WorldWideScience

Sample records for geologic structural analysis

  1. Geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle, Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Valentina; Di Achille, Gaetano; Ferranti, Luigi; Rothery, David A.; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present a new geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle (H2) of Mercury, along with a reconnaissance study of the geometry and kinematics of lobate scarps in this area. To this end, we produced a 1:3,000,000 geologic map of the area using the images provided by the NASA spacecraft MESSENGER, which has been orbiting the planet since March, 2011. The geologic map shows the distribution of smooth plains, intermediate plains, intercrater plains units and a classification of crater materials based on an empirical distinction among three stages of degradation. Structural mapping shows that the H2 quadrangle is dominated by N-S faults (here grouped into the Victoria system) to the east and NE-SW faults (Larrocha system) to the west, with the secondary existence of NW-SE-trending faults (Carnegie system) in the north-western area of the quadrangle. A systematic analysis of these systems has led to the following results. 1) the Victoria system is characterized by a main array of faults located along Victoria Rupes - Endeavour Rupes - Antoniadi Dorsum. The segmentation of this array into three different sectors changes from north to south and is spatially linked to the presence of three volcanic vents located at the boundaries between each sector and at the northern end of the Victoria Rupes sector , suggesting that volcanism and faulting are interrelated 2) The main array of Carnegie system is kinematically linked and antithetical to the Victoria system. Both systems have arguably controlled the growth of a longitudinal, fault-free, crustal and gravimetric bulge in the central area of the Victoria quadrangle, which is interpreted as a regional contractional pop-up. 3) The Larrocha system is interrupted against the central bulge and thus is probably older than the Victoria and Carnegie systems. Buffered crater counting performed on the Victoria system confirms the young relative age of its fault segments with respect to the map units. The faults of the Victoria system post-date the smooth plains, even though the morphological evidence suggests a probable syndepositional fault activity. The structural analysis was supplemented by the method by Galluzzi et al. (2014, Geol. Soc. Lond., SP401) to calculate fault slip data using craters cross-cut by lobate scarps. Six analysable faulted craters are located within the H2 quadrangle and reveal that the Carnegie system and the Victoria - Antoniadi array have near-dip-slip kinematics. The former dips 30° eastward, the latter dips 15°-20° westward. Inversion of fault slip data allows estimation of the orientation of the strain field pertaining to the Victoria-Carnegie-systems, whose ?1 kinematic axis (shortening axis) trends 71° N.

  2. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J. [FINTACT Oy (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km{sup 3}. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that the borehole investigations may not represent the site outside the covered volume. Finally five different uncertainty indices were calculated for regional and site scale, borehole data, representativity and structural knowledge. High uncertainty exists for all site volumes in terms of structural knowledge. Uncertainty in representativity is rather high at Aberg. Beberg and Ceberg has high uncertainty indices when regional scale models are concerned 30 refs, 36 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km3. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that the borehole investigations may not represent the site outside the covered volume. Finally five different uncertainty indices were calculated for regional and site scale, borehole data, representativity and structural knowledge. High uncertainty exists for all site volumes in terms of structural knowledge. Uncertainty in representativity is rather high at Aberg. Beberg and Ceberg has high uncertainty indices when regional scale models are concerned

  4. Texture analysis for automated classification of geologic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, V.; Rodriguez, J.J.; Gettings, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Texture present in aeromagnetic anomaly images offers an abundance of useful geological information for discriminating between rock types, but current analysis of such images still relies on tedious, human interpretation. This study is believed to be the first effort to quantitatively assess the performance of texture-based digital image analysis for this geophysical exploration application. We computed several texture measures and determined the best subset using automated feature selection techniques. Pattern classification experiments measured the ability of various texture measures to automatically predict rock types. The classification accuracy was significantly better than a priori probability and prior weights-of-evidence results. The accuracy rates and choice of texture measures that minimize the error rate are reported. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  5. Analysis of effects of geological structures in rock driving by TBM

    OpenAIRE

    ?udmila Tréfová

    2006-01-01

    Although mechanical properties belongs to important parameter for the excavation modelling, effect of geological structures on the rock massive fragmentation is often much higher than varying rock properties. This paper deals with the analysis of geological structures. It is focused on the schistosity orientation towards the tunnel azimuth. The aim is to define of schistosity effect on the penetration rate. It is a basis creating of fuzzy rules for the performance model full-profile tunnel bo...

  6. Analysis of effects of geological structures in rock driving by TBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?udmila Tréfová

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Although mechanical properties belongs to important parameter for the excavation modelling, effect of geological structures on the rock massive fragmentation is often much higher than varying rock properties. This paper deals with the analysis of geological structures. It is focused on the schistosity orientation towards the tunnel azimuth. The aim is to define of schistosity effect on the penetration rate. It is a basis creating of fuzzy rules for the performance model full-profile tunnel boring machine

  7. Stratigraphy and structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Greeley, R.; Guest, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The immediate goal of stratigraphy and structural geology is to reduce the enormous complexity of a planetary surface to comprehensible proportions by dividing the near-surface rocks into units and mapping their distribution and attitude.

  8. Experiencing Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George H.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate structural geology course that incorporates field lab time and research. Lectures, outside readings, and in-class experimentation are coordinated with the field work to prepare a scientific report. (MA)

  9. OpenStereo: Open Source, Cross-Platform Software for Structural Geology Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, C. H.; Campanha, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Free and open source software (FOSS) are increasingly seen as synonyms of innovation and progress. Freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software (through access to the source code) assure a high level of positive feedback between users and developers, which results in stable, secure and constantly updated systems. Several software packages for structural geology analysis are available to the user, with commercial licenses or that can be downloaded at no cost from the Internet. Some provide basic tools of stereographic projections such as plotting poles, great circles, density contouring, eigenvector analysis, data rotation etc, while others perform more specific tasks, such as paleostress or geotechnical/rock stability analysis. This variety also means a wide range of data formating for input, Graphical User Interface (GUI) design and graphic export format. The majority of packages is built for MS-Windows and even though there are packages for the UNIX-based MacOS, there aren't native packages for *nix (UNIX, Linux, BSD etc) Operating Systems (OS), forcing the users to run these programs with emulators or virtual machines. Those limitations lead us to develop OpenStereo, an open source, cross-platform software for stereographic projections and structural geology. The software is written in Python, a high-level, cross-platform programming language and the GUI is designed with wxPython, which provide a consistent look regardless the OS. Numeric operations (like matrix and linear algebra) are performed with the Numpy module and all graphic capabilities are provided by the Matplolib library, including on-screen plotting and graphic exporting to common desktop formats (emf, eps, ps, pdf, png, svg). Data input is done with simple ASCII text files, with values of dip direction and dip/plunge separated by spaces, tabs or commas. The user can open multiple file at the same time (or the same file more than once), and overlay different elements of each dataset (poles, great circles etc). The GUI shows the opened files in a tree structure, similar to “layers” of many illustration software, where the vertical order of the files in the tree reflects the drawing order of the selected elements. At this stage, the software performs plotting operations of poles to planes, lineations, great circles, density contours and rose diagrams. A set of statistics is calculated for each file and its eigenvalues and eigenvectors are used to suggest if the data is clustered about a mean value or distributed along a girdle. Modified Flinn, Triangular and histograms plots are also available. Next step of development will focus on tools as merging and rotation of datasets, possibility to save 'projects' and paleostress analysis. In its current state, OpenStereo requires Python, wxPython, Numpy and Matplotlib installed in the system. We recommend installing PythonXY or the Enthought Python Distribution on MS-Windows and MacOS machines, since all dependencies are provided. Most Linux distributions provide an easy way to install all dependencies through software repositories. OpenStereo is released under the GNU General Public License. Programmers willing to contribute are encouraged to contact the authors directly. FAPESP Grant #09/17675-5

  10. Materials science for structural geology

    CERN Document Server

    Paterson, Mervyn S

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews the basic materials science and physics needed to understand the plastic deformation of rocks and minerals, and changes in microstructure that signal past deformation, a matter of fundamental interest in structural geology and geodynamics.

  11. Structural Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...

  12. Analysis of Siting Criteria of Overseas Geological Repository (I): Geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Haer Yong; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cheong, Jae Yeol; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Lee, Eun Yong [Korea Radioactive-wate Management Corporation, , Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Jung [NEXGEO Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry are the main technical siting factors of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuels. This paper focused on how rock's different geological conditions, such as topography, soils, rock types, structural geology, and geological events, influence the functions of the geological repository. In the context, the site selection criteria of various countries were analyzed with respect to the geological conditions. Each country established the criteria based on its important geological backgrounds. For example, it was necessary for Sweden to take into account the effect of ice age on the land uplift and sea level change, whereas Japan defined seismic activity and volcanism as the main siting factors of the geological repository. Therefore, the results of the paper seems to be helpful in preparing the siting criteria of geological repository in Korea.

  13. OATools: An ArcMap add-in for the orientation analysis of geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociánová, Lenka; Melichar, Rostislav

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes Orientation Analysis Tools (OATools), a new add-in, which has been developed for ArcGIS software (ESRI) to allow the spatial analysis of structural data. These tools bring a complex approach to structural data analysis that highlights the spatial aspect of oriented data. In this paper we introduce the functionality of this add-in, which allows users to plot selected data in azimuthal projection, calculate and plot fold axes, construct density distribution diagrams and rose histograms, and create maps of spatial averages and fold axes. There is a link between projections and maps; therefore, it is possible to select point data in the projection and see their location on the map, and vice versa. Practical use of these tools is demonstrated in a case study of the Svratka and Polička crystalline units (Eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), where a large dataset was collected. Using OATools the structural conditions were explored. Major changes in foliation dip directions were detected and the axial surfaces of the folds were determined. We also demonstrate the benefit of applying these tools, together with the potential of GIS with respect to spatial data queries, storage, and visualization.

  14. Structural analysis of spent nuclear fuel disposal container in a deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a structural analysis to determine design variables such as the inner basket array type, and thicknesses of the outer shell and the lid and bottom of a high-level spent nuclear fuel disposal container. The container construction type introduced here is a solid structure with a cast iron insert and a corrosion resistant overpack, which is designed for the spent nuclear fuel disposal in a deep repository in the crystalline bedrock, entailing an evenly distributed load of hydrostatic pressure from the groundwater and high swelling pressure from the bentonite buffer. Hence, the container must be designed to withstand these high pressure loads. Many design variables may affect the structural strength of the container. In this study, among those variables, the array type of inner baskets and thicknesses of outer shell and lid and bottom are attempted to be determined through a linear structural analysis. Container types studied here are one for the pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel and another for the Canadian deuterium and uranium reactor (CANDU) fuel

  15. Study on geology and geological structure based on literature studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is proceeding with underground research laboratory (URL) project for the sedimentary rock in Horonobe, Hokkaido. This project is an investigation project which is planned over 20 years. Surface-based investigations (Phase 1) have been conducted for the present. The purposes of the Phase 1 are to construct the geological environment model (geological-structural, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical models) and to confirm the applicability of investigation technologies for the geological environment. The geological-structural model comprises the base for the hydrogeological and hydrochemical models. We constructed the geological-structural model by mainly using data obtained from literature studies. Particulars regarding which data the model is based on and who has performed the interpretation are also saved for traceability. As a result, we explain the understanding of degree and the need of information on stratigraphy and discontinuous structure. (author)

  16. Study on geology on the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Geology and geological structure at the -500m stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project, which is a scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLW), in order to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in the crystalline rock. The MIU Project has three overlapping phases, Surface-based investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III). The goals of the MIU Project from the Phase I to the Phase III are to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and to develop a range of engineering techniques for deep underground application. One of the Phase II goals is set up to develop and revise models of the geological environment using the investigation results obtained during excavation, and to determine and assess changes in the geological environment in response to excavation. This report aims at compiling results of study on geology and geological structure at the -500m Stage in the MIU construction site, investigated in the Phase II and provides the fundamental information on the geology and geological structure for future study and modeling of geological environment. (author)

  17. A Graphical Approach to Quantitative Structural Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, Declan G.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how computer graphic methods can be used in teaching structural geology. Describes the design of a graphics workstation for the Apple microcomputer. Includes a listing of commands used with software to plot structures in a digitized form. Argues for the establishment of computer laboratories for structural geology classes. (TW)

  18. Structural mapping of potential rockslide sites in the Storfjorden area, western Norway:the influence of bedrock geology on hazard analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, I.H.C.; Saintot, A.; Derron, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Forkortet: The western coast of Norway is particularly vulnerable to active rockslide development due to the recent post-glacial uplift and the deep incision of the fjords created by glacial activity, leading to extremely steep fjord sides. The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of structural geology on the hazard analysis related to large rock avalanches in the Storfjorden area. This is an area were several historical rock avalanches and related tsunamies have to disaste...

  19. Development of multiple source data processing for structural analysis at a regional scale. [digital remote sensing in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrere, Veronique

    1990-01-01

    Various image processing techniques developed for enhancement and extraction of linear features, of interest to the structural geologist, from digital remote sensing, geologic, and gravity data, are presented. These techniques include: (1) automatic detection of linear features and construction of rose diagrams from Landsat MSS data; (2) enhancement of principal structural directions using selective filters on Landsat MSS, Spacelab panchromatic, and HCMM NIR data; (3) directional filtering of Spacelab panchromatic data using Fast Fourier Transform; (4) detection of linear/elongated zones of high thermal gradient from thermal infrared data; and (5) extraction of strong gravimetric gradients from digitized Bouguer anomaly maps. Processing results can be compared to each other through the use of a geocoded database to evaluate the structural importance of each lineament according to its depth: superficial structures in the sedimentary cover, or deeper ones affecting the basement. These image processing techniques were successfully applied to achieve a better understanding of the transition between Provence and the Pyrenees structural blocks, in southeastern France, for an improved structural interpretation of the Mediterranean region.

  20. Formation of secondary phases during deep geological final disposal of research reactor fuel elements. Structure and phase analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the assessment of a confident und sustainable final disposal of high level radioactive waste - fuel elements of german research reactors also account for such waste - in suitable, deep geological facilities, processes of the alteration of the disposed of waste and therefore the formation of the corrosion products, i. e. secondary phases must be well understood considering an accident scenario of a potential water inflow. In order to obtain secondary phases non-irradiated research reactor fuel elements (FR-BE) consisting of UAlx-Al were subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine (brine 2, salt repository) and to clay pore solution, respectively and furthermore of the type U3Si2-Al were solely subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine. Considering environmental aspects of final repositories the test conditions of the corrosion experiments were adjusted in a way that the temperature was kept constant at 90 C and a reducing anaerobic environment was ensured. As major objective of this research secondary phases, obtained from the autoclave experiments after appropriate processing and grain size separation have been identified and quantified. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and the application of Rietveld refinement methods allowed the identification of the corrosion products and a quantitative assessment of crystalline and amorphous contents. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were additionally applied as a complementary method for the characterisation of the secondary phases. The qualitative phase analysis of the preprocessed secondary phases of the systems UAlx-Al and U3Si2-Al in brine 2 shows many similarities. Lesukite - an aluminium chloro hydrate - was observed for the first time considering the given experimental conditions. Further on different layered structures of the LDH type, iron oxyhydroxide and possibly iron chlorides, uncorroded residues of nuclear fuel and elementary iron were identified as well. Depending on preceding preparation procedures of the secondary phases the phase mixture resulted in different constituents. By preparation in water the stable phases obtained were aluminium hydroxides and not lesukite. Crystalline phases containing silicon were solely observed in the system U3Si2-Al in brine 2 being prepared with water. Contrary to these observations the system UAlx-Al in Mont Terri solution (clay pore water) qualitatively exhibits distinct different phase contents. Goethite, gypsum, hemi hydrate (bassanite), and accessory hematite were the only crystalline phases observed. Additionally aluminium and UAl4 as residues of nuclear fuel were also found. Considering the quantification of the brine 2 systems many common observations could be made. With respect to the corrosion products of UAlx-Al und U3Si2-Al prepared with isopropanol, lesukite and LDH compounds are the most abundant phases. The amorphous content, elemental iron and uncorroded residues of the nuclear fuel are mainly enriched in the coarse grain size fraction > 63 ?m. The water treatment of the secondary phases resulted in much less yield of solids. Quantitatively aluminium hydroxides exhibited the highest abundance. Clear differences could be observed in the system UAlx-Al in Mont Terri solution in view of the fact that the amorphous phases show the highest content of the corrosion products. The secondary phases could retain radioactive isotopes on the one hand by in situ formation and on the other hand by additionally being placed into stock as backfill, respectively. As special objective for assessing the potential of retention the amount of incorporation of europium into the crystal lattice of LDH compounds has also been investigated. Up to 20 mole percent considering the amount of aluminium were substituted by inactive europium acting as a trivalent simulant homologue for actinides. The refinement of the lattice parameters clearly indicated a linear relationship between the increase of the europium amount and the increase of the lattice parameters. The capacity of the incorporation of repository relevant isotopes in the crystal structure of LDH compounds could be shown and assessed. With respect to the retention of radioactive isotopes in dependence of time the sorption of dedicated positive and negative charged ions on lesukite was also investigated by means of the LSC method. The results obtained showed that 152Eu3+ did not show any sorption. Selenite (75SeO3)2- was chosen as an anionic species for the investigation of the sorption properties and contrary to 152Eu3+ a significant but not complete sorption could be observed. Despite the different sorption behaviour lesukite and aluminium chloro hydrate did not undergo any structural changes which have been investigated with powder x-ray diffraction. This observation is due to the minor concentration of radioactive europium and selenite.

  1. Interpreting geological structure using kriging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors applied kriging (geostatistics) to interpret the structure of basement rock in Yucca Flat, NTS from borehole data. The estimation error for 118 data is 81 m comparable with those based on both gravity and borehole data. Using digitized topographic data, they tested the kriging results and found that the model validation process (Thomas option) on data gave a fair representation of the overall uncertainty of the kriged values

  2. Recent activity of the regional geologic structures in western Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Bavec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Several important geological structures in the western Slovenia were identifiedas active and their activity was quantified. Geologic interpretation is based on the analysis of repeated leveling line campaigns data along the Se?ovlje–Bled polygon. Taking intoaccount the limitations of the method – only the vertical component of displacement is measured – the following structures were identified as active:a juvenile syncline between Strunjan and Koper, the Kras Imbricate Structure, the Diva~a fault, the Ra{a fault, the Southalpine Front and the Julian Alps thrust. Vertical movement rate is relative, calculated with respect to the benchmark in Se?ovlje. The largest uplift rate difference between Se?ovlje and Bled is 7 mm/a.Vertical Geodynamic Activity (VGA is introduced as a link between geologic interpretation of geodetic measurements on one side and possible applications on the other as well as a mean of comparison between tectonically active regions.

  3. Gravimetric Study of Geological Structures of Teboursouk Area, Northern Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Ayed-Khaled; Taher Zouaghi; Mohamed Ghanmi; Fouad Zargouni

    2012-01-01

    Gravity data associated with surface geology in the Northern Tunisian Atlas offer better understand to the underlying structures in Teboursouk area and to highlight other deep or unknown structures in surface. The gravity study was based on qualitative and quantitative analysis including the construction of the gravity Bouguer anomaly, upward continuations, residual anomaly, and Horizontal gradient maxima maps. The main results display many positive and negative anomalies as the response of g...

  4. Applied Structural Geology – Case Studies of Underground Constructions and Rockslides

    OpenAIRE

    Ganerød, Guri Venvik

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of the structural elements in the sub-surface is of great importance when establishing new constructions in bedrock, or surveying areas prone to rockslides. In this thesis the focus has been on combining methods within geology, structural geology, geophysics and engineering geology to reach an interdisciplinary understanding and predict sub-surface structures. Geological feasibility studies for tunnel projects are a good aid to foresee areas of construction pro...

  5. Hierarchical cluster structures - mathematical fundamentals, characteristics, modelling and geological application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasemann, W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents details of the CLUSTER and DENDRO computer programs, developed at the Freiberg Fuel Institute, both written in Fortran following steps according to cluster structure analysis (L.A. Zadeh, 1977). Hierarchical cluster structures are graphically displayed as dendrographs (R.B. McCammon, G. Wenninger, 1970). The cluster analysis can be employed in geological assessment of deposits. As an example, mineral content in the ash of brown coal as well as petrographic properties, including lithotype, xylite content, gelification and lamination were set into relation. Results of the CLUSTER program provided values of coal property similiarity, to be used for technological classification of coal quality. (3 refs.) (In German)

  6. Granites petrology, structure, geological setting, and metallogeny

    CERN Document Server

    Nédélec, Anne; Bowden, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Granites are emblematic rocks developed from a magma that crystallized in the Earth’s crust. They ultimately outcrop at the surface worldwide. This book, translated and updated from the original French edition Pétrologie des Granites (2011) is a modern presentation of granitic rocks from magma genesis to their crystallization at a higher level into the crust. Segregation from the source, magma ascent and shapes of granitic intrusions are also discussed, as well as the eventual formation of hybrid rocks by mingling/mixing processes and the thermomechanical aspects in country rocks around granite plutons. Modern techniques for structural studies of granites are detailed extensively. Granites are considered in their geological spatial and temporal frame, in relation with plate tectonics and Earth history from the Archaean eon. A chapter on granite metallogeny explains how elements of economic interest are concentrated during magma crystallization, and examples of Sn, Cu, F and U ore deposits are presented. Mi...

  7. Analysis of the characteristics appearing in LANDSAT multispectral images in the geological structural mapping of the midwestern portion of the Rio Grande do Sul shield. M.S. Thesis - 25 Mar. 1982; [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Ohara, T.

    1982-01-01

    The central-western part of Rio Grande do Sul Shield was geologically mapped to test the use of MSS-LANDSAT data in the study of mineralized regions. Visual interpretation of the images a the scale of 1:500,000 consisted, in the identification and analysis of the different tonal and textural patterns in each spectral band. After the structural geologic mapping of the area, using visual interpretation techniques, the statistical data obtained were evaluated, specially data concerning size and direction of fractures. The IMAGE-100 system was used to enlarge and enhance certain imagery. The LANDSAT MSS data offer several advantages over conventional white and black aerial photographs for geological studies. Its multispectral characteristic (band 6 and false color composition of bands 4, 5 and 7 were best suitable for the study). Coverage of a large imaging area of about 35,000 sq km, giving a synoptical view, is very useful for perceiving the regional geological setting.

  8. Three-dimensional Geological and Geo-mechanical Modelling of Repositories for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prove the suitability and safety of underground structures for the disposal of radioactive waste extensive geo-scientific research and development has been carried out by BGR over the last decades. Basic steps of the safety analysis are the geological modelling of the entire structure including the host rock, the overburden and the repository geometry as well as the geo-mechanical modelling taking into account the 3-D modelling of the underground structure. The geological models are generated using the special-construction openGEOTM code to improve the visualisation an d interpretation of the geological data basis, e.g. borehole, mine, and geophysical data. For the geo-mechanical analysis the new JIFE finite-element code has been used to consider large 3-D structures with complex inelastic material behaviour. To establish the finite-element models needed for stability and integrity calculations, the geological models are simplified with respect to homogenous rock layers with uniform material behaviour. The modelling results are basic values for the evaluation of the stability of the repository mine and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier. As an example of application, the results of geological and geo-mechanical investigations of the Morsleben repository based on 3-D modelling are presented. (authors)

  9. Structural effects of C60+ bombardment on various natural mineral samples-Application to analysis of organic phases in geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic phases trapped inside natural mineral samples are of considerable interest in astrobiology, geochemistry and geobiology. Examples of such organic phases are microfossils, kerogen and oil. Information about these phases is usually retrieved through bulk crushing of the rock which means both a risk of contamination and that the composition and spatial distribution of the organics to its host mineral is lost. An attractive of way to retrieve information about the organics in the rock is depth profiling using a focused ion beam. Recently, it was shown that it is possible to obtain detailed mass spectrometric information from oil-bearing fluid inclusions, i.e. small amounts of oil trapped inside a mineral matrix, using ToF-SIMS. Using a 10 keV C60+ sputter beam and a 25 keV Bi3+ analysis beam, oil-bearing inclusions in different minerals were opened and analysed individually. However, sputtering with a C60+ beam also induced other changes to the mineral surface, such as formation of topographic features and carbon deposition. In this paper, the cause of these changes is explored and the consequences of the sputter-induced features on the analysis of organic phases in natural mineral samples (quartz, calcite and fluorite) in general and fluid inclusions in particular are discussed. The dominating topographical features that were observed when a several micrometers deep crater is sputtered with 10 keV C60+ ions on a natural mineral surface are conical-shaped and ridge-like structures that may rise several micrometers, pointing in the direction of the incident C60+ ion beam, on an otherwise flat crater bottom. The sputter-induced structures were found to appear at places with different chemistry than the host mineral, including other minerals phases and fluid inclusions, while structural defects in the host material, such as polishing marks or scratches, did not necessarily result in sputter-induced structures. The ridge-like structures were often covered by a thick layer of deposited carbon. Despite the appearance of the sputter-induced structures and carbon deposition, most oil-bearing inclusions could successfully be opened and analysed. However, smaller inclusion (60, carbon deposition, topography, mineral, fluid inclusions, geological samples, depth profiling.

  10. Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewerff, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

  11. Geological Update of the Santa Marta Impact Structure, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, G. J. G.; Vasconcelos, M. A. R.; Crósta, A. P.; Góes, A. M.; Reimold, W. U.; Chamani, M.

    2014-09-01

    We present here the results of geological mapping carried out in the Santa Marta structure. It is a complex impact structure located in Piauí State, northeastern Brazil, and it is the countrýs sixth impact structure to be recognized identified.

  12. A 3D analysis of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile around Kobe City, Japan: based on ARCGIS 3D Analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Ohwada, M.; Oyama, Y.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakama, J.

    2008-12-01

    Kobe city is located on the northern side of Osaka sedimentary basin, Japan, containing 1,000-2,000 m thick Quaternary sediments. After the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (January 17, 1995), a number of geological and geophysical surveys were conducted in this region. Then high-temperature anomaly of groundwater accompanied with high Cl concentration was detected along fault systems in this area. In addition, dissolved He in groundwater showed nearly upper mantle-like 3He/4He ratio, although there were no Quaternary volcanic activities in this region. Some recent studies have assumed that these groundwater profiles are related with geological structure because some faults and joints can function as pathways for groundwater flow, and mantle-derived water can upwell through the fault system to the ground surface. To verify these hypotheses, we established 3D geological and hydrological model around Osaka sedimentary basin. Our primary goal is to analyze spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater profile. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data, seismic profiling data, groundwater chemical profile, were reported. We converted these datasets to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. Furthermore, we projected seismic profiling data into three dimensional space and calculated distance between faults and sampling points, using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer. This research project has been conducted under the research contract with the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

  13. Fracture analysis for engineering geological utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H.I.; Choi, P.Y.; Hong, S.H.; Chi, K.H.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, S.R.; Lee, S.G.; Park, D.W.; Han, J.G. [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The problem of geological hazards (earthquakes) and water or thermal resources urges us to understand the regional tectonic setting or recent tectonics. The Uisong Subbasin is located in one of the seismicity zones in Korea. Because the reactivity of the Gaeum Fault System is an important problem focussing on these faults, we studied their whole extension and timing of faulting in terms of tectonics. Fault tectonic analysis is so effective as to easily reconstruct the tectonic sequence and each stress state at each site, eventually in a region. One can get insights for faulting timing in terms of the restored tectonic sequence, and discriminating the active faults or the faults active in the last (present) tectonics. Examining the filling materials in tension gashes, one can get raw knowledge regarding the thermal states at each site. For this study, we first analyzed the topographic textures (lineament, drainage and circular structures) on the relief map produced based on the topographic maps of 1:100,000 scale. Through investigations of susceptible area along the faults, their existence and movement modes were studied, and we can get information about movement history and whole extension of the faults belonging to the WNW-ESE trending Gaeum Fault System. In order to reconstruct the tectonic sequence, we measured fault slip data, tension gashes and dikes, from which fault populations were classified and stress (and thermal) states were determined. Seven compressional tectonic events and six extensional events were reconstructed. Because coaxial events partially coexisted, we bundled these events in one, finally we get seven tectonic events. Determining the types of minerals filling the tension gashes, we suggested the possibility of investigation of geothermal resources with less efforts. (author). 162 refs., 14 tabs., 51 figs.

  14. Geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrocarbon System Ourd Mya is located in the Sahara Basin. It is one of the producing basins in Algeria. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesosoic, it is about 5000 m thick. In the eastern part, the basin is limited by the Hassi-Messaoud high zone which is a giant oil field produced from the Cambrian sands. The western part is limited Hassi R'mel which is one of the biggest gas field in the world, it is produced from the triassic sands. The Mesozoic section lays on the lower Devonian and in the eastern part, on the Cambrian. The main source rock is Silurian shale with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic matter of 6 % (14 % in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also a source rock but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Triassic sequence which is mainly fluvial deposit with complex alluvial channels, it is the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs within the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential in the east of the basin through a southwest-northeast orientation. The late Triassic-Early Jurassic evaporites overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya Basin. This is considered as a super-seal evaporate package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For Paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column.This paper describe the main geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria. (authors)

  15. Geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dobra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocarbon System Ourd Mya is located in the Sahara Basin. It is one of the producing basins in Algeria. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesosoic, it is about 5000 m thick. In the eastern part, the basin is limited by the Hassi-Messaoud high zone which is a giant oil field produced from the Cambrian sands. The western part is limited by Hassi R`mel which is one of the biggest gas field in the world, it is produced from the triassic sands. The Mesozoic section lays on the lower Devonian and in the eastern part, on the Cambrian. The main source rock is Silurian shale with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic matter of 6 % (14 % in some cases. Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also a source rock but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Triassic sequence which is mainly fluvial deposit with complex alluvial channels, it is the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs within the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential in the east of the basin through a southwest-northeast orientation. The late Triassic-Early Jurassic evaporites overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya Basin. This is considered as a super-seal evaporate package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For Paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column.This paper describe the main geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria.

  16. Application of reactor activation analysis to hydrogeology and geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental reactor activation analysis applied to hydrogeological and geological investigations conducted at the Department of Radiometry of the Geological Techniques Research and Development Centre is discussed. Used instrumentation and analytical techniques are described. (author)

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is an element of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). GAP helps to implement the Department of Interior?s goals of inventory,...

  18. Geologic Structures in Crater Walls on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Beck, A. W.; Ammannito, E.; Carsenty, U.; DeSanctis, M. C.; LeCorre, L.; McCoy, T. J.; Reddy, V.; Schroeder, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    The Framing Camera (FC) on the Dawn spacecraft has imaged most of the illuminated surface of Vesta with a resolution of apporpx. 20 m/pixel through different wavelength filters that allow for identification of lithologic units. The Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) has imaged the surface at lower spatial resolution but high spectral resolution from 0.25 to 5 micron that allows for detailed mineralogical interpretation. The FC has imaged geologic structures in the walls of fresh craters and on scarps on the margin of the Rheasilvia basin that consist of cliff-forming, competent units, either as blocks or semi-continuous layers, hundreds of m to km below the rims. Different units have different albedos, FC color ratios and VIR spectral characteristics, and different units can be juxtaposed in individual craters. We will describe different examples of these competent units and present preliminary interpretations of the structures. A common occurrence is of blocks several hundred m in size of high albedo (bright) and low albedo (dark) materials protruding from crater walls. In many examples, dark material deposits lie below coherent bright material blocks. In FC Clementine color ratios, bright material is green indicating deeper 1 m pyroxene absorption band. VIR spectra show these to have deeper and wider 1 and 2 micron pyroxene absorption bands than the average vestan surface. The associated dark material has subdued pyroxene absorption features compared to the average vestan surface. Some dark material deposits are consistent with mixtures of HED materials with carbonaceous chondrites. This would indicate that some dark material deposits in crater walls are megabreccia blocks. The same would hold for bright material blocks found above them. Thus, these are not intact crustal units. Marcia crater is atypical in that the dark material forms a semi-continuous, thin layer immediately below bright material. Bright material occurs as one or more layers. In one region, there is an apparent angular unconformity between the bright material and the dark material where bright material layers appear to be truncated against the underlying dark layer. One crater within the Rheasilvia basin contains two distinct types of bright materials outcropping on its walls, one like that found elsewhere on Vesta and the other an anomalous block 200 m across. This material has the highest albedo; almost twice that of the vestan average. Unlike all other bright materials, this block has a subdued 1 micron pyroxene absorption band in FC color ratios. These data indicate that this block represents a distinct vestan lithology that is rarely exposed.

  19. Improvement of seismic imaging of complex geologic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquet, B.

    1996-04-11

    Successful imaging of complex geologic structures by pre-stack depth migration requires a correct velocity model of the subsurface. In recent years, it has been proposed to use pre-stack depth migration of the cube of pre-stack depth migrated images and the subsequent use of the interpretation for velocity model update. However, in complex geologic structures, pre-stack depth migration does not yield results of sufficient quality for interpretation. We therefore propose a new wave-field imaging technique based on linearized inversion using the paraxial approximation of the wave equation. Using this technique we can remove the artifacts contaminating the individual depth images by integrating a priori information in the inverse problem. The application of the method to synthetic and real data shows that it allows us to largely improve the quality of the depth images at reasonable cost.We thus obtain an interpretable cube of depth images that makes migration velocity analysis feasible in complex structures. In 3D, due to the size of the problem there is still a large interest in using post stack techniques for velocity model determination. The quality of the results of such techniques relies on the quality of the stacking process. Classical data stacking techniques rely on simplifications that are not valid anymore in case of complex geologic structures. We propose a data stacking technique based on depth domain stacking after pre-stack depth migration, followed by explosive reflector modeling, to obtain the stacked seismic data. This method which is totally automatic yield 3 D stacked data that are suitable for 3D post stack velocity determination techniques.

  20. SEDIMENT ANALYSIS NETWORK FOR DECISION SUPPORT (SANDS) MODIS GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF AL (GSA) ANALYSIS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support (SANDS) MODIS Geological Survey of AL (GSA) Analysis -- The Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) generated this dataset...

  1. Developing Successful Learning Strategies in Structural Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caprariis, Pascal P.

    2002-01-01

    Makes the case that geologic fieldwork requires more than knowledge of basic skills learned in the standard undergraduate curriculum. Argues that synthesis of the skills into a schema must be done before one can address the kinds of problems that arise when doing field investigations. Argues for the use of descriptive geometry and trigonometry in…

  2. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the repository design. These downstream models include the hydrologic flow models and the radionuclide transport models. All the models and the repository design, in turn, will be incorporated into the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of the potential radioactive waste repository block and vicinity to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a host for the repository. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 2

  3. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the repository design. These downstream models include the hydrologic flow models and the radionuclide transport models. All the models and the repository design, in turn, will be incorporated into the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of the potential radioactive waste repository block and vicinity to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a host for the repository. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 2.

  4. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M andO) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity

  5. Visualization of three dimensional earth fissures in geological structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Yu, J.; Liu, Y.; Gong, H.; Chen, Y.; Chen, B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a new method for visualizing the earth fissures of geological structure in three dimensional (3-D) domains on the basis of the seismic data and features information of earth fissures. The seismic data were interpreted for obtaining the stratagraphic data with various lithological information and the depth of the earth fissures. The spatial distribution of the ground fissures including the dip, strike and width were digitalized on an ArcGIS platform. Firstly, the 3-D geological structure was rebuilt using the Generalized Tri-Prism (GTP) method which is a real solid method for displaying geological structures. The GTP method can reflect the inner material of the strata and can simulate complicated geological structures such as faults and stratagraphic pinch outs. The upper and lower surfaces of each stratum consist of Triangle Irregular Networks (TIN). The inner solid between the two surfaces are a series of triangular prisms. Secondly, since the width of the ground fissure gradually decreases with depth, multiple edge lines of the earth fissures on the bottom stratum surface are deduced on the basis of the fissure characteristics. Then, the model of the earth fissures consisting of a series of triangular pyramids can be constructed using these points and the edge lines. A cutting operation was carried out on the 3-D geological structure using this ground fissures model. If the surfaces of the ground fissures model intersects with the GTPs in the geological structure model, new GTPs were generated within the local regions. During this process, the topological relations between TIN, triangular prism and lines were reconstructed so that the visualization of ground fissures in the geological structure model is realized. This method can facilitate the mechanism for studying fissures and avoid the gaps between the fissure solid and the geological structure to accurately reflect their 3-D characteristics.

  6. Point and line geologic structure information in "Structure, outcrop, and subcrop of the geologic structure information for the Arapahoe and Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set consists of points and lines representing symbolization of geologic structure information for the Arapahoe and Laramie-Fox Hills...

  7. Definition imaging of anomalous geologic structure with radio waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond core drilling from the surface and access drifts are routinely used in acquiring subsurface geologic data. Examination of core from a constellation of drillholes enables the characterization of the prevailing geology in the deposit. Similar geologic members in adjacent drillholes suggest that layered rock continuity exists between drillholes. Mineralogical and physical examination of core along with computer generated stratigraphic cross sections graphically represents the correlation and classification of the rock in the deposit. CW radio waves propagating on ray paths between drillholes have been used to validate the stratigraphic cross section and image anomalous geologic structure between drillholes. This paper compares the crosshole radio wave tomography images of faults in a nuclear waste repository site and a coal seam with the in-mine mapping results

  8. Indoor Field Study for Structural Geology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jeffrey K.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how basic mapping skills are taught in a large lab space using various arrangements of books to portray structural information. Reports an increase in student confidence and ability to synthesize data during field work. (DDR)

  9. Triangular framework mesh generation of 3D geological structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianhai; Zhou, Kun; Li, Jigang; Yang, Qin

    2013-03-01

    The dynamic simulation of oil migration and accumulation is an important issue on the research of petroleum exploration, and it is a numerical simulation process with special requirement on the framework mesh of 3D geological models, which means that the mesh should have same geometry and topology relation near the intersected part of geological surfaces. In this paper, basing on the conforming Delaunay triangulation algorithm to construct mesh of individual geological stratum or fault, a novel link-Delaunay-triangulation method is presented to achieve the geometric and topological consistency in the intersected line between two surfaces, also with the analysis of termination of our algorithm. Finally, some examples of the geological framework mesh are provided and the experimental result proved that the algorithm's effectiveness in engineering practice.

  10. Structural-Geologic and Hydrogeological Model of the Kochani Depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerous regional geologic and hydrogeological explorations carried out in the Kochani depression by the end of the last century and those carried out lately indicate that the area possesses large thermal potentiality. The paper presents two physical models that explain the correlation between the structural-geologic and hydrogeological structures, based on data obtained during the drill holes performed in the Kochani depression. The models offer a clear picture on the thermal energy, which becomes important for the economies in developing and developed countries. (Author)

  11. Use of TV pictures obtained from weather satellites to study the geological structure of the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashilova, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of Soviet investigations into the use of television imagery obtained from meteorological satellites for the interpretation of tectonics, lithology, and structural properties of the earth. The area investigated encompassed the eastern part of Iran, and the western regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Interpretation of the features identified during the analysis was accomplished by comparing these features with physical, geographic, geological, and tectonic maps. It was concluded that television pictures of the earth from space can be used for geological and structural analysis.

  12. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  13. Using Layer-Cake Geology to Illustrate Structural Topographic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the difficulties of visualizing underlying geologic structural patterns by using maps or wooden blocks. Suggests the use of a modified layer cake to show dipping beds, folds, faults and differential erosion, as well as the relationships of stream valleys to outcrop patterns. (TW)

  14. Structural geology and transport modelling for Grimsel and Aaspoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of modelling migration experiments performed in fractured crystalline rock at Grimsel, Switzerland and at Aaspoe, Sweden are presented. The understanding of nuclide-rock interaction is emphasized. The contribution of structural geology to transport modelling is indicated. For Grimsel, examples representing the learning process are presented. For Aaspoe, examples representing model application to a different and more complex structure are given showing similarities and differences of tracer transport in the two areas. (author)

  15. Evaluation of ERTS-1 data applications to geologic mapping, structural analysis and mineral resource inventory of South America with special emphasis on the Andes Mountain region. [Bolivia, Chile, and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The La Paz Mosaic and its attendant overlays serve as a model for geologic studies elsewhere in the world. The P.I. and two geologists are mapping the conterminous states at scales of 1:5000,000 and 1:1,000,000. The 1:5 million band 5 mosaic was completed in two days of analysis. The 1:1 million band sheets are being completed at the rate of one per day. Comparison of the preliminary results of the three investigators shows a high correlation of linear and curvilinear features. Comparison with magnetic and gravity data indicates that many features being mapped are deep seated structures that have been active through long periods of geologic time, perhaps dating back to the Precambrian period. A detailed analysis of the El Salvador mining district has been completed. The interpretation is extremely detailed showing a complex pattern of linear features and bedrock outcrop patterns. This is the first product from ERTS-1 to be provided by Chile and shows a high degree of expertise in image interpretation. The Chileans are enthusiastic about their results and are anxious to map the entire country using ERTS.

  16. Auscultamiento de estructuras geológicas en la cuenca chacoparanense a partir de la aplicación de métodos potenciales Analysis of geologic structures in the Chacoparanense basin based on the application of potential methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Gimenez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta en el área de la cuenca Chacopampeana, noroeste de Argentina, un análisis preliminar geológico - geofísico, basado en los métodos potenciales.El área de estudio se ubica hacia el noreste de la ciudad de Santiago del Estero y parte noroeste de la provincia de Chaco, entre los 25° y 27° S de latitud y 61° a 63° O de longitud. Se relevaron aproximadamente 1.000 nuevos puntos gravimétricos, que fueron agregados a la base de datos del Instituto de Física de Rosario, Universidad Nacional de Rosario y del Instituto Geofísico Sismológico Volponi, Universidad Nacional de San Juan. Con los datos obtenidos se preparó una carta de anomalías de Bouguer. La carta de anomalías, fue filtrada y procesada para separar efectos gravimétricos y se confeccionó un modelo cortical para una sección A-A´. El modelo cortical, indica la presencia de una estructura ubicada en la corteza superior. Este modelo justifica la residual de Bouguer.El área de estudio, posee características geológicas adecuadas de presencia de hidrocarburos, pero hasta el momento no se han descubierto estructuras geológicas de interés económico. En el presente estudio, mostramos una anomalía de Bouguer positiva, sin evidencias superficiales que podría interpretarse como una estructura geológica con potencial económico.A preliminary geological-geophysical analysis of the Chacopampeana area of north-eastern Argentina is presented from the application of potential field methods. The study area is located mostly in the north-east of the province of Santiago del Estero, and partly in north-west of the province of Chaco, between latitudes 25° S and 27° S and longitudes 61° W to 63° W. We obtained approximately 1,000 new gravity points, that were added to the database of the Instituto de Física de Rosario, Universidad Nacional de Rosario and of the Instituto Geofísico Sismológico Volponi, Universidad Nacional de San Juan. A Bouguer anomaly map has been prepared from these data. The map was processed and filtered, and a cortical model produced, confirming the residual Bouguer values and indicating the presence of a structure located in upper crust. The study area has geological characteristics appropriate for the presence of hydrocarbons, although geological structures of economic interest have not yet been discovered. A positive gravity anomaly, without superficial expression, could be interpreted as a geological structure with economic potential.

  17. Geologic Analysis of Priority Basins for Exploration and Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Reeves, T.K.

    1999-04-27

    There has been a substantial decline in both exploratory drilling and seismic field crew activity in the United States over the last 10 years, due primarily to the declining price of oil. To reverse this trend and to preserve the entrepreneurial independent operator, the U.S. DOE is attempting to encourage hydrocarbon exploration activities in some of the under exploited regions of the United States. This goal is being accomplished by conducting broad regional reviews of potentially prospective areas within the lower 48 states. Data are being collected on selected areas, and studies are being done on a regional scale generally unavailable to the smaller independent. The results of this work will be made available to the public to encourage the undertaking of operations in areas which have been overlooked until this project. Fifteen criteria have been developed for the selection of study areas. Eight regions have been identified where regional geologic analysis will be performed. This report discusses preliminary findings concerning the geology, early tectonic history, structure and potential unconventional source rocks for the Black Mesa basin and South Central states region, the two highest priority study areas.

  18. Geologic analysis by track etch method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear track technique has provided a versatile method for the analyses of geological samples. We have applied the method for the mapping of boron, lithium, uranium and thorium in minerals and rocks. The analyse of uranium in natural water is reported, too. The neutron source was Triga MK II research reactor at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Cellulose foils have been used as alpha particle detectors while polycarbonate foils as fission particle detectors. The etch pits are counted in the microscope or with a spark replica counter similar to one described by Cross and Tommasino. In this study uranium is the element most interested. The accuracy, sensitivity and limits of the track etch technique in geochemical exploration are discussed, too. (orig.)

  19. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: safety analysis of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the safety aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - safety approach: context and general goal, references, design approach by safety functions, safety approach during the construction-exploitation-observation-closure phase, safety analysis during the post-closure phase; 2 - general description: HLLL wastes, granitic environment, general structure of the architecture of a disposal facility; 3 - safety functions and disposal design: general context, safety functions of the long-term disposal, design dispositions retained to answer the functions; 4 - operational safety: people's protection, radiological risks during exploitation, risk analysis in accident situation; 5 - qualitative safety analysis: methodology, main results of the analysis of the features, events and processes (FEP) database; 6 - disposal efficiency evaluation during post-closure phase: calculation models, calculation tools used for the modeling of radionuclides transport, calculation results and main lessons. (J.S.)

  20. Determination of subsurface geological structure with borehole gravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional gamma-gamma and gravimetric density measurements are routinely gathered for most holes used for underground nuclear tests. The logs serve to determine the subsurface structural geology near the borehole. The gamma-gamma density log measures density of the rock within about 15 cm of the borehole wall. The difference in gravity measured at two depths in a borehole can be interpreted in terms of the density of an infinite, homogeneous, horizontal bed between those depths. When the gravimetric density matches the gamma-gamma density over a given interval it is assumed that the bed actualy exists, and that rocks far from the hole must be the same as those encountered adjacent to the borehole. Conversely, when the gravimetric density differs from the gamma-gamma density it is apparent that the gravimeter is being influenced by a rock mass of different density than that at the hole wall. This mismatch can be a powerful tool to deduce the local structural geology. The geology deduced from gravity mesurements in emplacement hole, U4al, and the associated exploratory hole, UE4al, is an excellent example of the power of the method

  1. Induced seismicity constraints on subsurface geological structure, Paradox Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Lisa V.; Wood, Christopher K.; Yeck, William L.; King, Vanessa M.

    2015-02-01

    Precise relative hypocentres of seismic events induced by long-term fluid injection at the Paradox Valley Unit (PVU) brine disposal well provide constraints on the subsurface geological structure and compliment information available from deep seismic reflection and well data. We use the 3-D spatial distribution of the hypocentres to refine the locations, strikes, and throws of subsurface faults interpre­ted previously from geophysical surveys and to infer the existence of previously unidentified subsurface faults. From distinct epicentre lineations and focal mechanism trends, we identify a set of conjugate fracture orientations consistent with shear-slip reactivation of late-Palaeozoic fractures over a widespread area, as well as an additional fracture orientation present only near the injection well. We propose simple Mohr-Coulomb fracture models to explain these observations. The observation that induced seismicity preferentially occurs along one of the identified conjugate fracture orientations can be explained by a rotation in the direction of the regional maximum compressive stress from the time when the fractures were formed to the present. Shear slip along the third fracture orientation observed near the injection well is inconsistent with the current regional stress field and suggests a local rotation of the horizontal stresses. The detailed subsurface model produced by this analysis provides important insights for anticipating spatial patterns of future induced seismicity and for evaluation of possible additional injection well sites that are likely to be seismically and hydrologically isolated from the current well. In addition, the interpreted fault patterns provide constraints for estimating the maximum magnitude earthquake that may be induced, and for building geomechanical models to simulate pore pressure diffusion, stress changes and earthquake triggering.

  2. Geological structures created by falls of galactic comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenbaum, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    With the use of the author's theoretical model are discussed geological structures which can be created by fallings of galactic comets on terrestrial planets: Mercury, Mars, Earth, Venus and the Moon. The model predicts that depending on combination of a number of conditions galactic comets may form on these planets following types of structures: craters, diatremes, lava sheets, volcanoes, dome-shaped surface uplift, as well as coronae and montes (on Venus). The main factors that influence on origin of these structures on planets are (i) density of gas shell, (ii) thickness of planetary lithosphere, (iii) composition and degree heating of lithosphere rocks, (iv) frequency of fallings galactic comets. We are discussing specific features of these structures on the Moon, Mars, Earth and Venus.

  3. Problems of solidificated radioactive wastes burial into deep geological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perspectives are noted of the radioactive wastes burial into deep geopogical structures. For these purposes it has been proposed to investigate severap types of rocks, which do not have intensive gas-generation when beeng heated; salt deposits and clays. Basing on the results of calculations it has been shown that the dimentions of zones of substantial deformations in the case of the high-level radioactive wastes burial to not exceed several hundreds of meters. Conclusion is made that in the case of choosing the proper geotogicat structure for burial and ir the case of inclusion in the structure of the burial site a zone of sanitary alienation, it is possible to isolate wastes safely for all the period of preservation. Preliminary demands have been formulated to geological structures and underground burial sites. As main tasks for optimizatiop of burial sited are considered: determination of necessary types, number and reliability of barriers which ensure isolation of wastes; to make prognoses of the stressed and deformed state of a geological massif on the influence of thermal field; investigation in changes of chemical and physical properties of rocks under heat, radiative and chemical influence; estimation of possible diffusion of radioactivity in a mountin massif; development of a rational mining-thechnological schemes of the burual of wastes of different types. A row of tasks in the farmeworks of this probtem are sotved successfutty. Some resutts are given of the theoretical investigations in determination of zones of distructions of rocks because of heat-load

  4. Spatial Abilities of High-School Students in the Perception of Geologic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes specific spatial abilities required in geology studies through the examination of the performance of high school students in solving structural geology problems on the geologic spatial ability test (GeoSAT). Concludes that visual penetration ability and the ability to perceive the spatial configuration of the structure are…

  5. Geomass: geological modelling analysis and simulation software for the characterisation of fractured hard rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development and functionality of a suite of applications which are being developed to support the geological investigations in the Tono URL. GEOMASS will include 3D geological modelling, 3D fluid flow and solute transport and 3D visualisation capabilities. The 3D geological modelling in GEOMASS will be undertaken using a commercially available 3D geological modelling system, EarthVision. EarthVision provides 3D mapping, interpolation, analysis and well planning software. It is being used in the GEOMASS system to provide the geological framework (structure of the tectonic faults and stratigraphic and lithological contacts) to the 3D flow code. It is also being used to gather the geological data into a standard format for use throughout the investigation programme. The 3D flow solver to be used in GEOMASS is called Frac-Affinity. Frac-Affinity models the 3D geometry of the flow system as a hybrid medium, in which the rock contains both permeable, intact rock and fractures. Frac-Affinity also performs interpolation of heterogeneous rock mass property data using a fractal based approach and the generation of stochastic fracture networks. The code solves for transient flow over a user defined sub-region of the geological framework supplied by EarthVision. The results from Frac-Affinity are passed back to EarthVision so that the flow simulation can be visualized alongside the geological structure. This work-flow allows rapid assessment of the role of geological features in controlling flow. This paper will present the concepts and approach of GEOMASS and illustrate the practical application of GEOMASS using data from Tono

  6. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF GEOLOGIC HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensel, S.; Lee, S.

    2010-04-20

    The engineering design of disposal of the high level waste (HLW) packages in a geologic repository requires a thermal analysis to provide the temperature history of the packages. Calculated temperatures are used to demonstrate compliance with criteria for waste acceptance into the geologic disposal gallery system and as input to assess the transient thermal characteristics of the vitrified HLW Package. The objective of the work was to evaluate the thermal performance of the supercontainer containing the vitrified HLW in a non-backfilled and unventilated underground disposal gallery. In order to achieve the objective, transient computational models for a geologic vitrified HLW package were developed by using a computational fluid dynamics method, and calculations for the HLW disposal gallery of the current Belgian geological repository reference design were performed. An initial two-dimensional model was used to conduct some parametric sensitivity studies to better understand the geologic system's thermal response. The effect of heat decay, number of co-disposed supercontainers, domain size, humidity, thermal conductivity and thermal emissivity were studied. Later, a more accurate three-dimensional model was developed by considering the conduction-convection cooling mechanism coupled with radiation, and the effect of the number of supercontainers (3, 4 and 8) was studied in more detail, as well as a bounding case with zero heat flux at both ends. The modeling methodology and results of the sensitivity studies will be presented.

  7. Application of passive seismic to shallow geological structures in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendecki Maciej Jan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the shallow geological structure the Refraction Microtremor (ReMi method was applied. This technique uses seismic noise analysis where a source of this small vibrations is the human activity e.g.: traffic, production, factories. The surveys were carried out in selected urban areas in the region of the Upper Silesian Industrial District : Sosnowiec - Pogo? , Chorzów - Chorzow Stary and Bytom - Karb. Each area is characterized by the presence of nearby roads with a very high traffic. The results of passive seismic (ReMi were confronted with data obtained using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW and resistivity imaging (RI. Seismic surveys were performed by apparatus PASI with 24 channels using geophones of 4.5Hz. The results showed that passive seismic can be satisfactorily used in such urban conditions. The shallow geological structure interpreted by seismic methods have been well-correlated with resistivity studies.

  8. Spatial Coupling Among Landslides, Geological Structures, Cataclinal Slopes, and Fluvial Knick Zones in Nepal Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, T. P.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work aims to identify potential landslide hazard zones in the event of heavy precipitation and seismic activity by examining spatial relationships among existing landslides, earthquake epicenters, fault zones, cataclinal (dip) slopes, anaclinal (escarp) slopes, and river steepness index in the Nepal Himalaya. In order to understand this relationship we have mapped existing landslides on Google Earth images and ESRI base maps, assembled high-resolution digital topographic data by digitizing Nepal Government published topographic maps, and gathered geological data from detailed field mapping and compilation of published geological maps. Slope angle and aspect, and dip direction and angle were extracted from GIS-based digital topographical and geological datasets to develop the new slope maps with cataclinal (dip) and anaclinal (escarp) slope distributions. Longitudinal river profiles were also extracted from high resolution DEM's derived from manually digitized contours. The slope maps with cataclinal and anaclinal slope distributions, earthquake epicenters, major geological structures, longitudinal river profiles, and landslide inventories were visualized in ESRI ArcMap 10.2 to examine the spatial correlation among landslides, fault zones, cataclinal slopes and river steepness index. We have found that landslides are spatially correlated with cataclinal slopes and fluvial knick zones with high steepness index in certain thrust boundaries. The main finding of this work is that the topographic slope threshold alone is a crude measure of landslide susceptibility. The analysis of slope using the geometric relationship among topography and geological bedding is crucial for determining landslide susceptibility in the Himalayan region.

  9. Reflection of block neotectonics in geological structure of paleogene strata of Chornobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neotectonic block differentiation of Chernobyl Exclusion zone area was fixed by the results of the geological and structure analysis of paleogene strata in complex with the space survey data interpretation. Structural plan of the latest tectonic movements had a block character; it was shown by the fracture systems, which represent the components of known regional tectonic zones of various trends and are found in the features of phanerozoic rock mass structure. The territory under study is divided into two parts - the northern one, where in the neotectonic movements are generally more intensive with manifestation practically all over the fracture zones, and the southern part, where in the newest breaks belong mainly to submeridional also to south-western regional fracture zones. The southern part of the Exclusion zone, as a whole, holds the greatest promise by comparison with the northern one in the view of neotectonic criteria regarding the geological repository siting for radioactive waste disposal

  10. Integrating remote sensing and magnetic data for structural geology investigation in pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Ratib; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Khalil, Ahmed; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan. The analysis of surface data, including a digital elevation model (DEM), and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images, was combined with airborne magnetic data to better understand three-dimensional geology in the area. The ETM+ and DEM data were used to map geological structures at the surface, which indicate that the area consists of two main fault systems that trend NNE and E-W. The two trends represent the remnants of reactivated structures that formed under the stress regimes generated during the tectonic evolution of eastern Afghanistan. Magnetic data indicate an NE-SW trending basin. A two-dimensional schematic model shows that the basin gradually deepens toward the SW with depths to the magnetic basement ranging between 2 and 11.5 km. The integration of the results gave new insight into the tectonic evolution and structure patterns near the pegmatites area.

  11. Santos Basin Geological Structures Mapped by Cross-gradient Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilinski, P.; Fontes, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction We mapped regional-scale geological structures localized in offshore zone Santos Basin, South-East Brazilian Coast. The region is dominated by transition zone from oceanic to continental crust. Our objective was to determine the imprint of deeper crustal structures from correlation between bathymetric, gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. The region is extensively studied for oil and gas deposits including large tectonic sub-salt traps. Our method is based on gradient directions and their magnitudes product. We calculate angular differences and cross-product and access correlation between properties and map structures. Theory and Method We used angular differences and cross-product to determine correlated region between bathymetric, free-air gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. This gradient based method focuses on borders of anomalies and uses its morphological properties to access correlation between their sources. We generated maps of angles and cross-product distribution to locate correlated regions. Regional scale potential fields maps of FA and MA are a reflection of the overlaying and overlapping effects of the adjacent structures. Our interest was in quantifying and characterizing the relation between shapes of magnetic anomalies and gravity anomalies. Results Resulting maps show strong correlation between bathymetry and gravity anomaly and bathymetry and magnetic anomaly for large strictures including Serra do Mar, shelf, continental slope and rise. All maps display the regional dominance of NE-SW geological structures alignment parallel to the shore. Special interest is presented by structures transgressing this tendency. Magnetic, gravity anomaly and bathymetry angles map show large correlated region over the shelf zone and smaller scale NE-SW banded structures over abyssal plane. From our interpretation the large band of inverse correlation adjacent to the shore is generated by the gravity effect of Serra do Mar. Disrupting structures including bathymetric anomaly generated by landslides responsible for smaller depth over continental rise has show strong inverse correlation with gravity anomaly and strong correlation with magnetic anomaly over continental rise. This indicates the influence of sedimentary deposits on deeper crustal structures. Methods and result are discussed.

  12. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  13. Mapping and geological analysis of Mercury radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Strobell, M. E.; Schaber, G. G.; Jurgens, R. F.; Downs, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    Although many radar profiles and images of the area within 20 deg of Mercury's equator had been obtained from 1971 to 1981, at both Goldstone and Arecibo radar facilities, surprisingly little geological analysis had been done with these data until recently. Topographic profiles and radar roughness reflectivity images which can be derived from these data will be crucial in completing the geological mapping of Mercury now underway at the U.S. Geological Survey. Processing of available radar data must be completed to establish any systematic relationship between radar reflectivities and roughness, density, dielectric constant, and other related geological parameters. Specific tasks accomplished for these purposes include the following. Documentation was located and searched to establish the type and quantity of Goldstone 12.5 cm radar observations which were available for Mercury. Data has been collected during approximately 50 observation periods from 1971 to 1981. About half of the data, collected during 1972 and 1973, have been processed, but without adequate documentation. A standardized, well-documented procedure for processing and analysis for all Goldstone Earth-based observations of Mercury was established.

  14. The EVEREST project: sensitivity analysis of geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the EVEREST project is the evaluation of the sensitivity of the radiological consequences associated with the geological disposal of radioactive waste to the different elements in the performance assessment. Three types of geological host formations are considered: clay, granite and salt. The sensitivity studies that have been carried out can be partitioned into three categories according to the type of uncertainty taken into account: uncertainty in the model parameters, uncertainty in the conceptual models and uncertainty in the considered scenarios. Deterministic as well as stochastic calculational approaches have been applied for the sensitivity analyses. For the analysis of the sensitivity to parameter values, the reference technique, which has been applied in many evaluations, is stochastic and consists of a Monte Carlo simulation followed by a linear regression. For the analysis of conceptual model uncertainty, deterministic and stochastic approaches have been used. For the analysis of uncertainty in the considered scenarios, mainly deterministic approaches have been applied

  15. Evaluation of structural behavior, geological and hydrogeological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the behavior of an underground structure properly, this report includes the study on the structural behavior of rock masses surrounding underground openings considering the effect of excavation. Before analyzing the underground structure, the followings are studied: initial stress distribution before excavation, stress release and redistribution due to the sequential excavation, comparison of analysis methods, discussions on numerical simulation techniques for the sequential excavation and an numerical analysis modeling. The underground structure in then analyzed using the finite element and distinct element methods of analysis considering the effect of sequential excavation, Based on the results of the analysis, the followings are discussed: shape of the opening, distance between openings, method and sequence of excavation, and structural reinforcement. (Author)

  16. Sensitivity analysis of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste for conceptual geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes results of sensitivity analysis of a generic geologic disposal system for HLW, using a GSRW code and an automated sensitivity analysis methodology based on the Differential Algebra. The results of sensitivity analyses indicate that parameters related to a homogeneous rock surrounding a disposal facility have higher sensitivities to the performance measure analyzed here than those of a fractured zone and engineered barriers. This methodology permits sensitivity analyses of a single parameter with changing values of other parameters simultaneously, and thus gives quantitative information on the interrelationship between the parameters; the parameters for engineered barriers are generally insensitive to the output, while they are somewhat sensitive to the output only in a case of the low solubility condition. The methodology also provides technical information which might be basis for the optimization of design of the disposal facility. (author)

  17. The results of borehole acoustic imaging from a granite in the Jihlava District, Czech Republic: implications for structural geological research.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie; Novák, P.; Brož, Milan; Sosna, K.; Pitrák, K.; Kasíková, J.; Rukavi?ková, L.; Ma?ák, L.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 4, ?. 4 (2012), s. 92-101. ISSN 1916-9779 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/367 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : acoustic borehole imaging * structural geology * paleostress analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  18. SITE-94. Development of a geological and a structural model of Aespoe, southeastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study is to construct three-dimensional geological and structural models to be used within the SKI SITE-94 project as a base for modelling hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and rock mechanical bedrock conditions, mass transport and layout of a hypothetical repository. The basic input data in the SITE-94 geological and structural models are restricted to geological and structural readings and geophysical measurements made prior to building the Hard Rock Laboratory. 114 refs, 82 figs, 28 tabs

  19. Multipass SAR interferometry. A tool for geologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates how the information content of repeat pass satellite SAR interferometric (INSAR) data can be used to provide the geologist with a tool which can improve his ability and efficacy in the geologic analysis of SAR imagery. INSAR processing produces interferometric fringes, coherence and amplitude images. To produce an interferometric DEM phase unwrapping is a critical step. For phase unwrapping, it is proposed the WLMS (Weighted Least Mean Square) estimation of the phase, which is a generalization of the least-mean square method. The crucial step in WLMS approach is the weighting procedure. It is proposed a weighting algorithm based on the fusion of a priori information extracted from different interferometric products. These different information channels-DEM, amplitude and coherence-can be effectively fused to convey information to the geologic interpreter using 3D stereoscopic visualization; SAR stereo pairs were artificially generated using the interferometric DEM and the intensity image or the coherence image of the area overlaid. In order to ascertain the performance of the procedure a number of tests were carried out over various sites in Matese (Southern Italy), which has a fairly demanding topography, using ERS SAR tandem data. The results demonstrate that WLMS unwrapping method is sufficiently robust in capturing the morphology of the area and that stereoscopic visualization greatly facilities geologic interpretation and the observation of detailed features of the terrain

  20. Geological and Geophysical aspects of the Kurdashi structure, Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper is a case history of the improved characterization of a complex structure in the Azerbaijan offshore achieved by application of advanced seismic tools such as 3 D Pre-Stack Depth Migration and Continuity Depth Cube volumes.The investigation focuses on the Kurdashi Permit and adjacent areas of southern most Azerbaijan, near its boundary with Iran (Fig.1).It considers the techniques used to visualize the subsurface, the resulting subsurface model and implications for its geological history revealed by the more detailed seismic tools.The Kurdashi Permit is operated by AGIP AZERBAIJAN, a subsidiary of the Italian ENI Agip Division.The permit itself encompasses a faulted regional anticlinorium of Neogene series clastic rocks comprising three separate culminations.Seismic imaging in this area is challenged by widespread shallow or near-surface gas, steep dips, and mud volcanoes connected to irregularly shaped mud chambers and associated velocity anomalies.Targets are relatively deep measured in TWT due to both their actual depth and the relatively slow velocities of the sedimentary section.A 3D seismic survey covering about 900 sq km was acquired by Caspian Geophysical over the entire permit.The conventional time processing was executed by Veritas.Subsequently AGIP generated a 3D Pre-Stack Depth Migration and Continuity Cube and the relevant interpretations.

  1. Development and improvement of safety analysis code for geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to confirm the long-term safety concerning geological disposal, probabilistic safety assessment code and other analysis codes, which can evaluate possibility of each event and influence on engineered barrier and natural barrier by the event, were introduced. We confirmed basic functions of those codes and studied the relation between those functions and FEP/PID which should be taken into consideration in safety assessment. We are planning to develop 'Nuclide Migration Assessment System' for the purpose of realizing improvement in efficiency of assessment work, human error prevention for analysis, and quality assurance of the analysis environment and analysis work for safety assessment by using it. As the first step, we defined the system requirements and decided the system composition and functions which should be mounted in them based on those requirements. (author)

  2. Large volcanoes on Venus: Examples of geologic and structural characteristics from different classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, J. W.; Aubele, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Large volcanoes characterized by radial lava flows and similar evidence for a topographic edifice are widely distributed over the surface of Venus and geologically diverse. Based on the global identification of more than 165 examples and preliminary geologic mapping, large volcanoes range from those characterized geologically as simple lava edifices to those bearing evidence of complexly developed volcanic and structural histories. Many large volcanoes exhibit characteristics transitional to other large magnetic center types such as coronae and novae. In this study, we examine the geology and structure of several type examples of large volcanoes not addressed in previous studies which are representative of several of the morphological classes.

  3. SEDIMENT ANALYSIS NETWORK FOR DECISION SUPPORT (SANDS) LANDSAT GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF AL (GSA) ANALYSIS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) analyzed changes in the coastal shoreline and sedimentation using Landsat geotiff images as part of the Sediment Analysis...

  4. Presumption of the distribution of the geological structure based on the geological survey and the topographic data in and around the Horonobe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, a comprehensive research project investigating the deep underground environment in sedimentary rock, is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) at Horonobe-cho in Northern Hokkaido, Japan. One of the main goals of the URL project is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment. JAEA constructed the geologic map and the database of geological mapping in Horonobe-cho in 2005 based on the existing literatures and 1/200,000 geologic maps published by Geological Survey of Japan, and then updated the geologic map in 2007 based on the results of various investigations which were conducted around the URL as the surface based investigation phase of the URL project. On the other hand, there are many geological survey data which are derived from natural resources (petroleum, natural gas and coal, etc.) exploration in and around Horonobe-cho. In this report, we update the geologic map and the database of the geological mapping based on these geological survey and topographical analysis data in and around the Horonobe area, and construct a digital geologic map and a digital database of geological mapping as GIS. These data can be expected to improve the precision of modeling and analyzing of geological environment including its long-term evaluation. The digital data is attached on CD-ROM. (J.P.N.)

  5. A mathematical formulation for large strain analysis of geologic continua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution method is presented for finite-deformation analysis of geologic materials. The principle of virtual work is used to state the equations of equilibrium in a weak form. These equations are linearized about the last-established equilibrium configuration. A material constitutive relationship between the Green-Naghdi stress rate and the rate-of-deformation tensor is used to obtain the current stresses. The finite-element governing equations are expressed in a form suitable for an iterative solution strategy. The obtained gradient matrix contains the effects of both material and geometric nonlinearities. The primary application area of this formulation is the analysis of long-term deformation response of the region adjoining the mining shafts and the waste emplacement rooms within a nuclear waste repository. In this region, the strains are expected to be large, and the infinitesimal strain analysis would introduce inaccuracies in the solution. 19 refs., 6 figs

  6. Geological-structural interpretation using products of remote sensing in the region of Carrancas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; Dosanjos, C. E.; Barbosa, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of some criteria developed for the utilization of small scale and low resolution remote sensing products to map geological and structural features was demonstrated. Those criteria were adapted from the Logical Method of Photointerpretation which consists of textural qualitative analysis of landforms and drainage net patterns. LANDSAT images of channel 5 and 7, 4 LANDSAT-RBV scenes, and 1 radar mosiac were utilized. The region of study is characterized by supracrustal metassediments (quartzites and micaschist) folded according to a "zig-zag" pattern and gnaissic basement. Lithological-structural definition was considered outstanding when compared to data acquired during field work, bibliographic data and geologic maps acquired in larger scales.

  7. The structural geology of boulby (potash) mine, Cleveland, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, C. J.; Tully, C. P.; Woods, P. J. E.

    1982-05-01

    This is the first description of the structural geology of the Upper Permian potash and salt of the third Zechstein Cycle exposed in Boulby Mine. The near seam lithologies are described briefly and the associated veins, vein networks, shear zones and slides are introduced. It is argued that the Boulby Potash migrated from lower levels to those at which it is now found to fill fractures which developed in a grey anhydrite shale produced by the reduction and wetting of the lower parts of the Carnallitic (Rotten) Marl. Continued introduction of chlorides of Na and K into vein networks dispersed the shale as clasts of ever decreasing size in a sub-horizontal zone of gneissose sylvinite which, when it reached a significant thickness, began to flow in an extraordinary manner. Hundreds of asymmetric sub-horizontal lobes of gneissose sylvinite root to and repeat the first formed layer in structures which developed to various degrees in different parts of the mine. These are shown to represent small-scale movement cells (e.g. 15 × 30 to 100m in axial section) in which the movements integrate within a pattern of larger-scale movement cells ( 15 × 200 to 400 m). Where the sylvinite was thickest these movement cells progressed to a stage which involved the complete circulation of a compound layer of sylvinite and grey shale. Continued circulation almost homogenised this compound layer to sylvinite in which the grey shale has been disrupted and dispersed to small aggregates and individual clay particles included within the chloride grains. The circulation cells in the sylvinite are rectilinear rolls close to where thin but extensive sub-horizontal lobes of Boulby Halite moved through and over them late in the structural history. Away from such salt lobes, the small-scale circulation cells are concentric within the boundaries of larger cells which have polygonal planforms. After rejecting explanations invoking near surface slumping for the small-scale circulation cells it is argued that they developed near their maximum depth of burial in late Jurassic or Cretaceous times. The multiwavelength circulation pattern in the Boulby Potash is interpreted as due to thermal convection influenced by primary gravitational instabilities on a larger scale. The sub-horizontal lobes of Boulby Halite are assigned to a final Laramide transcurrent reactivation of faults inherited from the basement during earlier phases of movement.

  8. Diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish strategy to handle the spent fuel from the nuclear power plants is direct disposal in a geological repository. The safeguards regime covering all nuclear material in the state will be expanded to cover the new repository, which will require a novel safeguards approach due mainly to the inaccessibility of the fuel after disposal. The safeguards approach must be able to provide a high level of assurance that the fuel in the repository not diverted, but must also be resource efficient. An attractive approach with regards to use of resources is to monitor only the access points to the repository, i.e. the openings. The implementation of such an approach can only be allowed if it is shown to be sufficiently secure. With the purpose of determining the applicability of this 'black box' approach, a diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository has been carried out. The result from the analysis shows that all credible diversion paths could be covered by the black-box safeguards approach provided that the identified boundary conditions can be met

  9. Multivariate Analysis Of Ground Water Characteristics Of Geological Formations Of Enugu State Of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orakwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The chemometric data mining techniques using principal factor analysis PFA and hierarchical cluster analysis CA was employed to evaluate and to examine the borehole characteristics of geological formations of Enugu State of Nigeria to determine the latent structure of the borehole characteristics and to classify 9 borehole parameters from 49 locations into borehole groups of similar characteristics. PFA extracted three factors which accounted for a large proportion of the variation in the data 77.305 of the variance. Out of nine parameters examined the first PFA had the highest number of variables loading on a single factor where four borehole parameters borehole depth borehole casing static water level and dynamic water level loaded on it with positive coefficient as the most significant parameters responsible for variation in borehole characteristics in the study. The CA employed in this study to identified three clusters. The first cluster delineated stations that characterise Awgu sandstone geological formation while the second cluster delineated Agbani sandstone geological formation. The third cluster delineated Ajali sandstone formation. The CA grouping of the borehole parameters showed similar trend with PFA hence validating the efficiency of chemometric data mining techniques in grouping of variations in the borehole characteristics in the geological zone of the study area.

  10. Mineralogy influences structure and diversity of bacterial communities associated with geological substrata in a pristine aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Eric S; Cummings, David E; Geesey, Gill G

    2007-07-01

    Our understanding of mineralogical influences on subsurface microbial community structure and diversity has been difficult to assess due to difficulties in isolating this variable from others in the subsurface environment. In this study, biofilm coupons were used to isolate specific geological substrata from the surrounding geological matrix during colonization by microorganisms suspended in the surrounding groundwater for an 8-week period. Upon retrieval, the structure and diversity of the microbial community associated with each type of substratum was evaluated using 16S rDNA-based terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Phylogenetic affiliations of the populations associated with each type of substratum were established based on sequence analysis of near full-length 16S rDNA obtained through construction of a clone library. Hematite, quartz, and saprolite each harbored a community dominated by members of the division Proteobacteria (>67% of community). However, the different substrata selected for different subdivisions of bacteria within the Proteobacteria. After accounting for the influence exerted by substratum type on recovery of DNA from the attached populations, both phylogenetic data and Jaccard and Bray-Curtis similarity indices derived from terminal-restriction fragment (T-RF) profiles suggested a strong mineralogical influence on the structure and composition of the solid phase-associated community. The results suggest that mineralogical heterogeneity influences microbial community structure and diversity in pristine aquifers. PMID:17364247

  11. Evaluation of structural behavior, geological and hydrogeological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural behavior of radioactive waste disposal facilities may be greatly influenced by earthquakes through ground shaking and earthquake-induced ground evaluation of radioactive waste repositories. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of computational models considering the effects of discontinuities and an improvement of structural analysis methods are essential in order to predict properly the dynamic behavior of underground rock caverns subjected to seismic loadings. The purpose of this study is to examine the structural behavior of rock cavern within discontinuous rock masses subjected to dynamic loadings with the objective that the results of this study will become a basis for understanding the effects of ground motion associated with earthquakes on underground radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is divided into three parts. In the first part, computational models for discontinuous rock masses and equations of motion for a rigid block model are discussed. In the second part, the distinct element program written for the static and dynamic analysis of discontinuous rock masses is presented. A few practical examples of structural analyses of rock caverns within discontinuous rock masses subjected to dynamic loadings using the distinct element computer program are presented in the third part of this report. (Author)

  12. Analysis of naturally produced technetium and plutonium in geologic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In uncontaminated natural materials, plutonium and technetium exist exclusively as products (daughters) of nuclear reactions in which uranium is the principal reactant (parent). Under conditions of chemical stability over geologic periods of time, the relative abundances of daughter and parent elements are fixed by the rates of nuclear reactions and the decay of the daughter radionuclide. The state of this nuclear secular equilibrium condition is the primary basis of the geochemical study of these elements in nature. Thus, it is critical that nuclear parent and daughter abundances are measured in the same sample. The authors have developed a quantitative procedure for measuring subpicogram quantities of plutonium and technetium in gram quantities of geologic matrices such as uranium ores. The procedure takes advantage of the aggressive properties of sodium peroxide/hydroxide fusion to ensure complete dissolution and homogenization of complex materials, the precision provided by isotope dilution techniques, and the extreme sensitivity offered by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Using this technique, a quantitative aliquot can be removed for uranium analysis by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry or ? spectrometry. To assess the precision and accuracy of the analytical results, blanks and standards were analyzed routinely for a 1-year period to ensure quality control of sample analyses. These calibrations show that the measurement system is biased by no more than ±1.5%

  13. Geological and structural characterisation of deformation zones of deep seated rockslides in metamorphic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauhal, T.; Zangerl, C.; Fellin, W.; Brandner, R.

    2012-04-01

    Generally, deep-seated slowly moving rockslides, characterised by average slope velocities in the range of some mm to dm per year, are frequently observed in foliated metamorphic rock masses such as gneisses, schists and phyllites. Many case studies show that this activity behaviour results from deformation, i.e. sliding/creeping along one or several discrete deformation zones which originate from initial rockslide formation processes. From a geological and structural point of view such deformation zones are extremely heterogeneous and are composed of uncemented fault breccias and gouges. The material that is newly formed through cataclasis and fragmentation of the rock during shearing processes possesses soil-like mechanical as well as hydraulical properties. Consequently, slope stability and temporal deformation behaviour of rockslides is dominated by hydro-mechanical deformation zone characteristics rather than by the properties of the overall mass movement. In this study preliminary investigation results about the geological structure and mechanical behaviour of deformation zones of deep-seated rock slides are presented. The case studies herein are located in paragneissic rock masses of the polymetamorphic Austroalpine Ötztal-Stubai complex (Tyrol, Austria). In order to focus on the characterisation of the structure of deformation zones the degree of fragmentation, the spatial distribution of clay-gouges and breccias, moisture content and porosity, the distribution of shear planes, the mineralogical composition and grain shapes as well as grain alignment are investigated. Furthermore the shear strength properties (residual friction angles) are determined by ring shear tests. The results obtained are analysed in combination with geological, structural and geometrical observations of the rockslides from detailed field mapping, borehole and investigation adit data as well as slope deformation measurements. Preliminary results show a complex geological and structural architecture at the basal contact between the rockslide mass and the stable bedrock below. There a several decimetre thick layer of clayey-silty fault gouge zone with variable orientated small-scale slickenslide surfaces were found. Residual friction angle results from shear tests and mineralogical analyses indicate the occurrence of high amounts of sheet silicates but without any swellable minerals. Below and above the gouge layer cohesionless fault breccias (gravelly-sandy) are located with lateral variations in thickness and degree of fragmentation (i.e. block in matrix structures). The new findings increase the process understanding of the deformation behaviour of slow to extremely slow rockslides in metamorphic rocks and provide new fundamentals for comprehensive slope stability analysis.

  14. Geological Interpretation of the Structure and Stratigraphy of the A/M Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Aadland, R.K.; Cumbest, R.J.; Stephenson, D.E.; Syms, F.H.

    1997-12-01

    The geological interpretation of the structure and stratigraphy of the A/M Area was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of deeper Cretaceous aged geological strata and structure on shallower Tertiary horizons.

  15. Geological Interpretation of the Structure and Stratigraphy of the A/M Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological interpretation of the structure and stratigraphy of the A/M Area was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of deeper Cretaceous aged geological strata and structure on shallower Tertiary horizons

  16. Structural geology of the earth's interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnik, L.P.

    1988-05-01

    Current research in the stuctural geology of the earth's interior is reviewed with emphasis on global models of the mantle, regional models of the lithosphere, the mapping of boundaries in the deep mantle, and the mapping of elastic anisotropy. Particular consideration is given to several planned seismic experiments, including Iris, Pascal, Geoscope, and Orpheus. 8 references.

  17. Earthquake hazard assessment for Central Greece including local geological structure.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenk, Vladimír; Schenková, Zde?ka; Kottnauer, Pavel; Kalogeras, I.; Stavrakakis, G.

    Santiago : Departemento de Geofisica Universidad de Chile , 2005. [General Assembly of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI). 02.10.2005-08.10.2005, Santiago] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : Dobrá Voda depression * tectonic movements Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  18. Detailed fault structures in the Tarutung geothermal area derived from seismology and structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muksin, U.; Nukman, M.; Haberland, C. A.; Bauer, K.

    2013-12-01

    The oblique convergence between the Indo-Australian and Eurasian plates producing the subduction zone beneath south Indonesia causes the presence of the approximately 1650 km of dextral strike slip Sumatra fault (SF). The SF is segmented into 19 major sections featuring also pull-apart basins with different characteristics. One of the pull-apart basins along SF is the Tarutung basin located just south of the Toba caldera. We present the fault structure in the Tarutung geothermal area derived from seismological studies and supported by geological analysis. This information allows conclusions on the tectonic control of the geothermal system. The knowledge on the pattern of the fault system is highly beneficial to constrain prospective locations used in future exploitation. We detected the direct P and S wave arrivals of earthquakes recorded by a ten month deployment of 42 seismic stations in the Tarutung region. We relocated 809 events recorded by at least 8 stations with azimuthal gap angle less than 180 degrees by using 1D inversion for velocity structure and hypocenter locations (VELEST). The best solutions of VELEST are then used as the initials for the 3D inversion (SIMUL2000) to determine the 3D velocity models and more accurate earthquake locations. The seismicity distribution obtained from SIMUL2000 is compared with the earthquake locations obtained by the double difference relocation scheme (HYPODD) where 36,819 travel times and 766 waveform cross-correlations were involved. We analyzed the focal mechanisms for events having at least 11 clear first arrival polarities by using FPFIT. Surface structural study, measured striations and joints at 20 sites in the region, provide additional constraints on the deformation at shallower depth. South of the Tarutung basin, the seismicity distribution is well aligned to the main SF. The focal mechanisms show strike-slip behavior in agreement with the large-scale pattern of the SF. The application of HYPODD relocated the events even sharper and more focused. Along the Tarutung basin, the seismicity broadens and reveals interesting features. The seismicity aligned with the NW-SE main SF is mostly strike-slip with some normal component. The seismicity pattern shows some branches with normal faulting striking NE-SW crossing the main SF and the Tarutung basin. The pattern of seismicity and the focal mechanism provides evidence for the presence of the extensional duplex in the Tarutung area along the releasing bend of the SF. The fractures in NNW-SSE to NE-SW direction are notable from structural geology studies in the Tarutung area indicating conjugate synthetic and antithetic Riedel shears under compression at high angle to the NW-SE striking of SF System. The normal faulting trending SW-NE seems to be a preferred pathway of fluid flow. The dilatational zone as caused by clockwise rotation in a dextral simple shear induces dilation jog which may enhance the permeability in this part of the geothermal system.

  19. Structure analysis - chiromancy of the rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reader may initially be surprised by a comparison between structure analysis and palmistry which is, in effect, a comparison between a scientific research method on the one hand and art which is equated with magical powers on the other. In the figurative sense, however, these two fields have some points in common which should help us to obtain a first impression of the nature of geological structure analysis. Chiromancy uses the lines and the form of the hand to predict the character and the future of the person in question. In the same way, geologists use rocks and rock forms to obtain information on structure and behaviour of different formations. Structure analysis is a specialised field of geological investigation in which traces of deformation are interpreted as expressions of rockforming forces. This article discusses how and why the character of a rock formation as well as its past, present and even future behaviour can be determined using structure analysis. (author) 11 figs

  20. Study of geologic-structural situation around Semipalatinsk test site test - holes using space images automated decoding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of underground nuclear explosions (UNE) leads to irreversible changes in geological environment around the boreholes. In natural environment it was detected inhomogeneity of rock massif condition changes, which depended on characteristics of the underground nuclear explosion, anisotropy of medium and presence of faulting. Application of automated selection and statistic analysis of unstretched lineaments in high resolution space images using special software pack LESSA allows specifying the geologic-structural features of Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), ranging selected fracture zones, outlining and analyzing post-explosion zone surface deformations. (author)

  1. Shorter contributions to stratigraphy and structural geology, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1980-01-01

    PART A: A system of anticlines lies along the trend of the sinuous course of the Colorado River for a distance of 97 km in the central Grand Canyon. Similar anticlines occur in some perennially wet side canyons. The anticlines are most abundant and well developed along northeast-trending reaches of the main canyon where it is floored by the Cambrian Muav Limestone. Dips of the folded strata are as great as 60?, and the folding locally extends more than 250 m from the river. Low-angle thrust faults in the limbs of the anticlines parallel the river and have formed in response to folding of the comparatively brittle carbonate strata. High-angle reverse kink bands, along which rocks are displaced up toward the river, also parallel the anticlines and have develop2d in response to the upward bulging of the canyon floor. The river anticlines are an unloading phenomenon. They result from lateral squeezing toward the river of saturated shaly parts of the Muav Limestone and underlying Bright Angel Shale. The driving mechanism for the deformation is a stress gradient that results from a difference in lithostatic load between the heavily loaded rocks under the 650-m-high canyon walls and the unloaded canyon floor. Saturation appears to weaken the shaly rocks sufficiently to allow deformation to take place. River anticlines are not present in the eastern Grand Canyon, where the Cambrian rocks also occur at river level. Their absence is explained by a lack of shaly rocks that could flow when saturated. PART B: The current interest in contemporary tectonic processes in the Eastern United States is turning up abundant evidence of crustal movements in late geologic time. Topographic analysis of the highland areas from the southern Blue Ridge to the Adirondack Mountains indicates that most of the landforms owe their origin to erosion of rocks of different resistance rather than to tectonic processes. Most areas of high relief and high altitude have been formed on resistant rocks. The Cambrian and Ordovician belt, containing mostly shale and carbonate rock, on the other hand, forms an extensive lowland from Alabama to the Canadian border and girdles the Adirondack Mountains. Differences in altitude can be explained by the presence of resistant rocks outside the belt; these resistant rocks form local base levels on the streams that drain the belt. A few areas may have undergone local uplift at a higher rate than areas nearby--for example, the Piedmont region northwest of Chesapeake Bay. Most estimates of erosion rates, based on the load transported by streams and of uplift rates, based on removal during a known period of time, are of the same order of magnitude, averaging almost 4x 10^-2 millimeters per year. Rates of uplift, based on study of tilted Pleistocene beaches and repeated geodetic traverses, are at least an order of magnitude higher for comparable areas. Tectonic uplift of the highlands has been slow and involves mostly warping or tilting on a large scale. Erosion rates keep up with or exceed the rate of uplift and have been sufficient to mask evidence of faulting or other differential movements. The high rates of uplift that are inferred on tilted water planes in the glaciated regions or that are measured by differences in repeated geodetic traverses cannot have been sustained for long periods of time. PART C: The Hanson Creek Formation southwest of Eureka, Nev., in the Bellevue Peak Quadrangle is composed of three lithostratigraphic members: (1) a basal dark-gray dolomite, (2) a middle silty thin- to thick-bedded, locally nodular, dark-gray, light-yellow-mottled limestone topped by light-gray dolomite, and (3) an upper dark-gray dolomite, which is herein named the Combs Canyon Dolomite Member. Detailed geologic mapping and accompanying fossil collecting prove that the same lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic sequence is present in the Mountain Boy Range and 11 km to the south near Wood Cone Peak. Minor differences in

  2. Structural mapping from MSS-LANDSAT imagery: A proposed methodology for international geological correlation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Crepani, E.; Martini, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for international geological correlation studies based on LANDSAT-MSS imagery, Bullard's model of continental fit and compatible structural trends between Northeast Brazil and the West African counterpart. Six extensive lineaments in the Brazilian study area are mapped and discussed according to their regional behavior and in relation to the adjacent continental margin. Among the first conclusions, correlations were found between the Sobral Pedro II Lineament and the megafaults that surround the West African craton; and the Pernambuco Lineament with the Ngaurandere Linemanet in Cameroon. Ongoing research to complete the methodological stages includes the mapping of the West African structural framework, reconstruction of the pre-drift puzzle, and an analysis of the counterpart correlations.

  3. Research and development of methods and technologies for CO2 capture in fossil fuel power plants and storage in geological formations in the Czech Republic, stage E4: Risk analysis. Risk analysis methods for CO2 storage in geological structures. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis for any treatment of this issue is European Directive 2009/31/EC on the geological storage of carbon dioxide. It is demonstrated that the principles of underground storage of radioactive waste can be applied to the storage of CO2, and the same assessment tools, including mathematical models, can be used or modified. (P.A.)

  4. Relation of geological structure to seismicity at Pahute Mesa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the abundant and unique geological and seismological data acquired at the Nevada Test Site are integrated with the objectives of (1) resolving some of the ambiguity in explanations of the source of aftershocks of nuclear explosions, and (2) demonstrating the value of using detailed geological and seismological data to infer realistic source parameters of earthquakes. The distribution of epicenters of aftershocks from nuclear explosions at Pahute Mesa suggests that they are related to faults or intersections of faults in the buried ring-fracture zones of calderas rather than to the conspicuous basin-and-range faults exposed at the surface. Histograms of fault length show clearly that faults in a basin-and-range regime differ significantly in length, median length, and distribution of length from faults in a caldera regime. A histogram of fault lengths derived from magnitudes of aftershocks shows both the median and distribution characteristics of caldera faults rather than of basin-and-range faults. Cumulative frequency-fault length-squared plots also show differences in the two fault regimes, and have slopes, herein called bf slopes, of -0.89 and -1.08 for caldera and basin-and-range faults, respectively. The bf slopes are similar to the average slope of a cumulative frequency-strain plot for aftershocks rather than to the b slopes for cumulative frequency-magnitude plots. Although the significance of b and bf slopes and differences between them are not resolved clearly, it is concluded that the fault length and strain data reflect dimensions of seismic sources rather than energy of seismic events. The principal conclusion of the investigation is that the most obvious geology of a seismically active area may not provide the proper basis for inferring seismic-source parameters

  5. Entropy-Based Set Pair Analysis Model on Geological Disaster Risk for Military Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Fengshan Wang; Hongjun Zhang; Quanbing Rong

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the geological disaster-risked situation, is a typical non-deterministic decision-making issue in disaster pre- vention and emergency response science for military engineering. Based on the given geological disaster risk analysis mechanism, geological disaster risk monitoring matrix was established, and risk characters’ value was obtained by mining the hidden information in the monitoring matrix with Entropy theory; with Identity, Discrepancy, and Contrary of Set Pair Analysis and d...

  6. Geological Constraints, Structural Evolution, and Deep Geology of the Northwest Scottish Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R. W. H.; Coward, M. P.

    1984-06-01

    The front of the Caledonian orogenic belt in NW Scotland is marked by a zone of foreland thrusting which contains imbricates of Lewisian basement, Proterozoic cover and Cambrian shelf sediments. Faults within this Moine thrust belt, in most localities, propagated in a foreland directed sequence. Therefore the earliest of these thrusts was the Moine thrust, which carried a basement assemblage of Moine and Lewisian rocks over the Cambrian shelf. The development of large duplex and imbricate structures in the footwall postadted movement on this thrust. Hence a restoration of these imbricates provides a minimum estimate of the eastern extent of the Cambrian shelf. No synsedimentary or prethrust extensional features are recognised within the Cambrian succession which displays a remarkable stratigraphic and thickness consistency. This implies a corresponding consistency in crustal structure beneath these cover rocks immediately prior to Caledonian thrusting. A balanced cross section constructed across the northern part of the Moine thrust belt has given a restored width for the Cambrian shelf of 54 km. Geophysical data suggest that the present foreland crustal thickness is 28 km. If this is taken to be the crustal thickness beneath the Cambrian shelf during Caledonian thrusting, a minimum cross sectional area of 1512 km² of Lewisian rocks must remain beneath the present outcrop of the Moine thrust sheet. This foreland basement wedge may have been imbricated subsequent to the development of the Cambrian imbricates. Caledonian structures within the Moine thrust sheet are interpreted as forming an imbricate stack with the Moine thrust acting as a floor thrust. The ductile imbricate thrusts possibly roofed into the Naver slide. Late open folds, which warp foliation, slides, and metamorphic isograds within the Moine sheet, may represent culminations in the foreland Lewisian imbricates beneath the Moine thrust. These postulated culminations may have been sufficient to initiate gravity-driven structures. This may explain late movements on high-level faults within the Moine thrust belt.

  7. Structural geology and geological history of the Perrine and Nun Sulci Quadrangles (Jg-2 and Jg-5), Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgill, George E.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Grooves are the dominant structural features on Ganymede. While single grooves are found in many areas, it is somewhat more common to find them grouped together in groove sets (groupings of grooves with common structural trends). It is generally believed that the grooves are extensional features. Their underlying geologic nature cannot be determined from Voyager images, however. It appears likely that they are grabens, but the images are insufficient to rule out the possibility that they are modified extension fractures or some kind of ductile necking features. The oldest materials within the Nun Sulci and Perrine quadrangles occur within the cratered dark materials unit, as is generally the case for all of Ganymede. This is the most widespread of the dark units mapped in these two quadrangles. Crater densities within cratered dark materials are consistent with an age on the order of several billion years, and thus cratered dark terrain probably represents crust that has survived from the end of the primordial intense bombardment phase of solar system history. The brief geologic history is greatly oversimplified as a result of the poor resolution and unfavorable viewing geometry of the images covering the area.

  8. Geological characterization of Ia volcanic structure, Boyaca - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iza volcanic structure (5 grades 36 minutes 20 seconds N; 72 grades 59 minutes 33 seconds W) is the result of rising riodacitic to ryolithicmagmatic pulses, which didn't reach the surface, the first of them giving origin to intrusive breccias, interpreted as the result of indirect hot deep magma interaction with a sedimentary aquifer, leading to vapor overpressure and consequent fragmentation of the host rocks. The intrusive breccia form the southern part of the Iza edifice, it is massive beige to light red in color, locally with pseudo columnar joint; it is composed by angular to sub rounded sedimentary and minor igneous rock fragments in a porphyry rhyolitic matrix. This stage is followed by dome emplacement which a riodacitic to rhyolitic in composition. Petrographic analysis shows that they are similar to the matrix breccia; they have a porphiritic texture, phenocrist of sanidine, quartz and plagioclase and glassy matrix. Locally the domes are fractured presenting breccia facies (auto breccia and jig saw breccias, among others). Relationship with the host rock allow to interpreting the volcanic body as a cryptodomes, outcropping at surface by faulting and erosion.

  9. Seismic hazards: New trends in analysis using geologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in response to expansion of nuclear power plant siting and issuance of a code of federal regullations by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission referred to as Appendix A-10CFR100, the need to characterize the earthquake potential of individual faults for seismic design took on greater importance. Appendix A established deterministic procedures for assessing the seismic hazard at nuclear power plant sites. Bonilla and Buchanan, using data from historical suface-faulting earthquakes, developed a set of statistical correlations relating earthquake magnitude to surface rupture length and to surface displacement. These relationships have been refined and updated along with the relationship between fault area and magnitude and seismic moment and moment magnitude have served as the basis for selecting maximum earthquakes in a wide variety of design situations. In the paper presented, the authors discuss new trends in seismic hazard analysis using geologic data, with special emphasis on fault-zone segmentation and recurrence models and the way in which they provide a basis for evaluating long-term earthquake potential

  10. Syntactic structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diest, P J; Kayser, K; Meijer, G A; Baak, J P

    1995-06-01

    Syntactic structure analysis is a relatively new technique in diagnostic quantitative pathology that, based on the graph theory, can provide quantitative information on tissue architecture. This article gives an introduction to syntactic structure analysis and discusses the potential of syntactic structure analysis in diagnostic quantitative pathology. In addition, some examples of its application in histo- and cytopathology are presented and it is speculated which other applications the user of syntactic structure may find for quantitation of architecture in diagnostic quantitative pathology. PMID:8570286

  11. Comparison of structural and least-squares lines for estimating geologic relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G.P.; Troutman, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Two different goals in fitting straight lines to data are to estimate a "true" linear relation (physical law) and to predict values of the dependent variable with the smallest possible error. Regarding the first goal, a Monte Carlo study indicated that the structural-analysis (SA) method of fitting straight lines to data is superior to the ordinary least-squares (OLS) method for estimating "true" straight-line relations. Number of data points, slope and intercept of the true relation, and variances of the errors associated with the independent (X) and dependent (Y) variables influence the degree of agreement. For example, differences between the two line-fitting methods decrease as error in X becomes small relative to error in Y. Regarding the second goal-predicting the dependent variable-OLS is better than SA. Again, the difference diminishes as X takes on less error relative to Y. With respect to estimation of slope and intercept and prediction of Y, agreement between Monte Carlo results and large-sample theory was very good for sample sizes of 100, and fair to good for sample sizes of 20. The procedures and error measures are illustrated with two geologic examples. ?? 1990 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  12. Using Grand Challenges For Innovative Teaching in Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wysession, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    An innovative approach to teaching involves using the "Big Ideas" or "Grand Challenges" of a field, as determined by the research community in that area, as the basis for classroom activities. There have been several recent efforts in the areas of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics to determine these Grand Challenges, including the areas of seismology ("Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems"), mineral physics ("Unlocking the Building Blocks of the Planet"), EarthScope-related science ("Unlocking the Secrets of the North American Continent: An EarthScope Science Plan for 2010-2020"), and structural geology and tectonics (at the Structural Geology and Tectonics Forum held at Williams College in June, 2012). These research community efforts produced frameworks of the essential information for their fields with the aim of guiding future research. An integral part of this, however, is training the next generation of scientists, and using these Big Ideas as the basis for course structures and activities is a powerful way to make this happen. When activities, labs, and homeworks are drawn from relevant and cutting-edge research topics, students can find the material more fascinating and engaging, and can develop a better sense of the dynamic process of scientific discovery. Many creative ideas for incorporating the Grand Challenges of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics in the classroom were developed at a Cutting Edge workshop on "Teaching Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics in the 21st Century" held at the University of Tennessee in July, 2012.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP species range data show a coarse representation of the total areal extent of a species or the geographic limits within which a species can be found (Morrison...

  14. Structural geology of the North and Middle Caspian sea on the new geophysical data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text:A structural and tectonic map of the North and Middle Caspian Sea is made on the basis of seismic and other geological and geophysical data analysis. According to the plotting results the total amplitude range of the heterogeneous basement depths are in the North Caspian Sea (Ukatnensky depression-over 12 km and Prorva depression-over 16 km). In the middle Caspian Sea the deppest basement point is supposed in Sulak basin (over 12 km). The least basement depths are marked in Karpinsky ridge,Buzachinky and Karabogazsky arches (1-3 km). On the whole the morphology and structure of the basement confirms the conclusion previously made by many researches that the Caspian Sea is a heterogeneous depression superimposed on the junction of regional tectonic elements of various ages.The ancient East-European platform represented by Pricaspiisky depression (Donetsko-Astrakhanskaya fault system limits the latter in the south) is situated on the North. The middle Caspian Sea is occupied with the offshore continuation of Terek-Caspian foredeep is represented by Sulak basin clearly limited in the south by a system of upthrusts and thrusts falling under North Caucasus foreland.Geological interpretation of the Yuzhmorgeologiya Center new geophysical data allows making an assumption about the biohermexistence within TriassicSea sediments on Kuma-Manychsky depression offshore continuation. Seismic exploration works show strike-slip faults and thrust structure development within the sedimentary cover on the offshore continuation of Karpinsky ridge.Some strike-slipped blocks are separated by left-side shifts of the northeast stretch.The pool location at the left-side (east) blocks of the shift areas is marked.

  15. Application of structural geology in exploration for residual gem deposits of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendis, D.P.J.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological investigations of some major gem-bearing areas of Sri Lanka have shown that the gem deposits are controlled by the geological structure. Corundum deposits are generally associated with axial plane areas of tight, doubly plunging synclinoria and anticlinoria where occurrences of crystalline limestones and pegmatites are observed. Corundum deposits also occur at sites of heavy structural disturbances such as discontinuities, faults, folds, joints, lensing and necking zones etc. if occurrences of marbles and/or intrusions of granite and pegmatites have taken place. Alluvial gem deposits do not necessarily exist close to the area where they originate, but most concentrations of alluvial gem beds still remain close to the source area. Detailed investigations of the geological structure of a gem-bearing area and the relationship of these structural elements with appropriate source rocks will yield vital clues to the existence of gem deposits.

  16. Investigation of structural geology and coal mine subsidence potential in Colorado Springs area using remote sensing and GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which remote structures which may affect the location and migration of subsidence over abandoned underground coal mines in the Colorado Springs area. Ultimately, these techniques could be useful for identifying such geologic structures at other abandoned mine land (AML) sites. Landsat satellite images and aerial photographs were used to interpret the geologic structure of the area. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to integrate the diverse data sets involved in the study and to allow reliable and reproducible spatial registration and analysis of the data. The specific study area used was the northern and northeastern Colorado Springs, Colorado, area where coal mining was active from the 1870s until 1957. The results of this study indicate that the subsidence hazard zones projected by Dames and Moore (1985) could be modified to take into account geologic structures as identified through remote sensing. Other AML sites should be investigated through remote sensing and lineament analysis to aid in fully evaluating subsidence potential of the sites. The GIS database also will provide a reasonably reliable source of spatial data for future land-use planning and tracking of subsidence hazards

  17. A report on the task of collecting geological and structural data in Rio de Janeiro state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, L. C.; Rodrigues, J. E.

    1983-08-01

    The geological structure of 13 profiles of Rio de Janeiro State are described. Structural data useful to the study of the tectonics are examined. Almost 7000 points, faults and foliations were measured, mainly in the rocks of the two principal stratigraphic units in the state: Paraiba and Serra dos Orgaos Groups.

  18. Hands-On Exercise in Environmental Structural Geology Using a Fracture Block Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Alexander E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of a scale analog model of an actual fractured rock reservoir to replace paper copies of fracture maps in the structural geology curriculum. Discusses the merits of the model in enabling students to gain experience performing standard structural analyses. (DDR)

  19. N engineering geological appraisal of the chamshir dam foundation using dmr classification and kinematic analysis, southwest of iran

    OpenAIRE

    Torabi Kaveh Mehdi; Heidari Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the results of engineering geological  investigations and rock mechanics studies carried out at the proposed Chamshir dam site. It is proposed that a 155 m high solid concrete gravity-arc dam be built across the Zuhreh River to the southeast of the city of Gachsaran in south-western Iran. The dam and its associated structures are mainly located on the Mishan formation. Analysis consisted of rock mass classification and a kinematic
    analysis of the dam foundation...

  20. The influence of geological loading on the structural integrity of an underground nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stresses are developed in underground nuclear waste repositories as a result of applied loads from geological movements caused by the encroachment of ice sheets or seismic activity for example. These stresses may induce fracturing of the waste matrix, repository vault and nearfield host geology. This fracturing will enhance the advective flow and allow more-rapid transfer of radionuclides from their encapsulation through the repository barriers and nearfield host rock. Geological loads may be applied either gradually as in crustal folding or encroachment of ice sheets, or rapidly as in the case of seismic movements. The analysis outlined in this report is conducted with a view to including the effects of geological loading in a probabilistic repository site assessment computer code such as SYVAC. (author)

  1. The Serra da Cangalha impact structure, Brazil: Geological, stratigraphic and petrographic aspects of a recently confirmed impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marcos Alberto Rodrigues; Crósta, Alvaro P.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Góes, Ana Maria; Kenkmann, Thomas; Poelchau, Michael H.

    2013-08-01

    Serra da Cangalha is a complex impact structure with an apparent diameter of 13.7 km located in essentially undisturbed sedimentary rocks of the Parnaíba basin in northeastern Brazil. The stratigraphy of the crater region includes, from bottom to top, the Longá, Poti, Piauí and Pedra de Fogo formations of Devonian to Late Permian age. The age of the impact event is constrained to feather features (FF), and planar fractures (PF) in quartz grains found in polymict breccias and shatter cones from the central depression. Furthermore, significant cementation with iron oxide is observed in the rocks of Serra da Cangalha, especially in the Poti Formation and in the polymict breccias, conferring to them a peculiar red color. Macroscopic deformation involves faulted, folded and subvertical strata within a ˜2.9 km radius from the center. (ii) The annular basin domain has limited outcrops; its most prominent features are two concentric annular ridges formed by chert breccias and fossilized wood-bearing folded strata of the Pedra de Fogo Formation. (iii) The crater rim and (iv) external domains comprise undisturbed strata of the Pedra de Fogo and Piauí formations with well-preserved sedimentary structures. Whilst the existing literature on Serra da Cangalha has focused on the structure morphology, general geology and some shock features, we present here a detailed description of the stratigraphy and the geology of each formation in the interior and around Serra da Cangalha, as well as further detailed microscopic shock feature analysis. This provides significant evidence that the rocks of the central uplift have undergone shock pressures of, at maximum, 10 GPa.

  2. Structural geology of Amazonian-aged layered sedimentary deposits in southwest Candor Chasma, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The structural geology of an outcropping of layered sedimentary deposits in southwest Candor Chasma is mapped using two adjacent high-resolution (1 m/pixel) HiRISE digital elevation models and orthoimagery. Analysis of these structural data yields new insight into the depositional and deformational history of these deposits. Bedding in non-deformed areas generally dips toward the center of west Candor Chasma, suggesting that these deposits are basin-filling sediments. Numerous kilometer-scale faults and folds characterize the deformation here. Normal faults of the requisite orientation and length for chasma-related faulting are not observed, indicating that the local sediments accumulated after chasma formation had largely ceased in this area. The cause of the observed deformation is attributed to landsliding within these sedimentary deposits. Observed crosscutting relationships indicate that a population of sub-vertical joints are the youngest deformational structures in the area. The distribution of strain amongst these joints, and an apparently youthful infill of sediment, suggests that these fractures have been active in the recent past. The source of the driving stress acting on these joints has yet to be fully constrained, but the joint orientations are consistent with minor subsidence within west Candor Chasma.

  3. Geological Structure, Seismic energy Release and Forecasting of Rockburst Occurrence.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudajev, Vladimír; ?íž, Radim; Lokají?ek, Tomáš; Vilhelm, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Ro?. 118, ?. 16 (2000), s. 171-173. ISSN 1211-1910. [Czech - Polish - Slovak Symposium on Mining Geophysics /27./. Ramzová, 05.10.1999-07.10.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : seismoacustic emission * energy-frequency distribution * multichannel statistic extrapolation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  4. The uranium potential of Greenland - A geological analysis of favourability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for uranium deposits in Greenland is estimated on the basis of the following criteria: (1) the land areas, not covered by inland ice are 340,000 km2, and geologically extremely well exposed; (2) the geological history ranges from the early Archaean to the Quaternary, and a wide range of geological environments and lithologies are present; (3) the level of geological information is generally of a high quality, but the information is heterogeneous; (4) uranium exploration up to the present is mainly of a reconnaissance nature and it has only covered a part of Greenland; (5) only one major uranium deposit is at present known. It is concluded that the area with the highest potential is found in south Greenland and encompasses the early to middle Proterozoic mobile belt and the middle Proterozoic suite of Gardar alkaline igneous plutons. The high favourability of these units is supported by data from recent exploration work in the area as well as by radiometric data of an earlier date. In particular Ketilidian metasedimentary units, and the Ketilidian and post-Ketilidian country rocks of some of the Gardar complexes appear favourable. In view of the limited exploration work carried out, the early Proterozoic mobile belt in north central Greenland as well as the Proterozoic crystalline basement and the overlying suprastrata of the Thule Group in north-west Greenland are classified as being of medium favourability. Further exploration is required within these areas. (author)

  5. Crustal structure of the central Tibetan plateau and geological interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Can; Sun, Youshun; Toksöz, M. Nafi; Zheng, Yingcai; Zheng, Yong; Xiong, Xiong; Yu, Diming

    2012-12-01

    Based on teleseismic data obtained from 225 stations from two networks in the central Tibetan plateau, we have generated detailed crustal structure images using P-wave receiver function techniques with more accurate piercing-depth-correction and time-depth-correction than what have previously been available. Our images indicate an undulatory Moho beneath the Tibetan plateau with a steep jump beneath the northern Himalaya, and obviously different structures in proximity to the Bangong-Nujiang suture. In several sections of the Tibetan plateau, the lower crust is characterized by pervasive high-velocity regions, which are consistent with the preservation of eclogite bodies beneath the plateau, whose presence affects the dynamics of the Tibetan plateau.

  6. Geological Structures in the WaIls of Vestan Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David; Nathues, A.; Beck, A. W.; Hoffmann, M.; Schaefer, M.; Williams, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compelling case can be made that Vesta is the parent asteroid for the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites [1], although this interpretation has been questioned [2]. Generalized models for the structure of the crust of Vesta have been developed based on petrologic studies of basaltic eucrites, cumulate eucrites and diogenites. These models use inferred cooling rates for different types of HEDs and compositional variations within the clan to posit that the lower crust is dominantly diogenitic in character, cumulate eucrites occur deep in the upper crust, and basaltic eucrites dominate the higher levels of the upper crust [3-5]. These models lack fine-scale resolution and thus do not allow for detailed predictions of crustal structure. Geophysical models predict dike and sill intrusions ought to be present, but their widths may be quite small [6]. The northern hemisphere of Vesta is heavily cratered, and the southern hemisphere is dominated by two 400-500 km diameter basins that excavated deep into the crust [7-8]. Physical modeling of regolith formation on 300 km diameter asteroids predicts that debris layers would reach a few km in thickness, while on asteroids of Vesta's diameter regolith thicknesses would be less [9]. This agrees well with the estimated =1 km thickness of local debris excavated by a 45 km diameter vestan crater [10]. Large craters and basins may have punched through the regolith/megaregolith and exposed primary vestan crustal structures. We will use Dawn Framing Camera (FC) [11] images and color ratio maps from the High Altitude and Low Altitude Mapping Orbits (HAMO, 65 m/pixel; LAMO, 20 m/pixel) to evaluate structures exposed on the walls of craters: two examples are discussed here.

  7. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a scenario analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which would offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply. Geostorage options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and potentially hard rock cavrns. DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an ecocomic analysis methodology to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) a version that is fully arrayed such that all four types of geologic storage options can be assessed at the same time, (2) incorporate specific scenarios illustrating the model's capability, and (3) incorporate more accurate model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules. Drawing from the knowledge gained in the underground large scale geostorage options for natural gas and petroleum in the U.S. and from the potential to store relatively large volumes of CO{sub 2} in geological formations, the hydrogen storage assessment modeling will continue to build on these strengths while maintaining modeling transparency such that other modeling efforts may draw from this project.

  8. Arrangement of coal formations in geological structures of the northeast USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarakanov, A.S.; Migovich, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Types of geological structures of the northeast USSR and stages of their development, development of geostructures and their coal accumulation are examined. General laws governing the arrangement of coal formations are reduced to the following: Current arrangement of coals in the northeast USSR is due to geological development of this region in the Cenozoic and Mesozoic. Coal formations emerged naturally at definite stages of development of the folded systems proper and the geological structures adjoining them. Three epochs of coal accumulation are distinctly identified for this region. Metamorphism of coals is related to the intensity of heat flux, as well as local anomalies of heat field in zones of intensive vulcanism and deep faults. The age of the coals has definite value.

  9. Bayesian Chance-Constrained Hydraulic Barrier Design under Geological Structure Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsazan, Nima; Pham, Hai V; Tsai, Frank T-C

    2015-11-01

    The groundwater community has widely recognized geological structure uncertainty as a major source of model structure uncertainty. Previous studies in aquifer remediation design, however, rarely discuss the impact of geological structure uncertainty. This study combines chance-constrained (CC) programming with Bayesian model averaging (BMA) as a BMA-CC framework to assess the impact of geological structure uncertainty in remediation design. To pursue this goal, the BMA-CC method is compared with traditional CC programming that only considers model parameter uncertainty. The BMA-CC method is employed to design a hydraulic barrier to protect public supply wells of the Government St. pump station from salt water intrusion in the "1500-foot" sand and the "1700-foot" sand of the Baton Rouge area, southeastern Louisiana. To address geological structure uncertainty, three groundwater models based on three different hydrostratigraphic architectures are developed. The results show that using traditional CC programming overestimates design reliability. The results also show that at least five additional connector wells are needed to achieve more than 90% design reliability level. The total amount of injected water from the connector wells is higher than the total pumpage of the protected public supply wells. While reducing the injection rate can be achieved by reducing the reliability level, the study finds that the hydraulic barrier design to protect the Government St. pump station may not be economically attractive. PMID:25510348

  10. Geological interpretation of Mount Ciremai geothermal system from remote sensing and magneto-teluric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sumintadireja, Prihadi; Irawan, Dasapta E; Irawan, Diky; Fadillah, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of geothermal system at Mount Ciremai has been started since the early 1980s and has just been studied carefully since the early 2000s. Previous studies have detected the potential of geothermal system and also the groundwater mechanism feeding the system. This paper will discuss the geothermal exploration based on regional scale surface temperature analysis with Landsat image to have a more detail interpretation of the geological setting and magneto-telluric or MT survey at prospect zones, which identified by the previous method, to have a more exact and in depth local scale structural interpretation. Both methods are directed to pin point appropriate locations for geothermal pilot hole drilling and testing. We used four scenes of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper or ETM+ data to estimate the surface manifestation of a geothermal system. Temporal analysis of Land Surface Temperature or LST was applied and coupled with field temperature measurement at seven locations. By combining the TTM with ...

  11. Constructing a large-scale 3D Geologic Model for Analysis of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J; Myers, S

    2008-04-09

    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5{sup o} to -112.6{sup o} and latitude 34.5{sup o} to 39.8{sup o}; the depth ranges from the topographic surface to 150 km below sea level. The model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by both geologic and geophysical studies, while the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The mapped upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks of all ages, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 5 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas geologic maps for California and Utah were scanned and hand-digitized. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and thus estimate the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m lateral resolution DEM elsewhere. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a framework compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is a unique integer index value representing the geologic unit. For seismic studies, the geologic units are mapped to specific seismic velocities. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. For regional seismic simulations we convert this realistic geologic model into elastic parameters. Upper crustal units are treated as seismically homogeneous while the lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized by a smoothly varying velocity profile. In order to mitigate spurious reflections, the lower crust and upper mantle are treated as velocity gradients as a function of depth.

  12. Insights into the Structure and Surface Geology of Isla Socorro, Mexico, from Airborne Magnetic and Gamma-Ray Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, V.; Gruber, S.; Varley, N.; D'Antonio, M.; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.

    2015-12-01

    The island of Socorro is located in the eastern Pacific Ocean, 650 km off the coast of Mexico. It is a rare example of an oceanic volcanic island whose above sea level volume is made up mostly of peralkaline trachytes and rhyolites, with subordinate mafic rocks. Subaerial volcanism started several hundred thousand years ago and continues until recent times. We present an investigation of surface and subsurface geology of the island, based on the first detailed extensive geophysical survey on the island. Acquired airborne magnetic and gamma-ray data were compared to existing geological information and supplemented with field investigations and satellite imagery. Magnetic data show a wide minimum in the central part of the island, possibly connected to a high-temperature zone in the deeper central portion of the volcano, likely to be due to a still hot magma body. The data also depict two parallel edges possibly suggesting the existence of a nested caldera. Analysis on upward continued magnetic data by recent imaging techniques highlighted two deep sources located around 5 km b.s.l., interpreted as feeding structures that are now filled with crystalline rocks. Gamma-ray data have been interpreted through integration with the geological survey results. Several previously known volcanic deposits have been identified based on radioelement distribution, and others have been redefined based on field evidence. A new succession of volcanic members is proposed, to be verified through more detailed geological mapping, geochemical analyses of rock samples and radiometric dating.

  13. Comparison between radar data and geophysical, geological and hydrological borehole paramenters by multivariate analysis of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the present work is to study the correlation between radar reflectors and geophysical, geological and hydraulical parameters from the boreholes. An additional objective is to show what information can be gained by the borehole radar with respect to waterflow and geological structures in crystalline rock. The tool for making the data modelling is Multivariate Data Analysis (SIMCA). For the data modelling there are two algorithms available in the SIMCA software. One for Principal Component analysis and one for Partial Least Squares regression analysis (PLS and PLS2). The PLS method gives the best result for the purpose of correlation between radar intensity and other variables. The result from the Principal Components, PLS, and PLS2 analysis shows that the strongest correlations results in a division between highly fractured rock and low fractured rock at all sites. Also, PLS and PLS2 analysis show that there is a good correlation between high radar intensity and highly fractured rock in the boreholes at all sites. The correlation between radar intensity and hydraulic condictivity is more ambiguous. Two of the investigated sites. Stripa and Finnsjoen, exhibit good correlation between radar intensity and hydraulic condictivity, while the correlation at Aevroe is lower and at Saltsjoetunnel it is poor. Hydraulic conductivity was not included in the analysis of the Klipperaas data. The best correlaiton in the data from Klipperaas was obtained between radar intensity and fractured lithological contracts. The degree of correlation between radar intensity and lithological contacts at the other four sites was lower than for Klipperaas. (24 figs., 37 tabs., 30 refs)

  14. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program- Land Cover Data v2.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset combines the work of several different projects to create a seamless data set for the contiguous United States. Data from four regional Gap Analysis...

  15. Structural geology investigation on Massif Central and Parisian Basin (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weecksteen, G. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Band 5 gives the most information concerning the fracturing in the Massif Central and Parisian Basins. Band 6 and 7 show the fractures emphasized by forest boundaries and by the linear trace of water courses. The most remarkable information drawn from the preliminary investigation of two ERTS-1 images covering two different landscapes, a regular relief of shelving plateau bounded by cuestas having a sedimentary origin and a mountainous region built in crystalline and volcanic rocks, is that the deep structural elements under a thick sedimentary cover can be translated on the surface by indirect criteria. MSS imagery has permitted the Metz fault to be extended towards the west and shows clearly, through land use on the Rhone Valley fluvial deposit, the continuation towards the east of the carboniferous basin of St. Etienne.

  16. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  17. Geological and structural interpretation of airborne surveys and its significance for mineralization, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazala, H. H.

    1993-04-01

    Interpretation of aeromagnetic and radiometric geophysical data is carried out in an area of the Precambrian basement rocks of the south Eastern Desert of Egypt. The area is delimited by lat. 24°00' and 25°00'N and long. 34°00' and 35°00'E. Aeromagnetic anomalies in the area reflect important features on basement tectonics, on deep-seated structures and on detailed geological mapping. Major faults and shear zones, which play an important role in the emplacement of mineralized bodies, have been interpreted and two tectonic blocks are suggested. The statistical analysis of the basement fractures and aeromagnetic lineaments shows major NNW, NW and ENE trends with intersections indicating locations of magmatic intrusions and alkaline ring complexes. The depth computations indicate shallow to near surface magnetic sources as well as deeper ones. The constructed residual, second- derivative, upward-downward continuations and regional maps respectively emphasize these features. The surface rocks of basic -ultrabasic affinity are reflected on the magnetic map. Other rock units give low magnetic effects that indicate variations in lithological composition and/or the degree of metamorphism. The total count-radiometric map shows a close relationship between the alkaline rocks (e.g. ring complexes) and younger granites as well as strong radioactive indications of uranium and/or thorium mineralization (e.g. G. Abu Khurq and G. Kahfa). The linear radiometric anomalies indicate locations of fault lines which are mineralized with radioactive minerals, such as at G. Hafafit area. These faults are also interpreted from the magnetic map. Additional locations are recommended for further ground geophysical and geological explorations.

  18. Structural analysis of DAEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    2002-01-01

    methodology is mainly based on strutural index analysis which is not limited by the index of the DAE as other methodologies. As a result of structural index analysis one can perform index reduction of the DAE and obtain the so-called augmented underlying ODE. It is also described, how to use the augmented...... structural index analysis of DAE is original in the sense that it is based on a new matrix representation of the structural information of a general DAE system instead of a graph oriented representation. Also the presentation of the theory is found to be more complete compared to other presentations, since...... it e.g. proves the uniqueness of the structural index reduction process. Also included, is a discussion of criticism and defence of structural analysis....

  19. An engineering geological appraisal of the Chamshir dam foundation using DMR classification and kinematic analysis, southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torabi Kaveh Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of engineering geological  investigations and rock mechanics studies carried out at the proposed Chamshir dam site. It is proposed that a 155 m high solid concrete gravity-arc dam be built across the Zuhreh River to the southeast of the city of Gachsaran in south-western Iran. The dam and its associated structures are mainly located on the Mishan formation. Analysis consisted of rock mass classification and a kinematic
    analysis of the dam foundation's rock masses. The studies were carried out in the field and the laboratory. The field studies included geological mapping, intensive discontinuity surveying, core drilling and sampling for laboratory testing. Rock mass classifications were made in line with RMR and DMR classification for the dam foundation. Dam foundation analysis regarding stability using DMR classification and kinematic analysis indicated that the left abutment's rock foundation (area 2 was unstable for planar, wedge and toppling failure modes.

  20. The Continental Margin of Morocco: Seismic Sequences, Structural Elements and the Geological Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, K.; Dostmann, H; Fritsch, J.

    1981-01-01

    Seismic sequences, structural elements and the geological development of the Moroccan continental margin, which is subdivided from the south to the north into the North Tarfaya segment, the Tafelney Plateau, the Essaouira segment the Mazagan Plateau, the Prerif segment, are discussed.

  1. Structural geology practice and learning, from the perspective of cognitive science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Thomas F.; Tikoff, Basil; Ormand, Carol; Manduca, Cathy

    2013-09-01

    Spatial ability is required by practitioners and students of structural geology and so, considering spatial skills in the context of cognitive science has the potential to improve structural geology teaching and practice. Spatial thinking skills may be organized using three dichotomies, which can be linked to structural geology practice. First, a distinction is made between separating (attending to part of a whole) and combining (linking together aspects of the whole). While everyone has a basic ability to separate and combine, experts attend to differences guided by experiences of rock properties in context. Second, a distinction is made between seeing the relations among multiple objects as separate items or the relations within a single object with multiple parts. Experts can flexibly consider relations among or between objects to optimally reason about different types of spatial problems. Third, a distinction is made between reasoning about stationary and moving objects. Experts recognize static configurations that encode a movement history, and create mental models of the processes that led to the static state. The observations and inferences made by a geologist leading a field trip are compared with the corresponding observations and inferences made by a cognitive psychologist interested in spatial learning. The presented framework provides a vocabulary for discussing spatial skills both within and between the fields of structural geology and cognitive psychology.

  2. Natural pseudowollastonite: Crystal structure, associated minerals, and geological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Sokol, Ella V.; Kokh, Svetlana N.

    2012-03-01

    Pseudowollastonite, an extremely rare constituent of ultrahigh-temperature combustion metamorphic and igneous rocks, has been found as a rock-forming mineral in Ca-rich paralava veins of Nabi Musa fossil mud volcano (Dead Sea area). Pseudowollastonite-bearing paralavas are the products of combustion metamorphism associated with spontaneous burning of methane. The melt began to crystallize at 1480-1500 °C about the ambient pressure. Pseudowollastonite enters two mineral assemblages: (1) rankinite, larnite, nagelschmidtite, wollastonite (1T), gehlenite-rich melilite, Ti-rich andradite, cuspidine, and fluorapatite; (2) parawollastonite (2M), wollastonite (1T), gehlenite-rich melilite, Ti-rich andradite, fluorellestadite. In this study we present the first single-crystal structure determination of natural pseudowollastonite. Pseudowollastonite from Nabi Musa dome is stoichiometric CaSiO3 and belongs to the most widespread four-layer polytype: a = 6.83556(10) Å, b = 11.86962(18) Å, c = 19.6255(3) Å, ? = 90.6805(13)°, V = 1592.21(4) Å3, space group C2/c. We argue that pseudowollastonite is so scarce in nature because its formation requires joint action of several uncommon factors: availability of hot melts of T > 1200 °C that bear free calcium but are poor in Mg and Fe (mostly as Fe3 +) and their crystallization in the shallow crust followed by quenching.

  3. Evaluation of structural behavior, geological and hydrogeological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study suggests a quantitative evaluation method of joint roughness coefficient (JRC). It was accomplished by using several statistical parameters to the 10 standard profiles. The results show that some of these parameters (Root mean square gradient, Structure function, and Fractal dimension) are suitable to represent the roughness characteristics. With these selected parameters, further studys have succeeded to examine the variance upon scale effect. The result shows that the fractal dimension is the most correlated parameter of all to JRC. The modified empirical equation of shear strength by introducing fractal dimension to determine JRC was suggested. To prove its validity and to examine the applicable limit of the estimated strength by this equation, the values were compared to those obtained in laboratory works. The results show that the quantification procedure for JRC permits more reliable results when the scale effect is considered. The equation which relates normal stress to shear strength of natural joints developed in gneissic rocks is also suggested. This provides inexpensive method to evaluate rock mass porperty and it can be applied to usual engineering practice. (Author)

  4. ICP-MS applications for the analysis of geological materials and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with applications of inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry applications for the analysis of geological materials and environmental samples. There are instrumentation, calibration, alternatives of sample introduction, interferences, trace elements analysis, rare earth elements and uranium and thorium, precious metals, isotopic analysis and environmental analysis discussed

  5. Commentary of Uruguay geological structure - Present status of its mining activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the geological structure of Uruguay and its mining activity. The Rio de la Plata socket basin and the Rivera crystalline island are the oldest geochronological structures in Uruguay. This unit represents the 60% of the crystalline field and belongs to the Uruguay orogenetic Precambrian cycle. In the north there are sedimentary rocks and granites of the Upper Precambrian period.The mining and processing of marble, granite, agate, amethyst and metallic minerals are declared of national interest

  6. Structural analysis for diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem of...

  7. Structural analysis for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...

  8. Examples in structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    McKenzie, William MC

    2006-01-01

    Structural analysis is a core subject for civil and structural engineering undergraduates, and a challenging one. This new textbook provides a comprehensive and extensive collection of worked examples, showing students how to analyze different types of structures. Each of the principal analysis techniques inherent in the design process are summarized and their uses are illustrated using numerous, fully worked and graded examples of international application, since it is not dependent on design codes. Where appropriate, detailed mathematical concepts are explained and integrated within the text

  9. Study of gamma ray analysis software's. Application to activation analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative evaluation of the gamma-ray analysis software VISPECT, in relation to two commercial gamma-ray analysis software packages, OMNIGAM (EG and G Ortec) and SAMPO 90 (Canberra) was performed. For this evaluation, artificial gamma ray spectra were created, presenting peaks of different intensities and located at four different regions of the spectrum. Multiplet peaks with equal and different intensities, but with different channel separations, were also created. The results obtained showed a good performance of VISPECT in detecting and analysing single and multiplet peaks of different intensities in the gamma-ray spectrum. Neutron activation analysis of the geological reference material GS-N (IWG-GIT) and of the granite G-94, used in a Proficiency Testing Trial of Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories, was also performed , in order to evaluate the VISEPCT software in the analysis of real samples. The results obtained by using VISPECT were as good or better than the ones obtained using the other programs. (author)

  10. Enhanced recovery of subsurface geological structures using compressed sensing and the Ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2015-07-26

    Recovering information on subsurface geological features, such as flow channels, holds significant importance for optimizing the productivity of oil reservoirs. The flow channels exhibit high permeability in contrast to low permeability rock formations in their surroundings, enabling formulation of a sparse field recovery problem. The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation of subsurface parameters, such as permeability. However, the EnKF often fails to recover and preserve the channel structures during the estimation process. Compressed Sensing (CS) has shown to significantly improve the reconstruction quality when dealing with such problems. We propose a new scheme based on CS principles to enhance the reconstruction of subsurface geological features by transforming the EnKF estimation process to a sparse domain representing diverse geological structures. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed scheme provides an efficient mechanism to incorporate and preserve structural information in the estimation process and results in significant enhancement in the recovery of flow channel structures.

  11. Mapping Geological Structures In Wadi Ghoweibaarea, Northwest Gulf Of Suez, Egypt, Using Aster-Spot Data Fusion And Aster DEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical and economical constraints prompt the need of obtaining lithological and structural information for development of desert areas with reduced field effort. The fusion of multi-sensor satellite data is an effective mean of exploiting the complimentary nature of different data types. This technique allows fusion of spectral-spectral information of multi-source data with high accuracy. In the present study, fusion of SPOT and ASTER data was applied to test the potentiality of this technique in mapping geological formations and structural lineaments in Wadi Ghoweiba area, to the west of the northwestern tip of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. ASTER data is characterized by a wide range of spectral bands (14 bands), while SPOT panchromatic data is characterized by high (10 meters) spatial resolution. Based on spectral characteristic analysis (SCA) of the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands of ASTER data, two false-color band-ratio images (1/3, 2/5, and 4/ 9) and (1/5, 8/9, and 4/6) in R, G, B were produced for better lithological discrimination. SPOT panchromatic image data was fused with ASTER band ratio images data using principal component (PC) and color normalization or Brovey transformation techniques. The fused images proved to be excellent for lithological discrimination. ASTER data includes bands 3N (Nadir) and 3B (Backward) that are acquired in the spectral range of near infrared region (from 0.78 to 0.86 microns) allowing extraction of digital elevation model (DEM). Three-dimensional perspective views were generated by draping SPOT-ASTER ratio fused images over ASTER DEM. This technique was used to enhance morphologically-defined structures. The fused images and the 3D perspective views were interpreted to produce a photo geological-structural map that was verified using the available geological maps and subsequent field check. The produced photo geological map indicates that fusion of SPOT and ASTER ratio image's data is a reliable technique for geological mapping especially in remote and inaccessible areas

  12. Changing concepts of geologic structure and the problem of siting nuclear reactors: examples from Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conflict between regulation and healthy evolution of geological science has contributed to the difficulties of siting nuclear reactors. On the Columbia Plateau in Washington, but for conservative design of the Hanford reactor facility, the recognition of the little-understood Olympic-Wallowa lineament as a major, possibly still active structural alignment might have jeopardized the acceptability of the site for nuclear reactors. On the Olympic Peninsula, evolving concepts of compressive structures and their possible recent activity and the current recognition of a subducting Juan de Fuca plate and its potential for generating great earthquakes - both concepts little-considered during initial site selection - may delay final acceptance of the Satsop site. Conflicts of this sort are inevitable but can be accommodated if they are anticipated in the reactor-licensing process. More important, society should be increasing its store of geologic knowledge now, during the current recess in nuclear reactor siting

  13. Investigations for the optimization of the analysis of geological samples by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work an attempt has been made to optimize conditions of sample of preparation and sample form for the analysis of some geological samples using X RF. The results obtained confirmed that pellet form is best in sample preparation for X RF analysis. It was also shown that the best pressure to apply in the pressing machine for obtaining such a pellet is 15 ton.The computer software used for analysis of the samples was QAES prepared by Kump. The calibration performed was based on the geological standard G 308. The results obtained for the analysis of some geological samples using the optimum sample preparation conditions and the performed calibration were in good agreement with results independently determined for the same samples using chemical methods. (Author)

  14. Development of computer assisted system for analysis management in the performance assessment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer assisted system for analysis management CAPASA (Computer Assisted Performance Assessment System Analysis) has been developed to insure quality of performance assessment (PA) calculations for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. CAPASA is an integrated system for assembling and executing systems of analysis codes and data sets for the purpose of PA. It provides a graphical user interface which allows the analyst to assemble the direction of flow of data and sequences of execution of the analysis code. Also, CAPASA automatically controls the relation among the used codes and input/output files used in PA calculations to ensure reproducibility and traceability of PA calculations. Input/output data sets and used libraries with auxiliary information are maintained in the system in the form of hierarchical structure. Therefore, an object-oriented method has been introduced in order to efficiently realize CAPASA's function. The use of an integrated computer system like CAPASA is very effective to improve the quality and efficiency of PA calculations. (author)

  15. TI-Octree: Índice espacial para estructuras geológicas TI-Octree: Spatial index for geological structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Dangel Quesada Rodriguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La modelación y visualización en tres dimensiones de estructuras geológicas es una de las actividades fundamentales realizadas en la industria minera. Los mineros y geólogos deben mantener un control exhaustivo del volumen de extracción de los minerales de un yacimiento, utilizando generalmente programas de cómputo para procesar la información obtenida. En la minería un yacimiento mineral es habitualmente representado por un modelo de bloques y este modelo debe respetar la morfología de las estructuras geológicas. Para modelar las estructuras geológicas y los volúmenes de extracción de mineral se utilizan mallas de tetraedros. La malla de tetraedros es una estructura espacial  que, por sus características, permite modelar las estructuras geológicas en la rama de la geología y la minería, facilitando el cálculo del volumen del sólido. Con el objetivo de mejorar el rendimiento en la búsqueda de tetraedros dada una región determinada del espacio, el presente artículo propone la implementación de una estructura de datos espaciales para indexar la malla de tetraedros, realizando pruebas que permiten obtener como conclusión que el tiempo de búsqueda de la propuesta realizada disminuye en comparación con el tiempo de búsqueda en una estructura lineal.Modeling and visualization of three-dimensional geological structures is one of the main activities in the mining industry. Miners and geologists most maintain an exhaustive control of the extracted volume of mineral of a deposit, using computer programs for processing the obtained information. In the mining process, a mineral deposit is commonly represented by a block model, which represents the morphology of the laying geological structures. For modeling those geological structures and the volume of extracted mineral they use tetrahedral networks. The tetrahedral network is an spatial structure that, given it characteristics, allows modeling geological structures in the fields of mining and geology, making easier the volume calculus. Aiming to improve the tetrahedral search process given an spatial region,  this work  presents a proposal of one spatial data structure for indexing tetrahedral networks, demonstrating by some experiments that the searching time over this proposal is less compared with the searching time over a linear structure.

  16. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fi?ne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in the zones where sudden changes of inclination and/or thickness of the coal seam.

  17. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110o - 130o E the direction and 60o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  18. Engineering geological assessment and structural comparison of the Vollan and Ivasnasen rock slopes at Sunndal, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Dreiås, Gudrun Majala

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis has interest in analyzing the two unstable rock slopes Ivasnasen and Vollan. These rock slopes are located in a U-shaped valley in Sunndal municipally (Møre & Romsdal, western Norway). The analyses are based on a combined approach using detailed geomorphic, structural and geological field mapping. This along with interpretation of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM) and orthophotos, LIDAR-scans from one of the sites (Ivasnasen 2010 and 2011), numerical a...

  19. 3D geological structure of Le Danois basin (North Iberian Margin) between 3° and 5° W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas, Patricia; Fernández-Viejo, Gabriela; Gallastegui, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    This study shows a 3D geological interpretation of Le Danois Basin from the analysis of a dense set of high quality seismic reflection profiles together with boreholes, well logs and previous studies. The available data were acquired for oil exploration purposes in the North Iberian Margin, an extensional margin, separated from the Armorican counterpart during the opening of the Bay of Biscay in the Mesozoic. This margin was moderately inverted during the Alpine orogeny, when the Cantabrian-Pyrenean realm was formed in the North of the Iberian Peninsula and the Bay of Biscay was partially closed. Well data compilation and correlation led to the recognition of different stratigraphic units. The average velocity was deduced from sonic log tests, allowing the correlation with the seismic horizons, in order to obtain a 3D geological model of the studied area. The results show a deep trench filled with a thick mesozoic sequence uncorfomably covered by the cenozoic materials. The stratigraphic sequences, distinguished by their reflectivity patterns, geometrical relationships and structural features, show evidence of the three main tectonic events: 1) the extensional regional period from Permian to Upper Cretaceous, whose main recognizable structures are normal faults and asymmetric basins, filled by the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous synrift deposits which uncorfomably overlays the Lower to Middle Jurassic prerift materials; 2) the Upper Cretaceous passive margin stage, depicted by the formation of constant thickness deposits; 3) the Alpine compressional period, when reverse faults and related folds were formed by the inversion and reactivation of the previous extensional ones, at the same time that the Oligocene to Middle Eocene synorogenic material were deposited in minor basins, and diapirs were squeezed. From the structural patterns and spatial distribution of the stratigraphic sequences, three main domains, limited by four major normal faults, can be differentiated: 1) the southernmost area, where a minor trench is formed in relationship with a major inverted normal fault. It is filled by a thick sequence of cenozoic synorogenic deposits which uncorfomably overlays the thin extensional one; 2) the Asturian basin, a deep and wide trench filled by a thick sequence of synrift deposits, with a maximum thickness of about 5000 meters at the depocenter, which gradually decreases up to 1000 meters towards the edges, covered by the synorogenic materials, with a maximum thickness of 500 meters in the syncline structures which gradually decrease towards the anticlines, formed as a result of the fault inversion and diapir squeezing; 3) Le Danois Basin, a minor graben located in the northernmost edge, limited by a major horst structure and Le Danois High. The extensional basins geometry and the thrust emplacement cause a gradual uplift of the basement and the sedimentary sequence towards Le Danois High, where local erosional truncations, onlap geometries and unconformable surfaces are developed within the cenozoic syntectonic deposit.

  20. Analysis of spent fuel performance in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Analytical REpository Source-Term (AREST) code developed for the US Department of Energy is being used to assess the time-dependent release rate of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel disposed in geologic repositories. The Waste Package Release (WPR) submodule of AREST calculates the release from individual waste packages containing spent fuel based on site-specific design, solubility, corrosion, sorption, and mass transfer data. Under the open system conditions of a repository, there are two limiting release mechanisms: surface reaction control and transport control. In addition, a separate release case is defined for soluble radionuclides that are inventory limited. Mass transfer equations for each of these processes are incorporated into AREST. Four separate sources are identified in the AREST code based on inventory and release mechanism: UO2 matrix (transport limited), gap (inventory limited), grain boundary (inventory limited, combined with gap), and cladding (transport limited). The calculated release of nuclides contained in the matrix (> 90% of the entire inventory) is controlled by UO2 solubility or the solubility of a nuclide-bearing phase, whichever is lower

  1. Analysis of spent-fuel performance in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Analytical REpository Source-Term (AREST) code developed for the U.S. Department of Energy is being used to assess the time-dependent release rate of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel disposed in geologic repositories. The Waste Package Release (WPR) submodule of AREST calculates the release from individual waste packages containing spent fuel based on site-specific design, solubility, corrosion, sorption, and mass transfer data. Under the open-system conditions of a repository, there are two limiting release mechanisms: surface-reaction control and transport control. In addition, a separate release case is defined for soluble radionuclides that are inventory-limited. Mass transfer equations for each of these processes are incorporated into AREST. Four separate sources are identified in the AREST code based on inventory and release mechanism: UO/sub 2/ matrix (transport-limited), gap (inventory-limited), grain boundary (inventory-limited, combined with gap), and cladding (transport-limited). The calculated release of nuclides contained in the matrix (>90% of the entire inventory) is controlled by UO/sub 2/ solubility of the solubility of a nuclide-bearing phase, whichever is lower

  2. Capturing Intuition Through Interactive Inverse Methods: Examples Drawn From Mechanical Non-Linearities in Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, L.; May, D.; Peachey, T.; Enticott, C.; Abramson, D.; Robinson, T.

    2004-12-01

    Can you teach intuition ? Obviously we think that this is possible (though it's still just a hunch). People undoubtedly develop intuition for non-linear systems through painstaking repetition of complex tasks until they have sufficient feedback to begin to "see" the emergent behaviour. The better the exploration of the system can be exposed, the quicker the potential for developing an intuitive understanding. We have spent some time considering how to incorporate the intuitive knowledge of field geologists into mechanical modeling of geological processes. Our solution has been to allow expert geologist to steer (via a GUI) a genetic algorithm inversion of a mechanical forward model towards "structures" or patterns which are plausible in nature. The expert knowledge is then captured by analysis of the individual model parameters which are constrained by the steering (and by analysis of those which are unconstrained). The same system can also be used in reverse to expose the influence of individual parameters to the non-expert who is trying to learn just what does make a good match between model and observation. The ``distance'' between models preferred by experts, and those by an individual can be shown graphically to provide feedback. The examples we choose are from numerical models of extensional basins. We will first try to give each person some background information on the scientific problem from the poster and then we will let them loose on the numerical modeling tools with specific tasks to achieve. This will be an experiment in progress - we will later analyse how people use the GUI and whether there is really any significant difference between so-called experts and self-styled novices.

  3. Structural geology mapping using PALSAR data in the Bau gold mining district, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-08-01

    The application of optical remote sensing data for geological mapping is difficult in the tropical environment. The persistent cloud coverage, dominated vegetation in the landscape and limited bedrock exposures are constraints imposed by the tropical climate. Structural geology investigations that are searching for epithermal or polymetallic vein-type ore deposits can be developed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data in tropical/sub-tropical regions. The Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo has been selected for this study. The Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits, but gold mineralization at Bau is much more structurally controlled. Geological analyses coupled with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing data were used to detect structural elements associated with gold mineralization. The PALSAR data were used to perform lithological-structural mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Structural elements were detected along the SSW to NNE trend of the Tuban fault zone and Tai Parit fault that corresponds to the areas of occurrence of the gold mineralization in the Bau Limestone. Most of quartz-gold bearing veins occur in high-angle faults, fractures and joints within massive units of the Bau Limestone. The results show that four deformation events (D1-D4) in the structures of the Bau district and structurally controlled gold mineralization indicators, including faults, joints and fractures are detectable using PALSAR data at both regional and district scales. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide preliminary information for exploration potentially interesting areas of epithermal or polymetallic vein-type mineralization using the PALSAR data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions.

  4. Structural and Geologic Mapping of Southern Tellus Regio, Venus: Implications for Crustal Plateau Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, Melanie

    Crustal plateau formation on Venus is subject to animated debate, centered on plateau support and resulting surface deformation. Detailed mapping provides critical clues for plateau evolution. Southern Tellus Regio records broadly synchronous formation of contractional and extensional structures, accompanied by deposition of flood material. Short-wavelength folds occur across the entire plateau, the extent of which has previously been undocumented. Generally the early-formed structures record a high structural fluidity, marked by variable orientation of structures or juxtaposition of neighboring structural suites. This interpretation of the geologic history of the region indicates the necessity of an extremely high geothermal gradient and provides a means to evaluate the different crustal plateau hypotheses. The mantle downwelling, mantle upwelling, and pulsating continents hypotheses fail to accommodate the surface features recorded in this study. However, the lava pond hypothesis provides a suitable hypothesis of crustal plateau formation that accommodates structural elements recorded in this study.

  5. Geologic and morphological structure of the Bell region (a photographic map of the surface of Venus, plate V-23)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four geologic and morphological units have been distinguished within the plate: (1) relics of complexes predating the plains; (2) banded plains; (3) smooth plains; and (4) volcanic and tectonic complexes. The Bell rise includes several individual large volcanic structures. Besides, faults of different directions and meteorite craters have been interpreted. The history of the region's geological development has been briefly examined

  6. Introduction to Journal of Structural Geology special issue on "Deformation of the lithosphere. How small structures tell a big story"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintubin, Manuel; de Bresser, Hans; Drury, Martyn; Prior, David J.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2015-02-01

    This special issue Deformation of the Lithosphere. How small structures tell a big story is dedicated to Professor Henk Zwart (1924-2012). The theme is inspired by Henk's retirement lecture entitled Mountains must indeed be studied with a microscope (19 February 1988). Henk Zwart was a pioneer in linking microstructural research with the large-scale issues concerning lithospheric rheology and deformation. The famous Zwart's Hen House, representing the nine diagnostic relationships of porphyroblast growth with respect to the timing of deformation, is still a key element in contemporary textbooks on structural geology and microtectonics. This particular insight may not have occurred if it wasn't for a mistake made by the thin-section maker in the Leiden lab of Henk Zwart. By accident a thin section of a Pyrenean metamorphic rock was made, not perpendicular to the lineation - as was the standard procedure in those early days of structural geology - but parallel to the lineation. That mistake and Henk's recognition that the lineation parallel view gave more useful information changed structural geology and microtectonics.

  7. Structural analysis of DAEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    2002-01-01

    Differential algebraic equations (DAEs) constitute a fundamental model class for many modelling purposes in engineering and other sciences, especially for dynamical simulation of component based systems. This thesis describes a practical methodology and approach for analysing general DAE. The methodology is mainly based on strutural index analysis which is not limited by the index of the DAE as other methodologies. As a result of structural index analysis one can perform index reduction of the DAE and obtain the so-called augmented underlying ODE. It is also described, how to use the augmented underlying ODE for finding consistent initial values and solve the initial value problem for the original DAE. As a methodology for integrating the augmented underlying ODE, the dummy derivative method is investigated. The methodology avoids the traditional stability and drift-of problems of using the underlying ODE. The investigations concern the identification of quantities that can trigger the automatic choice of new dummy derivatives during integration. This is a practical problem that needs to be solved before implementations of the method are possible. The general methodology is tested in practice, by the implementation of the Simpy tool box. This is an object oriented system implemented in the Python language. It can be used for analysis of DAEs, ODEs and non-linear equation and uses e.g. symbolic representations of expressions and equations. The presentations of theory and algorithms for structural index analysis of DAE is original in the sense that it is based on a new matrix representation of the structural information of a general DAE system instead of a graph oriented representation. Also the presentation of the theory is found to be more complete compared to other presentations, since it e.g. proves the uniqueness of the structural index reduction process. Also included, is a discussion of criticism and defence of structural analysis.

  8. COI Structural Analysis Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Todd; Stahl, H. Philip (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses the structural analysis of the Next Generation Space Telescope Mirror System Demonstrator (NMSD) developed by Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) in support of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) project. The mirror was submitted to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for cryogenic testing and evaluation. Once at MSFC, the mirror was lowered to approximately 40 K and the optical surface distortions were measured. Alongside this experiment, an analytical model was developed and used to compare to the test results. A NASTRAN finite element model was provided by COI and a thermal model was developed from it. Using the thermal model, steady state nodal temperatures were calculated based on the predicted environment of the large cryogenic test chamber at MSFC. This temperature distribution was applied in the structural analysis to solve for the deflections of the optical surface. Finally, these deflections were submitted for optical analysis and comparison to the interferometer test data.

  9. Bedrock geology of snyderville basin: Structural geology techniques applied to understanding the hydrogeology of a rapidly developing region, Summit County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighley, K.E.; Yonkee, W.A.; Ashland, F.X.; Evans, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The availability of ground water is a problem for many communities throughout the west. As these communities continue to experience growth, the initial allocation of ground water supplies proves inadequate and may force restrictions on existing, and future, development plans. Much of this new growth relies on ground water supplies extracted from fractured bedrock aquifers. An example of a community faced with this problem is western Summit County, near Park City, Utah, This area has experienced significant water shortages coupled with a 50% growth rate in the past 10-15 years. Recent housing development rests directly on complexly deformed Triassic to Jurassic sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of the Mount Raymond-Absaroka thrust system. The primary fractured bedrock aquifers are the Nugget Sandstone, and limestones in the Thaynes and Twin Creek Formations. Ground water production and management strategies can be improved if the geometry of the structures and the flow properties of the fractured and folded bedrock can be established. We characterize the structures that may influence ground water flow at two sites: the Pinebrook and Summit Park subdivisions, which demonstrate abrupt changes (less than 1 mi/1.6 km) within the hydrogeologic systems. Geologic mapping at scales of 1:4500 (Pinebrook) and 1:9600 (Summit Park), scanline fracture mapping at the outcrop scale, geologic cross sections, water well data, and structural analysis, provides a clearer picture of the hydrogeologic setting of the aquifers in this region, and has been used to successfully site wells. In the Pinebrook area, the dominate map-scale structures of the area is the Twomile Canyon anticline, a faulted box-like to conical anticline. Widely variable bedding orientations suggest that the fold is segmented and is non-cylindrical and conical on the western limb with a fold axis that plunges to the northwest and also to the southeast, and forms a box-type fold between the middle and eastern limbs with a fold axis that plunges to the northeast. The fold is cut by several faults including the Toll Canyon fault, which we interpret as a west-directed folded hanging-wall splay off the east-directed Mt. Raymond thrust. These complex geometries may be due to at least two phases of deformation. Results from outcrop analyses show that the fractured bedrock aquifers are lithologically heterogeneous, anisotropic, and compartmentalized. Two exposures of the Toll Canyon fault show that even though the fault cores may be thin, extensive damage zones develop in the Nugget Sandstone and Thaynes Limestone, and shale smears form in the Triassic shales. The damaged zones may be regions of enhanced fracture permeability, whereas the shale smears act as flow barriers. The orientation, density, and hydrogeologic characteristics for predominate fracture sets vary within meters. In the Summit Park area, chronic water shortages required new wells to be sited in the northeast-plunging Summit Park anticline. The anticline experienced two phases of folding and at least one episode of faulting. Structural analysis of the fold defined the geometry of the structure, and a down plunge projection along the fold hinge was used to estimate the location of the Nugget Sandstone at a depth of 700 ft (213 m). The crestal region of the anticline was drilled in order to intercept regions of higher fracture density in the fold. The test well penetrated the Nugget Sandstone at 698 ft depth, and two production wells with long-term yields of 120 and 180 gpm completed. One well in the Sliderock Member (Twin Creek Formation) experiences seasonal fluctuations whereas production in the Nugget sandstone has only subdued seasonal variations, suggesting the Nugget may have great storage. Complex structures work against the typical basin yield approach for water budgets, therefore, water supply estimates may benefit from detailed studies within local areas. The results of this study demonstrate how tradition

  10. Structural design requirements and safety evaluation criteria of the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister for deep geological deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, structural design requirements and safety evaluation criteria of the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister are studied for deep geological deposition. Since the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister emits high temperature heats and much radiation, its careful treatment is required. For that, a long term (usually 10,000 years) safe repository for the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister should be secured. Usually this repository is expected to locate at a depth of 500m underground. The canister which is designed for the spent nuclear fuel disposal in a deep repository in the crystalline bedrock is a solid structure with cast iron insert, corrosion resistant overpack and lid and bottom, and entails an evenly distributed load of hydrostatic pressure from underground water and high pressure from swelling of bentonite buffer. Hence, the canister must be designed to withstand these high pressure loads. If the canister is not designed for all possible external loads combinations, structural defects such as plastic deformations, cracks, and buckling etc. may occur in the canister during depositing it in the deep repository. Therefore, various structural analyses must be performed to predict these structural problems like plastic deformations, cracks, and buckling. Structural safety evaluation criteria of the canister are studied and defined for the validity of the canister design prior to the structural analysis of the canister. And structural design requirements(variables) which affect the structural safety evaluation criteria should be discussed and defined clearly

  11. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in hardrock regions of northern Tirunelveli district, southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Senthilkumar; R Arumugam; D Gnanasundar; D S C Thambi; E Sampath Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Geological and structural influences on groundwater flow and quality were evaluated in the present study in the hardrock regions of Tirunelveli District, southern India. Groundwater is a major source of freshwater in this region to cater to the requirements of domestic and agricultural activity, as there are no surface water resources. Geologically, the area is characterized by charnockites and garnetiferous biotite gneiss. Groundwater in this region is found to occur in the weathered portion under unconfined condition and in fractured/fissured portions under unconfined to semi-confined condition. Existence of deep-seated fractures are minimal. Lineaments/dykes play a major role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater in the region. Lineaments/dykes of the study area can be broadly divided into two types: north–south and west–east oriented structures. Analysis and field observations revealed that the north–south dykes act as a barrier of groundwater while the west–east oriented structures behave as a carrier of groundwater. Both quality and quantity of groundwater is different on the upstream and downstream sides of the dyke. Hence, it is conclusive that the west–east oriented dykes in this region are highly potential and act as a conduit for groundwater movement from recharge areas to the discharge area.

  12. A relation among geology, tectonics, and velocity structure, western to central Nevada Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the northwestern to central Nevada Basin and Range, there are correlations between velocity and specific geologic structures of the crust. Mapped range-bounding faults at the surface can be traced to appreciable (10km) depths based on velocity variations and are consistent with subsurface projections of the faults based on seismic reflection images. Correlations between velocity and the surface geology show that in the upper crust the pre-Cenozoic rocks are underlain by high-velocity rocks, whereas the Tertiary ranges are underlain by lower-velocity rocks to depths as great as 10 km. The regional seismicity pattern is consistent with this interpretation, as earthquakes are largely confined within or near the base of the low-velocity rocks. These low-velocity, highly fractured rocks are laterally distributed in discrete zones, suggesting that extension is not uniformly distributed but occurs in discrete, highly extended zones. -from Author

  13. Method of magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. Experimental measurements for geologic structures determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the safety of a deep geologic repository for dangerous materials requires the knowledge of the interstitial system of the surrounding host rock. A method is proposed for the determination of geologic structures (in particular fractures) from the magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated using a SQUID magneto-gradient meter. A measurement tool using a new magnetic susceptibility captor and a testing bench have been developed. This tool allows the measurement of rocks with a magnetic susceptibility greater than 10-5 SI units and can generate magnetic susceptibility maps with 4 x 4 mm2 pixels. A magnetic visibility criterion has been defined which allows to foresee if a structure is visible or not. According to the measurements done, it is shown that any centimeter-scale structure with a sufficient magnetic contrast (20%) with respect to the matrix is visible. Therefore, the dip and the orientation of such structure can be determined with a 3 degree and a 5 degree precision, respectively. The position of the structure along the core axis is known with a 4 mm precision. On the other hand, about half of the magnetic contrasts observed do not correspond to the visual analyses and can be explained by very small variations of the mineralogic composition. This last point offers some interesting ways for future research using magnetic susceptibility mapping. (J.S.). 31 refs., 90 figs., 18 tabs., 2 photos., 6 appends

  14. Structural dynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housner, J. M.; Anderson, M.; Belvin, W.; Horner, G.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic analysis of large space antenna systems must treat the deployment as well as vibration and control of the deployed antenna. Candidate computer programs for deployment dynamics, and issues and needs for future program developments are reviewed. Some results for mast and hoop deployment are also presented. Modeling of complex antenna geometry with conventional finite element methods and with repetitive exact elements is considered. Analytical comparisons with experimental results for a 15 meter hoop/column antenna revealed the importance of accurate structural properties including nonlinear joints. Slackening of cables in this antenna is also a consideration. The technology of designing actively damped structures through analytical optimization is discussed and results are presented.

  15. Geologic segregation of radioactive wastes: probabilistic analysis of scenari of 'Far Field' type for containment breakings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range of events which could lead to a breaking of the geologic barrier is large and heterogeneous. Reliable evaluations on storage security can not be made using one methodology. The change of initial geologic conditions, due to the presence of deposit in the formation ask for carefull studies, mainly of experimental nature (in laboratory and in site). Although geologic events are variable, they can be treated in term of probability, once the starting hypotheses allow to consider them as stochastic. At this moment, the utilization of probabilistic techniques such as the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) allows the identification of several breaking scenari which eventually may be used as a starting point for the consequences analysis

  16. Structured Analysis - IDEF0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    require a modelling technique for the analysis, development, re-engineering, integration, or acquisition of information systems; and incorporate a systems or enterprise modelling technique into a business process analysis or software engineering methodology.This note is a summary of the Standard for......This note introduces the IDEF0 modelling language (semantics and syntax), and associated rules and techniques, for developing structured graphical representations of a system or enterprise. Use of this standard for IDEF0 permits the construction of models comprising system functions (activities...

  17. TBR-2 structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the structural analysis developed during the TBR-2 tokamak project studies. Starting with electromagnetic interaction forces on each, toroidal and poloidal coils many structural calculations have been carried out using locally developed usual E.M. interaction codes and a finite element method stress code. Following the analysis it has been determined that there is radially inward force of 1235 kN and overturning torque of 243 kNm acting on toroidal coils. This stress and displacements due to in plane loads have been calculated using a finite element code which show that the maximum stress of 240 MPa and displacement of 0.21 mm can be present at the inner part of the toroidal field coil. (Author)

  18. Computational engine structural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Johns, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    A significant research activity at the NASA Lewis Research Center is the computational simulation of complex multidisciplinary engine structural problems. This simulation is performed using computational engine structural analysis (CESA) which consists of integrated multidisciplinary computer codes in conjunction with computer post-processing for problem-specific application. A variety of the computational simulations of specific cases are described in some detail in this paper. These case studies include: (1) aeroelastic behavior of bladed rotors, (2) high velocity impact of fan blades, (3) blade-loss transient response, (4) rotor/stator/squeeze-film/bearing interaction, (5) blade-fragment/rotor-burst containment, and (6) structural behavior of advanced swept turboprops. These representative case studies are selected to demonstrate the breath of the problems analyzed and the role of the computer including post-processing and graphical display of voluminous output data.

  19. Structural genomics: Computational methods for structure analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith-Fischman, Sharon; Honig, Barry

    2003-01-01

    The success of structural genomics initiatives requires the development and application of tools for structure analysis, prediction, and annotation. In this paper we review recent developments in these areas; specifically structure alignment, the detection of remote homologs and analogs, homology modeling and the use of structures to predict function. We also discuss various rationales for structural genomics initiatives. These include the structure-based clustering of sequence space and geno...

  20. Adaptive Multi-Resolution Data Structure for Large-Scale Visualization and Modeling of Multi-Scale Geological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezolainen, A.; Vasilyev, O.; Yuen, D.; Erlebacher, G.

    2004-12-01

    Numerical modeling of geological phenomena frequently requires dealing with processes of significantly different scales. Wavelets provide a convenient and efficient approach to resolving such processes, which would be hard-pressed to be solved by conventional finite-difference techniques. The system of nonlinear partial differential equations can be solved on an adaptive grid using wavelet based algorithms. The relevant features of the obtained datasets can be efficiently extracted by wavelet-based visualization and analysis tools. However, the efficiency of visualization tools as well as the efficiency of adaptive solvers strongly depends on the access time to the large datasets. We are presenting an effective data-structure for multi-resolution adaptive grids. Tree-like structure provides rapid access to the grid nodes both in sequential and parallel implementations.

  1. Automated grid generation from models of complex geologic structure and stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, C.; Trease, H.; Cherry, T.

    1996-04-01

    The construction of computational grids which accurately reflect complex geologic structure and stratigraphy for flow and transport models poses a formidable task. With an understanding of stratigraphy, material properties and boundary and initial conditions, the task of incorporating this data into a numerical model can be difficult and time consuming. Most GIS tools for representing complex geologic volumes and surfaces are not designed for producing optimal grids for flow and transport computation. We have developed a tool, GEOMESH, for generating finite element grids that maintain the geometric integrity of input volumes, surfaces, and geologic data and produce an optimal (Delaunay) tetrahedral grid that can be used for flow and transport computations. GEOMESH also satisfies the constraint that the geometric coupling coefficients of the grid are positive for all elements. GEOMESH generates grids for two dimensional cross sections, three dimensional regional models, represents faults and fractures, and has the capability of including finer grids representing tunnels and well bores into grids. GEOMESH also permits adaptive grid refinement in three dimensions. The tools to glue, merge and insert grids together demonstrate how complex grids can be built from simpler pieces. The resulting grid can be utilized by unstructured finite element or integrated finite difference computational physics codes.

  2. Comparing Geologic Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping: Desert Rats Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wanda; Evans, Cynthia; Gruener, John; Eppler, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Geologic mapping involves interpreting relationships between identifiable units and landforms to understand the formative history of a region. Traditional field techniques are used to accomplish this on Earth. Mapping proves more challenging for other planets, which are studied primarily by orbital remote sensing and, less frequently, by robotic and human surface exploration. Systematic comparative assessments of geologic maps created by traditional mapping versus photogeology together with data from planned traverses are limited. The objective of this project is to produce a geologic map from data collected on the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 analog mission using Apollo-style traverses in conjunction with remote sensing data. This map is compared with a geologic map produced using standard field techniques.

  3. Structural Analysis Made 'NESSUSary'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Everywhere you look, chances are something that was designed and tested by a computer will be in plain view. Computers are now utilized to design and test just about everything imaginable, from automobiles and airplanes to bridges and boats, and elevators and escalators to streets and skyscrapers. Computer-design engineering first emerged in the 1970s, in the automobile and aerospace industries. Since computers were in their infancy, however, architects and engineers during the time were limited to producing only designs similar to hand-drafted drawings. (At the end of 1970s, a typical computer-aided design system was a 16-bit minicomputer with a price tag of $125,000.) Eventually, computers became more affordable and related software became more sophisticated, offering designers the "bells and whistles" to go beyond the limits of basic drafting and rendering, and venture into more skillful applications. One of the major advancements was the ability to test the objects being designed for the probability of failure. This advancement was especially important for the aerospace industry, where complicated and expensive structures are designed. The ability to perform reliability and risk assessment without using extensive hardware testing is critical to design and certification. In 1984, NASA initiated the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project at Glenn Research Center to develop analysis methods and computer programs for the probabilistic structural analysis of select engine components for current Space Shuttle and future space propulsion systems. NASA envisioned that these methods and computational tools would play a critical role in establishing increased system performance and durability, and assist in structural system qualification and certification. Not only was the PSAM project beneficial to aerospace, it paved the way for a commercial risk- probability tool that is evaluating risks in diverse, down- to-Earth application

  4. The geological structures of gas hydrate occurrence in big gas field of the northern slope of South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.; Wang, X.; Dong, D. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Qingdao (China). Inst. of Oceanology; Zhang, G.; Gong, Y. [Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, Guangzhou (China)

    2008-07-01

    The passive continental margin in the northern South China Sea is a weakly active area. It has been found to be favorable for large gas field development and also to be profitable for gas hydrate. The active faults, diapir structure, slump deposits, faults break of slopes, gas chimneys and sandstone of submarine fan, control the concentration of gas hydrate. Gas chimneys are widely distributed in the northern South China Sea. They supply the pathway for migration of deeper gas to gas hydrate stability zones especially in the basin of tectonic inactive zone. This paper discussed the geological structures of gas hydrate occurrence in gas fields and presented a detailed analysis of gas chimneys within the northern slope of the South China Sea. The paper described the geological setting of the Qiongdongnan Basin and provided information on the data description and processing. Two multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles were used for the study. In order to identify the characteristics of gas chimneys, the paper discussed the calculation of the ratio of sandstone and mud by using interval velocity. The controls and method of gas migration process in a depositional basin were also studied using fluid potential analyses. Gas chimneys and bottom simulating reflectors were also examined and gas chimneys were identified by joint application of seismic facies interpretation, interval velocity anomalies and well logs. It was concluded that the fluid migration history was complex due to interrelation of tectonic features and sedimentary bodies. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Mass-movement, geologic structure and morphologic evolution of the Pizzotto Greci slope (Calabria, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorriso-Valvo, Marino; Gullà, Giovanni; Antronico, Loredana; Tansi, Carlo; Amelio, Maria

    1999-10-01

    Deep-seated mass-movements of different types affect the Pizzotto-Greci slope in northwest Calabria, Italy. The slope is carved out of phyllitic rocks capped by gneissic layers. Its geological structure is extremely complicated by tectonic structures that pervasively cross the slope transversely and downslope. A large-scale gravitational deformation of sackung type affects the slope. On the upslope side a debris-flow source area feeds a large fan constructed by recurrent debris-flow deposits. Aggradation is consequently occurring along the stream at the base of the slope. In order to define the internal structure of the slope for a stability slope model, geological, geostructural, geomorphological, historical and dendrogeomorphologic studies, as well as direct geotechnical logs and indirect geophysical investigations have been carried out over a two-year project financed by the EC Environment Programme. The main aspects of the geological and geomorphological studies and some preliminary geotechnical data are presented here, along with a conceptual model aimed at describing the relationships between the mass-movements on the slope and the construction/destruction stages of the fan at the base of the slope. The model is based on the assumption that aggradation has a stabilising effect on the slope, thus debris-flow activity is reduced and, consequently, destruction of the fan occurs, bringing the slope again towards unstable conditions. The reactivation of mass-movement, however, leads to the reconstruction of the fan and the buttressing effect at the base of the slope is restored. Thus, the process is cyclic and self-regulating.

  6. X-ray fluorescence analysis in geological and geochemical investigations (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The x-ray fluorescence (XRF) method is characterized by a high degree of automation, productivity, reproducibility, and accuracy. However, in terms of detectibility limits, XRF is inferior to several techniques for geological and geochemical investigations. This work reviews the development of the instrumentation and the perfection of the methodology and quantification of XRF analysis as applied to geochemical and geological problems. The two basic types of crystal-diffracting x-ray spectrometers that are discussed are multichannel and scanning x-ray spectrometers. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratesi, Sarah E.; Vacher, H. L.

    2008-01-01

    In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over…

  8. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, P.D.; Krason, J.

    1988-10-01

    Geological factors controlling the formation, stability, and distribution of gas hydrates of the Beaufort Sea region were investigated by basin analysis. Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data from the region were assembled and evaluated to determine the relationships of geological environments and gas hydrates. The Beaufort Sea is the southern part of the Arctic Ocean offshore of the North Slope of Alaska and the Yukon and Mackenzie districts of Canada. The Beaufort Sea study region extends northward from the Arctic coasts of Alaska and Canada between Point Barrow on the west to Cape Beaufort on the east. The northern boundary of the Beaufort Sea study region is 72.5{degrees}N. The study region comprises broad continental shelves, slopes, rises, and the Arctic abyssal plain. 84 refs., 76 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Determination of hafnium and zirconium in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, neutron activation analysis was developed for determining hafnium and zirconium in geological materials. The USGS geological standard rocks GSP-1 (granodiorite) and W-1 (di abase). The Brazilian geological standards GB-1 (granite) and BB-1 (basalt) from Instituto de Geociencias da Universidade da Bahia and P-1 a uraniferous rock from Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil were analyzed. Hafnium present in these rocks was analyzed by purely instrumental method by irradiating with both thermal and epithermal neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the case of zirconium depending on the sample a radiochemical separation was required. 154 Eu and 152 Eu radioisotopes emit gamma rays with energies too close to those emitted by 95 Zr and they cause interferences. (author)

  10. Summarized analysis on potential of uranium resources in China and strategy for uranium geologic exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the summarized analysis on the potential of uranium resources and the degree of uranium geologic work, the author proposes the strategy of uranium geologic exploration in China as follows: the Chinese government should make a long-term program for uranium geologic exploration and insist on the basic policy to be based on domestic resources, to meet the domestic demand, to increase of the storage (the increase of storage includes active utilization of uranium resources of foreign countries), and to do the uranium exploration properly in advance. Taking the ISL-amenable sandstone-hosted uranium deposit as the major prospecting target combined with actively exploring other types of economic uranium deposits should be taken as the basic exploration strategy. Guiding by new geologic-metallogenic theory system, using advanced exploration method and technique system, GIS prediction method system and digital geologic map series to do uranium exploration are regarded as basic technical idea to accelerate ascertaining potential uranium resources in China, and to provide powerful resources guarantee for the development of China's nuclear industry. (author)

  11. Structured Data in Structural Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Donald L.; Hopkins, Stewart

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of computer data structures in finite-element structural analysis programs. A number of data structure types that have been shown to be useful in such programs are introduced and described. A simple finite-element model is used to demonstrate how the given set of data structure types naturally lend themselves to developing software for the model. Different methods of implementing data structures in the context of a program are discussed.

  12. First Paleomagnetic Map of the Easternmost Mediterranean Derived from Combined Geophysical-Geological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2014-05-01

    he easternmost Mediterranean is a tectonically complex region evolving in the long term and located in the midst of the progressive Afro-Eurasian collision (e.g., Ben-Avraham, 1978; Khain, 1984). Both rift-oceanic systems and terrane belts are known to have been formed in this collision zone (Stampfli et al., 2013). Despite years of investigation, the geological-geophysical structure of the easternmost Mediterranean is not completely known. The formation of its modern complex structure is associated with the evolution of the Neotethys Ocean and its margins (e.g., Ben-Avraham and Ginzburg, 1990; Robertson et al., 1991; Ben-Avraham et al., 2002). The easternmost Mediterranean was formed during the initial phase of the Neotethys in the Early and Late Permian (Golonka and Ford, 2000; Stampfli et al., 2013). At present this block of the ocean crust situated in the northern part of the Sinai plate (Ben-Avraham, 1978; Eppelbaum et al., 2012, 2014) is object of our investigation. The easternmost Mediterranean region has attracted increasing attention in connection with the recent discoveries of significant hydrocarbon deposits in this region (e.g., Montadert et al., 2010; Schenk et al., 2010; Eppelbaum et al., 2012). For example, Schenk et al. (2010) consider that more than 4 trillion m3 of recoverable gas is available in the Levant Basin (which located in the central part of the easternmost Mediterranean). Currently seismic prospecting is the main tool used in hydrocarbon deposit discovery. However, even sophisticated seismic data analysis (e.g., Hall et al., 2005; Roberts and Peace, 2007; Gardosh et al., 2010; Marlow et al., 2011; Lazar et al., 2012), fails to identify the full complex structural-tectonic mosaic of this region, and more importantly, is unable to clarify its baffling complex tectonic evolution. This highlights the need for combined analysis of geophysical data associated with the paleomagnetic and paleobiogeographic conditions that can yield deep paleotectonic criteria for oil and gas discovery in this region. Extensive geological-geophysical investigations have been carried out in this region, and a significant number of deep boreholes have been drilled. However integrated estimation of the deep structure of the hydrocarbon host deposits and their space-time evolution in terms of the modern geodynamics (first of all, plate tectonics: Ben-Avraham and Ginzburg, 1990; Robertson, 1998; Ben-Avraham et al., 2002, 2006; Jimenez-Munt et al., 2003; Le Pichon and Kreemer, 2010), are comparatively recent (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2011, 2012a; Eppelbaum et al., 2012, 2014). We elucidate this geodynamic relationship by examining the structural floors within the following tectonic-geophysical zones: (1) regions of development of continental crust of the Nubian, Arabian and Sinai plates, (2) remaining oceanic crust of the eastern Mediterranean, and (3) the thinned continental crust of the terrane belt. A series of new gravity and magnetic maps developed by employing satellite and airborne data (as well their transformations) accompanied by tectonic schemes were constructed (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2011; Eppelbaum et al., 2012a, 2012b, 2014). These new maps are crucial to a better understanding of the dynamics of hydrocarbon basin formation within the continental and shelf depressions, as well as the deep depressions of the easternmost Mediterranean where gas deposits in zones of oceanic crust evolution have only recently (April 2013) begun to be exploited. Careful attention should be paid to the blocks of oceanic (basaltic) crust with reverse magnetization that were discovered (Ben-Avraham et al., 2002; Eppelbaum, 2006). This issue was very briefly (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2012a) explained as paleomagnetic Kiama zone of inverse polarity and demands separate consideration. An integrated magnetic-gravity-seismic analysis conducted along three interpretation profiles unambiguously indicates the presence of blocks of the Earth's crust with reverse magnetization (Ben-Avraham et al., 2002). The results of 3D magnetic field modeling (advanced G

  13. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological materials from Northern Palawan and Mariduque Island, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological materials comprising of heavy mineral panned concentrates and surface soil samples taken from northern Palawan and Marinduque Island, Philippines was conducted. This work was carried out primarily to determine the distribution of uranium, thorium, rare earths and other trace elements in the Philippine environment in connection with the nationwide geochemical exploration program and the IAEA technical co-operation project on gamma ray spectrometric survey in the country. Moreover, the geochemical data obtained will form part of the national database for nuclear resource assessment, mineral exploration and environmental studies. The utilization of the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique in the multielemental determination of geological materials has been very useful in mineral exploration, environmental studies and other related researches. The sensitivity of this technique has been very effective not only in the determination of the major elements but for the trace elements as well. In this study, about 96 geological samples wee analyzed for 15 elements after the spectral analysis. In all, 810 elemental determinations were completed. In the northern Palawan district, the areas with high radioactivity were disclosed by the relatively high concentrations of thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium. Moreover, areas with possible potential for gold was delineated as well as for the rare earth metals. In Marinduque Island, the distribution of the elements are generally sporadic which indicate various lithological sources and a diverse geology. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

  14. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB's application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth

  15. Integration of geological information in a structured approach to development of a safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act, promulgated in June 2000, specifies that the siting process for a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in Japan shall consist of the following three stages: - In the first stage, a literature survey is conducted on a nation-wide scale. Preliminary investigation areas (PIAs) for potential candidate sites are then nominated, based on area-specific literature surveys focusing on the long-term stability of the geological environment; - Detailed investigation areas (DIAs) for candidate sites are then selected from PIAs following surface-based investigations (including boreholes) carried out to evaluate the key characteristics of the geological environment; - In the final third stage, detailed site characterisation, including studies in underground experimental facilities, leads to selection of the site for repository construction. Following discussions with relevant Government and nuclear industry organisations, the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) has decided to proceed with repository siting based entirely on an 'open solicitation procedure' (a call for volunteer host municipalities). NUMO promotes public involvement in decision making in the process of selecting sites, based on its basic policies, which consist of 'adopting of a stepwise approach', 'respecting voluntarism of municipalities' and 'ensuring transparency'. This volunteering process provides a unique challenge for ensuring transparency and traceability in development of conceptual site models which form a basis for repository concepts and associated safety cases in parallel with the step-wise siting process. A structured approach, therefore, is required to meet this target, which has been discussed partly in the light of development of Repository Concepts for given siting environments. The Siting Factors for selection of PIAs has also been developed. This paper illustrates a methodology for integrating geological information into the conceptual site models to be used in the structured approach. (author)

  16. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jourde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas – called acquisition kernels – and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernels approach allows to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to perform in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to construct. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon/gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless to constrain the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for La Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano.

  17. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernel approach allows one to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to be performed in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to be constructed. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon-gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless for constraining the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly, the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for the La Soufrière volcano of Guadeloupe.

  18. Using AutoCAD for descriptive geometry exercises. in undergraduate structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Carl E.

    2001-02-01

    The exercises in descriptive geometry typically utilized in undergraduate structural geology courses are quickly and easily solved using the computer drafting program AutoCAD. The key to efficient use of AutoCAD for descriptive geometry involves taking advantage of User Coordinate Systems, alternative angle conventions, relative coordinates, and other aspects of AutoCAD that may not be familiar to the beginning user. A summary of these features and an illustration of their application to the creation of structure contours for a planar dipping bed provides the background necessary to solve other problems in descriptive geometry with the computer. The ease of the computer constructions reduces frustration for the student and provides more time to think about the principles of the problems.

  19. Basic feasibility study with overseas geological structure survey in FY 1999 - Kalewa area, Myanmar (Summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of evaluating coal resource in the Kalewa area southwest of Sagaing about 300km northwest of Mandalay city, Myanmar, survey was conducted on geology, test boring, specimen analysis, infrastructure, etc. The range of geological survey is approximately 5.5km{sup 2}, and test boring was carried out for 9 holes (total length: 2,046.74m). For the coal analysis, 8 specimens were used, and measurement was made of the combustion calorie, sulfur content, water content, density, ash, ash melting temperature, etc. Survey was also conducted on drilling conditions/methods for coal mines in the periphery, roads for coal transportation, barge loading ports, etc. The results of the survey are as follows. The thickness of the minable main coal seam is 2.1-2.9m, and the inclination angle is 40-42 degrees. Specimens from coal seams indicate low ash, low sulfur content and high combustion calorie. The estimated coal reserves are 7,730,000 tons, and they total 15,300,000 tons including those from other coal seams. In the development by the 100m-width longwall mining which was proposed, it is possible to produce 130,000 tons/year for more than 20 years. (NEDO)

  20. Dynamic structure and data sets of a GIS database for geological riskanalysis in the Azores volcanic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Gaspar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological hazards in the Azores archipelago include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, degassing phenomena and landslides, being the cause of thousands of deaths and severe damage and loss. To reduce the impact of future events it is necessary to improve the emergency response and reinforce land-use planning, and this has given rise to the development of AZORIS, a GIS database for risk analysis in the Azores. At present this computer-based system comprises nine main dynamic data sets where elemental, monitoring and historical data are grouped in layers of first and second order. The logical structure of the database was conceived in order to facilitate interactivity between data sets and to guarantee the evolution of the system, as determined by the input and the generation of new and more detailed information. Archive organization was designed taking into account regional and local aspects of geological hazard. In order to ensure consistency of the database and the quality of the data within it, an internal process of validation was included.

  1. Structural geology of the Fuegian Andes and Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt - Tierra del Fuego Island

    OpenAIRE

    Menichetti, Marco; Lodolo, Emanuele; Tassone, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    A synthesis of the structural geology of the Tierra del Fuego Island, which integrates a new data set derived from field surveys and literature data of the last few years, is presented here. The main geological features of the region developed during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Andean orogenic cycle that started in the Middle to Late Jurassic with a back-arc extension, crustal stretching and widespread volcanism, related to the break-up of Gondwanaland. An extensional fault system deriving from the...

  2. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala); Estudios geologico-estructurales y geofisicos en Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R.; Marti, D.; Flecha, I. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume Almera. Barcelona (Spain); Escuder Viruete, J. [Universidad complutense de Madrid. Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  3. High-resolution 3D spatial modelling of complex geological structures for an environmental risk assessment of abundant mining and industrial megasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycisk, P.; Hubert, T.; Gossel, W.; Neumann, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Conceptual geological models of industrial and mining megasites are an essential task of groundwater investigations as well as environmental risk assessment studies. Therefore, the conceptualization process of the structural geological model has depended on the development of a set of 2D cross-sections to portray a 3D picture of groundwater flow. This attempt always includes some simplifications that require, only to some extent, the true 3D situation of heterogeneous aquifers. Consequently, the modelled predictions of the path flow and transport conditions of contaminated groundwater are not satisfying in terms of a flow-path and risk based modelling approach. A more structured approach to develop the hydrogeological framework for the conceptual model is advocated, using different 3D geological modelling software packages to assemble the data, working in three dimensions and using this platform for subsequent groundwater flow modelling. Attention is given to the capability of different 3D modelling approaches, indicated by geostatistically based versus constructive cross-section based interpolations of complex sedimentary successions, that are compared in their results and suitability for subsequent hydrogeological modelling requirements. The paper describes the results, in high-resolution 3D modelling, of the complex geological environment of the Bitterfeld/Wolfen megasite in the eastern part of Germany. Identification, assessment, and remediation of large-scale groundwater contamination require a detailed knowledge of the heterogeneous geological structure to predict the fate and pathways of contaminants and their potential interaction with, e.g., surface water. An area of 16 km 2 of the model area of the Bitterfeld/Wolfen area was chosen to transfer the complex structural geological setting. The subsurface geology could be assigned to 31 lithostratigraphic units and depicted using a 10×10 m GIS grid. This constructive and "knowledge-driven" 3D modelling allows the prediction of vertical and horizontal sections, visualization purposes, volumetric calculations of distinct sedimentary units, GIS applications, and the use of the detailed digital information within the subsequent flow and transport groundwater modelling. The high-resolution digital 3D model improves the hydrogeological modelling results. It is considered a basic requirement for groundwater modelling and investigations on environmental risk and impact assessment by fate, and pathway exposure route analysis of the complex geological and groundwater situations.

  4. Geological geophysics: the bedrock conductivity structure of the UK from AEM data

    OpenAIRE

    Beamish, David

    2012-01-01

    Geological geophysics essentially refers to any geophysical map that is based on, or classified according to, existing geological knowledge. Here the geological classification of UK bedrock conductivity, derived from 5 airborne EM surveys conducted over 10 years is assessed. At a scale of 1:625k the UK digital bedrock geological lexicon comprises just 86 lithological classifications. The lowest common AEM frequency of 3 kHz is found to provide an 87% coverage (by area) of the UK lithologies. ...

  5. Applications of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for geological samples in AMD for uranium exploration programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Non-destructive Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has been used over last three decades in AMD for analysis of geological samples for estimation of Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Zr, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Au, Th and U. The estimation has been done using various international standards. The irradiation of samples has been done in Cirus/Apsara Reactor in BARC, Mumbai. The measurement of desired gamma emission are carried out by Huge detector. The various geological samples from different parts of India are: 1. granites 2. charnokites 3. Basalts 4. Carbonatites 5. Xenotime 6. Monazite 7. Core samples 8. Black slabs. The efficiency modelling of HPGe detector was done using different sources and mathematical and statistical techniques. (author)

  6. Geological interpretation of Mount Ciremai geothermal system from remote sensing and magneto-teluric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sumintadireja, Prihadi; Saepuloh, Asep; Irawan, Dasapta E.; Irawan, Diky; Fadillah, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of geothermal system at Mount Ciremai has been started since the early 1980s and has just been studied carefully since the early 2000s. Previous studies have detected the potential of geothermal system and also the groundwater mechanism feeding the system. This paper will discuss the geothermal exploration based on regional scale surface temperature analysis with Landsat image to have a more detail interpretation of the geological setting and magneto-telluric or MT survey at p...

  7. Geological storage of CO2: risks analysis, monitoring and measures. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To use the CO2 geological storage as a coherent solution in the greenhouse gases reduction it needs to answer to safety and monitoring conditions. In this framework the BRGM presents this study in six chapters: risks analysis, the monitoring methods (geochemistry, geophysics, aerial monitoring, biochemistry, hydrogeology), the metrology, the corrosion problems, the thermal, hydrodynamical, geochemical and mechanical simulation and the today and future regulations. (A.L.B.)

  8. Sensitivity analysis concerning dose equivalents associated with the disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even if dose calculations may be performed for nuclear waste repositories in deep geological formations, it is unavoidable that the credibility of the obtained results might be affected by huge incertitudes in connection in particular with a lack of precise knowledge of the different components of the performed evaluations (scenarios, models, parameters). In consequence, this paper presents the approach adopted at the CEA/IPSN for performing sensitivity analysis and some obtained results

  9. Progress on 129I analysis and its application in environmental and geological researches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian

    2013-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a naturally generated isotope, but anthropogenic releases are the dominated source of 129I in the present environment. Among many measurement techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are only methods used for measurement of 129I in environmental level. Based on its source terms, chemical properties and environmental behaviors, 129Ican be applied for geological dating in a range of 2–80Ma, investigation of formation and migration of hydro...

  10. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological and biological reference materials using the ko-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ko-standardization method used in instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the determination of some elements in geological and biological reference materials. The authors analyzed NBS SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves and SRM 1645 River Sediment and the CRM materials, IAEA Soil-7, SL-1, and MA-A-2. Comparison is made with reference values whenever available. Good agreement is found. The potential of the ko-standardization method in reactor INAA is discussed

  11. A sensitivity and probability analysis of the safety of deep geological repositories situated in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present the sensitivity and probability analysis of a model of the Czech safety concept of deep geological waste repository. The sensitivity analysis was performed for a set of critical radionuclides, 14C, 36Cl, 79Se, 129I and 226Ra using a variance based method. The main contributors to the variance of model output were identified. It was shown that, if the model output is properly transformed before performing sensitivity analysis, then the calculated sensitivity coefficients are robust indicators of the importance of uncertainties of the individual parameters. (author)

  12. Multiscale analysis of the structural evolution of the southern flank of the Western Jabal Akhdar anticline, Oman (vein examination, structural mapping and inverse remote sensing)

    OpenAIRE

    Laurich, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Structural geology models greatly benefit from multi-scale investigations. To understand the complex structural geology of the southern flank of the western Jabal Akhdar anticline (Oman Mountains), this thesis presents a multi-scale analysis on structural elements like faults, fractures and veins of two study areas. Therefore observations from vein analysis, mapping and remote sensing are combined. The outcome is compared to recent models of the regional structural history. The study areas un...

  13. Fluid Flow through Porous Sandstone with Overprinting and Intersecting Geological Structures of Various Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Karimi-Fard, M.; Durlofsky, L.; Aydin, A.

    2010-12-01

    Impact of a wide variety of structural heterogeneities on fluid flow in an aeolian sandstone in the Valley of Fire State Park (NV), such as (1) dilatant fractures (joints), (2) shear fractures (faults), and (3) contraction/compaction structures (compaction bands), are considered. Each type of these structures has its own geometry, spacing, distribution, connectivity, and hydraulic properties, which either enhance or impede subsurface fluid flow. Permeability of these structures may, on average, be a few orders of magnitude higher or lower than those of the corresponding matrix rocks. In recent years, the influence of a single type of these heterogeneities on fluid flow has been studied individually, such as joints, compaction bands or faults. However, as different types of geological structures are commonly present together in the same rock volume, their combined effect requires a more detailed assessment. In this study, fluid flow simulations are performed using a special finite-volume discretization technique that was developed by Karimi-Fard et al. (2004; 2006). Using this approach, thin features such as fractures and compaction bands are represented as linear elements in unstructured 2D models and as planar elements in 3D models, which significantly reduces the total number of cells and simplifies grid generation. The cell geometric information and the cell-to-cell transmissibility obtained from this discretization technique are input to Stanford’s General Purpose Research Simulator (GPRS) for fluid flow simulation. To account for the effects of the various geological structures on subsurface flow, we perform permeability upscaling over regions corresponding to large-scale simulation grid blocks in order to obtain equivalent permeability components in two principal directions. We will focus on the following problems: (1) compaction bands of multisets; (2) compartmentalization of compaction bands of high-angle, low-angle and horizontal; (3) joints overprinting and intersecting earlier compaction and shear bands at various angles; (4) faults with various sizes overprinting and intersecting earlier compaction and shear bands. The preliminary results are: (1) Sets of compaction bands in various orientations are capable of compartmentalizing the rock volume. (2) If one set of joints are parallel to one set of compaction bands, the combined effect to the upscaled permeability is not significant. (3) If a joint set intersects a set of compaction bands, the combined effect counter acts the impeding of fluid flow by the compaction bands at high-angle to the bands. On the other hand the effect on the upscaled permeability in the direction of the bands is not significant. The effects of the combination of faults and compaction bands on fluid flow in various directions are complex and being evaluated.

  14. Structural analysis system THANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical codes THANKS (Three Dimensional Analysis of NIPPON KOKAN Systems) V-1, THANKS V-2, and THANKS V-3 were developed to analyze the structures having complicated configuration, to simulate the actual phenomena including elastoplastic property, creep, large deformation and dynamic behavior, and to analyze thermal and hydraulic characteristics. These codes are supported with the development of pre-processor PRE-THANKS and post-processor POST-THANKS. The special features of this code system are as follows: 1) it is possible to analyze the strength of three dimensional structures having any complex configuration and to calculate the large scale problems with 160,000 freedom, 2) it is possible to treat the broad range of linear and nonlinear problems of both static and dynamic and thermal conduction, 3) the calculating time is shortened, 4) the program consists of modules, therefore the partial improvement is simple, and the addition of new functions is easy, 5) the graphic display utilizing cathode ray tubes (CRT) is available, and 6) the high efficiency and the reduction of labor are planned. The hardwares of THANKS system consist of a computer IBM S370/168, a card reader, magnetic discs, a printer, a graphic display and a plotter, and PRE-THANKS, THANKS V-1 THANKS V-2 THANKS V-3 and POST-THANKS are included in this computer system. PRE-THANKS has the functions such as the input of two and three dimensional mesh configurations, the production of mesh files, and the display with a CRT. POST-THANKS has the function displaying stress contours, stress distribution, change of stress in course of time and deformation on CRT or drawing them utilizing a plotter. (Nakai, Y.)

  15. Dynamic simulations of geologic materials using combined FEM/DEM/SPH analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J P; Johnson, S M

    2008-03-26

    An overview of the Lawrence Discrete Element Code (LDEC) is presented, and results from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geologic materials using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC) are detailed. LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses using large numbers of polyhedral blocks. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model this class of problems, LDEC now includes implementations of Cosserat point theory and cohesive elements. This approach directly simulates the transition from continuum to discontinuum behavior, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture within a combined finite element/discrete element framework. In addition, there are many application involving geologic materials where fluid-structure interaction is important. To facilitate solution of this class of problems a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) capability has been incorporated into LDEC to simulate fully coupled systems involving geologic materials and a saturating fluid. We will present results from a study of a broad range of geomechanical problems that exercise the various components of LDEC in isolation and in tandem.

  16. An evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis for determination of trace elements in some geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsberger, S. [University of Texas at Austin, Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab, R-9000 Austin, TX 78712 (United States)], E-mail: s.landsberger@mail.utexas.edu; Kapsimalis, R. [University of Texas at Austin, Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab, R-9000 Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Compton suppressed neutron activation analysis has been used for a variety of applications, but never has a detailed discussion of its use in far more complex matrices, such as geological samples, been fully addressed. This investigation seeks to serve as a qualitative evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis (CSNAA) and to illustrate the benefits of using Compton suppression with thermal and epithermal neutrons for the analysis of several geological specimens.

  17. Analysis of geological condition of uranium mineralization in the Xiangshan northern uranium orefield in central region of Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the basic conditions of 'source, guide, transportation, storage' for uranium mineralization in strata and different types of geological structure, departure from the condition, the coupling effect of stratigraphy, lithology and structure are studied in the process of uranium mineralization in northern Xiangshan volcanic basin. Studies show that the northern ore field are of good metallogenic geological conditions and the uranium rich ancient land mass and uranium rich magma generated by the melting of deep metamorphic rocks. The main geologic events are volcanic eruptions, accompanied by repeated subvolcanic magma intrusion and strong faults and nappe tectonics which result in volcanic collapse and volcanic ring structures. These ore-forming geological condition control the structural frame for the formation of main uranium deposit type-subvolcanic rocks in northern Xiangshan ore field. (authors)

  18. Geology, structure and age of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area, North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Gerson A.; González, Pablo D.; González, Santiago N.; Sato, Ana M.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei; Varela, Ricardo; Llambías, Eduardo J.

    2015-10-01

    The low-grade Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area (40°50?S-65°53?W) shows ultramafic to felsic metaigneous rocks forming a sill swarm intercalated in the metasedimentary sequence and a polyphase deformation which permit an integrated study of the magmatic and tectonometamorphic evolution of this geological unit. In this paper we present a geological characterization of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area combining mapping, structural and metamorphic analysis with a SHRIMP U-Pb age and geochemical data from the metaigneous rocks. The metasedimentary sequence consists of alternating metagreywackes and phyllites, and minor metasandstones and granule metaconglomerates. The sills are pre-kinematic intrusions and yielded one SHRIMP U-Pb, zircon crystallization age of 513.6 ± 3.3 Ma. Their injection occurred after consolidation of the sedimentary sequence. A syn-sedimentary volcanic activity is interpreted by a metaandesite lava flow interlayered in the metasedimentary sequence. Sedimentary and igneous protoliths of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation would have been formed in a continental margin basin associated with active magmatic arc during the Cambrian Epoch 2. Two main low-grade tectonometamorphic events affected the Nahuel Niyeu Formation, one during the Cambrian Epoch 2-Early Ordovician and the other probably in the late Permian at ?260 Ma. Local late folds could belong to the final stages of the late Permian deformation or be even younger. In a regional context, the Nahuel Niyeu and El Jagüelito formations and Mina Gonzalito Complex show a comparable Cambrian-Ordovician evolution related to the Terra Australis Orogen in the south Gondwana margin. This evolution is also coeval with the late and early stages of the Pampean and Famatinian orogenies of Central Argentina, respectively. The late Permian event recorded in the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in Aguada Cecilio area is identified by comparable structures affecting the Mina Gonzalito Complex and El Jagüelito Formation and resetting ages from granitoids. This event represents the Gondwanide Orogeny within the same Terra Australis Orogen.

  19. Application Of Geowall Technology To The Analysis Of A Three Dimensional Geologic Map Of The Santa Clara (Silicon) Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G. A.; Jachens, R. C.; Wentworth, C. M.; Langenheim, V. E.; Hanson, R. T.; Faunt, C. C.

    2003-12-01

    Geowall, a stereo projection system suitable for meetings and conferences, is being used to visualize, understand, interpret, and test a three-dimensional geologic map of the Santa Clara (Silicon) Valley, southern San Francisco Bay area, California. Geowall*, developed at the Electronic Visualization Laboratory associated with the University of Illinois, uses dual polarized images projected onto a polarization-preserving screen to create the illusion of three dimensions when viewed through polarized glasses. The map of Santa Clara Valley encompasses a 45 by 45 km area, extends to a depth of 14 km, and includes the northern Santa Clara Valley and surrounding hillsides between the active Calaveras and San Andreas faults. It is currently divided by several major faults into tectonic blocks, within which 9 units represent the Cenozoic and Mesozoic sections. Many of these units will be subdivided as the map evolves. The map is being constructed in EarthVision*(TM, Dynamic Graphics, Inc.), a geologic modeling software that includes three dimensional rendering and model manipulation capabilities. Earthvision generates data and model images of which the entire, or only portions of the model, can be viewed in three dimensions. The geowall presentation will explore the datasets and three-dimensional geologic map of Santa Clara Valley and structures defined by geologic mapping, stratigraphy, hydrology, potential field geophysics, seismic reflection, and earthquake seismicity. The map is the result of a collaborative effort among several earth science disciplines, and as such requires the integration of diverse datasets and the communication of diverse ideas. The geowall is particularly effective at promoting group discussion and analysis of the three-dimensional map, because the map can be displayed in a group setting as a 6x6 ft., stereo image. The spatial relationships of the datasets are easily seen, and the map can be deconstructed and particular relationships isolated. For example, trends in scattered clouds of point data are often difficult to perceive in two dimensions. The rendering of earthquake hypocenter data coupled with the ability to view only the fault planes in the map, from any perspective, permits rapid examination of coherent point patterns relative to modeled fault planes. Visualizing hydrologic data simultaneously with geologic data permits scientists to see relationships that were not apparent in two-dimensions or individually. Such concurrent analysis among project scientists is vital to the iterative process of exploring relationships between data sets, hypothesis testing, and model improvement. Another important use of the geowall is the communication of project ideas and results to others. The geowall has proven to be an effective tool for conveying information about Santa Clara Valley to managers, scientific audiences, and local citizens. Managers and scientists are able to grasp the geologic problems quickly and ask targeted questions, whereas citizens with non-earth science backgrounds are able to understand such concepts as pull-apart basins and gain knowledge of the scale of geologic structures. * Any use of trade, product, or firm names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  20. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of trace lanthanoids in geological and cosmochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine trace lanthanoids in geological and cosmochemical samples, an analytical procedure for radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was developed, where lanthanoids are radiochemically purified through precipitations of hydroxides and fluorides, and cation exchange using HBr as an eluent. Chemical yields are determined by reactivation. The procedure was applied to the Allende meteorite and geological standard rocks. Our data for Allende are in excellent agreement with literature values, and those values for standard rocks, JP-1 (peridotite) and JF-2 (feldspar), in which lanthanoids are depleted by orders of 1 to 2 compared with those in Allende, seem to be reasonable, although not properly evaluated because of large scatterings in their literature data. This suggests that the present RNAA procedure is highly effective in determining trace lanthanoids (less than 1 ng) in rock samples. (orig.)

  1. Determination of Iron and Nickel in Geological Samples by Activation Analysis with Reactor Fast Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threshold reactions induced by reactor fast neutrons are well recognized. The concentration of Fe and Ni were determined in nine geological samples by activation analysis with reactor fast neutrons using the threshold reactions 54Fe( n,p)54Mn and 58Ni ( n, p )'58Co respectively. The fast neutron flux was determined using the reactions 92Mo(n, 2n)92mNb and 95Mo(n,p)95Nb. The determined concentration of Fe and Ni in the samples were checked by determining them in the GSJ JB-1 reference material using the same , ( p, n) reactions. There are a good agreement between the measured and recommended values. The concentrations of Fe were also determined by the ) , ( n, ?) capture reactions in the geological samples and the JB-1 reference material using the K?- NAA method. There are good agreements between the determined concentrations from the ) , ( p, n) and the ( ?, n) reactions.

  2. The analysis of geological samples using NAA methods in RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of irradiation facilities usage and development of NAA method in P2TRR, the geological samples was analyzed by NAA method. The aim of this research is to know the elements contain in geological samples. The samples were irradiated in the RSG-GAS's rabbit system. Samples pasca irradiation were measured by gamma spectrometer. The results of analysis showed that the stone samples contained different elements : Ce, Cr, Co, Fe, La, Lu, Na, Np, Pd, and Sm. The sand samples contained: Bi, Cd, Cs, Co, Fe, Eu, K, Pd, La, Lu, Na, Sc, Sm, Th, and Yb elements. There was a variation in elements concentration between 1.34 ppm Cr (lowest) and 179.06 ppm Sr (highest)

  3. Numerical Verification Of Geotechnical Structure In Unfavourable Geological Conditions – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modelling represents a powerful tool not only for special geotechnical calculations in cases of complicated and difficult structure design or their foundation conditions, but also for regular tasks of structure foundation. Finite element method is the most utilized method of numerical modelling. This method was used for calculations of the retaining wall monitored during 5 years after construction. Retaining wall of the parking lot with the facing from gabion blocks was chosen for numerical model. Besides the unfavourable geological conditions, a soft nature of the facing was also a difficult part of the modelling. This paper presents the results of the modelling when exact geometry, material characteristics and construction stages were simulated. The results capture the trend of displacements even though the basic material models were utilized. The modelling proved the ability of the finite element method to model the retaining structure with sufficient accuracy as well as reasonable demand on quality and quantity of input data. This method can then be used as a regular design tool during project preparation.

  4. Neutron activation analysis of geological samples in free competition - A case history from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Reactor Laboratory neutron activation analysis (NAA) of geological samples is performed on an analytical service basis. The expenses of this activity is expected to be covered by the income. Methods and automatic analyzers have been developed for the low cost analysis of large numbers of samples. During the period 1973-79, 20,000-30,000 uranium determinations were made annually. During the period 1982-85 more than 10,000 samples were analyzed annually for gold and 23 other elements. The performance and cost of NAA compared with competitive methods are discussed. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Vacher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over all. Geological research has shifted emphasis over the study period, moving away from economic geology and petroleum geology, towards physics- and chemistry-based topics. The Apollo lunar landings had as much influence on the topics and practice of geological research as the much-cited plate-tectonics revolution. These results reflect the barely-tangible effects of the changes in vocabulary and habit of thought that have pervaded the substance of geology. Geological literature has increased in volume and specialization, resulting in a highly fragmentary literature. However, we infer that "big science," characterized by large amounts of funding, collaboration, and large logistical investments, makes use of this specialization and turns "twigging" into a phenomenon that enhances, rather than inhibits, the enterprise of research.

  6. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...analysis; (e) An analysis of the performance of the structures, systems, and components...availability of safety systems. The analysis required in this...Radiation alarm system to warn of significant...discussion of the design, both surface...

  7. Addressing Preparation and Analysis Needs for Reliable EBSD Characterization of Geological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, M.

    2010-12-01

    Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) has become a well-accepted SEM-based characterization technique in earth and material sciences for measuring crystallographic structure and orientation. However certain challenges arise when dealing with geological samples, particularly multiphase samples. Reliable EBSD characterization requires a well prepared surface to facilitate diffraction events near the sample surface. Additionally, the surface should ideally be flat to avoid any topographic interference with the EBSD detector. Achieving this surface can be difficult in geological samples, as the constituent minerals may have different hardness values and polishing rates. Often there is a competing drive to either maximize surface quality or minimize surface topography. In this work, multiphase samples were prepared as both bulk samples and glass slides. EBSD data was collected from both samples, and the resulting EBSD pattern quality and characterization data compared. In this case, the bulk sample had the highest quality EBSD patterns, but both preparation methods yielded acceptable EBSD data. In addition to preparation, analyzing EBSD patterns requires that the crystallographic structure of the minerals present to be known. These structure parameters can vary with solid solution composition. Crystals with similar lattice structures but different atomic occupancies can also produce similar EBSD patterns that can be difficult to differentiate. An approach to reduce the ambiguities caused by these issues using chemical information collected simultaneously via EDS will be discussed.

  8. Locating and quantifying geological uncertainty in three-dimensional models: Analysis of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Mark D.; Aillères, Laurent; Jessell, Mark W.; de Kemp, Eric A.; Betts, Peter G.

    2012-06-01

    Geological three-dimensional (3D) models are constructed to reliably represent a given geological target. The reliability of a model is heavily dependent on the input data and is sensitive to uncertainty. This study examines the uncertainty introduced by geological orientation data by producing a suite of implicit 3d models generated from orientation measurements subjected to uncertainty simulations. The resulting uncertainty associated with different regions of the geological model can be located, quantified and visualised, providing a useful method to assess model reliability. The method is tested on a natural geological setting in the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia, where modelled geological surfaces are assessed for uncertainty. The concept of stratigraphic variability is introduced and analysis of the input data is performed using two uncertainty visualisation methods. Uncertainty visualisation through stratigraphic variability is designed to convey the complex concept of 3D model uncertainty to the geoscientist in an effective manner. Uncertainty analysis determined that additional seismic information provides an effective means of constraining modelled geology and reducing uncertainty in regions proximal to the seismic sections. Improvements to the reliability of high uncertainty regions achieved using information gathered from uncertainty visualisations are quantified in a comparative case study. Uncertainty in specific model locations is identified and attributed to possible disagreements between seismic and isopach data. Further improvements to and additional sources of data for the model are proposed based on this information. Finally, a method of introducing stratigraphic variability values as geological constraints for geophysical inversion is presented.

  9. X-ray spectrometry and X-ray microtomography techniques for soil and geological samples analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala-Kuku?, A.; Bana?, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Dziadowicz, M.; Kope?, E.; Majewska, U.; Mazurek, M.; Pajek, M.; Sobisz, M.; Stabrawa, I.; Wudarczyk-Mo?ko, J.; Gó?d?, S.

    2015-12-01

    A particular subject of X-ray fluorescence analysis is its application in studies of the multielemental sample of composition in a wide range of concentrations, samples with different matrices, also inhomogeneous ones and those characterized with different grain size. Typical examples of these kinds of samples are soil or geological samples for which XRF elemental analysis may be difficult due to XRF disturbing effects. In this paper the WDXRF technique was applied in elemental analysis concerning different soil and geological samples (therapeutic mud, floral soil, brown soil, sandy soil, calcium aluminum cement). The sample morphology was analyzed using X-ray microtomography technique. The paper discusses the differences between the composition of samples, the influence of procedures with respect to the preparation of samples as regards their morphology and, finally, a quantitative analysis. The results of the studies were statistically tested (one-way ANOVA and correlation coefficients). For lead concentration determination in samples of sandy soil and cement-like matrix, the WDXRF spectrometer calibration was performed. The elemental analysis of the samples was complemented with knowledge of chemical composition obtained by X-ray powder diffraction.

  10. Delineation of the subsurface geological structures of Omu-Aran area, south-western Nigeria, using aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayode, J. S.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Baioumy, H. M.; Khalil, A. E.; Khiruddin, B. A.

    2015-04-01

    Omu-Aran area is characterized by mining activities to exploit the valuable mineralization there. These facts motivated the present work to evaluate the factors controlling the mineralization in the study area using aeromagnetic data obtained from the Nigerian Geological survey Agency. The data was processed and interpreted with the mean of delineating subsurface geological structures around Omu-Aran in Kwara State, South-western Nigeria. Data enhancement methods was performed on the aeromagnetic map using Regional Residual Separation of the total field anomalies map; horizontal gradient enhanced and International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRS) removed; reduced to the pole magnetic shaded relief image was carried out; Magnetic vertical gradient calculated, Magnetic horizontal gradient measured and Analytical signal map was constructed using some computer aided packages. The interpreted map enabled delineation of various subsurface geological structures such as the rock contacts, fractured and faulted areas.

  11. Analysis by neutronic activation of samples of a geologic formation of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis by neutronic activation (AAN) is an analytical non destructive technique of high accuracy and sensibility. These advantages are very utilized in the determination of geological multielemental samples. In the job 22 elements are determined in 9 geological samples pertaining to the complex of dams of acid composition that includes the graphitic micaceous schist and the quartzites of the Canada Formation, developed fundamentally in the fasteners of the anticlinal Victoria (Yac. of Wolframio Lela, Island of the Youth, Cuba) The results obtained are of great importance for the evaluation of the potentiality of these rocks as fountains or of uranium adjusting and for the geologic prognostic of the region in study. The irradiation of the samples was carried out during three campaigns, in two occasions (October 1992 and November 1994) in the reactor of investigations of the ININ of Mexico, with a flow of thermic neutrons of 10a the 13 n.s-1 cm-2 and in an occasion in the nuclear reactor of the CAB (september 1994), with a flow of thermic neutrons of 6x 10 to the 12 n.s-1. The results were processed with the program ACTAM in the CEADEN. (S. Grainger)

  12. Determination of trace rhodium in geological samples by fire assay and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two pre-concentration methods for rhodium in geological samples, lead fire assay and nickel sulfide fire assay, were briefly described. Using fire assay combined with neutron activation analysis (NAA), rhodium in 5 certified reference materials were measured. The recoveries of rhodium by lead and nickel sulfide fire assay were 81.5%± 1.2% and 75.1%±3.9%, respectively, and the latter was proved to be independent on matrices of chemical standards and geological standard materials. The analytical results of rhodium in 5 geological standard materials are well agreed with the certified values. Rhodium of 10-9 level was accurately measured by NAA combined with lead fire assay, and 10-10 level was accurately measured by NAA combined with nickel sulfide fire assay. Interference factors in the two pre-concentration methods were discussed, and correction for lead absorption was also carried out. Calculations of the detection limits show that a higher sensitivity is available with a planar germanium detector and a nickel sulfide fire assay. (authors)

  13. The geologic evolution of the planet Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief summary of our knowledge on the Martian geology is presented here based on the results published by the members of Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter Imaging Teams, the NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators and the scientists involved in the Mars Data Analysis Program. A special emphasis is given to the geologic evolution (volcanism and tectonism) related to our knowledge on the internal structure of the planet

  14. Thermo-mechanical sensitivity analysis of repository design parameters using Korean geological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2003-01-01

    Extensive sensitivity analysis had been carried out for the seven design parameters, which can influence on the thermal-mechanical coupling behavior because of the stress in deep underground as well as the heat from the high-level radioactive waste. In this study, the three-dimensional commercial code, FLAC3D, was used for analyzing the sensitivity of the design parameters, which are related to disposal tunnel and deposition hole, on the temperature, stress, and displacement. The geological data measured at the two drilling sites, Yusung and Kosung, were used in the modelings. From the modelings, it was possible to investigate the thermal-mechanical coupling behavior of the deep underground repository under Korean geological conditions. Fractional factorial design was utilized for effective experimental design for the sensitivity analysis. Different techniques of sensitivity analysis were applied for the modeling results. From the analysis, it was possible to conclude that the deposition hole spacing is the most important parameter on the thermal-mechanical coupling behavior.

  15. Google Earth Mapping Exercises for Structural Geology Students--A Promising Intervention for Improving Penetrative Visualization Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgis, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional thinking skills are extremely useful for geoscientists, and at the undergraduate level, these skills are often emphasized in structural geology courses. Google Earth is a powerful tool for visualizing the three-dimensional nature of data collected on the surface of Earth. The results of a 5 y pre- and posttest study of the…

  16. Structural geology of the Columbia Plateau and environs as related to the waste isolation safety assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information on the structural geology of the Columbia Plateau in regard to selecting a site for radioactive waste disposal. This report describes the folding and faulting that has taken place during the past several million years, thus providing background for the general stress conditions of the area and giving clues to the mechanism of deformation

  17. Google Earth Mapping Exercises for Structural Geology Students--A Promising Intervention for Improving Penetrative Visualization Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgis, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional thinking skills are extremely useful for geoscientists, and at the undergraduate level, these skills are often emphasized in structural geology courses. Google Earth is a powerful tool for visualizing the three-dimensional nature of data collected on the surface of Earth. The results of a 5 y pre- and posttest study of the…

  18. Yucca Mountain thermal response: An evaluation of the effects of modeled geologic structure and thermal property descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the influence of mountain-scale thermal property model variations on predicted host-rock thermal response, a series of heat conduction calculations were run using a representative two-dimensional cross section of Yucca Mountain. The effects of modeled geologic structure were evaluated through comparisons of results from a single-material, homogeneous model with those from a uniformly layered model, a discontinuous sloping-layered model, and a geo-statistical realization of thermal properties. Comparisons indicate that assumed geologic structure can result in up to a 24 degrees C difference in predicted temperature response. Further, thermal simulations of the method used to analyze geostatistical realizations of thermal properties shows promise as an efficient means of capturing geologic structure without the complexities of intricate finite element meshing. The functional representation of two thermal property models were also investigated. The first examines the effect of using a weighting scheme to define properties for a single, homogenous material model. The second investigates the impact of thermal property temperature dependence on predicted response. As with the investigation of geologic structure, noticeable differences in predicted temperatures (up to 29 degrees C) were found to result

  19. Nondestructive analysis of individual fluid inclusion based on SRXRF and its application in oil geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental device and methods of nondestructive analysis on individual fluid inclusion by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microprobe are described. With the standard sample NIST612 as reference, the detection limits of some elements are calculated and the typical organic inclusion taken from the western basin of China which contain oil gas are analyzed nondestructively. The semi-quantitative detection results of K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ge, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Pb etc. are given, and the application of the results on oil geology is discussed

  20. Structural geology investigation in the republics of Dahomey and Togoland, Africa, using ERTS-1 multi-spectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weecksteen, G. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Recent geological studies in the Republics of Dahomey and Togoland put in light a new chronology and propose a schema indicating that the structural geology of this region is very complicated. The new observations made possible by the ERTS images concern the main orientations, the folded units, and the lithology. The correlation between different types of laterite and the petrology of the basement seems possible, and is the most significant result of this investigation but unfortunately conducted with poor quality images because of atmospheric haze.

  1. Geological and geophysical signatures of the Jemez lineament: a reactivated Precambrian structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, M.J. Jr.; Ander, M.E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Jemez lineament (N52/sup 0/E) is one of several northeast-trending lineaments that traverse the southwestern United States. It is defined by a 500-km-long alignment of late Cenozoic volcanic fields extending southwest from at least the Jemez Mountains in the north-central New Mexico to the San Carlos-Peridot volcanic field in east-central Arizona. Geochronologic data from Precambrian basement rocks indicate that the lineament is approximately coincident with a boundary between Precambrian crustal provinces. Characteristics of the lineament are high heat flow (>104.5 mW/m/sup 2/), an attenuated seismic velocity zone from 25 to 140 km depth, and an upwarp of the crustal electrical conductor inferred from magnetotelluric studies. The high electrical conductivity is probably caused by the presence of interstitial magma in the rocks of the mid-to-upper crust. The average electical strike within the Precambrian basement is N60/sup 0/E, supporting a relationship between the Precambrian structural grain and the Jemez lineament. The geological and geophysical data suggest that the lineament is a structural zone that extends deep into the lithosphere and that its location was controlled by an ancient zone of weakness in the Precambrian basement. Ages of late Cenozoic volcanic rocks along the lineament show no systematic geographic progression, thus indicating that a mantle plume was not responsible for the alignment of the volcanic fields.Most of the faults, dikes, and cinder cone alignments along the lineament trend approximately N25/sup 0/E and N5/sup 0/W. These trends may represent Riedel shears formed by left-lateral transcurrent movement along the structure. Less common trends of cinder cone alignments and dikes are approximately N65/sup 0/W and N85/sup 0/W. The diversity in orientation indicates that the magnitudes of the two horizontal principal stresses within the lineament have been approximately equal for at least the last 5 m.y.

  2. Interactive editing of 3D geological structures and tectonic history sketching via a rigid element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Gautier; Caumon, Guillaume; Jessell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Numerical models of geological structures are generally built with a geometrical approach, which lacks an explicit representation of the deformation history and may lead to incompatible structures. We advocate that the deformation history should be investigated and represented from the very first steps of the modelling process, provided that a series of rapid, interactive or automated, deformation tools are available for local editing, forward modelling and restoration. In this paper, we define the specifications of such tools and emphasise the need for rapidity and robustness. We briefly review the different applications of deformation tools in geomodelling and the existing deformation algorithms. We select a deformation algorithm based on rigid elements, first presented in the Computer Graphics community, which we refer to as Reed. It is able to rapidly deform any kind of geometrical object, including points, lines or volumes, with an approximated mechanical behaviour. The objects to be deformed are embedded in rigid cells whose displacement is optimised by minimising a global cost function with respect to displacement boundary conditions. This cost function measures the difference in displacement between neighbouring elements. The embedded objects are then deformed based on their original position with respect to the rigid elements. We present the basis of our implementation of this algorithm and highlight its ability to fulfil the specifications we defined. Its application to geomodelling specific problems is illustrated through the construction of a synthetic structural model of multiply deformed layers with a forward modelling approach. A special boundary condition adapted to restore large folds is also presented and applied to the large anticline of Han-sur-Lesse, Belgium, which demonstrates the ability of this method to efficiently perform a volumetric restoration without global projections.

  3. Study of the determination of molybdenum in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of molybdenum in geological materiais by instrumental neutron activation analysis frequently does not present results due to spectral interferences of radioisotopes and due to 99Mo produced by fission of uranium. In order to eliminate interfering elements such as Na, Fe, U and lanthanides a chemical separation procedure was studied using and anionic exchange resin. In this separation, a recovery of (93+-3%) of Mo was obtained and pratically all the uranium was found in the effluent. Activation with epithermal neutrons reduced the interferences mainly those originating from uranium. Interference factors of 0.84 ?g Mo/?g U and 0.038?g Mo/?g U, respectively for thermal and epithermal irradiations, were determined experimentally. The separation method applied to the analysis of synthetic samples containing 141Ce and 59Fe interferents presented results with a precision of 6.9% and relative error of 2.6%. Analysis of Mo was also carried out in two international geological samples (AGV-1 and BCR-1) and in a sample of volcanic rock from Pocos de Caldas, MG Brazil. A sensitivity of 0.014? of Mo was attained by this method in the absence of interferering elements. (author)

  4. Photographic analysis of seafloor geologic features at the 9 N Overlapping Spreading Center, East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnery, A.; Klein, E.; White, S.; Perfit, M.; Fornari, D.; Soule, A.; Mason, J.

    2007-12-01

    In March and April 2007, a cruise to the overlapping spreading center (OSC) at 9 deg 03' N on the East Pacific Rise collected geological, geochemical, and hydrothermal activity data along both limbs of the OSC and within the overlap basin to explore linkages between the melt lenses identified by Kent et al. (2000) and surficial geological processes. Here we report preliminary results of photographic data obtained by the ROV Jason II (4 lowerings; covering ~ 20.4 km; ~7000 digital photographs; 213 hrs continuous video for each of the three video streams) and the WHOI TowCam (7 lowerings; covering 29.3 km; ~ 10,000 digital photographs). The majority of our work focused on and adjacent to the eastern (propagating) limb of the OSC. Along the east limb, lavas (including pillow/lobate and sheet/hackly flows) with the freshest and most abundant glass, least sediment cover, and most delicate ornamentation are present along the bathymetrically elevated portion of the ridge between ~9 deg 7'- 10'N. This area also includes lava lake-style collapse structures with remnant pillars, as well as the only hydrothermal vent site observed in this study (at 9 deg 8.3' N). Further south along the east limb, to 9 deg 0' N, sediment cover and tectonic features (predominantly ~N-S-trending fissures) gradually increase, only lobate flows are observed, and glassy surfaces on the lavas are less abundant. Along the southernmost portion of the east limb, the melt lens plunges and cuts east across the ridge axis fabric. Above the location of the plunging melt lens, heavily sedimented lavas are observed with no evidence of recent volcanism. Photographs collected west of the bathymetrically robust portion of the east limb, overlying the wide, off-axis melt lens, generally show volcanism older than that found on-axis at the same latitude, although some areas associated with an elevated NW-trending ridge appear younger than surrounding terrane. Our study of the west (dying) limb of the OSC extends from ~ 9 deg 3' N to 8 deg 57 ' N. In this area, only pillow/lobate flows with variably fresh glass were observed and sediment cover varied, with some areas having a light dusting while others were completely blanketed. Tectonism, in the form of ~N-S fissures and fault scarps (some with talus accumulations) were also observed along the west limb. At the southern end of our study of the west limb, an area of lightly sedimented large pillows with delicate ornamentation was observed. Thorough analysis of our photographic data, in combination with information on the geochemical characteristics of collected samples and U-series age constraints will lead to a better understanding of the magma plumbing system beneath the limbs of the OSC and its relationship to the melt lenses imaged at depth.

  5. A new approach to 3D modelling of geological structures as the basis of application integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, B.; Westgaard, G.

    1994-12-31

    As stated in this paper, a first step on the way to achieving integration of the various applications in the exploration and production industry is, in the authors opinion, to build a complete 3D model of the geological structures based on 3D objects such as blocks in space. The prototype of TerraMod is built to fulfill these requirements. It is based on SINTEF`s toolkits SISL (SINTEF Spline Library) and SISCAT (SINTEF Scattered Data Library), which cover the areas of complex geometry manipulation, data reduction on 3D objects and scattered data approximation. These toolkits reflect the thorough knowledge gained through research projects during the last 15 years, and also incorporate new research results from leading scientists through the collaboration between SINTEF and the University of Oslo. The TerraMod prototype is also built to fulfill important requirements of the geoscientist: it has the ability to handle different types of geo-data as input, data that is possibly scattered. The system helps the user to build a complete model that represents the underlying geometry of the reservoir concerned and enables visualization of the 3D model in different ways. it provides functionality that enables manipulation of the 3D objects in the model in a consistent manner. Finally, the system has the ability to assign the necessary property functions describing the medium concerned, in order to prepare the model for geoscience applications. 3 refs., 1 figure

  6. Evidence For The Strong Influence Of Structural Geology On Shallow Microseismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytharouli, S.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Lunn, R. J.; Do Nascimento, A.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2009-12-01

    Induced seismicity is usually associated with individual pre-existing faults whose nature is generally unknown. The high uncertainties in the locations of the earthquakes (50 m in one study and generally >100 m) combined with the absence of geological observations, permits only un-validated assumptions about the mechanism and the structures on which shallow seismicity occurs. More detailed knowledge on the physics of earthquakes is limited to events with magnitude Mw > 4 at depths usually >100km so that location errors do not jeopardise the reliability of the results. This lack of accurate locations has led most studies to a common assumption; that the seismicity is concentrated on a single slip surface associated with each individual fault segment. This assumption has significant implications for industries such as geothermal energy exploitation, deep well injection of waste liquids and underground nuclear waste disposal, where prediction of hydraulic and mechanical property evolution is required for large rock masses, over long time-scales. For this study we use a high quality seismic monitoring record obtained using 3-component digital seismometers. The monitoring covered a 3-yr period, from 1994 to 1997, took place at the Acu water reservoir (NE Brazil) and is associated with a strike-slip fault trending at approximately 47 deg. We achieve location accuracies better than 20m for 185 shallow ( 120000 m2, some of which are adjacent and co-planar. We conducted several geological field campaigns around the study area. Observations from a nearby exposed sub-parallel fault show it to be a ‘mature’ fault with a well-defined fault core that contained no open fractures and an associated damage zone >100m in width. Sets of open shear fractures associated with the damage zone correspond well to the shear planes estimated from the seismic data. Our results reveal that seismicity is not occurring on the main fault but is distributed over a wide (~ 1.5km long and 500m wide) associated damage zone. The damage zone is characterised by micro-seismically active shear fractures. These micro-seismic events have ‘rupture patches’ with areas of 5000-15000m2 and are triggered by very small changes in groundwater pressure. This will result in temporal changes to fracture connectivity and flow within individual shear fractures. Our findings have significant implications for permeability estimation at shallow depths over long time scales.

  7. Framework for multiple hypothesis testing improves the use of legacy data in structural geological modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soazig Corbel

    2015-06-01

    The concept is applied to a geological model project of the Perth Basin, Australia, where we show how it enables us to quickly revise and update the (previously constructed model with additional data (e.g. newly available digitized legacy data, to evaluate the spatial consistency between different legacy data sets and interpretations, and to test different hypotheses. In our point of view, this is an important aspect towards a sustainable approach for geological modeling as it allows a very flexible and transparent use of different data sets for model construction – and therefore a more sustainable use of legacy data itself in the increasing use of subsurface representations using 3D geological models.

  8. Thai Rhetorical Structure Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Somnuk Sinthupoun,; Ohm Sornil

    2010-01-01

    A rhetorical structure tree (RS tree) is a representation of discourse relations among elementary discourse units (EDUs). A RS tree is very useful to many text processing tasks employing relationships among EDUs such as text understanding, summarization, and question-answering. Thai language with its unique linguistic characteristics requires a unique RS tree construction technique. This paper proposes an approach for Thai RS tree construction which consists of three major steps: EDU segmenta...

  9. Structural geology and sedimentology of the Sermat Quartzites, Strandja Massif, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazıcı, Müge; Natal'in, Boris A.

    2015-04-01

    The Strandja Massif, NW Turkey, is the eastern continuation of the Rhodope Massif in Bulgaria. The massif is generally correlated with the Hercynian orogenic belt that was later modified by the Cimmerian orogeny. The basement of the massif is composed by various kinds of gneisses and schists, which are intruded by the metagranites. In the studied area, the Cambrian K-feldspar metagranites are unconformably overlain by metaclastics, where both units have fault contacts with volcano-sedimentary rocks. The metagranite intrusions yield Carboniferous U-Pb zircon ages (Natal'in et al., 2012a). All of them constitute the basement of the Strandja Massif. Cambrian age of metagranites and their subduction related nature as well as the subduction related nature of the Carboniferous igneous rocks suggest a prolong evolution of the Strandja Massif (Natal'in et al., 2012a). The Cambrian metagranites are unconformably overlain by a metasedimetary cover unit, which is known in the literature as the Şermat Quartzite of presumably Permo-Triassic age (Çağlayan and Yurtsever, 1998). In the studied region, detrital zircons extracted from quartzites show that their depositional age is not younger than the Ordovician (Natal'in et al., 2012a). The basement of the Strandja Massif is subjected to the epidote-amphibolite-greenschist facies of metamorphism and high strain deformation in the late Jurassic - early Cretaceous times. The Şermat Quartzite forms a transgressive sequence, which starts with metaconglomerates, metasandstones and grades up to quartz-sericite schists. The thickness of bedding changes from thin to medium with parallel bedding planes, containing lens-shaped bodies of massive quartzites. The late Jurassic - early Cretaceous foliation (S1) is generally parallel to the primary bedding plane. Foliations and lineations consistently dip to the northeast and kinematic indicators suggest a tectonic transport in the same direction. High strain in the Şermat Quartzite prevented the preservation of sedimentary structures such as flute casts and cross-beddings, which can be used to determine the sedimentary environments of the Şermat Basin. Nevertheless, all available relicts indicate the transportation of sediments from a source area in the south. If the Şermat Quartzites is Ordovician age, they can be correlated with the Ordovician rocks of the Istanbul Zone, which is interpreted as a south-facing passive continental margin. Sedimentological framework of the Şermat Quartzites contradicts this correlation. Further studies of the region are necessary in order to determine the connection between the Strandja Massif and the Istanbul Zone. Keywords: Hercynian orogeny, Cimmerides, Strandja Massif, İstanbul Zone, Sedimentary Basin, Turkey References Çağlayan, M. A. & Yurtsever, A., 1998, Geological map of Turkey at 1:100000 scale, no. 20, 21, 22, 23, Burgaz-A3, Edirne-B2 and -B3, Burgaz A4, and Kırklareli-B4-B5-B6 and -C6 sheets, Mineral Research and Exploration Institute (MTA) of Turkey publications (in Turkish with English abstract). Natal'in, B., Sunal, G., Zhiqing, Y. & Gün, E., 2012a, Late Paleozoic subduction-accretion orogeny in the eastern part of the Turkish Strandja Massif (Vize - Kıyıköy region), in Kocbay, A., Esat, K., and Hasancebi, N., eds., 65th Geological Congress of Turkey. Abstracts Book: Ankara, Chamber of Geological Engineers, p. 454-455 Natal'in, B., Sunal, G., Satır, M. & Toraman, E., 2012, Tectonics of the Strandja Massif, NW Turkey: History of a Long-Lived Arc at the Northern Margin of Palaeo-Tethys: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 21, p. 755-798.

  10. Amplification on topographic irregularities: the role of morphology versus the subsurface geological structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischiutta, Marta; Rovelli, Antonio; Cara, Fabrizio; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Milana, Giuliano; Vassallo, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Amplification effects on topographic irregularities have been thoroughly studied in the last decades. Although the number of observations is significantly increased, many aspects are still controversial. The main difficulty is to reproduce the level of amplification through theoretical models as the dependence of ground motion on the topography geometry and shape is not systematic. Moreover, observed amplification often realizes along a site-specific azimuth with a not clear theoretical explanation in terms of topographic features. Recent studies performed by the NERA-JRA1 working group have found that amplification at rock-sites on topographic irregularities is rather controlled by the subsurface velocity structure, high levels occurring at non-A sites of the Eurocode-8 classification. We present the results of seven study cases in central Apennines (Nocera Umbra, Narni, Cerreto Laziale, Introdacqua, Rovere, Campo Imperatore, Monte Ocre) trying to deepen the dualism between morphology and rock properties based on similarity and diversity of effects among them. Ground motion properties are investigated through earthquake and ambient noise records and nearsurface velocity profiles are assessed at some sites. In particular we focus on the role of rock fractures on topography. Fractures play a double role in decreasing the near-surface Vs values because of weathering and generating anisotropy in the rock compliance. As a matter of fact, the occurrence of strong directional amplification is common to all the investigated sites, and we ascribe this effect to the oriented fracture field of the sites. Results from structural geological surveys confirms the strict dependence of directional amplification on rock fractures. Since topographic irregularities and rock fractures coexist in the Apennines, we conclude that this is a key point to interpret amplification at sites with pronounced topography.

  11. Release consequence analysis for a hypothetical geologic radioactive waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One subtask conducted under the INFCE program is to evaluate and compare the health and safety impacts of different fuel cycles in which all radioactive wastes (except those from mining and milling) are placed in a geologic repository in salt. To achieve this objective, INFCE Working Group 7 examined the radiologic dose to humans from geologic repositories containing waste arisings as defined for seven reference fuel cycles. This report examines the release consequences for a generic waste repository in bedded salt. The top of the salt formation and the top of the repository are assumed to be 250 and 600 m, respectively, below the surface. The hydrogeologic structure above the salt consists of two aquifers and two aquitards. The aquifers connect to a river 6.2 km from the repository. The regional gradient to the river is 1 m/km in all aquifers. Hydrologic, transport, and dose models were used to model two release scenarios for each fuel cycle, one without a major disturbance and one in which a major geologic perturbation breached the repository immediately after it was sealed. The purpose of the modeling was to predict the rate of transport of radioactive contaminants from the repository through the geosphere to the biosphere, and to determine the potential dose to humans. Of the many radionuclides in the waste, only 129I and 226Ra arrived at the river in sufficient concentrations for a measurable dose calculation. Radionuclide concentrations in the ground water pose no threat to man because the ground water is a concentrated brine and it is diluted by a factor of 106 to 107 upon entering the river

  12. Thai Rhetorical Structure Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sinthupoun, Somnuk

    2010-01-01

    A rhetorical structure tree (RS tree) is a representation of discourse relations among elementary discourse units (EDUs). A RS tree is very useful to many text processing tasks employing relationships among EDUs such as text understanding, summarization, and question answering. Thai language with its unique linguistic characteristics requires a unique RS tree construction technique. This paper proposes an approach for Thai RS tree construction which consists of three major steps: EDU segmentation, Thai RS tree construction, and discourse relation (DR) identification. Two hidden markov models derived from grammatical rules are used to segment EDUs, a clustering technique with its similarity measure derived from Thai semantic rules is used to construct a Thai RS tree, and a decision tree whose features extracted from the rules is used to determine the DR between EDUs. The proposed technique is evaluated using three Thai corpora. The results show the Thai RS tree construction and the DR identification effectiven...

  13. Analysis on digital management of uranium geological archives and its second exploitation and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enormous data and examples show that the second exploitation and utilization of geological archives information are important and necessary for geological prospecting. The author deeply studies and analyzes the information service system for uranium geology, it is believed that the traditional management mode of geological archives must be transformed into modernized service mode. The way of how to expand, apply and improve the 'management and analytical system for uranium resources information' is discussed for implementing geo-informational construction. (authors)

  14. The Geology Robot: A Collaborative Effort for improving Outcrop Visualization and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, K. C.; Valoski, M. P.; Rodi, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic mapping is one of the most important skills a geologist will attempt to master during their education and well into their career. Mapping requires the ability to identify rocks and minerals, an understanding of geologic principles of history, deformation, and tectonics, as well as the ability to access the geology in question. As a student, the first two items are cognitive, and generally gained through education and experience. However, the third involves external, especially physical factors, often outside of a student’s control. Mapping and outcrop analysis can be difficult in areas of especially varied terrain depending on one’s will and physical ability. In our area of southwestern Pennsylvania, steep terrain and dense vegetation dominate the landscape. Road cuts are often the only options for identifying local bedrock. Many outcrops are avoided based on their sheer size or integrity, which can pose risks of physical harm. In order to address some of these concerns, we have developed a robot, able to scale and image rocks in the vertical. The principle behind the robot’s capabilities is to reach steep or over-steep cliff faces to view and measure rock type and stratigraphic relationships. The robot carries a movable camera, allowing the operator a clear view of the rock face in an area that he or she wouldn’t normally be able to access. The robot is suspended from climbing rope over the cliff edge and connected to a power source and video monitor. The current prototype is operated with a handheld remote control including independent camera manipulation. Future development may include detachable wheel tracks for navigating less than vertical surfaces and a coring bit for sampling. Potential uses exist beyond visualization for classroom instruction, including detailed mapping, evaluating geological engineering challenges, viewing down-well conditions in large-bore wells, etc. We believe this robot will allow students (and possibly professionals) an opportunity to use a simple tool to accomplish previously difficult, dangerous, or even impossible tasks. This work is an example of cross-discipline collaboration on our campus. It was conceived from a Geologist’s point of view, shared with a Robotics expert, and offered as a challenge to the university’s Robotics students. Several interested students designed and built the robot from scratch as an extra-curricular project. This is a great demonstration of capturing the interests of students across disciplinary boundaries to achieve a unique and creative outcome.

  15. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: safety analysis of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: granite. Tome analyse de surete du stockage geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the safety aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - safety approach: context and general goal, references, design approach by safety functions, safety approach during the construction-exploitation-observation-closure phase, safety analysis during the post-closure phase; 2 - general description: HLLL wastes, granitic environment, general structure of the architecture of a disposal facility; 3 - safety functions and disposal design: general context, safety functions of the long-term disposal, design dispositions retained to answer the functions; 4 - operational safety: people's protection, radiological risks during exploitation, risk analysis in accident situation; 5 - qualitative safety analysis: methodology, main results of the analysis of the features, events and processes (FEP) database; 6 - disposal efficiency evaluation during post-closure phase: calculation models, calculation tools used for the modeling of radionuclides transport, calculation results and main lessons. (J.S.)

  16. Progress on 129I analysis and its application in environmental and geological researches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a naturally generated isotope, but anthropogenic releases are the dominated source of 129I in the present environment. Among many measurement techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are only methods used for measurement of 129I in environmental level. Based on its source terms, chemical properties and environmental behaviors, 129Ican be applied for geological dating in a range of 2–80Ma, investigation of formation and migration of hydrocarbon, circulation of ocean water, atmospheric process of iodine, as well as reconstruction of dispersion and migration of short-lived radioisotopes of iodine released from nuclear accidents. This article aims to summarize and critically compare the analytical techniques used for 129I measurement and chemical methods for separation of iodine from various sample matrices, purification from the interferences, as well as preparation of suitable target for AMS measurement. The major applications in environmental and geological researches are reviewed, which mainly focus on the new progress and potential development in the future. The application of 129I in the investigation of radioactive contamination from the Fukushima accident is discussed.

  17. On risk analysis for repositories in northern Switzerland: extent and probability of geological processes and events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature study assesses, in the form of expert analysis, geological processes and events for a 1200 km2-area of northern Switzerland, with regard to repositories for medium- and high-active waste (depth 100 to 600 m and 600 to 2500 m, respectively) over the next 106 years. The area, which comprises parts of the Tabular Jura, the folded Jura and the Molasse Basin, the latter two being parts of the Alpine Orogene, has undergone a non-uniform geologic development since the Oligocene. Within the next 104 to 105 years a maximum earthquake intensity of VIII-IX (MSK-scale) has been predicted. After this period, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the area, glaciations will probably occur, with associated erosion of possibly 200 to 300 m. Fluvial erosion as a reponse to an uplift could reach similar values after 105 to 106 years; however, there are no data on the recent relative vertical crustal movements of the area. The risk of a meteorite impact is considered small as compared to that of these factors. Seismic activity and the position and extent of faults are so poorly known within the area that the faulting probability cannot be derived at present. Flooding by the sea, intrusion of magma, diapirism, metamorphism and volcanic eruptions are not considered to be risk factors for final repositories in northern Switzerland. For the shallow-type repositories, the risk of denudation and landslides have to be judged when locality-bound projects have been proposed. (Auth.)

  18. Coda-wave interferometry analysis of time-lapse VSP data for monitoring geological carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, R.; Huang, L.; Rutledge, J.T.; Fehler, M.; Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.

    2009-11-01

    Injection and movement/saturation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a geological formation will cause changes in seismic velocities. We investigate the capability of coda-wave interferometry technique for estimating CO2-induced seismic velocity changes using time-lapse synthetic vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data and the field VSP datasets acquired for monitoring injected CO2 in a brine aquifer in Texas, USA. Synthetic VSP data are calculated using a finite-difference elastic-wave equation scheme and a layered model based on the elastic Marmousi model. A possible leakage scenario is simulated by introducing seismic velocity changes in a layer above the CO2 injection layer. We find that the leakage can be detected by the detection of a difference in seismograms recorded after the injection compared to those recorded before the injection at an earlier time in the seismogram than would be expected if there was no leakage. The absolute values of estimated mean velocity changes, from both synthetic and field VSP data, increase significantly for receiver positions approaching the top of a CO2 reservoir. Our results from field data suggest that the velocity changes caused by CO2 injection could be more than 10% and are consistent with results from a crosswell tomogram study. This study demonstrates that time-lapse VSP with coda-wave interferometry analysis can reliably and effectively monitor geological carbon sequestration.

  19. MI-1320 Mass spectrometer and its analytical parameters for isotope analysis in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are the technical characteristic of a new serial MI-1320 mass spectrometer and the value of its analytical parameters obtained in the laboratory tests when analysing the isotope standards of plumbum, strontium and uranium. Isotope sensitivity of the device constitutes 3x10-6, 6 the probe use factor (according to uranium) is 0.5-1.5x10-3 ion/atom. The reproduction of results of measurements of isotopic ratios in independent experiments constitutes 0.04-0.015% rel. These and other characteristics of the device exceed by 1-2 orders the corresponding characteristics of the domestic mass spectrometers of the preceeding generation used in geology. Mass spectrometer permits to carry out studies requiring high sensitivity and accuracy of measurements and to achieve isotope data of a qualitatively new level at variations of isochronous dating of geologic samples, cosmic bodies at studying natural variations of isotopic composition of chemical elements permitting isotopic analysis in solid phase. The ways of further development of the device are considered

  20. A role of interconnected confined geological structural system in hydrothermal uranium mineralization and its significance in search of uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed an important metallogentic structural pattern of hydrothermal uranium deposit-the confined geological structural system interconnected with the inner part of the earth's crust. The so-called geological sturctural system is a general term for the sturctural passages that occurred in the shallow or deeper part of the earth's crust with confined migration to ground water (including hydrothermal solutions) connecting with the deep part (the anatectic zone) of the earth's crust by fractures, and its secondary permeable structure. It consists of alimentation area, confined migrating passage, passage of deep part, mixed area, drainage area, upper and lower barrier, etc. This geological structural system is important to hydrodthermal uranium mineralization in following aspects: it was favourable for the fromation of uranium-bearing hydrothermal solution; it could provide a kinetic condition for the migration of the uranium-bearing hydrothermal solution; it could dominate the particular position of forming-uranium mineralization; it could control the type of uranium mineralization, form, occurrence and buried depth of ore body

  1. The geological structure and gas presence of the southeastern part of the Mrakovskiy depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barykin, I.V.; Chistilin, G.M.; Kamaletdinov, R.A.; Shelenin, A.Sh.

    1983-01-01

    The tectonic structure of the gas promising territory of the Mrakovskiy depresion combined under the name of the Saratov Berkutovskiy gas bearing zone, which can be traced for a distance of up to 120 kilometers, is examined. Analysis of the materials shows the qualitative correspondence of the structural planes of the marking levels of the Carboniferous and the lower Permian inside the allochthonous and autochthonous complexes. The effect of barite on the productive levels, the basic types of collectors and the required complex of oil field and geophysical studies is examined.

  2. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, S.; Ikuma, T.; Tanifuji, R. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Use of the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) in Determining Realtionship between Geology, Structures and Mineral Prospects, Southern Part of the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa M. Hariri

    2003-01-01

    GIS can be utilized in geology in different fields among them; mineral and petroleum exploration, geological mapping and reconnaissance, environmental studies, and in hydrogeological modeling. In mineral exploration the GIS is used to define a set of characteristics of specific mineral deposit that might be used as a guide to similar deposits in the region. An example is being the spatial relation of igneous intrusions and / or geological structures to the mineral prospect locations. This stu...

  4. SG2PS (structural geology to postscript converter) - A graphical solution for brittle structural data evaluation and paleostress calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasvári, Ágoston; Baharev, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to create an open source cross platform application to process brittle structural geological data with seven paleostress inversion algorithms published by different authors and formerly not available within a single desktop application. The tool facilitates separate processing and plotting of different localities, data types and user made groups, using the same single input file. Simplified data input is supported, requiring as small amount of data as possible. Data rotation to correct for bedding tilting, rotation with paleomagnetic declination and k-means clustering are available. RUP and ANG stress estimators calculation and visualization, resolved shear direction display and Mohr circle stress visualization are available. RGB-colored vector graphical outputs are automatically generated in Encapsulated PostScript and Portable Document Format. Stereographical displays on great circle or pole point plot, equal area or equal angle net and upper or lower hemisphere projections are implemented. Rose plots displaying dip direction or strike, with dip angle distribution of the input data set are available. This tool is ideal for preliminary data interpretation on the field (quick processing and visualization in seconds); the implemented methods can be regularly used in the daily academic and industrial work as well. The authors' goal was to create an open source and self-contained desktop application that does not require any additional third party framework (such as .NET) or the Java Virtual Machine. The software has a clear and highly modular structure enabling good code portability, easy maintainability, reusability and extensibility. A Windows installer is publicly available and the program is also fully functional on Linux. The Mac OS X port should be feasible with minimal effort. The install file with test and demo data sets, detailed manual, and links to the GitHub repositories are available on the regularly updated website www.sg2ps.eu.

  5. Analysis of geological condition and prospecting potential of uranium metallogenesis in Maling granite mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the study of regional geological evolution of Maling granite mass, uranium content of granite mass and its peripheric strata, petrogeochemistry and the known spatial distribution pattern of uranium mineralization and ore-controlling structures, new recognition is 1) Maling composite mass is the 'S' type re-melted granite, 2) the accumulative area of regional uranium metallogenic substances forms uranium-rich re-melted strata, 3) magma evolution is the matter base for the uranium-rich hydrotherm, 4) NE-trending main faults are channels for metallogenesis and the lateral high-angle dipping faults, fractures and interlayer fractures in the peripheric strata are the spaces of mineralization. The ore intersected by drilling in Maling granite is acidic type. Prospecting potential of Maling granite mass is analyzed, and preferable prospecting space is delineated for further exploration. (authors)

  6. THE TECTONICS STRESS AND STRAIN FIELD MODELING ADJUSTED FOR EVOLUTION OF GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES (SAILAG INTRUSION, EASTERN SAYAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Voytenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a tectonophysical model showing evolution of structures in the Sailag granodiorite massif in relation to its gold-bearing capacity. The model takes into account the load patterns according to geological data, accumulated deformation, and gravity stresses. This model provides for updating the structural-geological model showing development of the intrusion body and the ore field. Forecasted are destruction patterns in the apical and above-dome parts of the massif  in the intrusion and contraction phase, formation of the long-term shear zone at the steeply dipping slope of the intrusion body, and subvertical fractures associated with the long-term shear zone and vertical mechanical ‘layering’ of the intrusive body.  

  7. Geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic analysis with reference to selection of site for nuclear power plants: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic analysis play a major role in qualifying a proposed site for establishment of nuclear power plants. In an area, it is important to understand the aspects such as regional and local geology, geomorphology, tectonic settings, presence of active faults/capable faults, earthquake history and earthquake proneness, neotectonic activity, slope instability, subsidence, liquefaction, seismically induced flooding, tsunami and geohydrological conditions. Geological investigations comprise use of remote sensing and ground validation followed by geological mapping, identification of faults, near surface geological studies for foundation conditions, stratigraphic drilling, palaeoseismology, studies on engineering properties of rock and soil. Geophysical investigations provide insight into subsurface geology including concealed faults, elastic constants and hydrological conditions. Radon emanometry is a valuable tool in the initial stage to decipher subsurface active weak zones/fault lines. Seismotectonic analysis identifies the provinces of tectonic significance and their earthquake potential, thereby designating lineaments of consequence leading to their evaluation. This, in turn, determines the design basis earthquake parameter for the estimation of vibratory ground motion. This article provides certain measures to evaluate the suitability of the sites for the establishment of nuclear power plants in terms of geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic status. Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) had carried out seismotectonic analysis of the area around Kaiga, Narora, Kalpakkam, Kakrapar, Tarapur, Kudankulam and Rawatbhata Nuclear Power Projects, which were either in operation or under expansion and construction. Such analysis was extended to a number of proposed sites for establishing nuclear power plants in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. (author)

  8. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  9. Comparison of mainframe and minicomputer spectral analysis codes in the activation analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comparison study of one of the most widely used mainframe codes, GAMANL, and the applications software supplied with the nuclear data 6620 gamma-ray spectroscopy system. The study was conducted by performing analyses on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard rocks. The spectral details studied were those frequently found in complex samples and which may not be readily duplicated using pulsers. Five replicate samples of approximately 30 mg each of USGS rocks G-1, G-2, W-1 and BCR-1 were irradiated in a reactor for 10 hours at a flux of 6 x 1013 n cm-2 sec-1. A Ge(Li) detector was used for counting. Decay corrections were made for Ce-141, Cr-51, Nd-147, Sc-46, Rb-86, Fe-59, and Ta-182. The gamma ray spectra for G-1, G-2, W-1 and BCR-1 are shown

  10. The Results of Borehole Acoustic Imaging from a Granite in the Jihlava District, Czech Republic: Implications for Structural Geological Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Nováková; Petr Novák; Milan Brož; Karel Sosna; Michal Pitrák; Jana Kasíková; Lenka Rukavicková; LukᚠManák

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents utilisation of the acoustic borehole imaging method within the frame of structural geology research. Acoustic borehole imaging is a useful tool describing borehole walls. The method allows an identification of various inhomogenieties along the borehole including fractures. Despite the more or less subjective nature of interpretation of the acoustic borehole imaging similar to other geophysical method interpretations, is a careful comparison of the interpreted fractures and ...

  11. Seismic response of the geologic structure underlying the Roman Colosseum and a 2-D resonance of a sediment valley

    OpenAIRE

    P. Labak; Rovelli, A; P. Mozco; L. Malagnini

    1995-01-01

    The seismic response of the geologic structure beneath the Colosseum is investigated using a two-dimensional modeling for a vertically incident plane SH wave. Computations indicate that the southern part of the Colosseum may be exposed to a seismic ground motion with significantly larger amplitudes, differential motion and longer duration than the northern part. because the southern part of the Colosseum is underlain by a sedimentfilled valley created by sedimentary filling of the former trib...

  12. Distribution and geology accumulation contamination analysis of heavy metal cadmium in agricultural soil of Zunyi county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pollution of heavy metal Cd in agricultural soils of Zunyi County, Guizhou Province, was investigated and assessed by using geology accumulation indices (igeo) and pollution index method in this study. Results showed that the average content of Cd is 0.356 mg/kg, and the geochemistry baseline content of Cd was 0.147 mg/kg. The Igeos of Cd was 0.691, which suggested that non-contaminated soil accounts for 13.84%, 59.17% of tested soils was between non-polluted and mid-level polluted, 21.37% with mid-level polluted and 5.17% was between mid-level polluted and severely polluted, 0.45% of which was severely polluted. Contamination degree analysis indicated that non-contaminated soil was only 10.57%, 54.44% was influenced by Cd and 34.98% was seriously influenced by Cd. (authors)

  13. Platinum stable isotope analysis of geological standard reference materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creech, J.B.; Baker, J.A.; Handler, M.R.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We report a method for the chemical purification of Pt from geological materials by ion-exchange chromatography for subsequent Pt stable isotope analysis by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using a Pt-Pt double-spike to correct for instrumental mass bias...... (Creech et al., 2013, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28, 853-865). The reproducibility in natural samples is evaluated by processing multiple replicates of four standard reference materials, and is conservatively taken to be ca. ±0.088 (2sd). Pt stable isotope data for the full set of reference materials have a...... range of ?Pt values with offsets of up to 0.4‰ from the IRMM-010 standard, which are readily resolved with this technique. These results demonstrate the potential of the Pt isotope system as a tracer in geochemical systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  14. Spatial distribution of neutron flux in geological larger sample analysis at CDTN/CNEN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron monitor wire was used to evaluate the neutron flux gradients inside 5 g-geological sample during irradiation. The spatial distribution for thermal flux was about 2 %/cm for radial and axial gradients and about 5 %/cm for radial and 2.5 %/cm for axial gradients for fast neutrons. The results were evaluated using reference material IAEA-SOIL-7 analysed as small and larger samples and tested with calculating En numbers. This test pointed out that all results were consistent within a 95 % confidence interval. The contribution of the neutron flux gradients may be reduced for larger sample using the standard procedure of the k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis. (author)

  15. Rare earths in environment and geologic samples determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis allows to determine rare earth elements (REE) with a sensivity much higher than non-nuclear methods. In this work, this technique has been applied to the determination of REE in environmental samples, such as marine suspended particulate matter and sea, lake and river sediments. The importance of lanthanides in the environmental field is due to the fact that some REE, because of their nearly identical physico-chemical behaviour, can simulate the environmental behaviour of actinides, generated by activation or fission processes. Am(III) can be simulated by Eu(III) and Nd(III), that can simulate also Cm(III). As regardes REE in geological studies, their distribution and fractionation in rocks provide information about the genesis and the evolution of the rocks themselves. In this work, some data relevant to Kenya rocks are presented

  16. Crater Boguslawsky on the moon: Geological structure and an estimate of the degree of rockiness of the floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Karachevtseva, I. P.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Head, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The paper considers the results of a study of the geological structure of the floor of the crater Boguslawsky selected as a primary target for the Luna-Glob mission. The deplanate floor of the crater is covered by the material ejected from remote craters and the crater Boguslawsky-D on the eastern inner slope of the crater Boguslawsky. It is highly probable that the sampling of the crater Boguslawsky-D ejecta will provide the unique possibility to detect and analyze the material that predates the formation of the largest and most ancient currently known basin on the Moon—the South Pole-Aitken basin. The rockiness degree of the Boguslawsky crater floor has been estimated from the radar data and the manual boulder counts in the superresolution images (0.5 m/pixel obtained with the Narrow Angle Camera from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter). Comparison of the radar data to the results of the photo-geological analysis shows that the main contributor to the radar signal is the rock debris located in the subsurface layer sounded by radar (1-1.5 m), while there are practically no boulders on the surface. The two most rocky regions on the crater Boguslawsky floor are associated with the relatively fresh impact craters 300-400 m in diameter. The spatial density of boulders near the craters suggests that one of them is 30-50 Myr older than the other. For both of these craters, the spatial density of boulders drops with the distance from their rims. The rate of the decrease in the boulder spatial density is the same for both craters, which points to the constant-in-time intensity of the fragmentation of boulders. The size distribution of boulders versus the distance from a rim of the older crater is approximated by the curve with a slope of-0.02, while the curve slope for the younger crater is-0.05. The gentler curve slope for the older crater is obviously connected with the equalization of sizes of the rock debris with time. The size-frequency distribution of all rock fragments for the both craters, regardless of the distance from the rim, shows that mainly large boulders first crumble away as the surface age increases. Some large boulders near the young crater demonstrate the traces of rolling, while such traces are absent for the boulders near the older crater. This allows us to estimate the intensity of the reworking of a thin surface layer at 0.01 m/Myr.

  17. Capability Study For Using the Impulse Graphite Reactor For Activation Analysis of Geological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IGR reactor facility available in the Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK is mainly used for testing the going and newly developed fuel compositions and reactor materials. In connection with a decrease of the demand in investigations like that there was considered the capability to use the reactor for solving another research and, particularly, applied problems. A mineral exploration is one of the urgent objectives in the Republic of Kazakstan, and in Semipalatinsk region in particular. To perform the exploration like that it's required, in addition to rough field investigations, the methods of analysis for element composition of geological materials, the difference of which is in their effectiveness, quality and low first cost. Activation methods of analysis allow to provide with a high analysis quality and effectiveness. Therefore, there was proposed to study the capability to use the IGR reactor for the activation analysis of geological materials. To solve this goal the following activity in three basic trends is required: 1. To create the needed theoretical and, on its basis, the methodical base for performing the analytical activity; 2. To create the experimental and technical and organizational infrastructure for the investigations, providing with a high productivity and low prime cost of work; 3. To conduct works on marketing and to use the going methodical and technical base on the market of services. Major objectives for the creation of the theoretical and methodical base for analysis are: a) the study of neutron and physical IGR reactor characteristics under various operation modes; b) the study of the radiation effect on the results of activation analysis; c) the simulation of the temperature mode for irradiation of samples in the reactor and experimental model survey; d) the study of the capability to use non-traditional elements and materials as neutron reactor flux monitors; e) the development of the technique for the experimental and computational determination of neutron flux fluence and its spectral composition; f) the development, fabrication and experimental testing of irradiation devices of various types; g) the study of the sample geometry effect on the outcomes of the analysis; h) the optimization of the processes for the samples preparation to the irradiation and gamma-spectrometric analysis of the irradiated material; i) the development of the methodical provision for the activation analysis; j) the development of the software for the complex of works on the activation analysis; Major targets solved in the field of creating the required infrastructure for the work implementation: a) to create the site for samples production for the activation analysis; b) to create the system for the samples shipping to the area for conducting analysis; c) to create the site close to the reactor to conduct the activation analysis; d) to create the site for radiochemical preparation of samples for activation analysis. In addition, the capability to create the anticipated technical base is considered: a) for analyzing samples by the method of gamma-activation analysis (in particular, to identify beryllium); b) for determining the fission materials composition (including plutonium) in samples by various methods (for example, on delayed neutrons)

  18. Analysis of geological material and especially ores by means of a 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were made on the possibilities for analysis by 252Cf activation in the earth sciences and mining research. The results obtained show that while 252Cf activation can only resolve certain very specific geochemical research problems, it does allow the exact and rapid determination of numerous elements whose ores are of great economic importance such as fluorine, titanium, vanadium, manganese, copper, antimony, barium, and tungsten. The utilization of activation analysis methods in the earth sciences is not a recent phenomenon. It has generally been limited to the analysis of traces in relatively small volumes by means of irradiation in nuclear reactors. Traditional neutron sources were little used and were not very applicable. The development of 252Cf isotopic sources emitting more intense neutron fluxes make it possible to consider carrying out more sensitive determinations without making use of a nuclear reactor. In addition, this technique can be adapted for in situ analysis in mines and mine borings. Our work which is centered upon the possibilities of instrumental laboratory analyses of geological materials through 252Cf activation is oriented in two principal directions: the study of the experimental sensitivities of the various elements in different rocks with the usual compositions; and the study of the possibilities for routine ore analyses

  19. Geological structure characteristics of high spatial resolution remote sensing data and the discovery of geological tiny-structure in Zhuguang uranium ore concentrated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium prospecting is a complex system project. New ways and new technologies' support and service can supply more precise prospecting information. Zhuguang Uranium Ore Concentrated Area is one of the largest granite-type uranium ore concentrated areas in China. Through structural interpretating to its high spatial resolution remote sensing data, much small to tiny type structural information is interpretated which can not be interpretated on lower spatial resolution remote sensing data. This information may have some relation with uranium mineralization. The work can supply more precise structural information and some revelations for this area's mineralization regularity research. (authors)

  20. Structural analysis of NPP components and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capabilities for effective structural integrity assessment have been created and extended in several important cases. In the paper presented applications deal with pressurised thermal shock loading, PTS, and severe dynamic loading cases of containment, reinforced concrete structures and piping components. Hydrogen combustion within the containment is considered in some severe accident scenarios. Can a steel containment withstand the postulated hydrogen detonation loads and still maintain its integrity? This is the topic of Chapter 2. The following Chapter 3 deals with a reinforced concrete floor subjected to jet impingement caused by a postulated rupture of a near-by high-energy pipe and Chapter 4 deals with dynamic loading resistance of the pipe lines under postulated pressure transients due to water hammer. The reliability of the structural integrity analysing methods and capabilities which have been developed for application in NPP component assessment, shall be evaluated and verified. The resources available within the RATU2 programme alone cannot allow performing of the large scale experiments needed for that purpose. Thus, the verification of the PTS analysis capabilities has been conducted by participation in international co-operative programmes. Participation to the European Network for Evaluating Steel Components (NESC) is the topic of a parallel paper in this symposium. The results obtained in two other international programmes are summarised in Chapters 5 and 6 of this paper, where PTS tests with a model vessel and benchmark assessment of a RPV nozzle integrity are described. (author)

  1. Geologic construction of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajikistan has complicated geologic construction. Rocks, which compose the territory of Tajikistan very various on their age, composition and structure. Here known sedimentary, abyssal and metamorphic strata

  2. Gravity analyses for the crustal structure and subglacial geology of West Antarctica, particularly beneath Thwaites Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Theresa Marie

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is mostly grounded in broad, deep basins (down to 2.5 km below sea level) that are stretched between five crustal blocks. The geometry of the bedrock, being mostly below sea level, induces a fundamental instability in the WAIS through the possibility of runaway grounding line retreat. The crustal environment of the WAIS further influences the ice sheet's fast flow through conditions at the ice-bedrock boundary. This study focuses on understanding the WAIS by examining the subglacial geology (such as volcanoes and sedimentary basins) at the ice-bedrock boundary and the continent's deeper crustal structure- primarily using airborne gravity anomalies. The keystone of this study is a 2004-2005 aerogeophysical survey over one of the most negative mass balance glaciers on the continent: Thwaites Glacier (TG). The gravity anomalies derived from this dataset- as well as gravity-based modeling and spectral crustal boundary depth estimates- reveal a heterogeneous crustal environment beneath the glacier. The widespread Mesozoic rifting observed in the Ross Sea Embayment (RSE) of West Antarctica extends beneath TG, where the crust is ˜27 km thick and cool. Adjacent to TG, spectrally-derived shallow Moho depths for the Marie Byrd Land (MBL) crustal block can be explained by thermal support from warm mantle. I assemble here new compilations of free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies across West Antarctica (from both airborne and satellite datasets) and re-interpret the extents of West Antarctic crustal block and their boundaries with the rift system. Airy isostatic gravity anomalies reveal that TG is relatively sediment starved, in contrast to the sediment-rich RSE. TG's fast flow velocities could be sustained in this sediment poor environment if higher heat flux in MBL was providing an ample source of subglacial melt water to the glacier. The isostatic anomalies also indicate that TG's outlet rests on a bedrock sill that will impede future grounding line retreat (up to ˜100 km) and temporarily stabilize the glacier.

  3. Teaching Strain Theory in Structural Geology Using Graphics Programs for the Apple Macintosh Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachran, David Ballard; Marshak, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Describes three microcomputer programs that allow geology students to deform two-dimensional images on a computer screen and then to measure changes in angular relationships. Two of the programs simulate pure and simple shear and the third simulates variations in shear strain that occur in shear zones. (ML)

  4. A multidisciplinary geological and geophysical approach to define structural and hydrogeological implications of the Molinaccio spring (Spello, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoli, Maurizio; Pauselli, Cristina; Forte, Emanuele; Di Matteo, Lucio; Mazzocca, Massimiliano; Frigeri, Alessandro; Federico, Costanzo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a multidisciplinary geological and geophysical approach has been applied in the complex area of Molinaccio spring (Spello, Umbria, Central Italy) to: 1) understand the large-scale geologic and tectonic structure of the area; 2) define the hydrogeological behavior of the various formations in relationship with the identified structural elements; 3) highlight at small-scale the tectonic structures and their relationships with the water caption tunnel, which is the draining structure of a still working, ancient Roman aqueduct giving water to the village of Spello and to the surrounding plain. Our approach includes different techniques like Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), direct geological investigations, archaeological studies, GIS data collection and integration. The GPR data revealed, in the area of the water-caption tunnel, two main tectonic structures, both also confirmed by ERT data: the presence of a zone (maximum 2 m wide), interpreted as a normal fault area and an overthrust that puts in contact the permeable Scaglia Rossa limestone (Early Turonian-Middle Eocene), and the Scaglia Variegata-Cinerea marly limestones (Middle Eocene-Upper Oligocene) on the footwall, characterized by lower hydraulic permeability. Using some rough information available on the sub-surface path of the tunnel, that shows a sharp bend after a long straight course, together with the geophysical images, was possible to describe how Romans built the tunnel: they probably followed the wet outcropping rock during the excavation, and changed abruptly the dig direction when they intercepted the normal fault area, aligning then the excavation along its strike. This latter result is important also because recently a multidisciplinary project has been developed to restore and exploit the entire water supply structure, which is not only a well-preserved example of Roman remains with high archaeological value, but also a vital infrastructure for a zone with great tourist potential.

  5. Evaluation and analysis of geological condition of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ore geological condition, hydrogeological condition, engineering geological condition and technological mineralogical character of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium are analyzed, and it is considered that the implementation of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium technology is decided by different geological factor. Previously prospecting and geological condition evaluation of uranium ore is based on traditional mining method. If in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium method is adopted, one must re-evaluate previously prospected deposits before they are mined, or one must evaluate new prospecting deposits according to geological conditions of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium method. The feasibility evaluation method of uranium deposit by in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium put forward by B. N. Mociniets is introducd, and it is considered that B. N. Mociniets method has guidable significance for geological condition evaluation before uranium deposits are mined. A feasibility study is done by applying B. N. Mociniets method to a uranium deposit. (authors)

  6. A virtual environment for the accurate geologic analysis of Martian terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Christoph; Paar, Gerhard; Gupta, Sanjeev; Hesina, Gerd; Sander, Kathrin; Barnes, Rob; Nauschnegg, Bernhard; Muller, Jan-Peter; Tao, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Remote geology on planetary surfaces requires immersive presentation of the environment to be investigated. Three-dimensional (3D) processing of images from rovers and satellites enables to reconstruct terrain in virtual space on Earth for scientific analysis. In this paper we present a virtual environment that allows to interactively explore 3D-reconstructed Martian terrain and perform accurate measurements on the surface. Geologists do not only require line-of-sight measurements between two points but much more the projected line-of-sight on the surface between two such points. Furthermore the tool supports to define paths of several points. It is also important for geologists to annotate the terrain they explore, especially when collaborating with colleagues. The path tool can also be used to separate geological layers or surround areas of interest. They can be linked with a text label directly positioned in 3D space and always oriented towards the viewing direction. All measurements and annotations can be maintained by a graphical user interface and used as landmarks, i.e. it is possible to fly to the corresponding locations. The virtual environment is fed with 3D vision products from rover cameras, placed in the 3D context gained from satellite images (digital elevations models and corresponding ortho images). This allows investigations in various scales from planet to microscopic level in a seamless manner. The modes of exploitation and added value of such an interactive means are manifold. The visualisation products enable us to map geological surfaces and rock layers over large areas in a quantitative framework. Accurate geometrical relationships of rock bodies especially for sedimentary layers can be reconstructed and the relationships between superposed layers can be established. Within sedimentary layers, we can delineate sedimentary faces and other characteristics. In particular, inclination of beds which may help ascertain flow directions can be accurately quantified. Overall, we are able to construct digital models of rock outcrops that assist in identification of ancient sedimentary environments that may have been habitable. Representative examples and further information about the interactive 3D visualization tool can be found on the FP7-SPACE Project PRoViDE web page http://www.provide-space.eu/interactive-virtual-3d-tool/. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n? 312377 'PRoViDE'.

  7. Neutron-activation analysis of several US Geological Survey and National Bureau of Standards reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, several US Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) and National Bureau of Standards (N.B.S.) reference samples have been analyzed in an effort to improve the quality of elemental concentration data available on these materials, so they can be used in a program of verification of factor analysis source resolution procedures. The analyses of these samples were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples analyzed were: U.S.G.S. Green River Shale, N.B.S. 45b Homogeneous River Sediment, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Peridotite N.B.S. 1579 Powdered Lead-based Paint, U.S.G.S. Hawaian Basalt U.S.G.S. Marine Mud, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Cody Shale U.S.G.S. Glass Mountain Rhyolite, N.B.S. Argillaceous Limestone No. 1, and a sample of Spex ultrapure graphite. Neutron activation analysis was employed because of the high sensitivity that can be attained in determining elemental concentrations. Although INAA is a relatively simple method and the reproducibility of the data is good, the method shows some inaccuracies. The basic theory and technique are reviewed in an attempt to show where problems can arise and how they can be dealt with

  8. Structural analysis for LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firstly, we discuss the use of elastic analysis for structural design of LMFBR components. The elastic analysis methods have been used for structural design of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor as well as the proposed prototype Test Breeder Reactor. The design of Fast Breeder Test Reactor which is nearing completion is the same as that of Rapsodie. Nevertheless, the design had to he checked against the latest design codes available, namely the ASME Code case 1592. This paper however, is confined to Structural analysis of PFBR components. The problems faced in the design of some of the components, in particular, the inner vessel (plenum separator) are discussed. As far as design codes are concerned, we make use of ASME Code Section III and the Code Case N-47, for high temperature design. The problem faced in the use of these rules are also described along with the description of analysis. Studies in the field of cyclic loading include extension of Bree's breakdown and plastic cycling criteria for ratchet free operation to biaxial stress fields. In other fields, namely, inelastic analysis, piping analysis in the creep regime etc. we are only at a start

  9. An engineering geological appraisal of the Chamshir dam foundation using DMR classification and kinematic analysis, southwest of Iran

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mehdi, Torabi Kaveh; Mojtaba, Heidari.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo describe los resultados de una investigación de ingeniería geológica y estudios de mecánica de roca que se llevo a cabo en el lugar propuesto para le represa Chamshir. Se propone una presa de 155m de altura, de arco gravitacional en concreto de solido, la cua debe ser construida a trav [...] és del rio Zuhreh al sureste de la ciudad de Gachsaran en el suroeste de Irán. La presa y su estructura asociada son localizadas principalmente sobre la formación Mishan. El análisis consistió en la clasificación del macizo rocoso y un análisis cinemático de la fundación de la masa rocosa de la presa. Los estudios se llevaron a cabo en campo y laboratorio. Los estudios de campo incluyeron cartografía geológica, un estudio intensivo de discontinuidad, perforación de núcleo y toma de muestras para pruebas de laboratorio. La clasificación de la masa rocosa se realizo de acuerdo con la clasificación RMR y DMR para la fundación de la presa. El análisis de basamento rocoso de la presa en relación a la estabilidad usando la clasificación DMR y el análisis cinemático indico que el estribo izquierdo del basamento (área 2) es inestable para tipos de fallo planares y de cuña. Abstract in english This paper describes the results of engineering geological investigations and rock mechanics studies carried out at the proposed Chamshir dam site. It is proposed that a 155 m high solid concrete gravity-arc dam be built across the Zuhreh River to the southeast of the city of Gachsaran in south-west [...] ern Iran. The dam and its associated structures are mainly located on the Mishan formation. Analysis consisted of rock mass classification and a kinematic analysis of the dam foundation's rock masses. The studies were carried out in the field and the laboratory. The field studies included geological mapping, intensive discontinuity surveying, core drilling and sampling for laboratory testing. Rock mass classifications were made in line with RMR and DMR classification for the dam foundation. Dam foundation analysis regarding stability using DMR classification and kinematic analysis indicated that the left abutment's rock foundation (area 2) was unstable for planar, wedge and toppling failure modes.

  10. Structural Analysis in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an applied method of assessing and manipulating environmental factors influencing student behavior. The assessment procedure is called structural analysis (SA) and can be a part of a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) process or a stand-alone set of procedures for teachers to use in their classrooms.…

  11. Apatite fission track analysis: geological thermal history analysis based on a three-dimensional random process of linear radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous fission of uranium atoms over geological time creates a random process of linearly shaped features (fission tracks) inside an apatite crystal. The theoretical distributions associated with this process are governed by the elapsed time and temperature history, but other factors are also reflected in empirical measurements as consequences of sampling by plane section and chemical etching. These include geometrical biases leading to over-representation of long tracks, the shape and orientation of host features when sampling totally confined tracks, and 'gaps' in heavily annealed tracks. We study the estimation of geological parameters in the presence of these factors using measurements on both confined tracks and projected semi-tracks. Of particular interest is a history of sedimentation, uplift and erosion giving rise to a two-component mixture of tracks in which the parameters reflect the current temperature, the maximum temperature and the timing of uplift. A full likelihood analysis based on all measured densities, lengths and orientations is feasible, but because some geometrical biases and measurement limitations are only partly understood it seems preferable to use conditional likelihoods given numbers and orientations of confined tracks. (author)

  12. Preliminary analysis of engineered barrieer performances in geological disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents preliminary results of safety analysis of a engineered barrier system in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. Three well-known computer codes; ORIGEN 2, TRUMP, and SWIFT were used in the simulation. Main conceptual design of the repository was almost identical to that of SKB in Sweden and NAGRA in Switzerland; the engineered barrier conasists glass solidified waste, steel overpack, and compacted bentonite. Two different underground formations are considered; granite and neogene sedimentary rock, which are typically found in Japan. We first determined the repository configuration, particularly the space between disposal pitts. The ORIGEN 2 was used to estimate heat generation in the waste glass reprocessed at 4 years after removal from PWR. Then, temperature distribution was calculated by the TRUMP. The results of two or three dimensional calculation indicated that the pit interval should be kept more than 5 m in the case of granite formation at 500 m depth, according to the temperature criteria in the bentonite layer (90Sr, 241Am, 239Pu, and 237Np were chosen in one or two dimensional calculations. For both cases of steady release and instanteneous release, the maximum concentration in the pore water at the boundary between bentonite and surrounding rock had the following order; 237Np>239Pu>90Sr>241Am. Sensitivity analysis showed that the order mainly due to the different adsorption characteristics of the nuclides in bentonite layer. (author)

  13. Global sensitivity analysis of reactive transport modeling of CO2 geological storage in a saline aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictive uncertainty for reactive transport modeling of CO2 geological storage arises due to high uncertainty in dissolution/precipitation rates. Here, the reactive transport modeling of the Frio sandstone formation is used as a case study. The major CO2 trapping mineral is ankerite, while the main dissolution minerals are oligoclase and chlorite. In this context, unlike the commonly used local sensitivity analysis, the sensitivity analysis is global so that the potential co-operative effects among input parameters can be investigated. Nine key factors for kinetic rates and reactive mineral surface areas with respect to precipitating and dissolving minerals (only oligoclase) are considered. Sensitivity results from the Morris method show that the dissolution rate of oligoclase knuO, and its reactive surface area AO, are the most sensitive parameters, with the largest effects on CO2 mineral capture. The variation of the total amount of CO2 captured by minerals is pronounced with multiple model runs from Morris samples, which suggests that reactive surface areas and kinetic rates have significant impacts on CO2 mineral sequestration. (authors)

  14. Arbitral analysis of uranium in sandstone uranium geological samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for determination of uranium in sandstone uranium geological samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) was evaluated. Samples were digested and spiked with highly enriched uranium (HEU) in a closed vessel using mixed acids, and 235U/238U ratio was measured by high resolution ICP-MS. The method is capable of determining uranium contents of 1-10 000 ?g/g with relative expanded uncertainty of 4.0% at uranium contents of 4 ?g/g, and is qualified for the arbitral analysis of uranium in sandstone uranium geological samples. (authors)

  15. Integrated geophysical survey for the geological structural and hydrogeothermal study of the North-western Gargano promontory (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schiavone

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A multimethodological geophysical survey was performed in the north-western part of the Gargano promontory to study the geological structural setting and the underground fluid flow characteristics. The area has a complex tectonics with some magmatic outcrops and shallow low-enthalpy waters. Electrical, seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic surveys were carried out to reconstruct the geological structures; and in order to delineate the hydrogeothermal characteristics of the area, the self-potential survey was mainly used. Moreover magnetic and self-potential measurements were also performed in the Lesina lake. The joint three-dimensional interpretation of the geophysical data disclosed a large horst and graben structure covering a large part of the area. In the central part of the horst a large ramified volcanic body was modelled. The models show some intrusions rising from it to or near to the surface. The main structures are well deep-seated in the Crust and along them deep warm fluids rise as the SP data interpretation indicates.

  16. Radioactive and geological analysis of airborne gamma spectrometric data for locating favorable traps for uranium prospecting in the Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical analysis has been applied to the airborne spectrometric data for the Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria in order to characterize and isolate the anomalous uranium radioactive zones. Equivalent uranium eU values vary between a minimum of 0.01 and a maximum of 32.74 ppm. Uranium prospecting methodology recently proposed is successfully applied in order to explain the origin of the radioactive anomalies related to Area-1. The dominant geological conditions effectively contributing to the uranium radioactive anomalies in the study area have been determined through the analysis of five radioactive-geological profiles. Different favorable traps have been identified and localized for uranium prospecting. Those uranium traps merit further detailed exploration for determining their uranium potential with depth. - Highlights: ? Determine the radioactive characteristics of Area-1. ? Apply a uranium prospecting methodology for guiding uranium exploration activities in Area-1. ? Explain the origin of the radioactive anomalies in Area-1. ? Relate the structural and geological conditions with the anomalous radioactive occurrences.

  17. Study on systemizing technology on investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. Japanese fiscal year, 2007 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this year, the following studies were carried out with the aim of systemizing the technology on the investigation and analysis to understand the deep underground geological environment in relation to the radioactive waste disposal. (1) The study on the research and development (R and D) subjects which turned to the practical investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. (2) The study on the advanced technical basis for the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. The results obtained from the studies are as follows: Regarding (1), the specific investigations, measurements and numerical and chemical analyses were performed particularly for research subjects: 1) engineering technology and 2) geological environment. Based on the results on (1), 3) tasks of collaboration research on intermediate area between the research fields, including the safety assessment field, were selected. Also redefinition of the NFC (Near Field Concept) were discussed. Regarding (2), based on the extracted tasks of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) research project, the study was implemented considering previous R and D results and detailed research at the research field was carried out. This study contributed to the R and D development for its practical application. Concurrently, information exchange and discussion on the 2nd phase (the Construction Phase) of the MIU (Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory) research program were often held. (author)

  18. Mine-Tunnel Design & Monitoring Analysis for Major Faults and Complex Geological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-dong ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining operations at Nanyang-Slope Coal Mine are considerably challenging. The Nanyang- Slope Coal Field has a complex tectonic structure; having major faults, large fissures and fracture- zones, and great changes in coal-seam thickness. Mine tunnel-way 301 traverses multiple complex faults with developed fractures, broken surrounding rock, and high tectonic stresses. The original rectangular-section tunnel design using anchor-bolt-mesh retainment was prone to rib-spalling, and the problem could not be controlled by use of additional encryption anchors on the tunnel sides. The mud-rock above the tunnel-ceiling is soft and argillized, which expands and softens on contact with water. This caused problems with the epoxy bonding agent failing to effectively secure bolt-anchors to the rock, resulting in anchor-bolt-mesh failure. In consideration of the complex geological conditions, a tunnel construction utilizing a curved wall arch-section and anchor-bolt- mesh-concrete spray was proposed. MJ-40 anchor-rod dynamometers were used to measure the forces in the tunnel rock-anchor bolts; and tunnel-rock deformation and surface displacement was monitored over the course of several weeks using a measuring station. Results show that the construction design effectively lowers the effects of the tectonic stresses on any one part of the tunnel, and demonstrates the safety and reliability of the tunnel-retainment and support design.

  19. Adaptive analysis of plate structures

    OpenAIRE

    Bohinc, Uroš

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with adaptive ?nite element modeling of plate structures. The ?nite element modeling of plates has grown to a mature research topic, which has contributed signi?cantly to the development of the ?nite element method for structural analysis due to its complexity and inherently speci?c issues. At present, several validated plate models and corresponding families of working and e?cient ?nite elements are available, o?ering a sound basis for an engineer to choose from. In our opin...

  20. Scaling and wavelet-based singularity analysis for geological and geophysical interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Feng

    This dissertation mainly deals with two separate but closely related topics. The first part is focused on solving current problems in monoscaling analysis on well logging data and provided an acceptable framework for more accurate analysis. My arguments were made based on theoretical considerations, analyses from simulations of a group of fGn/fBm, as well as studies on real data examples. It is argued that raw well data should be considered as fBm type of time series that have spectrum power beta ? 1. Consequently, for fBm-like data, in order to make consistent and comparable results from rescaled-range and power spectrum techniques, and to make meaningful estimates of fractal dimension, we should use their incremental series, rather than the raw time series themselves for R/S analysis. R/S analyses applied directly on raw well data always give erroneously high estimates of Hu (>0.85). On the other hand, R/S analyses on the incremental series give estimates of Hu close to H from power spectrum analyses on the raw data. Monoscaling analysis assumes inherently that the scaling parameter is constant along the data trajectory. In this sense Fourier transform is well suited for the analysis because no time/space localization is necessary. For more complicated data, however, we have to introduce wavelet transform and utilize its ability of localization in time/space. In the second part of this dissertation I introduced wavelet-based singularity analysis and demonstrated that Holder exponent from this analysis can serve as a good seismic attribute for more detailed stratigraphic interpretation. Holder exponent gives a close link between acoustic impedance and seismograms due to the nature of physics and the property of Holder exponent. Geological information that would be obscured on original seismic amplitude display can stand out more clearly on Holder attribute. The Holder exponent can also help for acoustic impedance inversion. The application of wavelet transform in geosciences has become a rapidly growing research field. As a contribution to this trend, I included a section of discussion in the epilog on seismic deconvolution in wavelet domain, which may circumvent many strict assumptions in traditional techniques and therefore provide more accurate imaging.

  1. Geology and structural outline of the Lagoa Real Complex, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lagoa Real Complex is constituted by 1.7 Ga granitoids that occur along the Paramirim valley. The granitoids are formed by the Sao Timoteo Granite and a set of alkali-gneisses that were crystallized during a compressional sin-metamorphic deformation episode. The carried out structural analysis has identified two deformation patterns. The compressional episode is represented by shear zones, compositional layering, milonite foliation and folds. The extensional episode is characterized by the nucleation of normal shear zones. The geometric patterns of the finite deformation are similar to the ones that occur in the Ituacu synclinal where the Salitre e Bebedouro formations of Una Group outcrop. An ancient geometric pattern was not found in the area; consequently we propose that the deformation episodes were related to the neoproterozoic Orogeny. (author)

  2. Uncertainty analysis in comparative NAA applied to geological and biological matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative nuclear activation analysis is a multielemental primary analytical technique that may be used in a rather broad spectrum of matrices with minimal-to-none sample preprocessing. Although the total activation of a chemical element in a sample depends on a rather large set of parameters, when the sample is irradiated together with a well-known comparator, most of these parameters are crossed out and the concentration of that element can be determined simply by using the activities and masses of the comparator and the sample, the concentration of this chemical element in the sample, the half-life of the formed radionuclide and the time between counting the sample and the comparator. This simplification greatly reduces not only the calculations required, but also the uncertainty associated with the measurement; nevertheless, a cautious analysis must be carried out in order to make sure all relevant uncertainties are properly treated, so that the final result can be as representative of the measurement as possible. In this work, this analysis was performed for geological matrices, where concentrations of the interest nuclides are rather high, but so is the density and average atomic number of the sample, as well as for a biological matrix, in order to allow for a comparison. The results show that the largest part of the uncertainty comes from the activity measurements and from the concentration of the comparator, and that while the influence of time-related terms in the final uncertainty can be safely neglected, the uncertainty in the masses may be relevant under specific circumstances. (author)

  3. A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, M. (BP Exploracion de Venezuela, Stockley Park, Middlesex (United Kingdom)); Audemard, F. (Intevep, Miranda (Venezuela)); Valdes, G. (Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1993-09-01

    Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

  4. Safety analysis of geologic containment of long life radioactive wastes. Critical assessment of existing methods and proposition of prospective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing methods of risk analysis applied to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in geologic formations are rewieved. A prospective analysis method for containment performances is proposed, deduced in the burial system from the combination of interaction between wastes, repository, host rock, surrounding geosphere, of natural evolution of each component of the system, sudden or chance events that could break waste containment. The method is based on the elaboration of four basic schemes graded in difficulties to facilitate comparisons

  5. Analysis on the use of engineered barriers for geologic isolation of spent fuel in a reference salt site repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perspective on the potential durability and effectiveness requirements for the waste form, container and other engineered barriers for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. This perspective is based on calculated potential doses to individuals who may be exposed to radioactivity released from a repository via a groundwater transport pathway. These potential dose commitments were calculated with an integrated geosphere transport and bioshpere transport model. A sensitivity analysis was accomplished by varying four important system parameters, namely the waste radionuclide release rate from the repository, the delay prior to groundwater contact with the waste (leach initiation), aquifer flow velocity and flow path length. The nuclide retarding capacity of the geologic media, a major determinant of the isolation effectiveness, was not varied as a parameter but was held constant for a particular reference site. This analysis is limited to looking only at engineered barriers whose net effect is either to delay groundwater contact with the waste form or to limit the rate of release of radionuclides into the groundwater once contact has occurred. The analysis considers only leach incident scenarios, including a water well intrusion into the groundwater near a repository, but does not consider other human intrusion events or catastrophic events. The analysis has so far been applied to a reference salt site repository system and conclusions are presented.Basically, in nearly all cases, the regional geology is the most effective barrier to release of radionuclides to the biosphere; however, for long-lived isotopes of carbon, technetium and iodine, which were poorly sorbed on the geologic media, the geology is not very effective once a leach incident is initiated

  6. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method for...... determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....

  7. Evolution of gravity-driven rock slope failure and associated fracturing: geological analysis and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stéphane, B.; Chemenda, A. I.; Darnault, R.; Rolland, Y.

    2011-12-01

    An accurate fracturing analysis along two landslides in the Argentera massif (French Southern Alps) was performed in order to relate the fracturing to the rock slope failure. The mature La Clapière landslide active for about sixty years and the incipient Isola Landslide were investigated. In addition to the well known regional tectonic fracture sets, we identified in the both cases a new family of vertical valley parallel (VP) fractures. They were observed only on the lower part of the slope affected by landslides. In addition to their proximity to the landslides, the geological criteria indicate that they are not related to the known regional tectonic events and are likely gravity-induced. The numerical modelling further supports this conclusion. We used Hooke-Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model and topography of the La Clapière cite derived from DEM. Particular attention was paid to elucidate the impact on the process of the boundary conditions, model size, and mesh resolution. In all cases the model evolution led to the inelastic deformation and quasi-vertical VP fracturing (to different depths in different models) at the lower part of the slope, which preceded landsliding. These results suggest that the state of slope fracturing can be used in estimating the potential/probability of the rock mass failure.

  8. Identification of significant parameters through sensitivity analysis in biosphere assessment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation doses to human beings are calculated by modeling the radionuclide migration processes and the exposure pathways at surface environment in the biosphere assessment of geological disposal. A great effort is necessary when all of the biosphere parameters need to be collected at the actual surface environment of any proposed repository, because a great number of biosphere parameters, such as element-specific parameters, parameters specific to the surface environment or human behavior, are used in the biosphere assessment. Therefore, it is helpful to identify the biosphere parameters that should be collected at the actual environment in advance. For this purpose, the following approaches were developed in this study: (1) Extraction of the significant biosphere parameters through sensitivity analysis including estimation of the influences of variation of element-specific parameters (e.g. soil-to-plant transfer factors, concentration coefficients to animal products) on flux-to-dose conversion factors. (2) Checking the data sources of the significant biosphere parameters on the present dataset. (3) Making the priority list in future data acquisition. So far, steps (1) and (2) have been done, therefore this report summarizes the results obtained from these steps. (author)

  9. Geology, structure, and statistics of multi-ring basins on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Richard A.; Frey, Herbert V.

    1990-01-01

    Available data on Martian multi-ring basins were compiled and evaluated using the new 1:15 million scale geologic maps of Mars and global topography was revised as base maps. Published center coordinates and ring diameters of Martian basins were plotted by computer and superimposed onto the base maps. In many cases basin centers or ring diameters or both had to be adjusted to achieve a better fit to the revised maps. It was also found that additional basins can explain subcircular topographic lows as well as map patterns of old Noachian materials, volcanic plains units, and channels in the Tharsis region.

  10. Geology, structure, and statistics of multi-ring basins on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available data on Martian multi-ring basins were compiled and evaluated using the new 1:15 million scale geologic maps of Mars and global topography was revised as base maps. Published center coordinates and ring diameters of Martian basins were plotted by computer and superimposed onto the base maps. In many cases basin centers or ring diameters or both had to be adjusted to achieve a better fit to the revised maps. It was also found that additional basins can explain subcircular topographic lows as well as map patterns of old Noachian materials, volcanic plains units, and channels in the Tharsis region

  11. A simple analysis of potential radiological exposure from geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL has submitted an environmental impact statement (EIS) describing its proposal for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The EIS presents a detailed analysis of potential radiation exposure of an individual of a critical group of people in a hypothetical case. In this report, we provide a simpler analysis of potential exposure in the hope that the inherent safety of the disposal will be more readily evident from the analysis. A key to the simplification is the elimination from the analysis of the complex transport processes through disposal vault sealing materials and the geosphere. We also eliminate the relatively complex function describing the failure of the thin-walled titanium containers in the case study presented in the EIS. We therefore conceptually replace the thin-walled titanium containers with thicker-walled copper containers, are expected to remain intact much longer than 10,000 a, the period for which a quantitative estimate of individual exposure is made. However, about 1 in 5000 containers could have small defects that were undetected during manufacture. Our analysis applies only to the case of an undisrupted vault. We assume that the vault and geosphere barriers remain intact and prevent immobile radionuclides from reaching the biosphere. However, we also assume that the three most important mobile radionuclides can escape through an undected manufacturing defect in the container wall, and that the flux of these radionuclides is diluted by well water being used by people. We have focused on 129I, 36Cl and 14C, because these nuclides are found to be the dominant source of exposure in more complex analyses. If a single container released radionuclides to well water, we estimate dose rates of about 1 ?Sv.a-1 from drinking water and 29 ?Sv.a-1, which the Atomic Eenrgy Control Board has adopted as a de minimis dose rate, i.e., a dose rate so small as to not warrant institutional control. We believe that the dose rates are greatly overestimated because of the many conservative assumptions and simplifications used in the analysis. (author) 51 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of Viscoelastic Structures

    OpenAIRE

    A.M.G. de Lima; M.H. Stoppa; D.A. Rade; Steffen Jr, V.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of control of sound and vibration of mechanical systems, the use of viscoelastic materials has been regarded as a convenient strategy in many types of industrial applications. Numerical models based on finite element discretization have been frequently used in the analysis and design of complex structural systems incorporating viscoelastic materials. Such models must account for the typical dependence of the viscoelastic characteristics on operational and environmental paramete...

  13. Platinum stable isotope analysis of geological standard reference materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creech, J.B.; Baker, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    We report a method for the chemical purification of Pt from geological materials by ion-exchange chromatography for subsequent Pt stable isotope analysis by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using a Pt-Pt double-spike to correct for instrumental mass bias. Double-spiking of samples was carried out prior to digestion and chemical separation to correct for any mass-dependent fractionation that may occur due to incomplete recovery of Pt. Samples were digested using a NiS fire assay method, which pre-concentrates Pt into a metallic bead that is readily dissolved in acid in preparation for anion-exchange chemistry. Pt was recovered from anion-exchange resin in concentrated HNO acid after elution of matrix elements, including the other platinum group elements (PGE), in dilute HCl and HNO acids. The separation method has been calibrated using a precious metal standard solution doped with a range of synthetic matrices and results in Pt yields of ?90% with purity of ?95%. Using this chemical separation technique, we have separated Pt from 11 international geological standard reference materials comprising of PGE ores, mantle rocks, igneous rocks and one sample from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary layer. Pt concentrations in these samples range from ca. 5ngg to 4?gg. This analytical method has been shown to have an external reproducibility on ?Pt (permil difference in the Pt/Pt ratio from the IRMM-010 standard) of ±0.040 (2sd) on Pt solution standards (Creech et al., 2013, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28, 853-865). The reproducibility in natural samples is evaluated by processing multiple replicates of four standard reference materials, and is conservatively taken to be ca. ±0.088 (2sd). Pt stable isotope data for the full set of reference materials have a range of ?Pt values with offsets of up to 0.4‰ from the IRMM-010 standard, which are readily resolved with this technique. These results demonstrate the potential of the Pt isotope system as a tracer in geochemical systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Geological structure of Osaka basin and characteristic distributions of structural damage caused by earthquake; Osaka bonchi kozo to shingai tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, K.; Shiono, K.; Inoue, N.; Senda, S. [Osaka City University, Osaka (JP. Faculty of Science); Ryoki, K. [Osaka Polytechnic Collage, Osaka (Japan); Shichi, R. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The paper investigates relations between the damage caused by the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and the deep underground structures. A characteristic of the earthquake damage distribution is that the damage concentrated near faults. Most of the damages were seen on the side of faults` relatively falling rather than right above the faults and of their slightly slanting to the seaside. Distribution like this seems to be closely related to underground structures. Therefore, a distribution map of the depth of basement granite in Osaka sedimentary basin was drawn, referring to the data on basement rock depth obtained from the distribution map of gravity anomaly and the result of the survey using the air gun reflection method. Moreover, cubic underground structures were determined by 3-D gravity analysis. The result was concluded as follows: when observing the M7 zone of the low land, in particular, where the damage was great from an aspect of gravity anomaly, the basement rock below the zone declined near the cliff toward the sea, which indicates a great possibility of its being a fault. There is a high possibility that the zone suffered mostly from the damage caused by focusing by refraction and total reflection of seismic wave rays. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Environmental geologic analysis of Rio de las Taguas basin Department of Iglesia San Juan, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work has been stablished a relation betwwen geological units and mineralizations related with the aim to understand the hydrochemistry in this area for future environmental impact projects measurement

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Distribution Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP distribution models represent the areas where species are predicted to occur based on habitat associations. GAP distribution models are the spatial arrangement...

  17. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr. [and others

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

  18. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1

  19. Analysis of scenario development methods and practice of high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scenario development is the key step in HLW geological disposal. The features, events and processes (FEPs) should be first considered. The FEPs can be sorted and grouped to form scenario. It is very useful and have reference value for the developing the FEPs of HLW geological disposal in a conceptual and planning stage in China by introducing the FEPs established and sorted methods. (authors)

  20. Geological analysis of the Silver Lake Marsokhod field test from ground-truth sampling and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Edmond A.; Foster, C. Thomas; Stoker, Carol R.; Moersch, Jeffrey E.

    2001-04-01

    We compare the results of the observations and conclusions obtained from a remote science team and field geologists during the 1999 Marsokhod Silver Lake field experiment. This comparison is used to determine methods that enhance the ability of a remote team using a rover to determine the geology and paleoclimate of a landing site analogous to sites that may be encountered during the Mars Surveyor Program. The mobility of the field geologists and their ability to rapidly gain visual and physical data from the field site give an immediate confidence to their interpretation of the geology. The finite time of teleoperation and the initial decisions and mechanical problems that caused the rover to linger and collect data in a small area of the test site for the first 5 days of the test limited the ability of the remote science team to gain a similar confidence. Nevertheless, by appropriate use of ``orbital'' and ``descent'' images as well as the rover's science payload, the remote science team interpreted the present and former climates, the geology and geological history, and present-day biology relatively accurately. The few erroneous interpretations by the remote team resulted in part from biases brought to the test about the nature of the geology that was likely to be encountered. Data quality and variety also impacted the quality of the geological interpretations. Significant misinterpretations in the remotely determined geology resulted from the lack of detail in the optical imagery, a less than optimal understanding of the site's topography, and misinterpretation of some infrared data. All in all, this field test showed that the geology, paleoclimate, and biology of a site can be assessed to a reasonable level of confidence using a remotely controlled vehicle. It also showed that it is both feasible and desirable for a distributed science team to participate in long science missions from home institutions, as long as data flows efficiently to and from these institutions.

  1. Study on systematizing technology on the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. Japanese Fiscal Year, 2006 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this year the following studies were carried out with the aim of systematizing the technology on the investigation and analysis to understand deep underground geological environment in relation to the radioactive waste disposal. (1) The study on the research and development (R and D) subjects which turned to the practical investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. (2) The study on the advanced technical basis for the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. From the studies, the following results were obtained. Regarding (1), the concrete investigation, measurements, numerical analyses and chemical analyses were performed with respect to research subjects 1) the repository design and engineering technology, 2) the safety assessment and 3) the geological environment. And from the viewpoint of radioactive waste disposal, specific subjects were selected. More over the discussion on the collaborative research program for niche area between each fields 1), 2) and 3) was given. One of the important subjects was 'redefinition of the near field concept (NFC)'. Consequently the specific study on the NFC redefinition was carried out as well as the element research on niche area between the research fields. On 2), the evaluation of research results and its practical use for the R and D activities were considered based on the fundamental and elemental technology which the study group performed. The practical research programs to characterize the geological environment and engineering technologies, which were applied to the Tono Geoscience Center, were also discussed. Concurrently opportunities to exchange information and opinions on the 2nd phase (the Shaft Construction Phase) of the MIU (Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory) research program were often opened up in the JAEA. (author)

  2. Geological disposal of nuclear waste: II. From laboratory data to the safety analysis – Addressing societal concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Models for repository safety can only partly be validated. • Long term risks need to be translated in the context of societal temporalities. • Social sciences need to be more strongly involved into safety assessment. - Abstract: After more than 30 years of international research and development, there is a broad technical consensus that geologic disposal of highly-radioactive waste will provide for the safety of humankind and the environment, now, and far into the future. Safety analyses have demonstrated that the risk, as measured by exposure to radiation, will be of little consequence. Still, there is not yet an operating geologic repository for highly-radioactive waste, and there remains substantial public concern about the long-term safety of geologic disposal. In these two linked papers, we argue for a stronger connection between the scientific data (paper I, Grambow et al., 2014) and the safety analysis, particularly in the context of societal expectations (paper II). In this paper (II), we assess the meaning of the technical results and derived models (paper I) for the determination of the long-term safety of a repository. We consider issues of model validity and their credibility in the context of a much broader historical, epistemological and societal context. Safety analysis is treated in its social and temporal dimensions. This perspective provides new insights into the societal dimension of scenarios and risk analysis. Surprisingly, there is certainly no direct link between increased scientific understanding and a public position for or against different strategies of nuclear waste disposal. This is not due to the public being poorly informed, but rather due to cultural cognition of expertise and historical and cultural perception of hazards to regions selected to host a geologic repository. The societal and cultural dimension does not diminish the role of science, as scientific results become even more important in distinguishing between the conflicting views of the risk of geologic disposal of nuclear waste

  3. Structural geology of Ordos basin mineralization and mineralization of uranium deposits in the Huianbao region, west of Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis discussed the geotectonic setting of west Ordos Basin, classification of tectonic units, geology of west fault-fold belt and structural feature in Majiatan region. The stable tectonic region was overall guidance thoughts and ideas for the uranium deposits in the structure relative activities region. Based on exploration and research of uranium geology for many years, the over-thrust nappe belt was favorable region for uranium mineralization. Two oxidation layers which the ancient oxidation was red and oxidation alteration was yellow existed in this region, the uranium ore was controlled on by two oxidation layers. Early red oxidized sandstone was experienced post-reformation such as thrust pushover, lifting, erosion, superimposed depth and separation of block fault. Late yellow oxidation which tended to inherit the early red oxidation and carry on the superposition modification distributed both wings of anticline. The thesis was to summarized the uranium features and metallogenic regularity, which has some guidance for uranium deposits in the basin. (authors)

  4. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Kodge B. G.; Hiremath P. S

    2011-01-01

    The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discusse...

  5. Methodology for the biosphere analysis in the evaluation of deep geological repositories for high radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the work done and the achievements reached within the R and D Project that IMA/CIEMAT has had with ENRESA during 1993-1995. The overal R and D Project has a wide radiological protection context, but the work reported here relates only to the development of a Methodology for considering the Biosphere sub-system in the assessments of deep geological repositories for high radioactive wastes (HLW). The main areas concerned within the Methodology have to do with Biosphere structure and morphology in the long-term relevant to deep disposal of HLW: in the contexts of the assessment of these systems, and appropiate modelling of the behaviour of radionuclides released to the biosphere system and with the associated human exposure. This document first provides a review of the past and present international and national concerns about the biosphere modelling and its importance in relation to the definition of safety criteria. A joint ENRESA/ANDRA/IPSN/CIEMAT study about the definition and proactical descriptions of the biosphere systems under different climatic states is then summarized. The Methodology developed by IMA/CIEMAT is outlined with an illustration of the way it works. Different steps and procedures are included for a better proactical understanding of the software tools developed within the project to support the application of the Methologoy. This Methodology is widely based on an international working group on Reference Biospheres part national work for ENRESA has been supported under a collaborative agreement with QuantiSci Ltd. Specific software development have been carried out in collaboration with QuantiSci Ltd and with the Polytechnical University of Madrid. Most of the items included within the Methodology and moreover the Methodology as a whole, follows a continuos progressive development. It is increasinaly recognized that assessment capabilities, establisment of safety criteria and regulatory framework and the steps in a regulatory development programme should all proceed in parallel. (Author)

  6. Deep structure of the Danilovskii graben in Western Siberia: A geological interpretation of the density models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, K. S.; Kostrov, N. P.; Manushko, E. A.

    2013-08-01

    Gravimetric modeling is conducted for the Triassic Danilovskii graben. The model region may be an etalon for all of Western Siberia because of the nearby Danilovskoe and Severo-Danilovskoe oil deposits and representative geophysical and drilling data. The correctness of the gravitation model was checked by the magnetic model of the graben constructed on the basis of the gravitation model; the difference between the measured and model anomalous magnetic fields is less than 5%. The density models of the graben have shown that rocks with a significantly excess density of 0.3 g/cm3 and higher, which probably represent the Triassic mantle diapir, should be located under the axial part of the graben. Rhyolites, forming small irregular bodies on the geological map of the basement, are combined into the common lopolith-like subvolcanic body at depths. The graben is flattened toward the north, which explains the previously unclear presence of Carboniferous shales among the Triassic rocks.

  7. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElianaBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  8. Structural analysis of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THe report describes the activities accomplished in the project 'Structural Analysis Project of Nuclear Power Plant Components' during the years 1974-1982 in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The objective of the project has been to develop Finnish expertise in structural mechanics related to nuclear engineering. The report describes the starting point of the research work, the organization of the project and the research activities on various subareas. Further the work done with computer codes is described and also the problems which the developed expertise has been applied to. Finally, the diploma works, publications and work reports, which are mainly in Finnish, are listed to give a view of the content of the project. (author)

  9. Geological characteristics of dike-structural belt in Taoshan orefield and its relationship to uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taoshan uranium field is occurred in the Taoshan composite batholith in the central Jiangxi Province. The main body of the batholith was formed in Triassic-Early Cretaceous. In Late Cretaceous-Eogene, NE strike fault structure and dike belt were developed in the batholith. From the north to the south, there are successive Xiaobu-Matian dike-structural belt, Wangnitian dike- structural belt, Huangtan-Yueyuan dike-structural belt, Xibei-Shangluo dike-structural belt, Jipoling dike-structural belt, Wangce dike-structural belt and Shiyuanling dike-structural belt. These belts are controlled by the main fault, share the same space and similar time with the uranium mineralization, which is one of the important factors in positioning the uranium ore as well as the prospecting direction of exploration. (authors)

  10. Quantitative analysis of geological samples using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative analytical methodology is proposed for geological samples presenting a high fraction of light elements ( atomic number less than 130, using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation. The proposed procedure is based on the method of the fundamental parameters for analytical element (Z? 13) evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for the quantitation of the light fraction of the matrix. In this method, standard samples made of pure elements and simple compounds of previously known and superficial density were used to estimate the relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the element concentration through elemental sensitivity and geometric factor for fluorescence. The relationship between scattered intensities and matrix light fraction was based on geometry and scattering factors as well as deferential cross sections. In order to obtain the characteristic x-rays of the elements in the Mn to Zr range a Cd Cd-109 annular radioactive source (1.70 GBq) was used, and for Al to Cr, Fe-55 (0.74 GBq). For the x-ray detection a Si(Li) detector coupled to a multichannel emulation card was employed. The characteristic x-ray net intensity as well as the coherent and incoherent scattered intensities were obtained by using the AXIL software for spectra analysis. To test the proposed procedure, six certified samples (soil-5 / AIEA, SL-2 / AIEA, SARM-2 / SABS, SARM-3 / SABS, SARM-4 / SABS and SARM-6 / SABS) were analyzed. The samples were diluted with boric acid in a 1:4 proportion to make pellets with superficial density of approximately 100 mg. cm-2. (author)

  11. Analysis on the characteristics of geologic disposal waste arising from various partitioning and conditioning options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We model and compare four P&C (partitioning and conditioning) options. • Vitrification options could increase the utilization of space in repository. • Removal of Sr&Cs/MA bring benefits for repository in the near/long term respectively. • The limit of linear thermal power challenges the benefits of vitrification options. • Ventilation and time management are effective to reduce the linear thermal power. - Abstract: Siting a nuclear geological repository entails high economic, social, and political costs. The concept of expanding the capacity of repository is of great interest to the nuclear industry. Partitioning and conditioning (P&C) technology of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) is expected to be effective to mitigate the burden of repository by removal of some elements from disposal waste and reducing the repository size necessitated to emplace the waste forms. The impacts of P&C technology on the characteristics of disposal waste are discussed in this paper. Four P&C options are assumed in the analysis: (1) Spent fuel once through, to dispose spent fuel directly; (2) Conventional reprocessing, to dispose vitrified HLLW glass; (3) Reprocessing plus long-lived nuclides partitioning, to dispose waste streams without minor actinides (MAs), rare earth elements (REs), Tc and Pu; (4) Reprocessing plus high thermal output nuclides separation, to dispose waste streams without Sr&Cs. The partitioning scheme is based on China’s TRPO full partitioning process and its experimental results. The waste conditioning and disposal is in accordance with the specifications of Yucca Mountain Repository. The content of disposal waste stream in each option is presented and its characteristics, such as mass, volume, linear loading capacity, thermal power and linear thermal power, are identified

  12. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

  13. Geological modeling of aquifer gas storage structures method and application; Modelisation geologique des stockages de gaz en nappe aquifere methodologie et application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escare, L.; Giouse, H. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France); Wielzerbin, L. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. Production Transport, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    The description and understanding of a natural reservoir used for aquifer gas storage requires the acquisition of many different kinds of data, with various resolution levels (seismic, well logs and cores,...). Interpreting and making these pieces of information coherent must lead to an accurate image of the geological structure in which gas will be stored. This paper describes the geological modeling methods used at Gaz de France, and briefly presents a synthetic case study. (authors)

  14. ‘Designerly’ Analysis of Participation Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Beuthel, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    With the inclusion of not only users but stake-holders of many different kinds, design processes turn into complex collaborative challenges. Thus, improving design practices requires research into how people participate and contribute in social interaction. But research methods for understand-ing such activities tend to be highly analytical and hence difficult for design researchers to engage with, if results are meant to be actionable. Through a series of experiments we develop tangible support for a ‘designerly’ interaction analysis of one important aspect of collaborative design activities: the participatory structures.

  15. Preliminary analysis on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological formations of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that deep geological formations are the most promising solution - technical and economical - for the safe disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. In order to obtain the necessary information to assess on the use of geological sites in Brazil - for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by the brazilian nuclear industry - a careful survey on the basalt and granite rocks of Sao Paulo State was made. The data obtained were evaluated according to guidelines established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The favourable and unfavourable characteristics of the basalts, granites and their respective occurrence areas in the Sao Paulo state territory - as potential waste disposal sites - were analysed. This preliminary and regional characterization is not a conclusive study whether these two rocks types are definitively the most suitable geological formations for use as nuclear waste repository or not. It is the subsidy for a more detailed analysis. Other factors such as social, political and economical aspects, ecological effects, engineering geology, heat generation rate of the waste, type of radiation emitted and corrosive nature of the waste must also be taken into account. (author)

  16. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru-Shan Wu, Xiao-Bi Xie, Thorne Lay

    2005-06-06

    In this project, we develop new theories and methods for multi-domain one-way wave-equation based propagators, and apply these techniques to seismic modeling, seismic imaging, seismic illumination and model parameter estimation in 3D complex environments. The major progress of this project includes: (1) The development of the dual-domain wave propagators. We continue to improve the one-way wave-equation based propagators. Our target is making propagators capable of handling more realistic velocity models. A wide-angle propagator for transversely isotropic media with vertically symmetric axis (VTI) has been developed for P-wave modeling and imaging. The resulting propagator is accurate for large velocity perturbations and wide propagation angles. The thin-slab propagator for one-way elastic-wave propagation is further improved. With the introduction of complex velocities, the quality factors Qp and Qs have been incorporated into the thin-slab propagator. The resulting viscoelastic thin-slab propagator can handle elastic-wave propagation in models with intrinsic attenuations. We apply this method to complex models for AVO modeling, random media characterization and frequency-dependent reflectivity simulation. (2) Exploring the Information in the Local Angle Domain. Traditionally, the local angle information can only be extracted using the ray-based method. We develop a wave-equation based technique to process the local angle domain information. The approach can avoid the singularity problem usually linked to the high-frequency asymptotic method. We successfully apply this technique to seismic illumination and the resulting method provides a practical tool for three-dimensional full-volume illumination analysis in complex structures. The directional illumination also provides information for angle-domain imaging corrections. (3) Elastic-Wave Imaging. We develop a multicomponent elastic migration method. The application of the multicomponent one-way elastic propagator and the wide-angle correction preserve more dynamic information carried by the elastic waves. The vector imaging condition solves the polarization problem of converted wave imaging. Both P-P and P-S images can be calculated. We also use converted waves to improve the image of steep sub-salt structures. The synthetic data for the SEG/EAGE salt model are migrated with a generalized screen algorithm and for the converted PSS-wave path. All the sub-salt faults are properly imaged.

  17. Study on the development of geological environmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety performance assessment was carried out in potential geological environment in the conventional research and development of geological disposal, but the importance of safety assessment based on the repository design and scenario considering the concrete geological environment will increase in the future. The research considering the link of the major three fields of geological disposal, investigation of geological environment, repository design, and safety performance assessment, is the contemporary worldwide research theme. Hence it is important to organize information flow that contains the series of information process form the data production to analysis in the three fields, and to systemize the knowledge base that unifies the information flow hierarchically. The purpose of the research is to support the development of the unified analysis system for geological disposal. The development technology for geological environmental model studied for the second progress report by JNC are organized and examined for the purpose of developing database system with considering the suitability for the deep underground research facility. The geological environmental investigation technology and building methodology for geological structure and hydro geological structure models are organized and systemized. Furthermore, the quality assurance methods in building geological environment models are examined. Information which is used and stored in the unified analysis system are examined to design database structure of the system based on the organized methodology for building geological environmental model. The graphic processing function for data stored in the unified database are examined. furthermore, future research subjects for the development of detail models for geological disposal are surveyed to organize safety performance system. (author)

  18. Preliminary Geologic/spectral Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data, Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, H. R.; Conel, J. E.; Paylor, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    A LIDQA evaluation for geologic applications of a LANDSAT TM scene covering the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, is examined. This involves a quantitative assessment of data quality including spatial and spectral characteristics. Analysis is concentrated on the 6 visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. Preliminary analysis demonstrates that: (1) principal component images derived from the correlation matrix provide the most useful geologic information. To extract surface spectral reflectance, the TM radiance data must be calibrated. Scatterplots demonstrate that TM data can be calibrated and sensor response is essentially linear. Low instrumental offset and gain settings result in spectral data that do not utilize the full dynamic range of the TM system.

  19. Geologic information from satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Extracting geologic information from ERTS and Skylab/EREP images is best done by a geologist trained in photo-interpretation. The information is at a regional scale, and three basic types are available: rock and soil, geologic structures, and landforms. Discrimination between alluvium and sedimentary or crystalline bedrock, and between units in thick sedimentary sequences is best, primarily because of topographic expression and vegetation differences. Discrimination between crystalline rock types is poor. Folds and fractures are the best displayed geologic features. They are recognizable by topographic expression, drainage patterns, and rock or vegetation tonal patterns. Landforms are easily discriminated by their familiar shapes and patterns. Several examples demonstrate the applicability of satellite images to tectonic analysis and petroleum and mineral exploration.

  20. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a user's tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which could offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply or changing seasonal demands. The geostorage site options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and hard rock caverns. The DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of geologic hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an economic analysis methodology and subsequent spreadsheet analysis to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) incorporate more site-specific model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules, (2) develop a version that matches the general format of the HDSAM model developed and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory, and (3) incorporate specific demand scenarios illustrating the model's capability. Four general types of underground storage were analyzed: salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers, and hard rock caverns/other custom sites. Due to the substantial lessons learned from the geological storage of natural gas already employed, these options present a potentially sizable storage option. Understanding and including these various geologic storage types in the analysis physical and economic framework will help identify what geologic option would be best suited for the storage of hydrogen. It is important to note, however, that existing natural gas options may not translate to a hydrogen system where substantial engineering obstacles may be encountered. There are only three locations worldwide that currently store hydrogen underground and they are all in salt caverns. Two locations are in the U.S. (Texas), and are managed by ConocoPhillips and Praxair (Leighty, 2007). The third is in Teeside, U.K., managed by Sabic Petrochemicals (Crotogino et al., 2008; Panfilov et al., 2006). These existing H{sub 2} facilities are quite small by natural gas storage standards. The second stage of the analysis involved providing ANL with estimated geostorage costs of hydrogen within salt caverns for various market penetrations for four representative cities (Houston, Detroit, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles). Using these demand levels, the scale and cost of hydrogen storage necessary to meet 10%, 25% and 100% of vehicle summer demands was calculated.

  1. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock, approaches to within 5 km of the Olkiluoto site. The results of gravimetric surveys have indicated that the margin of the Eurajoki stock slopes westward underneath the site, but to depths in excess of 3000 m. Plate tectonic reconstructions of the Precambrian of Finland, partly based on the results of major deep seismic sounding experiments, such as the international GGT/SVEKA project (along a NE-SW transect through the Satakunta area), indicate the pelitic and psammitic migmatite belts in Satakunta represent parts of the early Proterozoic Southern Finland and Central Finland continental arcs, respectively. Collision of these arc complexes took place 1890 - 1880 Ma ago, when the rocks were deformed and metamorphosed for the first time. The highT/lowP metamorphism was caused by mafic underplating, which led to a strong increase in temperature, and recrystallisation and partial remelting of the rocks in the upper crust. The collision of the arc complexes is characterised by an intense magmatic activity, which appears as synorogenic granitoids. In the next stage, 1860 - 1810 Ma ago, mafic underplating caused a second high-temperature metamorphic event and partial melting of the sedimentary rocks in southern Finland, producing the late-orogenic potassium. granites, dated at 1840 - 1830 Ma. The Subjotnian rapakivi granites associated with mafic rocks, the Jotnian Satakunta sandstone formation and the Postjotnian diabase dykes and sills represent the cratonisation stages of the Svecofennides. Rapakivi granites and related mafic rocks were generated in an anorogenic extensional regime by partial melting of the upper mantle and lower crust. The Jotnian Satakunta sandstone is a fluvial sediment formation deposited in a deltaic environment. The development of the graben or rift valley, where the sandstone was deposited, may have begun already during the Subjotnian, ca. 1650 Ma ago. The olivine diabase dykes represent the feeding channels of Postjotnian flood basalts. However, no such volcanic rocks have preserved in the area. The intrusion of the diabase dykes caused the sinking of the graben after the sedimentation of the sandstone. Sedimentary rocks younger than the Precambrian have not been preserved in the study area. (orig.)

  2. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock, approaches to within 5 km of the Olkiluoto site. The results of gravimetric surveys have indicated that the margin of the Eurajoki stock slopes westward underneath the site, but to depths in excess of 3000 m. Plate tectonic reconstructions of the Precambrian of Finland, partly based on the results of major deep seismic sounding experiments, such as the international GGT/SVEKA project (along a NE-SW transect through the Satakunta area), indicate the pelitic and psammitic migmatite belts in Satakunta represent parts of the early Proterozoic Southern Finland and Central Finland continental arcs, respectively. Collision of these arc complexes took place 1890 - 1880 Ma ago, when the rocks were deformed and metamorphosed for the first time. The highT/lowP metamorphism was caused by mafic underplating, which led to a strong increase in temperature, and recrystallisation and partial remelting of the rocks in the upper crust. The collision of the arc complexes is characterised by an intense magmatic activity, which appears as synorogenic granitoids. In the next stage, 1860 - 1810 Ma ago, mafic underplating caused a second high-temperature metamorphic event and partial melting of the sedimentary rocks in southern Finland, producing the late-orogenic potassium. granites, dated at 1840 - 1830 Ma. The Subjotnian rapakivi granites associated with mafic rocks, the Jotnian Satakunta sandstone formation and the Postjotnian diabase dykes and sills represent the cratonisation stages of the Svecofennides. Rapakivi granites and related mafic rocks were generated in an anorogenic extensional regime by partial melting of the upper mantle and lower crust. The Jotnian Satakunta sandstone is a fluvial sediment formation deposited in a deltaic environment. The development of the graben or rift valley, where the sandstone was deposited, may have begun already during the Subjotnian, ca. 1650 Ma ago. The olivine diabase dykes represent the feeding channels of Postjotnian flood basalts. However, no such volcanic rocks have preserved in the area. The intrusion of the diabase dykes caused the sinking of the graben after the sedimentation of the sandstone. Sedimentary rocks younger than the Precambrian have not been preserved in the study area. (orig.)

  3. Shakedown analysis of frame structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many fields of advanced technology, such as nuclear, space and aeronautic activities or off-shore exploration oil, very high requirements are imposed on structural safety and reliability. Because of the complexity of the practical loading, the response of structure to variable loading is quite different from that to the proportional load, and the failure forms are not the same. Generally there exist local failure due to plastic fatigue (alternating plasticity) and a gradual divergence of the deformed configuration (incremental collapse of ratchetting). Prager once gave the word of shakedown to a safety structure and he pointed out that an elasto-plastic structure subjected to cyclic histories of loads and/or temperature distributions is said to shake down if its plastic work is bounded. This means that the structure attains at a finite time or approaches asymptotically a situation of purely clastic cycling. When this is not the case, nonadaptation will occur. Since Melan and Koiter produced the upper and lower shakedown theorems respectively, a great achievements have been obtained in the area of theoretical and practical shakedown analysis, especially since Maier pointed out the linear program method, a lot of unsolved problems have been analyzed on the basis of shakedown theorems. In this paper, we studied the linear program formula of upper and lower bound theorem, on the basis of comparison of these two formula, a conclusion was obtained that the shakedown parameter solved by lower bound theorem is a complete solution when surplus variables arc not basic ones. Therefore it is unnecessary to solve a problem using upper bound theorem if surplus variables arc zeros when it is solved by lower bound theorem, and this easilizes somewhat what is considered

  4. High resolution seismic stratigraphic analysis: An integrated approach to the subsurface geology of the SE Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Farzadi, Pourdad

    2006-01-01

    Papers included in this dissertation: Paper 1: Farzadi, P. 2006a. The development of Middle Cretaceous carbonate platforms, Persian Gulf, Iran: Constraints from seismic stratigraphy, well and biostratigraphy. Petroleum Geoscience, 12, 59-68. Paper 2: Farzadi, P. 2006b. Seismic facies analysis based on 3D multi-attribute volume classification, Dariyan Formation, SE Persian Gulf. Journal of Petroleum Geology,29/2, 159-174. Paper 3: Farzadi, P. & Hesthammer, J. (Submitted 2006)...

  5. Elemental analysis of geological samples by means of spectrometry of proton-induced gamma- and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of spectrometry of ion-induced X-rays and gamma rays (PIXE and PIGE), and backscattered particles (RBS) for elemental analysis of geological samples is described. The sample preparation and the experimental arrangement are outlined, also the evaluation of concentrations and the detection limits. As an example for the application of these methods, the results are quoted of a measurement of the lateral distributions of elements across a ferromanganese encrustation from the Baltic Sea. (author)

  6. The seabed geomorphology and geological structure of the Firth of Lorn, western Scotland, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, John; Arosio, Riccardo; Dove, Dayton; Anderton, Roger; Bradwell, Tom

    2014-05-01

    We present recently collected swath bathymetry from the Firth of Lorn. 553km2 of data were collected during 2012-2013 as part of the INIS Hydro project (Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland Hydrographic Survey). The inshore waters covered by this survey represent a priority area for the renewable industry, shipping and tourism and encompass a number of Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) including for rocky reef habitat. Surprisingly, given this interest, this project is the first comprehensive bathymetric survey of the area. This region of near shore continental shelf is revealed as a predominantly bedrock-dominated seabed, characterised by a series of narrow, stratigraphically constrained basins eroded into the Proterozoic and Palaeozoic-age bedrock. The principal basement of the region is composed of deformed Dalradian-age metasediments overlain unconformably by ?Silurian-age Old Red Sandstones and lavas. The resistant, uneroded igneous extrusives have formed raised rock platforms. Most strikingly the central region of the Firth of Lorn is dominated by an up to 150m high vertical cliff extending for approximately 20km. The origin of this prominent feature, here termed the Insh Fault, is not well understood however it may have resulted from a combination of Dalradian-age faulting and erosion of exposed softer metasediments in the central basin. Extensive seabed faulting also occurs; possibly as Dalradian-age syn-sedimentary faults. Carboniferous and Tertiary-age minor intrusives are common throughout the region in particular the Tertiary-age dolerite dyke swarms can be traced for many kilometres, exposed on the sediment-free bedrock surfaces. The survey region includes the Corryvreckan Whirlpool and Great Race, beneath the tidal flows of which there are active submarine sand dunes. Evidence for past glaciation is widespread and well preserved in the Firth of Lorn with preserved moraines and over-deepened basins common across the area. Initial geological and geomorphological mapping shows that our understanding of the offshore outcrop geology can be greatly improved by the collection of these new high-resolution bathymetric datasets.

  7. Structural-geological models of the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site used for site evaluation, dynamic reservoir simulations, and monitoring purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Ben; Kling, Christian; Frykman, Peter; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2013-04-01

    The saline aquifer of the Stuttgart Formation (Upper Triassic) is used for a carbon dioxide (CO2) storage research project at Ketzin, about 25 km west of Berlin (Germany). The structural and lithological site characterization relies on a comprehensive data set, consisting of former exploration data (hydrocarbon and natural gas storage exploration) and of the recent exploration, production, and monitoring data acquired at the CO2 pilot site. The quality of the data in terms of resolution and documentation is variable, covering also different scales. We present an overview of the structural and lithological characterization of the Ketzin CO2 pilot site that is based on the evolution of the geological models prepared for storage site development and site operation. In order to be able to assess risk elements, especially in the early regulatory and permitting stages of the project, the geological model building concentrated on two scales: Firstly, the site scale (called geo-model, comprising the reservoir and its overburden), and, secondly, the reservoir scale, using a higher resolution. The reservoir scale was applied to the target horizon of the CO2 storage (the Triassic Stuttgart Formation) and the Quaternary to Tertiary layers, presenting the near-surface groundwater system. The first geo-models illustrate the geological setting of the Ketzin site as a part of a salt-anticlinal structure based on seismic legacy data. These models were used to give first estimates on the deep natural groundwater flow and to establish pre-drilling profiles, but could not give reliable information on the existence and distribution of faults. Nevertheless, the estimated bed boundaries of the Stuttgart Formation served as an input for the construction of the first reservoir models of the Stuttgart Formation which were used to illustrate the expected variability and heterogeneity in rock properties. The target formation is lithologically very heterogeneous, reflecting a complex fluviatile facies distribution pattern: sandy rocks of the channel facies are embedded in muddy rocks of the floodplain facies. The facies distribution and its hydraulic parameterization were modeled using a stochastic approach. After the processing of the 3D seismic data acquired in 2005, and the drilling of three boreholes in Ketzin in 2007, the need of a re-interpretation of the geological models was given to account for the higher resolution of the new input data. In the revised models it was possible to map the main faults at the site with good accuracy. In addition, seismic facies analysis was performed by applying a spectral decomposition technique to the 3D seismic data. Thereby, subsurface features could be identified, which may indicate to some degree the distribution of the fluvial channel facies of the reservoir formation. This data was then also used to guide the stochastic reservoir modeling of the Stuttgart Formation. In addition, the interpretation of seismic CO2 monitoring data gives further evidence of the mean CO2 distribution in the subsurface and could partly guide the structural interpretation. This data enables a local deterministic refinement of the stochastic reservoir model. Finally, another well drilled into the storage formation in 2012 serves as an additional input to the geological models.

  8. Multielemental analysis of Korean geological reference samples by INAA, ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six Korean geological reference samples (KB-1, KGB-1, KT-1, KD-1, KG-1 and KG-2) prepared by Korea Institutes of Geoscience and Mineral Resources were analyzed by using INAA, ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Some elements could be determined by both INAA and non-INAA methods (ICP-AES and ICP-MS), and these data are consistent with each other. This study confirms that a combination of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is comparable to INAA in determining a wide range of major, minor and trace elements in geological materials. (author)

  9. Micro-XRF : Elemental Analysis for In Situ Geology and Astrobiology Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Abigail; Hodyss, Robert; Wade, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The ability to make close-up measurements of rock chemistry is one of the most fundamental tools for astrobiological exploration of Mars and other rocky bodies of the solar system. When conducting surface-based exploration, lithochemical measurements provide critical data that enable interpretation of the local geology, which in turn is vital for determining habitability and searching for evidence of life. The value of lithochemical measurements for geological interpretations has been repeatedly demonstrated with virtually every landed Mars mission over the past four decades.

  10. Obtainment of thermal histories for sets of geologically compatible localities by using apatite fission track analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to describe a methodology that can be used to obtain thermal histories of sets of apatite samples from localities with geologically compatible characteristics. One proposes some modifications in a known methodology (where samples are treated individually) exploring the fact that samples with similar geological characteristics should present the same thermal history. This approach can contribute so that conclusive results are obtained by analysing less samples than it is necessary when the samples are individually analysed. Preliminary results obtained with some Brazilian apatite samples seem to indicate that the methodology presented here is promising. (author). 33 refs., 3 figs

  11. Comparison of seismic sources for imaging geologic structures on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, five non-invasive swept sources, three non-invasive impulsive sources and one invasive impulsive source were compared. Previous shallow seismic source tests (Miller and others, 1986, 1992, 1994) have established that site characteristics should be considered in determining the optimal source. These studies evaluated a number of invasive sources along with a few non-invasive impulsive sources. Several sources (particularly the high frequency vibrators) that were included in the ORR test were not available or not practical during previous tests, cited above. This study differs from previous source comparisons in that it (1) includes many swept sources, (2) is designed for a greater target depth, (3) was conducted in a very different geologic environment, and (4) generated a larger and more diverse data set (including high fold CMP sections and walkaway vertical seismic profiles) for each source. The test site is centered around test injection well HF-2, between the southern end of Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG 5) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

  12. Seismic analysis of rack structure with fluid-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the seismic analysis of rack structure with fluid-structure interaction is performed through use of the Finite Element Method(FEM) code ANSYS. Fluid-structure interaction can specify in terms of an hydrodynamic effect which is defined as the added mass per unit length divided by the area of the cross section. Using the Floor Response Spectrum(FRS) obtained through the time-history analysis, model analysis and seismic analysis under Operating Basis Earthquake(OBE) and Safe Shutdown Earthquake(SSE) condition is carried out. The fluid-structure interaction effects on the rack structure are investigated

  13. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    The present paper considers robustness of kinetic structures. Robustness of structures has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. Especially for these types of structural...... systems, it is of interest to investigate how robust the structures are, or what happens if a structural element is added to or removed from the original structure. The present paper discusses this issue for kinetic structures in architecture....

  14. Preliminary analysis on cost estimates for high level radioactive waste geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly introduced cost estimates results and the financing system for HLW repositories in some countries. A rough cost estimate was thereafter made and some proposals regarding the finance and current investment were put forwards for China's future HLW geological repository. (authors)

  15. Quantitative roughness characterization of geological surfaces and implications for radar signature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic surface models are useful for analyzing in situ roughness profiles and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of geological terrain. In this paper, two different surface models are discussed: surfaces with a stationary random roughness (conventional model) and surfaces with a power...

  16. The Rock Elm meteorite impact structure, Wisconsin: Geology and shock-metamorphic effects in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, B.M.; Cordua, W.S.; Plescia, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The Rock Elm structure in southwest Wisconsin is an anomalous circular area of highly deformed rocks, ???6.5 km in diameter, located in a region of virtually horizontal undeformed sedimentary rocks. Shock-produced planar microstructures (PMs) have been identified in quartz grains in several lithologies associated with the structure: sandstones, quartzite pebbles, and breccia. Two distinct types of PMs are present: P1 features, which appear identical to planar fractures (PFs or cleavage), and P2 features, which are interpreted as possible incipient planar deformation features (PDFs). The latter are uniquely produced by the shock waves associated with meteorite impact events. Both types of PMs are oriented parallel to specific crystallographic planes in the quartz, most commonly to c(0001), ??112??2, and r/z101??1. The association of unusual, structurally deformed strata with distinct shock-produced microdeformation features in their quartz-bearing rocks establishes Rock Elm as a meteorite impact structure and supports the view that the presence of multiple parallel cleavages in quartz may be used independently as a criterion for meteorite impact. Preliminary paleontological studies indicate a minimum age of Middle Ordovician for the Rock Elm structure. A similar age estimate (450-400 Ma) is obtained independently by combining the results of studies of the general morphology of complex impact structures with estimated rates of sedimentation for the region. Such methods may be applicable to dating other old and deeply eroded impact structures formed in sedimentary target rocks.

  17. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  18. Surficial Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...

  19. Analysis on the use of engineered barriers for geologic isolation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are completed in considerable detail for a reference salt site repository and in somewhat less detail for reference granite, basalt and shale systems. Based on those results, the following conclusions were reached: In nearly all cases, the regional geology is the most effective barrier to release of radionuclides to the biosphere, however, for long-lived isotopes of carbon, technetium and iodine, which were poorly sorbed on the geologic media, the geology is not very effective once a leach incident is initiated. While the need for, and the effectiveness of, a release-rate limiting barrier function is somewhat dependent on the sorption properties of the geologic media, generally a release rate of less than 10-3 yr-1 is necessary to reduce the potential dose from 14C, 99Tc, and 129I to a baseline level below that of the actinides, and beyond that, a rate of less than 10-5 is required before the potential dose from the actinide chains can be further lowered by this mechanism. Only in extreme cases of the intrusion water well scenario is there a direct relationship between release rate from the repository and release to the biosphere. Generally, the delay in leach initiation that an engineered delay function might provide, 104 years or less, is insufficient to accomplish any maximum potential dose reduction. Only the delay provided by a dry, stable geology, 105 years or more can accomplish this. However, in the extreme and very unlikely case of the water well scenario the maximum potential dose is optimally reduced by a containment function lasting about 400 years. Primary nuclides of concern, in no particular order are 99Tc, 129I, 14C, 226Ra + daughters (U), 237Np (Am, Np) 234U, and for the extreme case of the well scenario, 90Sr

  20. The analysis of thallium in geological materials by radiochemical neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGoldrick, P.J.; Robinson, P. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Carrier-based radiochemical neutron activation (RNAA) is a precise and accurate technique for the analysis of Tl in geological materials. For about a decade, until the mid-80s, a procedure modified from Keays et al. (1974) was used at the University of Melbourne to analyse for Tl in a wide variety of geological materials. Samples of powdered rock weighing several hundred milligrams each were irradiated in HIFAR for between 12 hours and 1 week, and subsequently fused with a sodium hydroxide - sodium peroxide mixture and several milligrams of inactive Tl carrier. Following acid digestion of the fusion mixture anion exchange resin was used to separate Tl from the major radioactive rock constituents. The Tl was then stripped from the resin and purified as thallium iodide and a yield measured gravimetrically. Activity from {sup 204}Tl (a {beta}-emitter with a 3 8 year half-life) was measured and Tl determined by reference to pure chemical standards irradiated and processed along with the unkowns. Detection limits for the longer irradiations were about one part per billion. Precision was monitored by repeat analyses of `internal standard` rocks and was estimated to be about five to ten percent (one standard deviation). On the other hand, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was seen as an excellent cost-effective alternative for thallium analysis in geological samples, down to 1 ppm. 6 refs. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  1. Seismic response of the geologic structure underlying the Roman Colosseum and a 2-D resonance of a sediment valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Labak

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic response of the geologic structure beneath the Colosseum is investigated using a two-dimensional modeling for a vertically incident plane SH wave. Computations indicate that the southern part of the Colosseum may be exposed to a seismic ground motion with significantly larger amplitudes, differential motion and longer duration than the northern part. because the southern part of the Colosseum is underlain by a sedimentfilled valley created by sedimentary filling of the former tributary of the River Tiber. A 2-D resonance may develop in the valley. Unlike the previous theoretical studies on 2-D resonance in sediment-filled valleys, an effect of heterogeneous valley surroundings on the resonance is partly investigated. A very small sensitivity of the maximum spectral amplifications connected with the fundamental and first higher modes to the presence of a horizontal surface layer (with an intermediate velocity in the valley surroundings is observed in the studied models.

  2. Geological structures from televiewer logs of GT-2, Fenton Hill, New Mexico: Part 2, Rectification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.L.

    1987-08-01

    Televiewer logs from drill hole GT-2 at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock Site, have been rectified by conversion of structural traces on the scanner imagery to geographic location and orientation. The rectification method was direct inversion that consisted of mapping from the image to the wellbore, inverting the trace on the wellbore for principal points, and rotating from wellbore to geographic coordinates. From the test imagery of GT-2, 733 structures (fractures and foliations) were measured, compared with 42 structures from recovered core. The 733 new measurements listed in this report are a unique and unrepeatable collection of structural information from the Precambrian basement of northern New Mexico. This direct inversion method is accurate where the magnetic field vector is constant and the tool is centered and aligned in a circular wellbore. In other cases this method yields only approximate results.

  3. Thematic mapping, land use, geological structure and water resources in central Spain. [north of Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delascuevas, N. (principal investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A method for a rapid updating of cartography at scale 1:200,000 was established. An annular tectonic structure was detected north of Madrid which was named Structural Halo of Guadalix, since its center is situated in the locality of Guadalix de la Sierra. This circular complex has from 30 to 40 km of radius and its influences at its most extreme edges reach Madrid.

  4. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, E.H.

    1998-02-01

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range.

  5. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

  6. Sublake geologic structure from high-resolution seismic-reflection data from four sinkhole lakes in the Lake Wales Ridge, Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihansky, A.B.; Arthur, J.D.; DeWitt, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Seismic-reflection profiles from Lake Wales, Blue Lake, Lake Letta, and Lake Apthorp located along the Lake Wales Ridge in central Florida provide local detail within the regional hydrogeologic framework as described by litho- and hydrostratigraphic cross sections. Lakes located with the mantled karst region have long been considered to be sinkhole lakes, originating from subsidence activity. High-resolution seismic- reflection data confirm this origin for these four lakes. The geologic framework of the Lake Wales Ridge has proven to be a suitable geologic setting for continuous high-resolution seismic-reflection profiling in lakes; however, the nature of the lake-bottom sediments largely controls the quality of the seismic data. In lakes with significant organic-rich bottom deposits, interpretable record was limited to areas where organic deposits were minimal. In lakes with clean, sandy bottoms, the seismic-reflection methods were highly successful in obtaining data that can be correlated with sublake subsidence features. These techniques are useful in examining sublake geology and providing a better understanding of how confining units are affected by subsidence in a region where their continuity is of significant importance to local lake hydrology. Although local geologic control around each lake generally corresponds to the regional geologic framework, local deviations from regional geologic trends occur in sublake areas affected by subsidence activity. Each of the four lakes examined represents a unique set of geologic controls and provides some degree of structural evidence of subsidence activity. Sublake geologic structures identified include: (1) marginal lake sediments dipping into bathymetric lows, (2) lateral discontinuity of confining units including sags and breaches, (3) the disruption and reworking of overlying unconsolidated siliciclastic sediments as they subside into the underlying irregular limestone surface, and (4) sublake regions where confining units appear to remain intact and unaffected by nearby subsidence activity. Each lake likely is underlain by several piping features rather than one large subsidence feature.

  7. Contribution of structural geology to assessment of hydrocarbon play in Casablanca Offshore, Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitsalem, A. [ONAREP, Rabat (Morocco)

    1995-08-01

    The Casablanca offshore area, is located in the northwestern part of the Meseta structural domain of Morocco. The Moroccan meseta consists of two major zones, separated by a shearing and overthrusting zone. The eastern zone, contains outcroping massifs that are characterized by Hercynian granitic intrusives and Cambrian to Carboniferous rocks that were strongly folded and faulted during the Hercynian event. The Casablanca offshore area is presently covered by good quality and recently acquired, seismic, gravity and magnetic data. The previous petroleum exploration studies carried out in Casablanca offshore, worked out different structural models based on seismic interpretation, but these models do not agree exactly neither with the gravity and magnetic data nor with the regional structural framework. However, recent study of several structural features, outcropping immediately to the East of the study area, resulted in the elaboration of new structural transects that were used as model for the achievement of new and more accurate seismic interpretation. The Paleozoic rocks were also studied for their hydrocarbon potential as source rocks, reservoir rocks and seals. These new concepts summarize the great petroleum exploration interest in this area and may provide giant discoveries of oil and/or gas fields.

  8. Geological Framework for the Deformation of Carbonates and Related Structures, and Their Impact on Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, A.

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this talk is to describe mechanisms for the deformation of carbonate rocks in the upper crust and their expressions in the field. We will discuss the lithological and rheological control of the fundamental processes, as well as the structures and assemblages resulting from them. We will begin with descriptions of the fundamental structural elements, such as pressure solution seams, joints, deformation bands and the conditions that lead to their formation. These structures and their formation mechanics will then be linked to major carbonate lithologies and their petrophysical properties. Next, common structural assemblages found in deformed carbonates will be introduced. Among these will be: (1) splay pressure solution and vein pairs, (2) three orthogonal sets of pressure solution seams and, (3) a combination of paired mutually orthogonal pressure solution seams and veins. The implications of these assemblages for the conditions leading to a particular failure mode will be interpreted. Finally, the architecture of faults in carbonates will be briefly described, to include fault damage zones, fragmentation and breccia zones, and discrete dilation zones along slip surfaces, again focusing on deformation mechanisms, rheology, and diagenesis. The presentation will conclude with the idea that the deformation of carbonate rocks is more complex than most other rocks, due perhaps to the ability of carbonates to undergo dissolution under extremely shallow crustal levels. The structural products of this deformation are quite variable (in comparison to common products of deformation of other lithologies), as demonstrated by field observations from analog field sites. These conclusions have a considerable impact on mechanisms of fluid flow through deformed carbonates, which will be elaborated upon by considering field analogs. In view of the vast amount of the world's resources occurring in carbonate aquifers and reservoirs and a large number of factors affecting carbonate rock deformation, this subject should be a prime target for multidisciplinary research using all of the depositional, structural, geomechanical, petrophysical, diagenetic, hydrogeological and engineering tools and knowledge bases available.

  9. Correlation between the mineralogic and geologic maps of Vesta: spatial analysis and perspectives towards the mapping of Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Capaccioni, F.; Tosi, F.; Palomba, E.; Zambon, F.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    Between July 2011 and September 2012, the NASA/Dawn mission has mapped the surface of Vesta with images from the Framing Camera (FC [1]), spectral data from the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR [2]), and elemental data from the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND [3]). The successful acquisition of imagery from FC and VIR allowed us to produce global image mosaics reaching 20 meters per pixel and global mineralogic maps at 100 meters per pixel. A global geologic map of Vesta has been recently published [4,5]. Geologic units and structures have been identified and put into their stratigraphic context using FC image-mosaic and the digital terrain model derived from stereo image processing. The VIR spectra have been synthesized into spectral parameters or indicators [6] that have been used to produce quadrangle and global maps showing the mineralogic diversity across Vesta, through the variation of the compositional and the physical state of the pyroxene-rich lithologies, which are typical of Vesta[7]. Herein we present the work done to explore the spatial correlation between the mineralogic and geologic map of Vesta (Figure 1).

  10. Information on prospecting and analysis of the geological uraniferous favourability of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities carried out in Peru from 1958 until 1975 in search of uranium deposits are described. In 1976 the 'Peruvian Nuclear Plan' was approved, and the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy/Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) was given the responsibility of organizing and carrying out all activities related to uranium exploration and production in the country. The programme is under implementation and comprises organization of infrastructural support, training of technical personnel, selection of favourable areas, and exploration and adoption of the most favourable national policy to permit development of the national uranium resources. The criteria applied for definition of the 'uranium favourability' of the main Peruvian geological environments are described, taking into account geological composition and concepts relating to the matallogenesis and control of uranium deposits. The results of this area selection are reported. (author)

  11. Management and application of geological information and expert knowledge (MAGIK): a system for hydrocarbon play analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Patricia; Biswas, Gautam; Kendall, Christopher; Bezdek, James; Anand, Tejwansh

    1988-03-01

    Since the beginning of the domestic oil industry in 1859, the oil exploration process has been dependent on rules-of-thumb and best-guess strategies of expert geologists. In the absence of well-defined methods for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting geological data, oil exploration involved much guesswork and extreme financial risks, especially in the beginning when it was conducted "on a basis of feast or famine". The nature of oil exploration is such that it takes many years (sometimes decades) for a geologist to gain the knowledge and experience needed for analyzing geological data in a reliable and efficient manner. Exposure to a wide range of situations seems to be the key to developing expertise in the field. Another important issue that impacts oil exploration is the acquisition and handling of the diverse and vast amounts of data that are needed by experts to make reliable conclusions.

  12. A Simple Device to Aid Plotting of Pi Diagrams in Structural Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Grenville

    1984-01-01

    A simple device that aids in plotting poles to planes on structural equal-area diagrams (pi diagrams) is described. It is used in conjunction with a standard equal area Schmidt net to assist students in understanding principles of plotting pi diagrams and for rapid plotting of large amounts of data. (BC)

  13. Nuclear plants and geothermal energy: seismology and geologic structures in the site selection of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of seismology in nuclear plant site selection is presented. It is necessary for the geologists to extend their knowledge of earthquake phenomena which are generally neglected in France, and have to be taken into account in the study of power plants. Seismotectonic structures have to be investigated

  14. Analysis of multispectral and hyperspectral longwave infrared (LWIR) data for geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Fred A.; McDowell, Meryl

    2015-05-01

    Multispectral MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) data and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) data covering the 8 - 12 ?m spectral range (longwave infrared or LWIR) were analyzed for an area near Mountain Pass, California. Decorrelation stretched images were initially used to highlight spectral differences between geologic materials. Both datasets were atmospherically corrected using the ISAC method, and the Normalized Emissivity approach was used to separate temperature and emissivity. The MASTER data had 10 LWIR spectral bands and approximately 35-meter spatial resolution and covered a larger area than the HyTES data, which were collected with 256 narrow (approximately 17nm-wide) spectral bands at approximately 2.3-meter spatial resolution. Spectra for key spatially-coherent, spectrally-determined geologic units for overlap areas were overlain and visually compared to determine similarities and differences. Endmember spectra were extracted from both datasets using n-dimensional scatterplotting and compared to emissivity spectral libraries for identification. Endmember distributions and abundances were then mapped using Mixture-Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), a partial unmixing approach. Multispectral results demonstrate separation of silica-rich vs non-silicate materials, with distinct mapping of carbonate areas and general correspondence to the regional geology. Hyperspectral results illustrate refined mapping of silicates with distinction between similar units based on the position, character, and shape of high resolution emission minima near 9 ?m. Calcite and dolomite were separated, identified, and mapped using HyTES based on a shift of the main carbonate emissivity minimum from approximately 11.3 to 11.2 ?m respectively. Both datasets demonstrate the utility of LWIR spectral remote sensing for geologic mapping.

  15. The Analysis and Countermeasures of Geologic Disaster Risk Socialized Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanzhai FU; Li, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    As one of the countries which suffer the most serious geological disaster, China has built up a disaster management mechanism (The government is unified leadership; responsibilities are divided among different departments; disasters are administrated level to level and apanage management is given priority to) during the process of disaster management, which played an important role in the process of disaster emergency rescue, but this disaster management mechanism which is too much rely on th...

  16. Stress Analysis for the Formation of En Echelon Veins and Vortex Structures: a Lesson Plan with a Brief Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z.; Birnbaum, S.

    2006-12-01

    An English lesson plan exploring stress analysis of En Echelon veins and vortex structures used in the bilingual course in Structural Geology at the National Science Training Base of China is described. Two mechanical models are introduced in class and both mathematical and mechanical analyses are conducted. Samples, pictures and case studies are selected from Britain, Switzerland, and China. These case studies are augmented from the previous research results of the first author. Students are guided through the entire thought process, including methods and procedures used in the stress analysis of geologic structures. The teaching procedures are also illustrated. The method showed is effective to help students to get the initial knowledge of quantitative analysis for the formation of geological structures. This work is supported by the Ministry of Education of China, the Education Bureau of Hubei Province of China and China University of Geosciences (Wuhan).

  17. X-ray fluorescence analysis of low concentrations metals in geological samples and technological products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoida, I. A.; Trushin, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    For the past several years many nuclear physics methods of quantitative elemental analysis have been designed. Many of these methods have applied in different devices which have become useful and effective instrument in many industrial laboratories. Methods of a matter structure analysis are based on the intensity detection of the X-ray radiation from the nuclei of elements which are excited by external X-ray source. The production of characteristic X-rays involves transitions of the orbital electrons of atoms in the target material between allowed orbits, or energy states, associated with ionization of the inner atomic shells. One of these methods is X-ray fluorescence analysis, which is widespread in metallurgical and processing industries and is used to identify and measure the concentration of the elements in ores and minerals on a conveyor belt. Samples of copper ore with known concentrations of elements, were taken from the Ural deposit. To excite the characteristic X-rays radionuclide sources 109Cd, with half-life 461.4 days were used. After finding the calibration coefficients, control measurements of samples and averaging of overall samples were made. The measurement error did not exceed 3%.

  18. Seismic analysis of sliding structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To limit the seism effects, structures may be base isolated. A sliding system located between the structure and the support allows differential motion between them. The aim of this paper is the presentation of the method to calculate the response of the structure when the structure is represented by its eigenmodes, and the sliding phenomenon by the Coulomb friction model. Finally, an application to a simple structure shows the influence on the response of the main parameters (friction coefficient, stiffness,...)

  19. Seismic analysis of sliding structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To limit seismic effects, structures may be base isolated. A sliding system located between the structure and the support allows differential motion between them. The aim of this paper is the presentation of the method to calculate the response of the structure when the structure is represented by its eigenmodes, and the sliding phenomenon by the Coulomb friction model. Finally, an application to a simple structure shows the influence on the response of the main parameters (friction coefficient and stiffness)

  20. Analysis of Geologic CO2 Sequestration at Farnham Dome, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Han, W.; Morgan, C.; Lu, C.; Esser, R.; Thorne, D.; McPherson, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Farnham Dome in east-central Utah is an elongated, Laramide-age anticline along the northern plunge of the San Rafael uplift and the western edge of the Uinta Basin. We are helping design a proposed field demonstration of commercial-scale geologic CO2 sequestration, including injection of 2.9 million tons of CO2 over four years time. The Farnham Dome pilot site stratigraphy includes a stacked system of saline formations alternating with low-permeability units. Facilitating the potential sequestration demonstration is a natural CO2 reservoir at depth, the Jurassic-age Navajo formation, which contains an estimated 50 million tons of natural CO2. The sequestration test design includes two deep formations suitable for supercritical CO2 injection, the Jurassic-age Wingate sandstone and the Permian-age White Rim sandstone. We developed a site-specific geologic model based on available geophysical well logs and formation tops data for use with numerical simulation. The current geologic model is limited to an area of approximately 6.5x4.5 km2 and 2.5 km thick, which contains 12 stacked formations starting with the White Rim formation at the bottom (>5000 feet bgl) and extending to the Jurassic Curtis formation at the top of the model grid. With the detail of the geologic model, we are able to estimate the Farnham Dome CO2 capacity at approximately 36.5 million tones within a 5 mile radius of a single injection well. Numerical simulation of multiphase, non- isothermal CO2 injection and flow suggest that the injected CO2 plume will not intersect nearby fault zones mapped in previous geologic studies. Our simulations also examine and compare competing roles of different trapping mechanisms, including hydrostratigraphic, residual gas, solubility, and mineralization trapping. Previous studies of soil gas flux at the surface of the fault zones yield no significant evidence of CO2 leakage from the natural reservoir at Farnham Dome, and thus we use these simulations to evaluate what factors make this natural reservoir so effective for CO2 storage. Our characterization and simulation efforts are producing a CO2 sequestration framework that incorporates production and capacity estimation, area-of-review, injectivity, and trapping mechanisms. Likewise, mitigation and monitoring strategies have been formulated from the site characterization and modeling results.

  1. Implementation of the k0-standardization method for analysis of geological samples at the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN-IPEN) has been analysing geological samples for many years with the INAA comparative method, for geochemical and environmental research. This study presents the results obtained in the implementation of the k-0-standardization method at LAN-IPEN, for geological samples analysis, by using the program k0-IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The thermal to epithermal flux ratio f and the shape factor ? of the epithermal flux distribution of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and one selected irradiation position, for short and long irradiations, respectively. To obtain these factors, the 'bare triple-monitor' method with 197Au-96Zr-94Zr was used. In order to validate the methodology, the geological reference materials basalts JB-1 (GSJ) and BE-N (IWG-GIT), andesite AGV-1 (USGS), granite GS-N (ANRT), SOIL-7 (IAEA) and sediment Buffalo River Sediment (NIST-BRS-8704), which represent different geological matrices, were analysed. The concentration results obtained agreed with assigned, with bias <10 % except for Zn in AGV-1. The U-score test showed that all results, except Mg in JB-1, are within 95 % confidence interval. These results indicate excellent possibilities of using this parametric method at the LAN-IPEN for geochemical and environmental studies. (author)

  2. The role of inherited structures in the evolution of the Meknassy Basin, Central Tunisia, based on geological-geophysical transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Taoufik; Zouaghi, Taher; Boukadi, Noureddine

    2014-08-01

    This paper uses seismic data, well data, and surface geologic data to present a detailed description of the Meknassy Basin in the Atlas fold and thrust belt of central Tunisia. These data reveal that the Meknassy Basin is bounded by major faults, along which Triassic evaporites have been intruded. The anticlines and synclines of the basin are delimited by two N-S main faults (the North-South Axis and the Sidi Ali Ben Oun fault) and are subdivided by associated N120° and N45° trending fault-related anticlines. The Meknassy Basin is characterized by brittle structures associated with a deep asymmetric geometry that is organized into depressions and uplifts. Halokinesis of Triassic evaporites began during the Jurassic and continued during the Cretaceous period. During extensional deformation, salt movement controlled the sediment accumulation and the location of pre-compressional structures. During compressional deformation, the remobilization of evaporites accentuated the folded uplifts. A zone of decollement is located within the Triassic evaporites. The coeval strike-slip motion along the bounding master faults suggests that the Meknassy Basin was initiated as a pull-apart basin with intrusion of Triassic evaporites. The lozenge structure of the basin was caused by synchronous movements of the Sidi Ali Ben Oun fault and the North-South Axis (sinistral wrench faults) with movement of NW-SE first-order dextral strike-slip faults. Sediment distribution and structural features indicate that a major tectonic inversion has occurred at least since Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. The transpressional movements are marked by reverse faults and folds associated with unconformities and with remobilization of Triassic evaporites. The formation of different structural features and the evolution of the Meknassy Basin and its neighboring uplifts have been controlled by conjugate dextral and sinistral strike-slip movements and thrust displacement.

  3. Structural geology and mineralization of uranium deposits in the Huianpu area, west of Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis discussed the geotectonic setting of west Ordos basin, classification of structural units, fault-fold belt and structural feature of Majiatan region. Finding the stable segment in the strong structural activation region was used as the overall guidance for the uranium research and exploration, the fore-part of an over-thrust nappe belt was proposed as the favorable segment for uranium mineralization in the west of Ordos basin after several years research and exploration. Two oxidation layers of red and yellow colour was identified which the earlier oxidation was red and later oxidation alteration was yellow. The uranium ore was controlled by these two oxidation layers. The early red oxidized sandstone was experienced post-reformation such as thrust pushover, lifting, erosion and bury, block fault separation, the late yellow oxidation tended to inherit the early red oxidation and carried on the superposition modification distributed along the both wings of anticline. The thesis summarized the uranium features and metallogenic which can be used as the guidance for uranium exploration in the basin. (authors)

  4. The deep structure of the Western Pyrenees: constraints from tomographic imaging, field and marine geological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Chevrot, Sébastien; Mohn, Geoffroy

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of magma-poor rifted margin architecture has significantly evolved over the past decades. Refraction seismic data combined with drill-hole observations unravelled the velocity structure and lithological assemblages of the most distal part of continental rifted margins. Present-day models of continental rifted margins include the occurrence of hyperextended domains consisting in extremely thinned continental crust and/or exhumed subcontinental mantle as described at many rifted margins. Studies in mountain belts revealed that remnants of hyperextended domains could also be identified in internal parts of collisional orogens. Integrating recent developments in the understanding of rifted margins in the study of mountain building processes, in particular the importance of the reactivation of inherited rift structures is therefore essential and may result in alternative interpretations of the lithospheric scale structure of collisional orogens. In this contribution, we focus on the western part of the Pyrenean orogen that resulted from the inversion of a complex Late Jurassic to Mid Cretaceous rift system. The transition from preserved oceanic and rift domains to the west (in the offshore Bay of Biscay) to their complete inversion in the east provides simultaneous access to seismically imaged and exposed parts of a hyperextended rift system. Based on a multi-scale dataset that combines sub-surface data (field and drill-hole observations) with tomographic imaging (PYROPE experiment) and integrating new concepts derived from the study of present-day rifted margins, we investigate the lithospheric-scale architecture of the Western Pyrenees. Our results suggest that the imaged north-dipping crustal root may correspond to the former exhumed mantle and hyperthinned domains that have been subducted/underthrust at the onset of convergence. This interpretation contrasts with the classical assumption that the crustal root is made of lower crustal rocks. This alternative interpretation can not only explain the progressive attenuation of the velocity anomaly at depth that is observed on tomographic images, but also the occurrence of hyperthinned crust and mantle in the internal parts of the orogen. Moreover, this interpretation suggests that the final stage of collision was controlled by the former European margin acting as an indentor, illustrating the complex role of rift architecture in structuring the Pyrenean orogen. This new interpretation of the deep structure of the Western Pyrenees results in (1) different restorations of the total amount of shortening accommodated in the Pyrenean domain and (2) new insights on the evolution and architecture of Alpine-type collisional orogens.

  5. Thematic mapping, land use, geological structure and water resources in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delascuevas, N. (principal investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The images can be positioned in an absolute reference system (geographical coordinates or polar stereographic coordinates) by means of their marginal indicators. By digital analysis of LANDSAT data and geometric positioning of pixels in UTM projection, accuracy was achieved for corrected MSS information which could be used for updating maps at scale 1:200,000 or smaller. Results show that adjustment of the UTM grid was better obtained by a first order, or even second order, algorithm of geometric correction. Digital analysis of LANDSAT data from the Madrid area showed that this line of study was promising for automatic classification of data applied to thematic cartography and soils identification.

  6. The Baltic Basin: structure, properties of reservoir rocks, and capacity for geological storage of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaher, Rein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Baltic countries are located in the limits of the Baltic sedimentary basin, a 700 km long and 500 km wide synclinal structure. The axis of the syneclise plunges to the southwest. In Poland the Precambrian basement occurs at a depth of 5 km. The Baltic Basin includes the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran (Vendian at the base and all Phanerozoic systems. Two aquifers, the lower Devonian and Cambrian reservoirs, meet the basic requirements for CO2 storage. The porosity and permeability of sandstone decrease with depth. The average porosity of Cambrian sandstone at depths of 80–800, 800–1800, and 1800–2300 m is 18.6, 14.2, and 5.5%, respectively. The average permeability is, respectively, 311, 251, and 12 mD. Devonian sandstone has an average porosity of 26% and permeability in the range of 0.5–2 D. Prospective Cambrian structural traps occur only in Latvia. The 16 largest ones have CO2 storage capacity in the range of 2–74 Mt, with total capacity exceeding 400 Mt. The structural trapping is not an option for Lithuania as the uplifts there are too small. Another option is utilization of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The estimated total EOR net volume of CO2 (part of CO2 remaining in the formation in Lithuania is 5.6 Mt. Solubility and mineral trapping are a long-term option. The calculated total solubility trapping capacity of the Cambrian reservoir is as high as 11 Gt of CO2 within the area of the supercritical state of carbon dioxide.

  7. NADM Conceptual Model 1.0 -- A Conceptual Model for Geologic Map Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American Geologic Map Data Model (NADM) Steering Committee Data Model Design Team

    2004-01-01

    Executive Summary -- The NADM Data Model Design Team was established in 1999 by the North American Geologic Map Data Model Steering Committee (NADMSC) with the purpose of drafting a geologic map data model for consideration as a standard for developing interoperable geologic map-centered databases by state, provincial, and federal geological surveys. The model is designed to be a technology-neutral conceptual model that can form the basis for a web-based interchange format using evolving information technology (e.g., XML, RDF, OWL), and guide implementation of geoscience databases in a common conceptual framework. The intended purpose is to allow geologic information sharing between geologic map data providers and users, independent of local information system implementation. The model emphasizes geoscience concepts and relationships related to information presented on geologic maps. Design has been guided by an informal requirements analysis, documentation of existing databases, technology developments, and other standardization efforts in the geoscience and computer-science communities. A key aspect of the model is the notion that representation of the conceptual framework (ontology) that underlies geologic map data must be part of the model, because this framework changes with time and understanding, and varies between information providers. The top level of the model distinguishes geologic concepts, geologic representation concepts, and metadata. The geologic representation part of the model provides a framework for representing the ontology that underlies geologic map data through a controlled vocabulary, and for establishing the relationships between this vocabulary and a geologic map visualization or portrayal. Top-level geologic classes in the model are Earth material (substance), geologic unit (parts of the Earth), geologic age, geologic structure, fossil, geologic process, geologic relation, and geologic event.

  8. Structure, stratigraphy, and petroleum geology of the Little Plain basin, northwestern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, R.E.; Teleki, P.G.; Phillips, R.L.; Clayton, J.L.; David, G.; Pogcsas, G.; Bardocz, B.; Simon, E.

    1996-01-01

    The basement of the Little Plain (Kisalfo??ld) basin is composed of two parts: an eastern part comprised of folded and overthrusted Triassic and Paleozoic rocks of the Pelso block (Transdanubian Central Range) compressed in the Early Cretaceous, and a western part consisting of stacked nappes of the Austroalpine zone of Paleozoic rocks, significantly metamorphosed during Cretaceous and later compression, overriding Jurassic oceanic rift-zone rocks of the Penninic zone. The evolution of the basin began in the late Karpatian-early Badenian (middle Miocene) when the eastern part of the basin began to open along conjugate sets of northeast- and northwest-trending normal faults. Neogene rocks in the study area, on the average, contain less than 0.5 wt. % total organic carbon (TOC) and, therefore, are not considered effective source rocks. Locally, however, where TOC values are as high as 3 wt. %, significant amounts of gas may have been generated and expelled. Although potential stratigraphic traps are numerous in the Neogene section, these potential traps must be downgraded because of the small amount of hydrocarbons discovered in structural traps to date. With the exception of the Cretaceous, the Mesozoic section has not been actively explored. Large anticlinal and overthrust structures involving pre-Cretaceous strata remain undrilled.

  9. Formation of flower structures in a geological layer at a strike-slip displacement in the basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Yu. P.; Bakeev, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    Formation of dislocations in a geological layer at a strike-slip displacement in its basement is studied by three-dimensional (3D) numerical modeling. It is shown that the pattern of strain localization is determined by the initial stress state or thickness of the deformed layer as well as by the Poisson ratio and strength of the medium. Three types of fracture zones are observed. Shear bands of the first type are dominated by the propeller-like surfaces of Riedel R-shears, which merge into a single main fault with feathering structures. In the second type of dislocation zones, the primary role is played by the surfaces oriented at an angle of ˜40° to the shear axis in the horizontal projections. After reaching the free surface, these discontinuities are cut by a V-shaped fault. In this case, the pattern of dislocations most closely corresponds to the flower structures. The third type is a trough, which may accommodate the formation of yet another strain localization zone along its axial part—a vertical fault.

  10. The geology of Svalbard: structural, stratigraphic and geomorphic response to the formation of two passive margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundsen, P. T.; Braathen, A.; Maher, H.

    2012-04-01

    Svalbard is located at the junction of the North Atlantic and Arctic margins, preserves an onshore structural and stratigraphic record that spans from the Devonian to the Cenozoic and records several phases of extension characterized by different tectonic transport vectors. Contractional events such as the Devonian, so-called 'Svalbardian' fold phase and the formation of an Early Cenozoic fold and thrust belt have locally modified the evidence for extension and basin formation. However, several generations of extensional structures and associated, tectonically controlled basins are displayed in world-class exposures at different locations in the archipelago. At present, we focus on the following onshore features related to extension and margin formation: 1. Late-post orogenic extension: An extensional detachment and metamorphic core complex was recently identified by us in northwestern Spitsbergen, involving re-interpretation of tectonic contacts interpreted previously as thrusts. The undulating extensional detachment appears to have controlled 'Old Red' basin formation from the Early into the Late Devonian. The core complex evolved into a N-S trending anticline with flanks that eventually became the locus of strike-slip and normal faulting. Some of these faults were demonstrably reactivated, and we propose that the Devonian structural template became important in controlling the location of later rift structures that developed from the Carboniferous onwards. 2. Carboniferous rifting: Normal faulting controlled sedimentation in Carboniferous basins including an up to 2 km deep, coastal/marine half-graben with mixed siliclastic, carbonate and evaporite fill exposed in Central Spitsbergen. The Billefjorden Fault zone (BFZ) reactivates an older, N-S trending Devonian reverse fault, and coarse siliclastic debris was transported into the basin along relay ramps that developed between the normally reactivated strands of the BFZ. Monoclinal folds, interpreted previously as Tertiary compressional features, were recently re-interpreted by two of the present authors as extensional fault-growth monoclines, similar to structures described by others from the Gulf of Suez. 3. Late Triassic normal faulting: Spectacular outcrops of syntectonic half-graben basins occur in the lower parts of the Late Triassic Deltaic DeGeerdal formation on Edge Island. The intricate architecture of sandbodies revealed by the half-graben basins can be used to decipher in detail the relationships between accommodation and sediment supply. The half-graben reveal several periods of hangingwall-directed progradation of sandy units over prodelta shales, catastrophic deposition of massive massflow sandstone wedges and the subsequent burial of these under marine shales or channel sandstone units. 4. Differential uplift, incision and landscape formation. Northwards incision of stratigraphy due to differential uplift in the Cretaceous, incision of widespread geomorphic surfaces into Palaeogene strata and the uplift of these to a 1000 metres altitude show that significant vertical movements accompanied the evolution of the margins. Pronounced variations in landscape across the archipelago and even a quaternary volcano situated on a neotectonic fault-line attests further to a large research potential with respect to the onshore response to margin formation in the Arctic and Northernmost North Atlantic.

  11. Use of micro-proton elastic scattering analysis to determine water content in geological powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trompetter, W.J. [Department of Ion Beam Technologies, National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Reyes, A.G. [Marine Science Department, GNS Science, 1 Fairway Drive, Avalon, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Kennedy, J. [Department of Ion Beam Technologies, National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Markwitz, A., E-mail: a.markwitz@gns.cri.nz [Department of Ion Beam Technologies, National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogen in the form of water (H{sub 2}O), hydroxyl anion (OH{sup ?}) and H{sub 2} is a pervasive component in minerals, affecting geochemical processes from the surface of the earth to its deep interior and the geophysical and rheological properties of the rock. To investigate the application of ion beam techniques to the measurement of structural water (OH{sup ?} and H{sub 2}O), purified mineral separates, volcanic glass and synthetic borosilicate glass with known total structural water contents were selected. Mineral and glass particles <50 ?m in diameter and thickness, were deposited onto Teflon filters and scanned with a focussed 2.5 MeV proton beam. Hydrogen was measured using proton elastic scattering analysis and converted to total H{sub 2}O. Heavier elements were detected via Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Measurements were conducted in high vacuum to detect bound water only. The water content measurements for the minerals measured showed very good agreement with bulk water measurements and literature values. This method can be used successfully to noninvasively determine the hydrogen content of individual mineral particles with >1% total water contents.

  12. Use of micro-proton elastic scattering analysis to determine water content in geological powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompetter, W. J.; Reyes, A. G.; Kennedy, J.; Markwitz, A.

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogen in the form of water (H2O), hydroxyl anion (OH-) and H2 is a pervasive component in minerals, affecting geochemical processes from the surface of the earth to its deep interior and the geophysical and rheological properties of the rock. To investigate the application of ion beam techniques to the measurement of structural water (OH- and H2O), purified mineral separates, volcanic glass and synthetic borosilicate glass with known total structural water contents were selected. Mineral and glass particles filters and scanned with a focussed 2.5 MeV proton beam. Hydrogen was measured using proton elastic scattering analysis and converted to total H2O. Heavier elements were detected via Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Measurements were conducted in high vacuum to detect bound water only. The water content measurements for the minerals measured showed very good agreement with bulk water measurements and literature values. This method can be used successfully to noninvasively determine the hydrogen content of individual mineral particles with >1% total water contents.

  13. Comparative analysis of the impact of geological activity on astronomical sites of the Canary Islands, Hawaii and Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Eff-Darwich, A; Rodriguez-Losada, J A; de la Nuez, J; Hernandez-Gutierrez, L E; Romero-Ruiz, M C

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of seismic and volcanic activity was carried out at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile) and the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones (Chile). Hazard associated to volcanic activity is low or negligible at all sites, whereas seismic hazard is very high in Chile and Hawaii. The lowest geological hazard in both seismic and volcanic activity was found at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, in the island of La Palma.

  14. The relationship of structures and geological-building of Rudòany ore field to geotechnics features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vavrek Pavol

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The geostructural and geotechnical analysis was aimed at the concrete conditions of the Rudòany ore field at the Spi? region, the part of the Slovak Republic. Our research results make it possible to minimalize the negative influence of moisture liquidation of the mine field from the ecological point of view. The paper is devided into followings parts: present and future moisture liquidations and their influences on surface subsidences, the theoretical principles for the geotechnical evaluation of the subsidences and application of the principles.

  15. Geological Processes Affecting the Thermal Structures of Shallow Seafloor: An Example from offshore SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Wu, Shao-Kai; Liu, Char-Shine; Lu, Chia-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Fluid migration pattern is important for understanding the structural features of a mountain belt and for hydrocarbon exploration. However, these patterns are difficult to measure on the seafloor. Using phase properties of the gas hydrates, we studied the fluid flow patterns offshore southwestern Taiwan. Seismic explorations in this region show wide spreading bottom-simulating-reflectors (BSR), which is interpreted as the bottom of the gas hydrate stability zone. It provides us an opportunity to study possible fluid flow patterns at several hundred meters sub-bottom depths of the marine sediments. First, we used BSR-based geothermal gradient patterns to derive 1D vertical fluid flow models by analyzing the Péclet numbers. We found the regional fluid flow rates ranges from 6 cm/yr to 43 cm/yr, then we also discovered several prospect sites to examine the fluid migration pattern in the environs of active, passive and deformation front. Next, we forward 2D steady-state temperature fields of these sites to account for the topographic effects to compare with the BSR-based temperature. The discrepancy between the 2D conductive thermal model and the BSR-based temperature was interpreted as a result of fluid migration. And furthermore, we built 3D steady-state temperature fields, for comparing with BSR-based temperatures, to detail describe the regional temperature discrepancy with the structure evolution in 3D seismic data. We discovered our interpreted fluid migration patterns are consistent with the regional structure. The BSR-based temperatures in Yung-An Ridge, which is in active margin, are higher than the conduction model near faults and chimney zones, we interpret that it is possible active dewatering inside the accretionary prism to allow fluid to migrate upward here. For the upper reach of Peng-Hu Canyon, which is across deformation front, we found the disequilibrium temperature field probably induced by the recently landslide. For the Formosa Ridge in passive margin, the BSR-based temperatures are colder than the theoretical model, especially on the flanks. We suggested that cold seawater is moving into the ridge from the flanks, cooling the ridge, and then some of the fluid is expelled at the ridge top. On the sum, the shallow temperature fields are strongly affected by 2D or 3D topographic effects, but we can still gain much information regarding fluid flow patterns through modeling. The new method we proposed will be helpful on assess the risk or value on energy exploration.

  16. Criticality analysis of aggregations of actinides from commerical nuclear waste in geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An underground nuclear-waste terminal-storage facility for either spent fuel elements or high level waste from a reprocessing plant will contain large amounts of fissionable actinides. Such a facility must be designed to preclude the concentration of these isotopes into a critical mass. Information on the critical masses of the various isotopes present in spent fuel or high level waste is required as part of such a design effort. This study provides this information. The results of this study will be used, in conjunction with geologic transport rates of the actinide compounds, to estimate mass formation probabilities in waste repositories. A computational model was developed as part of the study to perform criticality calculations rapidly and efficiently and to produce tables and plots of actinide concentration in geologic material versus critical mass. The criticality model uses a discrete ordinates approximation to neutron transport theory and treats six energy groups and spherical geometry. Neutron cross sections were obtained from ENDF/B-IV or ENDF/B-V cross section libraries. Critical masses calculated with the computational model were checked against experimental values and against more detailed calculational values and were found to be from 30 percent less to 10 percent greater. Critical mass calculations were made for five waste types, five waste ages, five actinide elements, and four geologic compositions. Minimum critical masses were calculated for over 400 combinations of the above variables. The relative importance for criticality of the various actinides and waste types is presented in terms of the number of possible critical masses per waste container

  17. Sketch on the structural geology and vulcanism in the Central High Plateau of the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, C. E. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite Program has as an objective the development of tectonic maps for Bolivia. Maps were prepared using the images of ERTS-1 in a preliminary study of alignments observed and rapidly interpreted in images 1010-14033-3-4-5-6-7 on a scale of 1:1,000,000, and later verified on the ground with corresponding fault zones. This information was not shown on existing geologial maps. The ERTS-1 imagery was used in volcanology research for drawing the regional limits of volcanic formations as soon as the alignment and the extent of the volcanoes could be determined. The extensive coverage of ERTS-1 images provides an excellent opportunity for developing studies of regional structures.

  18. Geological and structural characterization and microtectonic study of shear zones Colonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The “Colonia Shear Zone System”, characterized by a transcurrent system of predominant sinistral shear sense, is defined by two approximately parallel shear zones, denominated Isla San Gabriel-Juan Lacaze Shear Zone (ISG-JL S.Z.) and Islas de Hornos-Arroyo Riachuelo Shear Zone (IH-AºR S. Z.). Represented by rocks with ductile and brittle deformation, are defined as a strike slip fault system, with dominant subvertical foliation orientations: 090-100º (dip-direction 190º) and 090-100º (dip-direction 005º). The K/Ar geochronology realized, considering the estimates temperatures conditions for shear zones (450-550º), indicate that 1780-1812 Ma should be considered a cooling age and therefore a minimum deformation age. The observed microstructures suggest deformation conditions with temperatures between 450-550º overprinted by cataclastic flow structures (reactivation at lower temperature)

  19. Analysis of siliceous geologic materials by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe in siliceous geologic samples by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence is investigated using the most adequate excitation conditions: direct excitation mode (rhodium anode X-ray tube) for the former two elements, and the secondary targets titanium for K and Ca, and germanium for Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe. For the correction of matrix effects the use of ratio methods has been tested. Procedure files have been defined allowing the automatic simultaneous acquisition and processing of spectra. (author)

  20. Environmental geologic analysis of Rio de las Taguas basin Departmento Iglesia San Juan Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mineral environmental research project results where it has been located in Rio de las Taguas basin, Departamento Iglesia, Provincia de San Juan, Argentina. It has been placed in frontal Andean mountain in San Juan. In this geographic framework has been developed Au and Ag mineral project in order the world scale. The aim of this article is has been related the mineral and geological units bet wen the basin chemistry as well as to carry out future measurements mines impacts in this area. (author)

  1. Analysis of rare earth elements on geological samples using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A routine method has been developed for ICP-MS determination of the REE for geological samples. Separation of REE as a group using cation exchange column has removed interferences caused by transition groups of elements and minimized the background due to complex matrix. Isobaric interferences caused by lighter REE were measured using the single pure element solutions and a correction procedure evolved. Thus using ICP-MS good quality REE data set can be acquired on rock samples with sample size not a limiting factor

  2. NASA image-based geological expert system development project for hyperspectral image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, W. C., Sr.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA image-based geological expert system was applied to analyze remotely sensed hyperspectral image data. The major objective is for geologists to identify the earth surface mineral properties directly from the airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometer data. With certain constraints, it is shown that the system can identify correctly different classes of mineral. It has the built-in learning paradigm to enhance the confidence factor of mineral identification. A very powerful natural language system was incorporated as the user-friendly front end, and the concurrent processing efficiency of the frame-based knowledge representation in the hypercube microsupercomputer simulation was tested.

  3. CO2 leakage in a Geological Carbon Sequestration system: Scenario development and analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Basirat, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study the leakage of CO2 in a Geological Carbon Sequestration (GCS) system. To define the GCS system, a tool that is known as an FEP database was used. FEPs are the features, processes and events that develop scenarios for the goal of the study. Combinations of these FEPs can produce thousands of scenarios. However, among all of these scenarios, some are more important than others for leakage. The FEPs that were used as scenario developers were the formation of ...

  4. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

  5. Integrated geophysical and geological methods to investigate the inner and outer structures of the Quaternary Mýtina maar (W?Bohemia, Czech Republic).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flechsig, C.; Heinicke, J.; Mrlina, Jan; Kämpf, H.; Nickschick, T.; Schmidt, A.; Bayer, Tomáš; Günther, T.; Rücker, C.; Seidel, E.; Seidl, Michal

    -, - (2015), s. 1-19. ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Eger Rift * Quaternary maar volcanism * Mýtina maar * geophysical and geological survey Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2014

  6. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru-Shan Wu; Xiao-Bi Xie

    2008-06-08

    Our proposed work on high resolution/high fidelity seismic imaging focused on three general areas: (1) development of new, more efficient, wave-equation-based propagators and imaging conditions, (2) developments towards amplitude-preserving imaging in the local angle domain, in particular, imaging methods that allow us to estimate the reflection as a function of angle at a layer boundary, and (3) studies of wave inversion for local parameter estimation. In this report we summarize the results and progress we made during the project period. The report is divided into three parts, totaling 10 chapters. The first part is on resolution analysis and its relation to directional illumination analysis. The second part, which is composed of 6 chapters, is on the main theme of our work, the true-reflection imaging. True-reflection imaging is an advanced imaging technology which aims at keeping the image amplitude proportional to the reflection strength of the local reflectors or to obtain the reflection coefficient as function of reflection-angle. There are many factors which may influence the image amplitude, such as geometrical spreading, transmission loss, path absorption, acquisition aperture effect, etc. However, we can group these into two categories: one is the propagator effect (geometric spreading, path losses); the other is the acquisition-aperture effect. We have made significant progress in both categories. We studied the effects of different terms in the true-amplitude one-way propagators, especially the terms including lateral velocity variation of the medium. We also demonstrate the improvements by optimizing the expansion coefficients in different terms. Our research also includes directional illumination analysis for both the one-way propagators and full-wave propagators. We developed the fast acquisition-aperture correction method in the local angle-domain, which is an important element in the true-reflection imaging. Other developments include the super-wide angle one-way propagator and special full-wave reverse-time migration method. Finally, we studied the theoretical basis of true-reflection imaging and bridges imaging and inversion with the theory of diffraction tomography.

  7. Structural geology of the proposed site area for a high-level radioactive waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.J.; Day, W.C.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Geologic mapping and fracture studies have documented the fundamental patterns of joints and faults in the thick sequence of rhyolite tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed site of an underground repository for high-level radioactive waste. The largest structures are north-striking, block-bounding normal faults (with a subordinate left-lateral component) that divide the mountain into numerous 1-4-km-wide panels of gently east-dipping strata. Block-bounding faults, which underwent Quaternary movement as well as earlier Neogene movement, are linked by dominantly northwest-striking relay faults, especially in the more extended southern part of Yucca Mountain. Intrablock faults are commonly short and discontinuous, except those on the more intensely deformed margins of the blocks. Lithologic properties of the local tuff stratigraphy strongly control the mesoscale fracture network, and locally the fracture network has a strong influence on the nature of intrablock faulting. The least faulted part of Yucca Mountain is the north-central part, the site of the proposed repository. Although bounded by complex normal-fault systems, the 4-km-wide central block contains only sparse intrablock faults. Locally intense jointing appears to be strata-bound. The complexity of deformation and the magnitude of extension increase in all directions away from the proposed repository volume, especially in the southern part of the mountain where the intensity of deformation and the amount of vertical-axis rotation increase markedly. Block-bounding faults were active at Yucca Mountain during and after eruption of the 12.8-12.7 Ma Paintbrush Group, and significant motion on these faults postdated the 11.6 Ma Rainier Mesa Tuff. Diminished fault activity continued into Quaternary time. Roughly half of the stratal tilting in the site area occurred after 11.6 Ma, probably synchronous with the main pulse of vertical-axis rotation, which occurred between 11.6 and 11.45 Ma. Studies of sequential formation of tectonic joints, in the context of regional paleostress studies, indicate that north- and northwest-striking joint sets formed coevally with the main faulting episode during regional east-northeast-west-southwest extension and that a prominent northeast-striking joint set formed later, probably after 9 Ma. These structural analyses contribute to the understanding of several important issues at Yucca Mountain, including potential hydrologic pathways, seismic hazards, and fault-displacement hazards. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  8. Relationship between Permeability, Elastic Moduli and Pore Structure in Porous Geological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    The petrophysical properties of porous media, such as the permeability and the elastic moduli, are essentially controlled by the geometry of the pore space. Enormous amounts of research have been devoted over the past several decades to understanding and quantifying the relationship between pore structure and petrophysical properties (for example, see Zimmerman, Compressibility of Sandstones, 1991; Dullien, Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Pore Structure, 1992; Adler, Porous Media: Geometry and Transports, 1992; Mavko et al., The Rock Physics Handbook, 1998; etc.) Although much is now known in terms of general trends, bounds, etc., the state of knowledge is still such that existing theories can rarely provide accurate numerical estimates of the permeability or bulk modulus of a given rock. To a great extent the problem lies in the fact that micromechanics-based rock physics theories typically utilize idealized pore shapes such as circular, elliptical or triangular cylinders, for which analytical solutions can readily be obtained, whereas actual pores are irregular. In this talk I will describe recent work that utilizes actual pore geometries, as observed in electron micrographs, along with some scaling laws based on the pore areas and perimeters, and simple effective medium approximations, to predict the permeability and elastic moduli of porous sedimentary rocks. The hydraulic conductivity of the individual pores are estimated from the hydraulic radius approximation, which correlates the conductance with area3/perimeter2, with the proportionality constant chosen so as to make the relation exact for a circle. Kirkpatrick's effective medium approximation for networks of conductors is used to upscale the individual pore-scale hydraulic conductivities to yield the core-scale permeability. When applied to several data sets of sandstones and carbonates, with permeabilities ranging from 0.5-1500 milliDarcies, the methodology typically predicts the permeability to within a factor of two. The compressibilities of the individual pores are estimated from a scaling law based on perimeter2/area, with the proportionality constant again found from the known case of a circular tube. The individual pore compressibilities are then averaged, weighted by area, and the differential effective medium approximation is used to convert the mean pore compressibility into the macroscopic bulk modulus. This methodology has been applied to Berea and Fontainebleau sandstone, and typically predicts the bulk modulus to within about 10%.

  9. Geology and structural evolution of the Muruntau gold deposit, Kyzylkum desert, Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Berger, B.R.; Kurbanov, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    The Muruntau gold deposit in the Kyzylkum desert of Uzbekistan is the largest single deposit (??? 1100 tonnes of gold) of the class of low-sulfide syndeformation/synigenous gold deposits formed in the brittle/ductile transition zone of the crust within transpressional shear zones. Hosted by the Cambrian to Ordovician Besopan Suite, the ores were deposited in pre-existing thrust-fault- and metamorphism-related permeabilities and in synmineralization dilational zones created in a large fault-related fold. The Besopan Suite is a 5,000-m-thick sequence of turbiditic siltstones, shales and sandstones. The ore is primarily localized at the base of the Besopan-3 unit, which is a 2,000-m-thick series of carbonaceous shales, siltstones, sandstones and cherts. Initial gold deposition took place within the Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear zone, which was developed along the stratigraphic contact between the Besopan-3 and Besopan-4 units. During the mineralization process, folding of the Besopan Suite and a left-step adjustment in the Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear zone were caused by two concurrent events: (1) the activation of the left-lateral Muruntau-Daugyztau shear zone that developed at nearly a 90?? angle to the preceding shear zone and (2) the intrusion of granitoid plutons. These structural events also resulted in the refocusing of hydrothermal fluid flow into new zones of permeability.

  10. Geological structure impact on the exchange between fractures and matrix for the fractured porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractured porous media are characterized by the presence of fractures at several scales with heterogeneous properties implying areas highly permeable by comparison with the rock. Hydraulically, these media are characterized by short reaction times, due to the fractures, and long reaction times, due to the rock. These media are important for several topics as contaminated sites, element storage and resources exploitation. The main challenge of fracture porous media modeling is the representation of the geometrical and physical heterogeneities. As an exact representation of the medium is not possible, it is necessary to determine the key properties of the medium. This study aims at determining the impact of the geometrical and physical properties of the fractures and the matrix from the local to the global scales. A first part consists in creating methods to evaluate structure effects on the exchange between the fractures and the matrix and a second part consists in using these methods on several media. Finally, we describe a new discrete dual-porosity model taking into account the properties of the media characterizing its behavior. (author)

  11. Determination of iridium at low levels (sub ng g-1) in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the platinum group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt) in geological materials is difficult, due to the low concentrations of these elements (ng g-1 or sub ng g-1) and their heterogeneous distribution in many geological matrices. The determination of PGE has attracted great interest due not only to the increasing utilization of these elements in modern industry, but also to the information that these elements can provide on mantle processes. The determination of very low amounts of iridium is particularly important on account of some anomalous concentrations of iridium in sedimentary rock samples, related to the impact of an extraterrestrial object responsible for extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. In the present paper, a radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of iridium in geological materials is presented. The procedure consisted of thermal neutron irradiation of about 500 mg of the sample, followed by sintering with sodium peroxide, precipitation with tellurium and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a hyper-pure Ge detector. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were evaluated by analysis of the certified reference material SARM-7 (South Africa Bureau of Standards) and W-1 (USGS). The detection limit for the analytical conditions employed was 0.004 ng g-1. The procedure was applied to the reference materials TDB-1 and WGB-1 (CANMET), which present provisional values for Ir, and to the reference materials GXR-3, GXR-5 and GXR- 6 (USGS), which do not present information values for Ir. This work is a contribution to Ir values in these reference materials. As an example of application of the method to real samples, the developed procedure was employed in the determination of iridium in basalts from Parana basin, collected in Bom Guara do Sul, Santa Catarina, provided by the Geosciences Institute of the University of Campinas. (author)

  12. Heat transfer analysis of the geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-field temperatures resulting from the storage of high-level waste canisters and spent unreprocessed fuel assembly canisters in geologic formations were determined. Preliminary design of the repository was modeled for a heat transfer computer code, HEATING5, which used the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method to evaluate transient heat transfer. The heat transfer system was evaluated with several two- and three-dimensional models which transfer heat by a combination of conduction, natural convention, and radiation. Physical properties of the materials in the model were based upon experimental values for the various geologic formations. The effects of canister spacing, fuel age, and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the spent fuel canisters; salt, granite, and basalt were considered as the storage media for spent fuel canisters. The effects of canister diameter and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the high-level waste canisters; salt was considered as the only storage media for high-level waste canisters. Results of the studies on spent fuel assembly canisters showed that the canisters could be stored in salt formations with a maximum heat loading of 134 kw/acre without exceeding the temperature limits set for salt stability. The use of an overpack had little effect on the peak canister temperatures. When the total heat load per acre decreased, the peak temperatures reached in the geologic formations decreased; however, the time to reach the peak temperatures increased. Results of the studies on high-level waste canisters showed that an increased canister diameter will increase the canister interior temperatures considerably; at a constant areal heat loading, a 381 mm diameter canister reached almost a 500C higher temperature than a 305 mm diameter canister. An overpacked canister caused almost a 300C temperature rise in either case

  13. Data Fusion: A decision analysis tool that quantifies geological and parametric uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineering projects such as siting waste facilities and performing remediation are often driven by geological and hydrogeological uncertainties. Geological understanding and hydrogeological parameters such as hydraulic conductivity are needed to achieve reliable engineering design. Information from non-invasive and minimally invasive data sets offers potential for reduction in uncertainty, but a single data type does not usually meet all needs. Data Fusion uses Bayesian statistics to update prior knowledge with information from diverse data sets as the data is acquired. Prior knowledge takes the form of first principles models (e.g., groundwater flow) and spatial continuity models for heterogeneous properties. The variability of heterogeneous properties is modeled in a form motivated by statistical physics as a Markov random field. A computer reconstruction of targets of interest is produced within a quantified statistical uncertainty. The computed uncertainty provides a rational basis for identifying data gaps for assessing data worth to optimize data acquisition. Further, the computed uncertainty provides a way to determine the confidence of achieving adequate safety margins in engineering design. Beyond design, Data Fusion provides the basis for real time computer monitoring of remediation. Working with the DOE Office of Technology (OTD), the author has developed and patented a Data Fusion Workstation system that has been used on jobs at the Hanford, Savannah River, Pantex and Fernald DOE sites. Further applications include an army depot at Letterkenney, PA and commercial industrial sites

  14. Economic analysis of hydrocarbon exploration by simulation with geological uncertainties (exploratory wells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model was developed to help determine the future development of hydrocarbon reserves. The uncertainties of geological parameters were incorporated into the model in an effort to provide an assessment of the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries that are expected to be recovered as a result of exploration activity. The economic parameters were also incorporated into the model in an effort to determine the economic worth of multiple-wells exploration activity. The first part of this study included the geological parameters in the initial field size distribution and the number of fields distribution. Dry hole data was also considered to reflect the exploration risk. The distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries for a selected number of exploratory wells was determined. The second part of the study included the economic parameters such as the price of oil and gas and the cost of exploration, development and production. The distribution of the number of discoveries and the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries was compared to produce a probability distribution of the net present value of a proposed exploration program. The offshore Nova Scotia Shelf basin was chosen for testing the methodology. Several scenarios involving changes in economic parameters were shown. This methodology could help in determining future development programs for hydrocarbon reserves. The methodology can also help governments in policy making decisions regarding taxes and royalty regimes for exploration programs

  15. Data Fusion: A decision analysis tool that quantifies geological and parametric uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineering projects such as siting waste facilities and performing remediation are often driven by geological and hydrogeological uncertainties. Geological understanding and hydrogeological parameters such as hydraulic conductivity are needed to achieve reliable engineering design. Information form non-invasive and minimal invasive data sets offers potential for reduction in uncertainty, but a single data type does not usually meet all needs. Data Fusion uses Bayesian statistics to update prior knowledge with information from diverse data sets as the data is acquired. Prior knowledge takes the form of first principles models (e.g., groundwater flow) and spatial continuity models for heterogeneous properties. The variability of heterogeneous properties is modeled in a form motivated by statistical physics as a Markov random field. A computer reconstruction of targets of interest is produced within a quantified statistical uncertainty. The computed uncertainty provides a rational basis for identifying data gaps for assessing data worth to optimize data acquisition. Further, the computed uncertainty provides a way to determine the confidence of achieving adequate safety, margins in engineering design. Beyond design, Data Fusion provides the basis for real time computer monitoring of remediation. Working with the DOE Office of Technology (OTD), the authors have developed and patented a Data Fusion Workstation system that has been used on jobs at the Hanford, Savannah River, Pantex and Fernald DOE sites. Further, applications include an army depot at Letterkenney, PA and commercial industrial sites

  16. Structural analysis considerations for wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Approaches to the structural analysis of wind turbine blade designs are reviewed. Specifications and materials data are discussed along with the analysis of vibrations, loads, stresses, and failure modes.

  17. Geology of drill hole USW VH-2, and structure of Crater Flat, southwestern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1219 meter (4000 ft) drill hole in Crater Flat shows the absence of buried Pliocene or Quaternary volcanic rocks, and penetrates a section of Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, and the upper part of the Crater Flat Tuffs, similar to that exposed adjacent to Crater Flat. A prominent negative aeromagnetic anomaly between the drill hole and Bare Mountain is attributed to a westward thickening section of a reversely magnetized Miocene basalt. The relatively shallow depth of this basalt in the west-central part of Crater Flat indicates that no large amount of tectonic movement has occurred in approximately the last 10 m.y. Massive brecciated wedges of Paleozoic rocks are penetrated in two stratigraphic intervals in the drill hole; the older one, between the Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff, correlates with the time of maximum faulting east of Crater Flat in the Yucca Mountain area. The younger slide masses are correlated with a large slide block of probable late Miocene age exposed along the southwestern rim of Crater Flat. The structural pattern and style buried beneath central and western Crater Flat is deduced to be similar to that exposed at Yucca Mountain, but less developed. The major fault system controlling the steep east face of Bare Mountain, though probably still active, is believed to have developed mainly as a result of caldera collapse between 13 and 14 m.y. ago. Relations between faulting and four episodes of basalt eruption in the Crater Flat area strongly suggest contemporaneity of the two processes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Geological structures of the late Cretaceous Dadaepo basin, SE Korea, and their tectonic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H.; Son, M.; Song, C.; Kim, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Dadaepo basin, located in southeast Korean Peninsula, is a small sedimentary basin extended between two NNE-trending faults during late Cretaceous. The western and eastern margins of the basin are bounded by the Yangsan and Dongnae faults, respectively, and its geometry is of a rhombochasm-shape. The basin- fills, named as the Dadaepo formation, are sub-divided into lower and upper parts. The lower part is composed of conglomerate, sandstone, reddish siltstone, and marl indicating fluvial plain to lacustrine environments, whereas the upper part contains abundant volcanogenic materials. Absolute age (Ar-Ar method) of the basaltic lava intercalated into the basin-fills is about 80 Ma. Strata in the basin are gently dipping northward to northeastward and the dip angles gradually decrease upward, indicating the syn-depositional tilting and NNE-SSW directed extension of the basin. NW-trending syn-depositional normal faults are dominantly observed in the basin-fills and these normal faults show the geometries of listric fan, graben and horst, and associated rollover anticline. And quite a number of clastic dykes, perhaps produced by seismic shocks during sedimentation, occur in the lower part of the Dadaepo formation. Their intrusion planes predominantly align along NW to NNW directions. And the magmatic intermediate to mafic dykes, showing the features of intrusion into unconsolidated sediments, also predominantly have the NW trend. Based on the features of those structures in the basin-fills, it is concluded that the Dadaepo basin was extended under a NE-SW tensional stress regime. We believe that this stress has been induced by the sinistral movement of the NNE-trending bounding faults due to the oblique subduction of proto-Pacific (Izanagi) Plate beneath Eurasian Plate during late Cretaceous. The Dadaepo Basin is, thus, a pull-apart basin which was formed at the releasing stepovers or tension fractures between the two strike-slip faults.

  19. PROBLEMS OF GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF SEISMIC-FOCI SYSTEMS OF THE EARTH’S CRUST (GEOMECHANICS AND TECTONOPHYSICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris M. Chikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In our study, an earthquake focus is viewed as a 3D zone of the Earth’s crust, wherein the discharge of mechanical loading is accompanied by recordable destruction and qualitative transformation of the geological medium. The purpose of the present publication is to make an attempt to reveal a direct relationship between seismicity and deformation-metamorphic processes which took place in the Earth’s crust. Traditional and alternative interpretations of geomechanics of seismic-foci situations are discussed. The problems of geodynamics and geostatics of the seismic-foci systems and their concentrations, as well as anthropogenic models and mechanisms of focus medium structuring are reviewed. The relationship between seismicity and mechanisms of «regional shearing» or formation of crustal deformation-metamorphic structures of lineament type is outlined in the example of the Chuya seismic system of earthquakes which occurred in 2003 and afterwards in the Altai region.

  20. Rare earth elements content in geological samples from eastern desert, Egypt, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty representative geological samples (tonalite, granodiorite, adamellite, syenogranite, rapakivi syenogranite, alkali feldspar granite and monzogranite) were collected from G. Kattar area in Eastern Desert, Egypt, for analysis by instrumental neutron activation as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of 14 rare earth elements (REEs) and to find out the following: (1) what information could be obtained about the REEs and distribution patterns of REEs in geological samples under investigation, (2) to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of the INAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standard reference material and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7x1011 n/cm2 s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The gamma spectra were collected by an HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of a computerized multichannel analyzer. The choice of the nuclear reaction, irradiation and decay times, and of the proper gamma radiation in counting are presented and discussed. The results are found to be in good agreement with certified values.

  1. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Kinetic structures in architecture follows a new trend which is emerging in responsive architecture coined by Nicholas Negroponte when he proposed that architecture may benefit from the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational...

  2. Eye-Tracking Investigations Exploring How Students Learn Geology from Photographs and The Structural Setting of Hydrothermal Gold Deposits in the San Antonio Area, B.C.S., MX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyan, Joshua

    Geoscience educators commonly teach geology by projecting a photograph in front of the class. Geologic photographs often contain animals, people, and inanimate objects that help convey the scale of features in the photograph. Although scale items seem innocuous to instructors and other experts, the presence of such items is distracting and has a profound effect on student learning behavior. To evaluate how students visually interact with distracting scale items in photographs and to determine if cueing or signaling is an effective means to direct students to pertinent information, students were eye tracked while looking at geologically-rich photographs. Eye-tracking data revealed that learners primarily looked at the center of an image, focused on faces of both humans and animals if they were present, and repeatedly returned to looking at the scale item (distractor) for the duration an image was displayed. The presence of a distractor caused learners to look at less of an image than when a distractor was not present. Learners who received signaling tended to look at the distractor less, look at the geology more, and surveyed more of the photograph than learners who did not receive signaling. The San Antonio area in the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula is host to hydrothermal gold deposits. A field study, including drill-core analysis and detailed geologic mapping, was conducted to determine the types of mineralization present, the types of structures present, and the relationship between the two. This investigation revealed that two phases of mineralization have occurred in the area; the first is hydrothermal deposition of gold associated with sulfide deposits and the second is oxidation of sulfides to hematite, goethite, and jarosite. Mineralization varies as a function of depth, whereas sulfides occurring at depth, while minerals indicative of oxidation are limited to shallow depths. A structural analysis revealed that the oldest structures in the study area include low-grade to medium-grade metamorphic foliation and ductile mylonitic shear zones overprinted by brittle-ductile mylonitic fabrics, which were later overprinted by brittle deformation. Both primary and secondary mineralization in the area is restricted to the later brittle features. Alteration-bearing structures have an average NNW strike consistent with northeast-southwest-directed extension, whereas unaltered structures have an average NNE strike consistent with more recent northwest-southeast-directed extension.

  3. Analysis of piezoelectric structures and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Weiqiu; Wang, Ji

    2013-01-01

    This edited work covers piezoelectric materials in the form of beams, plates, shells, and other structural components in modern devices and structures. Applications are frequency control and detection functions in resonators, sensors, actuators, oscillations, and other smart and intelligent structures. The contributions cover novel methods for the analysis of piezoelectric structures including wave propagation, high frequency vibration, material characterization, and optimization of structures. Understanding of these methods is increasingly important in the design and modelling of next generat

  4. Two-stage Triassic exhumation of HP-UHP terranes in the western Dabie orogen of China: Constraints from structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sanzhong; Kusky, Timothy M.; Zhao, Guochun; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Guowei; Kopp, Heidrun; Wang, Lu

    2010-07-01

    Abundant exposures of widely-distributed HP-UHP metamorphic rocks in the western part of the Dabie orogen enable us to study the tectonic evolution of HP-UHP terranes associated with the world's largest preserved continental subduction zone. Previous tectonic models for the Dabie orogen were based largely on metamorphic studies, most of them lacking significant structural constraints. We present a comprehensive structural analysis based on detailed structural geology. The results suggest that syn-UHP (D0 at 241-231 Ma) and syn-HP (D1 at 225-215 Ma) southeast-vergent thrusting formed a series of stacked structural slices. This was followed by southeast-vergent folding under amphibolite facies conditions (D2 at 215-205 Ma); then a third generation of flexural folding occurred at shallow levels (D3 at 200-184 Ma). This leads us to proposes a two-stage Triassic exhumation model in which initially rapid vertical extrusion (D0-D1) from UHP to HP conditions to lower crustal levels is followed by slow southeastward extrusion (D3) from lower crustal levels to the Earth's surface. The tectonic model combines the early southeastward vertical extrusion with the later southeastward lateral extrusion, revealing two different stages and thus different types of Triassic extrusion for the exhumation of HP-UHP rocks in the Dabie orogen. The first stage extrusion occurred in the Middle Triassic, whereas the second stage extrusion lasted from the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. These two extrusion episodes correlate with the two stages of Triassic exhumation of the Dabie HP-UHP rocks, respectively, during continental collision.

  5. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the length of the island and to American troop movement. This unique topography forced innovative tactics ranging from reverse slope defense to "blowtorch and corkscrew" offense in response. During this exercise, students apply their map-reading and interpretation skills, as well as their critical analysis abilities; the historical context, in turn, provides motivation to refine those skills. Sun Tzu wrote that all warfare is based on deception. What we hope to communicate to students with this activity is that much of warfare, and, more broadly, the way humans interact with the world, is inherently and undeniably based on geology.

  6. Structure-dependent interactions between alkali feldspars and organic compounds: implications for reactions in geologic carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Min, Yujia; Jun, Young-Shin

    2013-01-01

    Organic compounds in deep saline aquifers may change supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2))-induced geochemical processes by attacking specific components in a mineral's crystal structure. Here we investigate effects of acetate and oxalate on alkali feldspar-brine interactions in a simulated geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) environment at 100 atm of CO(2) and 90 °C. We show that both organics enhance the net extent of feldspar's dissolution, with oxalate showing a more prominent effect than acetate. Further, we demonstrate that the increased reactivity of Al-O-Si linkages due to the presence of oxalate results in the promotion of both Al and Si release from feldspars. As a consequence, the degree of Al-Si order may affect the effect of oxalate on feldspar dissolution: a promotion of ~500% in terms of cumulative Si concentration was observed after 75 h of dissolution for sanidine (a highly disordered feldspar) owing to oxalate, while the corresponding increase for albite (a highly ordered feldspar) was ~90%. These results provide new insights into the dependence of feldspar dissolution kinetics on the crystallographic properties of the mineral under GCS conditions. PMID:22978468

  7. Simultaneous determination of rhenium and tungsten in geological materials by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron activation method for the simultaneous determination of Rhenium and tungsten in geological materials is described. A radiochemical separation was carried out, using carrier and liquid - liquid extractions, yielded 186Re in a state of radiochemical purity. The gamma-ray activity of the radionuclide was counted with an NaI(TL) crystal scintilation detector. Tungsten VI was absorbed on charcoal from an acid solution as an 8-hydroxyquinolate complex. The charcoal was counted with a coaxial Ge(Li) semiconductor detector connected to a 4096 channel analyser. The photopeak corresponding to E = 0.686 Mev of 187W(tsub(1/2) = 23.9 hr) was the most suitable for measurement. The chemical yield for both W and Re were determined spectrophotometrically. The results for above elements in standards rock W-1 from U.S.G.S. and nickeliferous lateritic profiles are reported. (author)

  8. ICP-MS analysis of geological standard rocks for yttrium, lanthanoids, thorium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied to geological standard rocks for the determination of Y, lanthanoids (Ln's), Th and U. Internal standardization is employed for the precise measurement: Rh for Y, In and Tl for Ln's, Bi for Th and U. For Ln's, linear interpolation correction is used. Our ICP-MS data agree with the recommended values within 10% for most samples. Their chondrite-normalized Ln abundance patterns are smooth, suggesting that our ICP-MS data are highly accurate and can be used for discussing detailed abundances of Ln's. The Y, Th and U data are as precise as the Ln data. The simultaneous and precise determination of Ln's, Th and U enable us to extend the geochemical discussion in better detail than before. (author)

  9. Geological and engineering analysis of residual soil for forewarning landslide from highland area in northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkhao, Thanakrit; Phantuwongraj, Sumet; Choowong, Montri; Thitimakorn, Thanop; Charusiri, Punya

    2015-11-01

    One devastating landslide event in northern Thailand occurred in 2006 at Ban Nong Pla village, Chiang Klang highland of Nan province after, a massive amount of residual soil moved from upstream to downstream, via creek tributaries, into a main stream after five days of unusual heavy rainfall. In this paper, the geological and engineering properties of residual soil derived fromsedimentary rocks were analyzed and integrated. Geological mapping, electrical resistivity survey and test pits were carried out along three transect lines together with systematic collection of undisturbed and disturbed residual soil samples. As a result, the average moisture content in soil is 24.83% with average specific gravity of 2.68,whereas the liquid limit is 44.93%, plastic limit is 29.35% and plastic index is 15.58%. The cohesion of soil ranges between 0.096- 1.196 ksc and the angle of internal friction is between 11.51 and 35.78 degrees. This suggests that the toughness properties of soil change when moisture content increases. Results from electrical resistivity survey reveal that soil thicknesses above the bedrock along three transects range from 2 to 9 m. The soil shear strength reach the rate of high decreases in the range of 72 to 95.6% for residual soil from shale, siltstone and sandstone, respectively. Strength of soil decreaseswhen the moisture content in soil increases. Shear strength also decreases when the moisture content changes. Therefore, the natural soil slope in the study area will be stable when the moisture content in soil level is equal to one, but when the moisture content between soil particle increases, strength of soil will decrease resulting in soil strength decreasing.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Remediation in 3D Field-Scale Fractured Geologic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Falta, Ronald W; Murdoch, Lawrence C

    2015-01-01

    Thermal methods are promising for remediating fractured geologic media contaminated with volatile organic compounds, and the success of this process depends on the coupled heat transfer, multiphase flow, and thermodynamics. This study analyzed field-scale removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) and heat transfer behavior in boiling fractured geologic media using the multiple interacting continua method. This method can resolve local gradients in the matrix and is less computationally demanding than alternative methods like discrete fracture-matrix models. A 2D axisymmetric model was used to simulate a single element of symmetry in a repeated pattern of extraction wells inside a large heated zone and evaluate effects of parameter sensitivity on contaminant recovery. The results showed that the removal of TCE increased with matrix permeability, and the removal rate was more sensitive to matrix permeability than any other parameter. Increasing fracture density promoted TCE removal, especially when the matrix permeability was low (e.g., <10(-17) m(2)). A 3D model was used to simulate an entire treatment zone and the surrounding groundwater in fractured material, with the interaction between them being considered. Boiling was initiated in the center of the upper part of the heated region and expanded toward the boundaries. This boiling process resulted in a large increase in the TCE removal rate and spread of TCE to the vadose zone and the peripheries of the heated zone. The incorporation of extraction wells helped control the contaminant from migrating to far regions. After 22?d, more than 99.3% of TCE mass was recovered in the simulation. PMID:25040727

  11. Identification of groundwater flow systems using geological mapping and chemical spring analysis in South Pare Mountains, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, M. L.; Mutiibwa, R. K.; Foppen, J. W. A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    Population growth on the hill slopes of the semi-arid South Pare Mountains in Northeast Tanzania has increased water usage. In this area, water availability is directly dependent on the groundwater/surface water interaction, which in turn is dependent on the hydrogeology of the catchment. In order to better understand the hydrogeology of the area, a groundwater flow system analysis was conducted for two adjacent meso-scale catchments (Makanya and Mbaga, a sub-catchment of the Mkomazi catchment; both around 300 km 2). Geological mapping and spring sampling were done. Thirty spring- and groundwater samples were collected from inside and around the catchment and analysed for all major cations and anions, including dissolved silica. Due to dipping and faulting of the geological units, a substantial amount of water drains out of the Makanya catchment into the Mbaga catchment. Springs found in the elevated parts of the catchments, contribute to base flow and are found in old debris flow deposits, consisting of weathered parent rocks. Water quality in these parts is mainly determined by silicate weathering due to oxidation of organic matter and evaporation. Concentrations of ions generally increase with decreasing altitude. Springs found in the lower parts of the catchments contain high amounts of sodium, chloride and sulphate, different from the water quality found uphill. We concluded that two distinct flow systems exist in the catchment; a local system, defined by the limited thickness of the weathered material and debris flow deposits, and a regional flow system that is most likely controlled by regional tectonics. This case-study demonstrates how geological mapping and chemical methods can be used to analyse groundwater flow systems.

  12. Geological-economic analysis on the exploration of backup resources for depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the geological-economic evaluation program for pithead heap-leaching mining uranium deposits developed by the authors and the data of column-leaching tests and the geological reserve, the geological-economic evaluation is made to the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit, and the geological reserves of Yangjiaonao deposit of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China. The results of static analysis on these reserves show that the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit belong to sub-profitable type, but the ones of Yangjiaonao deposit is profitable with 26.56% tax-before profit. 1 tU profitable type of ore from Yangjiaonao deposit can use 2.40-3.79 tU subprofitable type of ores from Lujing and Huangfengling deposit. In order to solving the problem on scarcity of backup resources of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field and using the existing sub-profitable type of geological reserves, it is suggested that the high grade of profitable type of deposits should be explored around the exhausting mines so that the production of the mines could be profitable by the pithead heap-leaching mining method with arrangement groups of both sub-profitable and profitable type of ores. (authors)

  13. Groundwater Flow Systems at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada: A Synthesis of Potentiometric Contours, Hydrostratigraphy, and Geologic Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-01-25

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the hydraulic-head distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. A map of the hydraulic-head distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped and discussed in general terms as being one of two types: alluvial-volcanic, or carbonate. Both aquifer types are subdivided and mapped as independent regional and local aquifers, based on the continuity of their component rock. Groundwater-flow directions, approximated from potentiometric contours that were developed from the hydraulic-head distribution, are indicated on the maps and discussed for each of the regional aquifers and for selected local aquifers. Hydraulic heads vary across the study area and are interpreted to range in altitude from greater than 5,000 feet in a regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,300 feet in regional alluvial-volcanic and carbonate aquifers in the southwestern part of the study area. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly south-southwest with some local deviations. Vertical hydraulic gradients between aquifer types are downward throughout most of the study area; however, flow from the alluvial-volcanic aquifer into the underlying carbonate aquifer, where both aquifers are present, is believed to be minor because of an intervening confining unit. Limited exchange of water between aquifer types occurs by diffuse flow through the confining unit, by focused flow along fault planes, or by direct flow where the confining unit is locally absent. Interflow between regional aquifers is evaluated and mapped to define major flow paths. These flow paths delineate tributary flow systems, which converge to form intermediate and regional flow systems. The implications of these flow systems in controlling transport of radionuclides away from the underground test areas at the Nevada Test Site are briefly discussed. Additionally, uncertainties in the delineation of aquifers, the development of potentiometric contours, and the identification of flow systems are identified and evaluated. Eleven tributary flow systems and three larger flow systems are mapped in the Nevada Test Site area. Flow systems within the alluvial-volcanic aquifer dominate the western half of the study area, whereas flow systems within the carbonate aquifer are most prevalent in the southeastern half of the study area. Most of the flow in the regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer that moves through the underground testing area on Pahute Mesa is discharged to the land surface at springs and seeps in Oasis Valley. Flow in the regional carbonate aquifer is internally compartmentalized by major geologic structures, primarily thrust faults, which constrain flow into separate corridors. Contaminants that reach the regional carbonate aquifer from testing areas in Yucca and Frenchman Flats flow toward downgradient discharge areas through the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek Ranch or Ash Meadows flow systems and their tributaries.

  14. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R B Krishnam Raju; J Nagabhushanam

    2000-08-01

    Though the use of the integrated force method for linear investigations is well-recognised, no efforts were made to extend this method to nonlinear structural analysis. This paper presents the attempts to use this method for analysing nonlinear structures. General formulation of nonlinear structural analysis is given. Typically highly nonlinear bench-mark problems are considered. The characteristic matrices of the elements used in these problems are developed and later these structures are analysed. The results of the analysis are compared with the results of the displacement method. It has been demonstrated that the integrated force method is equally viable and efficient as compared to the displacement method.

  15. Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination--Part III: X-ray Crystal Structure Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesick, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is single crystal X-ray crystal structure analysis. A common link between the NMR imaging and the traditional X-ray crystal structure analysis is reported. Claims that comparisons aid in the understanding of both techniques. (MVL)

  16. TI-Octree: Spatial index for geological structures TI-Octree: Índice espacial para estructuras geológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Antonio Suárez Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and visualization of three-dimensional geological structures is one of the main activities in the mining industry. Miners and geologists most maintain an exhaustive control of the extracted volume of mineral of a deposit, using computer programs for processing the obtained information. In the mining process, a mineral deposit is commonly represented by a block model, which represents the morphology of the laying geological structures. For modeling those geological structures and the volume of extracted mineral they use tetrahedral networks. The tetrahedral network is an spatial structure that, given it characteristics, allows modeling geological structures in the fields of mining and geology, making easier the volume calculus. Aiming to improve the tetrahedral search process given an spatial region,  this work  presents a proposal of one spatial data structure for indexing tetrahedral networks, demonstrating by some experiments that the searching time over this proposal is less compared with the searching time over a linear structure. La modelación y visualización en tres dimensiones de estructuras geológicas es una de las actividades fundamentales realizadas en la industria minera. Los mineros y geólogos deben mantener un control exhaustivo del volumen de extracción de los minerales de un yacimiento, utilizando generalmente programas de cómputo para procesar la información obtenida. En la minería un yacimiento mineral es habitualmente representado por un modelo de bloques y este modelo debe respetar la morfología de las estructuras geológicas. Para modelar las estructuras geológicas y los volúmenes de extracción de mineral se utilizan mallas de tetraedros. La malla de tetraedros es una estructura espacial  que, por sus características, permite modelar las estructuras geológicas en la rama de la geología y la minería, facilitando el cálculo del volumen del sólido. Con el objetivo de mejorar el rendimiento en la búsqueda de tetraedros dada una región determinada del espacio, el presente artículo propone la implementación de una estructura de datos espaciales para indexar la malla de tetraedros, realizando pruebas que permiten obtener como conclusión que el tiempo de búsqueda de la propuesta realizada disminuye en comparación con el tiempo de búsqueda en una estructura lineal.

  17. NMR analysis of proteins structure; Structure des proteines par RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malliavin, Th. [Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, Lab. de Biochimie Theorique, 75 - Paris (France); Dardel, F. [Paris-5 Univ., Faculte de Pharmacie, Lab. de Cristallographie et RMN Biologiques, 75 (France)

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of proteins aims at determining the 3-D folding of the polypeptide chain. Because of the high number of nuclei observed in the samples, the NMR protein spectra are extremely complex. The different steps of the structure determination are: the preparation of the samples, the acquisition and processing of the NMR signal, the analysis and attribution of spectra, and the calculation of the coordinates of the atoms using the NMR spectra parameters. Content: 1 - proteins and peptides (composition and structure, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure); 2 - NMR of proteins in solution (characteristics, structures determination, homonuclear experiments, heteronuclear experiments, proteins with a size higher than 20 kDa, intermolecular interactions, stability factors, internal molecular dynamics); 3 - structures calculation (calculation framework, distance geometry, molecular dynamics and simulated annealing, quality of the structure obtained). (J.S.)

  18. Non-linear analysis of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work in progress on the inelastic analysis of concrete structures using the finite element method is described. The study serves two objectives, the working stress design and the ultimate load analysis. The distribution of temperature, of particular importance in nuclear structures, is studied. The basis for the non linear analysis of instantaneous deformations is given, based in plasticity theory. Linear and non linear viscoelasticity based in the state variables approach are studied. Several numerical examples are presented. (Author)

  19. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas, and other parameters...reclamation and it shall also show how the areal and structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability,...

  20. Preliminary integrated geologic map data for Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A GIS database of geologic units and structural features in Alaska, with lithology, age, data structure, and format written and arranged just like the other states.

  1. Investigation of corrosion and analysis of passive films concerning some nickel alloys and stainless steels in reconstructed geological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis addresses the corrosion behaviour of materials which might be used for the fabrication of radioactive waste containers. After a bibliographical study on films formed on Fe-Cr-Ni alloys, this research concentrates on passivation and de-passivation phenomena of three nickel-base alloys among the most resistant to corrosion and which also meet processing and economic criteria: Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625 and ZICNDU 25-20. Titanium and Ti-Pd alloy are also studied. Parameters governing pitting corrosion are notably studied. After a recall of knowledge on passive films formed on Fe-Cr-Ni alloys, and a presentation of experimental and technical conditions, the author reports and discussed the results obtained by electrochemical studies, reports the determination of factors governing alloy passivation in geological waters. The influence of some soluble impurities is notably studied. The author reports the analysis by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry to determine the composition of passive films with respect to geological water nature, the immersion duration and the electrode potential. Additional surface analyses are performed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS or ESCA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Finally, the author uses a dosing method by neutron radio-activation of alloy elements to determine dissolution mechanisms

  2. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron–electron annihilation line of 18F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction 19F(γ, n)18F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from 45Ti and 34mCl, whereas those from 44Sc and 89Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10–100 μg g−1

  3. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausová, Ivana [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, ?ež 130, 25068 ?ež (Czech Republic); Mizera, Ji?í, E-mail: mizera@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, ?ež 130, 25068 ?ež (Czech Republic); Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, V Holešovi?kách 41, 182 09 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); ?anda, Zden?k; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, ?ež 130, 25068 ?ež (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-01

    Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron–electron annihilation line of {sup 18}F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction {sup 19}F(?, n){sup 18}F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from {sup 45}Ti and {sup 34m}Cl, whereas those from {sup 44}Sc and {sup 89}Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10–100 ?g g{sup ?1}.

  4. Geological heritage of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The soil and subsoil of Morocco are rich in geological phenomena that bear the imprint of a history that goes back in time more than 2000 million years. Very many sites geologically remarkable exposed in accessible outcrops, with good quality remain unknown to the general public and therefore deserve to be vulgarized. It is a memory to acquaint to the present generations but also to preserve for future generations. In total, a rich geological heritage in many ways: Varied landscapes, international stratotypes, various geological structures, varied rocks, mineral associations, a huge procession of fossiles, remnants of oceanic crust (ophiolites) among oldests ones in the world (800my), etc... For this geological heritage, an approach of an overall inventory is needed, both regionally and nationally, taking into account all the skills of the earth sciences. This will put the item on the natural (geological) potentialities as a lever for sustainable regional development. For this, it is necessary to implement a strategy of ''geoconservation'' for the preservation and assessment of the geological heritage.

  5. Open Plot Project: an open-source toolkit for 3-D structural data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tavani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the Open Plot Project, an open-source software for structural data analysis, including a 3-D environment. The software includes many classical functionalities of structural data analysis tools, like stereoplot, contouring, tensorial regression, scatterplots, histograms and transect analysis. In addition, efficient filtering tools are present allowing the selection of data according to their attributes, including spatial distribution and orientation. This first alpha release represents a stand-alone toolkit for structural data analysis.

    The presence of a 3-D environment with digitalising tools allows the integration of structural data with information extracted from georeferenced images to produce structurally validated dip domains. This, coupled with many import/export facilities, allows easy incorporation of structural analyses in workflows for 3-D geological modelling. Accordingly, Open Plot Project also candidates as a structural add-on for 3-D geological modelling software.

    The software (for both Windows and Linux O.S., the User Manual, a set of example movies (complementary to the User Manual, and the source code are provided as Supplement. We intend the publication of the source code to set the foundation for free, public software that, hopefully, the structural geologists' community will use, modify, and implement. The creation of additional public controls/tools is strongly encouraged.

  6. Analysis of composite structural elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The themes of the study are composite structural components. For this purpose have been designed and built several research positions.Design/methodology/approach: Using different structural materials to build new device components requires multiple tests of the components. Research posts were designed in the advanced graphical program CAx Siemens NX 7.5. Analysed samples were made from the glass fibre, aramid and carbon of various weights. Due to the specific use of composite materials it focuses on the elements in the form of plates and flat bars. For the examination of experimental strain gauge technique was used bead, the force sensor and displacement sensor. The experimental methods were compared with computer simulation using the FEM.Findings: The aim of this study was to determine the basic material constants and a comparison of the experimental method and the method of computer simulation.Research limitations/implications: Change the number of layers and how to connect the laminate with the steel plate changes mechanical properties of the structural component.Practical implications: The ultimate result will be knowledge on the different forms of laminates, such as material properties, the stresses in all layers, strain and comparing the results obtained by two methods.Originality/value: The expected outcome of the study will be the composition and method of joining composite laminate with a steel plate to the possible application in the repair and construction of structural elements of freight wagons.

  7. Structure analysis under impulsive loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the sizing of a structure, the transient dynamic response may, in many cases, be obtained with a linear computation. In this example, we have studied the behavior of the plane cap of a vessel subjected to a sudden increase of the inner pressure. We described here the differents steps of this kind of computation

  8. Long term climate change and a deep geological repository in the Canadian Shield: issues and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, W.R. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Physics, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: peltier@atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca

    2006-07-01

    For the past million years of Earth history, the Canadian Shield has experienced a continuous process of glaciation and deglaciation, events that have significantly altered the landscape of the northern half of the North American continent. This sequence of events, ultimately due to small changes in received solar radiation due to the influence of gravitational many body effects upon the earths orbit around the sun, should they continue, constitute an important phenomena with respect to developing an understanding of groundwater flow system evolution in Shield terrain as it may influence the long-term performance of a Deep Geologic Repository for used nuclear fuel. In this paper a description is provided of the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model, which is being applied to yield geophysically constrained predictions of the last Laurentide (North American) glacial event. In particular, the GSM is providing unique insight into the time rate of change, magnitude and uncertainty of surface boundary conditions and permafrost occurrence at a hypothetical Shield repository site. These predictive estimates of boreal, peri-glacial and ice-sheet history are offering an innovative and reasoned basis to explore flow system characteristics and attributes that govern hydrodynamic and geochemical stability within deep-seated Shield flow domains. (author)

  9. Using U.S. Geological Survey data in material flow analysis: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A few sources of basic data on worldwide raw materials production and consumption exist that are independently developed and freely available to the public. This column is an introduction to the types of information available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and explains how the data are assembled. The kind of information prepared by the USGS is essential to U.S. materials flow studies because the data make it possible to conduct these studies within a global context. The data include primary and secondary (scrap) production, consumption and stocks (mostly limited to the United States unless calculated), trade (not readily available for all countries), and prices for more than 80 mineral commodities. Materials flow studies by USGS specialists using these data are continuing (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/mflow/). Figure 1 shows from where the data are collected and where they are used. Minerals information was downloaded by users 5.8 million times from USGS minerals information Web pages in 2008.

  10. Volcanic history, geologic analysis and map of the Prometheus Patera region on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, G.; Gerard, Davies A.; Wilson, L.; Williams, D.A.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Turtle, E.P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from Jupiter's moon Io returned by the Galileo spacecraft have been used to create a geologic map of Prometheus Patera, its associated flow field, and nearby features. We have identified the location of the vent that fed the Prometheus flow field during the Galileo epoch in the north-eastern portion of the main Prometheus flow field. This vent is the probable source of a small sulphur-rich plume. Previous studies suggested that the vent may be atop a tectonic fault but we find that the vent is offset from the putative fault. It is plausible that, in the past, magma exploited the fault to reach the surface at Prometheus Patera, but subsequent magma cooling in the conduit could have caused an obstruction preventing further eruptions from providing significant contributions to the Prometheus flow field. We also speculate on how a new Prometheus plumbing system may be fed by mafic magmas after melt stalls in magma reservoirs during its ascent through the lithosphere from the mantle. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Long term climate change and a deep geological repository in the Canadian Shield: issues and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past million years of Earth history, the Canadian Shield has experienced a continuous process of glaciation and deglaciation, events that have significantly altered the landscape of the northern half of the North American continent. This sequence of events, ultimately due to small changes in received solar radiation due to the influence of gravitational many body effects upon the earths orbit around the sun, should they continue, constitute an important phenomena with respect to developing an understanding of groundwater flow system evolution in Shield terrain as it may influence the long-term performance of a Deep Geologic Repository for used nuclear fuel. In this paper a description is provided of the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model, which is being applied to yield geophysically constrained predictions of the last Laurentide (North American) glacial event. In particular, the GSM is providing unique insight into the time rate of change, magnitude and uncertainty of surface boundary conditions and permafrost occurrence at a hypothetical Shield repository site. These predictive estimates of boreal, peri-glacial and ice-sheet history are offering an innovative and reasoned basis to explore flow system characteristics and attributes that govern hydrodynamic and geochemical stability within deep-seated Shield flow domains. (author)

  12. Structural analysis in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional techniques in Pattern Recognition (PR) have been greatly improved by the introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches, in particular for knowledge representation, inference mechanism and control structure. The purpose of this paper is to describe an image understanding system, based on the integrated approach (AI - PR), developed in the author's Department to interpret Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) images. The system is characterized by a heterarchical control structure and a blackboard model for the global data-base. The major aspects of the system are pointed out, with particular reference to segmentation, knowledge representation and error recovery (backtracking). The eye slices obtained in the case of two patients have been analyzed and the related results are discussed

  13. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    OpenAIRE

    ElianaBarreto-Bergter; GuilhermeLanziSassaki

    2011-01-01

    Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytic...

  14. Fluid-structure interaction in BWR containment structural dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the recognition of the presence of hydro-dynamic loads in the suppression pool of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) containments, dynamic analysis of the reactor containment structure for pool dynamic loads associated with Safety Relief Valve (SRV) discharge and postulated Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) has become a major consideration in the design of BWR power plants. An understanding of the mechanics of the fluid-structure interaction phenomenon is necessary to properly account for its effects when defining pool dynamic loads and when computing the structural responses for these loads. This paper explains the mechanics of fluid-structure interaction using a spring-mass analogy, describes a simple procedure for using elastic solid finite elements to mock the suppression pool water, and discusses the application of this mock fluid element in BWR containment structural analysis

  15. Structural analysis of fuel handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper has three aspects: (i) to review 'why' and 'what' types of structural analysis, testing and report are required for the fuel handling systems according to the codes, or needed for design of a product, (ii) to review the input requirements for analysis and the analysis procedures, and (iii) to improve the communication between the analysis and other elements of the product cycle. The required or needed types of analysis and report may be categorized into three major groups: (i) Certified Stress Reports for design by analysis, (ii) Design Reports not required for certification and registration, but are still required by codes, and (iii) Design Calculations required by codes or needed for design. Input requirements for structural analysis include: design, code classification, loadings, and jurisdictionary boundary. Examples of structural analysis for the fueling machine head and support structure are given. For improving communication between the structural analysis and the other elements of the product cycle, some areas in the specification of design requirements and load rating are discussed. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  16. Static Nonlinear Analysis In Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Ali

    2008-07-01

    Push-over analysis is a simple and applied approach which can be used for estimation of demand responses influenced by earthquake stimulations. The analysis is non-linear static analysis of the structure affected under increasing lateral loads and specifying the displacement—load diagram or structure capacity curve, draw the curve the base shear values and lateral deflection on the roof level of the building will be used. However, for estimation of the real behavior of the structure against earthquake, the non-linear dynamic analysis approaches and various accelerographs should be applied. Of course it should be noted that this approach especially in relation with tall buildings is complex and time consuming. In the article, the different patterns of lateral loading in push-over analysis have been compared with non-linear dynamic analysis approach so that the results represented accordingly. The researches indicated the uniformly—distributed loading is closer to real status.

  17. Static Nonlinear Analysis In Concrete Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Push-over analysis is a simple and applied approach which can be used for estimation of demand responses influenced by earthquake stimulations. The analysis is non-linear static analysis of the structure affected under increasing lateral loads and specifying the displacement--load diagram or structure capacity curve, draw the curve the base shear values and lateral deflection on the roof level of the building will be used. However, for estimation of the real behavior of the structure against earthquake, the non-linear dynamic analysis approaches and various accelerographs should be applied. Of course it should be noted that this approach especially in relation with tall buildings is complex and time consuming. In the article, the different patterns of lateral loading in push-over analysis have been compared with non-linear dynamic analysis approach so that the results represented accordingly. The researches indicated the uniformly--distributed loading is closer to real status

  18. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis of geological samples for rare earths using internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Instrumental neutron-activation analysis os one of a few modern analytical techniques, being applied to solve difficult analytical tasks, such as mineral resources analysis for rare earth element content. No other analytical technique can be used with the latter end in view, since Instrumental neutron-activation analysis is possessed of the highest precision among them. In order to check experimentally the stated approach to REE content calculation by the internal standard method, relative bias values of this approach should be estimated. This approach will be verified further with a number of different rock samples simultaneously analyzed by an instrumental neutron-activation analysis certified analytical technique

  19. Analysis of flexible fabric structures

    OpenAIRE

    Pimm, Andrew James

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is primarily aimed at carrying out analysis of Energy Bags, reinforced fabric bags used for subsea compressed air energy storage. Subsea compressed air energy storage is a completely new method of large-scale energy storage designed to be integrated with direct-compression offshore wind turbines and wave energy converters. Energy Bags are impermeable bags anchored to the seabed at significant depths (e.g. 500m) in which high pressure air, compressed by specially designed wind tu...

  20. Engineering geologic and geotechnical analysis of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects: Field examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R.A.; Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The greatest impediments to the widespread acceptance of back-calculated ground motion characteristics from paleoliquefaction studies typically stem from three uncertainties: (1) the significance of changes in the geotechnical properties of post-liquefied sediments (e.g., "aging" and density changes), (2) the selection of appropriate geotechnical soil indices from individual paleoliquefaction sites, and (3) the methodology for integration of back-calculated results of strength of shaking from individual paleoliquefaction sites into a regional assessment of paleoseismic strength of shaking. Presented herein are two case studies that illustrate the methods outlined by Olson et al. [Engineering Geology, this issue] for addressing these uncertainties. The first case study is for a site near Memphis, Tennessee, wherein cone penetration test data from side-by-side locations, one of liquefaction and the other of no liquefaction, are used to readily discern that the influence of post-liquefaction "aging" and density changes on the measured in situ soil indices is minimal. In the second case study, 12 sites that are at scattered locations in the Wabash Valley and that exhibit paleoliquefaction features are analyzed. The features are first provisionally attributed to the Vincennes Earthquake, which occurred around 6100 years BP, and are used to illustrate our proposed approach for selecting representative soil indices of the liquefied sediments. These indices are used in back-calculating the strength of shaking at the individual sites, the results from which are then incorporated into a regional assessment of the moment magnitude, M, of the Vincennes Earthquake. The regional assessment validated the provisional assumption that the paleoliquefaction features at the scattered sites were induced by the Vincennes Earthquake, in the main, which was determined to have M ??? 7.5. The uncertainties and assumptions used in the assessment are discussed in detail. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The growth of the continent through geological time studied by Nd isotope analysis of shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined the Nd isotopic composition and the Sm/Nd ratios in a series of Australian shales ranging from 0.2 Gy to 3.3 Gy. The first result of this study is the constancy of the Sm/Nd ratio in these shales, as in granitoids. Secondly, the initial (143Nd/144Nd) ratio gives a regular curve decreasing through geological time. Both results confirm that shales are representative samples of the continental crust, when insoluble elements, like REE, are studied. We calculated their Nd model ages of crustal differentiation. The model ages regularly decrease with the stratigraphic ages and after 2 Gy, the curve flattens and tends to an asymptotic value at around 1.8 Gy. The significance of the shales is that they represent a mixture of continental materials and we consider the model age of such a mixture directly linked with the mean age of the continental portion feeding the sedimentary basin. From these results, we deduce a quantitative model of the growth curve of the continental source of the shales taking into account the effects of erosion which selectively sample recent mountains relative to shield areas. We propose that the results obtained here are representative of the whole Gondwana continent. Having studied the case of the Australian shales, we try to extend our study. First we applied our quantitative approach to the recent results obtained by O'Nions et al. on North Atlantic provinces. The continental growth curves obtained by our inversion procedure are quite distinct from the Australian shales showing the regional character of shales. (orig./WB)

  2. Appendix P: analysis of geological and geophysical data in selected areas of the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1979 we initiated a comprehensive assessment of existing marine geological and geophysical data for the northwest Pacific (PAC 1; 200 to 500N; 1450 to 1800E). The purpose of these studies is to locate, if possible, several 10 x 10 (latitude x longitude) areas which may qualify as candidate waste-disposal sites. Some of these 10 x 10 sites will then be surveyed in detail on future cruises. We have examined all 3.5 and 12 kHz echogram data through the PAC 1 area contained in the Lamont-Doherty, Scripps, and Univ. of Hawaii echogram libraries. These data comprise the vast majority of data that exist for the northwest Pacific. Using these data we were able to classify and map the distribution of various types of microtopography and acoustic reflectivity (echo character) throughout the PAC 1 area. These studies revealed (1) the nature of stratification in the upper 25 to 100 m of the sea floor; (2) nature of the microtopography of the sea floor and areal distribution of basement outcrops; (3) locations of areas affected by bottom currents and mass-wasting process. We have also compiled and evaluated all D.S.D.P. drilling information and L-DGO piston core, bottom camera, heat-flow, sonobuoy, and low frequency seismic-reflection data for the PAC 1 area. We are continuing to compile additional acoustic and station data from other sources including US Navy, NOAA, Japan, and N.G.S.D.C., DMA. Our studies in the PAC 1 area to date have enabled us to locate at least 10 10 x 10 areas which appear to be potentially suitable sites for further waste disposal studies. Three of these potential sites will be surveyed in detail on an upcoming VEMA cruise in spring 1980. Remaining areas will be surveyed during future cruises

  3. Methodological aspects and development of techniques for neutron activation analysis of microcomponents in materials of geologic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the activation analysis methodology applied to geological samples activated in nuclear reactors were studied, and techniques were developed for the determination of various elements in different types of matrixes, using gamma spectrometry for the measurement of the products. The consideration of the methodological aspects includes the study of the working conditions, the preparation of samples and standards, irradiations, treatment of the irradiated material, radiochemical separation and measurement. Experiments were carried out on reproducibility and errors in relation to the behaviour of the measurement equipment and that of the methods of area calculation (total area, Covell and Wasson), as well as on the effects of geometry variations on the results of the measurements, the RA-3 reactors's flux variations, and the homogeneity of the samples and standards. Also studied were: the selection of the conditions of determination, including the irradiation and decay times; the irradiation with thermal and epithermal neutrons; the measurement with the use of absorbers, and the resolution of complex peaks. Both non-destructive and radiochemical separation techniques were developed for the analysis of 5 types of geological materials. These methods were applied to the following determinations: a) In, Cd, Mn, Ga and Co in blende; b) La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in fluorites; c) La, Ca, Eu, Tb, Yb, Se and Th in barites and celestites; d) Cu and Zn in soils. The spectral interferences or those due to nuclear reactions were studied and evaluated by mathematical calculation. (M.E.L.)

  4. Analysis of MELCOR code structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MELCOR executes in two parts. The first is a MELGEN program, in which most of the input is specified, processed, and checked. The second part of MELCOR is the MELCOR program itself, which advances the program through time based on the database generated by MELGEN and any additional MELCOR input. In particular, MELCOR execution involves two steps: (1) a setup mode in MEXSET, during which the database is read from the restart file and any additional input is processed, and (2) a run mode in MEXRUN, which advances the simulation through time, updating the time-dependent portion of the database each cycle. MELGEN and MELCOR share a structured and modular architecture that facilitates the incorporation of additional or altenative phenomenological modes. This structure consists of four primary levels: executive level, database manager routine level, package level, and utility level. MELCOR is composed of 24 different packages, each of which models a different portion of the accident phenomenology or program control. To identify the relation of the MELCOR subroutines with the packages, first two or three letters of the package's name are duplicated in the name of the subroutines. The same rule applies to the naming of the common block. Data flows and the specific subroutines in the MELGEN and MELCOR are analyzed by their functions according to the hierarchy of four levels for model improvement and replacement during the integral code development project

  5. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

  6. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R. (INEEL); Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K. (SNL); Rath, J.S. (New Mexico Engineering Research Institute)

    1998-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  7. Ion beam analysis facility at the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Includes: Introduction to ion beam analysis; IBA techniques, including PIXE (particle induced x-ray emission), PIGE (particle induced gamma-ray emission), RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry), ERD (elastic recoil detection) and NRA (nuclear reaction analysis); experimental details; and a case study on geothermal processes and fluid inclusions. Refs., 11 figs

  8. FEP catalogue for the VSG. Concept and structure. Documentation. Preliminary safety analysis for the Gorleben site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main targets for final disposal of heat-generating high-level radioactive wastes in deep geological formations are the long-term safety of man and environment with respect to ionizing radiation and other hazardous effects and the avoidance of unacceptable burden and responsibilities for future generations. The report explains the concept and structure of the preliminary safety analysis Gorleben (VSG). Prerequisites for a long-term safety analysis are knowledge and expectations concerning future geologic and climatic development of the site. The scientific description of the initial conditions and the factors influencing the future final repository system are based on a catalogue of features, events and processes (FEP). The structure of FEP issues is described including information and examples.

  9. Structural Dynamics and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthman, Briana L.

    2013-01-01

    This project consists of two parts, the first will be the post-flight analysis of data from a Delta IV launch vehicle, and the second will be a Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. Shock and vibration data was collected on WGS-5 (Wideband Global SATCOM- 5) which was launched on a Delta IV launch vehicle. Using CAM (CAlculation with Matrices) software, the data is to be plotted into Time History, Shock Response Spectrum, and SPL (Sound Pressure Level) curves. In this format the data is to be reviewed and compared to flight instrumentation data from previous flights of the same launch vehicle. This is done to ensure the current mission environments, such as shock, random vibration, and acoustics, are not out of family with existing flight experience. In family means the peaks on the SRS curve for WGS-5 are similar to the peaks from the previous flights and there are no major outliers. The curves from the data will then be compiled into a useful format so that is can be peer reviewed then presented before an engineering review board if required. Also, the reviewed data will be uploaded to the Engineering Review Board Information System (ERBIS) to archive. The second part of this project is conducting Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. In 2010, Merritt Island High School partnered with NASA to design, build and launch a CubeSat. The team is now called StangSat in honor of their mascot, the mustang. Over the past few years, the StangSat team has built a satellite and has now been manifested for flight on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch in 2014. To prepare for the final launch, a test flight was conducted in Mojave, California. StangSat was launched on a Prospector 18D, a high altitude rocket made by Garvey Spacecraft Corporation, along with their sister satellite CP9 built by California Polytechnic University. However, StangSat was damaged during an off nominal landing and this project will give beneficial insights into what loads the CubeSat experienced during the crash. During the year, the MIHS students generated a SolidWorks (CAD software) geometry model of StangSat. This model will be imported into FEMAP (Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Software) and a finite element model wiiJ be created to predict the loads encountered during the crash of this rocket. This analysis will require learning how to import CAD models into the FEM, mesh and add constraints and concentrated masses to represent components inside the CubeSat frame, such as circuit boards, batteries and accelerometers. During the analysis the loads will be varied, in effort to duplicate the damage to the CubeSat. Results will then be peer reviewed and documented.

  10. Finite element analysis of stresses and deformations occurring in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal canister deposited in a deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The weight reduction design of the PWR SNF disposal canister is presented. • The optimal SNF basket rotation angle to minimize canister weight is sought. • Conventional structural analysis and Kriging method are developed for this purpose. • The optimal SNF basket rotation angle is determined to be 45°. • The canister weight is correspondingly reduced by 16% from 25 tons to 21 tons. -- Abstract: Numerical computer experimental methodologies are investigated for the weight reduction of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal canister designed to be deposited in a Korean deep geological repository from a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Finite element analyses of stresses and deformations occurring inside the cylindrical canister under the deposited conditions are performed to assess its structural strength at various rotation angles (?) of the SNF basket. Specifically, the cross sections of four square tube shaped SNF baskets (assemblies) contained in the canister are rotated. Using a conventional structural analysis and a Kriging method, an optimal rotation angle is determined in relation to canister diameter and weight. Both sets of results are in agreement. It was also determined that the computed deformation changes slightly in relation to variances in rotation angle, while the stress incurred inside the cast iron insert of the canister noticeably changes reaching its highest value at ? = 45° while still maintaining safe structural integrity. It is concluded that the diameter of the canister can be reduced from its original design value (102 cm) to 95.8463 cm resulting in a ?16.0% reduction in canister weight for an optimal rotation angle of 45°

  11. Finite element analysis of stresses and deformations occurring in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal canister deposited in a deep geological repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8058 (United States); School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University of China, Xi’an 710072 (China); Gea, Hae Chang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8058 (United States); Kwon, Young Joo, E-mail: yjkwon@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Design Engineering, Hongik University, 2639 Sejong-ro, Jochiwon, Sejong 339-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • The weight reduction design of the PWR SNF disposal canister is presented. • The optimal SNF basket rotation angle to minimize canister weight is sought. • Conventional structural analysis and Kriging method are developed for this purpose. • The optimal SNF basket rotation angle is determined to be 45°. • The canister weight is correspondingly reduced by 16% from 25 tons to 21 tons. -- Abstract: Numerical computer experimental methodologies are investigated for the weight reduction of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal canister designed to be deposited in a Korean deep geological repository from a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Finite element analyses of stresses and deformations occurring inside the cylindrical canister under the deposited conditions are performed to assess its structural strength at various rotation angles (?) of the SNF basket. Specifically, the cross sections of four square tube shaped SNF baskets (assemblies) contained in the canister are rotated. Using a conventional structural analysis and a Kriging method, an optimal rotation angle is determined in relation to canister diameter and weight. Both sets of results are in agreement. It was also determined that the computed deformation changes slightly in relation to variances in rotation angle, while the stress incurred inside the cast iron insert of the canister noticeably changes reaching its highest value at ? = 45° while still maintaining safe structural integrity. It is concluded that the diameter of the canister can be reduced from its original design value (102 cm) to 95.8463 cm resulting in a ?16.0% reduction in canister weight for an optimal rotation angle of 45°.

  12. Semantic Antinomies and Deep Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Ryszard

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses constructions known as semantic antinomies, that is, the paradoxical results of false presuppositions, and how they can be dealt with by means of deep structure analysis. See FL 508 186 for availability. (CLK)

  13. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs for...... specification of security in terms of FLAGs; and secondly the outcome can be used to transform basic protocol narrations into more detailed specifications, which makes a subsequent formal analysis much more meaningful....

  14. Structure of Marketing Planning: A Reflective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Augusto Toledo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to promote a reflective analysis about the action planning structure in the marketing context. The work was structured in the form of essay and presents the theoretical aspects about the Marketing Planning. The intention of the article is to provide critical insights into the needs of planning marketing activities. For this purpose the document is organized as of an introduction that contextualizes the subject, accompanied by a critical analysis. Finally, the final considerations are placed in distinction.

  15. Dynamic analysis and design of offshore structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This book  attempts to provide readers with an overall idea of various types of offshore platform geometries. It covers the various environmental loads encountered by these structures, a detailed description of the fundamentals of structural dynamics in a class-room style, estimate of damping in offshore structures and their applications in the preliminary analysis and design. Basic concepts of structural dynamics are emphasized through simple illustrative examples and exercises. Design methodologies and guidelines, which are FORM based concepts are explained through a few applied example structures. Each chapter also has tutorials and exercises for self-learning. A dedicated chapter on stochastic dynamics will help the students to extend the basic concepts of structural dynamics to this advanced domain of research. Hydrodynamic response of offshore structures with perforated members is one of the recent research applications, which is found to be one of the effective manner of retrofitting offshore structur...

  16. Structure analysis of hydrotalcite intercalated with pyrenetetrasulphonate acid, molecular simulations and experiment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, M.; Veteška, M.; ?apková, P.; Beneš, L.; Melánová, Klára; Zima, Vít?zslav

    Zagreb : Faculty of Science & Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, University of Zagreb, 2006 - (Vlahovic, I.; Tibljaš, D.). s. 98 ISBN 953-6076-09-8. [Mid-European Clay Conference /3./. 18.09.2006-23.9.2006, Opatia] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : intercalation * structure analysis of hydrotalcite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  17. LIBS analysis of geological samples at low pressures : application to Mars, the Moon, and asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, D. A. (David A.); Sevostiyanova, E. V. (Ekaterina V.); Gibson, L. E. (Leslie E.); Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.)

    2004-01-01

    Recently, LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) has been proposed as a new method for elemental analysis in space exploration with Mars specifically targeted. there are many reasons for this including rapid analysis (< 2 min.), in-situ and stand-off analysis (< 20 meters) capability, and the ability to readily combine LIBS with other spectroscopic methods (Raman, fluorescence) that provide data complementary to LIBS. In comparison with past and current elemental analysis methods used on planetary surfaces, these capabilities of LIBS should greatly increase the scientific return from future missions. They are characterizing the LIBS method for space exploration applications with emphasis on analysis at reduced pressures ({approx} 7 Torr CO{sub 2} for Mars) and near vacuum (50 mTorr for asteroids and the Moon; at pressures below about 50 mTorr no significant changes in the plasma are observed). This characterization is important because the excitation properties of the LIBS plasma are strongly dependent on pressure of the surrounding atmosphere. Topics addressed include: (1) calibration curves and detection limits for major and minor elements of interest to geochemistry at the two lower pressures as well as atmospheric pressure (for comparison), (2) using short (<22 cm for in-situ) and medium length (4 m for stand-off) light paths for analysis, and (3) characterization of the LIBS plasma at different pressures.

  18. Structural analysis of safety control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural analysis of reliability of the safety control system of an NPP according to information control theory is given. The theory of the mistake operator minimization optimizing the structure of a control safety system is prepared. The theoretical basis of the protection-in-depth conception is illustrated.

  19. Fourier Analysis Of Vibrations Of Round Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    Fourier-series representation developed for analysis of vibrations in complicated, round structures like turbopump impellers. Method eliminates guesswork involved in characterization of shapes of vibrational modes. Easy way to characterize complicated modes, leading to determination of responsiveness of given mode to various forcing functions. Used in conjunction with finite-element numerical simulation of vibrational modes of structure.

  20. Information estimations and analysis of structures

    OpenAIRE

    Shaydurov, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    In this paper have written the results of the information analysis of structures. The obtained information estimation (IE) are based on an entropy measure of C. Shannon. Obtained IE is univalent both for the non-isomorphic and for the isomorphic graphs, algorithmically, it is asymptotically steady and has vector character. IE can be used for the solution of the problems ranking of structures by the preference, the evaluation of the structurization of subject area, the solution of the problems...

  1. Proterozoic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, P. K.

    1984-04-01

    This book and its companion, Early Proterozoic Geology of the Great Lakes Region (Mem. 160 Geological Society of America, 1984), edited by L.G. Medaris, Jr., are the products of an International Proterozoic symposium held at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, May 18-21, 1981. This volume contains 23 papers that present the current thinking of experts on many aspects of Proterozoic evolution of the earth; it is divided into five broad categories: tectonics, magmatism and metamorphism, mineral resources, evolution of life and the atmosphere, and glaciation.The Proterozoic is a distinctive interval in the geologic history of the earth, encompssing the transition from Archean conditions to those of the Phanerozoic. By Early Proterozoic time, extensive stable continental plates existed, and deformation, deposition, and intrusion styles were comparable to those of today. Also, the amount of free oxygen in the atmosphere and hydrosphere continuously increased during the Proterozoic and eventually reached levels supportive of metazoan evolution.

  2. New insights into the geology under London through the analysis of 3D models

    OpenAIRE

    Royse, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper will describe firstly the combined cognitive and geostatistical modelling methodology that was developed in order to produce a structural model of the Chalk under London and secondly how the resultant model has improved our understanding of how the London Basin evolved during the Cretaceous period.

  3. Nuclear methods applied to environmental and geological studies: instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Both thermal and epithermal neutron instrumental activation analysis as well as prompt gamma ray activation analysis were used to investigate the vertical distribution of some major and 30 trace elements in several cores collected from various locations of Danube delta as well as from the anoxic zone of the Black Sea Continental Platform. The major elements were Na, Al, Ca, K, Ti, Fe and Cl while the trace elements were Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, In, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U. At the same time the vertical distribution of anthropogenic 137Cs (from atmospheric nuclear tests and 1986 Chernobyl accident) was used to determine the sediments age, sedimentation rate as well as to evidence any sediment redistribution. Principal Component Analysis together with the Cluster Analysis were the main statistic methods used to interpret experimental data in connection with two model rocks: Upper Continental Core (UCC) and Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB). Final results concerning this kind of analysis are presented and discussed by taking into account the decline of industrial activity in the former Communist States abutting Danube River. (authors)

  4. Dynamic structural analysis of uncoupled subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical techniques and results are presented for dynamic seismic analysis of uncoupled structures. It is concluded that an uncoupled subsystem dynamic analysis can produce results essentially identical to those from a coupled analysis. The techniques utilized and conclusions obtained are applicable in general for any system/subsystem configuration. A nuclear power plant primary structure and a pressurized water reactor coolant system are used as the system/subsystem example. To develop general and realistic results, soil-structure interaction, non-uniform damping and representative structural stiffnesses were considered in developing the results. Standard time-history model analysis techniques were used. However, the conclusions are not dependent on the solution techniques. In performing dynamic seismic analyses of subsystems, a common approach is to include a simplified model which correctly represents the stiffness as well as the mass effects of the subsystem in the primary system dynamic model. The results are then used as forcing functions for separate and more detailed subsystem analses. This approach enables the analyst to use more detailed subsystem mathematical models when performing either spectrum analysis or time history analysis of the subsystem in question. This paper demonstrates, by example, that a properly uncoupled subsystem analysis will produce results consistent with those obtained from a coupled system/subsystem analysis, regardless of the complexity of the system. (Auth.)

  5. Earthquake geology: science, society and critical facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Grützner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake geology studies the effects, the mechanics and the impacts of earthquakes in the geological environment. Its role is also to decode the fault history, therefore its approach is fault specific and its outcomes are of decisive value for seismic hazard assessment and planning. The term Earthquake geology includes aspects of modern instrumental studies, tectonics and structural geology, historical surface deformation and tectonic geomorphology, whereas paleoseismology is considered part of earthquake geology [...].

  6. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  7. Archaeological elements of Mt. Lykaion Sanctuary of Zeus (southern Peloponnesus) in relation to tectonics and structural geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sanctuary of Zeus is the focus of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation/Survey (University of Pennsylvania, University of Arizona, and 39th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities). It was described by Pausanias as a sacred place of pan-Hellenic significance, with stadium and hippodrome in which athletic games were held, a sanctuary of Pan, and a formidable temenos and altar of Lykaion Zeus. In picturing human activity on this mountain during ancient times, it is not adequate to treat the mountain as if it were simply a tall, symmetrical, and handy edifice within which rock contents are irrelevant, for the geology within Mt. Lykaion significantly influenced what was built on it, and where! There are contemporary reminders of the 'power' of the site, including the devastating April, 1965, Megalopolis earthquake, the epicenter of which was merely 4 km away. In fact, there are active normal faults within the sanctuary. However the primary geoarchitecture is that of the Pindos fold and thrust belt, fashioned largely in Cretaceous through Eocene. Mt. Lykaion's dome-like summit is a thrust klippe separated from underlying nappes by a major thrust fault (Lykaion thrust), the subhorizontal trace of which encircles the mountain creating a subtle bench in the landscape coinciding closely with archaeological and natural elements important to the sanctuary (e.g., stoa, seatwall, fountains, trails). Late Jurassic through Eocene 'Pindos Group' formations are stacked and repeated by the thrusting. Inter-relationships between bedrock, structure, and archaeology are revealed in a 'geoarchaeological column,' which displays positioning of elements in relation to the thrust, and orientations of rock formations in relation to flat patches in otherwise steep, rocky country, which became sites suitable for placement of hippodrome, baths, temenos, horse pasturing areas, etc. Worked limestone blocks are locally derived and can be matched with formations. The compelling high elevation of the ash altar is testimony to residual crustal buoyancy achieved through 'Pindos' crustal shortening, and the steep processional ascent to the altar speaks to regional active normal faulting and rapid erosion

  8. Archaeological elements of Mt. Lykaion Sanctuary of Zeus (southern Peloponnesus) in relation to tectonics and structural geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G H [Regents Professor, University of Arizona, Department of Geosciences, 326 Gould-Simpson Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: gdavis@u.arizona.edu

    2008-07-01

    The Sanctuary of Zeus is the focus of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation/Survey (University of Pennsylvania, University of Arizona, and 39th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities). It was described by Pausanias as a sacred place of pan-Hellenic significance, with stadium and hippodrome in which athletic games were held, a sanctuary of Pan, and a formidable temenos and altar of Lykaion Zeus. In picturing human activity on this mountain during ancient times, it is not adequate to treat the mountain as if it were simply a tall, symmetrical, and handy edifice within which rock contents are irrelevant, for the geology within Mt. Lykaion significantly influenced what was built on it, and where{exclamation_point} There are contemporary reminders of the 'power' of the site, including the devastating April, 1965, Megalopolis earthquake, the epicenter of which was merely 4 km away. In fact, there are active normal faults within the sanctuary. However the primary geoarchitecture is that of the Pindos fold and thrust belt, fashioned largely in Cretaceous through Eocene. Mt. Lykaion's dome-like summit is a thrust klippe separated from underlying nappes by a major thrust fault (Lykaion thrust), the subhorizontal trace of which encircles the mountain creating a subtle bench in the landscape coinciding closely with archaeological and natural elements important to the sanctuary (e.g., stoa, seatwall, fountains, trails). Late Jurassic through Eocene 'Pindos Group' formations are stacked and repeated by the thrusting. Inter-relationships between bedrock, structure, and archaeology are revealed in a 'geoarchaeological column,' which displays positioning of elements in relation to the thrust, and orientations of rock formations in relation to flat patches in otherwise steep, rocky country, which became sites suitable for placement of hippodrome, baths, temenos, horse pasturing areas, etc. Worked limestone blocks are locally derived and can be matched with formations. The compelling high elevation of the ash altar is testimony to residual crustal buoyancy achieved through 'Pindos' crustal shortening, and the steep processional ascent to the altar speaks to regional active normal faulting and rapid erosion.

  9. Laboratory electrical resistivity analysis of geologic samples from Fort Irwin, California: Chapter E in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, Benjamin R.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Correlating laboratory resistivity measurements with geophysical resistivity models helps constrain these models to the geology and lithology of an area. Throughout the Fort Irwin National Training Center area, 111 samples from both cored boreholes and surface outcrops were collected and processed for laboratory measurements. These samples represent various lithologic types that include plutonic and metamorphic (basement) rocks, lava flows, consolidated sedimentary rocks, and unconsolidated sedimentary deposits that formed in a series of intermountain basins. Basement rocks, lava flows, and some lithified tuffs are generally resistive (?100 ohm-meters [?·m]) when saturated. Saturated unconsolidated samples are moderately conductive to conductive, with resistivities generally less than 100 ?·m, and many of these samples are less than 50 ?·m. The unconsolidated samples can further be separated into two broad groups: (1) younger sediments that are moderately conductive, owing to their limited clay content, and (2) older, more conductive sediments with a higher clay content that reflects substantial amounts of originally glassy volcanic ash subsequently altered to clay. The older sediments are believed to be Tertiary. Time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired near most of the boreholes, and, on the whole, close agreements between laboratory measurements and resistivity models were found. 

  10. A protein structure data and analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hao; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar; Weber, Irene; Wang, Haibin; Yang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a protein structure data and analysis system that is only used in the lab for analyzing the proprietary data. It is capable of storing public protein data, such as the data in Protein Data Bank (PDB) [1], and life scientists' proprietary data. This toolkit is targeted at life scientists who want to maintain proprietary protein structure data (may be incomplete), to search and query publicly known protein structures and to compare their structure data with others. The comparison functions can be used to find structure differences between two proteins at atom level, especially in mutant versions of proteins. The system can also be used as a tool of choosing better protein structure template in new protein's tertiary structure prediction. The system is developed in Java and the protein data is stored in a relational database (Oracle 9i). PMID:17282836

  11. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  12. Use of micro-proton elastic scattering analysis to determine water content in geological powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen in the form of water (H2O), hydroxyl anion (OH?) and H2 is a pervasive component in minerals, affecting geochemical processes from the surface of the earth to its deep interior and the geophysical and rheological properties of the rock. To investigate the application of ion beam techniques to the measurement of structural water (OH? and H2O), purified mineral separates, volcanic glass and synthetic borosilicate glass with known total structural water contents were selected. Mineral and glass particles 2O. Heavier elements were detected via Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Measurements were conducted in high vacuum to detect bound water only. The water content measurements for the minerals measured showed very good agreement with bulk water measurements and literature values. This method can be used successfully to noninvasively determine the hydrogen content of individual mineral particles with >1% total water contents

  13. Simultaneous analysis and design. [in structural engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftka, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    Optimization techniques are increasingly being used for performing nonlinear structural analysis. The development of element by element (EBE) preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) techniques is expected to extend this trend to linear analysis. Under these circumstances the structural design problem can be viewed as a nested optimization problem. There are computational benefits to treating this nested problem as a large single optimization problem. The response variables (such as displacements) and the structural parameters are all treated as design variables in a unified formulation which performs simultaneously the design and analysis. Two examples are used for demonstration. A seventy-two bar truss is optimized subject to linear stress constraints and a wing box structure is optimized subject to nonlinear collapse constraints. Both examples show substantial computational savings with the unified approach as compared to the traditional nested approach.

  14. Mine-Tunnel Design & Monitoring Analysis for Major Faults and Complex Geological Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiang-Dong; Shi-xing FAN; Hu-wei ZHANG; Zhang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Mining operations at Nanyang-Slope Coal Mine are considerably challenging. The Nanyang- Slope Coal Field has a complex tectonic structure; having major faults, large fissures and fracture- zones, and great changes in coal-seam thickness. Mine tunnel-way 301 traverses multiple complex faults with developed fractures, broken surrounding rock, and high tectonic stresses. The original rectangular-section tunnel design using anchor-bolt-mesh retainment was prone to rib-spalling, and the problem co...

  15. Progress on 129I analysis and its application in environmental and geological researches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian

    2013-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a naturally generated isotope, but anthropogenic releases are the dominated source of 129I in the present environment. Among many measurement techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are only methods used for measurement of 129I in enviro...

  16. Development of a computer tool to support scenario analysis for safety assessment of HLW geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 'H12 Project to Establishing Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan' a systematic approach that was based on an international consensus was adopted to develop scenarios to be considered in performance assessment. Adequacy of the approach was, in general term, appreciated through the domestic and international peer review. However it was also suggested that there were issues related to improving transparency and traceability of the procedure. To achieve this, improvement of scenario analysis method has been studied. In this study, based on an improvement method for treatment of FEP interaction a computer tool to support scenario analysis by specialists of performance assessment has been developed. Anticipated effects of this tool are to improve efficiency of complex and time consuming scenario analysis work and to reduce possibility of human errors in this work. This tool also enables to describe interactions among a vast number of FEPs and the related information as interaction matrix, and analysis those interactions from a variety of perspectives. (author)

  17. Global plastic models for computerized structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional yield conditions are local conditions expressed in conventional stresses, so integration is necessary over the whole volume of the structure. Therefore plastic analyses are often very expensive. In many types of structures, it is possible to use generalized stresses (like membrane forces, bending moment, torsion moment...) to define a yield surface for a part of the structure. Analysis can be achieved by using the HILL's principle and a hardening rule. The whole formulation is called 'Global Plastic Model'. Two different global models are used in the CEASEMT system for structural analysis, one for shell analysis and the other for piping analysis (in plastic or creep field). In piping analysis, the choice of generalized stresses is: bending moments, torsional moment, hoop stress and tension stress. There is only a set of stresses for a cross section and no integration over the cross section area is needed. Connected strains are axis curvature, torsion, uniform strains. The definition of the yield surface is the most important item. A practical way is to use a diagonal quadratic function of the stress components. But the coefficients are dependent on the shape of the pipe element, especially for curved segments. Indications will be given on the yield functions used. Some examples of applications in structural analysis are added to the text. (Auth.)

  18. Petrofacies analysis - the petrophysical tool for geologic/engineering reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W.L.; Guy, W.J.; Gerlach, P.M. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Petrofacies analysis is defined as the characterization and classification of pore types and fluid saturations as revealed by petrophysical measures of a reservoir. The word {open_quotes}petrofacies{close_quotes} makes an explicit link between petroleum engineers concerns with pore characteristics as arbiters of production performance, and the facies paradigm of geologists as a methodology for genetic understanding and prediction. In petrofacies analysis, the porosity and resistivity axes of the classical Pickett plot are used to map water saturation, bulk volume water, and estimated permeability, as well as capillary pressure information, where it is available. When data points are connected in order of depth within a reservoir, the characteristic patterns reflect reservoir rock character and its interplay with the hydrocarbon column. A third variable can be presented at each point on the crossplot by assigning a color scale that is based on other well logs, often gamma ray or photoelectric effect, or other derived variables. Contrasts between reservoir pore types and fluid saturations will be reflected in changing patterns on the crossplot and can help discriminate and characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Many hundreds of analyses of well logs facilitated by spreadsheet and object-oriented programming have provided the means to distinguish patterns typical of certain complex pore types for sandstones and carbonate reservoirs, occurrences of irreducible water saturation, and presence of transition zones. The result has been an improved means to evaluate potential production such as bypassed pay behind pipe and in old exploration holes, or to assess zonation and continuity of the reservoir. Petrofacies analysis is applied in this example to distinguishing flow units including discrimination of pore type as assessment of reservoir conformance and continuity. The analysis is facilitated through the use of color cross sections and cluster analysis.

  19. Geology of Venus planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays data of geological-morphological analysis of the Venus surface obtained as a result of the analysis of ''Venus-15 and -16'' space probes images are presented. The specific features of the Venus relief - plains, mountains, craters are considered and geological-morphological map of the Venus survey zone by ''Venus-15 and -16'' space probes is presented. Data on potassium, uranium, torium and main rockforming elements in the Venus surface rocks by the data of ''Venus-8;-9;-10;-13 and -14'' and ''Vega-1 and -2'' space probes are given

  20. Seismic analysis and design of NPP structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical methods for static and dynamic analysis of structures, as well as for the design of individual structural elements under the applied loads are under continuous development, being very sophisticated methods nowadays available for the engineering practice. Nevertheless, this sophistication will be useless if some important aspects necessary to assure full compatability between analysis and design are disregarded. Some of these aspects are discussed herein. This paper presents an integrated approach for the seismic analysis and design of NPP structures: the development of models for the seismic analysis, the distribution of the global seismic forces among the seismic-resistant elements and the criteria for the design of the individual elements for combined static and dynamic forces are the main topics to be discussed herein. The proposed methodology is illustrated. Some examples taken from the project practice are presented for illustration the exposed concepts