WorldWideScience

Sample records for geologic structural analysis

  1. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122174 Bai Daoyuan ( Institute of Geological Survey of Hunan Province,Changsha 410011,China );Jia Baohua Neoproterozoic TectonicEvolution of the Xuefeng Orogenic Zone in Hunan Province ( Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593 / P,31 ( 3 ), 2011,p.78-87,2illus.,1 table,96refs. ) Key words:structural evolution,Neoproterozoic Era,Hunan Province This paper deals,on the basis of abundant lithogeochemical and geochronologic

  2. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111429 Cao Gaoshe(School of Resource and Environment,Henan Polytechnic University,Jiaozuo 454003,China);Yang Qihao Analysis of Sedimentary Characteristics and Tectonic Environment for Late Triassic Liushan Basin(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,45(3),2010,p.718-733,9 illus.,2 tables,23 refs.)Key words:tectonic setting,basin evolution,Qinling Mountains

  3. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140014Deng Lin(College of Resources and Environment,Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,China)Structural Geometry and Structural Kinematics of the Jiulongshan Structure in the North Longmenshan Mountains(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,33(1),2013,p.1-2,11,1illus.,9refs.)Key words:plate geometry,structural analysis,Longmenshan Fault Zone

  4. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132186 An Huiting(Key Lab.of Submarine Geosciences and Exploration Techniques,Ministry of Education,Qingdao 266003,China);Li Sanzhong Basin-Controlling Faults and Formation Mechanism of the Cenozoic Basin Groups in the Western South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,

  5. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141283 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410016,China);Zhong Xiang Nature,Origin and Tectonic Setting of Jinzhou Basin in the South Segment of Xuefeng Orogen(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,40(4),2013,p.1079-1091,10 illus.,47 refs.)Key words:foreland basins,strike-slip faults,Hunan Province

  6. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km3. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that the

  7. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J. [FINTACT Oy (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km{sup 3}. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that

  8. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110016 Cheng Shoude(Xinjiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Recources,Urumqi 830000,China);Liu Tong The Brief Description of the Division of Tectonic Units in the Five-Countries in Central Asia(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(1),2010,p.16-21,1 illus.,21 refs.)Key words:tectonics,tectonic units,Central Asia The Five-Countries in Central-Asia border on Xinjiang in the West China,research have been performed in this area,the gists of the division of tectonic units are different from each other and the results are different in a thousand and one ways.According as the investigations of sedimentary formation,conformation,

  9. Growth structures : examples of integrated sedimentological and structural-geological basin analysis

    Nijman, W

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is based on research in the interface oftwo geological disciplines, sedimentology (the study of sediments, like sandstone and limestone) and structural geology (the study of rock deformation). Sedimentation is influenced by cosmic and climatological processes, sea-level change, and deformation of the earth's crust. Prerequisites for the generation of sediments are uplift and erosion in source areas, and subsidence and deposition in basins. Contrary to these vertical motions, defor...

  10. Stratigraphy and structural geology

    Carr, M. H.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Greeley, R.; Guest, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The immediate goal of stratigraphy and structural geology is to reduce the enormous complexity of a planetary surface to comprehensible proportions by dividing the near-surface rocks into units and mapping their distribution and attitude.

  11. OpenStereo: Open Source, Cross-Platform Software for Structural Geology Analysis

    Grohmann, C. H.; Campanha, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Free and open source software (FOSS) are increasingly seen as synonyms of innovation and progress. Freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software (through access to the source code) assure a high level of positive feedback between users and developers, which results in stable, secure and constantly updated systems. Several software packages for structural geology analysis are available to the user, with commercial licenses or that can be downloaded at no cost from the Internet. Some provide basic tools of stereographic projections such as plotting poles, great circles, density contouring, eigenvector analysis, data rotation etc, while others perform more specific tasks, such as paleostress or geotechnical/rock stability analysis. This variety also means a wide range of data formating for input, Graphical User Interface (GUI) design and graphic export format. The majority of packages is built for MS-Windows and even though there are packages for the UNIX-based MacOS, there aren't native packages for *nix (UNIX, Linux, BSD etc) Operating Systems (OS), forcing the users to run these programs with emulators or virtual machines. Those limitations lead us to develop OpenStereo, an open source, cross-platform software for stereographic projections and structural geology. The software is written in Python, a high-level, cross-platform programming language and the GUI is designed with wxPython, which provide a consistent look regardless the OS. Numeric operations (like matrix and linear algebra) are performed with the Numpy module and all graphic capabilities are provided by the Matplolib library, including on-screen plotting and graphic exporting to common desktop formats (emf, eps, ps, pdf, png, svg). Data input is done with simple ASCII text files, with values of dip direction and dip/plunge separated by spaces, tabs or commas. The user can open multiple file at the same time (or the same file more than once), and overlay different elements of

  12. Structural Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...

  13. Analysis of Siting Criteria of Overseas Geological Repository (I): Geology

    Jung, Haer Yong; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cheong, Jae Yeol; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Lee, Eun Yong [Korea Radioactive-wate Management Corporation, , Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Jung [NEXGEO Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry are the main technical siting factors of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuels. This paper focused on how rock's different geological conditions, such as topography, soils, rock types, structural geology, and geological events, influence the functions of the geological repository. In the context, the site selection criteria of various countries were analyzed with respect to the geological conditions. Each country established the criteria based on its important geological backgrounds. For example, it was necessary for Sweden to take into account the effect of ice age on the land uplift and sea level change, whereas Japan defined seismic activity and volcanism as the main siting factors of the geological repository. Therefore, the results of the paper seems to be helpful in preparing the siting criteria of geological repository in Korea.

  14. OATools: An ArcMap add-in for the orientation analysis of geological structures

    Kociánová, Lenka; Melichar, Rostislav

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes Orientation Analysis Tools (OATools), a new add-in, which has been developed for ArcGIS software (ESRI) to allow the spatial analysis of structural data. These tools bring a complex approach to structural data analysis that highlights the spatial aspect of oriented data. In this paper we introduce the functionality of this add-in, which allows users to plot selected data in azimuthal projection, calculate and plot fold axes, construct density distribution diagrams and rose histograms, and create maps of spatial averages and fold axes. There is a link between projections and maps; therefore, it is possible to select point data in the projection and see their location on the map, and vice versa. Practical use of these tools is demonstrated in a case study of the Svratka and Polička crystalline units (Eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), where a large dataset was collected. Using OATools the structural conditions were explored. Major changes in foliation dip directions were detected and the axial surfaces of the folds were determined. We also demonstrate the benefit of applying these tools, together with the potential of GIS with respect to spatial data queries, storage, and visualization.

  15. Study on geology on the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Geology and geological structure at the -500m stage

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project, which is a scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLW), in order to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in the crystalline rock. The MIU Project has three overlapping phases, Surface-based investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III). The goals of the MIU Project from the Phase I to the Phase III are to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and to develop a range of engineering techniques for deep underground application. One of the Phase II goals is set up to develop and revise models of the geological environment using the investigation results obtained during excavation, and to determine and assess changes in the geological environment in response to excavation. This report aims at compiling results of study on geology and geological structure at the -500m Stage in the MIU construction site, investigated in the Phase II and provides the fundamental information on the geology and geological structure for future study and modeling of geological environment. (author)

  16. Multivariate Geostatistical Analysis of Uncertainty for the Hydrodynamic Model of a Geological Trap for Carbon Dioxide Storage. Case study: Multilayered Geological Structure Vest Valcele, ROMANIA

    Scradeanu, D.; Pagnejer, M.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the works is to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrodynamic model for a multilayered geological structure, a potential trap for carbon dioxide storage. The hydrodynamic model is based on a conceptual model of the multilayered hydrostructure with three components: 1) spatial model; 2) parametric model and 3) energy model. The necessary data to achieve the three components of the conceptual model are obtained from: 240 boreholes explored by geophysical logging and seismic investigation, for the first two components, and an experimental water injection test for the last one. The hydrodinamic model is a finite difference numerical model based on a 3D stratigraphic model with nine stratigraphic units (Badenian and Oligocene) and a 3D multiparameter model (porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, storage coefficient, leakage etc.). The uncertainty of the two 3D models was evaluated using multivariate geostatistical tools: a)cross-semivariogram for structural analysis, especially the study of anisotropy and b)cokriging to reduce estimation variances in a specific situation where is a cross-correlation between a variable and one or more variables that are undersampled. It has been identified important differences between univariate and bivariate anisotropy. The minimised uncertainty of the parametric model (by cokriging) was transferred to hydrodynamic model. The uncertainty distribution of the pressures generated by the water injection test has been additional filtered by the sensitivity of the numerical model. The obtained relative errors of the pressure distribution in the hydrodynamic model are 15-20%. The scientific research was performed in the frame of the European FP7 project "A multiple space and time scale approach for the quantification of deep saline formation for CO2 storage(MUSTANG)".

  17. Advanced Differential Radar Interferometry (A-DInSAR) as integrative tool for a structural geological analysis

    Crippa, B.; Calcagni, L.; Rossi, G.; Sternai, P.

    2009-04-01

    Advanced Differential SAR interferometry (A-DInSAR) is a technique monitoring large-coverage surface deformations using a stack of interferograms generated from several complex SLC SAR images, acquired over the same target area at different times. In this work are described the results of a procedure to calculate terrain motion velocity on highly correlated pixels (E. Biescas, M. Crosetto, M. Agudo, O. Monserrat e B. Crippa: Two Radar Interferometric Approaches to Monitor Slow and Fast Land Deformation, 2007) in two area Gemona - Friuli, Northern Italy, Pollino - Calabria, Southern Italy, and, furthermore, are presented some consideration, based on successful examples of the present analysis. The choice of these pixels whose displacement velocity is calculated depends on the dispersion index value (DA) or using coherence values along the stack interferograms. A-DInSAR technique allows to obtain highly reliable velocity values of the vertical displacement. These values concern the movement of minimum surfaces of about 80m2 at the maximum resolution and the minimum velocity that can be recognized is of the order of mm/y. Because of the high versatility of the technology, because of the large dimensions of the area that can be analyzed (of about 10000Km2) and because of the high precision and reliability of the results obtained, we think it is possible to exploit radar interferometry to obtain some important information about the structural context of the studied area, otherwise very difficult to recognize. Therefore we propose radar interferometry as a valid investigation tool whose results must be considered as an important integration of the data collected in fieldworks.

  18. Geological analysis and physical modeling of structural pumping in high effective formation of Kela 2 gas field

    ZHAO Wenzhi; WANG Hongjun; SHAN Jiazeng; WANG Zecheng; XU Dafeng

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-D closed geological body, in case "structural expanding" inside is induced by stress, it can produce the pressure difference between the expanding cell and surrounding rock, then generate a pumping force directed toward the cell and accelerate the directional flow of fluid in the strata. The structural style and conditions of gas reservoir-formation in the Kuqa depression are favorable to the structural pumping. According to similarity principle, a physical modeling of structure formation and gas filling process of the Kela 2 gas field has justified the occurrence of structural pumping and its important role in gas-reservoir formation with high efficiency under the compressive and well-sealed circumstance. Therefore, authors propose that structural pumping is an important mechanism of gas reservoir-formation with high efficiency in the Kuqa depression.

  19. The effect of geological structure on radon concentration dissolved in groundwater in nearby Anar fault based on a statistical analysis

    The radon concentration in groundwater is due to amount of uranium existing in rocks and geological structures. Radon concentration in 33 groundwater samples from agricultural and drinking wells surrounding Anar fault have measured by RAD7 radon detector. The measured values ranged from 1.33 ± 0.48 to 29.91 ± 3.64 Bq L-1. The results show radon concentration varies by distance from main fault and main stream in which the effect of main fault is more than main stream. (author)

  20. Formal representation of 3D structural geological models

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle

    2016-05-01

    The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.

  1. The need for the geologic hazard analysis

    The parameters which are considered in the hazard analysis associated with the movements of the Earth Crust are considered. These movements are classified as: fast movements or seismic movements, which are produced in a certain geologic moment at a speed measured in cm/sg, and slow movements or secular movements, which take place within a long span of time at a speed measured by cm/year. The relations space/time are established after Poisson and Gumbel's probabilistic models. Their application is analyzed according to the structural gradient fields, which fall within Matteron's geostatistics studies. These statistic criteria should be analyzed or checked up in each geo-tectonic environment. This allows the definition of neotectonic and seismogenetic zones, because it is only in these zones where the probabilistic or deterministic criteria can be applied to evaluate the hazard and vulnerability, that is, to know the geologic hazard of every ''Uniform'' piece of the Earth Crust. (author)

  2. GIS-technologies as a mechanism to study geological structures

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2014-05-01

    Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various range, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators is the way to aggregate geological knowledge. The south terrain of the Valerianovskaya structure-facies zone (SFZ) of the Torgai paleo-rift structure covered with thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks up to 2,000m is considered a so-called training ground for the development of GIS-technology. Parameters of known magnetite deposits located in the north of the SFZ (Sarybaiskoye, Sokolovskoye, etc.) are used to create the standard model. A meaning of the job implemented involves the following: - A goal-seeking nature of the research being performed and integration of the geological, geo-physical and other data (in many cases, efforts of the

  3. Interpreting geological structure using kriging

    The authors applied kriging (geostatistics) to interpret the structure of basement rock in Yucca Flat, NTS from borehole data. The estimation error for 118 data is 81 m comparable with those based on both gravity and borehole data. Using digitized topographic data, they tested the kriging results and found that the model validation process (Thomas option) on data gave a fair representation of the overall uncertainty of the kriged values

  4. Formation of secondary phases during deep geological final disposal of research reactor fuel elements. Structure and phase analysis

    For the assessment of a confident und sustainable final disposal of high level radioactive waste - fuel elements of german research reactors also account for such waste - in suitable, deep geological facilities, processes of the alteration of the disposed of waste and therefore the formation of the corrosion products, i. e. secondary phases must be well understood considering an accident scenario of a potential water inflow. In order to obtain secondary phases non-irradiated research reactor fuel elements (FR-BE) consisting of UAlx-Al were subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine (brine 2, salt repository) and to clay pore solution, respectively and furthermore of the type U3Si2-Al were solely subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine. Considering environmental aspects of final repositories the test conditions of the corrosion experiments were adjusted in a way that the temperature was kept constant at 90 C and a reducing anaerobic environment was ensured. As major objective of this research secondary phases, obtained from the autoclave experiments after appropriate processing and grain size separation have been identified and quantified. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and the application of Rietveld refinement methods allowed the identification of the corrosion products and a quantitative assessment of crystalline and amorphous contents. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were additionally applied as a complementary method for the characterisation of the secondary phases. The qualitative phase analysis of the preprocessed secondary phases of the systems UAlx-Al and U3Si2-Al in brine 2 shows many similarities. Lesukite - an aluminium chloro hydrate - was observed for the first time considering the given experimental conditions. Further on different layered structures of the LDH type, iron oxyhydroxide and possibly iron chlorides, uncorroded residues of nuclear fuel and elementary iron were identified as well. Depending on preceding preparation

  5. Recent activity of the regional geologic structures in western Slovenia

    Miloš Bavec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Several important geological structures in the western Slovenia were identifiedas active and their activity was quantified. Geologic interpretation is based on the analysis of repeated leveling line campaigns data along the Sečovlje–Bled polygon. Taking intoaccount the limitations of the method – only the vertical component of displacement is measured – the following structures were identified as active:a juvenile syncline between Strunjan and Koper, the Kras Imbricate Structure, the Diva~a fault, the Ra{a fault, the Southalpine Front and the Julian Alps thrust. Vertical movement rate is relative, calculated with respect to the benchmark in Sečovlje. The largest uplift rate difference between Sečovlje and Bled is 7 mm/a.Vertical Geodynamic Activity (VGA is introduced as a link between geologic interpretation of geodetic measurements on one side and possible applications on the other as well as a mean of comparison between tectonically active regions.

  6. Geologic analysis of Devonian Shale cores

    None

    1982-02-01

    Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company was awarded a DOE contract in December 1977 for field retrieval and laboratory analysis of cores from the Devonian shales of the following eleven states: Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. The purpose of this project is to explore these areas to determine the amount of natural gas being produced from the Devonian shales. The physical properties testing of the rock specimens were performed under subcontract at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The study also included LANDSAT information, geochemical research, structural sedimentary and tectonic data. Following the introduction, and background of the project this report covers the following: field retrieval procedures; laboratory procedures; geologic analysis (by state); references and appendices. (ATT)

  7. Rockfall source characterization at high rock walls in complex geological settings by photogrammetry, structural analysis and DFN techniques

    Agliardi, Federico; Riva, Federico; Galletti, Laura; Zanchi, Andrea; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall quantitative risk analysis in areas impended by high, subvertical cliffs remains a challenge, due to the difficult definition of potential rockfall sources, event magnitude scenarios and related probabilities. For this reasons, rockfall analyses traditionally focus on modelling the runout component of rockfall processes, whereas rock-fall source identification, mapping and characterization (block size distribution and susceptibility) are over-simplified in most practical applications, especially when structurally complex rock masses are involved. We integrated field and remote survey and rock mass modelling techniques to characterize rock masses and detect rockfall source in complex geo-structural settings. We focused on a test site located at Valmadrera, near Lecco (Southern Alps, Italy), where cliffs up to 600 m high impend on a narrow strip of Lake Como shore. The massive carbonates forming the cliff (Dolomia Principale Fm), normally characterized by brittle structural associations due to their high strength and stiffness, are here involved in an ENE-trending, S-verging kilometre-scale syncline. Brittle mechanisms associated to folding strongly controlled the nature of discontinuities (bedding slip, strike-slip faults, tensile fractures) and their attributes (spacing and size), as well as the spatial variability of bedding attitude and fracture intensity, with individual block sizes up to 15 m3. We carried out a high-resolution terrestrial photogrammetric survey from distances ranging from 1500 m (11 camera stations from the opposite lake shore, 265 pictures) to 150 m (28 camera stations along N-S directed boat routes, 200 pictures), using RTK GNSS measurements for camera station geo-referencing. Data processing by Structure-from-Motion techniques resulted in detailed long-range (1500 m) and medium-range (150 to 800 m) point clouds covering the entire slope with maximum surface point densities exceeding 50 pts/m2. Point clouds allowed a detailed

  8. Neutron activation analysis of geological materials

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an extremely sensitive, selective and precise method, which yields a wealth of elemental information from even a small-sized sample. With the recent advances in nuclear reactors and high-efficiency and high-resolution semiconductor detectors, NAA has become a powerful method for multielemental analysis. The concentration of major, minor, and trace elements vary from 1 to 4 orders of magnitude in geological materials. By varying neutron fluxes, irradiation times, decay and counting intervals and using both instrumental and radiochemical techniques in NAA, it is possible to accurately determine about 50 elements in a sample aliquant. The practical aspects of the NAA method as applied to geological materials are discussed in detail, and are demonstrated by the analysis of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard reference geological materials. General aspects of the elemental interpretations in terrestrial samples are also discussed. (author)

  9. High precision analysis of an embryonic extensional fault-related fold using 3D orthorectified virtual outcrops: The viewpoint importance in structural geology

    Tavani, Stefano; Corradetti, Amerigo; Billi, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Image-based 3D modeling has recently opened the way to the use of virtual outcrop models in geology. An intriguing application of this method involves the production of orthorectified images of outcrops using almost any user-defined point of view, so that photorealistic cross-sections suitable for numerous geological purposes and measurements can be easily generated. These purposes include the accurate quantitative analysis of fault-fold relationships starting from imperfectly oriented and partly inaccessible real outcrops. We applied the method of image-based 3D modeling and orthorectification to a case study from the northern Apennines, Italy, where an incipient extensional fault affecting well-layered limestones is exposed on a 10-m-high barely accessible cliff. Through a few simple steps, we constructed a high-quality image-based 3D model of the outcrop. In the model, we made a series of measurements including fault and bedding attitudes, which allowed us to derive the bedding-fault intersection direction. We then used this direction as viewpoint to obtain a distortion-free photorealistic cross-section, on which we measured bed dips and thicknesses as well as fault stratigraphic separations. These measurements allowed us to identify a slight difference (i.e. only 0.5°) between the hangingwall and footwall cutoff angles. We show that the hangingwall strain required to compensate the upward-decreasing displacement of the fault was accommodated by this 0.5° rotation (i.e. folding) and coeval 0.8% thickening of strata in the hangingwall relatively to footwall strata. This evidence is consistent with trishear fault-propagation folding. Our results emphasize the viewpoint importance in structural geology and therefore the potential of using orthorectified virtual outcrops.

  10. Data System for Structural Geology and Tectonics

    Newman, Julie; Walker, J. Douglas; Tikoff, Basil; Good, Jessica; Michels, Zachary; Ash, Jason; Andrew, Joseph; Williams, Randolph

    2016-04-01

    We are prototyping a Data System for Structural Geology and Tectonics (SG&T) data that is platform independent (from mobile device to desktop) to enable collection and sharing of data from field to laboratory settings. The goals of this effort, funded by US National Science Foundation, are to enable recording and sharing data within the geoscience community, to encourage interdisciplinary research, and to facilitate the investigation of scientific questions that cannot currently be addressed. The development of the Data System emphasizes community input in order to build a system that encompasses the needs of researchers, in terms of data and usability. SG&T data is complex for a variety of reasons, including the wide range of temporal and spatial scales (many orders of magnitude each), the complex three-dimensional geometry of some geological structures, inherent spatial nature of the data, and the difficulty of making temporal inferences from spatial observations. To successfully implement the development of a SG&T data system, we must simultaneously solve three problems: 1) How to digitize SG&T data; 2) How to design a software system that is applicable; and 3) How to construct a very flexible user interface. To address the first problem, we introduce the "Spot" concept, which allows tracking of hierarchical and spatial relations between structures at all scales, and will link map scale, mesoscale, and laboratory scale data. A Spot is an observation or relationship with an area of significance. A Spot can be a single measurement, an aggregate of individual measurements, or even relationships between numerous other Spots. We address the second problem of software design through the use of a graph database to better preserve the myriad of potentially complex relationships. In order to construct a flexible user interface that follows a natural workflow and that serves the needs of the community, we are engaging the SG&T community in order to utilize the expertise

  11. Granites petrology, structure, geological setting, and metallogeny

    Nédélec, Anne; Bowden, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Granites are emblematic rocks developed from a magma that crystallized in the Earth’s crust. They ultimately outcrop at the surface worldwide. This book, translated and updated from the original French edition Pétrologie des Granites (2011) is a modern presentation of granitic rocks from magma genesis to their crystallization at a higher level into the crust. Segregation from the source, magma ascent and shapes of granitic intrusions are also discussed, as well as the eventual formation of hybrid rocks by mingling/mixing processes and the thermomechanical aspects in country rocks around granite plutons. Modern techniques for structural studies of granites are detailed extensively. Granites are considered in their geological spatial and temporal frame, in relation with plate tectonics and Earth history from the Archaean eon. A chapter on granite metallogeny explains how elements of economic interest are concentrated during magma crystallization, and examples of Sn, Cu, F and U ore deposits are presented. Mi...

  12. Three-dimensional Geological and Geo-mechanical Modelling of Repositories for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Structures

    To prove the suitability and safety of underground structures for the disposal of radioactive waste extensive geo-scientific research and development has been carried out by BGR over the last decades. Basic steps of the safety analysis are the geological modelling of the entire structure including the host rock, the overburden and the repository geometry as well as the geo-mechanical modelling taking into account the 3-D modelling of the underground structure. The geological models are generated using the special-construction openGEOTM code to improve the visualisation an d interpretation of the geological data basis, e.g. borehole, mine, and geophysical data. For the geo-mechanical analysis the new JIFE finite-element code has been used to consider large 3-D structures with complex inelastic material behaviour. To establish the finite-element models needed for stability and integrity calculations, the geological models are simplified with respect to homogenous rock layers with uniform material behaviour. The modelling results are basic values for the evaluation of the stability of the repository mine and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier. As an example of application, the results of geological and geo-mechanical investigations of the Morsleben repository based on 3-D modelling are presented. (authors)

  13. Structural effects of C60+ bombardment on various natural mineral samples-Application to analysis of organic phases in geological samples

    Organic phases trapped inside natural mineral samples are of considerable interest in astrobiology, geochemistry and geobiology. Examples of such organic phases are microfossils, kerogen and oil. Information about these phases is usually retrieved through bulk crushing of the rock which means both a risk of contamination and that the composition and spatial distribution of the organics to its host mineral is lost. An attractive of way to retrieve information about the organics in the rock is depth profiling using a focused ion beam. Recently, it was shown that it is possible to obtain detailed mass spectrometric information from oil-bearing fluid inclusions, i.e. small amounts of oil trapped inside a mineral matrix, using ToF-SIMS. Using a 10 keV C60+ sputter beam and a 25 keV Bi3+ analysis beam, oil-bearing inclusions in different minerals were opened and analysed individually. However, sputtering with a C60+ beam also induced other changes to the mineral surface, such as formation of topographic features and carbon deposition. In this paper, the cause of these changes is explored and the consequences of the sputter-induced features on the analysis of organic phases in natural mineral samples (quartz, calcite and fluorite) in general and fluid inclusions in particular are discussed. The dominating topographical features that were observed when a several micrometers deep crater is sputtered with 10 keV C60+ ions on a natural mineral surface are conical-shaped and ridge-like structures that may rise several micrometers, pointing in the direction of the incident C60+ ion beam, on an otherwise flat crater bottom. The sputter-induced structures were found to appear at places with different chemistry than the host mineral, including other minerals phases and fluid inclusions, while structural defects in the host material, such as polishing marks or scratches, did not necessarily result in sputter-induced structures. The ridge-like structures were often covered by a

  14. Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques

    Hoogewerff, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

  15. Advances in Structural Geology and Tectonics in the Late 20th Century: A Review

    2006-01-01

    Based on analyses of the share of documents of structural geology and tectonics in the GeoRef system over 100 years in the last century, and the historical change of international (31 years) and domestic (16 years) document counts of various topics in structural geology and tectonics, the position of structural geology and tectonics in the geosciences is evaluated and the major advaces in fields of plate tectonics, continental dynamics and global dynamics are reviewed. Our attention mainly focuses on the advances in studies of structural analysis, deformation mechanisms and rheology of rocks,contractional tectonics and late- and post-orogenic extensional collapse in orogens, large-scale strikeslip faults and indentation-extrusion tectonics, active tectonics and natural hazards. The relationships of structural geology and tectonics with petrology and geochronology are also discussed in terms of intersection of scientific disciplines. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for the further development of structural geology and tectonics in China.

  16. Improvement of seismic imaging of complex geologic structures

    Duquet, B.

    1996-04-11

    Successful imaging of complex geologic structures by pre-stack depth migration requires a correct velocity model of the subsurface. In recent years, it has been proposed to use pre-stack depth migration of the cube of pre-stack depth migrated images and the subsequent use of the interpretation for velocity model update. However, in complex geologic structures, pre-stack depth migration does not yield results of sufficient quality for interpretation. We therefore propose a new wave-field imaging technique based on linearized inversion using the paraxial approximation of the wave equation. Using this technique we can remove the artifacts contaminating the individual depth images by integrating a priori information in the inverse problem. The application of the method to synthetic and real data shows that it allows us to largely improve the quality of the depth images at reasonable cost.We thus obtain an interpretable cube of depth images that makes migration velocity analysis feasible in complex structures. In 3D, due to the size of the problem there is still a large interest in using post stack techniques for velocity model determination. The quality of the results of such techniques relies on the quality of the stacking process. Classical data stacking techniques rely on simplifications that are not valid anymore in case of complex geologic structures. We propose a data stacking technique based on depth domain stacking after pre-stack depth migration, followed by explosive reflector modeling, to obtain the stacked seismic data. This method which is totally automatic yield 3 D stacked data that are suitable for 3D post stack velocity determination techniques.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is an element of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). GAP helps to implement the Department of Interior?s goals of inventory,...

  18. Application of reactor activation analysis to hydrogeology and geology

    Instrumental reactor activation analysis applied to hydrogeological and geological investigations conducted at the Department of Radiometry of the Geological Techniques Research and Development Centre is discussed. Used instrumentation and analytical techniques are described. (author)

  19. Geology

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  20. Geology

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region's geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published

  1. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  2. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and

  3. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-11-05

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity.

  4. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M andO) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity

  5. Geology

    Asch, Kristine; Mathers, Stephen J.; Kessler, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explains the historic impact and future direction of geoinformatics on geological sciences. The history and the purpose of geological surveys is discussed and an introduction into the basic techniques of traditional field mapping is presented

  6. Geological Hazards analysis in Urban Tunneling by EPB Machine (Case study: Tehran subway line 7 tunnel)

    Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh; Mohammad Saber Zamzam; Mozdianfard, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Technological progress in tunneling has led to modern and efficient tunneling methods in vast underground spaces even under inappropriate geological conditions. Identification and access to appropriate and sufficient geological hazard data are key elements to successful construction of underground structures. Choice of the method, excavation machine, and prediction of suitable solutions to overcome undesirable conditions depend on geological studies and hazard analysis. Identifying and invest...

  7. Aeromagnetic data and geological structure of continental China: A review

    Xiong, Sheng-Qing; Tong, Jing; Ding, Yan-Yun; Li, Zhan-Kui

    2016-06-01

    We review the latest aeromagnetic geological data of continental China. We discuss the latest achievements in geological mapping and the newly detected features based on aeromagnetic data. Using aeromagnetic data collected for more than 50 years, a series of 1:5000000 and 1:1000000 aeromagnetic maps of continental China were compiled using state-of-the-art digital technology, and data processing and transformation. Guided by plate tectonics and continental dynamics, rock physical properties, and magnetic anomalies, we compiled maps of the depth of the magnetic basement of continental China and the major geotectonic units, and presented newly detected geological structures based on the aeromagnetic data.

  8. Geochemistry and Geologic Analysis in Shale Gas Play

    Wenwu Xia; Mike D. Burnaman; John Shelton

    2009-01-01

    The understanding from the conventional geochemistry and geology analysis is very different when trying to apply them to shale gas plays. This paper is a summary for U.S. shale gas plays on geochemistry and geologic analysis application, and real field data from active U.S. shale gas plays is used in the discussion of different concepts.

  9. Three-dimensional Morphological Analysis for Geological Bodies and Application

    Yanhong Zou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To address the spatial Morphological analysis of complex geological bodies in stereoscopic quantitative prediction of concealed ore bodies, a three-dimensional morphological analysis method for geological bodies based on 3-dimensional raster model under visualization environment was put forward by combining mathematical morphology with Euclidean distance transform theory. Firstly, the 3-dimensional visualization models for geological bodies were constructed on the basis of the 3-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM technology; Secondly, the algorithm for extracting the surface shape trend of geological body with the 3-dimensional raster model was proposed by using mathematical morphology filtering. By the combination of morphological filtering, global set operation and three-dimensional Euclidean distance transform, the models for the quantitative analysis and hierarchical extraction of the shape undulance were established. Lastly, as a case study, the three-dimensional morphological analysis method was applied in analyzing quantitatively the Xinwuli magmatic body in Fenghuangshan ore field in Tongling, Anhui Province. By means of the calculation model of Euclidean distance field, the quantitative extraction of the shape trend and shape undulance as well as the angle between geological interface and trend surface, as the quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors, were achieved after building the 3D raster models of the magmatic body. The results show that the morphological analysis method is feasible to calculate various morphological parameters of complex geological bodies and extract quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors successfully for stereoscopic quantitative predication of concealed ore bodies.

  10. Geological structure and geochemistry controlling radon in soil gas

    Kemski, J.; Klingel, R.; Schneiders, H.; Siehl, A.; Wiegand, J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Geologisches Inst.)

    1992-01-01

    Geological factors causing radon anomalies are either geochemical/petrophysical (controlling the diffusive [sup 222]Rn and [sup 220]Rn potential), or structural (controlling the advective [sup 222]Rn component), or both. While geochemical anomalies normally are easily explained and rather stable in time, structural anomalies often show fluctuations and interpretation of their origin can be very intricate. Geology-based techniques for detecting and mapping previously unrecognised areas of high radon risk have been developed with case studies in the Cenozoic Neuwied Basin of the Middle Rhine region and in the Paleozoic crystalline basement rocks of Eastern Bavaria in Southern Oberpfalz, Germany. (author).

  11. Deep geological disposal system development; mechanical structural stability analysis of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister under the internal/external pressure variation

    Kwen, Y. J.; Kang, S. W.; Ha, Z. Y. [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    This work constitutes a summary of the research and development work made for the design and dimensioning of the canister for nuclear fuel disposal. Since the spent nuclear fuel disposal emits high temperature heats and much radiation, its careful treatment is required. For that, a long term(usually 10,000 years) safe repository for spent fuel disposal should be securred. Usually this repository is expected to locate at a depth of 500m underground. The canister construction type introduced here is a solid structure with a cast iron insert and a corrosion resistant overpack, which is designed for spent nuclear fuel disposal in a deep repository in the crystalline bedrock, which entails an evenly distributed load of hydrostatic pressure from undergroundwater and high pressure from swelling of bentonite buffer. Hence, the canister must be designed to withstand these high pressure loads. Many design variables may affect the structural strength of the canister. In this study, among those variables array type of inner baskets and thicknesses of outer shell and lid and bottom are tried to be determined through the mechanical linear structural analysis, thicknesses of outer shell is determined through the nonlinear structural analysis, and the bentonite buffer analysis for the rock movement is conducted through the of nonlinear structural analysis Also the thermal stress effect is computed for the cast iron insert. The canister types studied here are one for PWR fuel and another for CANDU fuel. 23 refs., 60 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

  12. Use of TV pictures obtained from weather satellites to study the geological structure of the earth

    Bashilova, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of Soviet investigations into the use of television imagery obtained from meteorological satellites for the interpretation of tectonics, lithology, and structural properties of the earth. The area investigated encompassed the eastern part of Iran, and the western regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Interpretation of the features identified during the analysis was accomplished by comparing these features with physical, geographic, geological, and tectonic maps. It was concluded that television pictures of the earth from space can be used for geological and structural analysis.

  13. Using Layer-Cake Geology to Illustrate Structural Topographic Relationships.

    Wagner, John Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the difficulties of visualizing underlying geologic structural patterns by using maps or wooden blocks. Suggests the use of a modified layer cake to show dipping beds, folds, faults and differential erosion, as well as the relationships of stream valleys to outcrop patterns. (TW)

  14. Geology

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  15. Analysis of the geological structure and tectonic evolution of Xingning-Jinghai sag in deep water area, northern South China Sea

    Han, Xiaoying; Ren, Jianye; Lin, Zi; Yang, Linlong

    2015-04-01

    Recent years, oil and gas exploration of the Pearl River Mouth Basin in the northern margin of South China Sea continuously achieved historic breakthroughs. The Xingning-Jinghai sag, which is located in southeast of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, is a deep-water sag with a great exploration potential. Its tectonic evolution is extremely complex. It experienced Mesozoic subduction to Cenozoic intra-continental rifting background, and finally evolved into a deep-water sag of the northern continental margin of South China Sea. The geological characteristics and the tectonic evolution of Xingning-Jinghai sag was closely related to the process of formation and evolution of the passive continental margin of the northern South China Sea. It is confirmed by many geophysical data that compared with adjacent Chaoshan depression, the crustal thickness of Xingning-Jinghai sag was rapidly thinning, and it developed detachment faults with later magmatic intrusion. The development of detachment faults have dynamic significance for the spreading of the South China Sea. Based on the seismic geological interpretation of 2D seismic data in the study area, the characteristics of detachment fault and supra-detachment basin have been proposed in this study. The characteristics of the detachment fault are low angle and high ratio between heave and throw. The geometry of the detachment fault is a typical lisric shape, with the dip of fault decreasing generally from the seismic profile. The detachment basin where sediments are not deposited over a tilting hanging-wall block but onto a tectonically exhumed footwall which is different from the typical half graben basin. Seismic profiles indicate two different structural styles in the east and west part of Xingning-Jinghai sag. In the west of the sag, there developed two large detachment faults, which control their detachment basin systems and the typical H block, and the two detachment faults are dipping landward and seaward, respectively. In

  16. Geologic Analysis of Priority Basins for Exploration and Drilling

    Carroll, H.B.; Reeves, T.K.

    1999-04-27

    There has been a substantial decline in both exploratory drilling and seismic field crew activity in the United States over the last 10 years, due primarily to the declining price of oil. To reverse this trend and to preserve the entrepreneurial independent operator, the U.S. DOE is attempting to encourage hydrocarbon exploration activities in some of the under exploited regions of the United States. This goal is being accomplished by conducting broad regional reviews of potentially prospective areas within the lower 48 states. Data are being collected on selected areas, and studies are being done on a regional scale generally unavailable to the smaller independent. The results of this work will be made available to the public to encourage the undertaking of operations in areas which have been overlooked until this project. Fifteen criteria have been developed for the selection of study areas. Eight regions have been identified where regional geologic analysis will be performed. This report discusses preliminary findings concerning the geology, early tectonic history, structure and potential unconventional source rocks for the Black Mesa basin and South Central states region, the two highest priority study areas.

  17. Hydrogeologic role of geologic structures. Part 1: the paradigm

    Levens, Russell L.; Williams, Roy E.; Ralston, Dale R.

    1994-04-01

    Grouting to reduce fracture permeability is one option for minimizing ground water inflow to a large, acid-producing lead-zinc mine in fractured metamorphic rock in north Idaho. For grouting to reduce mine water inflow effectively, the hydrogeologic characteristics of the various scales of structurally controlled fracturing must be identified and a conceptual model of the ground water flow system must be developed. This paper is the first of two papers which use fracture mapping, geologic structural mapping, and a series of underground hydraulic stress tests to develop a conceptual model of structurally controlled ground water flow in the vicinity of the mine. These data were collected in an effort to identify order within the structurally controlled spatial permeability distribution. Geologic structural discontinuities, ranging from joints to faults that extend for several miles, form a geologic structural hierarchy in the rock surrounding the mine. The tiers of the hierarchy control ground water flow into the mine at different scales. The most prominent faults control ground water inflow on the scale of the entire mine. Various levels of hydraulic continuity are evident within the rock mass bounded by two of the most prominent faults. The highest level of hydraulic continuity appears to be associated with a set of sub-parallel, steeply dipping faults. Minor faults, joints, and relict bedding planes to a limited extent connect the fractures of this set and form a lower level of hydraulic continuity. The next lower level of hydraulic continuity within the hierarchy is related to a major fault that is characterized in drill core by abundant gouge. The hydraulic continuity of the matrix within the unfractured quartzite is the lowest level within the hierarchy. These levels constitute the components of the order within the spatial permeability distribution that we have interpreted from the structural and hydraulic stress test data.

  18. Geologic structural features within the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kaistrcg)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of the geologic structural features within the Kaiparowits Plateau. Structural features include synclines, anticlines, folds and faults; and...

  19. Computer-based modelling and analysis in engineering geology

    Giles, David

    2014-01-01

    This body of work presents the research and publications undertaken under a general theme of computer-based modelling and analysis in engineering geology. Papers are presented on geotechnical data management, data interchange, Geographical Information Systems, surface modelling, geostatistical methods, risk-based modelling, knowledge-based systems, remote sensing in engineering geology and on the integration of computer applications into applied geoscience teaching. The work highlights my...

  20. Geothermal exploration involving structural geology and hydrochemistry in the Tarutung Basin, Northern Central Sumatra (Indonesia)

    Mochamad Nukman

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the permeability structure in geothermal greenfield exploration requires collection and integration of hydrochemical and structural geological data related to background geology and present-day stress field. A methodological combination of field based structural geology with hydrochemistry plays an important role in identifying the geothermal system and geologic controls on permeable zones, temperature distribution, fluid origin and the overall flow pattern. A case study in the...

  1. Hydrogeologic role of geologic structures. Part 2: analytical models

    Levens, Russell L.; Williams, Roy E.; Ralston, Dale R.

    1994-04-01

    This paper is the second of two papers that address the influence of geologic structures on ground water flow at various scales in fractured rocks. The ultimate purpose of this research is to investigate the feasibility of grouting preferentially permeable zones as a strategy to minimize the production of acid mine drainage in underground hard rock mines in which the major permeability is structure and fracture controlled. The aim of grouting is to reduce permeability around mined-out openings, to minimize the rate of inflow of ground water into such openings via the structurally controlled preferentially permeable pathways. A series of hydraulic stress tests were conducted to help characterize the role of geologic structures in controlling the ground water flow system in the vicinity of the Bunker Hill Mine in north Idaho. The results of these tests indicate that most of the ground water that flows from the underground drillholes used for hydraulic stress testing is derived from a few discrete, structurally produced fracture zones that are more or less connected through smaller-scale fractures. Four types of analytical models are considered as a means of analyzing the results of multiple drillhole hydraulic stress tests, as follows: cross-hole equivalent porous media; double-porosity equivalent porous media; a solution to flow in and around a single vertical fracture; leaky equivalent porous media, partial penetration. The estimation of hydraulic coefficients in complex fractured rock environments involves the combined application of a number of deterministic analytical models. The models to be used are selected dependent on the location of the drawdown observations relative to the water-producing zone and the length of the test. The result of the tests can be related to the permeability hierarchy discussed in our first paper.

  2. Capability of analysis arsenic in geology sample by gamma-gamma coincidence method

    Gamma-gamma coincidence method has been successfully applied to the study of nuclear data and structure. Due to good abilities of background reduction, gamma-gamma coincidence method has been widely applied in neutron activation analysis. The experimental studies on geological and environmental samples have been conducted in several laboratories in the world. This report presents the results of Arsenic (As) analysis of geological sample by neutron activation analysis with coincidence method. The results show that the linearity between concentration in sample and count rate of peak in coincidence measurements and the influence of isotopes was eliminated and the background was reduced by application of this method in comparison with the conventional method that uses a detector. The results also found out that detection limits for analysis of As in geological samples were improved. (author)

  3. Application of passive seismic to shallow geological structures in urban areas

    Mendecki Maciej Jan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the shallow geological structure the Refraction Microtremor (ReMi method was applied. This technique uses seismic noise analysis where a source of this small vibrations is the human activity e.g.: traffic, production, factories. The surveys were carried out in selected urban areas in the region of the Upper Silesian Industrial District : Sosnowiec - Pogoń , Chorzów - Chorzow Stary and Bytom - Karb. Each area is characterized by the presence of nearby roads with a very high traffic. The results of passive seismic (ReMi were confronted with data obtained using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW and resistivity imaging (RI. Seismic surveys were performed by apparatus PASI with 24 channels using geophones of 4.5Hz. The results showed that passive seismic can be satisfactorily used in such urban conditions. The shallow geological structure interpreted by seismic methods have been well-correlated with resistivity studies.

  4. Auscultamiento de estructuras geológicas en la cuenca chacoparanense a partir de la aplicación de métodos potenciales Analysis of geologic structures in the Chacoparanense basin based on the application of potential methods

    M.E. Gimenez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta en el área de la cuenca Chacopampeana, noroeste de Argentina, un análisis preliminar geológico - geofísico, basado en los métodos potenciales.El área de estudio se ubica hacia el noreste de la ciudad de Santiago del Estero y parte noroeste de la provincia de Chaco, entre los 25° y 27° S de latitud y 61° a 63° O de longitud. Se relevaron aproximadamente 1.000 nuevos puntos gravimétricos, que fueron agregados a la base de datos del Instituto de Física de Rosario, Universidad Nacional de Rosario y del Instituto Geofísico Sismológico Volponi, Universidad Nacional de San Juan. Con los datos obtenidos se preparó una carta de anomalías de Bouguer. La carta de anomalías, fue filtrada y procesada para separar efectos gravimétricos y se confeccionó un modelo cortical para una sección A-A´. El modelo cortical, indica la presencia de una estructura ubicada en la corteza superior. Este modelo justifica la residual de Bouguer.El área de estudio, posee características geológicas adecuadas de presencia de hidrocarburos, pero hasta el momento no se han descubierto estructuras geológicas de interés económico. En el presente estudio, mostramos una anomalía de Bouguer positiva, sin evidencias superficiales que podría interpretarse como una estructura geológica con potencial económico.A preliminary geological-geophysical analysis of the Chacopampeana area of north-eastern Argentina is presented from the application of potential field methods. The study area is located mostly in the north-east of the province of Santiago del Estero, and partly in north-west of the province of Chaco, between latitudes 25° S and 27° S and longitudes 61° W to 63° W. We obtained approximately 1,000 new gravity points, that were added to the database of the Instituto de Física de Rosario, Universidad Nacional de Rosario and of the Instituto Geofísico Sismológico Volponi, Universidad Nacional de San Juan. A Bouguer anomaly map has been

  5. Spatial Coupling Among Landslides, Geological Structures, Cataclinal Slopes, and Fluvial Knick Zones in Nepal Himalayas

    Ojha, T. P.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work aims to identify potential landslide hazard zones in the event of heavy precipitation and seismic activity by examining spatial relationships among existing landslides, earthquake epicenters, fault zones, cataclinal (dip) slopes, anaclinal (escarp) slopes, and river steepness index in the Nepal Himalaya. In order to understand this relationship we have mapped existing landslides on Google Earth images and ESRI base maps, assembled high-resolution digital topographic data by digitizing Nepal Government published topographic maps, and gathered geological data from detailed field mapping and compilation of published geological maps. Slope angle and aspect, and dip direction and angle were extracted from GIS-based digital topographical and geological datasets to develop the new slope maps with cataclinal (dip) and anaclinal (escarp) slope distributions. Longitudinal river profiles were also extracted from high resolution DEM's derived from manually digitized contours. The slope maps with cataclinal and anaclinal slope distributions, earthquake epicenters, major geological structures, longitudinal river profiles, and landslide inventories were visualized in ESRI ArcMap 10.2 to examine the spatial correlation among landslides, fault zones, cataclinal slopes and river steepness index. We have found that landslides are spatially correlated with cataclinal slopes and fluvial knick zones with high steepness index in certain thrust boundaries. The main finding of this work is that the topographic slope threshold alone is a crude measure of landslide susceptibility. The analysis of slope using the geometric relationship among topography and geological bedding is crucial for determining landslide susceptibility in the Himalayan region.

  6. Integrating remote sensing and magnetic data for structural geology investigation in pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan

    Salehi, Ratib; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Khalil, Ahmed; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan. The analysis of surface data, including a digital elevation model (DEM), and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images, was combined with airborne magnetic data to better understand three-dimensional geology in the area. The ETM+ and DEM data were used to map geological structures at the surface, which indicate that the area consists of two main fault systems that trend NNE and E-W. The two trends represent the remnants of reactivated structures that formed under the stress regimes generated during the tectonic evolution of eastern Afghanistan. Magnetic data indicate an NE-SW trending basin. A two-dimensional schematic model shows that the basin gradually deepens toward the SW with depths to the magnetic basement ranging between 2 and 11.5 km. The integration of the results gave new insight into the tectonic evolution and structure patterns near the pegmatites area.

  7. Reflection of block neotectonics in geological structure of paleogene strata of Chornobyl exclusion zone

    Neotectonic block differentiation of Chernobyl Exclusion zone area was fixed by the results of the geological and structure analysis of paleogene strata in complex with the space survey data interpretation. Structural plan of the latest tectonic movements had a block character; it was shown by the fracture systems, which represent the components of known regional tectonic zones of various trends and are found in the features of phanerozoic rock mass structure. The territory under study is divided into two parts - the northern one, where in the neotectonic movements are generally more intensive with manifestation practically all over the fracture zones, and the southern part, where in the newest breaks belong mainly to submeridional also to south-western regional fracture zones. The southern part of the Exclusion zone, as a whole, holds the greatest promise by comparison with the northern one in the view of neotectonic criteria regarding the geological repository siting for radioactive waste disposal

  8. The main goal of engineering geology for designing and construction complex structures in urban areas

    Drago Ocepek; Jasna Jerman

    2007-01-01

    Work for designing complex structures in urban areas consists of geological-geotechnical investigations and analysis of the quality of rocks, soft rocks and hard soils in the construction area. Urban areas limited the space for designing cutting slopes in stable inclination without reinforcement. In this paper will be presented designing and excavation works with different reinforcement of two different areas in Slovenia built of heterogeneous mixed hard to soft rock masses (Triassic dolomite...

  9. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  10. Framework system and research flow of uncertainty in 3D geological structure models

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty in 3D geological structure models has become a bottleneck that restricts the development and application of 3D geological modeling.In order to solve this problem during periods of accuracy assessment,error detection and dynamic correction in 3D geological structure models,we have reviewed the current situation and development trends in 3D geological modeling.The main context of uncertainty in 3D geological structure models is discussed.Major research issues and a general framework system of unce...

  11. Geological Structure and History of the Arctic Ocean

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Kashubin, Sergey; Pospelov, Igor; Tolmacheva, Tatiana; Petrov, Eugeny

    2016-04-01

    New data on geological structure of the deep-water part of the Arctic Basin have been integrated in the joint project of Arctic states - the Atlas of maps of the Circumpolar Arctic. Geological (CGS, 2009) and potential field (NGS, 2009) maps were published as part of the Atlas; tectonic (Russia) and mineral resources (Norway) maps are being completed. The Arctic basement map is one of supplements to the tectonic map. It shows the Eurasian basin with oceanic crust and submerged margins of adjacent continents: the Barents-Kara, Amerasian ("Amerasian basin") and the Canada-Greenland. These margins are characterized by strained and thinned crust with the upper crust layer, almost extinct in places (South Barents and Makarov basins). In the Central Arctic elevations, seismic studies and investigation of seabed rock samples resulted in the identification of a craton with the Early Precambrian crust (near-polar part of the Lomonosov Ridge - Alpha-Mendeleev Rise). Its basement presumably consists of gneiss granite (2.6-2.2 Ga), and the cover is composed of Proterozoic quartzite sandstone and dolomite overlain with unconformity and break in sedimentation by Devonian-Triassic limestone with fauna and terrigenous rocks. The old crust is surrounded by accretion belts of Timanides and Grenvillides. Folded belts with the Late Precambrian crust are reworked by Caledonian-Ellesmerian and the Late Mesozoic movements. Structures of the South Anuy - Angayucham ophiolite suture reworked in the Early Cretaceous are separated from Mesozoides proper of the Pacific - Verkhoyansk-Kolyma and Koryak-Kamchatka belts. The complicated modern ensemble of structures of the basement and the continental frame of the Arctic Ocean was formed as a result of the conjugate evolution and interaction of the three major oceans of the Earth: Paleoasian, Paleoatlantic and Paleopacific.

  12. Computer methods for geological analysis of radiometric data

    Whether an explorationist equates anomalies with potential uranium ore deposits or analyses radiometric data in terms of their relationships with other geochemical, geophysical, and geological data, the anomaly or anomalous zone is the most common starting point for subsequent study or field work. In its preliminary stages, the definition of meaningful anomalies from raw data is a statistical problem requiring the use of a computer. Because radiometric data, when properly collected and reduced, are truly geochemical, they can be expected to relate in part to changes in surface or near-surface geology. Data variations caused strictly by differences in gross chemistry of the lithologies sampled constitute a noise factor which must be removed for proper analysis. Texas Instruments Incorporated has developed an automated method of measuring the statistical significance of data by incorporating geological information in the process. This method of computerized geological analysis of radiometric data (CGARD) is similar to a basic method of the exploration geochemist and has been proved successful in its application to airborne radiometric data collected on four continents by Texas Instruments Incorporated. This beginning and its natural follow-on methods of automated or interpretive analysis are based simply on the perception of radiometric data as sets of statistically distributed data in both the frequency and spatial domains. (author)

  13. Quantitative assessment of the complexity of geological structures in terms of seismic propagators

    2010-01-01

    How a wave interacts with heterogeneous media has been pursued by many geophysicists.The complexity of subsurface heterogeneities is seismologically a relative concept to wavelengths of seismic waves.A growing perception is that velocity variations,propagation angles,and computational accuracies are closely related at a variety of scales.A tentative strategy to quantitatively evaluate the complexity of subsurface heterogeneous media is presented in this article to see what scales of geological heterogeneities to be captured by waves.We express complex subsurface structures as the slowness-and angularheterogeneity spectra to quantify velocity contrasts and dipping-angle distributions of complex geological structures.On the other hand,the scaling characteristics of a propagator are measured through dispersion analysis by its angular spectra plotted against refractive indexes and propagation angles,respectively.A parameter termed as imaging efficiency is introduced by associating the geological heterogeneity spectra with the propagator’s angular spectra to understand the coherent interference between the medium’s heterogeneity and the propagator’s scaling characteristics.Furthermore,a complexity coefficient can be defined to evaluate geological complexities in terms of propagators.The application of this strategy is demonstrated to the SEG/EAEG salt model.

  14. The EVEREST project: sensitivity analysis of geological disposal systems

    The main objective of the EVEREST project is the evaluation of the sensitivity of the radiological consequences associated with the geological disposal of radioactive waste to the different elements in the performance assessment. Three types of geological host formations are considered: clay, granite and salt. The sensitivity studies that have been carried out can be partitioned into three categories according to the type of uncertainty taken into account: uncertainty in the model parameters, uncertainty in the conceptual models and uncertainty in the considered scenarios. Deterministic as well as stochastic calculational approaches have been applied for the sensitivity analyses. For the analysis of the sensitivity to parameter values, the reference technique, which has been applied in many evaluations, is stochastic and consists of a Monte Carlo simulation followed by a linear regression. For the analysis of conceptual model uncertainty, deterministic and stochastic approaches have been used. For the analysis of uncertainty in the considered scenarios, mainly deterministic approaches have been applied

  15. SITE-94. Development of a geological and a structural model of Aespoe, southeastern Sweden

    The objective of the present study is to construct three-dimensional geological and structural models to be used within the SKI SITE-94 project as a base for modelling hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and rock mechanical bedrock conditions, mass transport and layout of a hypothetical repository. The basic input data in the SITE-94 geological and structural models are restricted to geological and structural readings and geophysical measurements made prior to building the Hard Rock Laboratory. 114 refs, 82 figs, 28 tabs

  16. Research and development of methods and technologies for CO2 capture in fossil fuel power plants and storage in geological formations in the Czech Republic, stage E4: Risk analysis. Risk analysis methods for CO2 storage in geological structures. Final report. Revision 1

    The report summarizes basic information about the behaviour of CO2 in the geological environment; about the procedures used for definition of CO2 effects on living organisms and the environment. This information can be used for evaluation of the safety of CO2 storage into geological structures. Information and values from Czech legislation were collected, defining the limits of CO2 concentration in different media (water, air), plus the concentration of substances that can be mobilized under its effect (heavy metals, etc.). Features, events and processes (FEPs) that are relevant to the anticipated concepts of CO2 storage in the Czech Republic were selected from the international database. Risks are categorized into 'significant irregularity, 'substantial change', 'significant risk' and 'leakage'. On the bases of these presumptions basic outline for following scenarios were laid down: (i) normal scenario of system evolution when it is presumed that the storage system evolves according to predictions: injected CO2 dissolves slowly into groundwater and get retained finally in geological environment. Neither significant irregularities, nor CO2 leakage appear; (ii) alternative scenario of system evolution when during operation phase and during post closure phase significant irregularities or CO2 leakage can appear; and (iii) intrusive scenario of system evolution when CO2 leakage and human exposures is expected due to direct human intervention into the storage site. These scenarios and their next division are only preliminary, nevertheless, they are linked to the potential storage sites location in the Czech Republic. (author, abbreviated)

  17. Deep electrical structure and geological significance of Tongling ore district

    Tang, Jingtian; Zhou, Cong; Wang, Xianying; Xiao Xiao; Lü, Qingtian

    2013-10-01

    The Tongling ore district is one of the most important Cu-polymetal producers in the Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt of China. To understand deep crust structure beneath the Tongling ore district more comprehensively and objectively and to explore important scientific issues, such as characteristics of lithospheric evolution, the relationship between the crustal structure and metallogenesis, it is necessary to study the variation of crust electrical structure in the study area. For this purpose, six magnetotelluric (MT) sounding profiles have been completed by SinoProbe-03 Project. Based on the imaging results of the six profiles, electrical conductivity structure of the crust has been analyzed. The result shows that the geology beneath the profiles is characterized by layering in vertical direction and block division in horizontal direction. The high-resistivity features are related to the transparent zones detected at the upper crust in reflection seismic surveys. The absence of reflectivity from the depths indicates a homogeneous zone, which could often be related to granitic intrusions. Combining the regional tectonic evolution, MT and other geophysical data, we suggest that the high-resistivity bodies crossing the Tongling uplift reveals the center of magma activity and the layering in vertical direction in the lower crust reveals a normal lower crust model and propose a small-scale underplating model which is different with both the “partial melting of a thickened or delaminated lower continental crust” model and the “oceanic ridge subduction”. The underplating might be related to small-scale lithospheric or lower crust delamination controlled by deep fault during the Early Cretaceous. The result of this MT survey is important for constraining lithospheric evolution and metallogenesis in the Lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt, such as collision of North China Craton and Yangtze Craton, underplating models, deep structure, mechanisms of NE

  18. The stress state of geological structure and mining dynamic disaster in Fuxin basin

    HAN Jun; WANG Hai-bing; ZHU Guang-zong; LIU Ting-bo

    2008-01-01

    Further evidences show that most mining dynamic disasters are mainly occurred nearby NNE and near SN geological structures.In-situ stress measurement in Fuxin basin shows that the orientation of major compressed stress is near EW.At this stress field,geological structures with deferent strike have deferent stress state and displace mode.NNE and near SN geological structures are compressed to thrust and come into being high stress zone.NWW and NEE geological structures are tensile to separate and not prone to being low stress zone.NW structure is intervenient of them.So NEE and near SN structures are easy to occurre mining dynamic disasters and NWW and NEE structures is "safety" comparatively.The mining dynamic disaster is controlled by stress state of geologic structure,which is determined by its strike.

  19. The stress state of geological structure and mining dynamic disaster in Fuxin basin

    HAN Jun; WANG Hai-bing; ZHU Guang-zong; LIU Ting-bo

    2008-01-01

    Further evidences show that most mining dynamic disasters are mainly oc-curred nearby NNE and near SN geological structures. In-situ stress measurement in Fuxin basin shows that the orientation of major compressed stress is near EW. At this stress field, geological structures with deferent strike have deferent stress state and dis-place mode. NNE and near SN geological structures are compressed to thrust and come into being high stress zone. NWW and NEE geological structures are tensile to separate and not prone to being low stress zone. NW structure is intervenient of them. So NEE and near SN structures are easy to occurre mining dynamic disasters and NWW and NEE structures is "safety" comparatively. The mining dynamic disaster is controlled by stress state of geologic structure, which is determined by its strike.

  20. Significance of Geophysical and Geological Investigations of Deep Structure for Safety Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plants

    The faulting process and subsurface deformation as well as the complicated underground structure of the Niigata area in relation to ground motion were explained, which was followed by an explanation of the importance of the following items. - Understanding geological history to construct the current geological structure, - Construction of an integrated ground model by geophysical exploration; topographical, geological, and morphological data; and boring data, and - Confirmation of model validation by simulation. (author)

  1. Geological and Geophysical aspects of the Kurdashi structure, Azerbaijan

    Full text: This paper is a case history of the improved characterization of a complex structure in the Azerbaijan offshore achieved by application of advanced seismic tools such as 3 D Pre-Stack Depth Migration and Continuity Depth Cube volumes.The investigation focuses on the Kurdashi Permit and adjacent areas of southern most Azerbaijan, near its boundary with Iran (Fig.1).It considers the techniques used to visualize the subsurface, the resulting subsurface model and implications for its geological history revealed by the more detailed seismic tools.The Kurdashi Permit is operated by AGIP AZERBAIJAN, a subsidiary of the Italian ENI Agip Division.The permit itself encompasses a faulted regional anticlinorium of Neogene series clastic rocks comprising three separate culminations.Seismic imaging in this area is challenged by widespread shallow or near-surface gas, steep dips, and mud volcanoes connected to irregularly shaped mud chambers and associated velocity anomalies.Targets are relatively deep measured in TWT due to both their actual depth and the relatively slow velocities of the sedimentary section.A 3D seismic survey covering about 900 sq km was acquired by Caspian Geophysical over the entire permit.The conventional time processing was executed by Veritas.Subsequently AGIP generated a 3D Pre-Stack Depth Migration and Continuity Cube and the relevant interpretations.

  2. Development and improvement of safety analysis code for geological disposal

    In order to confirm the long-term safety concerning geological disposal, probabilistic safety assessment code and other analysis codes, which can evaluate possibility of each event and influence on engineered barrier and natural barrier by the event, were introduced. We confirmed basic functions of those codes and studied the relation between those functions and FEP/PID which should be taken into consideration in safety assessment. We are planning to develop 'Nuclide Migration Assessment System' for the purpose of realizing improvement in efficiency of assessment work, human error prevention for analysis, and quality assurance of the analysis environment and analysis work for safety assessment by using it. As the first step, we defined the system requirements and decided the system composition and functions which should be mounted in them based on those requirements. (author)

  3. Presumption of the distribution of the geological structure based on the geological survey and the topographic data in and around the Horonobe area

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, a comprehensive research project investigating the deep underground environment in sedimentary rock, is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) at Horonobe-cho in Northern Hokkaido, Japan. One of the main goals of the URL project is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment. JAEA constructed the geologic map and the database of geological mapping in Horonobe-cho in 2005 based on the existing literatures and 1/200,000 geologic maps published by Geological Survey of Japan, and then updated the geologic map in 2007 based on the results of various investigations which were conducted around the URL as the surface based investigation phase of the URL project. On the other hand, there are many geological survey data which are derived from natural resources (petroleum, natural gas and coal, etc.) exploration in and around Horonobe-cho. In this report, we update the geologic map and the database of the geological mapping based on these geological survey and topographical analysis data in and around the Horonobe area, and construct a digital geologic map and a digital database of geological mapping as GIS. These data can be expected to improve the precision of modeling and analyzing of geological environment including its long-term evaluation. The digital data is attached on CD-ROM. (J.P.N.)

  4. Statistical magnetic anomalies from satellite measurements for geologic analysis

    Goyal, H. K.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The errors of numerically averaging satellite magnetic anomaly data for geologic analysis are investigated using orbital anomaly simulations of crustal magnetic sources by Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration. These simulations suggest that numerical averaging errors constitute small and relatively minor contributions to the total error-budget of higher orbital estimates (approx. 400 km), whereas for lower orbital estimates the error of averaging may increase substantially. Least-squares collocation is also investigated as an alternative to numerical averaging and found to produce substantially more accurate anomaly estimates as the elevation of prediction is decreased towards the crustal sources.

  5. Diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository

    The Swedish strategy to handle the spent fuel from the nuclear power plants is direct disposal in a geological repository. The safeguards regime covering all nuclear material in the state will be expanded to cover the new repository, which will require a novel safeguards approach due mainly to the inaccessibility of the fuel after disposal. The safeguards approach must be able to provide a high level of assurance that the fuel in the repository not diverted, but must also be resource efficient. An attractive approach with regards to use of resources is to monitor only the access points to the repository, i.e. the openings. The implementation of such an approach can only be allowed if it is shown to be sufficiently secure. With the purpose of determining the applicability of this 'black box' approach, a diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository has been carried out. The result from the analysis shows that all credible diversion paths could be covered by the black-box safeguards approach provided that the identified boundary conditions can be met

  6. Multivariate Analysis Of Ground Water Characteristics Of Geological Formations Of Enugu State Of Nigeria

    Orakwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The chemometric data mining techniques using principal factor analysis PFA and hierarchical cluster analysis CA was employed to evaluate and to examine the borehole characteristics of geological formations of Enugu State of Nigeria to determine the latent structure of the borehole characteristics and to classify 9 borehole parameters from 49 locations into borehole groups of similar characteristics. PFA extracted three factors which accounted for a large proportion of the variation in the data 77.305 of the variance. Out of nine parameters examined the first PFA had the highest number of variables loading on a single factor where four borehole parameters borehole depth borehole casing static water level and dynamic water level loaded on it with positive coefficient as the most significant parameters responsible for variation in borehole characteristics in the study. The CA employed in this study to identified three clusters. The first cluster delineated stations that characterise Awgu sandstone geological formation while the second cluster delineated Agbani sandstone geological formation. The third cluster delineated Ajali sandstone formation. The CA grouping of the borehole parameters showed similar trend with PFA hence validating the efficiency of chemometric data mining techniques in grouping of variations in the borehole characteristics in the geological zone of the study area.

  7. The Effect of Geologic Structures on the Control of Floods in the Middle Yangtze River Valley

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of geologic structures in the occurrence of floods and how to prevent flood in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and gives the author's suggestion that the Luoshan Qiakou be expanded and the land reclaimed from Dongting Lake be returned to the lake in compliance with the law of geology.

  8. Geological Interpretation of the Structure and Stratigraphy of the A/M Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    The geological interpretation of the structure and stratigraphy of the A/M Area was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of deeper Cretaceous aged geological strata and structure on shallower Tertiary horizons

  9. Imaging 3D geological structure of the Mygdonian basin (Northern Greece) with geological numerical modeling and geophysical methods.

    Cédric, Guyonnet-Benaize; Fabrice, Hollender; Maria, Manakou; Alexandros, Savvaidis; Elena, Zargli; Cécile, Cornou; Nikolaos, Veranis; Dimitrios, Raptakis; Artemios, Atzemoglou; Pierre-Yves, Bard; Nikolaos, Theodulidis; Kyriazis, Pitilakis; Emmanuelle, Chaljub

    2013-04-01

    The Mygdonian basin, located 30 km E-NE close to Thessaloniki, is a typical active tectonic basin, trending E-NW, filled by sediments 200 to 400 m thick. This basin has been chosen as a European experimental site since 1993 (European Commission research projects - EUROSEISTEST). It has been investigated for experimental and theoretical studies on site effects. The Mygdonian basin is currently covered by a permanent seismological network and has been mainly characterized in 2D and 3D with geophysical and geotechnical studies (Bastani et al, 2011; Cadet and Savvaidis, 2011; Gurk et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2010; Pitilakis et al, 1999; Raptakis et al, 2000; Raptakis et al, 2005). All these studies allowed understanding the influence of geological structures and local site conditions on seismic site response. For these reasons, this site has been chosen for a verification exercise for numerical simulations in the framework of an ongoing international collaborative research project (Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project - E2VP). The verification phase has been made using a first 3D geophysical and geotechnical model (Manakou, 2007) about 5 km wide and 15 km long, centered on the Euroseistest site. After this verification phase, it has been decided to update, optimize and extend this model in order to obtain a more detailed model of the 3D geometry of the entire basin, especially the bedrock 3D geometry which can affect drastically the results of numerical simulations for site effect studies. In our study, we build a 3D geological model of the present-day structure of the entire Mygdonian basin. This "precise" model is 12 km wide, 65 km long and is 400 m deep in average. It has been built using geophysical, geotechnical and geological data. The database is heterogeneous and composed of hydrogeological boreholes, seismic refraction surveys, array microtremor measurements, electrical and geotechnical surveys. We propose an integrated

  10. Structural geology of the Hawthorne and Tonopah quadrangles, Nevada

    Ferguson, H.G.; Muller, S.W.

    1949-01-01

    The area lies in west-central Nevada near the western border of the Basin and Range province. Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks the chief subject of this report occur in isolated mountain ranges separated by stretches of Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks, lacustrine deposits and alluvium. The report is concerned principally with the geology of the pre-Tertiary rocks and attempt is made to unravel the complex diastrophisni that occurred in the area during the Jurassic. 

  11. Geological Hazards analysis in Urban Tunneling by EPB Machine (Case study: Tehran subway line 7 tunnel

    Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in tunneling has led to modern and efficient tunneling methods in vast underground spaces even under inappropriate geological conditions. Identification and access to appropriate and sufficient geological hazard data are key elements to successful construction of underground structures. Choice of the method, excavation machine, and prediction of suitable solutions to overcome undesirable conditions depend on geological studies and hazard analysis. Identifying and investigating the ground hazards in excavating urban tunnels by an EPB machine could augment the strategy for improving soil conditions during excavation operations. In this paper, challenges such as geological hazards, abrasion of the machine cutting tools, clogging around these tools and inside the chamber, diverse work front, severe water level fluctuations, existence of water, and fine-grained particles in the route were recognized in a study of Tehran subway line 7, for which solutions such as low speed boring, regular cutter head checks, application of soil improving agents, and appropriate grouting were presented and discussed. Due to the presence of fine particles in the route, foam employment was suggested as the optimum strategy where no filler is needed.

  12. The advanced scenario analysis for performance assessment of geological disposal

    First of all, with regard to the FEP information data on the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) developed by JNC, description level and content of the FEPs have been examined from various angles on the basis of the latest research information. Each content of the FEP data has been classified and modified by means of integrating descriptive items, checking detail levels and correlations with other FEPs, collating with the H12 report, and adding technical information after H12 report. Secondly, scenario-modeling process has been studied. The study has been conducted by evaluating representation of the repository system, definition of FEP properties, and process interactions based on the concept of the interaction matrix (RES format) which represents influences between physicochemical characteristics of the repository, followed by an experimental development of the actual RES interaction matrix based on the H12 report as the examination to improve the transparency, traceability and comprehensibility of the scenario analysis process. Lastly, in relation to the geological disposal system, assessment techniques have been examined for more practical scenario analysis on particularly strong perturbations. Possible conceptual models have been proposed for each of these scenarios; seismic, faulting, and dike intrusion. As a result of these researches, a future direction for advanced scenario analysis on performance assessment has been indicated, as well as associated issues to be discussed have been clarified. (author)

  13. Analysis of integrated geologic data for uranium exploration in Egypt

    Geologic information system (GIS) related to Nuclear Raw Materials is in current development in the Scient. Inform. Dept. (NMC). Processing of data follows developed criteria in U-exploration. Landsat image interpretation, photo lineaments, field measured joints, faults, folds, foliation, lineation, and deformed pebbles when properly integrated and computerized have pointed out a comprehensive tectonic model related to the CED of Egypt. The area seemed to be subjected to three deformative stages, in the first two; rocks undergone plastic deformation, while in the third one, rocks failed in brittle mode where the Red Sea Transverse Tectonic Trend (ENE-WSW) was developed intersecting the older plastically developed linear elements (NW-SE). Further rejuvenations permit opening the mentioned fractures and occupied by siliceous materials and jasperoid veins and lastly by U-type mineralization, best depicted in the plutons of El Missikat, El Erediya, Um Had and Kab Amiri. The Oligocene Qatrani Formation, north of Lake Qarun, NWD of Egypt is a typical example of fluviatile deposits. The middle clayey member is enclosed between two porous sandy members. The carbonaceous shale related to the clayey member shows abnormal U-concentrations. Statistical analysis of the distribution of uranium and other trace elements in the carbonaceous shale shows that U, Y, Mn and Ca obey the lognormal law while Sr, Rb, Zr, Cr and Ti obey the normal law. A geologic factor is derived that normally distributed elements are stationary, indigenous probably of detrital origin. Meanwhile, other lognormally distributed elements are active and mobile. Subsurface mapping shows that uranium tends to concentrate in the troughs of the flexured carbonaceous shale suggesting an epigenetic origin. 14 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Structural geology and geological history of the Perrine and Nun Sulci Quadrangles (Jg-2 and Jg-5), Ganymede

    Mcgill, George E.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Grooves are the dominant structural features on Ganymede. While single grooves are found in many areas, it is somewhat more common to find them grouped together in groove sets (groupings of grooves with common structural trends). It is generally believed that the grooves are extensional features. Their underlying geologic nature cannot be determined from Voyager images, however. It appears likely that they are grabens, but the images are insufficient to rule out the possibility that they are modified extension fractures or some kind of ductile necking features. The oldest materials within the Nun Sulci and Perrine quadrangles occur within the cratered dark materials unit, as is generally the case for all of Ganymede. This is the most widespread of the dark units mapped in these two quadrangles. Crater densities within cratered dark materials are consistent with an age on the order of several billion years, and thus cratered dark terrain probably represents crust that has survived from the end of the primordial intense bombardment phase of solar system history. The brief geologic history is greatly oversimplified as a result of the poor resolution and unfavorable viewing geometry of the images covering the area.

  15. Geological characterization of Ia volcanic structure, Boyaca - Colombia

    Iza volcanic structure (5 grades 36 minutes 20 seconds N; 72 grades 59 minutes 33 seconds W) is the result of rising riodacitic to ryolithicmagmatic pulses, which didn't reach the surface, the first of them giving origin to intrusive breccias, interpreted as the result of indirect hot deep magma interaction with a sedimentary aquifer, leading to vapor overpressure and consequent fragmentation of the host rocks. The intrusive breccia form the southern part of the Iza edifice, it is massive beige to light red in color, locally with pseudo columnar joint; it is composed by angular to sub rounded sedimentary and minor igneous rock fragments in a porphyry rhyolitic matrix. This stage is followed by dome emplacement which a riodacitic to rhyolitic in composition. Petrographic analysis shows that they are similar to the matrix breccia; they have a porphiritic texture, phenocrist of sanidine, quartz and plagioclase and glassy matrix. Locally the domes are fractured presenting breccia facies (auto breccia and jig saw breccias, among others). Relationship with the host rock allow to interpreting the volcanic body as a cryptodomes, outcropping at surface by faulting and erosion.

  16. Application of Transient Rayleigh Wave Analysis Method to Surveying Geology Body Structure%瞬态瑞利波分析方法在探测地质体结构中的应用

    孟祥栋; 田振农

    2014-01-01

    介绍了探测地质体结构的一般方法,重点介绍了爆破地震波的特征及地震波的探测方法。又对最近发展起来的面波勘探技术做了分析,重点论述了瞬态瑞利波频散特性及其应用。在此基础上,实验了一种可以控制的爆破地震波震源,该震源利用水介质的均匀性及各向同性、不可压缩等特点,减少了爆炸冲击波对周围岩体介质的损坏,又保持了爆炸波功率大,能够提供尖锐的脉冲信号,频域范围大的特点,从而改变了爆破地震波震源不能重复和难以总结其规律的状况。利用瑞利波探测技术和可控爆源,对茅坪滑坡体进行了地质体结构探测,并对其地质体的分层特性做了详细分析,与钻孔勘探结果和挖竖井探测结果比较,二者有较好的一致性。说明结合瞬态瑞利波分析方法,该可控震源在地质体结构探测中有实际的应用价值。%The paper introduces general methods of surveying geological body structure,highlighting on char-acteristics of blasting seismic wave and the method of surveying seismic wave.In addition,it analyzes the technology of surveying by surface wave which has been developed recent years,highlighting on discussing the characteristics of transient Rayleigh wave and its application.On the bases,a blasting seismic source which can induce controllable seismic wave is tested.The blasting seismic source makes use of the homogeni-zation,isotropy,incompressibility of water;and it reduces the damage around rock induced by explosion wave;and it keeps the character of big power of blast wave,and can provide sharp pulsing signal and great frequency domain.So this blasting seismic source changes the characteristics which customary blasting seis-mic source can not be repeated and it is difficult to seek the rule of blasting seismic wave.The paper makes use of the technology of Reyleigh wave surveying to study the geological body structure

  17. Using Grand Challenges For Innovative Teaching in Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics

    McDaris, J. R.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wysession, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    An innovative approach to teaching involves using the "Big Ideas" or "Grand Challenges" of a field, as determined by the research community in that area, as the basis for classroom activities. There have been several recent efforts in the areas of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics to determine these Grand Challenges, including the areas of seismology ("Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems"), mineral physics ("Unlocking the Building Blocks of the Planet"), EarthScope-related science ("Unlocking the Secrets of the North American Continent: An EarthScope Science Plan for 2010-2020"), and structural geology and tectonics (at the Structural Geology and Tectonics Forum held at Williams College in June, 2012). These research community efforts produced frameworks of the essential information for their fields with the aim of guiding future research. An integral part of this, however, is training the next generation of scientists, and using these Big Ideas as the basis for course structures and activities is a powerful way to make this happen. When activities, labs, and homeworks are drawn from relevant and cutting-edge research topics, students can find the material more fascinating and engaging, and can develop a better sense of the dynamic process of scientific discovery. Many creative ideas for incorporating the Grand Challenges of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics in the classroom were developed at a Cutting Edge workshop on "Teaching Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics in the 21st Century" held at the University of Tennessee in July, 2012.

  18. Development of Structural Geology and Tectonics Data System with Field and Lab Interface

    Newman, J.; Tikoff, B.; Walker, J. D.; Good, J.; Michels, Z. D.; Ash, J.; Andrew, J.; Williams, R. T.; Richard, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a prototype Data System for Structural Geology and Tectonics (SG&T). The goal of this effort is to enable recording and sharing data within the geoscience community, to encourage interdisciplinary research, and to facilitate the investigation of scientific questions that cannot currently be addressed. The development of the Data System emphasizes community input in order to build a system that encompasses the needs of researchers, in terms of data and usability. SG&T data is complex for a variety of reasons, including the wide range of temporal and spatial scales (many orders of magnitude each), the complex three-dimensional geometry of some geological structures, inherent spatial nature of the data, and the difficulty of making temporal inferences from spatial observations. To successful implement the step of developing a SG&T data system, we must simultaneously solve three problems: 1) How to digitize SG&T data; 2) How to design a software system that is applicable; and 3) How to construct a very flexible user interface. To address the first problem, we introduce the "Spot" concept, which allows tracking of hierarchical and spatial relations between structures at all scales, and will link map scale, mesoscale, and laboratory scale data. A Spot, in this sense, is analogous to the beam size of analytical equipment used for in situ analysis of rocks; it is the size over which a measurement or quantity is applicable. A Spot can be a single measurement, an aggregation of individual measurements, or even establish relationships between numerous other Spots. We address the second problem through the use of a Graph database to better preserve the myriad of potentially complex relationships. In order to construct a flexible user interface that follows a natural workflow, and that serves the needs of the community, we have begun the process of engaging the SG&T community in order to utilize the expertise of a large group of scientists to ensure the

  19. Formation of secondary phases during deep geological final disposal of research reactor fuel elements. Structure and phase analysis; Bildung von sekundaeren Phasen bei tiefengeologischer Endlagerung von Forschungsreaktor-Brennelementen. Struktur- und Phasenanalyse

    Neumann, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    For the assessment of a confident und sustainable final disposal of high level radioactive waste - fuel elements of german research reactors also account for such waste - in suitable, deep geological facilities, processes of the alteration of the disposed of waste and therefore the formation of the corrosion products, i. e. secondary phases must be well understood considering an accident scenario of a potential water inflow. In order to obtain secondary phases non-irradiated research reactor fuel elements (FR-BE) consisting of UAl{sub x}-Al were subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine (brine 2, salt repository) and to clay pore solution, respectively and furthermore of the type U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al were solely subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine. Considering environmental aspects of final repositories the test conditions of the corrosion experiments were adjusted in a way that the temperature was kept constant at 90 C and a reducing anaerobic environment was ensured. As major objective of this research secondary phases, obtained from the autoclave experiments after appropriate processing and grain size separation have been identified and quantified. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and the application of Rietveld refinement methods allowed the identification of the corrosion products and a quantitative assessment of crystalline and amorphous contents. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were additionally applied as a complementary method for the characterisation of the secondary phases. The qualitative phase analysis of the preprocessed secondary phases of the systems UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al in brine 2 shows many similarities. Lesukite - an aluminium chloro hydrate - was observed for the first time considering the given experimental conditions. Further on different layered structures of the LDH type, iron oxyhydroxide and possibly iron chlorides, uncorroded residues of nuclear fuel and elementary iron were identified as well

  20. Structural geology of the North and Middle Caspian sea on the new geophysical data interpretation

    Full text:A structural and tectonic map of the North and Middle Caspian Sea is made on the basis of seismic and other geological and geophysical data analysis. According to the plotting results the total amplitude range of the heterogeneous basement depths are in the North Caspian Sea (Ukatnensky depression-over 12 km and Prorva depression-over 16 km). In the middle Caspian Sea the deppest basement point is supposed in Sulak basin (over 12 km). The least basement depths are marked in Karpinsky ridge,Buzachinky and Karabogazsky arches (1-3 km). On the whole the morphology and structure of the basement confirms the conclusion previously made by many researches that the Caspian Sea is a heterogeneous depression superimposed on the junction of regional tectonic elements of various ages.The ancient East-European platform represented by Pricaspiisky depression (Donetsko-Astrakhanskaya fault system limits the latter in the south) is situated on the North. The middle Caspian Sea is occupied with the offshore continuation of Terek-Caspian foredeep is represented by Sulak basin clearly limited in the south by a system of upthrusts and thrusts falling under North Caucasus foreland.Geological interpretation of the Yuzhmorgeologiya Center new geophysical data allows making an assumption about the biohermexistence within TriassicSea sediments on Kuma-Manychsky depression offshore continuation. Seismic exploration works show strike-slip faults and thrust structure development within the sedimentary cover on the offshore continuation of Karpinsky ridge.Some strike-slipped blocks are separated by left-side shifts of the northeast stretch.The pool location at the left-side (east) blocks of the shift areas is marked.

  1. Investigation of structural geology and coal mine subsidence potential in Colorado Springs area using remote sensing and GIS technology

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which remote structures which may affect the location and migration of subsidence over abandoned underground coal mines in the Colorado Springs area. Ultimately, these techniques could be useful for identifying such geologic structures at other abandoned mine land (AML) sites. Landsat satellite images and aerial photographs were used to interpret the geologic structure of the area. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to integrate the diverse data sets involved in the study and to allow reliable and reproducible spatial registration and analysis of the data. The specific study area used was the northern and northeastern Colorado Springs, Colorado, area where coal mining was active from the 1870s until 1957. The results of this study indicate that the subsidence hazard zones projected by Dames and Moore (1985) could be modified to take into account geologic structures as identified through remote sensing. Other AML sites should be investigated through remote sensing and lineament analysis to aid in fully evaluating subsidence potential of the sites. The GIS database also will provide a reasonably reliable source of spatial data for future land-use planning and tracking of subsidence hazards

  2. Seismic hazards: New trends in analysis using geologic data

    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in response to expansion of nuclear power plant siting and issuance of a code of federal regullations by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission referred to as Appendix A-10CFR100, the need to characterize the earthquake potential of individual faults for seismic design took on greater importance. Appendix A established deterministic procedures for assessing the seismic hazard at nuclear power plant sites. Bonilla and Buchanan, using data from historical suface-faulting earthquakes, developed a set of statistical correlations relating earthquake magnitude to surface rupture length and to surface displacement. These relationships have been refined and updated along with the relationship between fault area and magnitude and seismic moment and moment magnitude have served as the basis for selecting maximum earthquakes in a wide variety of design situations. In the paper presented, the authors discuss new trends in seismic hazard analysis using geologic data, with special emphasis on fault-zone segmentation and recurrence models and the way in which they provide a basis for evaluating long-term earthquake potential

  3. Hands-On Exercise in Environmental Structural Geology Using a Fracture Block Model.

    Gates, Alexander E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of a scale analog model of an actual fractured rock reservoir to replace paper copies of fracture maps in the structural geology curriculum. Discusses the merits of the model in enabling students to gain experience performing standard structural analyses. (DDR)

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Ranges

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP species range data show a coarse representation of the total areal extent of a species or the geographic limits within which a species can be found (Morrison...

  5. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment. PMID:24475066

  6. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  7. Integration of Geophysical Data into Structural Geological Modelling through Bayesian Networks

    de la Varga, Miguel; Wellmann, Florian; Murdie, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Structural geological models are widely used to represent the spatial distribution of relevant geological features. Several techniques exist to construct these models on the basis of different assumptions and different types of geological observations (e.g. Jessell et al., 2014). However, two problems are prevalent when constructing models: (i) observations and assumptions, and therefore also the constructed model, are subject to uncertainties, and (ii) additional information, such as geophysical data, is often available, but cannot be considered directly in the geological modelling step. In our work, we propose the integration of all available data into a Bayesian network including the generation of the implicit geological method by means of interpolation functions (Mallet, 1992; Lajaunie et al., 1997; Mallet, 2004; Carr et al., 2001; Hillier et al., 2014). As a result, we are able to increase the certainty of the resultant models as well as potentially learn features of our regional geology through data mining and information theory techniques. MCMC methods are used in order to optimize computational time and assure the validity of the results. Here, we apply the aforementioned concepts in a 3-D model of the Sandstone Greenstone Belt in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. The example given, defines the uncertainty in the thickness of greenstone as limited by Bouguer anomaly and the internal structure of the greenstone as limited by the magnetic signature of a banded iron formation. The incorporation of the additional data and specially the gravity provides an important reduction of the possible outcomes and therefore the overall uncertainty. References Carr, C. J., K. R. Beatson, B. J. Cherrie, J. T. Mitchell, R. W. Fright, C. B. McCallum, and R. T. Evans, 2001, Reconstruction and representation of 3D objects with radial basis functions: Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, 67-76. Jessell, M

  8. Regional evolution of geological structure in south China and U mineralization

    This paper states the development laws of regional geological structure of South China and its controlling effect on uranium deposit evolution, and the characteristics of rich uranium formation in different periods of geology-history are analysed. It also discusses the relationship between the distribution of time and space and tectonic structure and environmental vicissitudes. The rock-magma activities-the strong formation of the Diwa Era is of great significance to the formation of uranium deposits within the region, especially to the formation of a series of multi-genesis polygene uranium deposits which are a potential direction in which to look for minerals within the region

  9. Geological characteristics and analysis on ore-controlling factors of Shihongtan uranium deposit, Turpan-Hami basin

    On the basis of a brief introduction of regional geology of Turpan-Hami basin, geology and sand bodies characteristics for target stratum of Shihongtan uranium district, the author mainly expounds distributive law, zonation and relation between fronts and u-mineralization of interlayer oxidation zone for deposit district. The author states space arrangement, shape, size, material components of ores, exiting states of uranium as well as comparative study for north-ore belt and south-ore belt of Shihongtan uranium deposit. In final, the author points out ore-controlling factors are interlayer oxidation zone, nose uplift and faulted structure by systematic analysis

  10. The main goal of engineering geology for designing and construction complex structures in urban areas

    Drago Ocepek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work for designing complex structures in urban areas consists of geological-geotechnical investigations and analysis of the quality of rocks, soft rocks and hard soils in the construction area. Urban areas limited the space for designing cutting slopes in stable inclination without reinforcement. In this paper will be presented designing and excavation works with different reinforcement of two different areas in Slovenia built of heterogeneous mixed hard to soft rock masses (Triassic dolomite, limestone and Eocene flysch sediments.Before the start of excavations work and after establishing the retaining measures, the analysis results are checked by monitoring. This monitoring will continue in the phase of exploitation of the objects. Since the cost of these additional investigations and precise analysis with monitoring (SIST - EN 7 - 2004 and measurements is negligible – in comparison with the costs of the permanent reinforcement – if variable conditions are not to intensive, we were able to reduce effectively the investment value of the object.

  11. Geological Structures in the WaIls of Vestan Craters

    Mittlefehldt, David; Nathues, A.; Beck, A. W.; Hoffmann, M.; Schaefer, M.; Williams, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compelling case can be made that Vesta is the parent asteroid for the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites [1], although this interpretation has been questioned [2]. Generalized models for the structure of the crust of Vesta have been developed based on petrologic studies of basaltic eucrites, cumulate eucrites and diogenites. These models use inferred cooling rates for different types of HEDs and compositional variations within the clan to posit that the lower crust is dominantly diogenitic in character, cumulate eucrites occur deep in the upper crust, and basaltic eucrites dominate the higher levels of the upper crust [3-5]. These models lack fine-scale resolution and thus do not allow for detailed predictions of crustal structure. Geophysical models predict dike and sill intrusions ought to be present, but their widths may be quite small [6]. The northern hemisphere of Vesta is heavily cratered, and the southern hemisphere is dominated by two 400-500 km diameter basins that excavated deep into the crust [7-8]. Physical modeling of regolith formation on 300 km diameter asteroids predicts that debris layers would reach a few km in thickness, while on asteroids of Vesta's diameter regolith thicknesses would be less [9]. This agrees well with the estimated =1 km thickness of local debris excavated by a 45 km diameter vestan crater [10]. Large craters and basins may have punched through the regolith/megaregolith and exposed primary vestan crustal structures. We will use Dawn Framing Camera (FC) [11] images and color ratio maps from the High Altitude and Low Altitude Mapping Orbits (HAMO, 65 m/pixel; LAMO, 20 m/pixel) to evaluate structures exposed on the walls of craters: two examples are discussed here.

  12. Arrangement of coal formations in geological structures of the northeast USSR

    Tarakanov, A.S.; Migovich, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Types of geological structures of the northeast USSR and stages of their development, development of geostructures and their coal accumulation are examined. General laws governing the arrangement of coal formations are reduced to the following: Current arrangement of coals in the northeast USSR is due to geological development of this region in the Cenozoic and Mesozoic. Coal formations emerged naturally at definite stages of development of the folded systems proper and the geological structures adjoining them. Three epochs of coal accumulation are distinctly identified for this region. Metamorphism of coals is related to the intensity of heat flux, as well as local anomalies of heat field in zones of intensive vulcanism and deep faults. The age of the coals has definite value.

  13. Insights into the Structure and Surface Geology of Isla Socorro, Mexico, from Airborne Magnetic and Gamma-Ray Surveys

    Paoletti, V.; Gruber, S.; Varley, N.; D'Antonio, M.; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.

    2016-05-01

    The island of Socorro is located in the eastern Pacific Ocean, 650 km off the coast of Mexico. It is a rare example of an oceanic volcanic island whose above sea level volume is made up mostly of peralkaline trachytes and rhyolites, with subordinate mafic rocks. Subaerial volcanism started several hundred thousand years ago and continues until recent times. We present an investigation of surface and subsurface geology of the island, based on the first detailed extensive geophysical survey on the island. Acquired airborne magnetic and gamma-ray data were compared to existing geological information and supplemented with field investigations and satellite imagery. Magnetic data show a wide minimum in the central part of the island, possibly connected to a high-temperature zone in the deeper central portion of the volcano, likely to be due to a still hot magma body. The data also depict two parallel edges possibly suggesting the existence of a nested caldera. Analysis on upward continued magnetic data by recent imaging techniques highlighted two deep sources located around 5 km b.s.l., interpreted as feeding structures that are now filled with crystalline rocks. Gamma-ray data have been interpreted through integration with the geological survey results. Several previously known volcanic deposits have been identified based on radioelement distribution, and others have been redefined based on field evidence. A new succession of volcanic members is proposed, to be verified through more detailed geological mapping, geochemical analyses of rock samples and radiometric dating.

  14. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  15. Geologic structure mapping database Spent Fuel Test - Climax, Nevada Test Site

    Information on over 2500 discontinuities mapped at the SFT-C is contained in the geologic structure mapping database. Over 1800 of these features include complete descriptions of their orientations. This database is now available for use by other researchers. 6 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  16. Structural geology practice and learning, from the perspective of cognitive science

    Shipley, Thomas F.; Tikoff, Basil; Ormand, Carol; Manduca, Cathy

    2013-09-01

    Spatial ability is required by practitioners and students of structural geology and so, considering spatial skills in the context of cognitive science has the potential to improve structural geology teaching and practice. Spatial thinking skills may be organized using three dichotomies, which can be linked to structural geology practice. First, a distinction is made between separating (attending to part of a whole) and combining (linking together aspects of the whole). While everyone has a basic ability to separate and combine, experts attend to differences guided by experiences of rock properties in context. Second, a distinction is made between seeing the relations among multiple objects as separate items or the relations within a single object with multiple parts. Experts can flexibly consider relations among or between objects to optimally reason about different types of spatial problems. Third, a distinction is made between reasoning about stationary and moving objects. Experts recognize static configurations that encode a movement history, and create mental models of the processes that led to the static state. The observations and inferences made by a geologist leading a field trip are compared with the corresponding observations and inferences made by a cognitive psychologist interested in spatial learning. The presented framework provides a vocabulary for discussing spatial skills both within and between the fields of structural geology and cognitive psychology.

  17. Geological interpretation of Mount Ciremai geothermal system from remote sensing and magneto-teluric analysis

    Sumintadireja, Prihadi; Irawan, Dasapta E; Irawan, Diky; Fadillah, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of geothermal system at Mount Ciremai has been started since the early 1980s and has just been studied carefully since the early 2000s. Previous studies have detected the potential of geothermal system and also the groundwater mechanism feeding the system. This paper will discuss the geothermal exploration based on regional scale surface temperature analysis with Landsat image to have a more detail interpretation of the geological setting and magneto-telluric or MT survey at prospect zones, which identified by the previous method, to have a more exact and in depth local scale structural interpretation. Both methods are directed to pin point appropriate locations for geothermal pilot hole drilling and testing. We used four scenes of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper or ETM+ data to estimate the surface manifestation of a geothermal system. Temporal analysis of Land Surface Temperature or LST was applied and coupled with field temperature measurement at seven locations. By combining the TTM with ...

  18. Constructing a large-scale 3D Geologic Model for Analysis of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Wagoner, J; Myers, S

    2008-04-09

    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5{sup o} to -112.6{sup o} and latitude 34.5{sup o} to 39.8{sup o}; the depth ranges from the topographic surface to 150 km below sea level. The model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by both geologic and geophysical studies, while the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The mapped upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks of all ages, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 5 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas geologic maps for California and Utah were scanned and hand-digitized. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and thus estimate the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m lateral resolution DEM elsewhere. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a framework compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is a unique integer index value representing the geologic unit. For seismic studies, the geologic units are mapped to specific seismic velocities. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface

  19. Local sensitivity analysis for a deep geological repository

    The sensitivity analyses are of the 'what if' type where one single input parameter is varied over its whole possible range to study the behaviour of the system. Results are given as released nuclide quantities or as individual doses for each scenario as a function of the considered input parameter. The purpose of this work is to perform a local sensitivity analysis of a hypothetical disposal concept with a relatively complex structure of the repository vault. The work reported here is carried out with the EMOS5 code and is part of a larger collaboration with Braunschweig Institut (Germany). (authors)

  20. Comparison between radar data and geophysical, geological and hydrological borehole paramenters by multivariate analysis of data

    The object of the present work is to study the correlation between radar reflectors and geophysical, geological and hydraulical parameters from the boreholes. An additional objective is to show what information can be gained by the borehole radar with respect to waterflow and geological structures in crystalline rock. The tool for making the data modelling is Multivariate Data Analysis (SIMCA). For the data modelling there are two algorithms available in the SIMCA software. One for Principal Component analysis and one for Partial Least Squares regression analysis (PLS and PLS2). The PLS method gives the best result for the purpose of correlation between radar intensity and other variables. The result from the Principal Components, PLS, and PLS2 analysis shows that the strongest correlations results in a division between highly fractured rock and low fractured rock at all sites. Also, PLS and PLS2 analysis show that there is a good correlation between high radar intensity and highly fractured rock in the boreholes at all sites. The correlation between radar intensity and hydraulic condictivity is more ambiguous. Two of the investigated sites. Stripa and Finnsjoen, exhibit good correlation between radar intensity and hydraulic condictivity, while the correlation at Aevroe is lower and at Saltsjoetunnel it is poor. Hydraulic conductivity was not included in the analysis of the Klipperaas data. The best correlaiton in the data from Klipperaas was obtained between radar intensity and fractured lithological contracts. The degree of correlation between radar intensity and lithological contacts at the other four sites was lower than for Klipperaas. (24 figs., 37 tabs., 30 refs)

  1. Structure and tectonics of western continental margin of India: Implication for geologic hazards

    Chaubey, A.K.; Ajay, K.K.

    stream_size 13948 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name NHACPIC_2008_25.pdf.txt stream_source_info NHACPIC_2008_25.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Workshop on "Natural Hazard..., and Coastal Processes ofIndian. Coast" Structure and Tectonics ofWestern Continental Margin ofIndia: Implication for Geologic Hazards A.K. Chaubey and K.K. Ajay National Institute ojOceanography. DOM Paula, Goa-403 004 The geomorphological and geological...

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program- Land Cover Data v2.2

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset combines the work of several different projects to create a seamless data set for the contiguous United States. Data from four regional Gap Analysis...

  3. Analysis of reversibility study of France high level radioactive waste in geological repositories

    This report introduces the design of repositories and reversibility analysis of main types of high-level wastes in France, and draws out some important lessons that maybe helpful to our country's geological disposal of radioactive waste. (authors)

  4. An engineering geological appraisal of the Chamshir dam foundation using DMR classification and kinematic analysis, southwest of Iran

    Torabi Kaveh Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of engineering geological  investigations and rock mechanics studies carried out at the proposed Chamshir dam site. It is proposed that a 155 m high solid concrete gravity-arc dam be built across the Zuhreh River to the southeast of the city of Gachsaran in south-western Iran. The dam and its associated structures are mainly located on the Mishan formation. Analysis consisted of rock mass classification and a kinematic
    analysis of the dam foundation's rock masses. The studies were carried out in the field and the laboratory. The field studies included geological mapping, intensive discontinuity surveying, core drilling and sampling for laboratory testing. Rock mass classifications were made in line with RMR and DMR classification for the dam foundation. Dam foundation analysis regarding stability using DMR classification and kinematic analysis indicated that the left abutment's rock foundation (area 2 was unstable for planar, wedge and toppling failure modes.

  5. Identification of active faults in Abruzzo area (central Italy) through the analysis of geological, seismological and gravimetric data

    Luiso, Paola; Paoletti, Valeria; Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Identification of active faults in abruzzo area (central italy) through the analysis of geological, seismological and gravimetric data The aim of this study is to identify and constrain the geometry of the seismogenic structures (active, outcropping and buried fault systems) of the Abruzzo area (central Italy), through an integrated analysis of geo-structural, seismic and gravimetric data. We generated three thematic: "faults", "earthquakes" and "gravimetric" data: i) The fault dataset consists of data extracted from the available structural and geological maps (ITHACA catalogue; the "Neotectonic Map of Italy" 1:500.000; several geological sheets 1:50.000 from ISPRA CARG project; the Geological Map 1:100.000 Sheet 1), and many geological studies. ii) The earthquakes datasets was created by merging the data from historical and instrumental Catalogues (CPTI04 and CPTI11; ISIDE - INGV). iii) The gravimetric datasets consists in the Multiscale Derivative Analysis (MDA) of the Bouguer anomaly map of the area, whose maxima show the presence of density lineaments. The merge of these datasets in GIS environment, highlighted four possible scenarios of correlation between faults, earthquakes and MDA maxima: 1) the existence of active faults, revealed by a strong correlation between epicentral location of seismic clusters, fault positions and MDA maxima; 2) the existence of buried active faults, highlighted by a good correlation between MDA maxima and epicentral positions, without correspondence with faults known from geological data; 3) the existence of inactive or silent faults, detected by the presence of faults reported in the geological datasets and literature which are associated with MDA maxima, without correlation of earthquakes; 4) the existence of faults not correlated with MDA maxima; this could be due to faults putting in contact two lithologies with a similar density. A comparison between seismic hypocentral locations and the fault geometry retrieved by DEXP

  6. Commentary of Uruguay geological structure - Present status of its mining activity

    This work is about the geological structure of Uruguay and its mining activity. The Rio de la Plata socket basin and the Rivera crystalline island are the oldest geochronological structures in Uruguay. This unit represents the 60% of the crystalline field and belongs to the Uruguay orogenetic Precambrian cycle. In the north there are sedimentary rocks and granites of the Upper Precambrian period.The mining and processing of marble, granite, agate, amethyst and metallic minerals are declared of national interest

  7. CONTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE ALTIMETRY DATA IN GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE RESEARCH IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    T. D. Tran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area is bordered on the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, and the Australian-Indo plate in the Northeast, in the East and in the South, respectively. It is a large area with the diversely complicated conditions of geological structure. In spite of over the past many years of investigation, marine geological structure in many places have remained poorly understood because of a thick seawater layer as well as of the sensitive conflicts among the countries in the region. In recent years, the satellite altimeter technology allows of enhancement the marine investigation in any area. The ocean surface height is measured by a very accurate radar altimeter mounted on a satellite. Then, that surface can be converted into marine gravity anomaly or bathymetry by using the mathematical model. It is the only way to achieve the data with a uniform resolution in acceptable time and cost. The satellite altimetry data and its variants are essential for understanding marine geological structure. They provide a reliable opportunity to geologists and geophysicists for studying the geological features beneath the ocean floor. Also satellite altimeter data is perfect for planning the more detailed shipboard surveys. Especially, it is more meaningful in the remote or sparsely surveyed regions. In this paper, the authors have effectively used the satellite altimetry and shipboard data in combination. Many geological features, such as seafloor spreading ridges, fault systems, volcanic chains as well as distribution of sedimentary basins are revealed through the 2D, 3D model methods of interpretation of satellite-shipboard-derived data and the others. These results are improved by existing boreholes and seismic data in the study area.

  8. Contribution of Satellite Altimetry Data in Geological Structure Research in the South China Sea

    Dung Tran, Tuan; Ho, Thi Huong Mai

    2016-06-01

    The study area is bordered on the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, and the Australian-Indo plate in the Northeast, in the East and in the South, respectively. It is a large area with the diversely complicated conditions of geological structure. In spite of over the past many years of investigation, marine geological structure in many places have remained poorly understood because of a thick seawater layer as well as of the sensitive conflicts among the countries in the region. In recent years, the satellite altimeter technology allows of enhancement the marine investigation in any area. The ocean surface height is measured by a very accurate radar altimeter mounted on a satellite. Then, that surface can be converted into marine gravity anomaly or bathymetry by using the mathematical model. It is the only way to achieve the data with a uniform resolution in acceptable time and cost. The satellite altimetry data and its variants are essential for understanding marine geological structure. They provide a reliable opportunity to geologists and geophysicists for studying the geological features beneath the ocean floor. Also satellite altimeter data is perfect for planning the more detailed shipboard surveys. Especially, it is more meaningful in the remote or sparsely surveyed regions. In this paper, the authors have effectively used the satellite altimetry and shipboard data in combination. Many geological features, such as seafloor spreading ridges, fault systems, volcanic chains as well as distribution of sedimentary basins are revealed through the 2D, 3D model methods of interpretation of satellite-shipboard-derived data and the others. These results are improved by existing boreholes and seismic data in the study area.

  9. The structural-geological map of the Emilia-Romagna Apennines (1:250.000)

    Cerrina Feroni, A.; Ottria, G.; Martinelli, P.; Martelli, L.; Catanzariti, R.

    2003-04-01

    The Structural-Geological Map of the Emilia-Romagna Apennines (1:250.000) faces problems regarding the polyphase structural evolution of the Emilia-Romagna sector of the Northern Apennines; in many cases the proposed solutions are unconventional and innovative. The Structural-Geological Map represents the result of a positive collaboration between the scientific community (Italian National Research Council and universities) and the Emilia-Romagna Region. The scientific results and the methodological planning have been presented on the Third Seminary on the Geological Cartography (Bologna, February 2002). In the Structural-Geological Map the deformative features (overthrusts, axial planes, fold axes, regional overturned limbs) belonging to the Alpine tectonic cycle (Mesoalpine Phase) have been separated from the deformations of the Apenninic tectonic cycle. The Mesoalpine tectonics has been split in two events (Late Paleocene-Early Eocene and Middle Eocene) and it has been connected to a geodynamic setting consistent with a eastward subduction and a westernward emplacement (i.e. toward the Europe continental margin) of the cover structural units (Ligurides) (Late Paleocene-Early Eocene early phase). At the end of the collisional process, the Middle Eocene phase (Ligurian Phase) controlled the development of an Adria-verging asymmetrical belt, antithetic to the Alpine belt of the Western Alps-Corsica sector. The exumation of the Mesoalpine stacking during the Early Oligocene, testified by the detritism in the episutural Oligocene basins (thrust top basins), marks the transition from the Alpine tectonic cycle to the Apenninic one. The polyphase evolution of the Northern Apennines is recorded in the siliciclastic successions of the Oligocene-Miocene foredeep (Macigno, Cervarola, Marnoso-Arenacea formations). The foredeep final structure represents a regional duplex structure (synorogenic duplex) outcropping in the tectonic halfwindow of the Romagna Apennines (Romagna

  10. Neutronic analysis of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor

    Highlights: • We develop a detailed MCNP model of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor. • We present a simplified approach to considering burnup. • The model is validated against available reactor data. • We present evidence of inaccuracies in the ENDF B/VII zirconium libraries. - Abstract: The United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. In support of the GSTR’s relicensing efforts, this project developed and validated a Monte Carlo N-Particle Version 5 (MCNP5) model of the GSTR reactor. The model provided estimates of the excess reactivity, power distribution and the fuel temperature, water temperature, void, and power reactivity coefficients for the current and limiting core. The MCNP5 model predicts a limiting core excess reactivity of $6.48 with a peak rod power of 22.2 kW. The fuel and void reactivity coefficients for the limiting core are strongly negative, and the core water reactivity coefficient is slightly positive, consistent with other TRIGA analyses. The average fuel temperature reactivity coefficient of the full power limiting core is −0.0135 $/K while the average core void coefficient is −0.069 $/K from 0% to 20% void. The core water temperature reactivity coefficient is +0.012 $/K

  11. Enhanced recovery of subsurface geological structures using compressed sensing and the Ensemble Kalman filter

    Sana, Furrukh

    2015-07-26

    Recovering information on subsurface geological features, such as flow channels, holds significant importance for optimizing the productivity of oil reservoirs. The flow channels exhibit high permeability in contrast to low permeability rock formations in their surroundings, enabling formulation of a sparse field recovery problem. The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation of subsurface parameters, such as permeability. However, the EnKF often fails to recover and preserve the channel structures during the estimation process. Compressed Sensing (CS) has shown to significantly improve the reconstruction quality when dealing with such problems. We propose a new scheme based on CS principles to enhance the reconstruction of subsurface geological features by transforming the EnKF estimation process to a sparse domain representing diverse geological structures. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed scheme provides an efficient mechanism to incorporate and preserve structural information in the estimation process and results in significant enhancement in the recovery of flow channel structures.

  12. Theory of Geological Anomaly in Remote Sensing

    2001-01-01

    Geological anomaly is geological body or complex body with obviously different compositions, structures or orders of genesis as compared with those in the surrounding areas. Geological anomaly, restrained by the geological factors closely associated with ore-forming process, is an important clue to ore deposits. The geological anomaly serves as a geological sign to locate ore deposits. Therefore, it is very important to study how to define the characteristics of geological anomaly and further to locate the changes in these characteristics. In this paper, the authors propose the geological anomaly based on the remote-sensing images and data, and expound systematically such image features as scale, size, boundary, morphology and genesis of geological anomalies. Then the authors introduce the categorization of the geological anomalies according to their geneses. The image characteristics of some types of geological anomalies, such as the underground geological anomaly, are also explained in detail. Based on the remote-sensing interpretation of these geological anomalies, the authors conclude that the forecasting and exploration of ore deposits should be focused on the following three aspects: (1) the analysis of geological setting and geological anomaly; (2) the analysis of circular geological anomaly, and (3) the comprehensive forecasting of ore deposits and the research into multi-source information.

  13. Structural analysis for Diagnosis

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...

  14. Structural analysis for diagnosis

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem of...

  15. 3D stochastic inversion of potential field data using structural geologic constraints

    Shamsipour, Pejman; Schetselaar, Ernst; Bellefleur, Gilles; Marcotte, Denis

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a new method to include structural orientation constraints into potential field inversion using a stochastic framework. The method considers known geological interfaces and planar orientation data such as stratification estimated from seismic surveys or drill hole information. Integrating prior geological information into inversion methods can effectively reduce ambiguity and improve inversion results. The presented approach uses cokriging prediction with derivatives. The method is applied to two synthetic models to demonstrate its suitability for 3D inversion of potential field data. The method is also applied to the inversion of gravity data collected over the Lalor volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit at Snow Lake, Central Manitoba, Canada. The results show that using a structurally-constrained inversion leads to a better-resolved solution.

  16. Study of gamma ray analysis software's. Application to activation analysis of geological samples

    A comparative evaluation of the gamma-ray analysis software VISPECT, in relation to two commercial gamma-ray analysis software packages, OMNIGAM (EG and G Ortec) and SAMPO 90 (Canberra) was performed. For this evaluation, artificial gamma ray spectra were created, presenting peaks of different intensities and located at four different regions of the spectrum. Multiplet peaks with equal and different intensities, but with different channel separations, were also created. The results obtained showed a good performance of VISPECT in detecting and analysing single and multiplet peaks of different intensities in the gamma-ray spectrum. Neutron activation analysis of the geological reference material GS-N (IWG-GIT) and of the granite G-94, used in a Proficiency Testing Trial of Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories, was also performed , in order to evaluate the VISEPCT software in the analysis of real samples. The results obtained by using VISPECT were as good or better than the ones obtained using the other programs. (author)

  17. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in

  18. Self-Discovery of Structural Geology Concepts using Interactive 3D Visualization

    Billen, M. I.; Saunders, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mastering structural geology concepts that depend on understanding three-dimensional (3D) geometries and imagining relationships among unseen subsurface structures are fundamental skills for geologists. Traditionally these skills are developed first, through use of 2D drawings of 3D structures that can be difficult to decipher or 3D physical block models that show only a limited set of relationships on the surfaces of the blocks, followed by application and testing of concepts in field settings. We hypothesize that this learning process can be improved by providing repeated opportunities to evaluate and explore synthetic 3D structures using interactive 3D visualization software. We present laboratory modules designed for undergraduate structural geology curriculum using a self-discovery approach to teach concepts such as: the Rule of V’s, structure separation versus fault slip, and the more general dependence of structural exposure on surface topography. The laboratory modules are structured to allow students to discover and articulate each concept from observations of synthetic data both on traditional maps and using the volume visualization software 3DVisualizer. Modules lead students through exploration of data (e.g., a dipping layered structure exposed in ridge-valley topography or obliquely offset across a fault) by allowing them to interactively view (rotate, pan, zoom) the exposure of structures on topographic surfaces and to toggle on/off the full 3D structure as a transparent colored volume. This tool allows student to easily visually understand the relationships between, for example a dipping structure and its exposure on valley walls, as well as how the structure extends beneath the surface. Using this method gives students more opportunities to build a mental library of previously-seen relationships from which to draw-on when applying concepts in the field setting. These laboratory modules, the data and software are freely available from KeckCAVES.

  19. Diacritical Seismic Signatures for Complex Geological Structures: Case Studies from Shushan Basin (Egypt and Arkoma Basin (USA

    Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic reflection techniques show an imperative role in imaging complex geological structures and are becoming more acceptable as data interpreting tools in 2D/3D view. These subsurface geological structures provide complex seismic signature due to their geometrical behavior. Consequently, it is extremely difficult to interpret these seismic sections in terms of subsurface configuration. The main goal of this paper is to introduce seismic attributes as a powerful tool to interpret complex geological structures in different geological settings. In order to image these complex geological features, multiple seismic attributes such as coherence and curvature have been applied to the seismic data generated over the Shushan Basin (Egypt and Arkoma Basin (USA. Each type of geological structure event usually generates a unique seismic “signature” that we can recognize and identify by using these seismic attributes. In Shushan Basin (Egypt, they provide a framework and constraint during the interpretation and can help prevent mistakes during a 3D structural modeling. In Arkoma Basin (USA, the seismic attributes results provide useful information for broader analyses of the complex structural relations in the region where the Ouachita orogenic belt intersects with the southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Finally, complex geological structures provide dramatically diacritical seismic signatures that can be easily interpreted by collaborating conventional seismic interpretation techniques with multiple seismic attributes.

  20. Structural geology mapping using PALSAR data in the Bau gold mining district, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-08-01

    The application of optical remote sensing data for geological mapping is difficult in the tropical environment. The persistent cloud coverage, dominated vegetation in the landscape and limited bedrock exposures are constraints imposed by the tropical climate. Structural geology investigations that are searching for epithermal or polymetallic vein-type ore deposits can be developed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data in tropical/sub-tropical regions. The Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo has been selected for this study. The Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits, but gold mineralization at Bau is much more structurally controlled. Geological analyses coupled with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing data were used to detect structural elements associated with gold mineralization. The PALSAR data were used to perform lithological-structural mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Structural elements were detected along the SSW to NNE trend of the Tuban fault zone and Tai Parit fault that corresponds to the areas of occurrence of the gold mineralization in the Bau Limestone. Most of quartz-gold bearing veins occur in high-angle faults, fractures and joints within massive units of the Bau Limestone. The results show that four deformation events (D1-D4) in the structures of the Bau district and structurally controlled gold mineralization indicators, including faults, joints and fractures are detectable using PALSAR data at both regional and district scales. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide preliminary information for exploration potentially interesting areas of epithermal or polymetallic vein-type mineralization using the PALSAR data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions.

  1. Geologic and morphological structure of the Bell region (a photographic map of the surface of Venus, plate V-23)

    Four geologic and morphological units have been distinguished within the plate: (1) relics of complexes predating the plains; (2) banded plains; (3) smooth plains; and (4) volcanic and tectonic complexes. The Bell rise includes several individual large volcanic structures. Besides, faults of different directions and meteorite craters have been interpreted. The history of the region's geological development has been briefly examined

  2. Survey concerning geology and geological structure of sedimentary rock at Neogene in Horonobe-Cho, Hokkaido, Japan. Part 2

    Survey was conducted for the following purpose: obtaining data on the planar variation in depth of the oxidized zone, understanding of the transition from oxidized zone through the dissolution zone to the fresh rock zone, and depicting of weathering history at near-surface in the area where the Laboratory is planned to be built and also establishing of stratigraphy and geological structure of the Neogene strata in the area around the Omagari Fault. During the survey, drilling was done at 23 sites. The standard penetration test was conducted at one drilling site (H16-1-01). Data of hardness and color degree were obtained for the cored samples at the all sites. Vinyl chloride pipes (VP50) for observation were set up after the drilling. The survey results show thicknesses of the fill(Bk), clay zone (Ac), mudstone of the oxidized zone (Ms-1), mudstone of the dissolution zone (Ms-2), and mudstone of the fresh rock zone (Ms-3) are 0.7 m, 0.1-3.3 m, 0.4-32.2 m, 1.0-12.5 m, 0.5-14.0 m, respectively. N-values in average of the Ms-1, Ms-2, and Ms-3 were 14, 19, and >50, respectively. Underground water levels confirmed by the survey were 1.1-15.46 m in depth (H=79.9-59.4 m). Average RQD of Ms-2 and Ms-3 were 8% and 45%, respectively. Hardness and color degree of the samples of Ms-3 from the fresh rock zone are: Ld-values=408, L* (brightness) = 32.4, a* (positive: red, negative: green)=0.01, and b* (positive: yellow, negative: blue)=6.7. Levels (above sea level) of the top of the fresh rock zone is higher at the higher-elevation sites compared to those at the lower-elevation sites, suggesting that the level of the top of the fresh rock zone is not very different in this area regardless of topography. There is no significant correlation between the hardness, Ld-values, of the samples and top depth of the fresh rock zone. The color degree of a fresh rock doesn't depend on the point and indicate a similar value. This work was performed by Ueyama-shisui Co., Ltd. under contract

  3. Uncertainty analysis for 3D geological modeling using the Kriging variance

    Choi, Yosoon; Choi, Younjung; Park, Sebeom; Um, Jeong-Gi

    2014-05-01

    The credible estimation of geological properties is critical in many geosciences fields including the geotechnical engineering, environmental engineering, mining engineering and petroleum engineering. Many interpolation techniques have been developed to estimate the geological properties from limited sampling data such as borehole logs. The Kriging is an interpolation technique that gives the best linear unbiased prediction of the intermediate values. It also provides the Kriging variance which quantifies the uncertainty of the kriging estimates. This study provides a new method to analyze the uncertainty in 3D geological modeling using the Kriging variance. The cut-off values determined by the Kriging variance were used to effectively visualize the 3D geological models with different confidence levels. This presentation describes the method for uncertainty analysis and a case study which evaluates the amount of recoverable resources by considering the uncertainty.

  4. Analysis of the Geomorphology and Environmental Geological Problems of Huzhou on the Yangtze River Delta

    JIANG Yuehua; WANG Jingdong; YUAN Xueyin; WANG Runhua

    2004-01-01

    Geomorphically, Huzhou, which is on the Yangtze River delta is characterized mainly by plains, with small hills. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the environmental geological hazards both natural and those incurred by human activities in different morphologic units. The authors point out that most of the regional environmental geological problems in the natural geologic-morphologic conditions, such as crustal stability, foundation of soft soil, soil waterlogging and soil erosion, have insignificant effects to the society, or related countermeasures of prevention and control have been adopted. But environmental geological problems incurred by human being's economic activities become more and more severe, for example, water and soil pollution and land subsidence in plain areas resulting from overexploitation of groundwater, and landslides, karst collapses and water and soil loss etc. caused by quarrying in hilly areas.

  5. Bedrock geology of snyderville basin: Structural geology techniques applied to understanding the hydrogeology of a rapidly developing region, Summit County, Utah

    Keighley, K.E.; Yonkee, W.A.; Ashland, F.X.; Evans, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The availability of ground water is a problem for many communities throughout the west. As these communities continue to experience growth, the initial allocation of ground water supplies proves inadequate and may force restrictions on existing, and future, development plans. Much of this new growth relies on ground water supplies extracted from fractured bedrock aquifers. An example of a community faced with this problem is western Summit County, near Park City, Utah, This area has experienced significant water shortages coupled with a 50% growth rate in the past 10-15 years. Recent housing development rests directly on complexly deformed Triassic to Jurassic sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of the Mount Raymond-Absaroka thrust system. The primary fractured bedrock aquifers are the Nugget Sandstone, and limestones in the Thaynes and Twin Creek Formations. Ground water production and management strategies can be improved if the geometry of the structures and the flow properties of the fractured and folded bedrock can be established. We characterize the structures that may influence ground water flow at two sites: the Pinebrook and Summit Park subdivisions, which demonstrate abrupt changes (less than 1 mi/1.6 km) within the hydrogeologic systems. Geologic mapping at scales of 1:4500 (Pinebrook) and 1:9600 (Summit Park), scanline fracture mapping at the outcrop scale, geologic cross sections, water well data, and structural analysis, provides a clearer picture of the hydrogeologic setting of the aquifers in this region, and has been used to successfully site wells. In the Pinebrook area, the dominate map-scale structures of the area is the Twomile Canyon anticline, a faulted box-like to conical anticline. Widely variable bedding orientations suggest that the fold is segmented and is non-cylindrical and conical on the western limb with a fold axis that plunges to the northwest and also to the southeast, and forms a box-type fold between the middle and eastern

  6. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of radionuclide migration in porous geologic medium

    3H and 90Sr from a selected LILW (low and intermediate level radioactive wastes) repository base are taken as a sample. Uncertainty of mathematical model on radionuclide migration in porous geologic medium are analyzed by using Latin hypercube sampling techniques for seven uncertain parameters about hydrology and radionuclide absorption. In addition, parameter sensitivity analysis is performed by Spearman's partial rank correlation analysis

  7. Regional evolution of geological structure in south China and U mineralization

    This paper states the development laws of regional geological structure of South China and its controlling effect on uranium deposit evolution, and the characteristics of rich uranium formation in different periods of geo-history are analysed. It also discusses the relationship between the distribution of time and space and tectonic structure and environmental vicissitudes. The rock-magma activities-the strong formation of the Diwa Era is of great significance to the formation of uranium deposits within the region, especially to the formation of a series of multi-genesis polygene uranium deposits which are a potential direction in which to look for minerals within the region

  8. Geology, Soils and Basin-wide variations in Amazon Forest Structure and function

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Phillips, Oliver; Lopes-Gonzales, Gabriela; Lloyd, Jon; Rainfor Team

    2015-04-01

    Forest productivity, tree turnover time and above ground biomass vary across the Amazon Basin in an east-west gradient in a pattern which coincides with variations in soil nutrient availability and geology. Forest productivity rates are higher on the most nutrient rich soils close to the Andes while is lower in the ancient, highly weathered soils of central Amazonia. On the other hand above ground biomass is lower in the most productive forests and higher on the least, this being a consequence of higher tree turnover rates in the forests over less weathered and nutrient rich soils. Major geological events have influenced Amazonian soil characteristics profoundly and play an important role in explaining Basin-wide variations in forest biomass, growth and stem turnover rates. Here we show how geology and soil development combine to shape the functioning of Amazonian forests and its carbon stocks and fluxes. To assess the importance of edaphic properties in affect forest structure and dynamics, soil samples were collected in a total of 154 different forest plots across nine different Amazonian countries. Samples were analyzed for exchangeable cations, C, N, pH with various P fractions and soil physical properties also determined. Overall, forest structure and dynamics were found to be strongly and quantitatively related to edaphic conditions.

  9. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in hardrock regions of northern Tirunelveli district, southern India

    M Senthilkumar; R Arumugam; D Gnanasundar; D S C Thambi; E Sampath Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Geological and structural influences on groundwater flow and quality were evaluated in the present study in the hardrock regions of Tirunelveli District, southern India. Groundwater is a major source of freshwater in this region to cater to the requirements of domestic and agricultural activity, as there are no surface water resources. Geologically, the area is characterized by charnockites and garnetiferous biotite gneiss. Groundwater in this region is found to occur in the weathered portion under unconfined condition and in fractured/fissured portions under unconfined to semi-confined condition. Existence of deep-seated fractures are minimal. Lineaments/dykes play a major role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater in the region. Lineaments/dykes of the study area can be broadly divided into two types: north–south and west–east oriented structures. Analysis and field observations revealed that the north–south dykes act as a barrier of groundwater while the west–east oriented structures behave as a carrier of groundwater. Both quality and quantity of groundwater is different on the upstream and downstream sides of the dyke. Hence, it is conclusive that the west–east oriented dykes in this region are highly potential and act as a conduit for groundwater movement from recharge areas to the discharge area.

  10. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  11. The application of multivariate data analysis in the interpretation of engineering geological parameters

    Kovács, József; Bodnár, Nikolett; Török, Ákos

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the evaluation of engineering geological laboratory test results of core drillings along the new metro line (line 4) in Budapest by using a multivariate data analysis. A data set of 30 core drillings with a total coring length of over 1500 meters was studied. Of the eleven engineering geological parameters considered in this study, only the five most reliable (void ratio, dry bulk density, angle of internal friction, cohesion and compressive strength) representing 1260 data points were used for multivariate (cluster and discriminant) analyses. To test the results of the cluster analysis discriminant analysis was used. The results suggest that the use of multivariate analyses allows the identification of different groups of sediments even when the data sets are overlapping and contain several uncertainties. The tests also prove that the use of these methods for seemingly very scattered parameters is crucial in obtaining reliable engineering geological data for design.

  12. The application of multivariate data analysis in the interpretation of engineering geological parameters

    Kovács József

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the evaluation of engineering geological laboratory test results of core drillings along the new metro line (line 4 in Budapest by using a multivariate data analysis. A data set of 30 core drillings with a total coring length of over 1500 meters was studied. Of the eleven engineering geological parameters considered in this study, only the five most reliable (void ratio, dry bulk density, angle of internal friction, cohesion and compressive strength representing 1260 data points were used for multivariate (cluster and discriminant analyses. To test the results of the cluster analysis discriminant analysis was used. The results suggest that the use of multivariate analyses allows the identification of different groups of sediments even when the data sets are overlapping and contain several uncertainties. The tests also prove that the use of these methods for seemingly very scattered parameters is crucial in obtaining reliable engineering geological data for design.

  13. Method of magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. Experimental measurements for geologic structures determination

    The evaluation of the safety of a deep geologic repository for dangerous materials requires the knowledge of the interstitial system of the surrounding host rock. A method is proposed for the determination of geologic structures (in particular fractures) from the magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated using a SQUID magneto-gradient meter. A measurement tool using a new magnetic susceptibility captor and a testing bench have been developed. This tool allows the measurement of rocks with a magnetic susceptibility greater than 10-5 SI units and can generate magnetic susceptibility maps with 4 x 4 mm2 pixels. A magnetic visibility criterion has been defined which allows to foresee if a structure is visible or not. According to the measurements done, it is shown that any centimeter-scale structure with a sufficient magnetic contrast (20%) with respect to the matrix is visible. Therefore, the dip and the orientation of such structure can be determined with a 3 degree and a 5 degree precision, respectively. The position of the structure along the core axis is known with a 4 mm precision. On the other hand, about half of the magnetic contrasts observed do not correspond to the visual analyses and can be explained by very small variations of the mineralogic composition. This last point offers some interesting ways for future research using magnetic susceptibility mapping. (J.S.). 31 refs., 90 figs., 18 tabs., 2 photos., 6 appends

  14. Orthogonal Matching Pursuit for Enhanced Recovery of Sparse Geological Structures With the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Sana, Furrukh

    2016-02-23

    Estimating the locations and the structures of subsurface channels holds significant importance for forecasting the subsurface flow and reservoir productivity. These channels exhibit high permeability and are easily contrasted from the low-permeability rock formations in their surroundings. This enables formulating the flow channels estimation problem as a sparse field recovery problem. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation and calibration of subsurface reservoir model parameters, such as permeability. However, the conventional EnKF framework does not provide an efficient mechanism to incorporate prior information on the wide varieties of subsurface geological structures, and often fails to recover and preserve flow channel structures. Recent works in the area of compressed sensing (CS) have shown that estimating in a sparse domain, using algorithms such as the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), may significantly improve the estimation quality when dealing with such problems. We propose two new, and computationally efficient, algorithms combining OMP with the EnKF to improve the estimation and recovery of the subsurface geological channels. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed algorithms provide efficient mechanisms to incorporate and preserve structural information in the EnKF and result in significant improvements in recovering flow channel structures.

  15. Diacritical Seismic Signatures for Complex Geological Structures: Case Studies from Shushan Basin (Egypt) and Arkoma Basin (USA)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Hamed A. Alrefaee

    2014-01-01

    Seismic reflection techniques show an imperative role in imaging complex geological structures and are becoming more acceptable as data interpreting tools in 2D/3D view. These subsurface geological structures provide complex seismic signature due to their geometrical behavior. Consequently, it is extremely difficult to interpret these seismic sections in terms of subsurface configuration. The main goal of this paper is to introduce seismic attributes as a powerful tool to interpret complex ge...

  16. Potential structures for CO2 geological storage in the Baltic Sea: case study offshore Latvia

    Kazbulat Shogenov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on two structures in the Baltic offshore region (E6 and E7 structures in Latvia prospective for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2. Their CO2 storage capacities were estimated recently with different levels of reliability. Petrophysical, geophysical, mineralogical and geochemical parameters of reservoir rocks represented by quartz sandstones of the Deimena Formation of Middle Cambrian in two wells and properties of Silurian and Ordovician cap rocks were additionally studied and interpretedin the present contribution. Extended methodology on rock measurements and estimation of conservative and optimistic storage capacity are presented. Uncertainties and risks of CO2 storage in the offshore structure E6 estimated as the most prospective for CO2geological storage in the Baltic Region, and the largest among all onshore and offshore structures studied in Latvia, were discussed. We re-estimated the previous optimistic capacity of the E6 structure (265–630 Mt to 251–602 Mt. Considering fault system within the E6 structure we estimated capacity of two compartments of the reservoirseparately (E6-A and E6-B. Estimated by the optimistic approach CO2storage capacity of the E6-A part was 243–582 Mt (mean 365 Mt and E6-B part 8–20 Mt (mean 12 Mt. Conservative capacity was 97–233 Mt (mean 146 Mt in the E6-A, and 4–10 Mt (mean 6 Mt in the E6-B. The conservative average capacity of the E6-B part was in the same range as this capacity in the E7 structure (6 and 7 Mt respectively. The total capacity of the two structures E6 and E7, estimated using the optimistic approach was on average 411 Mt, and using the conservative approach, 159 Mt.

  17. TBR-2 structural analysis

    This paper presents the structural analysis developed during the TBR-2 tokamak project studies. Starting with electromagnetic interaction forces on each, toroidal and poloidal coils many structural calculations have been carried out using locally developed usual E.M. interaction codes and a finite element method stress code. Following the analysis it has been determined that there is radially inward force of 1235 kN and overturning torque of 243 kNm acting on toroidal coils. This stress and displacements due to in plane loads have been calculated using a finite element code which show that the maximum stress of 240 MPa and displacement of 0.21 mm can be present at the inner part of the toroidal field coil. (Author)

  18. Geology and structure of the Malpaso caldera and El Ocote ignimbrite, Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Nieto-Obregon, Jorge [Facultad de IngenierIa, UNAM, Coyoacan, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Aguirre-DIaz, Gerardo [Centro de Geociencias, UNAM, Campus Juriquilla, 76220, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)], E-mail: nieto@servidor.unam.mx, E-mail: ger@geociencias.unam.mx

    2008-10-01

    A new caldera, named Malpaso, is reported west of the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico. The Malpaso caldera is a volcano-tectonic depression, highly fractured and faulted, and was filled by voluminous pyroclastic products related to the caldera collapse. Due to these characteristics it as a graben caldera. It is truncated by younger normal faults of the Calvillo and Aguascalientes grabens. In this work we present a summary of the geologic and structural observations on this caldera, as well as a description of the main caldera product, the high-grade El Ocote ignimbrite.

  19. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (< 1 day) pumping tests, which facilitated the characterization of some of the fractures. The hydraulic properties were then used for other fractures that, according to geophysics and structural geology, belonged to the same families. Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  20. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology

    Fratesi, Sarah E.; Vacher, H. L.

    2008-01-01

    In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over…

  1. Comparing Geologic Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping: Desert Rats Data Analysis

    Feng, Wanda; Evans, Cynthia; Gruener, John; Eppler, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Geologic mapping involves interpreting relationships between identifiable units and landforms to understand the formative history of a region. Traditional field techniques are used to accomplish this on Earth. Mapping proves more challenging for other planets, which are studied primarily by orbital remote sensing and, less frequently, by robotic and human surface exploration. Systematic comparative assessments of geologic maps created by traditional mapping versus photogeology together with data from planned traverses are limited. The objective of this project is to produce a geologic map from data collected on the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 analog mission using Apollo-style traverses in conjunction with remote sensing data. This map is compared with a geologic map produced using standard field techniques.

  2. 3D gravity imaging of deep geological structure of Huangling Anticline in Three Gorges area, China

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, C.

    2010-12-01

    Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydraulic project in the world. Previous studies showed that Huangling Anticline is one of the main geological units in this area and has great influence on the safety of the dam, so it is important to investigate deep geological structure and evaluate stability of Huangling Anticline. Huangling Anticline locates in northern margin of Yangtze Block. It is surrounded by a few faults, and two of them are Xiannushan Fault and Yuan’an Fault, with NNW direction. There are also two main faults named Xinhua Fault and Yuyangguan-Tumen Fault with NNE and NE direction. These faults are regional faults with different sizes and cutting depth, and take charge of the development of geological structures in Three Gorges area with a long time. Two main arguments about the ability of inducing earthquakes of these faults were presented. One of the arguments suggested that these faults has weak or no enough activity to induce strong earthquakes, their key evidence is the thermoluminescence (TL) dating with some geological characteristics; the other was just opposite, in their opinion, Xiannushan Fault and Yuan’an Fault has deep cutting depth with great activity to induce strong earthquakes. However, they can not provide the evidences of deep geological structures and cutting depth of these faults. In our paper, 3D density structure of upper and middle crust beneath Three Gorges Dam and its adjacent regions is reconstructed by gravity imaging, using the Bouguer gravity anomaly and surface density constraints. Results of gravity imaging indicate that Huangling Anticline is a relatively high density zone. (1) Horizontally, Huangling Anticline is a huge U-shaped crystal rock controlled by Xiannushan Fault and Yuan’an Fault along NNW direction. In the southeast, Yuyangguan-Tumen Fault becomes the boundary of the anticline, and in the west, Xinhua Fault and Xiannushan Fault separate Huangling Anticline from Zigui basin; (2) From vertical profiles of

  3. Nasa's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program: Overview

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.

  4. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    Tiren, S.A. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-06-01

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB`s application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth. 46 refs, 30 figs, 18 tabs.

  5. Integration of geological information in a structured approach to development of a safety case

    The Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act, promulgated in June 2000, specifies that the siting process for a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in Japan shall consist of the following three stages: - In the first stage, a literature survey is conducted on a nation-wide scale. Preliminary investigation areas (PIAs) for potential candidate sites are then nominated, based on area-specific literature surveys focusing on the long-term stability of the geological environment; - Detailed investigation areas (DIAs) for candidate sites are then selected from PIAs following surface-based investigations (including boreholes) carried out to evaluate the key characteristics of the geological environment; - In the final third stage, detailed site characterisation, including studies in underground experimental facilities, leads to selection of the site for repository construction. Following discussions with relevant Government and nuclear industry organisations, the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) has decided to proceed with repository siting based entirely on an 'open solicitation procedure' (a call for volunteer host municipalities). NUMO promotes public involvement in decision making in the process of selecting sites, based on its basic policies, which consist of 'adopting of a stepwise approach', 'respecting voluntarism of municipalities' and 'ensuring transparency'. This volunteering process provides a unique challenge for ensuring transparency and traceability in development of conceptual site models which form a basis for repository concepts and associated safety cases in parallel with the step-wise siting process. A structured approach, therefore, is required to meet this target, which has been discussed partly in the light of development of Repository Concepts for given siting environments. The Siting Factors for selection of PIAs has also been developed. This paper illustrates a methodology for integrating geological information

  6. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB's application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth

  7. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities

    Finley, P.D.; Krason, J.

    1988-10-01

    Geological factors controlling the formation, stability, and distribution of gas hydrates of the Beaufort Sea region were investigated by basin analysis. Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data from the region were assembled and evaluated to determine the relationships of geological environments and gas hydrates. The Beaufort Sea is the southern part of the Arctic Ocean offshore of the North Slope of Alaska and the Yukon and Mackenzie districts of Canada. The Beaufort Sea study region extends northward from the Arctic coasts of Alaska and Canada between Point Barrow on the west to Cape Beaufort on the east. The northern boundary of the Beaufort Sea study region is 72.5{degrees}N. The study region comprises broad continental shelves, slopes, rises, and the Arctic abyssal plain. 84 refs., 76 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Determination of hafnium and zirconium in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    In this paper, neutron activation analysis was developed for determining hafnium and zirconium in geological materials. The USGS geological standard rocks GSP-1 (granodiorite) and W-1 (di abase). The Brazilian geological standards GB-1 (granite) and BB-1 (basalt) from Instituto de Geociencias da Universidade da Bahia and P-1 a uraniferous rock from Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil were analyzed. Hafnium present in these rocks was analyzed by purely instrumental method by irradiating with both thermal and epithermal neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the case of zirconium depending on the sample a radiochemical separation was required. 154 Eu and 152 Eu radioisotopes emit gamma rays with energies too close to those emitted by 95 Zr and they cause interferences. (author)

  9. Summarized analysis on potential of uranium resources in China and strategy for uranium geologic exploration

    Through the summarized analysis on the potential of uranium resources and the degree of uranium geologic work, the author proposes the strategy of uranium geologic exploration in China as follows: the Chinese government should make a long-term program for uranium geologic exploration and insist on the basic policy to be based on domestic resources, to meet the domestic demand, to increase of the storage (the increase of storage includes active utilization of uranium resources of foreign countries), and to do the uranium exploration properly in advance. Taking the ISL-amenable sandstone-hosted uranium deposit as the major prospecting target combined with actively exploring other types of economic uranium deposits should be taken as the basic exploration strategy. Guiding by new geologic-metallogenic theory system, using advanced exploration method and technique system, GIS prediction method system and digital geologic map series to do uranium exploration are regarded as basic technical idea to accelerate ascertaining potential uranium resources in China, and to provide powerful resources guarantee for the development of China's nuclear industry. (author)

  10. Investigation of the geologic and tectonic structures of Bafa Lake and Akbuk Gulf (terrestrial and marine areas) by means of gravity and magnetic methods

    Edremit, Şüheda; Özel, Erdeniz

    2016-04-01

    Geologic units of Bafa Lake and Akbuk Gulf, which have very importance in point of geologic and tectonic structure, are generally are classified by high-grade metamorphic units of the Menderes Core Complex, Cycladic Complex (schist, marble, eclogite), Afyon zone meta sedimentary and Pan-African basement rocks, Neogene volcanic-sedimentary rocks and alluvium. As for tectonic structures of study areas are; Izmir-Balikesir Transfer Zone also affected the Buyuk Menderes Graben, Bornova Flysch Zone, Menderes Massif and Lycian Nappes. Regional researches were studied to reveal using Turkey Bouguer Anomaly and Turkey Aeromagnetic regional map with gravity method used for geologic structures analysis and magnetic method used to explain main structure, tectonic conditions of underground. General geologic structure and tectonic lineaments of region were examined and interpretated compatibility with gravity and magnetic values. When the geologic and tectonic structures on the terrestrial areas are generally investigated, graben systems and linearities are clearly seen on the Bouguer Anomaly map. Positive values are seen in the Bornova Flysch Zone and Menderes Massif areas at the north of study areas arising from high-density ophiolitic and metamorphic units. Graben areas in the Menderes Massif are observed negative gravity values on the low-density young alluviums. Positive gravity values are increased up to 50-60 mgal on the metamorphic rocks that are named Cycladic Complex located southwest of study areas. At the aeromagnetic regional magnetic map, gamma values about -100 observed on the Menderes Massif region are indicated metagranite rocks that are Paleozoic crystalline structure. Gamma values, which are changed between -100 and +100 at the transition areas granite with schists, are obviously revealed this transition region. Located northwest of study areas Upper Miocene-Pliocene aged from sedimentary rocks on the terrestrial carbonates and nonsegregated terrestrial

  11. Thermal Performance Analysis of a Geologic Borehole Repository

    Reagin, Lauren [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-16

    The Brazilian Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) proposed a design for the disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) based on the IAEA Borehole Disposal of Sealed Radioactive Sources (BOSS) design that would allow the entirety of Brazil’s inventory of DSRS to be disposed in a single borehole. The proposed IPEN design allows for 170 waste packages (WPs) containing DSRS (such as Co-60 and Cs-137) to be stacked on top of each other inside the borehole. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the thermal performance of a conservative approach to the IPEN proposal with the equivalent of two WPs and two different inside configurations using Co-60 as the radioactive heat source. The current WP configuration (heterogeneous) for the IPEN proposal has 60% of the WP volume being occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source and the remaining 40% as vacant space. The second configuration (homogeneous) considered for this project was a homogeneous case where 100% of the WP volume was occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source. The computational models for the thermal analyses of the WP configurations with the Co-60 heat source considered three different cooling mechanisms (conduction, radiation, and convection) and the effect of mesh size on the results from the thermal analysis. The results of the analyses yielded maximum temperatures inside the WPs for both of the WP configurations and various mesh sizes. The heterogeneous WP considered the cooling mechanisms of conduction, convection, and radiation. The temperature results from the heterogeneous WP analysis suggest that the model is cooled predominantly by conduction with effect of radiation and natural convection on cooling being negligible. From the thermal analysis comparing the two WP configurations, the results suggest that either WP configuration could be used for the design. The mesh sensitivity results verify the meshes used and results obtained from the thermal analyses were close to being

  12. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological materials from Northern Palawan and Mariduque Island, Philippines

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological materials comprising of heavy mineral panned concentrates and surface soil samples taken from northern Palawan and Marinduque Island, Philippines was conducted. This work was carried out primarily to determine the distribution of uranium, thorium, rare earths and other trace elements in the Philippine environment in connection with the nationwide geochemical exploration program and the IAEA technical co-operation project on gamma ray spectrometric survey in the country. Moreover, the geochemical data obtained will form part of the national database for nuclear resource assessment, mineral exploration and environmental studies. The utilization of the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique in the multielemental determination of geological materials has been very useful in mineral exploration, environmental studies and other related researches. The sensitivity of this technique has been very effective not only in the determination of the major elements but for the trace elements as well. In this study, about 96 geological samples wee analyzed for 15 elements after the spectral analysis. In all, 810 elemental determinations were completed. In the northern Palawan district, the areas with high radioactivity were disclosed by the relatively high concentrations of thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium. Moreover, areas with possible potential for gold was delineated as well as for the rare earth metals. In Marinduque Island, the distribution of the elements are generally sporadic which indicate various lithological sources and a diverse geology. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

  13. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    K. Jourde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas – called acquisition kernels – and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernels approach allows to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to perform in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to construct. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon/gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless to constrain the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for La Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano.

  14. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernel approach allows one to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to be performed in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to be constructed. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon-gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless for constraining the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly, the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for the La Soufrière volcano of Guadeloupe.

  15. A project of classification of large geologic structures of the earth's crust according to the conditions of radioactive waste disposal

    A firm tendency outlined in recent years consists in using the lithosphere as a site of disposal of highly toxic and power rich radioactive wastes, which extends considerably the range of problems connected with the geologic reasons for these measures in every definite case. A traditional information on a geologic object, on physical-chemical, geotechnical and hydrogeologic processes occuring in undisturbed conditions and expected after the underground repository creation is not sufficient at present. Modern data on the earth's crust power, on the range and planetary centrifugal direction of the heatmass transfer processes are indicative of the necessity to take into consideration a possible relation of a geologic object to deepseated zones of enclosing large geologic structures; a density of heat flows and an intensity of mass transfer in a section: deep crustal zones → earth's surface (basement → earth's surface -- for sedimentary basins); the resulting effects of interactions of the natural thermal and geochemical fields with analogous artificial formations - products of radioactive element disintegration in the buried waste composition; seismic effects of decreasing the volume of sedimentary rock as a result of their catagenetic transformations in deep-seated zones of sedimentary basins. A project of general classification of geologic megastructures according to conditions of radioactive wastes burial was developed and is discussed. The project is based on a concept of power potential of large geologic structures involving their seismic activity and geologic-geochemical effects of deep heat and mass transfer in the earth's crust upper parts

  16. Structural analysis of DAEs

    Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    2002-01-01

    Differential algebraic equations (DAEs) constitute a fundamental model class for many modelling purposes in engineering and other sciences, especially for dynamical simulation of component based systems. This thesis describes a practical methodology and approach for analysing general DAE. The...... underlying ODE for finding consistent initial values and solve the initial value problem for the original DAE. As a methodology for integrating the augmented underlying ODE, the dummy derivative method is investigated. The methodology avoids the traditional stability and drift-of problems of using the...... structural index analysis of DAE is original in the sense that it is based on a new matrix representation of the structural information of a general DAE system instead of a graph oriented representation. Also the presentation of the theory is found to be more complete compared to other presentations, since...

  17. Using AutoCAD for descriptive geometry exercises. in undergraduate structural geology

    Jacobson, Carl E.

    2001-02-01

    The exercises in descriptive geometry typically utilized in undergraduate structural geology courses are quickly and easily solved using the computer drafting program AutoCAD. The key to efficient use of AutoCAD for descriptive geometry involves taking advantage of User Coordinate Systems, alternative angle conventions, relative coordinates, and other aspects of AutoCAD that may not be familiar to the beginning user. A summary of these features and an illustration of their application to the creation of structure contours for a planar dipping bed provides the background necessary to solve other problems in descriptive geometry with the computer. The ease of the computer constructions reduces frustration for the student and provides more time to think about the principles of the problems.

  18. Structural geology of the Fuegian Andes and Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt - Tierra del Fuego Island

    Menichetti, Marco; Lodolo, Emanuele; Tassone, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    A synthesis of the structural geology of the Tierra del Fuego Island, which integrates a new data set derived from field surveys and literature data of the last few years, is presented here. The main geological features of the region developed during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Andean orogenic cycle that started in the Middle to Late Jurassic with a back-arc extension, crustal stretching and widespread volcanism, related to the break-up of Gondwanaland. An extensional fault system deriving from the...

  19. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala); Estudios geologico-estructurales y geofisicos en Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R.; Marti, D.; Flecha, I. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume Almera. Barcelona (Spain); Escuder Viruete, J. [Universidad complutense de Madrid. Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  20. Separation of interfering elements in the neutron activation analysis of lanthanides in geological materials

    A chemical procedure has been developed for the separation of U, Th, Fe, Sc, Na,Ta, and Mo which interfere in the neutron activation analysis of the lanthanide elements in geological materials. This procedure is based on the solvent extraction of interferents using a solution of tetracycline in benzyl alcohol. The lanthanide elements remaining in the aqueous phase are coprecipitated on calcium oxalate or ferric hydroxide for irradiation and subsequent determination by gamma ray spectrometry. The chemical separation procedure was applied in the analysis of lanthanides in two international geological reference materials GSP-1 (USGS), GS-N (CRPG) and in the analysis of a volcanic rock from Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil. The sensitivities for all the lanthanides were determined. (author)

  1. VISPECT program evaluation in gamma-ray spectra analysis of neutron-activated geological samples

    A comparative evaluation of gamma-ray analysis software VISPECT in relation to two commercial gamma-ray analysis software packages OMNIGAM (EG and GORTEC) and SAMPO 90 (CANBERRA) was performed. For this evaluation, artificial gamma-ray spectra were created, presenting peaks of different intensities and located at different regions of the spectrum. Multiplet peaks with equal and different intensities, but with different channel separations were also created. Neutron activation analysis of the reference material GS-N (IWG-GIT) was also performed, aiming the evaluation of the program VISPECT in the analysis of a geological sample. (author)

  2. Crustal structural survey for the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, utilizing geophysical and geological information

    Gravity, Magnetic (airborne, Magnet and Magsat), heat flow and seismicity available data for the state of Minas Gerais and adjacent regions is here analyzed, discussed and integrated with geologic information. The Late Archean crustal structure is defined as blocks of granite-greenstone separated by belts of high-grade terrains. The belts in eastern and southern Minas Gerais represent the lower parts of the Vitoria, Sao Paulo and Parana Blocks, which were up thrusted over the Brasilia Block through low-angle ductile simple shear Zones. That regional structure is cut and somewhat displaced by NW, ENE, NE and Ns fault sets. These faults are mostly related to the Transamazonian Event, and their geological expression appears to be as high-angle ductile simple shear zones. The development of the Middle/upper proterozoic folded sequences, the incidence of the Brasiliano/Uruacuano thermo tectonic events and the geometry of the Sao Francisco Craton were highly influenced by the preexistent weakness zones. The high-grade terrains, the borders of the Brasilia Block and the Transamazonian lineaments have been preferentially affected. The tectono-magmatic manifestations of the Wealdenian Reactivation, related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, occurred mostly among the uplifted zones (Alto Paranaiba Uplift) that developed partially until the rift stage (Mantiqueira Uplift). These processes clearly reveal the influence of the old structures of the state of Minas Gerais. The Mantiqueira Uplift presents a more accentuated seismic activity and thermal flow regime than the neighboring regions, so corresponding to the present less stable area of Minas Gerais. (DJM)

  3. Isotopic geology

    Born from the application to geology of nuclear physics techniques, the isotopic geology has revolutionized the Earth's sciences. Beyond the dating of rocks, the tracer techniques have permitted to reconstruct the Earth's dynamics, to measure the temperatures of the past (giving birth to paleoclimatology) and to understand the history of chemical elements thanks to the analysis of meteorites. Today, all domains of Earth sciences appeal more or less to the methods of isotopic geology. In this book, the author explains the principles, methods and recent advances of this science: 1 - isotopes and radioactivity; 2 - principles of isotope dating; 3 - radio-chronological methods; 4 - cosmogenic isotope chronologies; 5 - uncertainties and radio-chronological results; 6 - geochemistry of radiogenic isotopes; 7 - geochemistry of stable isotopes; 8 - isotopic geology and dynamical analysis of reservoirs. (J.S.)

  4. Analysis of geological setting of uranium mineralization in Jiuquling area, Hunan

    The paper deals with the results of uranium region research in Jiuquling area. It is indicated that the uranium mineralization occurs in particular geological setting characterized by the superimposition of suitable structure framework, favourable lithology, thermal metamorphism zone, hydrothermal veins and related alteration. The main target for the exploration in the future is represented by the exocontact type uranium mineralization hosted in Cambrian carbonaceous and thermo-metamorphic rocks along the interlayered fractured and/or fissured zone. (authors)

  5. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102475 Chen Shiliang(No.4 Geological Party of Fujian Province,Ningde 352100,China)A Brief Analysis on Geothermy in the Nantai Isle of Fuzhou Municipality,Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,28(4),2009,p.310-314,1 illus.,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:geothermal exploration,Fujian ProvinceBased on the geochemistry and geophysical

  6. 3D Reconstruction of geological structures based on remote sensing data: example from Anaran anticline, Lurestan province, Zagros folds and thrust belt, Iran.

    Snidero, M.; Amilibia, A.; Gratacos, O.; Muñoz, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    This work presents a methodological workflow for the 3D reconstruction of geological surfaces at regional scale, based on remote sensing data and geological maps. This workflow has been tested on the reconstruction of the Anaran anticline, located in the Zagros Fold and Thrust belt mountain front. The used remote sensing data-set is a combination of Aster and Spot images as well as a high resolution digital elevation model. A consistent spatial positioning of the complete data-set in a 3D environment is necessary to obtain satisfactory results during the reconstruction. The Aster images have been processed by the Optimum Index Factor (OIF) technique, in order to facilitate the geological mapping. By pansharpening of the resulting Aster image with the SPOT panchromatic one we obtain the final high-resolution image used during the 3D mapping. Structural data (dip data) has been acquired through the analysis of the 3D mapped geological traces. Structural analysis of the resulting data-set allows us to divide the structure in different cylindrical domains. Related plunge lines orientation has been used to project data along the structure, covering areas with little or no information. Once a satisfactory dataset has been acquired, we reconstruct a selected horizon following the dip-domain concept. By manual editing, the obtained surfaces have been adjusted to the mapped geological limits as well as to the modeled faults. With the implementation of the Discrete Smooth Interpolation (DSI) algorithm, the final surfaces have been reconstructed along the anticline. Up to date the results demonstrate that the proposed methodology is a powerful tool for 3D reconstruction of geological surfaces when working with remote sensing data, in very inaccessible areas (eg. Iran, China, Africa). It is especially useful in semiarid regions where the structure strongly controls the topography. The reconstructed surfaces clearly show the geometry in the different sectors of the structure

  7. Determination of neodymium and gadolinium in geologic samples by neutron activation analysis

    The determination of Nd and Gd present in rocks by neutron activation analysis is aimed at. A separation procedure for the rare earth group of elements is presented. The method is based on the retention of 233Pa, 182Ta and 46Sc by hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) in a 6M HClO4 medium. Those radioisotopes are interferences in the gamma-ray spectrum of 153Gd and 147Nd. The reliability of the method was tested by means of the geological standards BCR-1 and G-2 from the U.S. Geological Survey. The limitations of the instrumental neutron activation analysis and the advantages of the chemical separation are discussed for the special case of the Nd and Gd determinations. (Author)

  8. Applications of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for geological samples in AMD for uranium exploration programme

    Full text: Non-destructive Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has been used over last three decades in AMD for analysis of geological samples for estimation of Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Zr, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Au, Th and U. The estimation has been done using various international standards. The irradiation of samples has been done in Cirus/Apsara Reactor in BARC, Mumbai. The measurement of desired gamma emission are carried out by Huge detector. The various geological samples from different parts of India are: 1. granites 2. charnokites 3. Basalts 4. Carbonatites 5. Xenotime 6. Monazite 7. Core samples 8. Black slabs. The efficiency modelling of HPGe detector was done using different sources and mathematical and statistical techniques. (author)

  9. The geology and structural controls of the Olkaria geothermal system, Kenya

    Omenda, Peter A. [Kenya Power Company, Naivasha (Kenya)

    1998-02-01

    Olkaria is a high-temperature geothermal system located within the central sector of the Kenya Rift Valley and associated with an area of late Quaternary rhyolitic volcanism. The geology is dominated by Pleistocene-Holocene comenditic rhyolite flows on the surface and basalts, trachytes and tuffs in the subsurface. The Olkaria field can be separated into east and west stratigraphic zones with the divide through the Olkaria Hill. The reservoir characteristics also follow this zonation. The geothermal reservoir in the east is hosted within Pleistocene Plateau Trachytes, while in the west it is within the Pliocene Mau Tuffs. Structural, geochemical, and hydrothermal alteration patterns indicate that the west field is at the margin of the larger Olkaria system. The anomalous bicarbonate enrichment in the west sector is due to additional adsorbed carbon dioxide from the mantle. (Author)

  10. First Paleomagnetic Map of the Easternmost Mediterranean Derived from Combined Geophysical-Geological Analysis

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2014-05-01

    he easternmost Mediterranean is a tectonically complex region evolving in the long term and located in the midst of the progressive Afro-Eurasian collision (e.g., Ben-Avraham, 1978; Khain, 1984). Both rift-oceanic systems and terrane belts are known to have been formed in this collision zone (Stampfli et al., 2013). Despite years of investigation, the geological-geophysical structure of the easternmost Mediterranean is not completely known. The formation of its modern complex structure is associated with the evolution of the Neotethys Ocean and its margins (e.g., Ben-Avraham and Ginzburg, 1990; Robertson et al., 1991; Ben-Avraham et al., 2002). The easternmost Mediterranean was formed during the initial phase of the Neotethys in the Early and Late Permian (Golonka and Ford, 2000; Stampfli et al., 2013). At present this block of the ocean crust situated in the northern part of the Sinai plate (Ben-Avraham, 1978; Eppelbaum et al., 2012, 2014) is object of our investigation. The easternmost Mediterranean region has attracted increasing attention in connection with the recent discoveries of significant hydrocarbon deposits in this region (e.g., Montadert et al., 2010; Schenk et al., 2010; Eppelbaum et al., 2012). For example, Schenk et al. (2010) consider that more than 4 trillion m3 of recoverable gas is available in the Levant Basin (which located in the central part of the easternmost Mediterranean). Currently seismic prospecting is the main tool used in hydrocarbon deposit discovery. However, even sophisticated seismic data analysis (e.g., Hall et al., 2005; Roberts and Peace, 2007; Gardosh et al., 2010; Marlow et al., 2011; Lazar et al., 2012), fails to identify the full complex structural-tectonic mosaic of this region, and more importantly, is unable to clarify its baffling complex tectonic evolution. This highlights the need for combined analysis of geophysical data associated with the paleomagnetic and paleobiogeographic conditions that can yield deep

  11. Geological storage of CO2: risks analysis, monitoring and measures. Final report

    To use the CO2 geological storage as a coherent solution in the greenhouse gases reduction it needs to answer to safety and monitoring conditions. In this framework the BRGM presents this study in six chapters: risks analysis, the monitoring methods (geochemistry, geophysics, aerial monitoring, biochemistry, hydrogeology), the metrology, the corrosion problems, the thermal, hydrodynamical, geochemical and mechanical simulation and the today and future regulations. (A.L.B.)

  12. Geologic datasets for weights of evidence analysis in Northeast Washington: 4. mineral industry activity in Washington, 1985-1997

    Boleneus, D.E.; Derkey, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    This report includes a table of 339 sites representing mineral activities for mining and mineral exploration in the State of Washington from 1985 through 1997. The table was primarily compiled from annual reports in Washington Geologic Newsletter and Washington Geology. The information was compiled for use in a weights-of-evidence analysis of mineral resources in northeastern Washington.

  13. Evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project and analysis of some technical problems in commercial negotiation

    A composite evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project was discussed, this new model consists of polity-economy-technique (PET) synthetic evaluation sub-model and geology-mining-metallurgy (GMM) technique evaluation sub-model. Besides, some key technical problems in commercial negotiation, such as information screening, quoted price and analysis of deadline, were briefly analyzed. (author)

  14. Dynamic simulations of geologic materials using combined FEM/DEM/SPH analysis

    Morris, J P; Johnson, S M

    2008-03-26

    An overview of the Lawrence Discrete Element Code (LDEC) is presented, and results from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geologic materials using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC) are detailed. LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses using large numbers of polyhedral blocks. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model this class of problems, LDEC now includes implementations of Cosserat point theory and cohesive elements. This approach directly simulates the transition from continuum to discontinuum behavior, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture within a combined finite element/discrete element framework. In addition, there are many application involving geologic materials where fluid-structure interaction is important. To facilitate solution of this class of problems a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) capability has been incorporated into LDEC to simulate fully coupled systems involving geologic materials and a saturating fluid. We will present results from a study of a broad range of geomechanical problems that exercise the various components of LDEC in isolation and in tandem.

  15. An evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis for determination of trace elements in some geological samples

    Compton suppressed neutron activation analysis has been used for a variety of applications, but never has a detailed discussion of its use in far more complex matrices, such as geological samples, been fully addressed. This investigation seeks to serve as a qualitative evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis (CSNAA) and to illustrate the benefits of using Compton suppression with thermal and epithermal neutrons for the analysis of several geological specimens.

  16. An evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis for determination of trace elements in some geological samples.

    Landsberger, S; Kapsimalis, R

    2009-12-01

    Compton suppressed neutron activation analysis has been used for a variety of applications, but never has a detailed discussion of its use in far more complex matrices, such as geological samples, been fully addressed. This investigation seeks to serve as a qualitative evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis (CSNAA) and to illustrate the benefits of using Compton suppression with thermal and epithermal neutrons for the analysis of several geological specimens. PMID:19577479

  17. Numerical Verification Of Geotechnical Structure In Unfavourable Geological Conditions – Case Study

    Drusa Marián

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modelling represents a powerful tool not only for special geotechnical calculations in cases of complicated and difficult structure design or their foundation conditions, but also for regular tasks of structure foundation. Finite element method is the most utilized method of numerical modelling. This method was used for calculations of the retaining wall monitored during 5 years after construction. Retaining wall of the parking lot with the facing from gabion blocks was chosen for numerical model. Besides the unfavourable geological conditions, a soft nature of the facing was also a difficult part of the modelling. This paper presents the results of the modelling when exact geometry, material characteristics and construction stages were simulated. The results capture the trend of displacements even though the basic material models were utilized. The modelling proved the ability of the finite element method to model the retaining structure with sufficient accuracy as well as reasonable demand on quality and quantity of input data. This method can then be used as a regular design tool during project preparation.

  18. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology

    H. L. Vacher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over all. Geological research has shifted emphasis over the study period, moving away from economic geology and petroleum geology, towards physics- and chemistry-based topics. The Apollo lunar landings had as much influence on the topics and practice of geological research as the much-cited plate-tectonics revolution. These results reflect the barely-tangible effects of the changes in vocabulary and habit of thought that have pervaded the substance of geology. Geological literature has increased in volume and specialization, resulting in a highly fragmentary literature. However, we infer that "big science," characterized by large amounts of funding, collaboration, and large logistical investments, makes use of this specialization and turns "twigging" into a phenomenon that enhances, rather than inhibits, the enterprise of research.

  19. Analysis of geological condition of uranium mineralization in the Xiangshan northern uranium orefield in central region of Jiangxi Province

    According to the basic conditions of 'source, guide, transportation, storage' for uranium mineralization in strata and different types of geological structure, departure from the condition, the coupling effect of stratigraphy, lithology and structure are studied in the process of uranium mineralization in northern Xiangshan volcanic basin. Studies show that the northern ore field are of good metallogenic geological conditions and the uranium rich ancient land mass and uranium rich magma generated by the melting of deep metamorphic rocks. The main geologic events are volcanic eruptions, accompanied by repeated subvolcanic magma intrusion and strong faults and nappe tectonics which result in volcanic collapse and volcanic ring structures. These ore-forming geological condition control the structural frame for the formation of main uranium deposit type-subvolcanic rocks in northern Xiangshan ore field. (authors)

  20. Structural analysis system THANKS

    The analytical codes THANKS (Three Dimensional Analysis of NIPPON KOKAN Systems) V-1, THANKS V-2, and THANKS V-3 were developed to analyze the structures having complicated configuration, to simulate the actual phenomena including elastoplastic property, creep, large deformation and dynamic behavior, and to analyze thermal and hydraulic characteristics. These codes are supported with the development of pre-processor PRE-THANKS and post-processor POST-THANKS. The special features of this code system are as follows: 1) it is possible to analyze the strength of three dimensional structures having any complex configuration and to calculate the large scale problems with 160,000 freedom, 2) it is possible to treat the broad range of linear and nonlinear problems of both static and dynamic and thermal conduction, 3) the calculating time is shortened, 4) the program consists of modules, therefore the partial improvement is simple, and the addition of new functions is easy, 5) the graphic display utilizing cathode ray tubes (CRT) is available, and 6) the high efficiency and the reduction of labor are planned. The hardwares of THANKS system consist of a computer IBM S370/168, a card reader, magnetic discs, a printer, a graphic display and a plotter, and PRE-THANKS, THANKS V-1 THANKS V-2 THANKS V-3 and POST-THANKS are included in this computer system. PRE-THANKS has the functions such as the input of two and three dimensional mesh configurations, the production of mesh files, and the display with a CRT. POST-THANKS has the function displaying stress contours, stress distribution, change of stress in course of time and deformation on CRT or drawing them utilizing a plotter. (Nakai, Y.)

  1. Systematization of survey and analysis of deep geological environment. Fiscal 2002

    The survey and analysis of geological environment for practical use is studied from the view point of techniques, evaluation and geological environment. On techniques, EDZ (Excavation Disturbed Zone) was evaluated by AE (Acoustic Emission) measurement. The dynamic grouting technique for the improvement of low-permeable rock masses was developed and the grout effect by dynamic injection method was evaluated. The injection mechanism of grout was decided. On evaluation, the radionuclide transport was estimated by the mean, the standard deviation and the skewness of permeability. On the geological environment, the distribution of fissure and generation of micro crack in the rock near fault showed a tendency to distance from the fault. Systematization of following five survey and analysis methods was studied: evaluation of permeability of discontinuous rock in the deep underground, 3-D characteristics of stream in the rock, development of hydraulic test method and its equipment, survey and modeling method of material transport in deep underground, effects of drift on porewater in the different sedimentary rocks and evaluation of outflow of groundwater in river water in Kikuchi platform. (S.Y.)

  2. A fluid pressure and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-06-07

    We present a hydro-mechanical model and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process in greater detail. In order for analytical solutions, the simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the theory of linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. The model was derived through coupling the two parts using the standard linear poroelasticity theory. Analytical solutions for fluid pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario and the solutions for ground deformation were obtained using the method of Green’s function. Solutions predict the temporal and spatial variation of fluid pressure, the effect of permeability and elastic modulus on the fluid pressure, the ground surface uplift, and the radial deformation during the entire injection period.

  3. Determination of Iron and Nickel in Geological Samples by Activation Analysis with Reactor Fast Neutrons

    Threshold reactions induced by reactor fast neutrons are well recognized. The concentration of Fe and Ni were determined in nine geological samples by activation analysis with reactor fast neutrons using the threshold reactions 54Fe( n,p)54Mn and 58Ni ( n, p )'58Co respectively. The fast neutron flux was determined using the reactions 92Mo(n, 2n)92mNb and 95Mo(n,p)95Nb. The determined concentration of Fe and Ni in the samples were checked by determining them in the GSJ JB-1 reference material using the same , ( p, n) reactions. There are a good agreement between the measured and recommended values. The concentrations of Fe were also determined by the ) , ( n, γ) capture reactions in the geological samples and the JB-1 reference material using the Kθ- NAA method. There are good agreements between the determined concentrations from the ) , ( p, n) and the ( γ, n) reactions.

  4. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of trace lanthanoids in geological and cosmochemical samples

    In order to determine trace lanthanoids in geological and cosmochemical samples, an analytical procedure for radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was developed, where lanthanoids are radiochemically purified through precipitations of hydroxides and fluorides, and cation exchange using HBr as an eluent. Chemical yields are determined by reactivation. The procedure was applied to the Allende meteorite and geological standard rocks. Our data for Allende are in excellent agreement with literature values, and those values for standard rocks, JP-1 (peridotite) and JF-2 (feldspar), in which lanthanoids are depleted by orders of 1 to 2 compared with those in Allende, seem to be reasonable, although not properly evaluated because of large scatterings in their literature data. This suggests that the present RNAA procedure is highly effective in determining trace lanthanoids (less than 1 ng) in rock samples. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of granite isotopic geological data and periods of magma-tectonic action in mesozoic in South China

    Based on the analysis of isotopic geological data after 230 Ma in south china, as a whole there is a young tendency from northwest to southeast and it is proved by one trend surface analysis. There is from east to west migration of magma action peak value both stages 165-137 Ma and 112-80 Ma. Which is based on subzone statistic of NE structure. In the stage of 140-110 Ma, magma action peak value is coincident with the rapid subduction of Cora plate-form and volcanic rocks chemical constitution change of southeast coastland, it changes un-clearly with the time. From above all, this area is divide into three ages by the characteristics of magma action

  6. Material Units, Structures/Landforms, and Stratigraphy for the Global Geologic Map of Ganymede (1:15M)

    Patterson, G. Wesley; Head, James W.; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Prockter, Louis M.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.

    2008-01-01

    In the coming year a global geological map of Ganymede will be completed that represents the most recent understanding of the satellite on the basis of Galileo mission results. This contribution builds on important previous accomplishments in the study of Ganymede utilizing Voyager data and incorporates the many new discoveries that were brought about by examination of Galileo data. Material units have been defined, structural landforms have been identified, and an approximate stratigraphy has been determined utilizing a global mosaic of the surface with a nominal resolution of 1 km/pixel assembled by the USGS. This mosaic incorporates the best available Voyager and Galileo regional coverage and high resolution imagery (100-200 m/pixel) of characteristic features and terrain types obtained by the Galileo spacecraft. This map has given us a more complete understanding of: 1) the major geological processes operating on Ganymede, 2) the characteristics of the geological units making up its surface, 3) the stratigraphic relationships of geological units and structures, and 4) the geological history inferred from these relationships. A summary of these efforts is provided here.

  7. Investigation on the geological structures obstructing the propagation of seismic waves - Based on physical modeling

    Kim, Jung Yul; Hyun, Hye ja; Kim, Yoo Sung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    In petroleum exploration seismic reflection method is by far the most widely used. The resulting seismogram or seismic trace consists of many wavelets with different strengths and arrival times, due to the wavefront that have traveled different source-to receiver paths. In this sense, the seismic trace may be represented as a convolution of a wavelet with an impulse response denoting the various wavelet amplitudes and arrival times present in the trace. However, the wavelet suffers different attenuations while traveling through the earth layers. For example, the weathered layer (near-surface structure : e.g. valley) affect the propagating seismic wave in ways that cannot be simply modeled, but rather described in terms of an overall time delay and significant distortion of the source wavelet as it travels downward. Of course, the weathered layer will also affect the upgoing wave. Thus, the reflection method does not always lead to a desirable resolution in reflection section, because some specific constraints on the illumination of the deeper reflectors can be often imposed by the near-surface effect. Among other things, the mechanism for attenuation in many types of rocks is not very well understood. The present work is then mostly focussed on studying problems of wave propagation especially dealing with the near-surface structure problem by using physical modeling. An attempt was made to compare the measured data in detail with those from numerical method (ray theory). Besides, various kinds of physical models were additionally built to simulate the complex geological structures comprising wavy layer, coal seam structure, absorbing inhomogeneities, gradient layer that are not simply amenable to theory. Hereby, an attention was given on the reflection and transmission responses. The results illustrated in this work will provide a basis for the future oil exploration in Korea and demonstrate the potential of physical modeling as well. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs., 62

  8. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems.

    Smolyar, I; Bromage, T; Wikelski, M

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number". These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number", which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones. PMID:27441261

  9. Deep structure study of the salt body of Jbel Rheouis (central tunisia) from geological and gravity data

    Bouzid, Wajih; Abbes, Chedly; Gabtni, Hakim; Hassine, Mouna

    2016-04-01

    Jbel Rheouis situated in south west of Sidi Bouzid, central Tunisia, is a complex structure located at a tectonic node between N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE corridors. It was considered as a diapir containing the most complete series of The Upper Triassic formation in Central Tunisia. The good quality of preserved fossils markers especially at the limestone levels made it possible for Burollet (1952) to propose a lithostratigraphic description of the Rheouis Formation. This stratigraphy was clarified by Soussi and Abbes (2004) basing on new paleontological, palynological and outcrops detailed mapping data. Thus, they assigned the base of this outcrops series to Carnian and its top to Rhaetian. Using these geological and lithostratigraphic data we suspects that the base of the Rheouis formation formed by black limestone can be correlated to the Rehach limestone in the South of Tunisia where this level is laying on a clayey sandstones level identified as the Lower Triassic outcrops. In this concept, this study intend to investigate the Rheouis structure and to identify it's nature basing on the intra salt structures identification and the nature of the Lower Triassic sediments buried beneath the Black limestones, using a combination of geological, lithostratigraphic and geophysical (gravity) data. The gravity data used in this work were obtained from the ONM with a mesh of 1Km /1Km. All the data were merged and reduced using the 1967 International gravity formula. Free air and Bouguer gravity correction were made using sea level as a datum and 2.4 g/cm³ as a reduction density. The Bouguer anomaly map shows a variation in anomaly values range from -12.5 mGal to -4.5 mGal with a contrasted anomaly distribution. This map present 5 gravity maxima and 4 gravity minima where the major direction of those maxima and minima are N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE. The presence of a relative positive anomaly concentrated J.Rheouis can be explained by a mass excess probably due to the uplift of the

  10. How Students and Field Geologists Reason in Integrating Spatial Observations from Outcrops to Visualize a 3-D Geological Structure

    Kastens, Kim A.; Agrawal, Shruti; Liben, Lynn S.

    2009-01-01

    Geologists and undergraduate students observed eight artificial "rock outcrops" in a realistically scaled field area, and then tried to envision a geological structure that might plausibly be formed by the layered rocks in the set of outcrops. Students were videotaped as they selected which of fourteen 3-D models they thought best represented the…

  11. Google Earth Mapping Exercises for Structural Geology Students--A Promising Intervention for Improving Penetrative Visualization Ability

    Giorgis, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional thinking skills are extremely useful for geoscientists, and at the undergraduate level, these skills are often emphasized in structural geology courses. Google Earth is a powerful tool for visualizing the three-dimensional nature of data collected on the surface of Earth. The results of a 5 y pre- and posttest study of the…

  12. Yucca Mountain thermal response: An evaluation of the effects of modeled geologic structure and thermal property descriptions

    To assess the influence of mountain-scale thermal property model variations on predicted host-rock thermal response, a series of heat conduction calculations were run using a representative two-dimensional cross section of Yucca Mountain. The effects of modeled geologic structure were evaluated through comparisons of results from a single-material, homogeneous model with those from a uniformly layered model, a discontinuous sloping-layered model, and a geo-statistical realization of thermal properties. Comparisons indicate that assumed geologic structure can result in up to a 24 degrees C difference in predicted temperature response. Further, thermal simulations of the method used to analyze geostatistical realizations of thermal properties shows promise as an efficient means of capturing geologic structure without the complexities of intricate finite element meshing. The functional representation of two thermal property models were also investigated. The first examines the effect of using a weighting scheme to define properties for a single, homogenous material model. The second investigates the impact of thermal property temperature dependence on predicted response. As with the investigation of geologic structure, noticeable differences in predicted temperatures (up to 29 degrees C) were found to result

  13. Analysis by neutronic activation of samples of a geologic formation of Cuba

    The analysis by neutronic activation (AAN) is an analytical non destructive technique of high accuracy and sensibility. These advantages are very utilized in the determination of geological multielemental samples. In the job 22 elements are determined in 9 geological samples pertaining to the complex of dams of acid composition that includes the graphitic micaceous schist and the quartzites of the Canada Formation, developed fundamentally in the fasteners of the anticlinal Victoria (Yac. of Wolframio Lela, Island of the Youth, Cuba) The results obtained are of great importance for the evaluation of the potentiality of these rocks as fountains or of uranium adjusting and for the geologic prognostic of the region in study. The irradiation of the samples was carried out during three campaigns, in two occasions (October 1992 and November 1994) in the reactor of investigations of the ININ of Mexico, with a flow of thermic neutrons of 10a the 13 n.s-1 cm-2 and in an occasion in the nuclear reactor of the CAB (september 1994), with a flow of thermic neutrons of 6x 10 to the 12 n.s-1. The results were processed with the program ACTAM in the CEADEN. (S. Grainger)

  14. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    2015-01-01

    20150599Chen Gang(Nanjing Center,China Geological Survey,Nanjing 210016,China);Yao Zhongyou Mineral Database Construction and Analysis of Oceania Region(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,33(2),2014,p.164-171,13illus.,6refs.)Key words:mineral localities,data bases Based on the database of the standards,construction process,data quality control measures and methods and processes,the authors constructed the databases of Fe,Mn,Cu,Al,Au,Ni,U and REE mineral resources for Oceanian region.Through a comprehensive analysis of the multi-source data information of geology and mineral resources,

  15. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141768 An Shaopeng(Institute of Rock and Soil Mechannics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Wuhan 430071,China);Wei Lide Experimental Study on Mechanical Behavior of Xigeda Formation Siltstone and Structure Interface(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,21(5),2013,p.702-708,9illus.,1 table,16 refs.)

  16. Thermo-mechanical sensitivity analysis of repository design parameters using Korean geological conditions

    Extensive sensitivity analysis had been carried out for the seven design parameters, which can influence on the thermal-mechanical coupling behavior because of the stress in deep underground as well as the heat from the high-level radioactive waste. In this study, the three-dimensional commercial code, FLAC3D, was used for analyzing the sensitivity of the design parameters, which are related to disposal tunnel and deposition hole, on the temperature, stress, and displacement. The geological data measured at the two drilling sites, Yusung and Kosung, were used in the modelings. From the modelings, it was possible to investigate the thermal-mechanical coupling behavior of the deep underground repository under Korean geological conditions. Fractional factorial design was utilized for effective experimental design for the sensitivity analysis. Different techniques of sensitivity analysis were applied for the modeling results. From the analysis, it was possible to conclude that the deposition hole spacing is the most important parameter on the thermal-mechanical coupling behavior

  17. Structural Geology and Tectonics in Marine Science:Perspectives in the Research of Deep Sea and Deep Interior

    LI Sanzhong; YU Shan; JIN Chong; SUO Yanhui; M.Santosh; DAI Liming; LIU Xin; MA Yun; WANG Xiaofei; ZHANG Bingkun

    2012-01-01

    The fields of structural geology and tectonics have witnessed great progress over the last decade and are poised for further expansion in the future.One of the significant breakthroughs is the establishment of the ‘Beyond Plate Tectonics Theory’where a combination of conceptual models and numerical modeling on plume tectonics and plate tectonics has enabled new insights into the structural and tectonic architecture and processes in the deep interior and deep sea.This paper Synthesizes developments of structural geology and tectonics from a macroscopic perspective in deep interior and deep sea.Four key techniques are also reviewed:satellite altimetry for surface structures in deep-sea multi-beam sea-floor mapping;tomography for tectonics of the deep interior;diverse modeling approaches and software for unfolding dynamic evolution;and techniques for HT/HP experiments on material rheology and in situ component measurements.

  18. INFLUENCE OF FEATURES OF ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES ON PROBLEMS OF RESEARCHES AT ARRANGEMENT OF OIL AND GAS FIELDS

    Luybimova T. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of development of oil-extracting branch of the Krasnodar region are connected with continuation of prospecting works and search drilling in a zone of transit of the Kuban River and water areas of the Black and Azov seas. In the existing normative documents about technical researches we didn't find reflection of the rule of works on platforms of capital construction of wells on the earth and in transitional conditions. The technique of studying of engineering-geological features of territories of oil and gas fields is offered. Regional and zone factors of engineering-geological conditions of oil and gas fields are established. Engineering-geological structures are allocated. Additional types of technical researches are defined

  19. Geological structure of the offshore Sumatra forearc region estimated from high-resolution MCS reflection survey

    Misawa, Ayanori; Hirata, Kenji; Seeber, Leonard; Arai, Kohsaku; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Rahardiawan, Riza; Udrekh; Fujiwara, Toshiya; Kinoshita, Masataka; Baba, Hisatoshi; Kameo, Katsura; Adachi, Keita; Sarukawa, Hiroshi; Tokuyama, Hidekazu; Permana, Haryadi; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S.; Ashi, Juichiro

    2014-01-01

    To investigate detailed fault distributions and shallow geological structure offshore northwestern Sumatra, we obtained high-resolution Multi-Channel Seismic (MCS) reflection data around the Sunda Trench, trench slope, and forearc high regions offshore northwestern Sumatra. In general, trench-parallel anticlinal ridges are distributed from trench slope region to forearc high region. Two kinds of different vergence systems are characterized in the Sumatra forearc region; landward vergence is dominant in the lower trench slope region, and seaward vergence is dominant in the forearc high region. Moreover, piggyback or slope basins are recognized between anticlinal ridges. Deformation in the uppermost part of these basins, that is referred to ‘recent’ deformation in this paper, can be identified not only along major thrusts but also between major thrusts and the lower trench slope, suggesting these are related to recently active faulting. Several but the largest number of such deformation are distributed along a major thrust located in the middle of the forearc high region, whereas few are done along other major thrusts.

  20. Nondestructive analysis of individual fluid inclusion based on SRXRF and its application in oil geology

    The experimental device and methods of nondestructive analysis on individual fluid inclusion by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microprobe are described. With the standard sample NIST612 as reference, the detection limits of some elements are calculated and the typical organic inclusion taken from the western basin of China which contain oil gas are analyzed nondestructively. The semi-quantitative detection results of K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ge, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Pb etc. are given, and the application of the results on oil geology is discussed

  1. Structures and their analysis

    Fuchs, Maurice Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Addressing structures, this book presents a classic discipline in a modern setting by combining illustrated examples with insights into the solutions. It is the fruit of the author’s many years of teaching the subject and of just as many years of research into the design of optimal structures. Although intended for an advanced level of instruction it has an undergraduate course at its core. Further, the book was written with the advantage of having massive computer power in the background, an aspect which changes the entire approach to many engineering disciplines and in particular to structures. This paradigm shift has dislodged the force (flexibility) method from its former prominence and paved the way for the displacement (stiffness) method, despite the multitude of linear equations it spawns. In this book, however, both methods are taught: the force method offers a perfect vehicle for understanding structural behavior, bearing in mind that it is the displacement method which does the heavy number crunch...

  2. Experimental performance evaluation of a compton suppression system by an analysis of geological reference materials

    Compton scattering is one of major sources inducing a high background when a gamma ray spectrum is acquired from a radioactive sample. The high background spectrum deteriorates the detection sensitivity for an analysis of the nuclide of interest. To improve the detection sensitivity by the reduction of the spectrum background, a Compton suppression system (CSS) applying an anti coincidence mode was developed and has been used for a neutron activation analysis. A Compton suppression system (CSS) was implemented for an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at an NAA laboratory of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 2009. The CSS consists of a high purity Ge (HPGe) detector and bismuth germinate (BGO) with electronic modules. An evaluation of the performance of the CSS was carried out based on the measurement of the gamma ray emitting source and the detectable nuclides created thorough neutron activation of biological reference materials. This study was executed to evaluate the performance of the CSS for geological standard reference materials (SRMs). Four geological SRMs produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA were selected and irradiated using an NAA 1 irradiation hole at HANARO. Gamma ray spectra with normal mode and anti coincidence mode were acquired at the same time, and advantage factors of CSS for each nuclide detected were calculated on the basis of the signal to noise ratio

  3. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  4. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091163 Jiang Huichao(Tongji University College of Ocean and Earth Science,Shanghai 200092,China);Xiao Yongjun Analysis of Cenozoic Subsurface Temperatures of the Jiyang Depression,Shandong Province(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11- 1167/P,35(2),2008,p.273-278,3 illus.,2 tables,15 refs.)

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082275 He Longqing(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Yichang 443003,China);Ji Wei Ore-Controlling Effect of Nappe Structure in the East Ore Zone of the Baiyangping Area,Lanping Basin,Yunnan Province(Journal of Geome- ehanics,ISSN1006—6616,CN11—3672/P, 13(2),2007,p.110—118,6 illus.,2 tables,28 refs.) Key words:nappes,structural controls, Yunnan Province

  6. Structural geology and sedimentology of the Sermat Quartzites, Strandja Massif, NW Turkey

    Yazıcı, Müge; Natal'in, Boris A.

    2015-04-01

    prevented the preservation of sedimentary structures such as flute casts and cross-beddings, which can be used to determine the sedimentary environments of the Şermat Basin. Nevertheless, all available relicts indicate the transportation of sediments from a source area in the south. If the Şermat Quartzites is Ordovician age, they can be correlated with the Ordovician rocks of the Istanbul Zone, which is interpreted as a south-facing passive continental margin. Sedimentological framework of the Şermat Quartzites contradicts this correlation. Further studies of the region are necessary in order to determine the connection between the Strandja Massif and the Istanbul Zone. Keywords: Hercynian orogeny, Cimmerides, Strandja Massif, İstanbul Zone, Sedimentary Basin, Turkey References Çağlayan, M. A. & Yurtsever, A., 1998, Geological map of Turkey at 1:100000 scale, no. 20, 21, 22, 23, Burgaz-A3, Edirne-B2 and -B3, Burgaz A4, and Kırklareli-B4-B5-B6 and -C6 sheets, Mineral Research and Exploration Institute (MTA) of Turkey publications (in Turkish with English abstract). Natal'in, B., Sunal, G., Zhiqing, Y. & Gün, E., 2012a, Late Paleozoic subduction-accretion orogeny in the eastern part of the Turkish Strandja Massif (Vize - Kıyıköy region), in Kocbay, A., Esat, K., and Hasancebi, N., eds., 65th Geological Congress of Turkey. Abstracts Book: Ankara, Chamber of Geological Engineers, p. 454-455 Natal'in, B., Sunal, G., Satır, M. & Toraman, E., 2012, Tectonics of the Strandja Massif, NW Turkey: History of a Long-Lived Arc at the Northern Margin of Palaeo-Tethys: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 21, p. 755-798.

  7. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122384 Ma Xiaohong ( Institute of Geo-Analysis of Anhui Province,Hefei 230001,China ) Geological Features of the Mingshan Intrusion in the Tongling Mining Camp and Ore-Prospecting Outlook ( Geology of Anhui,ISSN1005-6157,CN34-1111 / P,21 ( 4 ), 2011,p.247-251,4illus.,3tables,7refs. ) Key words:mineral prospecting and explora-tion,Anhui Province The Mingshan quartz monzodiorote in the Tongling mining camp is ore-prospecting " window " in Early Paleozoic

  8. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140332 Jiang Lin(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing100871,China);Ji Jianqing Geologic Analysis on the Prospects of the Enhanced Geothermal System(EGS)in the Bohaiwan Basin(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,49(1),2013,p.167-178,5illus.,4tables,41refs.)Key words:geothermal systems,Bohaiwan Basin Great amounts of thermal energy is stored ubiquitously in rocks with high tempera-

  9. Simulations of Fracture and Fragmentation of Geologic Materials using Combined FEM/DEM Analysis

    Morris, J P; Rubin, M B; Block, G I; Bonner, M P

    2005-05-26

    Results are presented from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geological media using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC). LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses with large numbers of intact polyhedral blocks. However, underground structures in jointed rock subjected to explosive loading can fail due to both rock motion along preexisting interfaces and fracture of the intact rock mass itself. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model these types of problems, we have implemented Cosserat point theory and cohesive element formulations into the current version of LDEC, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture and combined finite element/discrete element simulations. Results of a large-scale LLNL simulation of an explosive shock wave impacting an elaborate underground facility are also discussed. It is confirmed that persistent joints lead to an underestimation of the impact energy needed to fill the tunnel systems with rubble. Non-persistent joint patterns, which are typical of real geologies, inhibit shear within the surrounding rock mass and significantly increase the load required to collapse a tunnel.

  10. Simulations of Fracture and Fragmentation of Geologic Materials using Combined FEM/DEM/SPH Analysis

    Morris, J P; Johnson, S M

    2007-04-05

    An overview of the Lawrence Discrete Element Code (LDEC) is presented, and results from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geologic materials using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC) are detailed. LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses using large numbers of polyhedral blocks. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model this class of problems, LDEC now includes implementations of Cosserat point theory and cohesive elements. This approach directly simulates the transition from continuum to discontinuum behavior, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture within a combined finite element/discrete element framework. In addition, a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) capability has been incorporated into LDEC, permitting the simulation of fluid-structure interaction. We will present results from a study of detonation-induced fracture and fragmentation of geologic media surrounding a tunnel using LDEC.

  11. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical vol...

  12. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity m...

  13. Application of PALSAR-2 remote sensing data for structural geology and topographic mapping in Kelantan river basin, Malaysia

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2016-06-01

    Natural hazards of geological origin are one of major problem during heavy monsoons rainfall in Kelantan state, peninsular Malaysia. Several landslides occur in this region are obviously connected to geological and topographical features, every year. Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are particularly applicable for detection of geological structural and topographical features in tropical conditions. In this study, Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-2), remote sensing data were used to identify high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslide in the Kelantan river basin. Adaptive Local Sigma filter was selected and applied to accomplish speckle reduction and preserving both edges and features in PALSAR-2 fine mode observation images. Different polarization images were integrated to enhance geological structures. Additionally, directional filters were applied to the PALSAR-2 Local Sigma resultant image for edge enhancement and detailed identification of linear features. Several faults, drainage patterns and lithological contact layers were identified at regional scale. In order to assess the results, fieldwork and GPS survey were conducted in the landslide affected zones in the Kelantan river basin. Results demonstrate the most of the landslides were associated with N-S, NNW-SSE and NE-SW trending faults, angulate drainage pattern and metamorphic and Quaternary units. Consequently, geologic structural map were produced for Kelantan river basin using recent PALSAR-2 data, which could be broadly applicable for landslide hazard assessment and delineation of high potential risk and susceptible areas. Landslide mitigation programmes could be conducted in the landslide recurrence regions for reducing catastrophes leading to economic losses and death.

  14. Geology, structure and age of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area, North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Greco, Gerson A.; González, Pablo D.; González, Santiago N.; Sato, Ana M.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei; Varela, Ricardo; Llambías, Eduardo J.

    2015-10-01

    The low-grade Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area (40°50‧S-65°53‧W) shows ultramafic to felsic metaigneous rocks forming a sill swarm intercalated in the metasedimentary sequence and a polyphase deformation which permit an integrated study of the magmatic and tectonometamorphic evolution of this geological unit. In this paper we present a geological characterization of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area combining mapping, structural and metamorphic analysis with a SHRIMP U-Pb age and geochemical data from the metaigneous rocks. The metasedimentary sequence consists of alternating metagreywackes and phyllites, and minor metasandstones and granule metaconglomerates. The sills are pre-kinematic intrusions and yielded one SHRIMP U-Pb, zircon crystallization age of 513.6 ± 3.3 Ma. Their injection occurred after consolidation of the sedimentary sequence. A syn-sedimentary volcanic activity is interpreted by a metaandesite lava flow interlayered in the metasedimentary sequence. Sedimentary and igneous protoliths of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation would have been formed in a continental margin basin associated with active magmatic arc during the Cambrian Epoch 2. Two main low-grade tectonometamorphic events affected the Nahuel Niyeu Formation, one during the Cambrian Epoch 2-Early Ordovician and the other probably in the late Permian at ˜260 Ma. Local late folds could belong to the final stages of the late Permian deformation or be even younger. In a regional context, the Nahuel Niyeu and El Jagüelito formations and Mina Gonzalito Complex show a comparable Cambrian-Ordovician evolution related to the Terra Australis Orogen in the south Gondwana margin. This evolution is also coeval with the late and early stages of the Pampean and Famatinian orogenies of Central Argentina, respectively. The late Permian event recorded in the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in Aguada Cecilio area is identified by comparable structures affecting the Mina Gonzalito

  15. Destination: Geology?

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    to the Canary Islands and Japan. The Great Britain Sasakawa Foundation, provided additional funding to support the recent visit to Japan, which enabled visits to Mount Fuji as well as investigating structural geology in Kobe and Tokyo. "The opportunity to visit Japan really broadened my understanding of geology and sharing that experience with fellow students helped me to reinforce my knowledge of the subject." Jack, geology student, Age 18.

  16. Strategies for Mars remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of sulfur in geological samples

    The key to understanding the sulfur history on Mars is to identify and determine sulfate and sulfide compositions and then to draw from them geologic clues about their environments of formation. To lay a foundation for use of remote LIBS to sulfur analysis in planetary exploration, we have undertaken a focused study of sulfur LIBS in geological samples in a simulated Mars atmosphere, with experimental parameters replicating the ChemCam LIBS instrument. A suite of twelve samples was selected, including rocks rich in minerals representative of sulfates and sulfides that might be encountered on Mars. Univariate analysis of sulfur emission lines did not provide quantitative information. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was successful at modeling sulfur concentrations for a subset of samples with similar matrices. Sulfide minerals were identified on the basis of other siderophile or chalcophile peaks, such as those arising from Zn and Cu. Because the S lines are very weak compared to those of other elements, optimal PLS results were obtained by restricting the wavelength range to channels close to the most intense sulfur lines ∼ 540-570 nm. Principal components analysis was attempted on the dataset, but did not differentiate the samples into meaningful groups because the sulfur lines are not strong enough. However, areas of the relatively weak S, H, and O peaks may be used to correctly classify all samples. Based on these outcomes, a flowchart that outlines a possible decision tree for identification and quantification of sulfur in remote LIBS analysis was constructed. Results suggest that LIBS data acquired under Mars conditions can meet the science requirements for the ChemCam instrument.

  17. Strategies for Mars remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of sulfur in geological samples

    Dyar, M. Darby, E-mail: mdyar@mtholyoke.edu [Department of Astronomy, Mount Holyoke College, 50 College St., South Hadley, MA 01075 (United States); Tucker, Jonathan M., E-mail: jtucker@mtholyoke.edu [Department of Astronomy, Mount Holyoke College, 50 College St., South Hadley, MA 01075 (United States); Humphries, Seth, E-mail: sethdh@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Clegg, Samuel M., E-mail: sclegg@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wiens, Roger C., E-mail: rwiens@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lane, Melissa D., E-mail: lane@psi.edu [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Ft. Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The key to understanding the sulfur history on Mars is to identify and determine sulfate and sulfide compositions and then to draw from them geologic clues about their environments of formation. To lay a foundation for use of remote LIBS to sulfur analysis in planetary exploration, we have undertaken a focused study of sulfur LIBS in geological samples in a simulated Mars atmosphere, with experimental parameters replicating the ChemCam LIBS instrument. A suite of twelve samples was selected, including rocks rich in minerals representative of sulfates and sulfides that might be encountered on Mars. Univariate analysis of sulfur emission lines did not provide quantitative information. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was successful at modeling sulfur concentrations for a subset of samples with similar matrices. Sulfide minerals were identified on the basis of other siderophile or chalcophile peaks, such as those arising from Zn and Cu. Because the S lines are very weak compared to those of other elements, optimal PLS results were obtained by restricting the wavelength range to channels close to the most intense sulfur lines {approx} 540-570 nm. Principal components analysis was attempted on the dataset, but did not differentiate the samples into meaningful groups because the sulfur lines are not strong enough. However, areas of the relatively weak S, H, and O peaks may be used to correctly classify all samples. Based on these outcomes, a flowchart that outlines a possible decision tree for identification and quantification of sulfur in remote LIBS analysis was constructed. Results suggest that LIBS data acquired under Mars conditions can meet the science requirements for the ChemCam instrument.

  18. Release consequence analysis for a hypothetical geologic radioactive waste repository in salt

    One subtask conducted under the INFCE program is to evaluate and compare the health and safety impacts of different fuel cycles in which all radioactive wastes (except those from mining and milling) are placed in a geologic repository in salt. To achieve this objective, INFCE Working Group 7 examined the radiologic dose to humans from geologic repositories containing waste arisings as defined for seven reference fuel cycles. This report examines the release consequences for a generic waste repository in bedded salt. The top of the salt formation and the top of the repository are assumed to be 250 and 600 m, respectively, below the surface. The hydrogeologic structure above the salt consists of two aquifers and two aquitards. The aquifers connect to a river 6.2 km from the repository. The regional gradient to the river is 1 m/km in all aquifers. Hydrologic, transport, and dose models were used to model two release scenarios for each fuel cycle, one without a major disturbance and one in which a major geologic perturbation breached the repository immediately after it was sealed. The purpose of the modeling was to predict the rate of transport of radioactive contaminants from the repository through the geosphere to the biosphere, and to determine the potential dose to humans. Of the many radionuclides in the waste, only 129I and 226Ra arrived at the river in sufficient concentrations for a measurable dose calculation. Radionuclide concentrations in the ground water pose no threat to man because the ground water is a concentrated brine and it is diluted by a factor of 106 to 107 upon entering the river

  19. The geological structure and gas presence of the southeastern part of the Mrakovskiy depression

    Barykin, I.V.; Chistilin, G.M.; Kamaletdinov, R.A.; Shelenin, A.Sh.

    1983-01-01

    The tectonic structure of the gas promising territory of the Mrakovskiy depresion combined under the name of the Saratov Berkutovskiy gas bearing zone, which can be traced for a distance of up to 120 kilometers, is examined. Analysis of the materials shows the qualitative correspondence of the structural planes of the marking levels of the Carboniferous and the lower Permian inside the allochthonous and autochthonous complexes. The effect of barite on the productive levels, the basic types of collectors and the required complex of oil field and geophysical studies is examined.

  20. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Asakawa, S.; Ikuma, T.; Tanifuji, R. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. SG2PS (structural geology to postscript converter) - A graphical solution for brittle structural data evaluation and paleostress calculation

    Sasvári, Ágoston; Baharev, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to create an open source cross platform application to process brittle structural geological data with seven paleostress inversion algorithms published by different authors and formerly not available within a single desktop application. The tool facilitates separate processing and plotting of different localities, data types and user made groups, using the same single input file. Simplified data input is supported, requiring as small amount of data as possible. Data rotation to correct for bedding tilting, rotation with paleomagnetic declination and k-means clustering are available. RUP and ANG stress estimators calculation and visualization, resolved shear direction display and Mohr circle stress visualization are available. RGB-colored vector graphical outputs are automatically generated in Encapsulated PostScript and Portable Document Format. Stereographical displays on great circle or pole point plot, equal area or equal angle net and upper or lower hemisphere projections are implemented. Rose plots displaying dip direction or strike, with dip angle distribution of the input data set are available. This tool is ideal for preliminary data interpretation on the field (quick processing and visualization in seconds); the implemented methods can be regularly used in the daily academic and industrial work as well. The authors' goal was to create an open source and self-contained desktop application that does not require any additional third party framework (such as .NET) or the Java Virtual Machine. The software has a clear and highly modular structure enabling good code portability, easy maintainability, reusability and extensibility. A Windows installer is publicly available and the program is also fully functional on Linux. The Mac OS X port should be feasible with minimal effort. The install file with test and demo data sets, detailed manual, and links to the GitHub repositories are available on the regularly updated website www.sg2ps.eu.

  2. Neural network analysis for geological interpretation of tomographic images beneath the Japan Islands

    Kuwatani, T.; Toriumi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Recent advances in methodologies of geophysical observations, such as seismic tomography, seismic reflection method and geomagnetic method, provide us a large amount and a wide variety of data for physical properties of a crust and upper mantle (e.g. Matsubara et al. (2008)). However, it has still been difficult to specify a rock type and its physical conditions, mainly because (1) available data usually have a lot of error and uncertainty, and (2) physical properties of rocks are greatly affected by fluid and microstructures. The objective interpretation and quantitative evaluation for lithology and fluid-related structure require the statistical analyses of integrated geophysical and geological data. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) are unsupervised artificial neural networks that map the input space into clusters in a topological form whose organization is related to trends in the input data (Kohonen 2001). SOMs are powerful neural network techniques to classify and interpret multiattribute data sets. Results of SOM classifications can be represented as 2D images, called feature maps which illustrate the complexity and interrelationships among input data sets. Recently, some works have used SOM in order to interpret multidimensional, non-linear, and highly noised geophysical data for purposes of geological prediction (e.g. Klose 2006; Tselentis et al. 2007; Bauer et al. 2008). This paper describes the application of SOM to the 3D velocity structure beneath the whole Japan islands (e.g. Matsubara et al. 2008). From the obtained feature maps, we can specify the lithology and qualitatively evaluate the effect of fluid-related structures. Moreover, re-projection of feature maps onto the 3D velocity structures resulted in detailed images of the structures within the plates. The Pacific plate and the Philippine Sea plate subducting beneath the Eurasian plate can be imaged more clearly than the original P- and S-wave velocity structures. In order to understand more precise

  3. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: safety analysis of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: granite. Tome analyse de surete du stockage geologique

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the safety aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - safety approach: context and general goal, references, design approach by safety functions, safety approach during the construction-exploitation-observation-closure phase, safety analysis during the post-closure phase; 2 - general description: HLLL wastes, granitic environment, general structure of the architecture of a disposal facility; 3 - safety functions and disposal design: general context, safety functions of the long-term disposal, design dispositions retained to answer the functions; 4 - operational safety: people's protection, radiological risks during exploitation, risk analysis in accident situation; 5 - qualitative safety analysis: methodology, main results of the analysis of the features, events and processes (FEP) database; 6 - disposal efficiency evaluation during post-closure phase: calculation models, calculation tools used for the modeling of radionuclides transport, calculation results and main lessons. (J.S.)

  4. Coda-wave interferometry analysis of time-lapse VSP data for monitoring geological carbon sequestration

    Zhou, R.; Huang, L.; Rutledge, J.T.; Fehler, M.; Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.

    2009-11-01

    Injection and movement/saturation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a geological formation will cause changes in seismic velocities. We investigate the capability of coda-wave interferometry technique for estimating CO2-induced seismic velocity changes using time-lapse synthetic vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data and the field VSP datasets acquired for monitoring injected CO2 in a brine aquifer in Texas, USA. Synthetic VSP data are calculated using a finite-difference elastic-wave equation scheme and a layered model based on the elastic Marmousi model. A possible leakage scenario is simulated by introducing seismic velocity changes in a layer above the CO2 injection layer. We find that the leakage can be detected by the detection of a difference in seismograms recorded after the injection compared to those recorded before the injection at an earlier time in the seismogram than would be expected if there was no leakage. The absolute values of estimated mean velocity changes, from both synthetic and field VSP data, increase significantly for receiver positions approaching the top of a CO2 reservoir. Our results from field data suggest that the velocity changes caused by CO2 injection could be more than 10% and are consistent with results from a crosswell tomogram study. This study demonstrates that time-lapse VSP with coda-wave interferometry analysis can reliably and effectively monitor geological carbon sequestration.

  5. Crater Boguslawsky on the moon: Geological structure and an estimate of the degree of rockiness of the floor

    Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Karachevtseva, I. P.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Head, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The paper considers the results of a study of the geological structure of the floor of the crater Boguslawsky selected as a primary target for the Luna-Glob mission. The deplanate floor of the crater is covered by the material ejected from remote craters and the crater Boguslawsky-D on the eastern inner slope of the crater Boguslawsky. It is highly probable that the sampling of the crater Boguslawsky-D ejecta will provide the unique possibility to detect and analyze the material that predates the formation of the largest and most ancient currently known basin on the Moon—the South Pole-Aitken basin. The rockiness degree of the Boguslawsky crater floor has been estimated from the radar data and the manual boulder counts in the superresolution images (0.5 m/pixel obtained with the Narrow Angle Camera from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter). Comparison of the radar data to the results of the photo-geological analysis shows that the main contributor to the radar signal is the rock debris located in the subsurface layer sounded by radar (1-1.5 m), while there are practically no boulders on the surface. The two most rocky regions on the crater Boguslawsky floor are associated with the relatively fresh impact craters 300-400 m in diameter. The spatial density of boulders near the craters suggests that one of them is 30-50 Myr older than the other. For both of these craters, the spatial density of boulders drops with the distance from their rims. The rate of the decrease in the boulder spatial density is the same for both craters, which points to the constant-in-time intensity of the fragmentation of boulders. The size distribution of boulders versus the distance from a rim of the older crater is approximated by the curve with a slope of-0.02, while the curve slope for the younger crater is-0.05. The gentler curve slope for the older crater is obviously connected with the equalization of sizes of the rock debris with time. The size-frequency distribution of all rock

  6. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2015-01-01

    20151782 Ding Zhaoqin(Institute of Geophysical Exploration of Jilin Province,Changchun130012,China);Xu Zhihe The Possibility of Structure and Occurrence Geothermal Resources in Dunhua-Mishan Fault Zone(Huinan Section)(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,33(2),2014,p.98-102,5illus.,1table,4refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,fracture

  7. Analysis of geological condition and prospecting potential of uranium metallogenesis in Maling granite mass

    Based on the study of regional geological evolution of Maling granite mass, uranium content of granite mass and its peripheric strata, petrogeochemistry and the known spatial distribution pattern of uranium mineralization and ore-controlling structures, new recognition is 1) Maling composite mass is the 'S' type re-melted granite, 2) the accumulative area of regional uranium metallogenic substances forms uranium-rich re-melted strata, 3) magma evolution is the matter base for the uranium-rich hydrotherm, 4) NE-trending main faults are channels for metallogenesis and the lateral high-angle dipping faults, fractures and interlayer fractures in the peripheric strata are the spaces of mineralization. The ore intersected by drilling in Maling granite is acidic type. Prospecting potential of Maling granite mass is analyzed, and preferable prospecting space is delineated for further exploration. (authors)

  8. Geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic analysis with reference to selection of site for nuclear power plants: a review

    Geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic analysis play a major role in qualifying a proposed site for establishment of nuclear power plants. In an area, it is important to understand the aspects such as regional and local geology, geomorphology, tectonic settings, presence of active faults/capable faults, earthquake history and earthquake proneness, neotectonic activity, slope instability, subsidence, liquefaction, seismically induced flooding, tsunami and geohydrological conditions. Geological investigations comprise use of remote sensing and ground validation followed by geological mapping, identification of faults, near surface geological studies for foundation conditions, stratigraphic drilling, palaeoseismology, studies on engineering properties of rock and soil. Geophysical investigations provide insight into subsurface geology including concealed faults, elastic constants and hydrological conditions. Radon emanometry is a valuable tool in the initial stage to decipher subsurface active weak zones/fault lines. Seismotectonic analysis identifies the provinces of tectonic significance and their earthquake potential, thereby designating lineaments of consequence leading to their evaluation. This, in turn, determines the design basis earthquake parameter for the estimation of vibratory ground motion. This article provides certain measures to evaluate the suitability of the sites for the establishment of nuclear power plants in terms of geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic status. Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) had carried out seismotectonic analysis of the area around Kaiga, Narora, Kalpakkam, Kakrapar, Tarapur, Kudankulam and Rawatbhata Nuclear Power Projects, which were either in operation or under expansion and construction. Such analysis was extended to a number of proposed sites for establishing nuclear power plants in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh

  9. Stereological analysis of spatial structures

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård

    The thesis deals with stereological analysis of spatial structures. One area of focus has been to improve the precision of well-known stereological estimators by including information that is available via automatic image analysis. Furthermore, the thesis presents a stochastic model for star...

  10. Overview of the structural geology and tectonics of the Central Basin Platform, Delaware Basin, and Midland Basin, West Texas and New Mexico

    Hoak, T. [Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The structural geology and tectonics of the Permian Basin were investigated using an integrated approach incorporating satellite imagery, aeromagnetics, gravity, seismic, regional subsurface mapping and published literature. The two primary emphases were on: (1) delineating the temporal and spatial evolution of the regional stress state; and (2) calculating the amount of regional shortening or contraction. Secondary objectives included delineation of basement and shallower fault zones, identification of structural style, characterization of fractured zones, analysis of surficial linear features on satellite imagery and their correlation to deeper structures. Gandu Unit, also known as Andector Field at the Ellenburger level and Goldsmith Field at Permian and younger reservoir horizons, is the primary area of interest and lies in the northern part of Ector county. The field trends northwest across the county line into Andrews County. The field(s) are located along an Ellenburger thrust anticline trap on the eastern margin of the Central Basin Platform.

  11. Quantification of rock heterogeneities by structural geological field studies combined with laboratory analyses

    Reyer, Dorothea; Afsar, Filiz; Philipp, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Heterogeneous rock properties in terms of layering and complex infrastructure of fault zones are typical in sedimentary successions. The knowledge of in-situ mechanical rock properties is crucial for a better understanding of processes such as fracturing and fluid transport in fractured reservoirs. To estimate in situ rock properties at different depths it is important to understand how rocks from outcrops differ from rocks at depth, for example due to alteration and removal of the overburden load. We aim at quantifying these properties by performing structural geological field studies in outcrop analogues combined with laboratory analyses of outcrop samples and drill-cores. The field studies focus on 1) fault zone infrastructure and 2) host rock fracture systems in two different study areas with different lithologies, the North German and the Bristol Channel Basin. We analyse quantitatively the dimension, geometry, persistence and connectivity of fracture systems. The field studies are complemented by systematic sampling to obtain the parameters Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strengths and elastic strain energy (also referred to as destruction work) from which we estimate rock and fracture toughnesses. The results show that in rocks with distinctive layering fractures are often restricted to individual layers, that is, stratabound. The probability of arrest seems to depend on the stiffness contrast between two single layers as well as on the thickness of the softer layer. The results also show that there are clear differences between fault zones in the different lithologies in terms of damage zone thicknesses and fracture system parameters. The results of laboratory analyses show that the mechanical properties vary considerably and for many samples there are clear directional differences. That is, samples taken perpendicular to layering commonly have higher stiffnesses and strengths than those taken parallel to layering. We combine the results of

  12. Spatial distribution of neutron flux in geological larger sample analysis at CDTN/CNEN, Brazil

    Iron monitor wire was used to evaluate the neutron flux gradients inside 5 g-geological sample during irradiation. The spatial distribution for thermal flux was about 2 %/cm for radial and axial gradients and about 5 %/cm for radial and 2.5 %/cm for axial gradients for fast neutrons. The results were evaluated using reference material IAEA-SOIL-7 analysed as small and larger samples and tested with calculating En numbers. This test pointed out that all results were consistent within a 95 % confidence interval. The contribution of the neutron flux gradients may be reduced for larger sample using the standard procedure of the k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis. (author)

  13. The determination of molybdenum in geological samples by neutron activation analysis

    A metal-silicate extraction technique combined with neutron activation analysis was developed to determine molybdenum in geological samples. The samples are equilibrated with Fe-metal powder at high temperatures. Molybdenum is completely extracted into the metal phase because of very reducing conditions in the furnace. The metal spherule is separated from the silicates, irradiated and dissolved in an acid solution. The molybdenum is precipitated as a sulfide and the precipitate is dissolved in aqua regia and counted on a Ge(Li)-detector. The radiochemical yield is obtained by irradiation of the solution. The method avoids production of sup(99)Mo from induced fission of sup(235)U by performing the metal-silicate separation before irradiation. The precipitation step may be necessary to remove the high background from the decay of sup(59)Fe. Mo concentrations down to 15 ng/g were obtained using this method. (author)

  14. Distribution and geology accumulation contamination analysis of heavy metal cadmium in agricultural soil of Zunyi county

    The pollution of heavy metal Cd in agricultural soils of Zunyi County, Guizhou Province, was investigated and assessed by using geology accumulation indices (igeo) and pollution index method in this study. Results showed that the average content of Cd is 0.356 mg/kg, and the geochemistry baseline content of Cd was 0.147 mg/kg. The Igeos of Cd was 0.691, which suggested that non-contaminated soil accounts for 13.84%, 59.17% of tested soils was between non-polluted and mid-level polluted, 21.37% with mid-level polluted and 5.17% was between mid-level polluted and severely polluted, 0.45% of which was severely polluted. Contamination degree analysis indicated that non-contaminated soil was only 10.57%, 54.44% was influenced by Cd and 34.98% was seriously influenced by Cd. (authors)

  15. The geological structure of the Netherlands continental shelf - Results of a detailed mapping project

    Veen, J.H. ten; Doornenbal, J.C.; Dulk, M. den; Gessel, S.F. van; Witmans, N.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, TNO-GDN concluded a 5 year geological mapping of the Netherlands Continental Shelf. In this project all public data from hydrocarbon exploration were used resulting in a major update of the dataset and a variety of deliverables available at www.NLOG.NL. The stratigraphy of more than 400 wel

  16. New insights into the geological structure of the Netherlands; results of a detailed mapping project

    Kombrink, H.; Doornenbal, J.C.; Duin, E.J.T.; Dulk, M. den; Gessel, S.F. van; Veen, J.H. ten; Witmans, N.

    2012-01-01

    A five years geological mapping project, in which the Netherlands Continental Shelf has been re-examined using all publicly available data, resulted in an important update of the existing dataset. The stratigraphy of over 400 wells has been re-interpreted. New depth and thickness grids, based mainly

  17. Morphology and shallow geological structure of the continental slope located between Manzanillo, Colima and Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico, using multibeam bathymetry and high resolution seismic reflection data

    Castillo, M.; Bandy, W. L.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    The west coast of Mexico presents a complex array of tectonic processes related with the subduction of the Rivera plate beneath the Jalisco Block/North American plate including seamount subduction and forearc slivering. To better understand these processes and related deformation, an analysis and integration of marine geophysical data was undertaken to map the morphology and shallow geologic structure of the continental slope located between Manzanillo, Colima and Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico (Longitude: 104 ° 20 'to 106 ° 0 Latitude: 18 ° 24 'to 19 ° 48'). These data include multibeam bathymetry and seafloor backscatter data (Kongsberg EM300 system) and high-resolution seismic reflection data (Kongsberg TOPAS system) collected during the MORTIC07 campaign aboard the oceanographic vessel "El Puma". 3D models of the bathymetry and acoustic backscatter strength were constructed along with maps of the major geological and structural features, such as landslides and active faults and folds. The analysis indicates that the continental slope in this area has undergone significant vertical and horizontal movements producing several large slump blocks, a prominent sedimentary filled basin, and a series of transpressional ridges suggestive of a recent collision and subduction of a seamount, or similar bathymetric features.

  18. The use of the MCNP code for the quantitative analysis of elements in geological formations

    The Monte Carlo modelling calculations using the MCNP code have been performed, which support the spectrometric neutron-gamma (SNGL) borehole logging. The SNGL enables the lithology identification through the quantitative analysis of the elements in geological formations and thus can be very useful for the oil and gas industry as well as for prospecting of the potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal. In the SNGL experiment, gamma-rays induced by the neutron interactions with the nuclei of the rock elements are detected using the gamma-ray probe of complex mechanical and electronic construction. The probe has to be calibrated for a wide range of the elemental concentrations, to assure the proper quantitative analysis. The Polish Calibration Station in Zielona Gora is equipped with a limited number of calibration standards. An extension of the experimental calibration and the evaluation of the effect of the so-called side effects (for example the borehole and formation salinity variation) on the accuracy of the SNGL method can be done by the use of the MCNP code. The preliminary MCNP results showing the effect of the borehole and formation fluids salinity variations on the accuracy of silicon (Si), calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) content determination are presented in the paper. The main effort has been focused on a modelling of the complex SNGL probe situated in a fluid filled borehole, surrounded by a geological formation. Track length estimate of the photon flux from the (n,gamma) interactions as a function of gamma-rays energy was used. Calculations were run on the PC computer with AMD Athlon 1.33 GHz processor. Neutron and photon cross-sections libraries were taken from the MCNP4c package and based mainly on the ENDF/B-6, ENDF/B-5 and MCPLIB02 data. The results of simulated experiment are in conformity with results of the real experiment performed with the use of the main lithology models (sandstones, limestones and dolomite). (authors)

  19. COAL GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140318Chen Xinwei(Reserves Evaluation Center of Xinjiang,Urumqi 830000,China);Li Shaohu Analysis on Sequence Stratigraphy Based on Jurassic Outcrop in Kuqa-Bai Coalfield(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,32(1),2013,p.77-82,2illus.,12refs.,with English abstract)Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Xinjiang

  20. GEMAS results from the Pannonian Basin - geochemical signatures in a transnational geological structure

    Haslinger, Edith; Jordan, Gyozo; Slaninka, Igor; Sorsa, Ajka; Gulan, Aleksandra; Gosar, Mateja; Hratovic, Hazim; Klos, Volodymyr

    2014-05-01

    The Pannonian Basin, also referred to as Carpathian Basin, has its geological origins in the Pannonian Sea which was part of the Parathetys Sea, from which it was separated around 10 Ma ago. It spreads over large part of the southeastern part of Central Europe. The centre of the Pannonian Basin is located in Hungary and extends to the adjoining countries Austria, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraine, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The basin is surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps, the Dinarides and the Balkan mountains. The Pannonian Basin is filled by Molasse sediments, which were deposited during the Alpine orogenesis and originating from the rising Alpine and Carpathian Mountain chains. The orogenesis continued during the sedimentation into the Molasse basin. The tectonic movements resulted in several cycles of trans- and regressions of the Parathetys, the sedimentation of marine and freshwater sediments as well as a multitude of fractures and cleavages during the orogensis and the subsidence of different parts of the basin. Even if the Pannonian Basin was formed during a complex orogenesis, it can be regarded as a geo- and hydrodynamic unit. In accordance with the geological history, the soils in the Pannonian Basin developed on loose sediments - including significant loess deposits - and are dominated by soil types which also reflect the continental and steppe climate in this area - Planosols, Luvisols, Cambisols, Calcisols, Chernozems and Phaeozems. The basin is extensively used for agricultural purposes. The geochemical patterns Pannonian Basin are considerably different compared to its surroundings due to its geological development. The spatial distribution of some elements (REE (La, Ce), Y, Th, V, Cd, Pb) are clearly different inside and outside the basin area. For this transnational geological and geographical area, the GEMAS results are compiled and multivariate statistics are applied to find common geochemical signatures in relation

  1. Improvement of analytical capabilities of neutron activation analysis laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey

    Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Peña, M.; Sierra, O.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey has developed a technique for multi-elemental analysis of soil and plant matrices, based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using the comparator method. In order to evaluate the analytical capabilities of the technique, the laboratory has been participating in inter-comparison tests organized by Wepal (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories). In this work, the experimental procedure and results for the multi-elemental analysis of four soil and four plant samples during participation in the first round on 2015 of Wepal proficiency test are presented. Only elements with radioactive isotopes with medium and long half-lives have been evaluated, 15 elements for soils (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, U and Zn) and 7 elements for plants (Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn). The performance assessment by Wepal based on Z-score distributions showed that most results obtained |Z-scores| ≤ 3.

  2. Experience of use of digital gravimagnetic data for specification of a geological structure of the North Ural region

    Litvinova, Tamara; Erinchek, Yury; Krasinsky, Egor; Kudryavtsev, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Study of magnetic heterogeneities of the lithosphere is very important for the prediction of minerals. Results of developing a geophysical basis for specifying the geological map in sheet Q-42 (Polar Urals) are considered. Geophysical basis is a set of digital geophysical data prepared at the stage that preceded compilation of the geological map. The main geophysical materials in the set are magnetic anomalies map, gravimetric, and radiometric maps at 1:1 000 000 scale. Geophysical maps are compiled based on medium and large-scale field measurements and structured in the database in three information levels. Final digital materials are represented in the database by 500x500m grids. Investigations of digital cartographic materials result in a scheme of integrated interpretation of geophysical data and geological-geophysical section. The following conclusions were obtained for the study region using digital gravimetric data: - anomalous areas corresponding to large synclinoria or anticlinoria of the Ural fold system were revealed within the North Urals region overlapped by platform cover; - significant peculiarity of material complexes of the Kharbey Anticlinorium characterized by intense positive anomaly of the gravity field is shown; - the presence of bodies of mafic composition within the overlapped by platform cover Gortsky, Yarsalinsky synclinoria and Uvat-Khanty-Mansiysk median massif is confirmed and new development areas of intrusive rocks of mafic composition are revealed; - assumed Triassic rift structures filled with volcanic formations of mafic composition and intruded by small gabbroid bodies, usually prospective for hydrocarbons, are revealed.

  3. Consideration on the applicability of the boundary element method to groundwater flow analysis for geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Wide-area groundwater flow analysis for the geological disposal of nuclear waste is conducted in areas 10 to 100 km square at a depth of several kilometers. In Japan with complex topography and geological environment, numerical analyses by segmentation based on the region including FE analysis as a typical example involve difficulty in modeling. This study therefore aims at improving simplicity and preciseness of modeling using BEM through segmentation based on the boundary. Test analyses are conducted to organize data on precision and the characteristics of modeling. Then, this paper describes that the proposed method is fully applicable. (author)

  4. Sinkholes and caves related to evaporite dissolution in a stratigraphically and structurally complex setting, Fluvia Valley, eastern Spanish Pyrenees. Geological, geomorphological and environmental implications

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Fabregat, Ivan; Roqué, Carles; Carbonel, Domingo; Guerrero, Jesús; García-Hermoso, Fernando; Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio

    2016-08-01

    Evaporite karst and sinkhole development is analysed in a geologically complex area of NE Spain, including four evaporite units with different characteristics and affected by compressional and extensional tectonic structures. The exposed paleosinkholes, including remarkable Early Pleistocene paleontological sites, provide valuable information on the subsidence mechanisms and reveal the significant role played by interstratal karstification in the area. These gravitational deformation structures, including hectometre-scale bending folds and oversteepened normal faults, strongly suggest that the present-day compressional regime inferred in previous studies may be largely based on the analysis of non-tectonic structures. Two gypsum caves ca. 1 km long show that passages with restricted cross-sectional area may produce large breccia pipes and sinkholes thanks to the removal of breakdown boulders by high-competence episodic floods. Moreover, the upward progression of cave ceilings by paragenesis and condensation dissolution contributes to increase the probability of sinkhole occurrence. An inventory of 135 sinkholes together with their geological and geomorphological context has been developed. This data base has been used to infer several properties of the sinkholes with practical implications: a magnitude and frequency scaling relationship, spatial distribution patterns, dominant controlling factors and risk implications.

  5. Wavelet Based Analysis of Airborne Gravity Data For Interpretation of Geological Boundaries

    Leblanc, George E.; Ferguson, Stephen

    Airborne gravimeters have only very recently been developed with the sensitivity necessary for useful exploration geophysics. In this study, an airborne gravimeter - an inertially-stabilized platform which converts accelerometer readings into gravity values - has been installed aboard the NRC's Convair 580 research aircraft and a survey performed over the Geological Survey of Canada's gravity test area. These data are used in a new wavelet transform methodology that quickly analyses and locates geological boundaries of various spatial extents within real aerogravity data. The raw aerogravity data were GPS corrected and then noise minimised - to reduce high frequency random noise - with a separate wavelet transform denoising algorithm. The multi-resolution nature of the wavelet transform was then used to investigate the presence of boundaries at various scales. Examination of each wavelet detail scale shows that there is a coherent and localizable signal that conforms to geological boundaries over the entire range of scales. However, the boundaries are more apparent in the lower wavelet scales (corresponding to higher frequencies). The location of the local maximum values of the wavelet coefficents on each wavelet level provides a means to quickly determine and evaluate regional and/or local boundaries. The boundaries that are determined as a function of wavelet scale are able to be well-localized with the wavelet transform, and provides a method to locate, in ground coordinates, the edges of the boundary. In this study it is clear that wavelet methodologies are very well suited to being used effectively with aerogravity data due to the non-stationary nature of these data. Using these same methods on the horizontal and vertical derivatives of the data can provide visually clearer boundary definition, however, thus far there has not been any new boundaries identified in the derivative data. It is also possible to draw potential structural information, such as general

  6. COAL GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111830 Cai Hou’an(State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safety Mining,China University of Mining and Technology,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin The Discovery of Thrust Nappe Structure in Zhangwu-Heishan Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance for Coal-Searching(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(5),2010,p.1-6,5 illus.,31 refs.)Key words:coalfield prediction,nappe structure,Liaoning Province Zhangwu-Heishan area in west Liaoning Province is an important perspective area for alternative resources in the periphery of Fuxin Basin.Based on r

  7. Evaluation and analysis of geological condition of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium

    The ore geological condition, hydrogeological condition, engineering geological condition and technological mineralogical character of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium are analyzed, and it is considered that the implementation of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium technology is decided by different geological factor. Previously prospecting and geological condition evaluation of uranium ore is based on traditional mining method. If in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium method is adopted, one must re-evaluate previously prospected deposits before they are mined, or one must evaluate new prospecting deposits according to geological conditions of in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium method. The feasibility evaluation method of uranium deposit by in-situ fragmentation leaching uranium put forward by B. N. Mociniets is introducd, and it is considered that B. N. Mociniets method has guidable significance for geological condition evaluation before uranium deposits are mined. A feasibility study is done by applying B. N. Mociniets method to a uranium deposit. (authors)

  8. Analysis of geological aspects and visual impact rising from the realisation of a wind power station in an Italian mountain area (Central Appennines)

    This study evaluates some aspects of the environmental impacts arising from the wind power station in the Central Appennines of Italy, particularly with reference to the geological and geotechnical conditions of the site and the visual impact on the landscape. Starting from a large-scale analysis that takes into account the Appennines orogeny and their geodynamic process, it is possible to define the geological characteristics of the considered area. It is possible to analyse structural and morphological aspects, in this way it is possible to identify the most suitable location of power generators in the area and to optimise the road network. The geo-stratigraphical study aids decisions about foundations, excavations and works of containments. Considerations on earth traspiration and on rill identify the necessity of controlling surface waters, evolutionary phenomena and the soil stability of the considered areas. Particular attention has been given to analyse effects on the landscape. (author)

  9. CODSTRAN: Composite durability structural analysis

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    CODSTRAN (COmposite Durability STRuctural ANalysis) is an integrated computer program being developed for the prediction of defect growth and fracture of composite structures subjected to service loads and environments. CODSTRAN is briefly described with respect to organization, capabilities and present status. Application of CODSTRAN current capability to a flat composite laminate with a center slit which was subjected to axial tension loading predicted defect growth which is in good agreement with C-scan ultrasonic test records.

  10. Summary report of the advanced scenario analysis for performance assessment of geological disposal

    First of all, with regard to the FEP information data on the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) developed by JNC, description level and content of the FEPs have been examined from various angles on the basis of the latest research information. Each content of the FEP data has been classified and modified by means of integrating descriptive items, checking detail levels and correlations with other FEPs, collating with the H12 report, and adding technical information after H12 report. Secondly, scenario-modeling process has been studied. The study has been conducted by evaluating representation of the repository system, definition of FEP properties, and process interactions based on the concept of the interaction matrix (RES format) which represents influences between physicochemical characteristics of the repository, followed by an experimental development of the actual RES interaction matrix based on the H12 report as the examination to improve the transparency, traceability and comprehensibility of the scenario analysis process. Lastly, in relation to the geological disposal system, assessment techniques have been examined for more practical scenario analysis on particularly strong perturbations. Possible conceptual models have been proposed for each of these scenarios; seismic, faulting, and dike intrusion. As a result of these researches, a future direction for advanced scenario analysis on performance assessment has been indicated, as well as associated issues to be discussed have been clarified. (author)

  11. Study on the detection of geological structure in coal mine using radon-measuring method

    The presented radon-measuring method is a new technique in nuclear geophysics. By using this technique, hidden fracture, hidden depressed column, empty-hollow of old coal pit and growth region of water-containing fracture or crevice in bottom of coal seam can be detected in coal mine. The test results have proved that the technique is a fast, flexible and economical radioactive geophysical method, which can play a crucial role in coal mine geology

  12. Integrated geophysical survey for the geological structural and hydrogeothermal study of the North-western Gargano promontory (Southern Italy

    D. Schiavone

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A multimethodological geophysical survey was performed in the north-western part of the Gargano promontory to study the geological structural setting and the underground fluid flow characteristics. The area has a complex tectonics with some magmatic outcrops and shallow low-enthalpy waters. Electrical, seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic surveys were carried out to reconstruct the geological structures; and in order to delineate the hydrogeothermal characteristics of the area, the self-potential survey was mainly used. Moreover magnetic and self-potential measurements were also performed in the Lesina lake. The joint three-dimensional interpretation of the geophysical data disclosed a large horst and graben structure covering a large part of the area. In the central part of the horst a large ramified volcanic body was modelled. The models show some intrusions rising from it to or near to the surface. The main structures are well deep-seated in the Crust and along them deep warm fluids rise as the SP data interpretation indicates.

  13. Structural analysis for LMFBR applications

    Firstly, we discuss the use of elastic analysis for structural design of LMFBR components. The elastic analysis methods have been used for structural design of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor as well as the proposed prototype Test Breeder Reactor. The design of Fast Breeder Test Reactor which is nearing completion is the same as that of Rapsodie. Nevertheless, the design had to he checked against the latest design codes available, namely the ASME Code case 1592. This paper however, is confined to Structural analysis of PFBR components. The problems faced in the design of some of the components, in particular, the inner vessel (plenum separator) are discussed. As far as design codes are concerned, we make use of ASME Code Section III and the Code Case N-47, for high temperature design. The problem faced in the use of these rules are also described along with the description of analysis. Studies in the field of cyclic loading include extension of Bree's breakdown and plastic cycling criteria for ratchet free operation to biaxial stress fields. In other fields, namely, inelastic analysis, piping analysis in the creep regime etc. we are only at a start

  14. DEFORMATION AND INSTABILITY-EVOLUTION ANALYSIS OF HIGH EMBANKMENT CAUSED BY WASTE AREA ACTIVATION IN FAULTAGE GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE CONDITION%采空区“活化”引起断层构造区高路堤变形失稳演化分析

    王玉标

    2013-01-01

    Faultage geological structure will influence stability of road bed seriously which passes through waste area,thesis study that faultage geological structure“activate”influenced by coal mining to effect stability of road bed in waste area,which uses nonlinear plasticity finite element technology,to study faultage“activate”,distortion of road bed and instability of road bed,seeking a method to prevent and cure discontinuous deformation and sink of road bed surface,to offer technological basis for rational design.%断层地质构造严重影响采空区高速公路路基的稳定性,针对断层构造采空区复杂条件,利用更能反映实际问题的三维数值模拟方法,运用非线性弹塑性有限元技术,分析矿区开采、交通动荷载等引起断层地质构造采空区“活化”,研究采空区“活化”、断层地质构造对采空区路基失稳的影响,研究复杂条件下高填路基病害机制、变形和地基不稳定性,探讨复杂条件下修筑高填路基而出现的变形与失稳问题,为寻找防治路基路面出现不连续变形、沉陷,确定合理设计提供理论依据。

  15. Structural analysis of aligned RNAs.

    Voss, Björn

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge about classes of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is growing very fast and it is mainly the structure which is the common characteristic property shared by members of the same class. For correct characterization of such classes it is therefore of great importance to analyse the structural features in great detail. In this manuscript I present RNAlishapes which combines various secondary structure analysis methods, such as suboptimal folding and shape abstraction, with a comparative approach known as RNA alignment folding. RNAlishapes makes use of an extended thermodynamic model and covariance scoring, which allows to reward covariation of paired bases. Applying the algorithm to a set of bacterial trp-operon leaders using shape abstraction it was able to identify the two alternating conformations of this attenuator. Besides providing in-depth analysis methods for aligned RNAs, the tool also shows a fairly well prediction accuracy. Therefore, RNAlishapes provides the community with a powerful tool for structural analysis of classes of RNAs and is also a reasonable method for consensus structure prediction based on sequence alignments. RNAlishapes is available for online use and download at http://rna.cyanolab.de. PMID:17020924

  16. In-Situ XRF analysis of environmental, geological and archaeological samples

    The paper presents some considerations and preliminary results on using the portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as in-situ method for the analysis of solid samples of environmental, geological or archaeological origin. Field portable x-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) is an exemplary field method, offering extremely rapid, versatile screening by in-situ measurement with accuracy that can rival that of standard laboratory analysis, despite the low detection limits are higher than the limits of detection (LODs) attained by laboratory. Generally elements of atomic number 12 or greater up to elements as Thorium (Th) and Uranium (U) can be detected and quantitated by FPXRF. Detection limits depend on several factors, the analyte of interest, the type of detector used, the type of excitation source, the strength of the excitation source, counting times used to irradiate the sample, physical matrix effects, chemical matrix effects, and interelement spectral interferences. These detection limits are given for guidance only and will vary depending on the sample matrix, which instrument is used, and operating conditions, important for such samples as those considered. (authors)

  17. Global sensitivity analysis of reactive transport modeling of CO2 geological storage in a saline aquifer

    Predictive uncertainty for reactive transport modeling of CO2 geological storage arises due to high uncertainty in dissolution/precipitation rates. Here, the reactive transport modeling of the Frio sandstone formation is used as a case study. The major CO2 trapping mineral is ankerite, while the main dissolution minerals are oligoclase and chlorite. In this context, unlike the commonly used local sensitivity analysis, the sensitivity analysis is global so that the potential co-operative effects among input parameters can be investigated. Nine key factors for kinetic rates and reactive mineral surface areas with respect to precipitating and dissolving minerals (only oligoclase) are considered. Sensitivity results from the Morris method show that the dissolution rate of oligoclase knuO, and its reactive surface area AO, are the most sensitive parameters, with the largest effects on CO2 mineral capture. The variation of the total amount of CO2 captured by minerals is pronounced with multiple model runs from Morris samples, which suggests that reactive surface areas and kinetic rates have significant impacts on CO2 mineral sequestration. (authors)

  18. Radioactive and geological analysis of airborne gamma spectrometric data for locating favorable traps for uranium prospecting in the Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria

    Statistical analysis has been applied to the airborne spectrometric data for the Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria in order to characterize and isolate the anomalous uranium radioactive zones. Equivalent uranium eU values vary between a minimum of 0.01 and a maximum of 32.74 ppm. Uranium prospecting methodology recently proposed is successfully applied in order to explain the origin of the radioactive anomalies related to Area-1. The dominant geological conditions effectively contributing to the uranium radioactive anomalies in the study area have been determined through the analysis of five radioactive-geological profiles. Different favorable traps have been identified and localized for uranium prospecting. Those uranium traps merit further detailed exploration for determining their uranium potential with depth. - Highlights: ► Determine the radioactive characteristics of Area-1. ► Apply a uranium prospecting methodology for guiding uranium exploration activities in Area-1. ► Explain the origin of the radioactive anomalies in Area-1. ► Relate the structural and geological conditions with the anomalous radioactive occurrences.

  19. Applicability of direct total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for multielement analysis of geological and environmental objects

    The research aim is to demonstrate our experience in the applicability of TXRF analysis of various geological and environmental objects using minimal sample treatment. The study was focused on the evaluation of different factors affecting the TXRF results obtained for solid and liquid samples such as rock, mineral, ore, and natural water. Powdered geological samples were prepared as suspensions. Natural water samples were analyzed directly or after dilution. Testing various experimental parameters, e.g. sample amount, type of dispersant, and others was performed. For chosen conditions of the sample preparation procedure analytical figures of merit were estimated. Presented analytical results display the possibilities of TXRF applications in geological and environmental fields. - Highlights: • We study the capability of TXRF to simplify sample treatment for natural materials. • We assess various factors affecting the TXRF results for solid and liquid samples. • Analytical figures of merit were estimated

  20. Rock Cavern Stability Analysis Under Different Hydro-Geological Conditions Using the Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Model

    Chen, H. M.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Choo, L. Q.; Sun, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Rock cavern stability has a close relationship with the uncertain geological parameters, such as the in situ stress, the joint configurations, and the joint mechanical properties. Therefore, the stability of the rock cavern should be studied with variable geological conditions. In this paper, the coupled hydro-mechanical model, which is under the framework of the discontinuous deformation analysis, is developed to study the underground cavern stability when considering the hydraulic pressure after excavation. Variable geological conditions are taken into account to study their impacts on the seepage rate and the cavern stability, including the in situ stress ratio, joint spacing, and joint dip angle. In addition, the two cases with static hydraulic pressure and without hydraulic pressure are also considered for the comparison. The numerical simulations demonstrate that the coupled approach can capture the cavern behavior better than the other two approaches without the coupling effects.

  1. Geology, structure, and statistics of multi-ring basins on Mars

    Available data on Martian multi-ring basins were compiled and evaluated using the new 1:15 million scale geologic maps of Mars and global topography was revised as base maps. Published center coordinates and ring diameters of Martian basins were plotted by computer and superimposed onto the base maps. In many cases basin centers or ring diameters or both had to be adjusted to achieve a better fit to the revised maps. It was also found that additional basins can explain subcircular topographic lows as well as map patterns of old Noachian materials, volcanic plains units, and channels in the Tharsis region

  2. 2D Modelling of the Gorkha earthquake through the joint exploitation of Sentinel 1-A DInSAR measurements and geological, structural and seismological information

    De Novellis, Vincenzo; Castaldo, Raffaele; Solaro, Giuseppe; De Luca, Claudio; Pepe, Susi; Bonano, Manuela; Casu, Francesco; Zinno, Ivana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo; Tizzani, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    A Mw 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal on 25 April 2015 at 06:11:26 UTC, killing more than 9,000 people, injuring more than 23,000 and producing extensive damages. The main seismic event, known as the Gorkha earthquake, had its epicenter localized at ~82 km NW of the Kathmandu city and the hypocenter at a depth of approximately 15 km. After the main shock event, about 100 aftershocks occurred during the following months, propagating toward the south-east direction; in particular, the most energetic shocks were the Mw 6.7 and Mw 7.3 occurred on 26 April and 12 May, respectively. In this study, we model the causative fault of the earthquake by jointly exploiting surface deformation retrieved by the DInSAR measurements collected through the Sentinel 1-A (S1A) space-borne sensor and the available geological, structural and seismological information. We first exploit the analytical solution performing a back-analysis of the ground deformation detected by the first co-seismic S1A interferogram, computed by exploiting the 17/04/2015 and 29/04/2015 SAR acquisitions and encompassing the main earthquake and some aftershocks, to search for the location and geometry of the fault plane. Starting from these findings and by benefiting from the available geological, structural and seismological data, we carry out a Finite Element (FE)-based 2D modelling of the causative fault, in order to evaluate the impact of the geological structures activated during the seismic event on the distribution of the ground deformation field. The obtained results show that the causative fault has a rather complex compressive structure, dipping northward, formed by segments with different dip angles: 6° the deep segment and 60° the shallower one. Therefore, although the hypocenters of the main shock and most of the more energetic aftershocks are located along the deeper plane, corresponding to a segment of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the FE solution also indicates the contribution of the shallower

  3. Geological structure of Osaka basin and characteristic distributions of structural damage caused by earthquake; Osaka bonchi kozo to shingai tokusei

    Nakagawa, K.; Shiono, K.; Inoue, N.; Senda, S. [Osaka City University, Osaka (JP. Faculty of Science); Ryoki, K. [Osaka Polytechnic Collage, Osaka (Japan); Shichi, R. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The paper investigates relations between the damage caused by the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and the deep underground structures. A characteristic of the earthquake damage distribution is that the damage concentrated near faults. Most of the damages were seen on the side of faults` relatively falling rather than right above the faults and of their slightly slanting to the seaside. Distribution like this seems to be closely related to underground structures. Therefore, a distribution map of the depth of basement granite in Osaka sedimentary basin was drawn, referring to the data on basement rock depth obtained from the distribution map of gravity anomaly and the result of the survey using the air gun reflection method. Moreover, cubic underground structures were determined by 3-D gravity analysis. The result was concluded as follows: when observing the M7 zone of the low land, in particular, where the damage was great from an aspect of gravity anomaly, the basement rock below the zone declined near the cliff toward the sea, which indicates a great possibility of its being a fault. There is a high possibility that the zone suffered mostly from the damage caused by focusing by refraction and total reflection of seismic wave rays. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  4. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110001 Chi Han (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China); Li Chusi Shock-Metamorphosed Zircons in the Fragments of the Sudbury Breccias, Ontario, Canada (Earth Science Frontiers, ISSN1005-2321, CN11-3370/P, 17(1), 2010, p.86-92, 5 illus., 42 refs.)Key words: meteorite impacts, suevite, Canada It is widely accepted that the Sudbury structure formed by large bolide impact. To find more supporting evidences, the authors used elec

  5. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090700 Chen Anshu(Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Li Xiaoguang 1:250 000-Scale Regional Geological Map Spatial Database(Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353/P,31(1),2008,p.64-69,2 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)

  6. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140805Fan Baocheng(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,China Geology Survey,Xi’an710054,China);Meng Guanglu The Geological Evolution and Metallization of TalasKalatawu Block in Northern Tianshan,Kyrgyzstan(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(2),2013,p.54-

  7. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140958 Mei Huicheng(No.915GeologicalBrigade,Jiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Nanchang 330002,China);Li Zhongshe Geological Features and Causes of the Huihuang Geotherm in Xiushui,Jiangxi Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and

  8. A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas

    Daly, M. (BP Exploracion de Venezuela, Stockley Park, Middlesex (United Kingdom)); Audemard, F. (Intevep, Miranda (Venezuela)); Valdes, G. (Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1993-09-01

    Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

  9. Uncertainty analysis in comparative NAA applied to geological and biological matrices

    Comparative nuclear activation analysis is a multielemental primary analytical technique that may be used in a rather broad spectrum of matrices with minimal-to-none sample preprocessing. Although the total activation of a chemical element in a sample depends on a rather large set of parameters, when the sample is irradiated together with a well-known comparator, most of these parameters are crossed out and the concentration of that element can be determined simply by using the activities and masses of the comparator and the sample, the concentration of this chemical element in the sample, the half-life of the formed radionuclide and the time between counting the sample and the comparator. This simplification greatly reduces not only the calculations required, but also the uncertainty associated with the measurement; nevertheless, a cautious analysis must be carried out in order to make sure all relevant uncertainties are properly treated, so that the final result can be as representative of the measurement as possible. In this work, this analysis was performed for geological matrices, where concentrations of the interest nuclides are rather high, but so is the density and average atomic number of the sample, as well as for a biological matrix, in order to allow for a comparison. The results show that the largest part of the uncertainty comes from the activity measurements and from the concentration of the comparator, and that while the influence of time-related terms in the final uncertainty can be safely neglected, the uncertainty in the masses may be relevant under specific circumstances. (author)

  10. Opportunity, Geologic and Structural Context of Aqueous Alteration in Noachian Outcrops, Marathon Valley and Rim and Endeavour Crater

    Crumpler, L. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Jolliff, B. L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fox, V.; Golombek, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    In its 12th year of exploration and 1600 sols since arrival at the rim of the 22 km-diameter Noachian Endeavour impact crater, Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed from the summit of the western rim segment "Cape Tribulation" to "Marathon Valley", a shallow trough dissecting the rim and the site of strong orbital detection of smectites. In situ analysis of the exposures within Marathon Valley is establishing some of the geologic and geochemical controls on the aqueous alteration responsible for smectite detection known to occur in crater rims throughout Noachian terrains of Mars.

  11. Safety analysis of geologic containment of long life radioactive wastes. Critical assessment of existing methods and proposition of prospective approach

    Existing methods of risk analysis applied to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in geologic formations are rewieved. A prospective analysis method for containment performances is proposed, deduced in the burial system from the combination of interaction between wastes, repository, host rock, surrounding geosphere, of natural evolution of each component of the system, sudden or chance events that could break waste containment. The method is based on the elaboration of four basic schemes graded in difficulties to facilitate comparisons

  12. Structural Analysis of Complex Networks

    Dehmer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Filling a gap in literature, this self-contained book presents theoretical and application-oriented results that allow for a structural exploration of complex networks. The work focuses not only on classical graph-theoretic methods, but also demonstrates the usefulness of structural graph theory as a tool for solving interdisciplinary problems. Applications to biology, chemistry, linguistics, and data analysis are emphasized. The book is suitable for a broad, interdisciplinary readership of researchers, practitioners, and graduate students in discrete mathematics, statistics, computer science,

  13. Analysis on the use of engineered barriers for geologic isolation of spent fuel in a reference salt site repository

    A perspective on the potential durability and effectiveness requirements for the waste form, container and other engineered barriers for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. This perspective is based on calculated potential doses to individuals who may be exposed to radioactivity released from a repository via a groundwater transport pathway. These potential dose commitments were calculated with an integrated geosphere transport and bioshpere transport model. A sensitivity analysis was accomplished by varying four important system parameters, namely the waste radionuclide release rate from the repository, the delay prior to groundwater contact with the waste (leach initiation), aquifer flow velocity and flow path length. The nuclide retarding capacity of the geologic media, a major determinant of the isolation effectiveness, was not varied as a parameter but was held constant for a particular reference site. This analysis is limited to looking only at engineered barriers whose net effect is either to delay groundwater contact with the waste form or to limit the rate of release of radionuclides into the groundwater once contact has occurred. The analysis considers only leach incident scenarios, including a water well intrusion into the groundwater near a repository, but does not consider other human intrusion events or catastrophic events. The analysis has so far been applied to a reference salt site repository system and conclusions are presented.Basically, in nearly all cases, the regional geology is the most effective barrier to release of radionuclides to the biosphere; however, for long-lived isotopes of carbon, technetium and iodine, which were poorly sorbed on the geologic media, the geology is not very effective once a leach incident is initiated

  14. Analysis of geological samples by the micro-PIXE facility at KFUPM

    The scanning microprobe facility of the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) has been applied extensively in various fields, including geology. A number of geological investigations carried out on samples of gold-bearing rocks, phosphorite ores and volcanic sediments is reviewed. Elemental composition and distribution maps across single mineral grains, fluid inclusions, grain boundaries and matrices were measured. The microscopic data obtained are discussed to understand fundamental geological processes and ore genesis, and the provenance of economically important trace minerals contained in these samples. (author)

  15. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method for...... determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....

  16. A simple analysis of potential radiological exposure from geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    AECL has submitted an environmental impact statement (EIS) describing its proposal for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The EIS presents a detailed analysis of potential radiation exposure of an individual of a critical group of people in a hypothetical case. In this report, we provide a simpler analysis of potential exposure in the hope that the inherent safety of the disposal will be more readily evident from the analysis. A key to the simplification is the elimination from the analysis of the complex transport processes through disposal vault sealing materials and the geosphere. We also eliminate the relatively complex function describing the failure of the thin-walled titanium containers in the case study presented in the EIS. We therefore conceptually replace the thin-walled titanium containers with thicker-walled copper containers, are expected to remain intact much longer than 10,000 a, the period for which a quantitative estimate of individual exposure is made. However, about 1 in 5000 containers could have small defects that were undetected during manufacture. Our analysis applies only to the case of an undisrupted vault. We assume that the vault and geosphere barriers remain intact and prevent immobile radionuclides from reaching the biosphere. However, we also assume that the three most important mobile radionuclides can escape through an undected manufacturing defect in the container wall, and that the flux of these radionuclides is diluted by well water being used by people. We have focused on 129I, 36Cl and 14C, because these nuclides are found to be the dominant source of exposure in more complex analyses. If a single container released radionuclides to well water, we estimate dose rates of about 1 μSv.a-1 from drinking water and 29 μSv.a-1, which the Atomic Eenrgy Control Board has adopted as a de minimis dose rate, i.e., a dose rate so small as to not warrant institutional control. We believe that the dose rates are greatly

  17. Structural geology of Ordos basin mineralization and mineralization of uranium deposits in the Huianbao region, west of Ordos basin

    The thesis discussed the geotectonic setting of west Ordos Basin, classification of tectonic units, geology of west fault-fold belt and structural feature in Majiatan region. The stable tectonic region was overall guidance thoughts and ideas for the uranium deposits in the structure relative activities region. Based on exploration and research of uranium geology for many years, the over-thrust nappe belt was favorable region for uranium mineralization. Two oxidation layers which the ancient oxidation was red and oxidation alteration was yellow existed in this region, the uranium ore was controlled on by two oxidation layers. Early red oxidized sandstone was experienced post-reformation such as thrust pushover, lifting, erosion, superimposed depth and separation of block fault. Late yellow oxidation which tended to inherit the early red oxidation and carry on the superposition modification distributed both wings of anticline. The thesis was to summarized the uranium features and metallogenic regularity, which has some guidance for uranium deposits in the basin. (authors)

  18. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1

  19. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr. [and others

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Distribution Models

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP distribution models represent the areas where species are predicted to occur based on habitat associations. GAP distribution models are the spatial arrangement...

  1. Geological disposal of nuclear waste: II. From laboratory data to the safety analysis – Addressing societal concerns

    Highlights: • Models for repository safety can only partly be validated. • Long term risks need to be translated in the context of societal temporalities. • Social sciences need to be more strongly involved into safety assessment. - Abstract: After more than 30 years of international research and development, there is a broad technical consensus that geologic disposal of highly-radioactive waste will provide for the safety of humankind and the environment, now, and far into the future. Safety analyses have demonstrated that the risk, as measured by exposure to radiation, will be of little consequence. Still, there is not yet an operating geologic repository for highly-radioactive waste, and there remains substantial public concern about the long-term safety of geologic disposal. In these two linked papers, we argue for a stronger connection between the scientific data (paper I, Grambow et al., 2014) and the safety analysis, particularly in the context of societal expectations (paper II). In this paper (II), we assess the meaning of the technical results and derived models (paper I) for the determination of the long-term safety of a repository. We consider issues of model validity and their credibility in the context of a much broader historical, epistemological and societal context. Safety analysis is treated in its social and temporal dimensions. This perspective provides new insights into the societal dimension of scenarios and risk analysis. Surprisingly, there is certainly no direct link between increased scientific understanding and a public position for or against different strategies of nuclear waste disposal. This is not due to the public being poorly informed, but rather due to cultural cognition of expertise and historical and cultural perception of hazards to regions selected to host a geologic repository. The societal and cultural dimension does not diminish the role of science, as scientific results become even more important in distinguishing

  2. Multi-Scale Scratch Analysis in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its Geological Implications

    Sun, Yanyun; Yang, Wencai; Yu, Changqing

    2016-04-01

    Multi-scale scratch analysis on a regional gravity field is a new data processing system for depicting three-dimensional density structures and tectonic features. It comprises four modules including the spectral analysis of potential fields, multi-scale wavelet analysis, density distribution inversion, and scratch analysis. The multi-scale scratch analysis method was applied to regional gravity data to extract information about the deformation belts in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which can help reveal variations of the deformation belts and plane distribution features from the upper crust to the lower crust, provide evidence for the study of three-dimensional crustal structures, and define distribution of deformation belts and mass movement. Results show the variation of deformation belts from the upper crust to the lower crust. The deformation belts vary from dense and thin in the upper crust to coarse and thick in the lower crust, demonstrating that vertical distribution of deformation belts resembles a tree with a coarse and thick trunk in the lower part and dense and thin branches at the top. The dense and thin deformation areas in the upper crust correspond to crustal shortening areas, while the thick and continuous deformation belts in the lower crust indicate the structural framework of the plateau. Additionally, the lower crustal deformation belts recognized by the multi-scale scratch analysis coincide approximately with the crustal deformation belts recognized using single-scale scratch analysis. However, deformation belts recognized by the latter are somewhat rough while multi-scale scratch analysis can provide more detailed and accurate results.

  3. Linear geologic structure and magic rock discrimination as determined from infrared data

    Offield, T. W.; Rowan, L. C.; Watson, R. D.

    1970-01-01

    Color infrared photographs of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana show the distribution of mafic dikes and amphibolite bodies. Lineaments that cross grassy plateaus can be identified as dikes by the marked constrast between the dark rocks and the red vegetation. Some amphibolite bodies in granitic terrain can also be detected by infrared photography and their contacts can be accurately drawn due to enchanced contrast of the two types of rock in the near infrared. Reflectance measurements made in the field for amphibolite and granite show that the granite is 25% to 50% more reflective in the near infrared than in the visible region. Further enhancement is due to less atmospheric scattering than in the visible region. Thermal infrared images of the Mill Creek, Oklahoma test site provided information on geologic faults and fracture systems not obtainable from photographs. Subtle stripes that cross outcrop and intervening soil areas and which probably record water distribution are also shown on infrared photographs.

  4. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor

    Shugart, Nicolas

    The United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. In support of the GSTR's relicensing efforts, this project developed and validated a Monte Carlo N-Particle Version 5 (MCNP5) model of the GSTR reactor. The model provided estimates of the excess reactivity, power distribution and the fuel temperature, water temperature, void, and power reactivity coefficients for the current and limiting core. The MCNP5 model predicts a limiting core excess reactivity of 6.48 with a peak rod power of 22.2 kW. The fuel and void reactivity coefficients for the limiting core are strongly negative, and the core water reactivity coefficient is slightly positive, consistent with other TRIGA analyses. The average fuel temperature reactivity coefficient of the full power limiting core is -0.0135 /K while the average core void coefficient is -0.069 /K from 0-20 % void. The core water temperature reactivity coefficient is +0.012 /K. Following the neutronics analysis, the project developed RELAP5 and PARET-ANL models of the GSTR hot-rod fuel channel under steady state and transient conditions. The GSTR limiting core, determined as part of this analysis, provides a worst case operating scenario for the reactor. During steady state operations, the hot rod of the limiting core has a peak fuel temperature of 829 K and a minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio of 2.16. After a $3.00 pulse reactivity insertion the fuel reaches a peak temperature is 1070 K. Examining the model results several seconds after a pulse reveals flow instabilities that result from weaknesses in the current two-channel model.

  5. Analysis of scenario development methods and practice of high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    The scenario development is the key step in HLW geological disposal. The features, events and processes (FEPs) should be first considered. The FEPs can be sorted and grouped to form scenario. It is very useful and have reference value for the developing the FEPs of HLW geological disposal in a conceptual and planning stage in China by introducing the FEPs established and sorted methods. (authors)

  6. Geological and engineering analysis of residual soil for forewarning landslide from highland area in northern Thailand

    Thongkhao Thanakrit; Phantuwongraj Sumet; Choowong Montri; Thitimakorn Thanop; Charusiri Punya

    2015-01-01

    One devastating landslide event in northern Thailand occurred in 2006 at Ban Nong Pla village, Chiang Klang highland of Nan province after, a massive amount of residual soil moved from upstream to downstream, via creek tributaries, into a main stream after five days of unusual heavy rainfall. In this paper, the geological and engineering properties of residual soil derived fromsedimentary rocks were analyzed and integrated. Geological mapping, electrical resistivity su...

  7. Geological characteristics of dike-structural belt in Taoshan orefield and its relationship to uranium deposits

    Taoshan uranium field is occurred in the Taoshan composite batholith in the central Jiangxi Province. The main body of the batholith was formed in Triassic-Early Cretaceous. In Late Cretaceous-Eogene, NE strike fault structure and dike belt were developed in the batholith. From the north to the south, there are successive Xiaobu-Matian dike-structural belt, Wangnitian dike- structural belt, Huangtan-Yueyuan dike-structural belt, Xibei-Shangluo dike-structural belt, Jipoling dike-structural belt, Wangce dike-structural belt and Shiyuanling dike-structural belt. These belts are controlled by the main fault, share the same space and similar time with the uranium mineralization, which is one of the important factors in positioning the uranium ore as well as the prospecting direction of exploration. (authors)

  8. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    Kodge B. G.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

  9. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

  10. Study on the development of geological environmental model

    The safety performance assessment was carried out in potential geological environment in the conventional research and development of geological disposal, but the importance of safety assessment based on the repository design and scenario considering the concrete geological environment will increase in the future. The research considering the link of the major three fields of geological disposal, investigation of geological environment, repository design, and safety performance assessment, is the contemporary worldwide research theme. Hence it is important to organize information flow that contains the series of information process form the data production to analysis in the three fields, and to systemize the knowledge base that unifies the information flow hierarchically. The purpose of the research is to support the development of the unified analysis system for geological disposal. The development technology for geological environmental model studied for the second progress report by JNC are organized and examined for the purpose of developing database system with considering the suitability for the deep underground research facility. The geological environmental investigation technology and building methodology for geological structure and hydro geological structure models are organized and systemized. Furthermore, the quality assurance methods in building geological environment models are examined. Information which is used and stored in the unified analysis system are examined to design database structure of the system based on the organized methodology for building geological environmental model. The graphic processing function for data stored in the unified database are examined. furthermore, future research subjects for the development of detail models for geological disposal are surveyed to organize safety performance system. (author)

  11. Probabilistic methods for structural response analysis

    Wu, Y.-T.; Burnside, O. H.; Cruse, T. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses current work to develop probabilistic structural analysis methods for integration with a specially developed probabilistic finite element code. The goal is to establish distribution functions for the structural responses of stochastic structures under uncertain loadings. Several probabilistic analysis methods are proposed covering efficient structural probabilistic analysis methods, correlated random variables, and response of linear system under stationary random loading.

  12. Exploring the "what if?" in geology through a RESTful open-source framework for cloud-based simulation and analysis

    Klump, Jens; Robertson, Jess

    2016-04-01

    combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions. Faults happen in real world networks. Future work will investigate the effect of failure on dynamic sensor networks and the impact on the predictive capability of machine learning algorithms.

  13. The nappe structure's geologic character and ore-controlling effect of mountain-Xiang ore-field in middle part of Jiangxi province

    On the base of analyzing the nappe structure's geologic distribution, it roundly discusses the nappe structure's geologic character, and systematically summarizes the effect on uranium mineralization of the nappe structure. The nappe structure not only creates the self-contained 3D structure network system, including transmitting, transiting, shifting and reserve, but also trains a combine Interchange structure of the multilayer structure and the lithologic characters difference, at the same time which forms a close, half-close lithologic characters. Those structure applies such as pipe, screen and the store space for the liquid ore transport, moreover it protects the uranium mine. Depends on all of this, concluding the fields of uranium mineralization of the nappe structure, and the enrichment law. (authors)

  14. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock

  15. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock

  16. Methodology for the biosphere analysis in the evaluation of deep geological repositories for high radioactive waste

    This report summarizes the work done and the achievements reached within the R and D Project that IMA/CIEMAT has had with ENRESA during 1993-1995. The overal R and D Project has a wide radiological protection context, but the work reported here relates only to the development of a Methodology for considering the Biosphere sub-system in the assessments of deep geological repositories for high radioactive wastes (HLW). The main areas concerned within the Methodology have to do with Biosphere structure and morphology in the long-term relevant to deep disposal of HLW: in the contexts of the assessment of these systems, and appropiate modelling of the behaviour of radionuclides released to the biosphere system and with the associated human exposure. This document first provides a review of the past and present international and national concerns about the biosphere modelling and its importance in relation to the definition of safety criteria. A joint ENRESA/ANDRA/IPSN/CIEMAT study about the definition and proactical descriptions of the biosphere systems under different climatic states is then summarized. The Methodology developed by IMA/CIEMAT is outlined with an illustration of the way it works. Different steps and procedures are included for a better proactical understanding of the software tools developed within the project to support the application of the Methologoy. This Methodology is widely based on an international working group on Reference Biospheres part national work for ENRESA has been supported under a collaborative agreement with QuantiSci Ltd. Specific software development have been carried out in collaboration with QuantiSci Ltd and with the Polytechnical University of Madrid. Most of the items included within the Methodology and moreover the Methodology as a whole, follows a continuos progressive development. It is increasinaly recognized that assessment capabilities, establisment of safety criteria and regulatory framework and the steps in a

  17. The seabed geomorphology and geological structure of the Firth of Lorn, western Scotland, UK

    Howe, John; Arosio, Riccardo; Dove, Dayton; Anderton, Roger; Bradwell, Tom

    2014-05-01

    We present recently collected swath bathymetry from the Firth of Lorn. 553km2 of data were collected during 2012-2013 as part of the INIS Hydro project (Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland Hydrographic Survey). The inshore waters covered by this survey represent a priority area for the renewable industry, shipping and tourism and encompass a number of Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) including for rocky reef habitat. Surprisingly, given this interest, this project is the first comprehensive bathymetric survey of the area. This region of near shore continental shelf is revealed as a predominantly bedrock-dominated seabed, characterised by a series of narrow, stratigraphically constrained basins eroded into the Proterozoic and Palaeozoic-age bedrock. The principal basement of the region is composed of deformed Dalradian-age metasediments overlain unconformably by ?Silurian-age Old Red Sandstones and lavas. The resistant, uneroded igneous extrusives have formed raised rock platforms. Most strikingly the central region of the Firth of Lorn is dominated by an up to 150m high vertical cliff extending for approximately 20km. The origin of this prominent feature, here termed the Insh Fault, is not well understood however it may have resulted from a combination of Dalradian-age faulting and erosion of exposed softer metasediments in the central basin. Extensive seabed faulting also occurs; possibly as Dalradian-age syn-sedimentary faults. Carboniferous and Tertiary-age minor intrusives are common throughout the region in particular the Tertiary-age dolerite dyke swarms can be traced for many kilometres, exposed on the sediment-free bedrock surfaces. The survey region includes the Corryvreckan Whirlpool and Great Race, beneath the tidal flows of which there are active submarine sand dunes. Evidence for past glaciation is widespread and well preserved in the Firth of Lorn with preserved moraines and over-deepened basins common across the area. Initial geological and

  18. Preliminary analysis on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological formations of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Several studies show that deep geological formations are the most promising solution - technical and economical - for the safe disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. In order to obtain the necessary information to assess on the use of geological sites in Brazil - for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by the brazilian nuclear industry - a careful survey on the basalt and granite rocks of Sao Paulo State was made. The data obtained were evaluated according to guidelines established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The favourable and unfavourable characteristics of the basalts, granites and their respective occurrence areas in the Sao Paulo state territory - as potential waste disposal sites - were analysed. This preliminary and regional characterization is not a conclusive study whether these two rocks types are definitively the most suitable geological formations for use as nuclear waste repository or not. It is the subsidy for a more detailed analysis. Other factors such as social, political and economical aspects, ecological effects, engineering geology, heat generation rate of the waste, type of radiation emitted and corrosive nature of the waste must also be taken into account. (author)

  19. Analysis on the characteristics of geologic disposal waste arising from various partitioning and conditioning options

    Highlights: • We model and compare four P&C (partitioning and conditioning) options. • Vitrification options could increase the utilization of space in repository. • Removal of Sr&Cs/MA bring benefits for repository in the near/long term respectively. • The limit of linear thermal power challenges the benefits of vitrification options. • Ventilation and time management are effective to reduce the linear thermal power. - Abstract: Siting a nuclear geological repository entails high economic, social, and political costs. The concept of expanding the capacity of repository is of great interest to the nuclear industry. Partitioning and conditioning (P&C) technology of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) is expected to be effective to mitigate the burden of repository by removal of some elements from disposal waste and reducing the repository size necessitated to emplace the waste forms. The impacts of P&C technology on the characteristics of disposal waste are discussed in this paper. Four P&C options are assumed in the analysis: (1) Spent fuel once through, to dispose spent fuel directly; (2) Conventional reprocessing, to dispose vitrified HLLW glass; (3) Reprocessing plus long-lived nuclides partitioning, to dispose waste streams without minor actinides (MAs), rare earth elements (REs), Tc and Pu; (4) Reprocessing plus high thermal output nuclides separation, to dispose waste streams without Sr&Cs. The partitioning scheme is based on China’s TRPO full partitioning process and its experimental results. The waste conditioning and disposal is in accordance with the specifications of Yucca Mountain Repository. The content of disposal waste stream in each option is presented and its characteristics, such as mass, volume, linear loading capacity, thermal power and linear thermal power, are identified

  20. Structural Characteristics of Paleozoic and Geological Significance of Oil and Gas of Dongpu Depression

    杨世刚

    2003-01-01

    The Dongpu depression has experienced a complicated evolution of structure since Mesozoic. The Paleozoic carbonate rock has been strongly reformed and the buried hills with different characteristics of structure are developed in the depression. There exist lots of groups of fault structures with strikes of NNE(or NE),NW, near NS and EW etc., of which the faults with strikes of NNE and NW play an important controlling role on present-day structural framework of the depression. The faults with near NS-striking and EW-striking deeply affect the establishment of structural framework of basement of the depression. Although most of the fractures are filled by calcite and other minerals, under the action of later structural stress, the earlier fractures could change their features into tensional ones. Therefore, much attention should be paid to the exploration and exploitation of Paleozoic oil and gas in Dongpu depression.

  1. Digital bedrock mapping at the Geological Survey of Norway: BGS SIGMA tool and in-house database structure

    Gasser, Deta; Viola, Giulio; Bingen, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Since 2010, the Geological Survey of Norway has been implementing and continuously developing a digital workflow for geological bedrock mapping in Norway, from fieldwork to final product. Our workflow is based on the ESRI ArcGIS platform, and we use rugged Windows computers in the field. Three different hardware solutions have been tested over the past 5 years (2010-2015). (1) Panasonic Toughbook CE-19 (2.3 kg), (2) Panasonic Toughbook CF H2 Field (1.6 kg) and (3) Motion MC F5t tablet (1.5 kg). For collection of point observations in the field we mainly use the SIGMA Mobile application in ESRI ArcGIS developed by the British Geological Survey, which allows the mappers to store georeferenced comments, structural measurements, sample information, photographs, sketches, log information etc. in a Microsoft Access database. The application is freely downloadable from the BGS websites. For line- and polygon work we use our in-house database, which is currently under revision. Our line database consists of three feature classes: (1) bedrock boundaries, (2) bedrock lineaments, and (3) bedrock lines, with each feature class having up to 24 different attribute fields. Our polygon database consists of one feature class with 38 attribute fields enabling to store various information concerning lithology, stratigraphic order, age, metamorphic grade and tectonic subdivision. The polygon and line databases are coupled via topology in ESRI ArcGIS, which allows us to edit them simultaneously. This approach has been applied in two large-scale 1:50 000 bedrock mapping projects, one in the Kongsberg domain of the Sveconorwegian orogen, and the other in the greater Trondheim area (Orkanger) in the Caledonian belt. The mapping projects combined collection of high-resolution geophysical data, digital acquisition of field data, and collection of geochronological, geochemical and petrological data. During the Kongsberg project, some 25000 field observation points were collected by eight

  2. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  3. Preliminary Geologic/spectral Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data, Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    Lang, H. R.; Conel, J. E.; Paylor, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    A LIDQA evaluation for geologic applications of a LANDSAT TM scene covering the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, is examined. This involves a quantitative assessment of data quality including spatial and spectral characteristics. Analysis is concentrated on the 6 visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. Preliminary analysis demonstrates that: (1) principal component images derived from the correlation matrix provide the most useful geologic information. To extract surface spectral reflectance, the TM radiance data must be calibrated. Scatterplots demonstrate that TM data can be calibrated and sensor response is essentially linear. Low instrumental offset and gain settings result in spectral data that do not utilize the full dynamic range of the TM system.

  4. Structural analysis of nuclear components

    THe report describes the activities accomplished in the project 'Structural Analysis Project of Nuclear Power Plant Components' during the years 1974-1982 in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The objective of the project has been to develop Finnish expertise in structural mechanics related to nuclear engineering. The report describes the starting point of the research work, the organization of the project and the research activities on various subareas. Further the work done with computer codes is described and also the problems which the developed expertise has been applied to. Finally, the diploma works, publications and work reports, which are mainly in Finnish, are listed to give a view of the content of the project. (author)

  5. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a user's tool.

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which could offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply or changing seasonal demands. The geostorage site options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and hard rock caverns. The DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of geologic hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an economic analysis methodology and subsequent spreadsheet analysis to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) incorporate more site-specific model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules, (2) develop a version that matches the general format of the HDSAM model developed and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory, and (3) incorporate specific demand scenarios illustrating the model's capability. Four general types of underground storage were analyzed: salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers, and hard rock caverns/other custom sites. Due to the substantial lessons learned from the geological storage of natural gas already employed, these options present a potentially sizable storage option. Understanding and including these various geologic storage types in the analysis physical and economic framework will help identify what geologic option would be best suited for the storage of hydrogen. It is important to note, however, that existing natural gas options may not translate to a hydrogen system where substantial engineering obstacles may be encountered. There are only three locations worldwide that currently store hydrogen underground and they are all in salt caverns. Two locations are in the U.S. (Texas), and are managed by ConocoPhillips and Praxair (Leighty, 2007). The third is in Teeside, U.K., managed by Sabic Petrochemicals (Crotogino

  6. Comparison of seismic sources for imaging geologic structures on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    In this study, five non-invasive swept sources, three non-invasive impulsive sources and one invasive impulsive source were compared. Previous shallow seismic source tests (Miller and others, 1986, 1992, 1994) have established that site characteristics should be considered in determining the optimal source. These studies evaluated a number of invasive sources along with a few non-invasive impulsive sources. Several sources (particularly the high frequency vibrators) that were included in the ORR test were not available or not practical during previous tests, cited above. This study differs from previous source comparisons in that it (1) includes many swept sources, (2) is designed for a greater target depth, (3) was conducted in a very different geologic environment, and (4) generated a larger and more diverse data set (including high fold CMP sections and walkaway vertical seismic profiles) for each source. The test site is centered around test injection well HF-2, between the southern end of Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG 5) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

  7. The 3-D structural geology of the PRZ [Potential Repository Zone]. Supplementary proof of evidence

    Supplementary Proof of Evidence by an expert witness is presented in support of the case by Friends of the Earth (FOE) against the proposed construction by UK Nirex Ltd of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at a site in the Sellafield area. The RCF is part of an investigation by Nirex into a suitable site for an underground repository for the disposal of radioactive waste. The objections were raised at a Planning Inquiry in 1995. Various points raised by a Nirex witness in connection with earlier evidence to the Inquiry by FOE are addressed. This evidence dealt with the need for an accurate hydrogeological model of the Potential Repository Zone (PRZ) and the perceived inadequacies of the Nirex approach. The issues addressed in this supplementary evidence are: disagreements over 3D seismic surveys; inconsistencies in the Nirex geological interpretation; the evolution of interpretation of the PRZ; the oil exploration analogy; site potential; the need for deterministic models; and the selective use of information. (2 figures; 1 table). (UK)

  8. High resolution seismic stratigraphic analysis: An integrated approach to the subsurface geology of the SE Persian Gulf

    Farzadi, Pourdad

    2006-01-01

    Papers included in this dissertation: Paper 1: Farzadi, P. 2006a. The development of Middle Cretaceous carbonate platforms, Persian Gulf, Iran: Constraints from seismic stratigraphy, well and biostratigraphy. Petroleum Geoscience, 12, 59-68. Paper 2: Farzadi, P. 2006b. Seismic facies analysis based on 3D multi-attribute volume classification, Dariyan Formation, SE Persian Gulf. Journal of Petroleum Geology,29/2, 159-174. Paper 3: Farzadi, P. & Hesthammer, J. (Submitted 2006)...

  9. Comparative analysis of the impact of geological activity on astronomical sites of the Canary Islands, Hawaii and Chile

    Eff-Darwich, A.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Rodriguez-Losada, J. A.; de la Nuez, J.; Hernandez-Gutierrez, L. E.; Romero-Ruiz, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of seismic and volcanic activity was carried out at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile) and the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones (Chile). Hazard associated to volcanic activity is low or negligible at all sites, whereas seismic hazard is very high in Chile and Hawaii. The lowest geological hazard in both seismic and vo...

  10. Analysis of DCC domain structure

    Wavelet-type methods are employed for the analysis of pion field configurations that have been obtained by dynamical simulations in idealized scenarios relevant to the formation of disoriented chiral condensates. It is illustrated how the measurement of the isospin domain structure depends on the ability to zoom in on limited parts of the phase space, due to the interplay between the pion correlation length and the effective source geometry. The need for advanced analysis methods is underscored by the fact that the extracted neutral-fraction distribution would differ significantly from the ideal form, even under perfect experimental conditions, and, moreover, by the circumstance that thermal sources with suitably adjusted temperatures can lead to distributions that may be practically indistinguishable from those arising from DCC-type nonequilibrium evolutions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122163 Song Tianrui ( Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Bei-jing 100037,China );Tang Jigang The First Discovery of Cosmic Spherules in Modern Sediments of the Golden Pebble Beach ( Jinshitan ) in Dalian,Liaoning Province

  12. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141899Guo Lianjie(Lanzhou Center for Oil and Gas Resources,Institute of Geology and Geophysics,CAS,Lanzhou 730000,China);Ye Danian Origin and Development Anniversary Commemoration of Geology in China:The100th for the Geological Survey of China(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(4),2013,p.945-969,4

  13. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132393 Lü Guxian(Institute of Geomechanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100081,China);Li Xiuzhang Research and Development of Orefield Geology(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,48(6),2012,p.1143-1150,3illus.,1table,46refs.)Key words:study of mineral deposit

  14. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2015-01-01

    20150901Dai Chuangu(Guizhou Academy of Geologic Survey,Guiyang550005,China);Zheng Qiqian Geological Background Study of Metallogenic in Haixi-Yanshan Tectonic Cycle in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,31(2),2014,p.82-88,3illus.,2tables,13refs.)Key words:metallogenesis,metallogenic area,

  15. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142560Hu Hongxia(Regional Geological and Mineral Resources Survey of Jilin Province,Changchun 130022,China);Dai Lixia Application of GIS Map Projection Transformation in Geological Work(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,32(4),2013,p.160-163,4illus.,2refs.)

  16. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    2010-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  17. Surficial Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...

  18. Micro-XRF : Elemental Analysis for In Situ Geology and Astrobiology Exploration

    Allwood, Abigail; Hodyss, Robert; Wade, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The ability to make close-up measurements of rock chemistry is one of the most fundamental tools for astrobiological exploration of Mars and other rocky bodies of the solar system. When conducting surface-based exploration, lithochemical measurements provide critical data that enable interpretation of the local geology, which in turn is vital for determining habitability and searching for evidence of life. The value of lithochemical measurements for geological interpretations has been repeatedly demonstrated with virtually every landed Mars mission over the past four decades.

  19. Progress on 129I analysis and its application in environmental and geological researches

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian

    2013-01-01

    environmental level. Based on its source terms, chemical properties and environmental behaviors, 129Ican be applied for geological dating in a range of 2–80Ma, investigation of formation and migration of hydrocarbon, circulation of ocean water, atmospheric process of iodine, as well as reconstruction of...... interferences, as well as preparation of suitable target for AMS measurement. The major applications in environmental and geological researches are reviewed, which mainly focus on the new progress and potential development in the future. The application of 129I in the investigation of radioactive contamination...

  20. Seismic response of the geologic structure underlying the Roman Colosseum and a 2-D resonance of a sediment valley

    P. Labak

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic response of the geologic structure beneath the Colosseum is investigated using a two-dimensional modeling for a vertically incident plane SH wave. Computations indicate that the southern part of the Colosseum may be exposed to a seismic ground motion with significantly larger amplitudes, differential motion and longer duration than the northern part. because the southern part of the Colosseum is underlain by a sedimentfilled valley created by sedimentary filling of the former tributary of the River Tiber. A 2-D resonance may develop in the valley. Unlike the previous theoretical studies on 2-D resonance in sediment-filled valleys, an effect of heterogeneous valley surroundings on the resonance is partly investigated. A very small sensitivity of the maximum spectral amplifications connected with the fundamental and first higher modes to the presence of a horizontal surface layer (with an intermediate velocity in the valley surroundings is observed in the studied models.

  1. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

  2. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    McKee, E.H.

    1998-02-01

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range.

  3. The analysis of thallium in geological materials by radiochemical neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: a comparison

    McGoldrick, P.J.; Robinson, P. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Carrier-based radiochemical neutron activation (RNAA) is a precise and accurate technique for the analysis of Tl in geological materials. For about a decade, until the mid-80s, a procedure modified from Keays et al. (1974) was used at the University of Melbourne to analyse for Tl in a wide variety of geological materials. Samples of powdered rock weighing several hundred milligrams each were irradiated in HIFAR for between 12 hours and 1 week, and subsequently fused with a sodium hydroxide - sodium peroxide mixture and several milligrams of inactive Tl carrier. Following acid digestion of the fusion mixture anion exchange resin was used to separate Tl from the major radioactive rock constituents. The Tl was then stripped from the resin and purified as thallium iodide and a yield measured gravimetrically. Activity from {sup 204}Tl (a {beta}-emitter with a 3 8 year half-life) was measured and Tl determined by reference to pure chemical standards irradiated and processed along with the unkowns. Detection limits for the longer irradiations were about one part per billion. Precision was monitored by repeat analyses of `internal standard` rocks and was estimated to be about five to ten percent (one standard deviation). On the other hand, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was seen as an excellent cost-effective alternative for thallium analysis in geological samples, down to 1 ppm. 6 refs. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  4. The feasibility of TEA CO2 laser-induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of geological samples in simulated Martian conditions

    Savovic, Jelena; Stoiljkovic, Milovan; Kuzmanovic, Miroslav; Momcilovic, Milos; Ciganovic, Jovan; Rankovic, Dragan; Zivkovic, Sanja; Trtica, Milan

    2016-04-01

    The present work studies the possibility of using pulsed Transversely Excited Atmospheric (TEA) carbon dioxide laser as an energy source for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of rocks under simulated Martian atmospheric conditions. Irradiation of a basaltic rock sample with the laser intensity of 56 MW cm- 2, in carbon-dioxide gas at a pressure of 9 mbar, created target plasma with favorable conditions for excitation of all elements usually found in geological samples. Detection limits of minor constituents (Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, and Zr) were in the 3 ppm-30 ppm range depending on the element. The precision varied between 5% and 25% for concentration levels of 1% to 10 ppm, respectively. Generally, the proposed relatively simple TEA CO2 laser-LIBS system provides good sensitivity for geological studies under reduced CO2 pressure.

  5. Geophysical investigation and reconstruction of lithospheric structure and its control on geology, structure, and mineralization in the Cordillera of northern Canada and eastern Alaska

    Hayward, N.

    2015-10-01

    A reconstruction of the Tintina fault is applied to regional geophysical and topographic data, facilitating the definition of west trending lineaments within the lower crust and/or mantle lithosphere, oblique to the NW trending structure of the Cordilleran terranes. The lineaments, which exhibit a range of geophysical and geological signatures, are interpreted to be related to the Liard transfer zone, continuous to the Denali fault, that divided lower and upper plates during late Proterozoic-Cambrian rifting of the Laurentian margin. Three-dimensional gravity models show a density increase in the lower crust and mantle lithosphere to the north. The transfer zone also divides bimodal mantle xenolith suites to the south from unimodal suites to the north. These conclusions suggest that extended North American basement, related to Laurentian margin rifting that would have brought mantle lithosphere rocks to a shallow depth, continuously underlies a thin carapace of accreted terranes in western Yukon and eastern Alaska. The interpreted continuity of North American basement reaffirms that if oroclinal bending of the Intermontane terranes occurred, then it was prior to its emplacement upon the rifted basement. Examination of the spatial relationships between mineral occurrences and postaccretionary, Cretaceous lithospheric lineaments, from their manifestation in geophysical, geological, and topographic data, suggest that the late Proterozoic lineaments influenced Mesozoic mineralization through influence on the development of the shallow crustal structure, intrusion, and exhumation and erosion.

  6. System analysis methods for geological repository of high level radioactive waste in granite

    Taking Beishan granite site as an example, this paper proposes the conceptual and structural design of repository for high level radioactive waste at first. Then the function, structure, environment and evolution of the repository are described by the methodology of system analysis. Based on these designs and descriptions, a calculation model for the repository is developed with software GoldSim. At last, this calculation model is applied to emulate the space-time distribution of repository radiotoxicity, to analyze the sensitivity of parameters in the model, to optimize the design parameters, and to predict and assess the repository performance. The results of this study can provide technical supports for resources allocation and coordination of R and D projects. (authors)

  7. Characterization of the hydrothermal system of the Tinguiririca Volcanic Complex, Central Chile, using structural geology and passive seismic tomography

    Pavez, C.; Tapia, F.; Comte, D.; Gutiérrez, F.; Lira, E.; Charrier, R.; Benavente, O.

    2016-01-01

    A structural characterization of the hydrothermal-volcanic field associated with the Tinguiririca Volcanic Complex had been performed by combining passive seismic tomography and structural geology. This complex corresponds to a 20 km long succession of N25°E oriented of eruptive centers, currently showing several thermal manifestations distributed throughout the area. The structural behavior of this zone is controlled by the El Fierro-El Diablo fault system, corresponding to a high angle reverse faults of Oligocene-Miocene age. In this area, a temporary seismic network with 16 short-period stations was setup from January to April of 2010, in the context of the MSc thesis of Lira (2010), covering an area of 200 km2 that corresponds with the hydrothermal field of Tinguiririca Volcanic Complex (TVC), Central Chile, Southern Central Andes. Using P- and S- wave arrival times, a 3D seismic velocity tomography was performed. The preliminary locations of 2270 earthquakes have first been determined using an a priori 1D velocity model. Afterwards, a joint inversion of both, the 3D velocity model and final locations have been obtained. High Vp/Vs ratios are interpreted as zones with high hot fluid content and high fracturing. Meanwhile, low Vp/Vs anomalies could represent the magmatic reservoir and the conduit network associated to the fluid mobility. Based on structural information and thermal manifestations, these anomalies have been interpreted. In order to visualize the relation between local geology and the velocity model, the volume associated with the magma reservoir and the fluid circulation network has been delimited using an iso-value contour of Vp/Vs equal to 1.70. The most prominent observed feature in the obtained model is a large "V" shaped low-velocity anomaly extending along the entire study region and having the same vergency and orientation as the existing high-angle inverse faults, which corroborates that El Fierro-El Diablo fault system represents the

  8. Preliminary spectral and geologic analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Alley, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) image of the Wind River Basin area in Wyoming is currently under analysis for stratigraphic and structural mapping and for assessment of spectral and spatial characteristics using visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. To estimate the equivalent Lambertian surface reflectance, TM radiance data were calibrated to remove atmospheric and instrumental effects. Reflectance measurements for homogeneous natural and cultural targets were acquired about one year after data acquisition. Calibration data obtained during the analysis were used to calculate new gains and offsets to improve scanner response for earth science applications. It is shown that the principal component images calculated from the TM data were the result of linear transformations of ground reflectance. In images prepared from this transform, the separation of spectral classes was independent of systematic atmospheric and instrumental factors. Several examples of the processed images are provided.

  9. Probabilistic structural analysis methods of hot engine structures

    Chamis, C. C.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Development of probabilistic structural analysis methods for hot engine structures is a major activity at Lewis Research Center. Recent activities have focused on extending the methods to include the combined uncertainties in several factors on structural response. This paper briefly describes recent progress on composite load spectra models, probabilistic finite element structural analysis, and probabilistic strength degradation modeling. Progress is described in terms of fundamental concepts, computer code development, and representative numerical results.

  10. Probabilistic structural analysis methods development for SSME

    Chamis, C. C.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of probabilistic structural analysis methods is a major part of the SSME Structural Durability Program and consists of three program elements: composite load spectra, probabilistic finite element structural analysis, and probabilistic structural analysis applications. Recent progress includes: (1) the effects of the uncertainties of several factors on the HPFP blade temperature pressure and torque, (2) the evaluation of the cumulative distribution function of structural response variables based on assumed uncertainties on primitive structural variables, and (3) evaluation of the failure probability. Collectively, the results obtained demonstrate that the structural durability of critical SSME components can be probabilistically evaluated.

  11. THE NEOTECTONIC STRUCTURE OF INTERMOUNTAIN BASINS OF MOUNTAINOUS ALTAI ACCORDING TO ELECTROMAGNETIC AND GEOLOGICAL DATA

    N. N. Nevedrova; A. M. Sanchaa; E. V. Deev; S. M. Babushkin

    2015-01-01

    The article presents new data on the geoelectrical structure of Chuya, Kuray and Uymon intermountain basins, which are the three largest ones in Mountainous Altai, Russia. Geoelectrical models of the basins were constructed using the data obtained from field studies with application of a complex of electromagnetic methods, including transient electromagnetic, vertical electric soundings and electric tomography. Different amounts of field geoelectric data were collected for each basin. Chuya a...

  12. Risk Analysis of Marine Structures

    Hansen, Peter Friis

    1998-01-01

    Basic concepts of risk analysis is introduced. Formulation and analysis of fault and event trees are treated.......Basic concepts of risk analysis is introduced. Formulation and analysis of fault and event trees are treated....

  13. Information on prospecting and analysis of the geological uraniferous favourability of Peru

    The activities carried out in Peru from 1958 until 1975 in search of uranium deposits are described. In 1976 the 'Peruvian Nuclear Plan' was approved, and the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy/Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) was given the responsibility of organizing and carrying out all activities related to uranium exploration and production in the country. The programme is under implementation and comprises organization of infrastructural support, training of technical personnel, selection of favourable areas, and exploration and adoption of the most favourable national policy to permit development of the national uranium resources. The criteria applied for definition of the 'uranium favourability' of the main Peruvian geological environments are described, taking into account geological composition and concepts relating to the matallogenesis and control of uranium deposits. The results of this area selection are reported. (author)

  14. Analysis of multispectral and hyperspectral longwave infrared (LWIR) data for geologic mapping

    Kruse, Fred A.; McDowell, Meryl

    2015-05-01

    Multispectral MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) data and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) data covering the 8 - 12 μm spectral range (longwave infrared or LWIR) were analyzed for an area near Mountain Pass, California. Decorrelation stretched images were initially used to highlight spectral differences between geologic materials. Both datasets were atmospherically corrected using the ISAC method, and the Normalized Emissivity approach was used to separate temperature and emissivity. The MASTER data had 10 LWIR spectral bands and approximately 35-meter spatial resolution and covered a larger area than the HyTES data, which were collected with 256 narrow (approximately 17nm-wide) spectral bands at approximately 2.3-meter spatial resolution. Spectra for key spatially-coherent, spectrally-determined geologic units for overlap areas were overlain and visually compared to determine similarities and differences. Endmember spectra were extracted from both datasets using n-dimensional scatterplotting and compared to emissivity spectral libraries for identification. Endmember distributions and abundances were then mapped using Mixture-Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), a partial unmixing approach. Multispectral results demonstrate separation of silica-rich vs non-silicate materials, with distinct mapping of carbonate areas and general correspondence to the regional geology. Hyperspectral results illustrate refined mapping of silicates with distinction between similar units based on the position, character, and shape of high resolution emission minima near 9 μm. Calcite and dolomite were separated, identified, and mapped using HyTES based on a shift of the main carbonate emissivity minimum from approximately 11.3 to 11.2 μm respectively. Both datasets demonstrate the utility of LWIR spectral remote sensing for geologic mapping.

  15. The Baltic Basin: structure, properties of reservoir rocks, and capacity for geological storage of CO2

    Vaher, Rein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Baltic countries are located in the limits of the Baltic sedimentary basin, a 700 km long and 500 km wide synclinal structure. The axis of the syneclise plunges to the southwest. In Poland the Precambrian basement occurs at a depth of 5 km. The Baltic Basin includes the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran (Vendian at the base and all Phanerozoic systems. Two aquifers, the lower Devonian and Cambrian reservoirs, meet the basic requirements for CO2 storage. The porosity and permeability of sandstone decrease with depth. The average porosity of Cambrian sandstone at depths of 80–800, 800–1800, and 1800–2300 m is 18.6, 14.2, and 5.5%, respectively. The average permeability is, respectively, 311, 251, and 12 mD. Devonian sandstone has an average porosity of 26% and permeability in the range of 0.5–2 D. Prospective Cambrian structural traps occur only in Latvia. The 16 largest ones have CO2 storage capacity in the range of 2–74 Mt, with total capacity exceeding 400 Mt. The structural trapping is not an option for Lithuania as the uplifts there are too small. Another option is utilization of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The estimated total EOR net volume of CO2 (part of CO2 remaining in the formation in Lithuania is 5.6 Mt. Solubility and mineral trapping are a long-term option. The calculated total solubility trapping capacity of the Cambrian reservoir is as high as 11 Gt of CO2 within the area of the supercritical state of carbon dioxide.

  16. Comparison of neutron activation analysis techniques for the determination of uranium concentrations in geological and environmental materials

    We have described the determination of uranium in environmental, geological, and agricultural specimens by three different non-destructive nuclear methods. The effectiveness, as defined as the lower limits of detection in this work, of quantifying trace levels of bulk uranium in geological samples was evaluated for several common NAA techniques. These techniques include short-lived and medium-lived neutron activation analysis using thermal and epithermal neutrons; these results were compared with an assessment of Compton suppressed gamma-ray counting. A careful evaluation of three major (n,γ) reactions with chlorine, manganese and sodium that could impede determining low levels of uranium due to high Compton continuums was done. The evaluation of Compton suppressed passive gamma counting revealed that uranium concentrations below 50 mg kg−1 were not adequate to achieve good counting statistics using the 234mPa the second daughter product of 238U. -- Highlights: ► Determination of uranium concentrations in geological, environmental, and agricultural specimens. ► Use of several NAA and passive counting methods. ► Identified several key interferences. ► Use of Compton suppression to minimize effects of interferences

  17. Analysis of possible geological storage of CO{sub 2} and nuclear waste in Lithuania

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Mikalauskiene, Asta [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos 3, LT-44403, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2010-08-15

    Lithuania is currently dealing with two major problems in energy sector: final closure of Ignalina Nuclear Power plant (Ignalina NPP) in the end of 2009 and nuclear waste disposal and climate change mitigation issues having in mind replacement of nuclear capacities with fossil one and anticipated increase in GHG emissions. Lithuania has two options: to construct new nuclear power plant also taking into account nuclear waste disposal issue or to burn fossil fuel and to apply carbon capture and storage (CCS) for GHG emission reduction. These two options need to be investigated in Lithuania based on various studies conducted in Lithuania and abroad dealing with geological carbon storage and nuclear waste disposal potentials. There are no long-lived nuclear waste geological storage capacities in Lithuania and there is no pilot project on CCS developed in Lithuania. The aim of the article is to analyse and compare geological carbon and nuclear waste storage opportunities in Lithuania and to assess nuclear and carbon capture and storage technologies in terms of costs. (author)

  18. Applicability of capillary electrophoresis to the analysis of trace rare earth elements in geological samples

    This study developed a methodology to analyze trace rare earth elements (REEs) in geological materials by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Changed from dilute HNO3 into a water medium by heating, REE ions are detectable at ∼2 ng mL-1. In the presence of coexisting elements from geological samples, REE separations were carried out. After sample fusion with Na2O2 and interference separation with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate chelate, REE analytes were coprecipitated with Mg(OH)2 at pH 8.5, and then prepared into a water medium for CE determination. Using the standard addition method, this protocol was validated by analyses with better than 5% precision. This method was applied to geological materials; the REE results are in consistence with their certified values. With electrokinetic injection, internal standard (IS) selected among lanthanides is a prerequisite of high-quality REE data. An approach was proposed to derive the IS content for further correcting its contribution from unknown samples. (author)

  19. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness of kinetic structures. Robustness of structures has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. Especially for these types of structural syst...

  20. Geological and structural characterization and microtectonic study of shear zones Colonia

    The “Colonia Shear Zone System”, characterized by a transcurrent system of predominant sinistral shear sense, is defined by two approximately parallel shear zones, denominated Isla San Gabriel-Juan Lacaze Shear Zone (ISG-JL S.Z.) and Islas de Hornos-Arroyo Riachuelo Shear Zone (IH-AºR S. Z.). Represented by rocks with ductile and brittle deformation, are defined as a strike slip fault system, with dominant subvertical foliation orientations: 090-100º (dip-direction 190º) and 090-100º (dip-direction 005º). The K/Ar geochronology realized, considering the estimates temperatures conditions for shear zones (450-550º), indicate that 1780-1812 Ma should be considered a cooling age and therefore a minimum deformation age. The observed microstructures suggest deformation conditions with temperatures between 450-550º overprinted by cataclastic flow structures (reactivation at lower temperature)

  1. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

  2. Revisiting mountain-building in the Andes of Central Chile: constraints from structural geology and thermochronology.

    Riesner, M.; Lacassin, R.; Simoes, M.; Armijo, R.; Carrizo, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Andes, one of the most significant reliefs on Earth, is the case example of a subduction-type mountain belt. In central Chile and western Argentina, the particular east-vergent structure of the Aconcagua fold-and-thrust belt (AFTB) is found atop a huge basement high with elevations > 4000 m, the Frontal Cordillera. Classical conceptual models consider the Andes as an east-vergent orogen, opposite to the Nazca subduction, and describe the exhumation of the Frontal Cordillera as an eastward in-sequence event that occurred late in the andean deformation (by ~10My). An alternative model recently challenged this view by proposing that the Andes have mainly a primary westward vergence. Within this scheme, the exhumation of the Frontal Cordillera would have begun earlier, by ~25My, synchronous with formation of the AFTB on the western side of the basement high. Here we test these two models by revisiting structural cross-sections of the Andes at the latitude of Santiago de Chile and of the Aconcagua (~33°S). We provide thermochronological constraints on the timing of exhumation of the Frontal Cordillera by (U-Th)/He dating on apatites retrieved from paleozoic granitoids along a 2,3km high nearly vertical section in the core of the basement high. Preliminary results suggest that the Frontal Cordillera exhumation was not a late event and likely began around 25 Ma. Therefore it appears to be synchronous with deformation within the AFTB and the westernmost fold-and-thrust belt at this latitude. We discuss these results and their implications while building a crustal-scale cross section of the range at the latitude of Santiago de Chile.

  3. Integrated geophysical and geological methods to investigate the inner and outer structures of the Quaternary Mýtina maar (W-Bohemia, Czech Republic)

    Flechsig, C.; Heinicke, J.; Mrlina, Jan; Kämpf, H.; Nickschick, T.; Schmidt, A.; Bayer, Tomáš; Günther, T.; Rücker, C.; Seidel, E.; Seidl, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2015), s. 2087-2105. ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Eger Rift * Quaternary maar volcanism * Mýtina maar * geophysical and geological survey Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2014

  4. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    Ru-Shan Wu; Xiao-Bi Xie

    2008-06-08

    Our proposed work on high resolution/high fidelity seismic imaging focused on three general areas: (1) development of new, more efficient, wave-equation-based propagators and imaging conditions, (2) developments towards amplitude-preserving imaging in the local angle domain, in particular, imaging methods that allow us to estimate the reflection as a function of angle at a layer boundary, and (3) studies of wave inversion for local parameter estimation. In this report we summarize the results and progress we made during the project period. The report is divided into three parts, totaling 10 chapters. The first part is on resolution analysis and its relation to directional illumination analysis. The second part, which is composed of 6 chapters, is on the main theme of our work, the true-reflection imaging. True-reflection imaging is an advanced imaging technology which aims at keeping the image amplitude proportional to the reflection strength of the local reflectors or to obtain the reflection coefficient as function of reflection-angle. There are many factors which may influence the image amplitude, such as geometrical spreading, transmission loss, path absorption, acquisition aperture effect, etc. However, we can group these into two categories: one is the propagator effect (geometric spreading, path losses); the other is the acquisition-aperture effect. We have made significant progress in both categories. We studied the effects of different terms in the true-amplitude one-way propagators, especially the terms including lateral velocity variation of the medium. We also demonstrate the improvements by optimizing the expansion coefficients in different terms. Our research also includes directional illumination analysis for both the one-way propagators and full-wave propagators. We developed the fast acquisition-aperture correction method in the local angle-domain, which is an important element in the true-reflection imaging. Other developments include the super

  5. Geological structure impact on the exchange between fractures and matrix for the fractured porous media

    Fractured porous media are characterized by the presence of fractures at several scales with heterogeneous properties implying areas highly permeable by comparison with the rock. Hydraulically, these media are characterized by short reaction times, due to the fractures, and long reaction times, due to the rock. These media are important for several topics as contaminated sites, element storage and resources exploitation. The main challenge of fracture porous media modeling is the representation of the geometrical and physical heterogeneities. As an exact representation of the medium is not possible, it is necessary to determine the key properties of the medium. This study aims at determining the impact of the geometrical and physical properties of the fractures and the matrix from the local to the global scales. A first part consists in creating methods to evaluate structure effects on the exchange between the fractures and the matrix and a second part consists in using these methods on several media. Finally, we describe a new discrete dual-porosity model taking into account the properties of the media characterizing its behavior. (author)

  6. The Maximum Effective Moment Criterion (MEMC) and Its Implications in Structural Geology

    2006-01-01

    The Mohr-Coulomb criterion has been widely used to explain formation of fractures.However, it fails to explain large strain deformation that widely occurs in nature. There is presently a σ1-σ3 represents the yield strength of the related rock, L is a unit length and α is the angle between σ1and deformation bands. This criterion demonstrates that the maximum value appears at angles of ±54.7° to σ1 and there is a slight difference in the moment in the range of 55°±10°. The range covers the whole observations available from nature and experiments. Its major implications include: (1) it can be used to determine the stress state when the related deformation features formed; (2) it provides a new approach to determine the Wk of the related ductile shear zone if only the ratio of the vorticity and strain rate remains fixed; (3) It can be used to explain (a) the obtuse angle in the contraction direction of conjugate kink-bands and extensional crenulation cleavages, (b) formation of low-angle normal faults and high-angle reverse faults, (c) lozenge ductile shear zones in basement terranes, (d) some crocodile structures in seismic profiles and (e) detachment folds in foreland basins.

  7. Geological connectivity drives microbial community structure and connectivity in polar, terrestrial ecosystems.

    Ferrari, Belinda C; Bissett, Andrew; Snape, Ian; van Dorst, Josie; Palmer, Anne S; Ji, Mukan; Siciliano, Steven D; Stark, Jonathon S; Winsley, Tristrom; Brown, Mark V

    2016-06-01

    Landscape heterogeneity impacts community assembly in animals and plants, but it is not clear if this ecological concept extends to microbes. To examine this question, we chose to investigate polar soil environments from the Antarctic and Arctic, where microbes often form the major component of biomass. We examined soil environments that ranged in connectivity from relatively well-connected slopes to patchy, fragmented landforms that comprised isolated frost boils. We found landscape connectedness to have a significant correlation with microbial community structure and connectivity, as measured by co-occurrence networks. Soils from within fragmented landforms appeared to exhibit less local environmental heterogeneity, harboured more similar communities, but fewer biological associations than connected landforms. This effect was observed at both poles, despite the geographical distances and ecological differences between them. We suggest that microbial communities inhabiting well-connected landscape elements respond consistently to regional-scale gradients in biotic and edaphic factors. Conversely, the repeated freeze thaw cycles that characterize fragmented landscapes create barriers within the landscape and act to homogenize the soil environment within individual frost boils and consequently the microbial communities. We propose that lower microbial connectivity in the fragmented landforms is a function of smaller patch size and continual disturbances following soil mixing. PMID:26310523

  8. Comparative analysis of the impact of geological activity on astronomical sites of the Canary Islands, Hawaii and Chile

    Eff-Darwich, A; Rodriguez-Losada, J A; de la Nuez, J; Hernandez-Gutierrez, L E; Romero-Ruiz, M C

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of seismic and volcanic activity was carried out at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile) and the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones (Chile). Hazard associated to volcanic activity is low or negligible at all sites, whereas seismic hazard is very high in Chile and Hawaii. The lowest geological hazard in both seismic and volcanic activity was found at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, in the island of La Palma.

  9. 3D Geologic Model of the San Diego Area

    Danskin, W. R.; Cromwell, G.; Glockhoff, C.; Martin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Prior geologic studies of the San Diego area, including northern Baja California, Mexico, focused on site investigations, characterization of rock formations, or earthquake hazards. No comprehensive, quantitative model characterizing the three-dimensional (3D) geology of the entire area has been developed. The lack of such a model limits understanding of large-scale processes, such as development of ancient landforms, and groundwater movement and availability. To evaluate these regional processes, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to better understand the geologic structure of the San Diego area. A cornerstone of this study is the installation and analysis of 77 wells at 12 multiple-depth monitoring-well sites. Geologic information from these wells was combined with lithologic data from 81 oil exploration wells and municipal and private water wells, gravity and seismic interpretations, and paleontological interpretations. These data were analyzed in conjunction with geologic maps and digital elevation models to develop a 3D geologic model of the San Diego area, in particular of the San Diego embayment. Existing interpretations of regional surficial geology, faulting, and tectonic history provided the framework for this model, which was refined by independent evaluation of subsurface geology. Geologic formations were simplified into five sedimentary units (Quaternary, Plio-Pleistocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Cretaceous ages), and one basal crystalline unit (primarily Cretaceous and Jurassic). Complex fault systems are represented in the model by ten fault strands that maintain overall displacement. The 3D geologic model corroborates existing geologic concepts of the San Diego area, refines the extent of subsurface geology, and allows users to holistically evaluate subsurface structures and regional hydrogeology.

  10. Multi-block analysis coupled to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for sorting geological materials from caves.

    Ammari, Faten; Bassel, Léna; Ferrier, Catherine; Lacanette, Delphine; Chapoulie, Rémy; Bousquet, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    In this study, multi-block analysis was applied for the first time to LIBS spectra provided by a portable LIBS system (IVEA Solution, France) equipped with three compact Czerny-Turner spectrometers covering the spectral ranges 200-397nm, 398-571nm and 572-1000nm. 41 geological samples taken from a laboratory-cave situated in the "Vézère valley", an area rich with prehistoric sites and decorated caves listed as a UNESCO world heritage in the south west of France, were analyzed. They were composed of limestone and clay considered as underlying supports and of two types of alterations referred as moonmilk and coralloid. Common Components and Specific Weights Analysis (CCSWA) allowed sorting moonmilk and coralloid samples. The loadings revealed higher amounts of magnesium, silicon, aluminum and strontium in coralloids and the saliences emphasized that among the three spectrometers installed in the LIBS instrument used in this work; that covering the range 572-1000nm was less contributive. This new approach for processing LIBS data not only provides good results for sorting geological materials but also clearly reveals which spectral range contains most of the information. This specific advantage of multi-block analysis could lead for some applications to simplify the design and to reduce the size of LIBS instruments. PMID:27474310

  11. Criticality analysis of aggregations of actinides from commerical nuclear waste in geological storage

    An underground nuclear-waste terminal-storage facility for either spent fuel elements or high level waste from a reprocessing plant will contain large amounts of fissionable actinides. Such a facility must be designed to preclude the concentration of these isotopes into a critical mass. Information on the critical masses of the various isotopes present in spent fuel or high level waste is required as part of such a design effort. This study provides this information. The results of this study will be used, in conjunction with geologic transport rates of the actinide compounds, to estimate mass formation probabilities in waste repositories. A computational model was developed as part of the study to perform criticality calculations rapidly and efficiently and to produce tables and plots of actinide concentration in geologic material versus critical mass. The criticality model uses a discrete ordinates approximation to neutron transport theory and treats six energy groups and spherical geometry. Neutron cross sections were obtained from ENDF/B-IV or ENDF/B-V cross section libraries. Critical masses calculated with the computational model were checked against experimental values and against more detailed calculational values and were found to be from 30 percent less to 10 percent greater. Critical mass calculations were made for five waste types, five waste ages, five actinide elements, and four geologic compositions. Minimum critical masses were calculated for over 400 combinations of the above variables. The relative importance for criticality of the various actinides and waste types is presented in terms of the number of possible critical masses per waste container

  12. Kinematic Analysis of Tensegrity Structures

    Whittier, William Brooks

    2002-01-01

    Tensegrity structures consist of isolated compression members (rigid bars) suspended by a continuous network of tension members (cables). Tensegrity structures can be used as variable geometry truss (VGT) mechanisms by actuating links to change their length. This paper will present a new method of position finding for tensegrity structures that can be used for actuation as VGT mechanisms. Tensegrity structures are difficult to understand and mathematically model. This difficulty is p...

  13. Analysis of rare earth elements on geological samples using ICP-MS

    A routine method has been developed for ICP-MS determination of the REE for geological samples. Separation of REE as a group using cation exchange column has removed interferences caused by transition groups of elements and minimized the background due to complex matrix. Isobaric interferences caused by lighter REE were measured using the single pure element solutions and a correction procedure evolved. Thus using ICP-MS good quality REE data set can be acquired on rock samples with sample size not a limiting factor

  14. Analysis of siliceous geologic materials by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    The determination of the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe in siliceous geologic samples by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence is investigated using the most adequate excitation conditions: direct excitation mode (rhodium anode X-ray tube) for the former two elements, and the secondary targets titanium for K and Ca, and germanium for Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe. For the correction of matrix effects the use of ratio methods has been tested. Procedure files have been defined allowing the automatic simultaneous acquisition and processing of spectra. (author)

  15. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142114Lin Quansheng(China University of Geosciences,Bejing 100083,China)On the Geologic Characteristics and Economic Significance of the Cambrian Lintian Group in Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,32(4),2013,p.264-273,2illus.,2tables,6refs.)

  16. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140227Li Wenyuan(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,CGS,Xi’an 710054,ChinaThe Continental Growth and Ore-Forming Processes(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(1),2013,p.1-10,5illus.,18refs.)

  17. COAL GEOLOGY

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080394 Fan Ben(Nanjing Forestry University,Nanjing 210037 China);Yao Suping Distribution and Geological Significance of Four Anaerobic Bacteria in Peats(Geological Journal of China Universities,ISSN1006-7493,CN32-1440/P,13(1),2007,p.30-34,2 illus.,2 tables,10 refs.)

  18. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131683 Lin Wenjing(Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Shijiazhuang050061,China);Liu Zhiming An Estimation of HDR Resources in China’s Mainland(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,33(5),2012,p.807-811,2illus.,2tables,14refs.)

  19. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131088 Fan Difu (Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province , Nanjing 210018 , China ); Xu Xueqiu Origin Study of Geothermal Field in Xiaoyangkou of Rudong County in Jiangsu (Journal of Geology , ISSN1674-3636 , CN32-1796/P , 36 (2), 2012 , p.192-197 , 3illus. , 9refs.) Key words : geothermal fields , Jiangsu Province

  20. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081086 Feng Wujun(Geological Research Institute,Jiangsu Oil Field Branch Company,Yangzhou 225012,Jiangsu);Cao Bing Geoheat Resources Evaluation and Target Optimization in Gaoyou Region of Jiangsu Province(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,31(2),2007,p.130-13

  1. Analysis concepts for large telescope structures under earthquake load

    Koch, Franz

    1997-03-01

    The very large telescope (VLT) of ESO will be placed on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama desert in northern Chile. This site provides excellent conditions for astronomical observations. However, it is likely that important seismic activities occur. The telescope structure and its components have to resist the largest earthquakes expected during their lifetime. Therefore, design specifications and structural analyses have to take into account loads caused by such earthquakes. The present contribution shows some concepts and techniques in the assessment of earthquake resistant telescope design by the finite element method (FEM). After establishing the general design criteria and the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the site location, the seismic action can be defined. A description of various representations of the seismic action and the procedure to define the commonly used response spectrum are presented in more detail. A brief description of the response spectrum analysis method and of the result evaluation procedure follows. Additionally, some calculation concepts for parts of the entire telescope structure under seismic loads are provided. Finally, a response spectrum analysis of the entire VLT structure performed at ESO is presented to show a practical application of the analysis method and evaluation procedure mentioned above.

  2. Eye-Tracking Investigations Exploring How Students Learn Geology from Photographs and The Structural Setting of Hydrothermal Gold Deposits in the San Antonio Area, B.C.S., MX

    Coyan, Joshua

    Geoscience educators commonly teach geology by projecting a photograph in front of the class. Geologic photographs often contain animals, people, and inanimate objects that help convey the scale of features in the photograph. Although scale items seem innocuous to instructors and other experts, the presence of such items is distracting and has a profound effect on student learning behavior. To evaluate how students visually interact with distracting scale items in photographs and to determine if cueing or signaling is an effective means to direct students to pertinent information, students were eye tracked while looking at geologically-rich photographs. Eye-tracking data revealed that learners primarily looked at the center of an image, focused on faces of both humans and animals if they were present, and repeatedly returned to looking at the scale item (distractor) for the duration an image was displayed. The presence of a distractor caused learners to look at less of an image than when a distractor was not present. Learners who received signaling tended to look at the distractor less, look at the geology more, and surveyed more of the photograph than learners who did not receive signaling. The San Antonio area in the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula is host to hydrothermal gold deposits. A field study, including drill-core analysis and detailed geologic mapping, was conducted to determine the types of mineralization present, the types of structures present, and the relationship between the two. This investigation revealed that two phases of mineralization have occurred in the area; the first is hydrothermal deposition of gold associated with sulfide deposits and the second is oxidation of sulfides to hematite, goethite, and jarosite. Mineralization varies as a function of depth, whereas sulfides occurring at depth, while minerals indicative of oxidation are limited to shallow depths. A structural analysis revealed that the oldest structures in the

  3. Two episodes of subduction and collision events at the northern foot of Dabie Mountains: Evidence from petrology and structural geology of granitoid rocks

    YANG; Kunguang; (

    2001-01-01

    preferred orientation of experimentally deformed quartzites, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 1973, 8: 297.[13]Ramsay, J. G., Huber, M., The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology, Vol. 1, Strain Analysis, New York: Academic Press, 1983, 73-124.[14]Li Shuguang, Ge Ningjie, Liu Deliang et al., The Sm-Nd isotopic age of C-type eclogite from the Dabie group in the northern Dabie mountains and its tectonic implication, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1989, 34(19): 1625.[15]Ye Bodan, Jian Ping, Xu Junwen et al., The Sujiahe Terrene Collage Belt and Its Constitution and Evolution Along the North Hillslope of the Tongbai-Dabie Orogenic Belt (in Chinese), Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press, 1993, 1-69.[16]Jian Ping, Yan Weiran, Li Zhchang et al., Isotopic geochronological evidence for the Caledonian Xiongdian eclogite in the western Dabie mountains, China, Acta Geologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1997, 71(2): 133.[17]Liu Zhigang, Niu Baogui, Fu Yunlian et al., The tectonostratigraphic units at the northern foot of the Dabie mountains, Regional Geology of China (in Chinese), 1994, 13(1): 246.[18]Zhai Xiaoming, Day, H. W., Hacker, B. R. et al., Paleozoic metamorphism in the Qinling orogen, Tongbai Mountain, central China, Geology, 1998, 26: 371.[19]Li, S., Jagoutz., E., Xiao, Y. et al., Chronology of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the Dabie Mountains and Su-Lu terrene: I. Sm-Nd isotope system, Science in China, Ser. D, 1996, 39(6): 597.[20]Zhang, Z., You, Z., Han, Y. et al., Petrology metamorphic process and genesis of the Dabie-Sulu eclogite belt, east-central China, Acta Geologica Sinica, 1995, 96(2): 306.[21]Cong Bolin, Wang Qingchen, The Dabie-Sulu UHP rocks belt: review and prospect, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1999, 44(12): 1074.[22]Xu Shutong, Jiang laili, Liu Yican et al., Tectonic framework and evolution of the Dabie mountains in Anhui, eastern China, Acta Geologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1992, 66(1): 1.[23]Ren Jishun, Niu Baogui, Liu Zhigang

  4. Fractional diffusion analysis of the electromagnetic fields generated by a transient straight current source over a porous geological media

    Ge, J.; Everett, M. E.; Weiss, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    An interpretation based on the Continuous Time Random Walk theory (CTRW) to the diffusion of electromagnetic fields generated by a transient straight current source over a porous geological media is presented here. The CTRW theory is demonstrated to be a powerful tool to concisely and more accurately model a transport process in a fractal medium with complex structures, comparing to the classical transport theory. In the controlled-source electromagnetic (EM) induction setting, the time dependent evolution of the EM field of some sources over a rough medium are governed by the fractional diffusion EM equation in a CTRW sense. The master equation can be solved for a uniform conducting half-space in the Laplace domain semi-analytically. We use 2D finite difference method to calculate the solution numerically for the assigned space and transform to time domain with Gaver-Stehfest algorithm. Here we adopt a spatially uniform roughness parameter β in the solution to characterize the complexity of the geoelectrical structure of the geological medium. To introduce the heterogeneity to our model, we set up the space as several 2 D blocks with different conductivities and βs. Then we compare our results with the synthetic data we got from the high resolution numerical simulations. We are able to show that by introducing the heterogeneity to the fractional diffusion perspective, our approach is competent for tracing the diffusion process with less model parameters.

  5. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111337 Chen Guoxu(Faculty of Earth Resources,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Wu Chonglong Study on Integration of 3D Geological Modeling and Mineral Resource Exploration Mapping(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,46(3),2010,p.542-546,5 illus.,19 refs.)Key words:geological modeling,digital cartography According to the workflow of traditional methods of mineral reserve estimation,the authors took mine 3D geological modeling and mineral reserve estimation mapping as a starting point to explore a new method for the integration of 3D geological modeling and mineral resource exploration mapping.In order to verify this method,the authors have applied this method to some real mines.The results show that this method can effectively solve those problems of

  6. Structural Analysis of Thin Concrete Shells

    Ghebreselasie, Hanibal Muruts; Situ, Yuting

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of structural engineering, shells due to their spatial curvature, possess a structurally efficient way of carrying loads acting perpendicular to their surfaces. However, the nature and geometry of shells makes them complicated to understand or predict their structural behaviour. The structural analysis of thin concrete shells can be conducted numerically using finite element analysis(FEA) or/and analytically on the basis of classical theory of thin shells. ...

  7. Determination of iridium at low levels (sub ng g-1) in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    The analysis of the platinum group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt) in geological materials is difficult, due to the low concentrations of these elements (ng g-1 or sub ng g-1) and their heterogeneous distribution in many geological matrices. The determination of PGE has attracted great interest due not only to the increasing utilization of these elements in modern industry, but also to the information that these elements can provide on mantle processes. The determination of very low amounts of iridium is particularly important on account of some anomalous concentrations of iridium in sedimentary rock samples, related to the impact of an extraterrestrial object responsible for extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. In the present paper, a radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of iridium in geological materials is presented. The procedure consisted of thermal neutron irradiation of about 500 mg of the sample, followed by sintering with sodium peroxide, precipitation with tellurium and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a hyper-pure Ge detector. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were evaluated by analysis of the certified reference material SARM-7 (South Africa Bureau of Standards) and W-1 (USGS). The detection limit for the analytical conditions employed was 0.004 ng g-1. The procedure was applied to the reference materials TDB-1 and WGB-1 (CANMET), which present provisional values for Ir, and to the reference materials GXR-3, GXR-5 and GXR- 6 (USGS), which do not present information values for Ir. This work is a contribution to Ir values in these reference materials. As an example of application of the method to real samples, the developed procedure was employed in the determination of iridium in basalts from Parana basin, collected in Bom Guara do Sul, Santa Catarina, provided by the Geosciences Institute of the University of Campinas. (author)

  8. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  9. Data Fusion: A decision analysis tool that quantifies geological and parametric uncertainty

    Engineering projects such as siting waste facilities and performing remediation are often driven by geological and hydrogeological uncertainties. Geological understanding and hydrogeological parameters such as hydraulic conductivity are needed to achieve reliable engineering design. Information from non-invasive and minimally invasive data sets offers potential for reduction in uncertainty, but a single data type does not usually meet all needs. Data Fusion uses Bayesian statistics to update prior knowledge with information from diverse data sets as the data is acquired. Prior knowledge takes the form of first principles models (e.g., groundwater flow) and spatial continuity models for heterogeneous properties. The variability of heterogeneous properties is modeled in a form motivated by statistical physics as a Markov random field. A computer reconstruction of targets of interest is produced within a quantified statistical uncertainty. The computed uncertainty provides a rational basis for identifying data gaps for assessing data worth to optimize data acquisition. Further, the computed uncertainty provides a way to determine the confidence of achieving adequate safety margins in engineering design. Beyond design, Data Fusion provides the basis for real time computer monitoring of remediation. Working with the DOE Office of Technology (OTD), the author has developed and patented a Data Fusion Workstation system that has been used on jobs at the Hanford, Savannah River, Pantex and Fernald DOE sites. Further applications include an army depot at Letterkenney, PA and commercial industrial sites

  10. Bell Regio, Venus: Integration of remote sensing data and terrestrial analogs for geologic analysis

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Rogers, Patricia G.

    1994-01-01

    The geology and surface morphology of Bell Regio (18-42 deg N, 32-58 deg E) are investigated using a combination of Magellan, Venera, and analogous terrestrial data. The properties of surface units are compared to either direct terrestrial analog measurements or to the behaviors predicted by theoretical models. Five major volcanic sources are identified from geologic mapping (Tepev Mons, Nefertiti corona, a large shield volcano east of Tepev, and two small edifices southeast of Tepev). The volcano Api Mons lies northeast of the main Bell uplift. The oldest volcanic units are associated with an extensive low shield volcano east of Tepev Mons and a small edifice southeast of Tepev. The annular flow apron of Tepev Mons formed next, with volcanism at a second small edifice on the southeast flank of Tepev Mons producing the youngest flow units. Comparisons between Magellan data, terrestrial radar images, and field topography profiles suggest that only three units resemble terrestrial a'a flows; the remainder are consistent with smoother pahoehoe-type surfaces. This suggests that most of the flow units were erupted at relatively low volume effusion rates (less than 100 cu m/sec) over long periods of time or had very low viscosities

  11. Economic analysis of hydrocarbon exploration by simulation with geological uncertainties (exploratory wells)

    A model was developed to help determine the future development of hydrocarbon reserves. The uncertainties of geological parameters were incorporated into the model in an effort to provide an assessment of the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries that are expected to be recovered as a result of exploration activity. The economic parameters were also incorporated into the model in an effort to determine the economic worth of multiple-wells exploration activity. The first part of this study included the geological parameters in the initial field size distribution and the number of fields distribution. Dry hole data was also considered to reflect the exploration risk. The distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries for a selected number of exploratory wells was determined. The second part of the study included the economic parameters such as the price of oil and gas and the cost of exploration, development and production. The distribution of the number of discoveries and the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries was compared to produce a probability distribution of the net present value of a proposed exploration program. The offshore Nova Scotia Shelf basin was chosen for testing the methodology. Several scenarios involving changes in economic parameters were shown. This methodology could help in determining future development programs for hydrocarbon reserves. The methodology can also help governments in policy making decisions regarding taxes and royalty regimes for exploration programs

  12. Decision analysis for deteriorating structures

    Measures that improve durability of a structure usually increase its initial cost. Thus, in order to make a decision about a cost-effective solution the life-cycle cost of a structure including cost of structural failure needs to be considered. Due to uncertainties associated with structural properties, loads and environmental conditions the cost of structural failure is a random variable. The paper derives probability distributions of the cost of failure of a single structure and a group of identical structures when single or multiple failures are possible during the service life of a structure. The probability distributions are based on cumulative probabilities of failure of a single structure over its service life. It is assumed that failures occur at discrete points in time, the cost of failure set at the time of decision making remains constant for a particular design solution and the discount rate is a deterministic parameter not changing with time. The probability distributions can be employed to evaluate the expected life-cycle cost or the expected utility, which is then used in decision making. An example, which considers the selection of durability specifications for a reinforced concrete structure built on the coast, illustrates the use of the derived probability distributions

  13. PROBLEMS OF GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF SEISMIC-FOCI SYSTEMS OF THE EARTH’S CRUST (GEOMECHANICS AND TECTONOPHYSICAL ANALYSIS

    Boris M. Chikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In our study, an earthquake focus is viewed as a 3D zone of the Earth’s crust, wherein the discharge of mechanical loading is accompanied by recordable destruction and qualitative transformation of the geological medium. The purpose of the present publication is to make an attempt to reveal a direct relationship between seismicity and deformation-metamorphic processes which took place in the Earth’s crust. Traditional and alternative interpretations of geomechanics of seismic-foci situations are discussed. The problems of geodynamics and geostatics of the seismic-foci systems and their concentrations, as well as anthropogenic models and mechanisms of focus medium structuring are reviewed. The relationship between seismicity and mechanisms of «regional shearing» or formation of crustal deformation-metamorphic structures of lineament type is outlined in the example of the Chuya seismic system of earthquakes which occurred in 2003 and afterwards in the Altai region.

  14. Structured Sparse Principal Component Analysis

    R. Jenatton; G. Obozinski; Bach, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present an extension of sparse PCA, or sparse dictionary learning, where the sparsity patterns of all dictionary elements are structured and constrained to belong to a prespecified set of shapes. This \\emph{structured sparse PCA} is based on a structured regularization recently introduced by [1]. While classical sparse priors only deal with \\textit{cardinality}, the regularization we use encodes higher-order information about the data. We propose an efficient and simple optimization proced...

  15. Groundwater Flow Systems at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada: A Synthesis of Potentiometric Contours, Hydrostratigraphy, and Geologic Structures

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-01-25

    gradients between aquifer types are downward throughout most of the study area; however, flow from the alluvial-volcanic aquifer into the underlying carbonate aquifer, where both aquifers are present, is believed to be minor because of an intervening confining unit. Limited exchange of water between aquifer types occurs by diffuse flow through the confining unit, by focused flow along fault planes, or by direct flow where the confining unit is locally absent. Interflow between regional aquifers is evaluated and mapped to define major flow paths. These flow paths delineate tributary flow systems, which converge to form intermediate and regional flow systems. The implications of these flow systems in controlling transport of radionuclides away from the underground test areas at the Nevada Test Site are briefly discussed. Additionally, uncertainties in the delineation of aquifers, the development of potentiometric contours, and the identification of flow systems are identified and evaluated. Eleven tributary flow systems and three larger flow systems are mapped in the Nevada Test Site area. Flow systems within the alluvial-volcanic aquifer dominate the western half of the study area, whereas flow systems within the carbonate aquifer are most prevalent in the southeastern half of the study area. Most of the flow in the regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer that moves through the underground testing area on Pahute Mesa is discharged to the land surface at springs and seeps in Oasis Valley. Flow in the regional carbonate aquifer is internally compartmentalized by major geologic structures, primarily thrust faults, which constrain flow into separate corridors. Contaminants that reach the regional carbonate aquifer from testing areas in Yucca and Frenchman Flats flow toward downgradient discharge areas through the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek Ranch or Ash Meadows flow systems and their tributaries.

  16. Rare earth elements content in geological samples from eastern desert, Egypt, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Twenty representative geological samples (tonalite, granodiorite, adamellite, syenogranite, rapakivi syenogranite, alkali feldspar granite and monzogranite) were collected from G. Kattar area in Eastern Desert, Egypt, for analysis by instrumental neutron activation as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of 14 rare earth elements (REEs) and to find out the following: (1) what information could be obtained about the REEs and distribution patterns of REEs in geological samples under investigation, (2) to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of the INAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standard reference material and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7x1011 n/cm2 s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The gamma spectra were collected by an HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of a computerized multichannel analyzer. The choice of the nuclear reaction, irradiation and decay times, and of the proper gamma radiation in counting are presented and discussed. The results are found to be in good agreement with certified values.

  17. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082442 Han Zaisheng(China Geological Servey,Beijing 100011,China);Ran Weiyan Exploration and Evaluation of Shal- low Geothermal Energy(Geology in China, ISSN1000—3657,CN11—1167/P,34(6), 2007,p.1115—1121,6 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:geothermal exploration, geothermal resources

  18. Analysis of piezoelectric structures and devices

    Chen, Weiqiu; Wang, Ji

    2013-01-01

    This edited work covers piezoelectric materials in the form of beams, plates, shells, and other structural components in modern devices and structures. Applications are frequency control and detection functions in resonators, sensors, actuators, oscillations, and other smart and intelligent structures. The contributions cover novel methods for the analysis of piezoelectric structures including wave propagation, high frequency vibration, material characterization, and optimization of structures. Understanding of these methods is increasingly important in the design and modelling of next generat

  19. TI-Octree: Índice espacial para estructuras geológicas TI-Octree: Spatial index for geological structures

    Eddy Dangel Quesada Rodriguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La modelación y visualización en tres dimensiones de estructuras geológicas es una de las actividades fundamentales realizadas en la industria minera. Los mineros y geólogos deben mantener un control exhaustivo del volumen de extracción de los minerales de un yacimiento, utilizando generalmente programas de cómputo para procesar la información obtenida. En la minería un yacimiento mineral es habitualmente representado por un modelo de bloques y este modelo debe respetar la morfología de las estructuras geológicas. Para modelar las estructuras geológicas y los volúmenes de extracción de mineral se utilizan mallas de tetraedros. La malla de tetraedros es una estructura espacial  que, por sus características, permite modelar las estructuras geológicas en la rama de la geología y la minería, facilitando el cálculo del volumen del sólido. Con el objetivo de mejorar el rendimiento en la búsqueda de tetraedros dada una región determinada del espacio, el presente artículo propone la implementación de una estructura de datos espaciales para indexar la malla de tetraedros, realizando pruebas que permiten obtener como conclusión que el tiempo de búsqueda de la propuesta realizada disminuye en comparación con el tiempo de búsqueda en una estructura lineal.Modeling and visualization of three-dimensional geological structures is one of the main activities in the mining industry. Miners and geologists most maintain an exhaustive control of the extracted volume of mineral of a deposit, using computer programs for processing the obtained information. In the mining process, a mineral deposit is commonly represented by a block model, which represents the morphology of the laying geological structures. For modeling those geological structures and the volume of extracted mineral they use tetrahedral networks. The tetrahedral network is an spatial structure that, given it characteristics, allows modeling geological structures in the fields

  20. TI-Octree: Spatial index for geological structures TI-Octree: Índice espacial para estructuras geológicas

    Dagoberto Antonio Suárez Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and visualization of three-dimensional geological structures is one of the main activities in the mining industry. Miners and geologists most maintain an exhaustive control of the extracted volume of mineral of a deposit, using computer programs for processing the obtained information. In the mining process, a mineral deposit is commonly represented by a block model, which represents the morphology of the laying geological structures. For modeling those geological structures and the volume of extracted mineral they use tetrahedral networks. The tetrahedral network is an spatial structure that, given it characteristics, allows modeling geological structures in the fields of mining and geology, making easier the volume calculus. Aiming to improve the tetrahedral search process given an spatial region,  this work  presents a proposal of one spatial data structure for indexing tetrahedral networks, demonstrating by some experiments that the searching time over this proposal is less compared with the searching time over a linear structure. La modelación y visualización en tres dimensiones de estructuras geológicas es una de las actividades fundamentales realizadas en la industria minera. Los mineros y geólogos deben mantener un control exhaustivo del volumen de extracción de los minerales de un yacimiento, utilizando generalmente programas de cómputo para procesar la información obtenida. En la minería un yacimiento mineral es habitualmente representado por un modelo de bloques y este modelo debe respetar la morfología de las estructuras geológicas. Para modelar las estructuras geológicas y los volúmenes de extracción de mineral se utilizan mallas de tetraedros. La malla de tetraedros es una estructura espacial  que, por sus características, permite modelar las estructuras geológicas en la rama de la geología y la minería, facilitando el cálculo del volumen del sólido. Con el objetivo de mejorar el rendimiento en la b

  1. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic structures in architecture follows a new trend which is emerging in responsive architecture coined by Nicholas Negroponte when he proposed that architecture may benefit from the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational buil...

  2. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2015-01-01

    20150218Qiao Hong(No.3Geological Exploration Institute,China Metallurgical Geology Bureau,Taiyuan 030002,China);Zhen Yunqing Sub-Mantle Plume Structure——The Main Mesozoic-Cenozoic Mineral ResourcesControl Factor in East China(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,29(1),2014,p.31-43,13illus.,2tables,55refs.)Key words:metallogenic regularity,South China East China is under minerogenic background of huge rift system of East Asia and is

  3. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111836 Gao Jian(Sichuan Institute of Geological Survey for Nuclear Industry,Chengdu 610061,China);Shi Yuzhen Feasibility Study of Exploitation of Geothermal Resource in the Lugu Lake Region,Yanyuan,Sichuan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(3),2010,p.291-294,1 illus.,1 table,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:geothermal water,Sichuan Province20111837 He Jianhua(Geological Brigade 102,Bureau of Geolog

  4. Isotopic geology; Geologie isotopique

    Allegre, C. [Paris-7 Univ. Denis Diderot, 75 (France); Institut de physique du globe de Paris, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    Born from the application to geology of nuclear physics techniques, the isotopic geology has revolutionized the Earth's sciences. Beyond the dating of rocks, the tracer techniques have permitted to reconstruct the Earth's dynamics, to measure the temperatures of the past (giving birth to paleoclimatology) and to understand the history of chemical elements thanks to the analysis of meteorites. Today, all domains of Earth sciences appeal more or less to the methods of isotopic geology. In this book, the author explains the principles, methods and recent advances of this science: 1 - isotopes and radioactivity; 2 - principles of isotope dating; 3 - radio-chronological methods; 4 - cosmogenic isotope chronologies; 5 - uncertainties and radio-chronological results; 6 - geochemistry of radiogenic isotopes; 7 - geochemistry of stable isotopes; 8 - isotopic geology and dynamical analysis of reservoirs. (J.S.)

  5. Multi-elemental analysis of aqueous geological samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Todorov, Todor I.; Wolf, Ruth E.; Adams, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Typically, 27 major, minor, and trace elements are determined in natural waters, acid mine drainage, extraction fluids, and leachates of geological and environmental samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). At the discretion of the analyst, additional elements may be determined after suitable method modifications and performance data are established. Samples are preserved in 1–2 percent nitric acid (HNO3) at sample collection or as soon as possible after collection. The aqueous samples are aspirated into the ICP-OES discharge, where the elemental emission signals are measured simultaneously for 27 elements. Calibration is performed with a series of matrix-matched, multi-element solution standards.

  6. ICP-MS analysis of geological standard rocks for yttrium, lanthanoids, thorium and uranium

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied to geological standard rocks for the determination of Y, lanthanoids (Ln's), Th and U. Internal standardization is employed for the precise measurement: Rh for Y, In and Tl for Ln's, Bi for Th and U. For Ln's, linear interpolation correction is used. Our ICP-MS data agree with the recommended values within 10% for most samples. Their chondrite-normalized Ln abundance patterns are smooth, suggesting that our ICP-MS data are highly accurate and can be used for discussing detailed abundances of Ln's. The Y, Th and U data are as precise as the Ln data. The simultaneous and precise determination of Ln's, Th and U enable us to extend the geochemical discussion in better detail than before. (author)

  7. Neutronic analysis of critical configurations in geologic repositories. 1: Weapons-grade plutonium

    Neutronic characteristics of critical configurations, which may be formed if large enough quantities of weapons-grade plutonium that might be stored in a geologic repository are released, transported, and deposited below the repository on rock surfaces in fractures, are investigated. Three neutronic characteristics of the plutonium-rock-water systems are examined: multiplication factor k, time eigenvalue α. Three processes are identified that have the potential for a large positive reactivity feedback: (a) water removal, (b) spectrum hardening, and (c) homogenization. The higher the initial water concentration, the more absorbing the medium, the more heterogeneous the plutonium deposition, and the larger the core volume, the larger the magnitude of positive reactivity feedback can be. Critical configurations were identified in which all but one (i.e., core expansion) of the reactivity feedback mechanisms are positive. Scenarios are described in which natural phenomena could drive slightly subcritical configurations to develop an autocatalytic prompt supercritical chain reaction

  8. Geological-economic analysis on the exploration of backup resources for depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China

    With the geological-economic evaluation program for pithead heap-leaching mining uranium deposits developed by the authors and the data of column-leaching tests and the geological reserve, the geological-economic evaluation is made to the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit, and the geological reserves of Yangjiaonao deposit of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China. The results of static analysis on these reserves show that the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit belong to sub-profitable type, but the ones of Yangjiaonao deposit is profitable with 26.56% tax-before profit. 1 tU profitable type of ore from Yangjiaonao deposit can use 2.40-3.79 tU subprofitable type of ores from Lujing and Huangfengling deposit. In order to solving the problem on scarcity of backup resources of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field and using the existing sub-profitable type of geological reserves, it is suggested that the high grade of profitable type of deposits should be explored around the exhausting mines so that the production of the mines could be profitable by the pithead heap-leaching mining method with arrangement groups of both sub-profitable and profitable type of ores. (authors)

  9. Geological and engineering analysis of residual soil for forewarning landslide from highland area in northern Thailand

    Thongkhao, Thanakrit; Phantuwongraj, Sumet; Choowong, Montri; Thitimakorn, Thanop; Charusiri, Punya

    2015-11-01

    One devastating landslide event in northern Thailand occurred in 2006 at Ban Nong Pla village, Chiang Klang highland of Nan province after, a massive amount of residual soil moved from upstream to downstream, via creek tributaries, into a main stream after five days of unusual heavy rainfall. In this paper, the geological and engineering properties of residual soil derived fromsedimentary rocks were analyzed and integrated. Geological mapping, electrical resistivity survey and test pits were carried out along three transect lines together with systematic collection of undisturbed and disturbed residual soil samples. As a result, the average moisture content in soil is 24.83% with average specific gravity of 2.68,whereas the liquid limit is 44.93%, plastic limit is 29.35% and plastic index is 15.58%. The cohesion of soil ranges between 0.096- 1.196 ksc and the angle of internal friction is between 11.51 and 35.78 degrees. This suggests that the toughness properties of soil change when moisture content increases. Results from electrical resistivity survey reveal that soil thicknesses above the bedrock along three transects range from 2 to 9 m. The soil shear strength reach the rate of high decreases in the range of 72 to 95.6% for residual soil from shale, siltstone and sandstone, respectively. Strength of soil decreaseswhen the moisture content in soil increases. Shear strength also decreases when the moisture content changes. Therefore, the natural soil slope in the study area will be stable when the moisture content in soil level is equal to one, but when the moisture content between soil particle increases, strength of soil will decrease resulting in soil strength decreasing.

  10. Preliminary integrated geologic map data for Alaska

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A GIS database of geologic units and structural features in Alaska, with lithology, age, data structure, and format written and arranged just like the other states.

  11. National Geochemical Database, U.S. Geological Survey RASS (Rock Analysis Storage System) geochemical data for Alaska

    Bailey, E.A.; Smith, D.B.; Abston, C.C.; Granitto, Matthew; Burleigh, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    This dataset contains geochemical data for Alaska produced by the analytical laboratories of the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These data represent analyses of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate (derived from stream sediment), soil, and organic material samples. Most of the data comes from mineral resource investigations conducted in the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). However, some of the data were produced in support of other USGS programs. The data were originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database. The RASS database, which contains over 580,000 data records, was used by the Geologic Division from the early 1970's through the late 1980's to archive geochemical data. Much of the data have been previously published in paper copy USGS Open-File Reports by the submitter or the analyst but some of the data have never been published. Over the years, USGS scientists recognized several problems with the database. The two primary issues were location coordinates (either incorrect or lacking) and sample media (not precisely identified). This dataset represents a re-processing of the original RASS data to make the data accessible in digital format and more user friendly. This re-processing consisted of checking the information on sample media and location against the original sample submittal forms, the original analytical reports, and published reports. As necessary, fields were added to the original data to more fully describe the sample preparation methods used and sample medium analyzed. The actual analytical data were not checked in great detail, but obvious errors were corrected.

  12. A topological analysis of plasma flow structures

    A new topological analysis of the plasma flow structures is presented for some pressure-gradient-driven turbulence results. The analysis is done by separating the structures into radial layers and studying each layer separately. This allows for the identification of flow cycles and flow filaments and the determination of the life of the cycles and length of the filaments. (paper)

  13. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    N R B Krishnam Raju; J Nagabhushanam

    2000-08-01

    Though the use of the integrated force method for linear investigations is well-recognised, no efforts were made to extend this method to nonlinear structural analysis. This paper presents the attempts to use this method for analysing nonlinear structures. General formulation of nonlinear structural analysis is given. Typically highly nonlinear bench-mark problems are considered. The characteristic matrices of the elements used in these problems are developed and later these structures are analysed. The results of the analysis are compared with the results of the displacement method. It has been demonstrated that the integrated force method is equally viable and efficient as compared to the displacement method.

  14. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112330 Liu Xifang (Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources,Institute of Mineral Resources, Beijing 100037, China);Zheng Mianping Geological Features

  15. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101648 Peng Yujing (Survey of Regional Geology and Mineral Resources of Jilin Province, Changchun 130022, China); Zhai Yuchun Age Determination and Characteristics of the Late Indosinian-Yanshanian Metallogenetic Events of Jilin Province

  16. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101802 Fang Bin (China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Yang Yunjun Characteristics and Resource Evaluation of the Jiwa Geothermal Field in Central Qiangtang,Northern Tibet,China (Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-

  17. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112453 Li Qing (First Design and Research Institute,Ministry of Mechanical Industry, Bengbu 233000, China); Li Yixiang Application of Shallow Geothermal Energy Resources in the Hefei Area(Geology

  18. Neutron diffraction analysis of crystal magnetic structures

    An investigation of the state-of-the art of the neutron diffraction analysis of magnetic structures from the point of view of the theory of crystal symmetry is given. Various and numerous structures determined from the neutron diffraction analysis investigations can be classified and described with the theory of space group representations of crystals. The analysis of quite a number of various magnetic structures shows that they arise according to Landau hypothesis. The foundations of a symmetry analysis of magnetic structures and the methods for their determination are given. A physical explanation is given for the existence of magnetic structures. The experimental investigations of the crystal lattice distortions accompanying a magnetic ordering are reviewed. In this review is given a symmetry approach to the description of the magnetic structures of crystals; and a possibility to analyze them by a scattering of nonpolarized and polarized neutrons

  19. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122476 Bao Yunjie ( Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,SINOPEC,Wuxi 214151,China );Wang Shuyi Reservoir Diagenesis of 3rd Member of Feixianguan Formation,Jiannan Gas Field ( Petroleum Geology & Experiment,ISSN1001-6112,CN32-1151 / TE,33 ( 6 ), 2011,p.564-568,2 il-lus.,1plate,2tables,10refs. ) Key words:carbonate reservoirs,diagenesis,Chongqing,Hubei Province

  20. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110046 An Yanfen(National Center for Active Fault Studies,Institute of Geology,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing 100029,China);Han Zhujun Features and Tectonic Implications of the Northeasternmost Surface Rupture of Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake on the Central Fault of Longmenshan Fault Zone(Seismology and Geology,ISSN0253-4967,CN11-2192/P,32(1),2010,p.1-15,6 illus.,1 table,35 refs.)Key

  1. COAL GEOLOGY

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132555 Bao Yuan(School of Resources and Geosciences,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Wei Chongtao Simulation of Geological Evolution History of the Upper Permian Coal Seam No.8in Shuigonghe Syncline,Zhina Coalfield,Guizhou Province(Coal Geology&Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,40(6),2012,p.13-16,23,1illus.,1table,17refs.)

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141810 Bian Yumei(Geological Environmental Monitoring Center of Liaoning Province,Shenyang 110032,China);Zhang Jing Zoning Haicheng,Liaoning Province,by GeoHazard Risk and Geo-Hazard Assessment(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(3),2013,p.5-9,2 illus.,tables,refs.)

  3. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141269 Dai Deqiu(Institute of Geology,Hunan University of Science and Technology,Xiangtan 411201,China);Chen Xinyue Contrastive of Petrography and Mineral Chemistry Characteristics among Olivine and Ca,Al-rich Assemblages(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(3),2013,p.762-772,3 illus.,2 tables,25 refs.)

  4. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110579 Cao Shenghua(Construction Headquarters of Sutong Yangtze River Bridge,Nanjing 210001,China)A Preliminary Study on Engineering Characters of Interbedded Soils in Littoral and River Facies(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,34(1),2010,p.61-66,4 illus.,3 tables,5 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:cohesive soil,soil mechanics 20110580 Chen Shangrong(Shanghai Geological

  5. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140001Dong Shuwen(Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Li Tingdong Progress of SinoProbe-Deep Exploration in China 2008~2012(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,34(1),2013,p.7-23,8illus.,69refs.)Key words:deep geology,deep seismic sounding,Continental Scientific Drilling,China SinoProbe 2008~2012,the initial phase

  6. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110164 Dong Lianhui(Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources and Development,Urumqi 830000,China);Feng Jing Research for Classification of Metallogenic Unit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(1),2010,p.1-15,1 illus.,1 table,17 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic provinces,metallogenic belts,metallogenic area,Xinjiang

  7. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122531 Hu Lingzhi ( Institute of Geological Engineering Design & Research of Beijing,Miyun 101500,China );Wang Jiankang Discussion on the Feasibility of Geothermal Resources Development and Utilization in Miyun District,Beijing ( City Geology,ISSN1007-1903,CN11-5519 / P,6 ( 3 ), 2011,p.34-35,59 ,) Key words:geothermal resources,Beijing Geothermal,as a new type of clean energy with the integrated trinity of " heat energy-mineral resource-water resource ",

  8. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132568 Du Guilin(Seismological Bureau of Weihai City,Weihai 264200,China);Cao Wenhai Genesis of Baoquantang Hot Spring in Weihai and Its Influence on Faulting and Seismic Activities(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.67-72,3illus.,2tables,18refs.)Key words:hot springs,seismicity,Shandong Province

  9. Open Plot Project: an open-source toolkit for 3-D structural data analysis

    S. Tavani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the Open Plot Project, an open-source software for structural data analysis, including a 3-D environment. The software includes many classical functionalities of structural data analysis tools, like stereoplot, contouring, tensorial regression, scatterplots, histograms and transect analysis. In addition, efficient filtering tools are present allowing the selection of data according to their attributes, including spatial distribution and orientation. This first alpha release represents a stand-alone toolkit for structural data analysis.

    The presence of a 3-D environment with digitalising tools allows the integration of structural data with information extracted from georeferenced images to produce structurally validated dip domains. This, coupled with many import/export facilities, allows easy incorporation of structural analyses in workflows for 3-D geological modelling. Accordingly, Open Plot Project also candidates as a structural add-on for 3-D geological modelling software.

    The software (for both Windows and Linux O.S., the User Manual, a set of example movies (complementary to the User Manual, and the source code are provided as Supplement. We intend the publication of the source code to set the foundation for free, public software that, hopefully, the structural geologists' community will use, modify, and implement. The creation of additional public controls/tools is strongly encouraged.

  10. Road-map to plan and structure the preliminary site investigation program for a geological repository in Japan

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A stepwise site selection process has been adopted for geological disposal of HLW in Japan. Literature surveys (LS), followed by preliminary investigations (PI) and, finally, detailed investigations (DI) in underground facilities will be carried out in the successive selection stages. In the PI stage, surface-based investigations such as borehole surveys and geophysical prospecting will be implemented with two main objectives. The first is to obtain information relating to legal requirements on siting, such as the occurrence of igneous or fault activity, and to confirm the extremely low likelihood of adverse impacts on the candidate site resulting from such phenomena. The second is to obtain the information required for the design and performance assessment of the engineered barrier system and the repository. In order to implement these preliminary investigations rigorously and efficiently within the constraints of a limited time period, budget and resources, PI planning before commencing investigations and on-site PI management during the investigation phase are very important issues. The planning and management of PI have to be performed by NUMO staff, but not all staff have sufficient experience in the range of disciplines involved. NUMO therefore decided to compile existing knowledge and experience in the planning and management of investigations in the form of manuals to be used to improve and maintain internal expertise. Experts with experience in overseas investigation programs were requested to prepare these manuals. This paper outlines the structure and scope of the upper level manual (road-map) and discusses NUMO's experience in applying it in 'dry-runs' to model sites. (authors)

  11. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    Krausová, Ivana [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež 130, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Mizera, Jiří, E-mail: mizera@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež 130, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, V Holešovičkách 41, 182 09 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Řanda, Zdeněk; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež 130, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-01

    Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron–electron annihilation line of {sup 18}F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction {sup 19}F(γ, n){sup 18}F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from {sup 45}Ti and {sup 34m}Cl, whereas those from {sup 44}Sc and {sup 89}Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10–100 μg g{sup −1}.

  12. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron–electron annihilation line of 18F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction 19F(γ, n)18F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from 45Ti and 34mCl, whereas those from 44Sc and 89Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10–100 μg g−1

  13. Investigation of corrosion and analysis of passive films concerning some nickel alloys and stainless steels in reconstructed geological environments

    This research thesis addresses the corrosion behaviour of materials which might be used for the fabrication of radioactive waste containers. After a bibliographical study on films formed on Fe-Cr-Ni alloys, this research concentrates on passivation and de-passivation phenomena of three nickel-base alloys among the most resistant to corrosion and which also meet processing and economic criteria: Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625 and ZICNDU 25-20. Titanium and Ti-Pd alloy are also studied. Parameters governing pitting corrosion are notably studied. After a recall of knowledge on passive films formed on Fe-Cr-Ni alloys, and a presentation of experimental and technical conditions, the author reports and discussed the results obtained by electrochemical studies, reports the determination of factors governing alloy passivation in geological waters. The influence of some soluble impurities is notably studied. The author reports the analysis by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry to determine the composition of passive films with respect to geological water nature, the immersion duration and the electrode potential. Additional surface analyses are performed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS or ESCA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Finally, the author uses a dosing method by neutron radio-activation of alloy elements to determine dissolution mechanisms

  14. Probabilistic structural analysis by extremum methods

    Nafday, Avinash M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to demonstrate discrete extremum methods of structural analysis as a tool for structural system reliability evaluation. Specifically, linear and multiobjective linear programming models for analysis of rigid plastic frames under proportional and multiparametric loadings, respectively, are considered. Kinematic and static approaches for analysis form a primal-dual pair in each of these models and have a polyhedral format. Duality relations link extreme points and hyperplanes of these polyhedra and lead naturally to dual methods for system reliability evaluation.

  15. Non-linear analysis of concrete structures

    Work in progress on the inelastic analysis of concrete structures using the finite element method is described. The study serves two objectives, the working stress design and the ultimate load analysis. The distribution of temperature, of particular importance in nuclear structures, is studied. The basis for the non linear analysis of instantaneous deformations is given, based in plasticity theory. Linear and non linear viscoelasticity based in the state variables approach are studied. Several numerical examples are presented. (Author)

  16. Thermal Modeling and Performance Analysis of Interim Dry Storage and Geologic Disposal Facilities for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Thermal models are constructed and analyses are performed of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) in interim dry storage and geologic disposal configurations. Two models are developed, referred to as the interim storage model and the codisposal waste package (WP) model. Time-dependent source terms of Al-SNF forms and the defense high-level waste (DHLW) canisters are also developed for thermal performance analysis of the geologic codisposal WP.The interim storage model is a three-dimensional conduction-convection conjugate model to investigate the natural convection cooling of a sealed dry storage canister with vertical orientation in a dry storage vault. The analysis is made for various decay heat sources (equivalent to 25 to 35 kW/m3) using various boundary conditions around the canister wall and with backfilled nitrogen or helium gas. Based on the data obtained from the Savannah River Site experimental work and available from the literature, an improved dimensionless correlation for the external heat transfer of the canister by the airflow crossing normal to the staggered tubes is developed.The codisposal WP model considers heat transfer driven by conduction and convection processes combined with radiation for the thermal performance study of an enclosed WP containing one Al-SNF canister and five DHLW glass canisters. Two-dimensional analysis for a representative cross-sectional area of the codisposal WP is performed because each component has a large aspect ratio of package length to diameter and the package is laid down horizontally in a drift tunnel repository. The results showed that the codisposal disposition options for the helium- and air-filled WPs satisfied the present waste acceptance criteria for the WP design under the reference conditions

  17. An Approach to Computer Modeling of Geological Faults in 3D and an Application

    ZHU Liang-feng; HE Zheng; PAN Xin; WU Xin-cai

    2006-01-01

    3D geological modeling, one of the most important applications in geosciences of 3D GIS, forms the basis and is a prerequisite for visualized representation and analysis of 3D geological data. Computer modeling of geological faults in 3D is currently a topical research area. Structural modeling techniques of complex geological entities containing reverse faults are discussed and a series of approaches are proposed. The geological concepts involved in computer modeling and visualization of geological fault in 3D are explained, the type of data of geological faults based on geological exploration is analyzed, and a normative database format for geological faults is designed. Two kinds of modeling approaches for faults are compared: a modeling technique of faults based on stratum recovery and a modeling technique of faults based on interpolation in subareas. A novel approach, called the Unified Modeling Technique for stratum and fault, is presented to solve the puzzling problems of reverse faults, syn-sedimentary faults and faults terminated within geological models. A case study of a fault model of bed rock in the Beijing Olympic Green District is presented in order to show the practical result of this method. The principle and the process of computer modeling of geological faults in 3D are discussed and a series of applied technical proposals established. It strengthens our profound comprehension of geological phenomena and the modeling approach, and establishes the basic techniques of 3D geological modeling for practical applications in the field of geosciences.

  18. Estimating the supply and demand for deep geologic CO2 storage capacity over the course of the 21st Century: A meta-analysis of the literature

    Dooley, James J.

    2013-08-05

    Whether there is sufficient geologic CO2 storage capacity to allow CCS to play a significant role in mitigating climate change has been the subject of debate since the 1990s. This paper presents a meta- analysis of a large body of recently published literature to derive updated estimates of the global deep geologic storage resource as well as the potential demand for this geologic CO2 storage resource over the course of this century. This analysis reveals that, for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation scenarios that have end-of-century atmospheric CO2 concentrations of between 350 ppmv and 725 ppmv, the average demand for deep geologic CO2 storage over the course of this century is between 410 GtCO2 and 1,670 GtCO2. The literature summarized here suggests that -- depending on the stringency of criteria applied to calculate storage capacity – global geologic CO2 storage capacity could be: 35,300 GtCO2 of “theoretical” capacity; 13,500 GtCO2 of “effective” capacity; 3,900 GtCO2, of “practical” capacity; and 290 GtCO2 of “matched” capacity for the few regions where this narrow definition of capacity has been calculated. The cumulative demand for geologic CO2 storage is likely quite small compared to global estimates of the deep geologic CO2 storage capacity, and therefore, a “lack” of deep geologic CO2 storage capacity is unlikely to be an impediment for the commercial adoption of CCS technologies in this century.

  19. Structural Analysis of the Upper Internal Structure in PGSFR

    Kim, S. H.; Koo, G. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The upper internal structure (UIS) is a package of hardware suspended from the rotating plug to about 20 cm above the core assemblies. The functions of the UIS are to support shroud tubes containing the primary and secondary control rod drivelines and preserve critical alignments between these drivelines and the core lattice, under normal and off-normal conditions. In addition, the UIS produces sufficient coolant mixing to mitigate thermal transients to downstream components and provides an opening for the In-Vessel transfer machine to access inner core positions without interfacing with the control rod drive lines and the upper core instrumentation package. The radial position of the shroud tube is fixed by three horizontal guide plates and the lower guide plate is close to the core assemblies and is perforated to permit most of the core effluent to reach the region between guide plates. In this study, the primary stress analysis for dead weight was carried out and the thermal stress analysis considering the coolant temperature around the UIS was performed. In addition, the mode characteristics of the structure by the natural frequency analysis were evaluated. The structural analysis model is developed to evaluate the structural integrity of the UIS. The primary stress analysis, the thermal stress analysis and the natural frequency analysis for the UIS are performed, and the maximum stresses and displacements are evaluated. From the analysis results, it is confirmed that the large local stresses don't occur near the holes and through the wall thicknesses of the structure. In addition, the maximum temperature of the UIS is calculated as 545 .deg. C from the thermal analysis and the structure should be evaluated by the ASME design rules at a high temperature. In the future, the more detailed design will be performed by the high temperature evaluation procedure according to the ASME SEC. III, Div.5.

  20. The geologic character of nappe structure and its relation to uranium mineralization of Xiangshan ore-field in the middle of Jiangxi Province

    Started with the spatial distribution of nappe structure, the geologic features are discussed and its effect on uranium mineralization in systematically summarized for Xiangshan ore-field in the middle of Jiangxi Province. The nappe structure not only formed a 'cross-over' lithologic combination which creates a network system which can connect, transport, migrate the mineralized matter, but also formed some close or semi-close geologic setting beneath the nappe which can act as the store ore shield space for the mineralized liquid to form uranium deposit. The mineralization is concentrated at the varied place of occurrences or shape of sub-volcanic rocks and the intersection of concealed overthrust and NE strike basic fractures. (authors)

  1. Modeling and structural analysis of honeycomb structure mirror

    Li, Yeping

    2012-09-01

    In development of large-scale astronomical telescopes, some promising new technology and method such as honeycomb structure mirrors and silicon carbide mirrors are applied for primary mirrors. Especially in space telescopes, the mirror lightweight design is becoming the key technology and honeycomb structure mirrors are normally required more and more to reduce the cost and increase the feasibility of the telescopes system. In this paper, a parameter FEA model of a two meters honeycomb structure mirror has been built, by using the engineering analysis software ANSYS. Through this model, the structural analysis, thermal deformation analysis and the simulation active correction of low-order frequency aberration by the finite element method have been presented.

  2. Long term climate change and a deep geological repository in the Canadian Shield: issues and Analysis

    For the past million years of Earth history, the Canadian Shield has experienced a continuous process of glaciation and deglaciation, events that have significantly altered the landscape of the northern half of the North American continent. This sequence of events, ultimately due to small changes in received solar radiation due to the influence of gravitational many body effects upon the earths orbit around the sun, should they continue, constitute an important phenomena with respect to developing an understanding of groundwater flow system evolution in Shield terrain as it may influence the long-term performance of a Deep Geologic Repository for used nuclear fuel. In this paper a description is provided of the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model, which is being applied to yield geophysically constrained predictions of the last Laurentide (North American) glacial event. In particular, the GSM is providing unique insight into the time rate of change, magnitude and uncertainty of surface boundary conditions and permafrost occurrence at a hypothetical Shield repository site. These predictive estimates of boreal, peri-glacial and ice-sheet history are offering an innovative and reasoned basis to explore flow system characteristics and attributes that govern hydrodynamic and geochemical stability within deep-seated Shield flow domains. (author)

  3. Structural analysis of DNA by autoradiography

    During the past 10 years, molecular biology has rapidly been developing owing to easy structural analysis of DNA, a fundamental substance involved in life function. The application of highly sensitive RI with the production of large amounts of DNA and with no change in the chemical property of the substance to be tested has greatly contributed to molecular biology. For the development of life science and biotechnology, it is essential to analyze basic arrangement of DNA, identify genes, predict amino acid arrangement of proteins, and clarify regulation mechanism involved in genes. To understand DNA function sufficiently, analysis of secondary or tertiary structure, as well as primary structure of DNA, is extremely important. In this paper, the primary DNA structural analysis is provided in relation to RI application. Structural analysis of DNA can be classified into (1) hybridization method and (2) basic arrangement determination method. The application of DNA analysis is discussed in terms of the following: (1) varified analysis of the antibody, (2) isolation and analysis of carcinogenic genes, and (3) gene diagnosis. There is a problem with manual process in the structural analysis of DNA. Currently, automatic apparatuses for extraction, purification, reaction, isolation, and detection of DNA have been developing. (N.K.)

  4. 3-DIMENSIONAL GEOLOGICAL MAPPING AND MODELING ACTIVITIES AT THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF NORWAY

    A. Jarna; A. Bang-Kittilsen; Haase, C.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Høgaas, F.; Iversen, S. (Svein); Seither, A.

    2015-01-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. Geology can be easily shown as four-dimensional when time is considered. Therefore GIS, databases, and 3D visualization software are common tools used by geoscientists to view, analyse, create models, interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. The interest in 3...

  5. Safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal into geological formations; a preliminary application of fault tree analysis to salt deposits

    The methodology of the fault tree analysis (FTA) has been widely used at the Joint Research Centre of Ispra in nuclear reactor safety studies. The aim of the present work consisted in studying the applicability of this methodology to geological repositories of radioactive wastes, including criteria and approaches for the quantification of probalities of primary events. The present work has just an illustrative purpose. Two ideal cases of saline formations, I.E. a bedded salt and a diapir were chosen as potential disposal sites for radioactive waste. On the basis of arbitrarily assumed hydrogeological features of the salt formations and their surrounding environment, possible phenomena capable of causing the waste to be released from each formation have been discussed and gathered following the logical schemes of the FTA. The assessment of probability values for release events due to natural causes as well as to human actions, over different time periods, up to one million years, has been discussed

  6. Direct-current arc and alternating-current spark emission spectrographic field methods for the semiquantitative analysis of geologic materials

    Grimes, D.J.; Marranzino, A.P.

    1968-01-01

    Two spectrographic methods are used in mobile field laboratories of the U. S. Geological Survey. In the direct-current arc method, the ground sample is mixed with graphite powder, packed into an electrode crater, and burned to completion. Thirty elements are determined. In the spark method, the sample, ground to pass a 150-mesh screen, is digested in hydrofluoric acid followed by evaporation to dryness and dissolution in aqua regia. The solution is fed into the spark gap by means of a rotating-disk electrode arrangement and is excited with an alternating-current spark discharge. Fourteen elements are determined. In both techniques, light is recorded on Spectrum Analysis No. 1, 35-millimeter film, and the spectra are compared visually with those of standard films.

  7. Statistical analysis of the geological-hydrological conditions within part of the Eye-Dashwa pluton, Atikokan, northwestern Ontario

    The occurrence and distribution of fracture-filling material within the Eye-Dashwa granite indicate that the dominant fracture system formed shortly after emplacement and cooling of the pluton at 2678 ± 67 Ma. Subsequent reactivation of these ancient fractures was accompanied by sequentially younger and lower temperature filling materials. These reopened ancient fractures are best developed in the upper 300-400 m of the rock mass and are commonly conduits for present-day groundwater flow. Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the geological variables identified a highly significant correlation between a number of these variable and hydraulic conductivity values measured in 25 m test sections of the boreholes. The predictive capability of the regression design was tested with seven new test data and found to be a valid estimator of the hydrogeological conditions

  8. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning;

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed....

  9. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis of geological samples for rare earths using internal standard method

    Full text: Instrumental neutron-activation analysis os one of a few modern analytical techniques, being applied to solve difficult analytical tasks, such as mineral resources analysis for rare earth element content. No other analytical technique can be used with the latter end in view, since Instrumental neutron-activation analysis is possessed of the highest precision among them. In order to check experimentally the stated approach to REE content calculation by the internal standard method, relative bias values of this approach should be estimated. This approach will be verified further with a number of different rock samples simultaneously analyzed by an instrumental neutron-activation analysis certified analytical technique

  10. Methodological aspects and development of techniques for neutron activation analysis of microcomponents in materials of geologic origin

    Some aspects of the activation analysis methodology applied to geological samples activated in nuclear reactors were studied, and techniques were developed for the determination of various elements in different types of matrixes, using gamma spectrometry for the measurement of the products. The consideration of the methodological aspects includes the study of the working conditions, the preparation of samples and standards, irradiations, treatment of the irradiated material, radiochemical separation and measurement. Experiments were carried out on reproducibility and errors in relation to the behaviour of the measurement equipment and that of the methods of area calculation (total area, Covell and Wasson), as well as on the effects of geometry variations on the results of the measurements, the RA-3 reactors's flux variations, and the homogeneity of the samples and standards. Also studied were: the selection of the conditions of determination, including the irradiation and decay times; the irradiation with thermal and epithermal neutrons; the measurement with the use of absorbers, and the resolution of complex peaks. Both non-destructive and radiochemical separation techniques were developed for the analysis of 5 types of geological materials. These methods were applied to the following determinations: a) In, Cd, Mn, Ga and Co in blende; b) La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in fluorites; c) La, Ca, Eu, Tb, Yb, Se and Th in barites and celestites; d) Cu and Zn in soils. The spectral interferences or those due to nuclear reactions were studied and evaluated by mathematical calculation. (M.E.L.)

  11. Basin-scale Modeling of Geological Carbon Sequestration: Model Complexity, Injection Scenario and Sensitivity Analysis

    Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration can significantly contribute to climate-change mitigation only if it is deployed at a very large scale. This means that injection scenarios must occur, and be analyzed, at the basin scale. Various mathematical models of different complexity may be used to assess the fate of injected CO2 and/or resident brine. These models span the range from multi-dimensional, multi-phase numerical simulators to simple single-phase analytical solutions. In this study, we consider a range of models, all based on vertically-integrated governing equations, to predict the basin-scale pressure response to specific injection scenarios. The Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer is used as a test site to compare the different modeling approaches. The model domain covers an area of approximately 811,000 km2, and the total injection rate is 63 Mt/yr, corresponding to 9 locations where large point sources have been identified. Predicted areas of critical pressure exceedance are used as a comparison metric among the different modeling approaches. Comparison of the results shows that single-phase numerical models may be good enough to predict the pressure response over a large aquifer; however, a simple superposition of semi-analytical or analytical solutions is not sufficiently accurate because spatial variability of formation properties plays an important role in the problem, and these variations are not captured properly with simple superposition. We consider two different injection scenarios: injection at the source locations and injection at locations with more suitable aquifer properties. Results indicate that in formations with significant spatial variability of properties, strong variations in injectivity among the different source locations can be expected, leading to the need to transport the captured CO2 to suitable injection locations, thereby necessitating development of a pipeline network. We also consider the sensitivity of porosity and

  12. Appendix P: analysis of geological and geophysical data in selected areas of the North Pacific

    During 1979 we initiated a comprehensive assessment of existing marine geological and geophysical data for the northwest Pacific (PAC 1; 200 to 500N; 1450 to 1800E). The purpose of these studies is to locate, if possible, several 10 x 10 (latitude x longitude) areas which may qualify as candidate waste-disposal sites. Some of these 10 x 10 sites will then be surveyed in detail on future cruises. We have examined all 3.5 and 12 kHz echogram data through the PAC 1 area contained in the Lamont-Doherty, Scripps, and Univ. of Hawaii echogram libraries. These data comprise the vast majority of data that exist for the northwest Pacific. Using these data we were able to classify and map the distribution of various types of microtopography and acoustic reflectivity (echo character) throughout the PAC 1 area. These studies revealed (1) the nature of stratification in the upper 25 to 100 m of the sea floor; (2) nature of the microtopography of the sea floor and areal distribution of basement outcrops; (3) locations of areas affected by bottom currents and mass-wasting process. We have also compiled and evaluated all D.S.D.P. drilling information and L-DGO piston core, bottom camera, heat-flow, sonobuoy, and low frequency seismic-reflection data for the PAC 1 area. We are continuing to compile additional acoustic and station data from other sources including US Navy, NOAA, Japan, and N.G.S.D.C., DMA. Our studies in the PAC 1 area to date have enabled us to locate at least 10 10 x 10 areas which appear to be potentially suitable sites for further waste disposal studies. Three of these potential sites will be surveyed in detail on an upcoming VEMA cruise in spring 1980. Remaining areas will be surveyed during future cruises

  13. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R. (INEEL); Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K. (SNL); Rath, J.S. (New Mexico Engineering Research Institute)

    1998-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  14. NAPS: Network Analysis of Protein Structures.

    Chakrabarty, Broto; Parekh, Nita

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally, protein structures have been analysed by the secondary structure architecture and fold arrangement. An alternative approach that has shown promise is modelling proteins as a network of non-covalent interactions between amino acid residues. The network representation of proteins provide a systems approach to topological analysis of complex three-dimensional structures irrespective of secondary structure and fold type and provide insights into structure-function relationship. We have developed a web server for network based analysis of protein structures, NAPS, that facilitates quantitative and qualitative (visual) analysis of residue-residue interactions in: single chains, protein complex, modelled protein structures and trajectories (e.g. from molecular dynamics simulations). The user can specify atom type for network construction, distance range (in Å) and minimal amino acid separation along the sequence. NAPS provides users selection of node(s) and its neighbourhood based on centrality measures, physicochemical properties of amino acids or cluster of well-connected residues (k-cliques) for further analysis. Visual analysis of interacting domains and protein chains, and shortest path lengths between pair of residues are additional features that aid in functional analysis. NAPS support various analyses and visualization views for identifying functional residues, provide insight into mechanisms of protein folding, domain-domain and protein-protein interactions for understanding communication within and between proteins. URL:http://bioinf.iiit.ac.in/NAPS/. PMID:27151201

  15. Finite element analysis of stresses and deformations occurring in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal canister deposited in a deep geological repository

    Wang, Bo [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8058 (United States); School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University of China, Xi’an 710072 (China); Gea, Hae Chang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8058 (United States); Kwon, Young Joo, E-mail: yjkwon@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Design Engineering, Hongik University, 2639 Sejong-ro, Jochiwon, Sejong 339-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • The weight reduction design of the PWR SNF disposal canister is presented. • The optimal SNF basket rotation angle to minimize canister weight is sought. • Conventional structural analysis and Kriging method are developed for this purpose. • The optimal SNF basket rotation angle is determined to be 45°. • The canister weight is correspondingly reduced by 16% from 25 tons to 21 tons. -- Abstract: Numerical computer experimental methodologies are investigated for the weight reduction of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal canister designed to be deposited in a Korean deep geological repository from a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Finite element analyses of stresses and deformations occurring inside the cylindrical canister under the deposited conditions are performed to assess its structural strength at various rotation angles (φ) of the SNF basket. Specifically, the cross sections of four square tube shaped SNF baskets (assemblies) contained in the canister are rotated. Using a conventional structural analysis and a Kriging method, an optimal rotation angle is determined in relation to canister diameter and weight. Both sets of results are in agreement. It was also determined that the computed deformation changes slightly in relation to variances in rotation angle, while the stress incurred inside the cast iron insert of the canister noticeably changes reaching its highest value at φ = 45° while still maintaining safe structural integrity. It is concluded that the diameter of the canister can be reduced from its original design value (102 cm) to 95.8463 cm resulting in a ∼16.0% reduction in canister weight for an optimal rotation angle of 45°.

  16. Ion beam analysis facility at the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences

    Includes: Introduction to ion beam analysis; IBA techniques, including PIXE (particle induced x-ray emission), PIGE (particle induced gamma-ray emission), RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry), ERD (elastic recoil detection) and NRA (nuclear reaction analysis); experimental details; and a case study on geothermal processes and fluid inclusions. Refs., 11 figs

  17. COAL GEOLOGY

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112033 Chang Fangqiang(Faculty of Civil Engineering,Hua Qiao University,Quanzhou 362021,China);Jia Yonggang Review of the Studies on Geo-Hazards Induced by Liquefaction at the Yellow River Subaqueous Delta(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,30(5),2010,p.145-151,2 illus.,29 refs.)Key words:geologic hazards,Yellow RiverSome liquefaction failure examples and their forming mechanisms extracted from survey results at the Yellow River delta since 1980s were briefly summarized and reviewed.It suggests that soil liquefaction is one of the main causes of geohazards in the estuarine area.Achievements of field testing and theoretical studies are also presented in this paper.

  19. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110907 Luo Xue(Faculty of Earth Resource,China Unversity of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Cao Xinzhi Review on the Change and Development of the Research Thoughts about Mineral Deposit Geology(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,25(2),2010,p.147-152,40 refs.)Key words:study of mineral deposit The development and breakthrough of mineral deposit geology depends to a great extent on the progress and change of its research thoughts.From the traditional study of single mineral,single deposit and single metallogenic model to the comprehensive discussion and whole understanding of metallogenic

  20. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091589Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Xiangtan411100,China);Ma Tieqiu Progress in the Study of Mesozoic Tectono-Magmatism and Mineralization in the Central Segment of the Nanling Mountains-Summary of Major Achievements of the1¨250000Geological Survey in Southeastern Hunan Province(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,35(3),2008,p.436-455,4illus.,1table,65refs.)Key words:metallogenesis,igneous processes,Nanling Mesozoic tectono-magmatism and mineralization in southeastern Hunan in the central segment of the Nanling Mountains have been systematically studied.The following ideas are put forward:1)the period from the

  1. Structure analysis of hydrotalcite intercalated with pyrenetetrasulphonate acid, molecular simulations and experiment

    Pospíšil, M.; Veteška, M.; Čapková, P.; Beneš, L.; Melánová, Klára; Zima, Vítězslav

    Zagreb : Faculty of Science & Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering , University of Zagreb, 2006 - (Vlahovic, I.; Tibljaš, D.). s. 98 ISBN 953-6076-09-8. [Mid-European Clay Conference /3./. 18.09.2006-23.9.2006, Opatia] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : intercalation * structure analysis of hydrotalcite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  2. NASA’S PLANETARY GEOLOGIC MAPPING PROGRAM: OVERVIEW

    Williams, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA’s planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT...

  3. Analysis of MELCOR code structure

    Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Sun Hee

    2000-04-01

    MELCOR executes in two parts. The first is a MELGEN program, in which most of the input is specified, processed, and checked. The second part of MELCOR is the MELCOR program itself, which advances the program through time based on the database generated by MELGEN and any additional MELCOR input. In particular, MELCOR execution involves two steps: (1) a setup mode in MEXSET, during which the database is read from the restart file and any additional input is processed, and (2) a run mode in MEXRUN, which advances the simulation through time, updating the time-dependent portion of the database each cycle. MELGEN and MELCOR share a structured and modular architecture that facilitates the incorporation of additional or altenative phenomenological modes. This structure consists of four primary levels: executive level, database manager routine level, package level, and utility level. MELCOR is composed of 24 different packages, each of which models a different portion of the accident phenomenology or program control. To identify the relation of the MELCOR subroutines with the packages, first two or three letters of the package's name are duplicated in the name of the subroutines. The same rule applies to the naming of the common block. Data flows and the specific subroutines in the MELGEN and MELCOR are analyzed by their functions according to the hierarchy of four levels for model improvement and replacement during the integral code development project.

  4. Analysis of MELCOR code structure

    MELCOR executes in two parts. The first is a MELGEN program, in which most of the input is specified, processed, and checked. The second part of MELCOR is the MELCOR program itself, which advances the program through time based on the database generated by MELGEN and any additional MELCOR input. In particular, MELCOR execution involves two steps: (1) a setup mode in MEXSET, during which the database is read from the restart file and any additional input is processed, and (2) a run mode in MEXRUN, which advances the simulation through time, updating the time-dependent portion of the database each cycle. MELGEN and MELCOR share a structured and modular architecture that facilitates the incorporation of additional or altenative phenomenological modes. This structure consists of four primary levels: executive level, database manager routine level, package level, and utility level. MELCOR is composed of 24 different packages, each of which models a different portion of the accident phenomenology or program control. To identify the relation of the MELCOR subroutines with the packages, first two or three letters of the package's name are duplicated in the name of the subroutines. The same rule applies to the naming of the common block. Data flows and the specific subroutines in the MELGEN and MELCOR are analyzed by their functions according to the hierarchy of four levels for model improvement and replacement during the integral code development project

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110635 Bai Jinbin(Tianjin Institute of Geological Survey,Yingshui Road 20,Nankai 300191,China),Niu Xiujun Cenozoic Consolidation Characteristics and Land Subsidence in Tianjin(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2825/P,21(1),2010,p.42-46,4 illus.,4 tables,7 refs.)Key words:consolidation,land subsidence,TianjinAccording to the survey data of oil wells in Dagang oilfield and a lot of laboratory data,the paper discussed the relationship between the consolidation characteristics

  6. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110686 Bai Wancheng(Gold Headquarters of the Chinese Armed Police Force,Beijing 100055,China);Dong Jianle Statistic Prediction for Gold Ore Prospecting in China(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,25(1),2010,p.1-4,11,1 illus,1 table,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic prediction,gold ores,China 20110687 Dong Min(Institute of Geology and Exploration Engineering,Xinjiang University,Urumqi 830046,China);Sun Baosheng Drawing and S

  7. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140498An Shize(Sichuan Institute of Geological Engineering Investigation,Chengdu610072,China);Liu Zongxiang On the Failure Mechanism of a Bedding Landslide in Northeast Sichuan(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.14-19,2illus.,9refs.)Key words:bedding faults,landslides The landslide was caused by excavation engineering.The failure mechanism is explored for slopes with soft interlayer in the red

  8. Geological flows

    Bratkov, Yu N

    2008-01-01

    In this paper geology and planetology are considered using new conceptual basis of high-speed flow dynamics. Recent photo technics allow to see all details of a flow, 'cause the flow is static during very short time interval. On the other hand, maps and images of many planets are accessible. Identity of geological flows and high-speed gas dynamics is demonstrated. There is another time scale, and no more. All results, as far as the concept, are new and belong to the author. No formulae, pictures only.

  9. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2015-01-01

    20150342Guan Yu(Geo-Environment Monitoring Station of Anhui Province,Hefei230001,China);Chen Xun On Shallow Geothermal Energy Investigation in Urban Planning Zone of Bengbu in Anhui Province(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,38(1),2014,p.88-93,2illus.,4tables,6refs.)Key words:geothermal energy,Anhui Province The authors conducted studies on shallow geothermal energy in urban planning zone in Bengbu of Anhui Province,depicted the geological settings of shallow geothermal energy,analyzed the natural features,heat exchange

  10. Semantic Antinomies and Deep Structure Analysis

    Zuber, Ryszard

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses constructions known as semantic antinomies, that is, the paradoxical results of false presuppositions, and how they can be dealt with by means of deep structure analysis. See FL 508 186 for availability. (CLK)

  11. Earthquake geology: science, society and critical facilities

    Christoph Grützner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake geology studies the effects, the mechanics and the impacts of earthquakes in the geological environment. Its role is also to decode the fault history, therefore its approach is fault specific and its outcomes are of decisive value for seismic hazard assessment and planning. The term Earthquake geology includes aspects of modern instrumental studies, tectonics and structural geology, historical surface deformation and tectonic geomorphology, whereas paleoseismology is considered part of earthquake geology [...].

  12. Structural Dynamics and Data Analysis

    Luthman, Briana L.

    2013-01-01

    This project consists of two parts, the first will be the post-flight analysis of data from a Delta IV launch vehicle, and the second will be a Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. Shock and vibration data was collected on WGS-5 (Wideband Global SATCOM- 5) which was launched on a Delta IV launch vehicle. Using CAM (CAlculation with Matrices) software, the data is to be plotted into Time History, Shock Response Spectrum, and SPL (Sound Pressure Level) curves. In this format the data is to be reviewed and compared to flight instrumentation data from previous flights of the same launch vehicle. This is done to ensure the current mission environments, such as shock, random vibration, and acoustics, are not out of family with existing flight experience. In family means the peaks on the SRS curve for WGS-5 are similar to the peaks from the previous flights and there are no major outliers. The curves from the data will then be compiled into a useful format so that is can be peer reviewed then presented before an engineering review board if required. Also, the reviewed data will be uploaded to the Engineering Review Board Information System (ERBIS) to archive. The second part of this project is conducting Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. In 2010, Merritt Island High School partnered with NASA to design, build and launch a CubeSat. The team is now called StangSat in honor of their mascot, the mustang. Over the past few years, the StangSat team has built a satellite and has now been manifested for flight on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch in 2014. To prepare for the final launch, a test flight was conducted in Mojave, California. StangSat was launched on a Prospector 18D, a high altitude rocket made by Garvey Spacecraft Corporation, along with their sister satellite CP9 built by California Polytechnic University. However, StangSat was damaged during an off nominal landing and this project will give beneficial insights into what loads the CubeSat experienced during the crash

  13. Nuclear-physical methods of analysis in oil geology and industry of Kazakstan

    Methods and results of elemental analysis of hydrocarbons performed by nuclear-physical methods are presented. It is shown that activation analysis (AA), X-ray fluorescent (XRF) analysis and atomic-emission spectroscopy with inductively-coupled plasma (AES-ISP) allow determination of up to 30 elements in oils and bitumens and up to 40 elements in petroleum cokes, in oil-bitumen rocks, in oil and coal shales. Presented are the results of scientific and practical applications of the developed techniques. (author)

  14. Archaeological elements of Mt. Lykaion Sanctuary of Zeus (southern Peloponnesus) in relation to tectonics and structural geology

    Davis, G H [Regents Professor, University of Arizona, Department of Geosciences, 326 Gould-Simpson Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: gdavis@u.arizona.edu

    2008-07-01

    The Sanctuary of Zeus is the focus of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation/Survey (University of Pennsylvania, University of Arizona, and 39th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities). It was described by Pausanias as a sacred place of pan-Hellenic significance, with stadium and hippodrome in which athletic games were held, a sanctuary of Pan, and a formidable temenos and altar of Lykaion Zeus. In picturing human activity on this mountain during ancient times, it is not adequate to treat the mountain as if it were simply a tall, symmetrical, and handy edifice within which rock contents are irrelevant, for the geology within Mt. Lykaion significantly influenced what was built on it, and where{exclamation_point} There are contemporary reminders of the 'power' of the site, including the devastating April, 1965, Megalopolis earthquake, the epicenter of which was merely 4 km away. In fact, there are active normal faults within the sanctuary. However the primary geoarchitecture is that of the Pindos fold and thrust belt, fashioned largely in Cretaceous through Eocene. Mt. Lykaion's dome-like summit is a thrust klippe separated from underlying nappes by a major thrust fault (Lykaion thrust), the subhorizontal trace of which encircles the mountain creating a subtle bench in the landscape coinciding closely with archaeological and natural elements important to the sanctuary (e.g., stoa, seatwall, fountains, trails). Late Jurassic through Eocene 'Pindos Group' formations are stacked and repeated by the thrusting. Inter-relationships between bedrock, structure, and archaeology are revealed in a 'geoarchaeological column,' which displays positioning of elements in relation to the thrust, and orientations of rock formations in relation to flat patches in otherwise steep, rocky country, which became sites suitable for placement of hippodrome, baths, temenos, horse pasturing areas, etc. Worked limestone blocks are locally derived and can be

  15. Archaeological elements of Mt. Lykaion Sanctuary of Zeus (southern Peloponnesus) in relation to tectonics and structural geology

    The Sanctuary of Zeus is the focus of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation/Survey (University of Pennsylvania, University of Arizona, and 39th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities). It was described by Pausanias as a sacred place of pan-Hellenic significance, with stadium and hippodrome in which athletic games were held, a sanctuary of Pan, and a formidable temenos and altar of Lykaion Zeus. In picturing human activity on this mountain during ancient times, it is not adequate to treat the mountain as if it were simply a tall, symmetrical, and handy edifice within which rock contents are irrelevant, for the geology within Mt. Lykaion significantly influenced what was built on it, and where! There are contemporary reminders of the 'power' of the site, including the devastating April, 1965, Megalopolis earthquake, the epicenter of which was merely 4 km away. In fact, there are active normal faults within the sanctuary. However the primary geoarchitecture is that of the Pindos fold and thrust belt, fashioned largely in Cretaceous through Eocene. Mt. Lykaion's dome-like summit is a thrust klippe separated from underlying nappes by a major thrust fault (Lykaion thrust), the subhorizontal trace of which encircles the mountain creating a subtle bench in the landscape coinciding closely with archaeological and natural elements important to the sanctuary (e.g., stoa, seatwall, fountains, trails). Late Jurassic through Eocene 'Pindos Group' formations are stacked and repeated by the thrusting. Inter-relationships between bedrock, structure, and archaeology are revealed in a 'geoarchaeological column,' which displays positioning of elements in relation to the thrust, and orientations of rock formations in relation to flat patches in otherwise steep, rocky country, which became sites suitable for placement of hippodrome, baths, temenos, horse pasturing areas, etc. Worked limestone blocks are locally derived and can be matched with formations. The compelling high elevation of

  16. Structure of Marketing Planning: A Reflective Analysis

    Luciano Augusto Toledo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to promote a reflective analysis about the action planning structure in the marketing context. The work was structured in the form of essay and presents the theoretical aspects about the Marketing Planning. The intention of the article is to provide critical insights into the needs of planning marketing activities. For this purpose the document is organized as of an introduction that contextualizes the subject, accompanied by a critical analysis. Finally, the final considerations are placed in distinction.

  17. Structure of Marketing Planning: A Reflective Analysis

    Luciano Augusto Toledo; Adriana Beatriz Madeira; Guilherme Farias Shiraishi; Marcos Garber

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to promote a reflective analysis about the action planning structure in the marketing context. The work was structured in the form of essay and presents the theoretical aspects about the Marketing Planning. The intention of the article is to provide critical insights into the needs of planning marketing activities. For this purpose the document is organized as of an introduction that contextualizes the subject, accompanied by a critical analysis. Finally, the final considerati...

  18. Analysis model of structure-HDS

    2000-01-01

    Presents the model established for Structure-HDS(hydraulic damper system) analysis on the basis of the theoretical analysis model of non-compressed fluid in the round pipe will an uniform velocity used as the basic variable, and pressure losses resulting from cross section changes of fluid route taken into consideration. Which provides necessary basis for researches on earthquake responses of a structure with a spacious first story, equipped with HDS at first floor.

  19. Structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle (H2) of Mercury based on NASA MESSENGER data

    Galluzzi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this thesis is the mapping and structural analysis of the H2 quadrangle, "Victoria", and a reconnaissance study of the geometry and kinematics of lobate scarps on Mercury. To this end, I produced a 1:3,000,000 geologic map of the area using the images provided by the NASA spacecraft MESSENGER, which has been orbiting the planet since March 2011. The structural analysis was supplemented by an innovative method to calculate fault slip data using craters cross-cut by lobate scarps. ...

  20. Dynamic analysis and design of offshore structures

    Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This book  attempts to provide readers with an overall idea of various types of offshore platform geometries. It covers the various environmental loads encountered by these structures, a detailed description of the fundamentals of structural dynamics in a class-room style, estimate of damping in offshore structures and their applications in the preliminary analysis and design. Basic concepts of structural dynamics are emphasized through simple illustrative examples and exercises. Design methodologies and guidelines, which are FORM based concepts are explained through a few applied example structures. Each chapter also has tutorials and exercises for self-learning. A dedicated chapter on stochastic dynamics will help the students to extend the basic concepts of structural dynamics to this advanced domain of research. Hydrodynamic response of offshore structures with perforated members is one of the recent research applications, which is found to be one of the effective manner of retrofitting offshore structur...

  1. Theoretical geology

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  2. Structural analysis of impeller for SMART MCP

    The structural integrity of the MCP impeller is important for the safe and reliable operation of the SMART, since the impeller is operated for long period inside the reactor under high pressure and high temperature. In this study, an analysis model to evaluate the structural integrity of axial pump impeller has been developed and the stress state in the impeller of SMART MCP has been calculated for the applied centrifugal and hydraulic forces. The structural integrity of the impeller has been demonstrated by comparing the analysis results with the allowable stresses. The modal analysis of the impeller has been also performed to investigate the possibility of the resonances of the impeller blades with the rotational frequencies. As a means to reduce the time required for the analysis, a cyclic symmetric analysis model with optimum boundary conditions is proposed by comparing the results from full model analyses

  3. Computational structural analysis and finite element methods

    Kaveh, A

    2014-01-01

    Graph theory gained initial prominence in science and engineering through its strong links with matrix algebra and computer science. Moreover, the structure of the mathematics is well suited to that of engineering problems in analysis and design. The methods of analysis in this book employ matrix algebra, graph theory and meta-heuristic algorithms, which are ideally suited for modern computational mechanics. Efficient methods are presented that lead to highly sparse and banded structural matrices. The main features of the book include: application of graph theory for efficient analysis; extension of the force method to finite element analysis; application of meta-heuristic algorithms to ordering and decomposition (sparse matrix technology); efficient use of symmetry and regularity in the force method; and simultaneous analysis and design of structures.

  4. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs for...

  5. MBS Analysis Of Kinetic Structures Using ADAMS

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers multibody system (MBS) analysis of kinetic structures using the software package ADAMS. Deployable, foldable, expandable and reconfigurable kinetic structures can provide a change in the geometric morphology of the envelope by contributing to making it adaptable to e.g...

  6. Detailed analysis of (selected) West Bohemian earthquakes - results and possible geological consequences

    Kolář, Petr

    Prague : University of Chemistry Technology, 2015 - (Byron, P.) ISBN 978-80-7080-936-5. [Technical Computing Prague 2015 /23./. Praha (CZ), 04.11.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : West Bohemia seismic swarms * finite seismic source * data processing Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  7. Insights into soil carbon dynamics across climatic and geologic gradients from time-series and fraction-specific radiocarbon analysis

    van der Voort, Tessa Sophia; Hagedorn, Frank; Zell, Claudia; McIntyre, Cameron; Eglinton, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the interaction between soil organic matter (SOM) and climatic, geologic and ecological factors is essential for the understanding of potential susceptibility and vulnerability to climate and land use change. Radiocarbon constitutes a powerful tool for unraveling SOM dynamics and is increasingly used in studies of carbon turnover. The complex and inherently heterogeneous nature of SOM renders it challenging to assess the processes that govern SOM stability by solely looking at the bulk signature on a plot-scale level. This project combines bulk radiocarbon measurements on a regional-scale spanning wide climatic and geologic gradients with a more in-depth approach for a subset of locations. For this subset, time-series and carbon pool-specific radiocarbon data has been acquired for both topsoil and deeper soils. These well-studied sites are part of the Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) program of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape research (WSL). Statistical analysis was performed to examine relationships of radiocarbon signatures with variables such as temperature, precipitation and elevation. Bomb-curve modeling was applied determine carbon turnover using time-series data. Results indicate that (1) there is no significant correlation between Δ14C signature and environmental conditions except a weak positive correlation with mean annual temperature, (2) vertical gradients in Δ14C signatures in surface and deeper soils are highly similar despite covering disparate soil-types and climatic systems, and (3) radiocarbon signatures vary significantly between time-series samples and carbon pools. Overall, this study provides a uniquely comprehensive dataset that allows for a better understanding of links between carbon dynamics and environmental settings, as well as for pool-specific and long-term trends in carbon (de)stabilization.

  8. Geologic Time.

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132755 Chang Ming(State Key Laboratory for Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Tang Chuan Prediction Model for Debris Flow Hazard Zone on Alluvial Fan in Milin Section of Yarlungzangbo River,Tibet(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665

  10. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130679 Bai Yuzhu (Institute of Geology , CEA , Beijing 100029 , China); Xu Xiwei The Effect of Different Interaction between Fault Segments on Their Sliding Motion (North China Earthquake Sciences , ISSN1003-1375 , CN13-1102/P , 30 (2), 2012 , p.33-38 , 3illus. , 1table , 33refs.) Key words : fault segmentation , earthquake periodicity In order

  11. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130838 Li Wenyuan (Xi ’ an Center , China Geological Survey , Xi ’ an 710054 , China); Niu Yaoling Geodynamic Setting and FurtherExploration of Magmatism-Related Mineralization Concentrated in the Late Paleozoic in the Northern Xinjiang Autonomous Region (Earth Science Frontiers , ISSN1005-2321 , CN11-3370/P , 19 (4)

  12. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080948 Deng Jinfu(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Su Shangguo Yanshanian(Jura-Cretaceous)Orogenic Processes and Metallogenesis of the Taihangshan-Yanshan-West Liaoning Orogenic Belt,North China(Geoscience,ISSN1000-8527,CN11-2035/P,21(2)

  13. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080252 Zhai Yusheng(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China) Earth System,Me-tallogenic System to Exploration System(Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,14(1),2007,p.172-181,6 illus.,18 refs.,with English abstract)

  14. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131562 Chen Jianping(School of Earth Sciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Shi Rui 3D Metallogenic Prediction for Western Section of Q8 Gold Deposit in Tongguan County of Shaanxi Province Based on Digital Mineral Deposit Model(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674,

  15. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2015-01-01

    20151090 Bian Huiying(School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering,Chang’an University,Xi’an 10054,China);Wang Shuangming Hydrodynamic Conditions of Geothermal Water in Gushi Depression of Guanzhong Basin(Coal Geology&Exploration;,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,42(3),2014,p.50-54,60,9illus.,11refs.,

  16. City Geology.

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  17. Applicability of statistical eruption analysis to the geological record of Villarrica and Lanín volcanoes, Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile

    Wehrmann, Heidi; Dzierma, Yvonne

    2011-03-01

    Standard stochastic failure-analysis techniques are applied to the geological eruption records of Villarrica and Lanín volcanoes in the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone. These statistical methods are used to estimate the probabilities of eruptions large enough to leave a trace in the geological record. For Villarrica, the standard lifetime distributions predict a near 100% probability that such an eruption should have occurred between 489 AD and today. If the VEI = 3 eruptions observed in the historical record are large enough to be preserved in the geological record, the probability of such a future eruption of Villarrica is about 20% in the next 100 years. In the case of Lanín, the applicability of the exponential, Weibull and log-logistic distributions to the geological record is doubtful, since the volcano appears to have experienced alternating high- and low-activity regimes. Only the mixture-of-exponentials distribution can take into account the possible dormancy descending to final extinction, resulting in a probability of about 16% that Lanín will ever erupt again in the future. The contrasting behaviour of the eruption records of these two neighbouring volcanoes in terms of the number of eruptions and the length of the repose-time intervals serves to examine to what extent the method can be applied to geological eruption records. This study contributes to directing statistical eruption analysis towards time scales long enough to investigate large-magnitude eruptions, and it includes the possibility of dormancy/extinction.

  18. Bayesian analysis of cosmic structures

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu

    2011-01-01

    We revise the Bayesian inference steps required to analyse the cosmological large-scale structure. Here we make special emphasis in the complications which arise due to the non-Gaussian character of the galaxy and matter distribution. In particular we investigate the advantages and limitations of the Poisson-lognormal model and discuss how to extend this work. With the lognormal prior using the Hamiltonian sampling technique and on scales of about 4 h^{-1} Mpc we find that the over-dense regions are excellent reconstructed, however, under-dense regions (void statistics) are quantitatively poorly recovered. Contrary to the maximum a posteriori (MAP) solution which was shown to over-estimate the density in the under-dense regions we obtain lower densities than in N-body simulations. This is due to the fact that the MAP solution is conservative whereas the full posterior yields samples which are consistent with the prior statistics. The lognormal prior is not able to capture the full non-linear regime at scales ...

  19. Paleocollapse structures as geological record for reconstruction of past karst processes during the upper miocene of Mallorca Island

    Robledo Ardila Pedro A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Paleocollapse structures and collapse breccias are one of the major features for paleokarst analysis and paleoclimate record. These are affecting the Llucmajor and Santanyí carbonate platforms. These platforms, of southern and eastern Mallorca respectively, are a good example of progradation reef platform in the western Mediterranean. The Santanyí platform is constituted of two sedimentary units, both affected by paleocollapse structures: (1 The Reef Complex attributed to the upper Tortonian-lower Messinian; (2 Santanyí Limestone attributed to the Messinian. There are abundant paleocollapse outcropping in the Reef Complex and Santanyí Limestone units. These structures have been produced by roof collapse of caverns developed in the underlying reefal complex. According to the genetic model, the origin of same paleocollapse structures may be related to early diagenetic processes controlled by high-frequency sea-level fluctuations. During the lowstands of sea level, fresh water flow or mixing zone might have created a cave system near the water table by dissolution of aragonite in the reef front facies and coral patches existing in the lagoonal beds. During subsequent rise and highstands of sea level, inner-shelf beds overlaid the previously karstified reef-core and outer-lagoonal beds. Increase of loading by subsequent accretion of the shallow-water carbonate might have produced paleocollapse structures by gravitational collapse of cave roof. Morphometric and structural classification of paleocollapse is based on geometric and structural criteria according to the type of deformed strata and strata dip. Paleocollapse structures can be classified according to geometric section, size of the paleocave and lithification degree of the host rock when collapsed. Breccias are classified as crackle, mosaic and chaotic types. In same paleocollapse the type of breccias present a vertical and lateral gradation, from crackle in the upper part, to chaotic in

  20. Advances in Nuclear Geophysical Methods in Oil Geology and Rock Analysis

    Nuclear techniques have been developed for the analysis of rocks in the laboratory and in the earth surrounding boreholes drilled to search for oil and other useful minerals. A combination of neutron methods offers the possibility of giving analysis for most of the common elements found in igneous and sedimentary rocks. A summary is presented of two-year extensive study of the combination neutron method for analysing surface rocks of the moon and planets. The combination method uses a pulsed accelerator source of 14- MeV neutrons and measurement of prompt gamma-rays, capture gamma-rays, activation gamma-rays, and thermal and epithermal neutron die-away. From this work has come the new technique of cyclic neutron activation, which is applicable to lunar surface analysis, borehole logging and on-stream analysis of rocks and minerals. Rock analysis studies have been made with a high resolution lithium-drifted germanium detector and a pulsed accelerator source of neutrons. The detector resolution of 0.5% at 1.3 MeV is about an order of magnitude better than for a good sodium iodide detector. Gamma-rays arising from inelastic scattering of fast neutrons, capture of fast and slow neutrons, and activation were studied. From the results with the high resolution detector some interesting conclusions and speculations are made concerning the future of nuclear elemental analysis in the field. The present activity in the United States of America in commercial nuclear logging is summarized including neutron logging (steady-state and pulsed methods), scattered gamma-ray logging, and combinations of logs for identifying lithology and non-metallic minerals. A new small-diameter pulsed accelerator neutron tool for logging through 2½ -in. tubing is described, and a pulsed neutron source using a plurality of alpha sources and beryllium targets with a rotatable shutter between them. (author)