} - 10{sup -18} m{sup 2} range. Furthermore, it is found that the maximum temperature in the buffer predicted by the coupled analysis is lower than the uncoupled case. (author)

Chijimatsu, Masakazu [Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Taniguchi, Wataru; Suzuki, Hideaki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nishigaki, Makoto [Okayama Univ. (Japan)

2001-09-01

324

Analysis of the cost of mined geologic repositories in alternative media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IN 1981, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an analysis of the costs of using salt, granite, basalt or tuff to isolate spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary cost estimates were made and the conditions affecting cost in each medium were examined parametrically. The analysis was conducted using a repository cost model named RECON, created for this project. Data for the model were gathered from recent conceptual design studies completed and under way, from the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (GEIS), and from reports on specific, related topics. These data were current through Jun 1981. The study approach was to select reference repository descriptions and costs for each of the previously mentioned media. These descriptions were used as baselines to evaluate the cost sensitivity of key repository design parameters such as package design, thermal loading limits, additional radionuclide migration barriers, repository size, and emplacement design. The sensitivity of input cost parameters such as cost of money, mining, and hole drilling was also examined. Following the sensitivity analyses, the cost model was used to explore cost-effective alternative emplacement designs for the different media

1982-01-01

325

Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequences of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.

Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S.K.

1991-01-01

326

RNA secondary structure analysis using RNAstructure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RNAstructure is a user-friendly program for the prediction and analysis of RNA secondary structure under Microsoft Windows. This unit provides protocols for RNA secondary structure prediction and prediction of high-affinity oligonucleotide binding sites to a structured RNA target.

Mathews DH

2006-03-01

327

Coupled U-Pb isotopic studies and synchrotron x-ray microbeam analysis of geologic systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytical advances in thermal ionization mass spectrometry now allow for precise measurement of U and Pb abundance and Pb isotopic composition in minerals where U and Pb may only amount to a few picograms by weight. High precision analysis at such low levels means that a much wider variety of mineral species can be considered as potentially useful U-Pb geochronometers. However, evaluating the potential use of these minerals for high-precision dating requires understanding the environmental and crystal chemistry of the U and Pb being analyzed in these minerals. Advances in the production of microfocused synchrotron x-ray beams allow more unambiguous evaluation of uranium partitioning and speciation in these geochemical systems. The microbeam capabilities of these instruments, such as the X26A beamline at the NSLS, allow for near simultaneous evaluation of major and trace elements using synchrotron XRF, elemental speciation and coordination using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS), and mineralogy using micro-XRD at resolutions of 10 microns or less. Additionally, the synchrotron hard x-ray microprobe allows for non-destructive analysis of the same hand specimens or thin sections from which samples are separated for isotopic analysis with a detection sensitivity often of 1 ppm or better. Some examples illustrate how these combined studies can help characterize the U and Pb geochemistry of the host environments in which these minerals formed. Andradite garnets from the Grand Canyon Supergroup (1178+/-26 Ma) are shown to be compositionally homogeneous in U abundance (10-25 ppm), with U as a 4+ species. Fossilized Jurassic fish coprolites from the Shuttle Meadow Fm. (ca. 200 Ma) show that although they are dominated by apatite the highest U abundance is consistent with adsorption onto organic C at the time of sedimentation. Examples of U analyzed from a number of terrestrial carbonates shows that U can be incorporated as both 4+ and 6+ species and may also be strongly influenced by the amount of organic material present, fluid chemistry, and source materials.

Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S.; Rasbury, T.; Becker, M.; Hanson, G. N.

2001-12-01

328

Differences and similarities between the central and the southern Apennines (Italy): Examining the Gran Sasso versus the Matese-Frosolone salients using paleomagnetic, geological, and structural data  

Science.gov (United States)

The Apennines consists of the following two major first-order arcuate features: the northern Apennines Arc and the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc, separated by the Sangro-Volturno line. In this paper we compare and discuss these major arcs, which are characterized by several differences. These are mainly related to differences in paleogeographic domains, stratigraphic successions, structural setting, and geodynamic evolution. We describe with particular emphasis the following two main salients: the Gran Sasso Range and the Matese-Frosolone Mountains, geographically belonging to the central and the southern Apennines, respectively. We analyze existing geological, structural, and paleomagnetic information from both salients and provide new paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy data for eight Messianian-Tortonian sites from the Matese-Frosolone Mountains. The aim of the work is to reconstruct the Tortonian-Quaternary kinematic evolution of the central Apennines, which represents the junction zone between the northern Apennines Arc and the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc. Furthermore, we propose to use the different style of paleomagnetic rotations in arcuate shapes as a tool to discriminate if structures located in the central Apennines geologically belong to the northern Apennines Arc or to the southern Apennines-Calabrian Arc. Finally, the results of this study allowed us to interpret the Sangro-Volturno line as an oblique ramp of the Pliocene-Quaternary frontal thrusts.

Satolli, Sara; Calamita, Fernando

2008-10-01

329

Moessbauer analysis of Lewisville, Texas, archaeological site lignite and hearth samples. Environmental geology notes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lewisville site, located in Denton County on the Trinity River north of Dallas, Texas, was thought to provide evidence of the earliest human activity in the western hemisphere. Radiocarbon dates of 37,000 to 38,000 B.P. determined for the site in the late 1950s conflicted with the presence of a Clovis point, which would fix the age of the site between 11,000 and 11,500 B.P. It was hypothesized (Johnson, 1982) that Clovis people were burning lignite from nearby outcrops: lignite in hearth residues would give older than actual ages by radiocarbon dating. X-ray diffraction and instrumental neutron-activation analysis proved inconclusive; however, Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated that hematite, a pyrite combustion product, was present in the ash. From this evidence the authors conclude that there is some support for the hypothesis.

Shiley, R.H.; Hughes, R.E.; Cahill, R.A.; Konopka, K.L.; Hinckley, C.C.

1985-01-01

330

Predicting material properties of geological, biological and synthetic systems via tomographic analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The field of mesoscale physics is concerned with length scales which lie from the sub-micron to the millimetre scale. Many material properties originate from this regime and X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has become a valuable tool in this ld. A fully integrated facility has been built at the ANU and will be described, covering hardware construction, data reconstruction and 3D analysis. The challenge has been to develop useful 3D analytical and simulation tools for these massive datasets (8 x 109 volume elements at 2 micron resolution). A cursory look at a number of key systems are presented and will include; immiscible fluid distribution and permeability in rocks, thermal and elastic properties of polymer foams, and the microstructure of bone re-growth in engineered scaffolds

2004-01-01

331

Determination of noble elements in geological samples by neutron activation analysis at the iren facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This article tells us about noble elements such as Ir, Os, Ru and Au, which have very low abundance in rocks, ores or biological materials. Such low content of element can be determined using high sensitive analytical methods, e.g. neutron activation analysis. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very sensitive and powerful technique to identify the element presenting in the sample and determine its abundance quantitatively. The technique based on converting the atoms of a sample into radioactive isotopes by neutron capture (thermal and epithermal). The radioactive isotope undergoes decay according to its characteristic half-live, emitting gamma-radiation with the specific energy. The characteristic energy of the gamma-rays emitted by radioactive isotope can be measured with gamma-ray spectrometers and the source of these gamma-radiations can be identified. From measured gamma-ray intensities the concentration of various elements in the samples can be evaluated. Electron energy and pulsed electron beam current were 30 MeV and of an order 5 -10 microamperes respectively and weights of indicators did not exceed a several milligrams. The measurements were repeated twice for every sample: 40-60 hours and approximately 30 days after the irradiation and the measurement time was 20 hours. It is also necessary to emphasize this is the first NAA experiment at the IREN facility. The spectroscopy measurements were done using 10 percent efficiency HpGe detector with 2.1 keV resolution (for 60 Co 1173 and 1332 keV lines). Typical gamma-ray spectrum from the OS-1 sample is shown in this article. There are many lines of Ir, Au, Os, Ru and other isotopes. These parameters were used for identification of the gamma-ray lines and for calculation of the element content. The peak areas under the characteristic gamma-ray lines were calculated by means of the VACTIV program, created in JINR.

2010-01-01

332

Geological map of Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pyeongtaeg sheet was selected as one of the projects of GMIK, mapped in 1975, the fourth year of a five year plan for economic development. The sheet was remapped in 1979, after that the system was reorganized to KIGAM on May, 1976. The subjects of survey for the second year are as follows: first, whether the Pyeongtaeg migmatitic gneiss could be one of the Seosan group or not, and its relation with the Onyang granitic gneiss. At the Asan sheet, the Pyeongtaeg gneiss was regarded as one of the Seosan group. Secondly, the zoning of the Cheonan schist and gneiss extended from the Charyeong mountain range. Thirdly, the survey of the peats distributed extensionally from the Asan sheet, and the need of basic data for development of gold deposits in the Cheonan schist and gneiss. The quadrangle occupies the area of 36/sup 0/50' - 37/sup 0/OO'N. Lat. and 127/sup 0/00' - 127/sup 0/15'E. Long., and belongs to northerly 2/3 of the Pyeongtaeg topographic sheet scaled to 1:50,000 which was published by the National Geographic Institute of the Ministry of Construction. Contents of this report are: introduction; topography; general geology; petrology (gneisses, granites); structural geology; geologic history; and economic geology.

1980-01-01

333

Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural geology of the CP Hills, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; and regional implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed mapping and structural analysis of upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks in the CP Hills of the Nevada Test Site, together with analysis of published maps and cross sections and a reconnaissance of regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust of Barnes and Poole (1968) actually comprises two separate, oppositely verging Mesozoic thrust systems: (1) the west-vergent CP thrust which is well exposed in the CP Hills and at Mine Mountain, and (2) the east-vergent Belted Range thrust located northwest of Yucca Flat. West-vergence of the CP thrust is indicated by large scale west-vergent recumbent folds in both its hangingwall and footwall and by the fact that the CP thrust ramps up section through hangingwall strata toward the northwest. Regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust forms part of a narrow sigmoidal belt of west-vergent folding and thrusting traceable for over 180 km along strike. The Belted Range thrust represents earlier Mesozoic deformation that was probably related to the Last Chance thrust system in southeastern California, as suggested by earlier workers. A pre-Tertiary reconstruction of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt in the region between the NTS and the Las Vegas Range bears a close resemblance to other regions of the Cordillera and has important implications for the development of hinterland-vergent deformation as well as for the probable magnitude of Tertiary extension north of Las Vegas Valley. Subsequent to Mesozoic deformation, the CP Hills were disrupted by at least two episodes of Tertiary extensional deformation: (1) an earlier episode represented by pre-middle Miocene low-angle normal faults, and (2) a later, post-11 Ma episode of high-angle normal faulting. Both episodes of extension were related to regional deformation, the latter of which has resulted in the present basin and range topography of the NTS region.

1991-01-01

334

Raman spectroscopic analysis of geological and biogeological specimens of relevance to the ExoMars mission.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel miniaturized Raman spectrometer is scheduled to fly as part of the analytical instrumentation package on an ESA remote robotic lander in the ESA/Roscosmos ExoMars mission to search for evidence for extant or extinct life on Mars in 2018. The Raman spectrometer will be part of the first-pass analytical stage of the sampling procedure, following detailed surface examination by the PanCam scanning camera unit on the ExoMars rover vehicle. The requirements of the analytical protocol are stringent and critical; this study represents a laboratory blind interrogation of specimens that form a list of materials that are of relevance to martian exploration and at this stage simulates a test of current laboratory instrumentation to highlight the Raman technique strengths and possible weaknesses that may be encountered in practice on the martian surface and from which future studies could be formulated. In this preliminary exercise, some 10 samples that are considered terrestrial representatives of the mineralogy and possible biogeologically modified structures that may be identified on Mars have been examined with Raman spectroscopy, and conclusions have been drawn about the viability of the unambiguous spectral identification of biomolecular life signatures. It is concluded that the Raman spectroscopic technique does indeed demonstrate the capability to identify biomolecular signatures and the mineralogy in real-world terrestrial samples with a very high degree of success without any preconception being made about their origin and classification. PMID:23758166

Edwards, Howell G M; Hutchinson, Ian B; Ingley, Richard; Parnell, John; Vítek, Petr; Jehli?ka, Jan

2013-06-11

335

Raman spectroscopic analysis of geological and biogeological specimens of relevance to the ExoMars mission.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel miniaturized Raman spectrometer is scheduled to fly as part of the analytical instrumentation package on an ESA remote robotic lander in the ESA/Roscosmos ExoMars mission to search for evidence for extant or extinct life on Mars in 2018. The Raman spectrometer will be part of the first-pass analytical stage of the sampling procedure, following detailed surface examination by the PanCam scanning camera unit on the ExoMars rover vehicle. The requirements of the analytical protocol are stringent and critical; this study represents a laboratory blind interrogation of specimens that form a list of materials that are of relevance to martian exploration and at this stage simulates a test of current laboratory instrumentation to highlight the Raman technique strengths and possible weaknesses that may be encountered in practice on the martian surface and from which future studies could be formulated. In this preliminary exercise, some 10 samples that are considered terrestrial representatives of the mineralogy and possible biogeologically modified structures that may be identified on Mars have been examined with Raman spectroscopy, and conclusions have been drawn about the viability of the unambiguous spectral identification of biomolecular life signatures. It is concluded that the Raman spectroscopic technique does indeed demonstrate the capability to identify biomolecular signatures and the mineralogy in real-world terrestrial samples with a very high degree of success without any preconception being made about their origin and classification.

Edwards HG; Hutchinson IB; Ingley R; Parnell J; Vítek P; Jehli?ka J

2013-06-01

336

Accelerator mass spectrometry for analysis of 10Be. Applications in marine geology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry the behaviour of long-lived (half time 1.5 Million years) cosmogenic isotopes 10Be in a marine environment was examined. The geochemical behaviour of 10Be in oceans was examined in a water profile of the eastern Atlantic and on sediment cores from the eastern Atlantic and the Antarctica. The retention period in oceans was calculated from the water profile to be 700-1000 years. The examination of sedimentary cores showed, that the 10Be flow into the sediment in areas of high bioproductivity surpasses the production rate. Comparison of 10Be flow with 230Th flow into the examined sedimentary cores showed a period of retention of 10Be in the ocean of only about 400 years. Changes in the sedimentation rate and changes in the mineralogical composition correlate with paleooceanographic events, the start of the Antarctica icing 14 million years ago, changes in the deep water circulation 6.5 million years ago and the icing over of the northern hemisphere 3 million years ago. The same paleooceanographic events find correlation with the inside structure of a total of 16 manganese nodes and crusts from diverse parts of the ocean which were also dated with 10Be. (orig./DG).

1985-01-01

337

Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in the Hanford site (Washington) as a nuclear production, power, and waste disposal site has led to generation of a vast quantity of geophysical and remote sensing data sets of the central Columbia Plateau. To data, these various studies, including at least 13 independent magnetic linear and image lineament studies, have not been adequately correlated. Therefore, these studies provide a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the viability of the different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlated lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model DEM image. Geologic structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM

1991-01-01

338

Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interest in the Hanford site (Washington) as a nuclear production, power, and waste disposal site has led to generation of a vast quantity of geophysical and remote sensing data sets of the central Columbia Plateau. To data, these various studies, including at least 13 independent magnetic linear and image lineament studies, have not been adequately correlated. Therefore, these studies provide a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the viability of the different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlated lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model DEM image. Geologic structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM.

Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.; Johnson, L.K.; Brougher, C.W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology; Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-08-01

339

Study on remote sensing geologic information of uranium metallogeny in western Liaoning-northern Hebei region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the study on geologic metallogenic environment, temporal and spatial distribution and deposit features of uranium deposits in western Liaoning-northern Hebei region, summarizing mainly remote sensing information and synthesizing geologic, geophysical and geochemical as well as hydrological data, the author has implemented all-region joint-quadrangle analysis, composite mapping and applications, set up interpretation criteria for circular and arcuate structures of different lithological areas, and then expounded their geologic meaning. Volcanic apparatuses, small close sedimentary basins and magmatic rockbodies closely associated with uranium mineralizations, especially the altitude and types of ore-controlling structures and mineralized alteration zones have been interpreted. 'Heat halo spot' has also been interpreted on the satellite image and its geologic meaning and relation to uranium metallization have been discussed. Finally, remote sensing geologic prospecting model and comprehensive prediction model have been established

1998-01-01

340

Applicability of ICRP principles for safety analysis of radioactive waste geological storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the beginning of the eighties, the international organisations have established new recommendations for radioactive waste management. These recommendations are based on two principles. First is concerned with limitation of risks. It should be shown that the risk is smaller than the limit of acceptance. Practically only on risk criterion is foreseen. The principle demands, if a storage causes an event of individual risk (defined as a product of probability of occurrence and the probability of its causing severe health effects) is higher than 10 -5 per year, this storage is not acceptable. The second principle deals with optimisation, demands that the level of protection related to the storage should be determined by a comparative process choosing the best compromise between the price of protection and the residual risk. These recommendations, especially the second one, differ from the safety analysis principles adopted presently in France and other countries. This study analyzes the advantages and potential inconveniences related to the introduction of the second principle. (author)

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Analysis of periodicity of extinction using the 2012 geological time scale  

CERN Document Server

Analysis of two independent data sets with increased taxonomic resolution (genera rather than families) using the revised 2012 time scale reveals that an extinction periodicity first detected by Raup and Sepkoski (1984) for only the post-Paleozoic actually runs through the entire Phanerozoic. Although there is not a local peak of extinction every 27 million years, an excess of the fraction of genus extinction by interval follows a 27 million year timing interval and differs from a random distribution at the p ~ 0.02 level. A 27 million year periodicity in the spectrum of interval lengths no longer appears, removing the question of a possible artifact arising from it. Using a method originally developed in Bambach (2006) we identify 19 intervals of marked extinction intensity, including mass extinctions, spanning the last 470 million years (and with another six present in the Cambrian) and find that 10 of the 19 lie within 3 Myr of the maxima in the spacing of the 27 Myr periodicity, which differs from a rando...

Melott, Adrian L

2013-01-01

342

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VII. Long-term risk analysis of the geologic repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report supports the overall assessment by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of actinide partitioning and transmutation by providing an analysis of the long-term risks associated with the terminal storage of wastes from a fuel cycle which incorporates partitioning and transmutation (P-T) and wastes from a cycle which does not. The system model and associated computer code, called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), are used for the analysis and are applied to the Los Medanos area in southeastern New Mexico. Because a conservative approach is used throughout, calculated results are believed to be consistently higher than reasonable expectations from actual disruptive incidents at the site and therefore are not directly suited for comparison with other analyses of the particular geologic location. The assessment is made with (1) the probabilistic, or risk, mode that uses combinations of reasonable possible release incidents with their probability of occurrence distributed and applied throughout the assessment period, and (2) the consequence mode that forces discrete release events to occur at specific times. An assessment period of 1 million years is used. The principal results are: (1) In all but the expulsive modes, 99Tc and 129I completely dominate cumulative effects based on their transport to man through leaching and movement with groundwater, effecting about 33,000 health effects (deaths) over the 1 million years; (2) P-T has only limited effectiveness in reducing long-term risk from a radionuclide waste repository under the conditions studied, and such effectiveness is essentially confined to the extremely unlikely (probability of occurrence 10-12/year) expulsive events; (3) Removal or immobilization of 99Tc and 129I might provide benefits sufficiently tangible to warrant special consideration

1980-01-01

343

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VII. Long-term risk analysis of the geologic repository  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report supports the overall assessment by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of actinide partitioning and transmutation by providing an analysis of the long-term risks associated with the terminal storage of wastes from a fuel cycle which incorporates partitioning and transmutation (P-T) and wastes from a cycle which does not. The system model and associated computer code, called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), are used for the analysis and are applied to the Los Medanos area in southeastern New Mexico. Because a conservative approach is used throughout, calculated results are believed to be consistently higher than reasonable expectations from actual disruptive incidents at the site and therefore are not directly suited for comparison with other analyses of the particular geologic location. The assessment is made with (1) the probabilistic, or risk, mode that uses combinations of reasonable possible release incidents with their probability of occurrence distributed and applied throughout the assessment period, and (2) the consequence mode that forces discrete release events to occur at specific times. An assessment period of 1 million years is used. The principal results are: (1) In all but the expulsive modes, /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I completely dominate cumulative effects based on their transport to man through leaching and movement with groundwater, effecting about 33,000 health effects (deaths) over the 1 million years; (2) P-T has only limited effectiveness in reducing long-term risk from a radionuclide waste repository under the conditions studied, and such effectiveness is essentially confined to the extremely unlikely (probability of occurrence 10/sup -12//year) expulsive events; (3) Removal or immobilization of /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I might provide benefits sufficiently tangible to warrant special consideration.

Logan, S.E.; Conarty, R.L.; Ng, H.S.; Rahal, L.J.; Shirley, C.G.

1980-09-01

344

Using geologic conditions and multiattribute decision analysis to determine the relative favorability of selected areas for siting a high-level radioactive waste repository  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is presented for determining the relative favorability of geologically complex areas for isolating high-level radioactive wastes. In applying the method to the northeastern region of the United States, seismicity and tectonic activity were the screening criteria used to divide the region into three areas of increasing seismotectonic risk. Criteria were then used to subdivide the area of lowest seismotectonic risk into six geologically distinct subareas including characteristics, surface-water and groundwater hydrology, potential human intrusion, site geometry, surface characteristics, and tectonic environment. Decision analysis was then used to identify the subareas most favorable from a geologic standpoint for further investigation, with a view to selecting a site for a repository. Three subareas (parts of northeastern Vermont, northern New Hampshire, and western Maine) were found to be the most favorable, using this method and existing data. However, because this study assessed relative geologic favorability, no conclusions should be drawn concerning the absolute suitability of individual subareas for high-level radioactive waste isolation. 34 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs.

Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Baker, C.H.; Buehring, W.A.; Whitfield, R.G.; Van Luik, A.E.J.; Sood, M.K.; Flower, M.F.J.; Warren, M.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Peerenboom, J.P.; Bogner, J.E.

1988-05-01

345

Roadside Geology of Yosemite Valley  

Science.gov (United States)

This field trip guide provides an introduction to the geology of Yosemite Valley, emphasizing the changes that have been made by a series of geological events and natural disasters in the 1990's. The field trip moves from Arch Rock Entrance station, via Bridalveil Meadow and Inspiration Point. It features background notes on glaciation, granitic and plutonic rock, and rockfall events. Users can also examine information on field debris, rock composition, granites, diorites, and sedimentary structures. Other materials include a geological map, images, and bibliographic references of interest. In addition, there are also computer generated images of some of the park's landforms.

346

Study on geology on Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Annual report for fiscal year 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tono Geoscientific Research Unit of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project, which is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes, in order to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock. The MIU Project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III), with a total duration of about 20 years. The project goals of the MIU Project from Phase I through to Phase III are: to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and to develop a range of engineering for deep underground application. Currently, the project is under the Phase II. One of the Phase II goals, which is for the Project goal, was set to develop and revise models of the geological environment using the investigation results obtained during excavation, and determine and assess changes in the geological environment in response to excavation. This document presents the overview of results of the research and development on 'geology' performed in fiscal year 2008, with regard to the Phase II goal. Geological investigations (geological mapping and rock mass classification) on the main and ventilation shafts and gallery walls and geophysical investigations (reverse-VSP and self potential monitoring) were carried out in fiscal year 2008. Information on the distribution of geological structures and their characteristics were obtained from these investigations and data-sets for updating the existing geological model were prepared. Also, some methods for the extrapolation of geological structures to uninvestigated areas were applied. Estimation of fracture density, the consideration of tectonics and evolution of geological structures were carried out. Moreover, for the development of investigation techniques, two geophysical methods (seismic interferometry and IP transform) and geological investigation of the shafts and gallery walls using a three-dimensional laser scanner were carried out. Through the above studies, the techniques used for investigation analysis and assessment of geological environment are assessed with respect to applicability and accuracy. Recommendations and improvements to techniques and equipment used in Phase I and II can then be made, as required. (author)

2011-01-01

347

Seismic analysis of sliding structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some components of industrial plants are just sitting on their support, then during a seism, sliding may occur between the structure and its support, inducing a nonlinear behaviour. After having briefly recalled the method to integrate the motion equations of a sliding structure, this paper will be devoted to a numerical approach of the seismic behaviour of the polar crane of a Nuclear Power Plant. The crane is represented by its first eigenmodes and the sliding is modelized by nonlinear links. The influence on the response of various hypothesis like identical motion of the contact points and the number of modes contained in the modal base, are investigated

1991-01-01

348

Analysis of subsea structure installation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is beneficial to perform a dynamic lifting analyses for safe and cost effective installation of subsea structures, for example, production templates, foundation bases and guide frames. A study combining experimental and theoretical approaches in simulating realistic conditions encountered offshore has been carried out to establish design and operational criteria for the main installation stages. Computer simulations using non-linear time domain software and laboratory model tests have been performed to investigate the influence of the following factors: sea state conditions, parameters of the structure, type of installation vessel and crane characteristics. Derived results and conclusions are intended for use during assessment of feasibility, planning and final engineering of installation operations.

Kopsov, I.E.; Sandvik, P.C.

1995-12-31

349

Geological and inorganic materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current review covers the literature reported from November 1984 to October 1986. This review covers the analytical techniques that are currently applied to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials. The authors have tried to highlight work either that applies state of the art techniques to novel problems or that has advanced the state of the art which should open new doors in the fields of geological or inorganic analysis. Other reviews encompass the theoretical aspects of the techniques which are applied to these subjects, and therefore, unless these developments appear to offer significantly new capabilities, the authors have not attempted to include these studies. They find it necessary to restrict the references cited because of the huge volume of literature. For this relatively short period of 2 years, a key words search of Chemical Abstracts listed over 2600 references in these fields that are appropriate for inclusion in this review. In addition to Chemical Abstracts, several journals were manually surveyed.

Lichte, F.E.; Seeley, J.L.; Jackson, L.L.; McKown, D.M.; Taggart, J.E. Jr.

1987-06-15

350

Radioactive and geological analysis of airborne gamma spectrometric data for locating favorable traps for uranium prospecting in the Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Statistical analysis has been applied to the airborne spectrometric data for the Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria in order to characterize and isolate the anomalous uranium radioactive zones. Equivalent uranium eU values vary between a minimum of 0.01 and a maximum of 32.74 ppm. Uranium prospecting methodology recently proposed is successfully applied in order to explain the origin of the radioactive anomalies related to Area-1. The dominant geological conditions effectively contributing to the uranium radioactive anomalies in the study area have been determined through the analysis of five radioactive-geological profiles. Different favorable traps have been identified and localized for uranium prospecting. Those uranium traps merit further detailed exploration for determining their uranium potential with depth.

Asfahani J; Al-Hent R; Aissa M

2012-10-01

351

Geology of California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book reviews some of the basic principles of geology and includes a chapter on the Klamath Mountains. Chapters cover the geologic history of California and the geologic features of the various deserts, mountain ranges, plateaus, basins, and valleys of the state, including offshore geology and the San Andreas fault. The authors discuss exotic and suspect terranes, and current theories concerning California geology.

Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

1990-01-01

352

Fluid-structure interaction in BWR containment structural dynamic analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the recognition of the presence of hydro-dynamic loads in the suppression pool of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) containments, dynamic analysis of the reactor containment structure for pool dynamic loads associated with Safety Relief Valve (SRV) discharge and postulated Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) has become a major consideration in the design of BWR power plants. An understanding of the mechanics of the fluid-structure interaction phenomenon is necessary to properly account for its effects when defining pool dynamic loads and when computing the structural responses for these loads. This paper explains the mechanics of fluid-structure interaction using a spring-mass analogy, describes a simple procedure for using elastic solid finite elements to mock the suppression pool water, and discusses the application of this mock fluid element in BWR containment structural analysis

1984-01-01

353

Analysis of composite structural elements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The themes of the study are composite structural components. For this purpose have been designed and built several research positions.Design/methodology/approach: Using different structural materials to build new device components requires multiple tests of the components. Research posts were designed in the advanced graphical program CAx Siemens NX 7.5. Analysed samples were made from the glass fibre, aramid and carbon of various weights. Due to the specific use of composite materials it focuses on the elements in the form of plates and flat bars. For the examination of experimental strain gauge technique was used bead, the force sensor and displacement sensor. The experimental methods were compared with computer simulation using the FEM.Findings: The aim of this study was to determine the basic material constants and a comparison of the experimental method and the method of computer simulation.Research limitations/implications: Change the number of layers and how to connect the laminate with the steel plate changes mechanical properties of the structural component.Practical implications: The ultimate result will be knowledge on the different forms of laminates, such as material properties, the stresses in all layers, strain and comparing the results obtained by two methods.Originality/value: The expected outcome of the study will be the composition and method of joining composite laminate with a steel plate to the possible application in the repair and construction of structural elements of freight wagons.

A. Baier; M. Majzner

2010-01-01

354

Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed.

Raj?i?, Vlatka; ?izmar, Dean

2010-01-01

355

Understanding deep geological disposal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In late 2001, the Agency published a major document entitled ''Dossier HAVL Argile''(Long-Lived High Level Radioactive Waste File), in the aim of providing a detailed update on current knowledge, testing the methods implemented and initiating a preliminary safety analysis with regards to the proposed disposal means. The following recap - adapted for the general public - provides an overview of the work conducted by ANDRA on waste disposal in deep geological layers. (author)

NONE

2002-07-01

356

Sensitivity analysis of parameters for engineered barrier and natural barrier. Application of the comprehensive sensitivity analysis method to HLW geological disposal concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to increase confidence in performance assessments of the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is important to minimise uncertainty. Some uncertainties can be reduced by R and D including site characterization, design studies, experiments both in the laboratory and in underground test facilities. As a disposal programme matures, R and D will focus on key uncertainties. In order to identify key uncertainties affecting the performance of the disposal system, sensitivity analyses have been carried out. On initial stage of stepwise approach, it is assumed that a number of design options and sites may remain. Main parameters concerning design are related to engineered barrier. Meanwhile, main parameters concerning siting are related to natural barrier. Therefore, sensitivity analyses of parameters which are classified by engineered barrier and natural barrier need to be carried out from the point of view of design and siting. One of sensitivity analysis techniques is the comprehensive sensitivity analysis method by which parameters having a large impact on maximum dose and threshold values of parameters and/or combinations yielding a 'successful condition' where maximum dose does not exceed a target value are obtained. In this study, comprehensive sensitivity analysis method was applied to HLW geological disposal concept. In this application, level of importance and successful condition for intended parameters on one barrier were extracted under conservative conditions of parameters on the other barrier, taking into account diverse uncertainties on initial stage of stepwise approach. We achieved analysis results with level of importance and successful condition for intended parameters (e.g., under the fresh porewater and conservative conditions of natural barrier, if glass dissolution rate is less than 2.5 g/m2/y, maximum dose for Cs-135 results in less than 10 ? Sv/y). In conclusion, the comprehensive sensitivity analysis method can be applied to extraction of sensitivity characteristics on each barrier, under the above conservative conditions. Such study on the applicability of method and the extracted sensitivity characteristics will contribute to construction of a robust barrier and a scenario analysis for initial stage of stepwise approach. (author)

2008-01-01

357

Study on systemizing of technology for investigation and analysis of the deep underground geological environment. Japanese fiscal year, 2008 (Contract research)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes studies that were carried out with the aim of assessing and systemizing the technology used for the investigation and analysis of the deep underground geological environment in relation to the disposal of radioactive waste. The main studies were: (1) a study on the research and development (R and D) topics proven to have practical application for the investigation, analysis and understanding of the deep underground geological environment, and, (2) a study on leading edge technology that can provide the advanced technical basis for the investigation, analysis and understanding of the deep underground geological environment. The principal results obtained from the studies are as follows: Regarding the R and D topics (1, above), the specific investigations, measurements, numerical and chemical analyses were reviewed with respect to engineering technology and the geological environment in this year. Based on the results of the review, topics requiring collaboration research in overlapping research fields, including safety assessment, were identified. Also, the near field concept (NFC) was reconsidered in terms of both the generic model and for crystalline rock. Regarding advanced technology (2, above), based on the objectives of the JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) research project, the study was implemented considering previous R and D results and detailed research result at the research site and thus an assessment of the need for advanced technical basis for investigation and analysis. This study contributed to the R and D development and its practical application. In addition, the Study Group discussed preparation for the 'coverall report' due in fiscal year 2009 and also how to contribute to Phase III (in situ testing in research galleries) at the JAEA Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). (author)

358

Structure and geological history of the Carboneras Fault Zone, SE Spain: Part of a stretching transform fault system  

Science.gov (United States)

The Carboneras Fault Zone (CFZ), is a major NE-SW trending tectonic lineament in SE Spain. Active from upper-Miocene to Recent times, it separates the volcanic Cabo de Gata terrain to the SE (accumulated over 18-6 Ma BP) from the tract of uplifted Alpine metamorphic basement blocks and post-orogenic basins that comprise the Betic Cordilleras lying to the NW. New geological mapping and age determinations have been used to constrain the geometry and geological history of the fault zone.The CFZ consists of left-lateral strike-slip faults bearing fault gouge formed in the uppermost 5 km of the crust. The faults cut metamorphic basement and folded post-orogenic sediments and volcanic rocks, and acted as a conduit for calc-alkaline volcanic rocks rising to the surface. NW of the CFZ, a series of unconformities and deformation episodes affect successive sedimentary formations of upper Miocene age. The CFZ is interpreted as part of a transform fault system separating NE-SW stretched and NW-SE shortened crust deformed above a south-westward retreating subducted slab, from a less deformed terrain lying to the south-east. Total offset on the CFZ may be up to 40 km but is at least 15 km.

Rutter, E. H.; Faulkner, D. R.; Burgess, R.

2012-12-01

359

Illinois State Geological Survey annual report May 1985-April 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sections are included on Illinois mineral industry in 1984 and 1985, coal, oil and gas, industrial minerals and metals, mineral economics, mineral resources, geological records and samples, environmental geology, waste management, hydrogeology, engineering geology, geophysical investigations, geochemical investigations, stratigraphy, structural geology and palaeontology/palynology.

1986-01-01

360

13th CMMI congress. Volume 2 - geology and exploration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contain 28 papers on mineral resource geology presented at the congress. The papers fall under the following headings: computers geostatistics, and Landsat; regional and structural geology; coal; general geology; geophysics and geochemistry; general economic geology; and gold. Three of the papers have been abstracted separately.

Berkman, D.A. (ed.)

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

A quantitative geologic study of heterogeneity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spatial variation of hydraulic conductivity has been generally recognized as the dominant medium-dependent control on the transport and dispersion of contaminants in ground water. An empirical study focusing on the relationship between patters of sedimentology and patterns of permeability is being conducted at an outcrop of the Pliocene/Pleistocene Sierra Ladrones formation, central New Mexico. Methods of geostatistics and sedimentary basin analysis are employed to study the problem of aquifer heterogeneity. An air permeameter provides a means of obtaining extensive field measurements of air-flow rates through the sediments. These flow rates are subsequently used to characterize the permeability distribution of the outcrop. Both the geologic information and the air-flow rate data provide the basis for analysis of aquifer heterogeneity. Preliminary geologic mapping indicates that the sediments in the study area are the products of an arid fluvial/interfluvial depositional environment. Probability distribution analysis of the air-flow rate data suggests that the permeability of these sediments is log-normally distributed. The air permeability data are used to estimate variograms and correlation lengths in both the horizontal and vertical directions. At the scale of 10's of centimeters, the horizontal variograms exhibit exponential variogram behaviour . When two distinct lithologies are present, the correlation structure appears to be a nested exponential. Variogram analysis of estimated mean permeability at the scale of meters also shows evidence of a nested correlation structure in the horizontal direction and a periodic correlation structure in the vertical direction. Results of this study suggest that there is a direct connection between observable geologic structure and permeability statistics. (Author) (35 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.)

1990-01-01

362

Geologic Map and Map Database of Eastern Sonoma and Western Napa Counties, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction This report contains a new 1:100,000-scale geologic map, derived from a set of geologic map databases (Arc-Info coverages) containing information at 1:62,500-scale resolution, and a new description of the geologic map units and structural relations in the map area. Prepared as part of the San Francisco Bay Region Mapping Project, the study area includes the north-central part of the San Francisco Bay region, and forms the final piece of the effort to generate new, digital geologic maps and map databases for an area which includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. Geologic mapping in Lake County in the north-central part of the map extent was not within the scope of the Project. The map and map database integrates both previously published reports and new geologic mapping and field checking by the authors (see Sources of Data index map on the map sheet or the Arc-Info coverage eswn-so and the textfile eswn-so.txt). This report contains new ideas about the geologic structures in the map area, including the active San Andreas Fault system, as well as the geologic units and their relations. Together, the map (or map database) and the unit descriptions in this report describe the composition, distribution, and orientation of geologic materials and structures within the study area at regional scale. Regional geologic information is important for analysis of earthquake shaking, liquifaction susceptibility, landslide susceptibility, engineering materials properties, mineral resources and hazards, as well as groundwater resources and hazards. These data also assist in answering questions about the geologic history and development of the California Coast Ranges.

Graymer, R. W.; Brabb, E. E.; Jones, D. L.; Barnes, J.; Nicholson, R. S.; Stamski, R. E.

2007-01-01

363

THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MODERN ECONOMIC SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Opportunities of application of general scientific methods for the analysis of structure of economic systemsin conditions of their transformation are studied. The special attention is given sociocultural to elements as factorwhich determines specificity of all social systems.

Zoya HALUSHKA

2008-01-01

364

Static Analysis of Framed Structures (for Microcomputers).  

Science.gov (United States)

The S7001 general purpose frame analysis computer program can be used to statically analyze continuous beams, plane frame, grids, space truss, and space frame structures that are composed of prismatic elastic members.

1989-01-01

365

Regional evaluation and primary geological structural and metallogenical research of great Kavir basin as view of possibility formation of sedimentary-surficial Uranium mineralization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Great Kavir basin is the largest inner basin in Iran that extended about 90000 km2. This basin is situated in the centre of lran , to the south from Alborz mountain range and elongated in the sub- latitudinal trend and its construction is asymmetric. The basin cover consists generally of complicated sequence of continental - marine Oligocene - Miocene molasses. According to drainage systems - conditions, molassoid cycles, alluvial, alluvial - deltaic and lacustrine sediments, climate, morphological conditions and metallogenic and structural features, Great Kavir depression generally is favorable for exigence and surficial uranium deposits (vally - fill, flood plain, deltaic and playa). Uranium occurrences that are Known in the southern and north eastern part of the margent Great Kavir basin, are Arosan, Irekan and Mohammad Abad. Similar geological - structural conditions for uranium mineralization is possible in the margent of Great Kavir basin

2006-01-01

366

Electron crystallography in surface structure analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface structure analysis is an important area of research, and in recent years notable advances have been made in this field, both in improved techniques for studying surfaces and in methods of analyzing them. This review aims to summarize the techniques available, particularly those relating to electron microscopy, and also to outline one of the newest areas of development, the application of direct methods to surface structure analysis. PMID:10420173

Leslie, C; Landree, E; Collazo-Davila, C; Bengu, E; Grozea, D; Marks, L D

1999-08-01

367

Information estimations and analysis of structures  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper have written the results of the information analysis of structures. The obtained information estimation (IE) are based on an entropy measure of C. Shannon. Obtained IE is univalent both for the non-isomorphic and for the isomorphic graphs, algorithmically, it is asymptotically steady and has vector character. IE can be used for the solution of the problems ranking of structures by the preference, the evaluation of the structurization of subject area, the solution of the problems of structural optimization. Information estimations and method of the information analysis of structures it can be used in many fields of knowledge (Electrical Systems and Circuit, Image recognition, Computer technology, Databases and Bases of knowledge, Organic chemistry, Biology and others) and it can be base for the structure calculus.

Shaydurov, A

2005-01-01

368

Structural analysis of impeller for SMART MCP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structural integrity of the MCP impeller is important for the safe and reliable operation of the SMART, since the impeller is operated for long period inside the reactor under high pressure and high temperature. In this study, an analysis model to evaluate the structural integrity of axial pump impeller has been developed and the stress state in the impeller of SMART MCP has been calculated for the applied centrifugal and hydraulic forces. The structural integrity of the impeller has been demonstrated by comparing the analysis results with the allowable stresses. The modal analysis of the impeller has been also performed to investigate the possibility of the resonances of the impeller blades with the rotational frequencies. As a means to reduce the time required for the analysis, a cyclic symmetric analysis model with optimum boundary conditions is proposed by comparing the results from full model analyses

1999-01-01

369

Coupled thermal, hydraulic and mechanical analysis in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan is based on a multibarrier system composed of engineered and natural barriers. The engineered barriers are composed of vitrified waste confined within a canister, overpack and buffer material. Highly compacted bentonite clay is considered one of the most promising candidate buffer material mainly because of its low hydraulic conductivity and high adsorption capacity of radionuclides. In a repository for HLW, complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena will take place, involving the interactive processes between radioactive decay heat from the vitrified waste, infiltration of ground water and stress generation due to the earth pressure, the thermal loading and the swelling pressure of the buffer material. In order to evaluate the performance of the buffer material, the coupled T-H-M behaviors within the compacted bentonite have to be modelled. Before establishing a fully coupled T-H-M model, the mechanism of each single phenomenon or partially coupled phenomena should be identified and modelled physically and numerically. Under the unsaturated condition, the water movement within the buffer material has often been expressed as a simple diffusion model with the constant apparent water diffusivity. However, the water movement in the low permeable and unsaturated porous medium has been known as a transfer process in both vapor and liquid phases. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate the two-phase contribution into the physical model. In this study, the water diffusivity of compacted bentonite is obtained as a function of water content and temperature. The proposed water movement model is constructed by applying the Philip and de Vries' model and Darcy's law. While the water retention curve is measured by the thermocouple psychrometer, van Genuchten model is applied as the water retention curve because the smooth derivative of the water potential with respect to water content is necessary. The parameters of the van Genuchten model are obtained from the back analysis of infiltration test. The water movement due to thermal gradient and the swelling process are also considered. The parameters related to these phenomena are obtained from the laboratory tests by back analysis. The validation of T-H-M model for buffer material is carried out by comparing with the results of BIG-BEN experiment. The coupled T-H-M processes in the near field are simulated with fully coupled model. The material of buffer is bentonite-sand mixture and dry density is l.6 g/cm{sup 3}. From the results, the following conclusions are obtained. (1) The maximum temperature in the buffer obtained by coupled analysis is compared with that obtained by thermal analysis. Two cases is considered as initial water content in the buffer. One is 7%, which correspond to natural water content, and the other is 17%, which is correspond to optimized water content by the in-situ compaction. In both cases, maximum temperature in the buffer that is obtained by coupled analysis is lower than that obtained by thermal analysis. (2) Re-saturation time of buffer is strongly dependent on the water pressure in the rock mass. However, it is not dependent on the permeability of rock mass if the intrinsic permeability of rock mass is in the 10{sup 13} - 10{sup 18} m{sup 2} range. (3) In the case that the intrinsic permeability of rock mass is approximately 10{sup -15} m{sup 2}, the initial water content in the buffer does not exert influence on the re-saturation time of buffer. (4) Two dimensional T-H-M analysis in consideration of pore pressure decreasing in the rock mass due to the excavation of drift is carried out. As a result, re-saturation time of buffer is in the 10 - 30 years range if the initial water pressure head is 1000 m. (author)

Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Taniguchi, Wataru

1999-02-01

370

Geology of Kazakhstan. Geologiya Kazakhstana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The geology of Kazakhstan is examined based on the altest data. A physical-geographical description of the country is provided. The history of geological study and a survey of concepts regarding tectonic zoning are presented. The structure of the near-Caspian basin is characterized. Stratigraphy, magmatism and tectonics of the Archean-Proterozoic foundation, Caledonian and Hercynian folded systems of the Ural-Mongolian belt, as well as troughs and elevations of the Epihercynian platform, structure of the Alpian epiplatform orogenic complex are described. In conclusion, a brief essay is provided regarding the deep structure of the territory of Kazakhstan. The work is illustrated by numerous geological, tectonic and paleogeographic plans, plans for compilation of sections, as well as plans characterizing the deep structure of the territory.

Abdulin, A.A.

1981-01-01

371

Structural Analysis of Longitudinally Framed Ships.  

Science.gov (United States)

The technique of finite elements has brought about a new era to the field of structural analysis of ship structures. The application of this technique, however, is limited by the cost and capacity of the computer. Straight forward applications of the fini...

R. Nielsen P. Y. Chang L. C. Deschamps

1972-01-01

372

Structural analysis of second-generation heliostats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the overall evaluation of the four second-generation heliostats, a finite element analysis was performed to evaluate structure performance of the mirror modules subjected to gravity, operational wind loads and survival wind loads. All designs evaluated were found to be structurally adequate.

Dunder, V.D.

1981-12-01

373

ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LANDSLIDE MLIJA AND THEIR IMPACT ON ENGINEERING STRUCTURES (OMIŠ, SOUTHERN CROATIA)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to design the by-pass road of the city of Omiš which will partially he founded on the landslide Mlija and for the safety of foundations of houses, detail subsurface exploration especially engineering-geological surveys, geophysical surveys, boring and laboratory tests of the sliding material were conducted. Obtained results are presented in this paper. Due to numerous damages of roads, walls and houses built in the area of Mlija and Borak, the possibility of construction in the area was discussed and the foundation method proposed. In order to obtain an overview of circumstances, constant monitoring of variations of the water table level and velocity of the moving material has been proposed.

Slobodan Šestanovi?; Duško Bar?ot

1998-01-01

374

Study on systemizing of technology for investigation and analysis of the deep underground geological environment. Japanese fiscal year, 2009 (Contract research)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report summarizes studies that have been carried out with the aim of assessing and systemizing the technologies used for the investigation and analysis of the deep underground geological environment in relation to the disposal of radioactive waste. The main studies were: (1) a study on the research and development (R and D) topics proven to have practical application for the investigation, and analysis and understanding of the deep underground geological environment, and, (2) a study on leading edge technologies that can provide the advanced technical basis for the investigation, analysis and understanding of the deep underground geological environment. Regarding the R and D topics (1, above), specific investigations, measurements, numerical analyses and chemical analyses were performed and reviewed with respect to the topics, (a) Repository design, engineering technology, (b) Geological environment and (c) Safety evaluation. Based on the result of the review, topics requiring collaboration research in overlapping research fields, including safety assessment, were identified. Also, the near field concept (NFC) was reconsidered in terms of its realistic construction model. Regarding advanced technology (2, above), based on the objectives of the JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) research project, the following R and D activities (a) - (e) were implemented. This study contributed to the R and D development and its practical application. (a) Hydraulic analysis of the fractured rock mass. - Practical application of a simple observational method system (SWING-SHAFT). (b) Three-dimensional analysis of rock mass seepage. -Neural network model (ANN) and the genetic algorithm (GA) as methods for monitoring the shallow underground water flow. -Investigation of the ground water detention and water-rock interaction to understand the mechanism of fluorine and boron concentration. (c) Development on hydraulic testing methods and equipment. -Grouting test injecting the bentonite slurry into the fractured rock mass. (d) Research on investigations of deep geological environment and modeling technique. -Researches on comprehensive hydrologic modeling for long term safety assessment of the HLW disposal et.al. (e) Study on geochemical characterization of groundwater. -Development of groundwater age dating method using CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons, Freon group) et.al. In addition the study group in this committee summarized the results of the studies above carried out after 2000 fiscal year for the 'cover-all report' due in 2009 fiscal year, and also discussed how to contribute to Phase III (in situ testing in research galleries) in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) research program in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). (author)

2011-01-01

375

Reactor coolant system structural loading analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The report describes in detail the analytical methods that B and W uses for the structural loading analysis of the reactor coolant system for both normal and abnormal loading conditions. The normal conditions considered in the analysis are deadweight, steady-state hydraulic, and thermal expansion effects; the abnormal conditions are the dynamic effects of earthquakes and postulated pipe ruptures

1976-01-01

376

Dynamic structural analysis of uncoupled subsystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytical techniques and results are presented for dynamic seismic analysis of uncoupled structures. It is concluded that an uncoupled subsystem dynamic analysis can produce results essentially identical to those from a coupled analysis. The techniques utilized and conclusions obtained are applicable in general for any system/subsystem configuration. A nuclear power plant primary structure and a pressurized water reactor coolant system are used as the system/subsystem example. To develop general and realistic results, soil-structure interaction, non-uniform damping and representative structural stiffnesses were considered in developing the results. Standard time-history model analysis techniques were used. However, the conclusions are not dependent on the solution techniques. In performing dynamic seismic analyses of subsystems, a common approach is to include a simplified model which correctly represents the stiffness as well as the mass effects of the subsystem in the primary system dynamic model. The results are then used as forcing functions for separate and more detailed subsystem analses. This approach enables the analyst to use more detailed subsystem mathematical models when performing either spectrum analysis or time history analysis of the subsystem in question. This paper demonstrates, by example, that a properly uncoupled subsystem analysis will produce results consistent with those obtained from a coupled system/subsystem analysis, regardless of the complexity of the system. (Auth.)

1977-08-19

377

The tunnel project. Drill hole logging and structural geologic studies in the Grualia, the Lunner county; Tunnelprosjektet. Borehullslogging og strukturgeologiske studier i Grualia, Lunner kommune  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In connection with the project ''Environmental and community useful tunnels'' the Norwegian Geologic Survey (NGU) has made geologic and geophysical investigations along parts of the tunnel at the Grualia in the Lunner county. The purpose of the geologic studies was to map and investigate weakness zones in the rock foundations. The geophysical studies aimed at testing techniques that was in little use in preliminary studies for tunnel operations. The methods used have been optical inspection of drill holes, measurements of temperature and conductivity in the water and the measuring of the natural gamma radiation in the drill holes. The resistivity in the drill holes is also determined and test pumping with flow measurements is carried out in order to calculate the well water influx capacity. These methods may contribute to information about the rock condition (cracking, water influx). Previously the NGU has made 2D resistivity measurements at the ground in the tunnel in order to map the weakness zones. The results from the measurements in 6 wells show large variations in the rock qualities. The wells are drilled towards indicated weakness zones. Open water conducting cracks and sections with largely cracked rocks are detected in or in the proximity of the tunnel route. The weakness zone between the hornfels and the syenite west of the Langvatnet is largely cracked, has a large water conducting capacity and there are some unstable masses. Further east several open, water- conducting cracks are detected in the syenite. Furthest to the east in the route cracked and unstable rocks are found. Several of the holes are blocked by ravines which confirm the poor rock quality. In the particular areas problems are to be expected during the operation with respect to water influx and stability. Methodically the drill hole studies have shown great value for the follow up of the 2D resistivity measurements on the ground. The indicated weakness zones through the 2D have been confirmed and characterised. The testing of the geophysical techniques has so far shown promising results. The 2D resistivity measurements on the ground with subsequent drilling, drill hole logging, pumping and flow measurements would give a good characterisation of the ground where the rock construction is planned. With a good geological foundation (structural mapping) the above techniques would contribute with valuable information concerning what may be expected in front of the hand specimen in tunnel work.

Elvebakk, Harald; Braathen, Alvar; Roenning, Jan S.; Nordgulen, Oeystein

2001-07-01

378

Structural analysis of Alberta heavy gas oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Structural Group Analysis (SGA) technique was developed for characterization of Alberta gas oils. The gas oils were separated into class fractions enriched in selected structural groups. Data from elemental analysis, /sup 1/H NMR, /sup 13/C NMR and IR spectroscopy were used in an optimization procedure to obtain the group concentrations. Structural profiles are presented for four gas oils which give a description of the amounts of aromatics, hydrogenated rings, alkyl structures and heteroatomic groups. The accuracy of the method was tested on calibration mixtures and the predicted concentrations of most aliphatic groups were within +/- 20% of known concentrations. Reproducibility of the method was also tested by a repeat analysis of one gas oil. Variations in group concentrations were within the expected error of +/- 20%. 20 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

Khorasheh, F.; Gray, M.R.; Lana, I.G.D.

1987-04-01

379

Colorado Geological Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

The Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) is an agency of state government within the Department of Natural Resources whose mission is to help reduce the impact of geologic hazards on the citizens of Colorado, to promote the responsible economic development of mineral and mineral fuel resources, to provide geologic insight into water resources, and to provide geologic advice and information to a variety of constituencies. This site contains extensive information about Colorado geology such as maps, a geologic time scale for the state, program information, and state field trip information. This site hosts the Avalanche Information Center which contains avalanche forecasting and education center details. Publications report on geologic hazards, land use, environmental geology, mineral resources, oil, gas, coal, geologic mapping and earthquake information fo