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Sample records for geologic structural analysis

  1. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122174 Bai Daoyuan ( Institute of Geological Survey of Hunan Province,Changsha 410011,China );Jia Baohua Neoproterozoic TectonicEvolution of the Xuefeng Orogenic Zone in Hunan Province ( Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593 / P,31 ( 3 ), 2011,p.78-87,2illus.,1 table,96refs. ) Key words:structural evolution,Neoproterozoic Era,Hunan Province This paper deals,on the basis of abundant lithogeochemical and geochronologic

  2. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111429 Cao Gaoshe(School of Resource and Environment,Henan Polytechnic University,Jiaozuo 454003,China);Yang Qihao Analysis of Sedimentary Characteristics and Tectonic Environment for Late Triassic Liushan Basin(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,45(3),2010,p.718-733,9 illus.,2 tables,23 refs.)Key words:tectonic setting,basin evolution,Qinling Mountains

  3. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140014Deng Lin(College of Resources and Environment,Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,China)Structural Geometry and Structural Kinematics of the Jiulongshan Structure in the North Longmenshan Mountains(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,33(1),2013,p.1-2,11,1illus.,9refs.)Key words:plate geometry,structural analysis,Longmenshan Fault Zone

  4. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132186 An Huiting(Key Lab.of Submarine Geosciences and Exploration Techniques,Ministry of Education,Qingdao 266003,China);Li Sanzhong Basin-Controlling Faults and Formation Mechanism of the Cenozoic Basin Groups in the Western South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,

  5. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141283 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410016,China);Zhong Xiang Nature,Origin and Tectonic Setting of Jinzhou Basin in the South Segment of Xuefeng Orogen(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,40(4),2013,p.1079-1091,10 illus.,47 refs.)Key words:foreland basins,strike-slip faults,Hunan Province

  6. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J. [FINTACT Oy (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km{sup 3}. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that

  7. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km3. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that the

  8. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110016 Cheng Shoude(Xinjiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Recources,Urumqi 830000,China);Liu Tong The Brief Description of the Division of Tectonic Units in the Five-Countries in Central Asia(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(1),2010,p.16-21,1 illus.,21 refs.)Key words:tectonics,tectonic units,Central Asia The Five-Countries in Central-Asia border on Xinjiang in the West China,research have been performed in this area,the gists of the division of tectonic units are different from each other and the results are different in a thousand and one ways.According as the investigations of sedimentary formation,conformation,

  9. Growth structures : examples of integrated sedimentological and structural-geological basin analysis

    Nijman, W

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is based on research in the interface oftwo geological disciplines, sedimentology (the study of sediments, like sandstone and limestone) and structural geology (the study of rock deformation). Sedimentation is influenced by cosmic and climatological processes, sea-level change, and deformation of the earth's crust. Prerequisites for the generation of sediments are uplift and erosion in source areas, and subsidence and deposition in basins. Contrary to these vertical motions, defor...

  10. Stratigraphy and structural geology

    Carr, M. H.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Greeley, R.; Guest, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The immediate goal of stratigraphy and structural geology is to reduce the enormous complexity of a planetary surface to comprehensible proportions by dividing the near-surface rocks into units and mapping their distribution and attitude.

  11. OpenStereo: Open Source, Cross-Platform Software for Structural Geology Analysis

    Grohmann, C. H.; Campanha, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Free and open source software (FOSS) are increasingly seen as synonyms of innovation and progress. Freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software (through access to the source code) assure a high level of positive feedback between users and developers, which results in stable, secure and constantly updated systems. Several software packages for structural geology analysis are available to the user, with commercial licenses or that can be downloaded at no cost from the Internet. Some provide basic tools of stereographic projections such as plotting poles, great circles, density contouring, eigenvector analysis, data rotation etc, while others perform more specific tasks, such as paleostress or geotechnical/rock stability analysis. This variety also means a wide range of data formating for input, Graphical User Interface (GUI) design and graphic export format. The majority of packages is built for MS-Windows and even though there are packages for the UNIX-based MacOS, there aren't native packages for *nix (UNIX, Linux, BSD etc) Operating Systems (OS), forcing the users to run these programs with emulators or virtual machines. Those limitations lead us to develop OpenStereo, an open source, cross-platform software for stereographic projections and structural geology. The software is written in Python, a high-level, cross-platform programming language and the GUI is designed with wxPython, which provide a consistent look regardless the OS. Numeric operations (like matrix and linear algebra) are performed with the Numpy module and all graphic capabilities are provided by the Matplolib library, including on-screen plotting and graphic exporting to common desktop formats (emf, eps, ps, pdf, png, svg). Data input is done with simple ASCII text files, with values of dip direction and dip/plunge separated by spaces, tabs or commas. The user can open multiple file at the same time (or the same file more than once), and overlay different elements of

  12. Structural Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...

  13. Analysis of Siting Criteria of Overseas Geological Repository (I): Geology

    Jung, Haer Yong; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cheong, Jae Yeol; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Lee, Eun Yong [Korea Radioactive-wate Management Corporation, , Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Jung [NEXGEO Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry are the main technical siting factors of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuels. This paper focused on how rock's different geological conditions, such as topography, soils, rock types, structural geology, and geological events, influence the functions of the geological repository. In the context, the site selection criteria of various countries were analyzed with respect to the geological conditions. Each country established the criteria based on its important geological backgrounds. For example, it was necessary for Sweden to take into account the effect of ice age on the land uplift and sea level change, whereas Japan defined seismic activity and volcanism as the main siting factors of the geological repository. Therefore, the results of the paper seems to be helpful in preparing the siting criteria of geological repository in Korea.

  14. OATools: An ArcMap add-in for the orientation analysis of geological structures

    Kociánová, Lenka; Melichar, Rostislav

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes Orientation Analysis Tools (OATools), a new add-in, which has been developed for ArcGIS software (ESRI) to allow the spatial analysis of structural data. These tools bring a complex approach to structural data analysis that highlights the spatial aspect of oriented data. In this paper we introduce the functionality of this add-in, which allows users to plot selected data in azimuthal projection, calculate and plot fold axes, construct density distribution diagrams and rose histograms, and create maps of spatial averages and fold axes. There is a link between projections and maps; therefore, it is possible to select point data in the projection and see their location on the map, and vice versa. Practical use of these tools is demonstrated in a case study of the Svratka and Polička crystalline units (Eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), where a large dataset was collected. Using OATools the structural conditions were explored. Major changes in foliation dip directions were detected and the axial surfaces of the folds were determined. We also demonstrate the benefit of applying these tools, together with the potential of GIS with respect to spatial data queries, storage, and visualization.

  15. Study on geology on the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Geology and geological structure at the -500m stage

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project, which is a scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLW), in order to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in the crystalline rock. The MIU Project has three overlapping phases, Surface-based investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III). The goals of the MIU Project from the Phase I to the Phase III are to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and to develop a range of engineering techniques for deep underground application. One of the Phase II goals is set up to develop and revise models of the geological environment using the investigation results obtained during excavation, and to determine and assess changes in the geological environment in response to excavation. This report aims at compiling results of study on geology and geological structure at the -500m Stage in the MIU construction site, investigated in the Phase II and provides the fundamental information on the geology and geological structure for future study and modeling of geological environment. (author)

  16. Multivariate Geostatistical Analysis of Uncertainty for the Hydrodynamic Model of a Geological Trap for Carbon Dioxide Storage. Case study: Multilayered Geological Structure Vest Valcele, ROMANIA

    Scradeanu, D.; Pagnejer, M.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the works is to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrodynamic model for a multilayered geological structure, a potential trap for carbon dioxide storage. The hydrodynamic model is based on a conceptual model of the multilayered hydrostructure with three components: 1) spatial model; 2) parametric model and 3) energy model. The necessary data to achieve the three components of the conceptual model are obtained from: 240 boreholes explored by geophysical logging and seismic investigation, for the first two components, and an experimental water injection test for the last one. The hydrodinamic model is a finite difference numerical model based on a 3D stratigraphic model with nine stratigraphic units (Badenian and Oligocene) and a 3D multiparameter model (porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, storage coefficient, leakage etc.). The uncertainty of the two 3D models was evaluated using multivariate geostatistical tools: a)cross-semivariogram for structural analysis, especially the study of anisotropy and b)cokriging to reduce estimation variances in a specific situation where is a cross-correlation between a variable and one or more variables that are undersampled. It has been identified important differences between univariate and bivariate anisotropy. The minimised uncertainty of the parametric model (by cokriging) was transferred to hydrodynamic model. The uncertainty distribution of the pressures generated by the water injection test has been additional filtered by the sensitivity of the numerical model. The obtained relative errors of the pressure distribution in the hydrodynamic model are 15-20%. The scientific research was performed in the frame of the European FP7 project "A multiple space and time scale approach for the quantification of deep saline formation for CO2 storage(MUSTANG)".

  17. Advanced Differential Radar Interferometry (A-DInSAR) as integrative tool for a structural geological analysis

    Crippa, B.; Calcagni, L.; Rossi, G.; Sternai, P.

    2009-04-01

    Advanced Differential SAR interferometry (A-DInSAR) is a technique monitoring large-coverage surface deformations using a stack of interferograms generated from several complex SLC SAR images, acquired over the same target area at different times. In this work are described the results of a procedure to calculate terrain motion velocity on highly correlated pixels (E. Biescas, M. Crosetto, M. Agudo, O. Monserrat e B. Crippa: Two Radar Interferometric Approaches to Monitor Slow and Fast Land Deformation, 2007) in two area Gemona - Friuli, Northern Italy, Pollino - Calabria, Southern Italy, and, furthermore, are presented some consideration, based on successful examples of the present analysis. The choice of these pixels whose displacement velocity is calculated depends on the dispersion index value (DA) or using coherence values along the stack interferograms. A-DInSAR technique allows to obtain highly reliable velocity values of the vertical displacement. These values concern the movement of minimum surfaces of about 80m2 at the maximum resolution and the minimum velocity that can be recognized is of the order of mm/y. Because of the high versatility of the technology, because of the large dimensions of the area that can be analyzed (of about 10000Km2) and because of the high precision and reliability of the results obtained, we think it is possible to exploit radar interferometry to obtain some important information about the structural context of the studied area, otherwise very difficult to recognize. Therefore we propose radar interferometry as a valid investigation tool whose results must be considered as an important integration of the data collected in fieldworks.

  18. Geological analysis and physical modeling of structural pumping in high effective formation of Kela 2 gas field

    ZHAO Wenzhi; WANG Hongjun; SHAN Jiazeng; WANG Zecheng; XU Dafeng

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-D closed geological body, in case "structural expanding" inside is induced by stress, it can produce the pressure difference between the expanding cell and surrounding rock, then generate a pumping force directed toward the cell and accelerate the directional flow of fluid in the strata. The structural style and conditions of gas reservoir-formation in the Kuqa depression are favorable to the structural pumping. According to similarity principle, a physical modeling of structure formation and gas filling process of the Kela 2 gas field has justified the occurrence of structural pumping and its important role in gas-reservoir formation with high efficiency under the compressive and well-sealed circumstance. Therefore, authors propose that structural pumping is an important mechanism of gas reservoir-formation with high efficiency in the Kuqa depression.

  19. The effect of geological structure on radon concentration dissolved in groundwater in nearby Anar fault based on a statistical analysis

    The radon concentration in groundwater is due to amount of uranium existing in rocks and geological structures. Radon concentration in 33 groundwater samples from agricultural and drinking wells surrounding Anar fault have measured by RAD7 radon detector. The measured values ranged from 1.33 ± 0.48 to 29.91 ± 3.64 Bq L-1. The results show radon concentration varies by distance from main fault and main stream in which the effect of main fault is more than main stream. (author)

  20. Formal representation of 3D structural geological models

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle

    2016-05-01

    The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.

  1. The need for the geologic hazard analysis

    The parameters which are considered in the hazard analysis associated with the movements of the Earth Crust are considered. These movements are classified as: fast movements or seismic movements, which are produced in a certain geologic moment at a speed measured in cm/sg, and slow movements or secular movements, which take place within a long span of time at a speed measured by cm/year. The relations space/time are established after Poisson and Gumbel's probabilistic models. Their application is analyzed according to the structural gradient fields, which fall within Matteron's geostatistics studies. These statistic criteria should be analyzed or checked up in each geo-tectonic environment. This allows the definition of neotectonic and seismogenetic zones, because it is only in these zones where the probabilistic or deterministic criteria can be applied to evaluate the hazard and vulnerability, that is, to know the geologic hazard of every ''Uniform'' piece of the Earth Crust. (author)

  2. GIS-technologies as a mechanism to study geological structures

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2014-05-01

    Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various range, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators is the way to aggregate geological knowledge. The south terrain of the Valerianovskaya structure-facies zone (SFZ) of the Torgai paleo-rift structure covered with thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks up to 2,000m is considered a so-called training ground for the development of GIS-technology. Parameters of known magnetite deposits located in the north of the SFZ (Sarybaiskoye, Sokolovskoye, etc.) are used to create the standard model. A meaning of the job implemented involves the following: - A goal-seeking nature of the research being performed and integration of the geological, geo-physical and other data (in many cases, efforts of the

  3. Interpreting geological structure using kriging

    The authors applied kriging (geostatistics) to interpret the structure of basement rock in Yucca Flat, NTS from borehole data. The estimation error for 118 data is 81 m comparable with those based on both gravity and borehole data. Using digitized topographic data, they tested the kriging results and found that the model validation process (Thomas option) on data gave a fair representation of the overall uncertainty of the kriged values

  4. Formation of secondary phases during deep geological final disposal of research reactor fuel elements. Structure and phase analysis

    For the assessment of a confident und sustainable final disposal of high level radioactive waste - fuel elements of german research reactors also account for such waste - in suitable, deep geological facilities, processes of the alteration of the disposed of waste and therefore the formation of the corrosion products, i. e. secondary phases must be well understood considering an accident scenario of a potential water inflow. In order to obtain secondary phases non-irradiated research reactor fuel elements (FR-BE) consisting of UAlx-Al were subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine (brine 2, salt repository) and to clay pore solution, respectively and furthermore of the type U3Si2-Al were solely subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine. Considering environmental aspects of final repositories the test conditions of the corrosion experiments were adjusted in a way that the temperature was kept constant at 90 C and a reducing anaerobic environment was ensured. As major objective of this research secondary phases, obtained from the autoclave experiments after appropriate processing and grain size separation have been identified and quantified. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and the application of Rietveld refinement methods allowed the identification of the corrosion products and a quantitative assessment of crystalline and amorphous contents. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were additionally applied as a complementary method for the characterisation of the secondary phases. The qualitative phase analysis of the preprocessed secondary phases of the systems UAlx-Al and U3Si2-Al in brine 2 shows many similarities. Lesukite - an aluminium chloro hydrate - was observed for the first time considering the given experimental conditions. Further on different layered structures of the LDH type, iron oxyhydroxide and possibly iron chlorides, uncorroded residues of nuclear fuel and elementary iron were identified as well. Depending on preceding preparation

  5. Recent activity of the regional geologic structures in western Slovenia

    Miloš Bavec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Several important geological structures in the western Slovenia were identifiedas active and their activity was quantified. Geologic interpretation is based on the analysis of repeated leveling line campaigns data along the Sečovlje–Bled polygon. Taking intoaccount the limitations of the method – only the vertical component of displacement is measured – the following structures were identified as active:a juvenile syncline between Strunjan and Koper, the Kras Imbricate Structure, the Diva~a fault, the Ra{a fault, the Southalpine Front and the Julian Alps thrust. Vertical movement rate is relative, calculated with respect to the benchmark in Sečovlje. The largest uplift rate difference between Sečovlje and Bled is 7 mm/a.Vertical Geodynamic Activity (VGA is introduced as a link between geologic interpretation of geodetic measurements on one side and possible applications on the other as well as a mean of comparison between tectonically active regions.

  6. Geologic analysis of Devonian Shale cores

    None

    1982-02-01

    Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company was awarded a DOE contract in December 1977 for field retrieval and laboratory analysis of cores from the Devonian shales of the following eleven states: Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. The purpose of this project is to explore these areas to determine the amount of natural gas being produced from the Devonian shales. The physical properties testing of the rock specimens were performed under subcontract at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The study also included LANDSAT information, geochemical research, structural sedimentary and tectonic data. Following the introduction, and background of the project this report covers the following: field retrieval procedures; laboratory procedures; geologic analysis (by state); references and appendices. (ATT)

  7. Rockfall source characterization at high rock walls in complex geological settings by photogrammetry, structural analysis and DFN techniques

    Agliardi, Federico; Riva, Federico; Galletti, Laura; Zanchi, Andrea; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall quantitative risk analysis in areas impended by high, subvertical cliffs remains a challenge, due to the difficult definition of potential rockfall sources, event magnitude scenarios and related probabilities. For this reasons, rockfall analyses traditionally focus on modelling the runout component of rockfall processes, whereas rock-fall source identification, mapping and characterization (block size distribution and susceptibility) are over-simplified in most practical applications, especially when structurally complex rock masses are involved. We integrated field and remote survey and rock mass modelling techniques to characterize rock masses and detect rockfall source in complex geo-structural settings. We focused on a test site located at Valmadrera, near Lecco (Southern Alps, Italy), where cliffs up to 600 m high impend on a narrow strip of Lake Como shore. The massive carbonates forming the cliff (Dolomia Principale Fm), normally characterized by brittle structural associations due to their high strength and stiffness, are here involved in an ENE-trending, S-verging kilometre-scale syncline. Brittle mechanisms associated to folding strongly controlled the nature of discontinuities (bedding slip, strike-slip faults, tensile fractures) and their attributes (spacing and size), as well as the spatial variability of bedding attitude and fracture intensity, with individual block sizes up to 15 m3. We carried out a high-resolution terrestrial photogrammetric survey from distances ranging from 1500 m (11 camera stations from the opposite lake shore, 265 pictures) to 150 m (28 camera stations along N-S directed boat routes, 200 pictures), using RTK GNSS measurements for camera station geo-referencing. Data processing by Structure-from-Motion techniques resulted in detailed long-range (1500 m) and medium-range (150 to 800 m) point clouds covering the entire slope with maximum surface point densities exceeding 50 pts/m2. Point clouds allowed a detailed

  8. Neutron activation analysis of geological materials

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an extremely sensitive, selective and precise method, which yields a wealth of elemental information from even a small-sized sample. With the recent advances in nuclear reactors and high-efficiency and high-resolution semiconductor detectors, NAA has become a powerful method for multielemental analysis. The concentration of major, minor, and trace elements vary from 1 to 4 orders of magnitude in geological materials. By varying neutron fluxes, irradiation times, decay and counting intervals and using both instrumental and radiochemical techniques in NAA, it is possible to accurately determine about 50 elements in a sample aliquant. The practical aspects of the NAA method as applied to geological materials are discussed in detail, and are demonstrated by the analysis of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard reference geological materials. General aspects of the elemental interpretations in terrestrial samples are also discussed. (author)

  9. High precision analysis of an embryonic extensional fault-related fold using 3D orthorectified virtual outcrops: The viewpoint importance in structural geology

    Tavani, Stefano; Corradetti, Amerigo; Billi, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Image-based 3D modeling has recently opened the way to the use of virtual outcrop models in geology. An intriguing application of this method involves the production of orthorectified images of outcrops using almost any user-defined point of view, so that photorealistic cross-sections suitable for numerous geological purposes and measurements can be easily generated. These purposes include the accurate quantitative analysis of fault-fold relationships starting from imperfectly oriented and partly inaccessible real outcrops. We applied the method of image-based 3D modeling and orthorectification to a case study from the northern Apennines, Italy, where an incipient extensional fault affecting well-layered limestones is exposed on a 10-m-high barely accessible cliff. Through a few simple steps, we constructed a high-quality image-based 3D model of the outcrop. In the model, we made a series of measurements including fault and bedding attitudes, which allowed us to derive the bedding-fault intersection direction. We then used this direction as viewpoint to obtain a distortion-free photorealistic cross-section, on which we measured bed dips and thicknesses as well as fault stratigraphic separations. These measurements allowed us to identify a slight difference (i.e. only 0.5°) between the hangingwall and footwall cutoff angles. We show that the hangingwall strain required to compensate the upward-decreasing displacement of the fault was accommodated by this 0.5° rotation (i.e. folding) and coeval 0.8% thickening of strata in the hangingwall relatively to footwall strata. This evidence is consistent with trishear fault-propagation folding. Our results emphasize the viewpoint importance in structural geology and therefore the potential of using orthorectified virtual outcrops.

  10. Data System for Structural Geology and Tectonics

    Newman, Julie; Walker, J. Douglas; Tikoff, Basil; Good, Jessica; Michels, Zachary; Ash, Jason; Andrew, Joseph; Williams, Randolph

    2016-04-01

    We are prototyping a Data System for Structural Geology and Tectonics (SG&T) data that is platform independent (from mobile device to desktop) to enable collection and sharing of data from field to laboratory settings. The goals of this effort, funded by US National Science Foundation, are to enable recording and sharing data within the geoscience community, to encourage interdisciplinary research, and to facilitate the investigation of scientific questions that cannot currently be addressed. The development of the Data System emphasizes community input in order to build a system that encompasses the needs of researchers, in terms of data and usability. SG&T data is complex for a variety of reasons, including the wide range of temporal and spatial scales (many orders of magnitude each), the complex three-dimensional geometry of some geological structures, inherent spatial nature of the data, and the difficulty of making temporal inferences from spatial observations. To successfully implement the development of a SG&T data system, we must simultaneously solve three problems: 1) How to digitize SG&T data; 2) How to design a software system that is applicable; and 3) How to construct a very flexible user interface. To address the first problem, we introduce the "Spot" concept, which allows tracking of hierarchical and spatial relations between structures at all scales, and will link map scale, mesoscale, and laboratory scale data. A Spot is an observation or relationship with an area of significance. A Spot can be a single measurement, an aggregate of individual measurements, or even relationships between numerous other Spots. We address the second problem of software design through the use of a graph database to better preserve the myriad of potentially complex relationships. In order to construct a flexible user interface that follows a natural workflow and that serves the needs of the community, we are engaging the SG&T community in order to utilize the expertise

  11. Granites petrology, structure, geological setting, and metallogeny

    Nédélec, Anne; Bowden, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Granites are emblematic rocks developed from a magma that crystallized in the Earth’s crust. They ultimately outcrop at the surface worldwide. This book, translated and updated from the original French edition Pétrologie des Granites (2011) is a modern presentation of granitic rocks from magma genesis to their crystallization at a higher level into the crust. Segregation from the source, magma ascent and shapes of granitic intrusions are also discussed, as well as the eventual formation of hybrid rocks by mingling/mixing processes and the thermomechanical aspects in country rocks around granite plutons. Modern techniques for structural studies of granites are detailed extensively. Granites are considered in their geological spatial and temporal frame, in relation with plate tectonics and Earth history from the Archaean eon. A chapter on granite metallogeny explains how elements of economic interest are concentrated during magma crystallization, and examples of Sn, Cu, F and U ore deposits are presented. Mi...

  12. Three-dimensional Geological and Geo-mechanical Modelling of Repositories for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Structures

    To prove the suitability and safety of underground structures for the disposal of radioactive waste extensive geo-scientific research and development has been carried out by BGR over the last decades. Basic steps of the safety analysis are the geological modelling of the entire structure including the host rock, the overburden and the repository geometry as well as the geo-mechanical modelling taking into account the 3-D modelling of the underground structure. The geological models are generated using the special-construction openGEOTM code to improve the visualisation an d interpretation of the geological data basis, e.g. borehole, mine, and geophysical data. For the geo-mechanical analysis the new JIFE finite-element code has been used to consider large 3-D structures with complex inelastic material behaviour. To establish the finite-element models needed for stability and integrity calculations, the geological models are simplified with respect to homogenous rock layers with uniform material behaviour. The modelling results are basic values for the evaluation of the stability of the repository mine and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier. As an example of application, the results of geological and geo-mechanical investigations of the Morsleben repository based on 3-D modelling are presented. (authors)

  13. Structural effects of C60+ bombardment on various natural mineral samples-Application to analysis of organic phases in geological samples

    Organic phases trapped inside natural mineral samples are of considerable interest in astrobiology, geochemistry and geobiology. Examples of such organic phases are microfossils, kerogen and oil. Information about these phases is usually retrieved through bulk crushing of the rock which means both a risk of contamination and that the composition and spatial distribution of the organics to its host mineral is lost. An attractive of way to retrieve information about the organics in the rock is depth profiling using a focused ion beam. Recently, it was shown that it is possible to obtain detailed mass spectrometric information from oil-bearing fluid inclusions, i.e. small amounts of oil trapped inside a mineral matrix, using ToF-SIMS. Using a 10 keV C60+ sputter beam and a 25 keV Bi3+ analysis beam, oil-bearing inclusions in different minerals were opened and analysed individually. However, sputtering with a C60+ beam also induced other changes to the mineral surface, such as formation of topographic features and carbon deposition. In this paper, the cause of these changes is explored and the consequences of the sputter-induced features on the analysis of organic phases in natural mineral samples (quartz, calcite and fluorite) in general and fluid inclusions in particular are discussed. The dominating topographical features that were observed when a several micrometers deep crater is sputtered with 10 keV C60+ ions on a natural mineral surface are conical-shaped and ridge-like structures that may rise several micrometers, pointing in the direction of the incident C60+ ion beam, on an otherwise flat crater bottom. The sputter-induced structures were found to appear at places with different chemistry than the host mineral, including other minerals phases and fluid inclusions, while structural defects in the host material, such as polishing marks or scratches, did not necessarily result in sputter-induced structures. The ridge-like structures were often covered by a

  14. Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques

    Hoogewerff, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

  15. Advances in Structural Geology and Tectonics in the Late 20th Century: A Review

    2006-01-01

    Based on analyses of the share of documents of structural geology and tectonics in the GeoRef system over 100 years in the last century, and the historical change of international (31 years) and domestic (16 years) document counts of various topics in structural geology and tectonics, the position of structural geology and tectonics in the geosciences is evaluated and the major advaces in fields of plate tectonics, continental dynamics and global dynamics are reviewed. Our attention mainly focuses on the advances in studies of structural analysis, deformation mechanisms and rheology of rocks,contractional tectonics and late- and post-orogenic extensional collapse in orogens, large-scale strikeslip faults and indentation-extrusion tectonics, active tectonics and natural hazards. The relationships of structural geology and tectonics with petrology and geochronology are also discussed in terms of intersection of scientific disciplines. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for the further development of structural geology and tectonics in China.

  16. Improvement of seismic imaging of complex geologic structures

    Duquet, B.

    1996-04-11

    Successful imaging of complex geologic structures by pre-stack depth migration requires a correct velocity model of the subsurface. In recent years, it has been proposed to use pre-stack depth migration of the cube of pre-stack depth migrated images and the subsequent use of the interpretation for velocity model update. However, in complex geologic structures, pre-stack depth migration does not yield results of sufficient quality for interpretation. We therefore propose a new wave-field imaging technique based on linearized inversion using the paraxial approximation of the wave equation. Using this technique we can remove the artifacts contaminating the individual depth images by integrating a priori information in the inverse problem. The application of the method to synthetic and real data shows that it allows us to largely improve the quality of the depth images at reasonable cost.We thus obtain an interpretable cube of depth images that makes migration velocity analysis feasible in complex structures. In 3D, due to the size of the problem there is still a large interest in using post stack techniques for velocity model determination. The quality of the results of such techniques relies on the quality of the stacking process. Classical data stacking techniques rely on simplifications that are not valid anymore in case of complex geologic structures. We propose a data stacking technique based on depth domain stacking after pre-stack depth migration, followed by explosive reflector modeling, to obtain the stacked seismic data. This method which is totally automatic yield 3 D stacked data that are suitable for 3D post stack velocity determination techniques.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is an element of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). GAP helps to implement the Department of Interior?s goals of inventory,...

  18. Application of reactor activation analysis to hydrogeology and geology

    Instrumental reactor activation analysis applied to hydrogeological and geological investigations conducted at the Department of Radiometry of the Geological Techniques Research and Development Centre is discussed. Used instrumentation and analytical techniques are described. (author)

  19. Geology

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  20. Geology

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region's geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published

  1. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  2. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and

  3. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M andO) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity

  4. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-11-05

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity.

  5. Geology

    Asch, Kristine; Mathers, Stephen J.; Kessler, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explains the historic impact and future direction of geoinformatics on geological sciences. The history and the purpose of geological surveys is discussed and an introduction into the basic techniques of traditional field mapping is presented

  6. Geological Hazards analysis in Urban Tunneling by EPB Machine (Case study: Tehran subway line 7 tunnel)

    Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh; Mohammad Saber Zamzam; Mozdianfard, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Technological progress in tunneling has led to modern and efficient tunneling methods in vast underground spaces even under inappropriate geological conditions. Identification and access to appropriate and sufficient geological hazard data are key elements to successful construction of underground structures. Choice of the method, excavation machine, and prediction of suitable solutions to overcome undesirable conditions depend on geological studies and hazard analysis. Identifying and invest...

  7. Aeromagnetic data and geological structure of continental China: A review

    Xiong, Sheng-Qing; Tong, Jing; Ding, Yan-Yun; Li, Zhan-Kui

    2016-06-01

    We review the latest aeromagnetic geological data of continental China. We discuss the latest achievements in geological mapping and the newly detected features based on aeromagnetic data. Using aeromagnetic data collected for more than 50 years, a series of 1:5000000 and 1:1000000 aeromagnetic maps of continental China were compiled using state-of-the-art digital technology, and data processing and transformation. Guided by plate tectonics and continental dynamics, rock physical properties, and magnetic anomalies, we compiled maps of the depth of the magnetic basement of continental China and the major geotectonic units, and presented newly detected geological structures based on the aeromagnetic data.

  8. Geochemistry and Geologic Analysis in Shale Gas Play

    Wenwu Xia; Mike D. Burnaman; John Shelton

    2009-01-01

    The understanding from the conventional geochemistry and geology analysis is very different when trying to apply them to shale gas plays. This paper is a summary for U.S. shale gas plays on geochemistry and geologic analysis application, and real field data from active U.S. shale gas plays is used in the discussion of different concepts.

  9. Three-dimensional Morphological Analysis for Geological Bodies and Application

    Yanhong Zou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To address the spatial Morphological analysis of complex geological bodies in stereoscopic quantitative prediction of concealed ore bodies, a three-dimensional morphological analysis method for geological bodies based on 3-dimensional raster model under visualization environment was put forward by combining mathematical morphology with Euclidean distance transform theory. Firstly, the 3-dimensional visualization models for geological bodies were constructed on the basis of the 3-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM technology; Secondly, the algorithm for extracting the surface shape trend of geological body with the 3-dimensional raster model was proposed by using mathematical morphology filtering. By the combination of morphological filtering, global set operation and three-dimensional Euclidean distance transform, the models for the quantitative analysis and hierarchical extraction of the shape undulance were established. Lastly, as a case study, the three-dimensional morphological analysis method was applied in analyzing quantitatively the Xinwuli magmatic body in Fenghuangshan ore field in Tongling, Anhui Province. By means of the calculation model of Euclidean distance field, the quantitative extraction of the shape trend and shape undulance as well as the angle between geological interface and trend surface, as the quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors, were achieved after building the 3D raster models of the magmatic body. The results show that the morphological analysis method is feasible to calculate various morphological parameters of complex geological bodies and extract quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors successfully for stereoscopic quantitative predication of concealed ore bodies.

  10. Geological structure and geochemistry controlling radon in soil gas

    Kemski, J.; Klingel, R.; Schneiders, H.; Siehl, A.; Wiegand, J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Geologisches Inst.)

    1992-01-01

    Geological factors causing radon anomalies are either geochemical/petrophysical (controlling the diffusive [sup 222]Rn and [sup 220]Rn potential), or structural (controlling the advective [sup 222]Rn component), or both. While geochemical anomalies normally are easily explained and rather stable in time, structural anomalies often show fluctuations and interpretation of their origin can be very intricate. Geology-based techniques for detecting and mapping previously unrecognised areas of high radon risk have been developed with case studies in the Cenozoic Neuwied Basin of the Middle Rhine region and in the Paleozoic crystalline basement rocks of Eastern Bavaria in Southern Oberpfalz, Germany. (author).

  11. Deep geological disposal system development; mechanical structural stability analysis of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister under the internal/external pressure variation

    Kwen, Y. J.; Kang, S. W.; Ha, Z. Y. [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    This work constitutes a summary of the research and development work made for the design and dimensioning of the canister for nuclear fuel disposal. Since the spent nuclear fuel disposal emits high temperature heats and much radiation, its careful treatment is required. For that, a long term(usually 10,000 years) safe repository for spent fuel disposal should be securred. Usually this repository is expected to locate at a depth of 500m underground. The canister construction type introduced here is a solid structure with a cast iron insert and a corrosion resistant overpack, which is designed for spent nuclear fuel disposal in a deep repository in the crystalline bedrock, which entails an evenly distributed load of hydrostatic pressure from undergroundwater and high pressure from swelling of bentonite buffer. Hence, the canister must be designed to withstand these high pressure loads. Many design variables may affect the structural strength of the canister. In this study, among those variables array type of inner baskets and thicknesses of outer shell and lid and bottom are tried to be determined through the mechanical linear structural analysis, thicknesses of outer shell is determined through the nonlinear structural analysis, and the bentonite buffer analysis for the rock movement is conducted through the of nonlinear structural analysis Also the thermal stress effect is computed for the cast iron insert. The canister types studied here are one for PWR fuel and another for CANDU fuel. 23 refs., 60 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

  12. Use of TV pictures obtained from weather satellites to study the geological structure of the earth

    Bashilova, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of Soviet investigations into the use of television imagery obtained from meteorological satellites for the interpretation of tectonics, lithology, and structural properties of the earth. The area investigated encompassed the eastern part of Iran, and the western regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Interpretation of the features identified during the analysis was accomplished by comparing these features with physical, geographic, geological, and tectonic maps. It was concluded that television pictures of the earth from space can be used for geological and structural analysis.

  13. Using Layer-Cake Geology to Illustrate Structural Topographic Relationships.

    Wagner, John Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the difficulties of visualizing underlying geologic structural patterns by using maps or wooden blocks. Suggests the use of a modified layer cake to show dipping beds, folds, faults and differential erosion, as well as the relationships of stream valleys to outcrop patterns. (TW)

  14. Geology

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  15. Analysis of the geological structure and tectonic evolution of Xingning-Jinghai sag in deep water area, northern South China Sea

    Han, Xiaoying; Ren, Jianye; Lin, Zi; Yang, Linlong

    2015-04-01

    Recent years, oil and gas exploration of the Pearl River Mouth Basin in the northern margin of South China Sea continuously achieved historic breakthroughs. The Xingning-Jinghai sag, which is located in southeast of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, is a deep-water sag with a great exploration potential. Its tectonic evolution is extremely complex. It experienced Mesozoic subduction to Cenozoic intra-continental rifting background, and finally evolved into a deep-water sag of the northern continental margin of South China Sea. The geological characteristics and the tectonic evolution of Xingning-Jinghai sag was closely related to the process of formation and evolution of the passive continental margin of the northern South China Sea. It is confirmed by many geophysical data that compared with adjacent Chaoshan depression, the crustal thickness of Xingning-Jinghai sag was rapidly thinning, and it developed detachment faults with later magmatic intrusion. The development of detachment faults have dynamic significance for the spreading of the South China Sea. Based on the seismic geological interpretation of 2D seismic data in the study area, the characteristics of detachment fault and supra-detachment basin have been proposed in this study. The characteristics of the detachment fault are low angle and high ratio between heave and throw. The geometry of the detachment fault is a typical lisric shape, with the dip of fault decreasing generally from the seismic profile. The detachment basin where sediments are not deposited over a tilting hanging-wall block but onto a tectonically exhumed footwall which is different from the typical half graben basin. Seismic profiles indicate two different structural styles in the east and west part of Xingning-Jinghai sag. In the west of the sag, there developed two large detachment faults, which control their detachment basin systems and the typical H block, and the two detachment faults are dipping landward and seaward, respectively. In

  16. Geologic Analysis of Priority Basins for Exploration and Drilling

    Carroll, H.B.; Reeves, T.K.

    1999-04-27

    There has been a substantial decline in both exploratory drilling and seismic field crew activity in the United States over the last 10 years, due primarily to the declining price of oil. To reverse this trend and to preserve the entrepreneurial independent operator, the U.S. DOE is attempting to encourage hydrocarbon exploration activities in some of the under exploited regions of the United States. This goal is being accomplished by conducting broad regional reviews of potentially prospective areas within the lower 48 states. Data are being collected on selected areas, and studies are being done on a regional scale generally unavailable to the smaller independent. The results of this work will be made available to the public to encourage the undertaking of operations in areas which have been overlooked until this project. Fifteen criteria have been developed for the selection of study areas. Eight regions have been identified where regional geologic analysis will be performed. This report discusses preliminary findings concerning the geology, early tectonic history, structure and potential unconventional source rocks for the Black Mesa basin and South Central states region, the two highest priority study areas.

  17. Hydrogeologic role of geologic structures. Part 1: the paradigm

    Levens, Russell L.; Williams, Roy E.; Ralston, Dale R.

    1994-04-01

    Grouting to reduce fracture permeability is one option for minimizing ground water inflow to a large, acid-producing lead-zinc mine in fractured metamorphic rock in north Idaho. For grouting to reduce mine water inflow effectively, the hydrogeologic characteristics of the various scales of structurally controlled fracturing must be identified and a conceptual model of the ground water flow system must be developed. This paper is the first of two papers which use fracture mapping, geologic structural mapping, and a series of underground hydraulic stress tests to develop a conceptual model of structurally controlled ground water flow in the vicinity of the mine. These data were collected in an effort to identify order within the structurally controlled spatial permeability distribution. Geologic structural discontinuities, ranging from joints to faults that extend for several miles, form a geologic structural hierarchy in the rock surrounding the mine. The tiers of the hierarchy control ground water flow into the mine at different scales. The most prominent faults control ground water inflow on the scale of the entire mine. Various levels of hydraulic continuity are evident within the rock mass bounded by two of the most prominent faults. The highest level of hydraulic continuity appears to be associated with a set of sub-parallel, steeply dipping faults. Minor faults, joints, and relict bedding planes to a limited extent connect the fractures of this set and form a lower level of hydraulic continuity. The next lower level of hydraulic continuity within the hierarchy is related to a major fault that is characterized in drill core by abundant gouge. The hydraulic continuity of the matrix within the unfractured quartzite is the lowest level within the hierarchy. These levels constitute the components of the order within the spatial permeability distribution that we have interpreted from the structural and hydraulic stress test data.

  18. Geologic structural features within the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kaistrcg)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of the geologic structural features within the Kaiparowits Plateau. Structural features include synclines, anticlines, folds and faults; and...

  19. Computer-based modelling and analysis in engineering geology

    Giles, David

    2014-01-01

    This body of work presents the research and publications undertaken under a general theme of computer-based modelling and analysis in engineering geology. Papers are presented on geotechnical data management, data interchange, Geographical Information Systems, surface modelling, geostatistical methods, risk-based modelling, knowledge-based systems, remote sensing in engineering geology and on the integration of computer applications into applied geoscience teaching. The work highlights my...

  20. Geothermal exploration involving structural geology and hydrochemistry in the Tarutung Basin, Northern Central Sumatra (Indonesia)

    Mochamad Nukman

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the permeability structure in geothermal greenfield exploration requires collection and integration of hydrochemical and structural geological data related to background geology and present-day stress field. A methodological combination of field based structural geology with hydrochemistry plays an important role in identifying the geothermal system and geologic controls on permeable zones, temperature distribution, fluid origin and the overall flow pattern. A case study in the...

  1. Hydrogeologic role of geologic structures. Part 2: analytical models

    Levens, Russell L.; Williams, Roy E.; Ralston, Dale R.

    1994-04-01

    This paper is the second of two papers that address the influence of geologic structures on ground water flow at various scales in fractured rocks. The ultimate purpose of this research is to investigate the feasibility of grouting preferentially permeable zones as a strategy to minimize the production of acid mine drainage in underground hard rock mines in which the major permeability is structure and fracture controlled. The aim of grouting is to reduce permeability around mined-out openings, to minimize the rate of inflow of ground water into such openings via the structurally controlled preferentially permeable pathways. A series of hydraulic stress tests were conducted to help characterize the role of geologic structures in controlling the ground water flow system in the vicinity of the Bunker Hill Mine in north Idaho. The results of these tests indicate that most of the ground water that flows from the underground drillholes used for hydraulic stress testing is derived from a few discrete, structurally produced fracture zones that are more or less connected through smaller-scale fractures. Four types of analytical models are considered as a means of analyzing the results of multiple drillhole hydraulic stress tests, as follows: cross-hole equivalent porous media; double-porosity equivalent porous media; a solution to flow in and around a single vertical fracture; leaky equivalent porous media, partial penetration. The estimation of hydraulic coefficients in complex fractured rock environments involves the combined application of a number of deterministic analytical models. The models to be used are selected dependent on the location of the drawdown observations relative to the water-producing zone and the length of the test. The result of the tests can be related to the permeability hierarchy discussed in our first paper.

  2. Capability of analysis arsenic in geology sample by gamma-gamma coincidence method

    Gamma-gamma coincidence method has been successfully applied to the study of nuclear data and structure. Due to good abilities of background reduction, gamma-gamma coincidence method has been widely applied in neutron activation analysis. The experimental studies on geological and environmental samples have been conducted in several laboratories in the world. This report presents the results of Arsenic (As) analysis of geological sample by neutron activation analysis with coincidence method. The results show that the linearity between concentration in sample and count rate of peak in coincidence measurements and the influence of isotopes was eliminated and the background was reduced by application of this method in comparison with the conventional method that uses a detector. The results also found out that detection limits for analysis of As in geological samples were improved. (author)

  3. Application of passive seismic to shallow geological structures in urban areas

    Mendecki Maciej Jan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the shallow geological structure the Refraction Microtremor (ReMi method was applied. This technique uses seismic noise analysis where a source of this small vibrations is the human activity e.g.: traffic, production, factories. The surveys were carried out in selected urban areas in the region of the Upper Silesian Industrial District : Sosnowiec - Pogoń , Chorzów - Chorzow Stary and Bytom - Karb. Each area is characterized by the presence of nearby roads with a very high traffic. The results of passive seismic (ReMi were confronted with data obtained using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW and resistivity imaging (RI. Seismic surveys were performed by apparatus PASI with 24 channels using geophones of 4.5Hz. The results showed that passive seismic can be satisfactorily used in such urban conditions. The shallow geological structure interpreted by seismic methods have been well-correlated with resistivity studies.

  4. Auscultamiento de estructuras geológicas en la cuenca chacoparanense a partir de la aplicación de métodos potenciales Analysis of geologic structures in the Chacoparanense basin based on the application of potential methods

    M.E. Gimenez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta en el área de la cuenca Chacopampeana, noroeste de Argentina, un análisis preliminar geológico - geofísico, basado en los métodos potenciales.El área de estudio se ubica hacia el noreste de la ciudad de Santiago del Estero y parte noroeste de la provincia de Chaco, entre los 25° y 27° S de latitud y 61° a 63° O de longitud. Se relevaron aproximadamente 1.000 nuevos puntos gravimétricos, que fueron agregados a la base de datos del Instituto de Física de Rosario, Universidad Nacional de Rosario y del Instituto Geofísico Sismológico Volponi, Universidad Nacional de San Juan. Con los datos obtenidos se preparó una carta de anomalías de Bouguer. La carta de anomalías, fue filtrada y procesada para separar efectos gravimétricos y se confeccionó un modelo cortical para una sección A-A´. El modelo cortical, indica la presencia de una estructura ubicada en la corteza superior. Este modelo justifica la residual de Bouguer.El área de estudio, posee características geológicas adecuadas de presencia de hidrocarburos, pero hasta el momento no se han descubierto estructuras geológicas de interés económico. En el presente estudio, mostramos una anomalía de Bouguer positiva, sin evidencias superficiales que podría interpretarse como una estructura geológica con potencial económico.A preliminary geological-geophysical analysis of the Chacopampeana area of north-eastern Argentina is presented from the application of potential field methods. The study area is located mostly in the north-east of the province of Santiago del Estero, and partly in north-west of the province of Chaco, between latitudes 25° S and 27° S and longitudes 61° W to 63° W. We obtained approximately 1,000 new gravity points, that were added to the database of the Instituto de Física de Rosario, Universidad Nacional de Rosario and of the Instituto Geofísico Sismológico Volponi, Universidad Nacional de San Juan. A Bouguer anomaly map has been

  5. Integrating remote sensing and magnetic data for structural geology investigation in pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan

    Salehi, Ratib; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Khalil, Ahmed; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan. The analysis of surface data, including a digital elevation model (DEM), and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images, was combined with airborne magnetic data to better understand three-dimensional geology in the area. The ETM+ and DEM data were used to map geological structures at the surface, which indicate that the area consists of two main fault systems that trend NNE and E-W. The two trends represent the remnants of reactivated structures that formed under the stress regimes generated during the tectonic evolution of eastern Afghanistan. Magnetic data indicate an NE-SW trending basin. A two-dimensional schematic model shows that the basin gradually deepens toward the SW with depths to the magnetic basement ranging between 2 and 11.5 km. The integration of the results gave new insight into the tectonic evolution and structure patterns near the pegmatites area.

  6. Reflection of block neotectonics in geological structure of paleogene strata of Chornobyl exclusion zone

    Neotectonic block differentiation of Chernobyl Exclusion zone area was fixed by the results of the geological and structure analysis of paleogene strata in complex with the space survey data interpretation. Structural plan of the latest tectonic movements had a block character; it was shown by the fracture systems, which represent the components of known regional tectonic zones of various trends and are found in the features of phanerozoic rock mass structure. The territory under study is divided into two parts - the northern one, where in the neotectonic movements are generally more intensive with manifestation practically all over the fracture zones, and the southern part, where in the newest breaks belong mainly to submeridional also to south-western regional fracture zones. The southern part of the Exclusion zone, as a whole, holds the greatest promise by comparison with the northern one in the view of neotectonic criteria regarding the geological repository siting for radioactive waste disposal

  7. Spatial Coupling Among Landslides, Geological Structures, Cataclinal Slopes, and Fluvial Knick Zones in Nepal Himalayas

    Ojha, T. P.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work aims to identify potential landslide hazard zones in the event of heavy precipitation and seismic activity by examining spatial relationships among existing landslides, earthquake epicenters, fault zones, cataclinal (dip) slopes, anaclinal (escarp) slopes, and river steepness index in the Nepal Himalaya. In order to understand this relationship we have mapped existing landslides on Google Earth images and ESRI base maps, assembled high-resolution digital topographic data by digitizing Nepal Government published topographic maps, and gathered geological data from detailed field mapping and compilation of published geological maps. Slope angle and aspect, and dip direction and angle were extracted from GIS-based digital topographical and geological datasets to develop the new slope maps with cataclinal (dip) and anaclinal (escarp) slope distributions. Longitudinal river profiles were also extracted from high resolution DEM's derived from manually digitized contours. The slope maps with cataclinal and anaclinal slope distributions, earthquake epicenters, major geological structures, longitudinal river profiles, and landslide inventories were visualized in ESRI ArcMap 10.2 to examine the spatial correlation among landslides, fault zones, cataclinal slopes and river steepness index. We have found that landslides are spatially correlated with cataclinal slopes and fluvial knick zones with high steepness index in certain thrust boundaries. The main finding of this work is that the topographic slope threshold alone is a crude measure of landslide susceptibility. The analysis of slope using the geometric relationship among topography and geological bedding is crucial for determining landslide susceptibility in the Himalayan region.

  8. The main goal of engineering geology for designing and construction complex structures in urban areas

    Drago Ocepek; Jasna Jerman

    2007-01-01

    Work for designing complex structures in urban areas consists of geological-geotechnical investigations and analysis of the quality of rocks, soft rocks and hard soils in the construction area. Urban areas limited the space for designing cutting slopes in stable inclination without reinforcement. In this paper will be presented designing and excavation works with different reinforcement of two different areas in Slovenia built of heterogeneous mixed hard to soft rock masses (Triassic dolomite...

  9. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  10. Framework system and research flow of uncertainty in 3D geological structure models

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty in 3D geological structure models has become a bottleneck that restricts the development and application of 3D geological modeling.In order to solve this problem during periods of accuracy assessment,error detection and dynamic correction in 3D geological structure models,we have reviewed the current situation and development trends in 3D geological modeling.The main context of uncertainty in 3D geological structure models is discussed.Major research issues and a general framework system of unce...

  11. Geological Structure and History of the Arctic Ocean

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Kashubin, Sergey; Pospelov, Igor; Tolmacheva, Tatiana; Petrov, Eugeny

    2016-04-01

    New data on geological structure of the deep-water part of the Arctic Basin have been integrated in the joint project of Arctic states - the Atlas of maps of the Circumpolar Arctic. Geological (CGS, 2009) and potential field (NGS, 2009) maps were published as part of the Atlas; tectonic (Russia) and mineral resources (Norway) maps are being completed. The Arctic basement map is one of supplements to the tectonic map. It shows the Eurasian basin with oceanic crust and submerged margins of adjacent continents: the Barents-Kara, Amerasian ("Amerasian basin") and the Canada-Greenland. These margins are characterized by strained and thinned crust with the upper crust layer, almost extinct in places (South Barents and Makarov basins). In the Central Arctic elevations, seismic studies and investigation of seabed rock samples resulted in the identification of a craton with the Early Precambrian crust (near-polar part of the Lomonosov Ridge - Alpha-Mendeleev Rise). Its basement presumably consists of gneiss granite (2.6-2.2 Ga), and the cover is composed of Proterozoic quartzite sandstone and dolomite overlain with unconformity and break in sedimentation by Devonian-Triassic limestone with fauna and terrigenous rocks. The old crust is surrounded by accretion belts of Timanides and Grenvillides. Folded belts with the Late Precambrian crust are reworked by Caledonian-Ellesmerian and the Late Mesozoic movements. Structures of the South Anuy - Angayucham ophiolite suture reworked in the Early Cretaceous are separated from Mesozoides proper of the Pacific - Verkhoyansk-Kolyma and Koryak-Kamchatka belts. The complicated modern ensemble of structures of the basement and the continental frame of the Arctic Ocean was formed as a result of the conjugate evolution and interaction of the three major oceans of the Earth: Paleoasian, Paleoatlantic and Paleopacific.

  12. Computer methods for geological analysis of radiometric data

    Whether an explorationist equates anomalies with potential uranium ore deposits or analyses radiometric data in terms of their relationships with other geochemical, geophysical, and geological data, the anomaly or anomalous zone is the most common starting point for subsequent study or field work. In its preliminary stages, the definition of meaningful anomalies from raw data is a statistical problem requiring the use of a computer. Because radiometric data, when properly collected and reduced, are truly geochemical, they can be expected to relate in part to changes in surface or near-surface geology. Data variations caused strictly by differences in gross chemistry of the lithologies sampled constitute a noise factor which must be removed for proper analysis. Texas Instruments Incorporated has developed an automated method of measuring the statistical significance of data by incorporating geological information in the process. This method of computerized geological analysis of radiometric data (CGARD) is similar to a basic method of the exploration geochemist and has been proved successful in its application to airborne radiometric data collected on four continents by Texas Instruments Incorporated. This beginning and its natural follow-on methods of automated or interpretive analysis are based simply on the perception of radiometric data as sets of statistically distributed data in both the frequency and spatial domains. (author)

  13. Quantitative assessment of the complexity of geological structures in terms of seismic propagators

    2010-01-01

    How a wave interacts with heterogeneous media has been pursued by many geophysicists.The complexity of subsurface heterogeneities is seismologically a relative concept to wavelengths of seismic waves.A growing perception is that velocity variations,propagation angles,and computational accuracies are closely related at a variety of scales.A tentative strategy to quantitatively evaluate the complexity of subsurface heterogeneous media is presented in this article to see what scales of geological heterogeneities to be captured by waves.We express complex subsurface structures as the slowness-and angularheterogeneity spectra to quantify velocity contrasts and dipping-angle distributions of complex geological structures.On the other hand,the scaling characteristics of a propagator are measured through dispersion analysis by its angular spectra plotted against refractive indexes and propagation angles,respectively.A parameter termed as imaging efficiency is introduced by associating the geological heterogeneity spectra with the propagator’s angular spectra to understand the coherent interference between the medium’s heterogeneity and the propagator’s scaling characteristics.Furthermore,a complexity coefficient can be defined to evaluate geological complexities in terms of propagators.The application of this strategy is demonstrated to the SEG/EAEG salt model.

  14. The EVEREST project: sensitivity analysis of geological disposal systems

    The main objective of the EVEREST project is the evaluation of the sensitivity of the radiological consequences associated with the geological disposal of radioactive waste to the different elements in the performance assessment. Three types of geological host formations are considered: clay, granite and salt. The sensitivity studies that have been carried out can be partitioned into three categories according to the type of uncertainty taken into account: uncertainty in the model parameters, uncertainty in the conceptual models and uncertainty in the considered scenarios. Deterministic as well as stochastic calculational approaches have been applied for the sensitivity analyses. For the analysis of the sensitivity to parameter values, the reference technique, which has been applied in many evaluations, is stochastic and consists of a Monte Carlo simulation followed by a linear regression. For the analysis of conceptual model uncertainty, deterministic and stochastic approaches have been used. For the analysis of uncertainty in the considered scenarios, mainly deterministic approaches have been applied

  15. SITE-94. Development of a geological and a structural model of Aespoe, southeastern Sweden

    The objective of the present study is to construct three-dimensional geological and structural models to be used within the SKI SITE-94 project as a base for modelling hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and rock mechanical bedrock conditions, mass transport and layout of a hypothetical repository. The basic input data in the SITE-94 geological and structural models are restricted to geological and structural readings and geophysical measurements made prior to building the Hard Rock Laboratory. 114 refs, 82 figs, 28 tabs

  16. Research and development of methods and technologies for CO2 capture in fossil fuel power plants and storage in geological formations in the Czech Republic, stage E4: Risk analysis. Risk analysis methods for CO2 storage in geological structures. Final report. Revision 1

    The report summarizes basic information about the behaviour of CO2 in the geological environment; about the procedures used for definition of CO2 effects on living organisms and the environment. This information can be used for evaluation of the safety of CO2 storage into geological structures. Information and values from Czech legislation were collected, defining the limits of CO2 concentration in different media (water, air), plus the concentration of substances that can be mobilized under its effect (heavy metals, etc.). Features, events and processes (FEPs) that are relevant to the anticipated concepts of CO2 storage in the Czech Republic were selected from the international database. Risks are categorized into 'significant irregularity, 'substantial change', 'significant risk' and 'leakage'. On the bases of these presumptions basic outline for following scenarios were laid down: (i) normal scenario of system evolution when it is presumed that the storage system evolves according to predictions: injected CO2 dissolves slowly into groundwater and get retained finally in geological environment. Neither significant irregularities, nor CO2 leakage appear; (ii) alternative scenario of system evolution when during operation phase and during post closure phase significant irregularities or CO2 leakage can appear; and (iii) intrusive scenario of system evolution when CO2 leakage and human exposures is expected due to direct human intervention into the storage site. These scenarios and their next division are only preliminary, nevertheless, they are linked to the potential storage sites location in the Czech Republic. (author, abbreviated)

  17. Deep electrical structure and geological significance of Tongling ore district

    Tang, Jingtian; Zhou, Cong; Wang, Xianying; Xiao Xiao; Lü, Qingtian

    2013-10-01

    The Tongling ore district is one of the most important Cu-polymetal producers in the Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt of China. To understand deep crust structure beneath the Tongling ore district more comprehensively and objectively and to explore important scientific issues, such as characteristics of lithospheric evolution, the relationship between the crustal structure and metallogenesis, it is necessary to study the variation of crust electrical structure in the study area. For this purpose, six magnetotelluric (MT) sounding profiles have been completed by SinoProbe-03 Project. Based on the imaging results of the six profiles, electrical conductivity structure of the crust has been analyzed. The result shows that the geology beneath the profiles is characterized by layering in vertical direction and block division in horizontal direction. The high-resistivity features are related to the transparent zones detected at the upper crust in reflection seismic surveys. The absence of reflectivity from the depths indicates a homogeneous zone, which could often be related to granitic intrusions. Combining the regional tectonic evolution, MT and other geophysical data, we suggest that the high-resistivity bodies crossing the Tongling uplift reveals the center of magma activity and the layering in vertical direction in the lower crust reveals a normal lower crust model and propose a small-scale underplating model which is different with both the “partial melting of a thickened or delaminated lower continental crust” model and the “oceanic ridge subduction”. The underplating might be related to small-scale lithospheric or lower crust delamination controlled by deep fault during the Early Cretaceous. The result of this MT survey is important for constraining lithospheric evolution and metallogenesis in the Lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt, such as collision of North China Craton and Yangtze Craton, underplating models, deep structure, mechanisms of NE

  18. The stress state of geological structure and mining dynamic disaster in Fuxin basin

    HAN Jun; WANG Hai-bing; ZHU Guang-zong; LIU Ting-bo

    2008-01-01

    Further evidences show that most mining dynamic disasters are mainly oc-curred nearby NNE and near SN geological structures. In-situ stress measurement in Fuxin basin shows that the orientation of major compressed stress is near EW. At this stress field, geological structures with deferent strike have deferent stress state and dis-place mode. NNE and near SN geological structures are compressed to thrust and come into being high stress zone. NWW and NEE geological structures are tensile to separate and not prone to being low stress zone. NW structure is intervenient of them. So NEE and near SN structures are easy to occurre mining dynamic disasters and NWW and NEE structures is "safety" comparatively. The mining dynamic disaster is controlled by stress state of geologic structure, which is determined by its strike.

  19. The stress state of geological structure and mining dynamic disaster in Fuxin basin

    HAN Jun; WANG Hai-bing; ZHU Guang-zong; LIU Ting-bo

    2008-01-01

    Further evidences show that most mining dynamic disasters are mainly occurred nearby NNE and near SN geological structures.In-situ stress measurement in Fuxin basin shows that the orientation of major compressed stress is near EW.At this stress field,geological structures with deferent strike have deferent stress state and displace mode.NNE and near SN geological structures are compressed to thrust and come into being high stress zone.NWW and NEE geological structures are tensile to separate and not prone to being low stress zone.NW structure is intervenient of them.So NEE and near SN structures are easy to occurre mining dynamic disasters and NWW and NEE structures is "safety" comparatively.The mining dynamic disaster is controlled by stress state of geologic structure,which is determined by its strike.

  20. Significance of Geophysical and Geological Investigations of Deep Structure for Safety Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plants

    The faulting process and subsurface deformation as well as the complicated underground structure of the Niigata area in relation to ground motion were explained, which was followed by an explanation of the importance of the following items. - Understanding geological history to construct the current geological structure, - Construction of an integrated ground model by geophysical exploration; topographical, geological, and morphological data; and boring data, and - Confirmation of model validation by simulation. (author)

  1. Geological and Geophysical aspects of the Kurdashi structure, Azerbaijan

    Full text: This paper is a case history of the improved characterization of a complex structure in the Azerbaijan offshore achieved by application of advanced seismic tools such as 3 D Pre-Stack Depth Migration and Continuity Depth Cube volumes.The investigation focuses on the Kurdashi Permit and adjacent areas of southern most Azerbaijan, near its boundary with Iran (Fig.1).It considers the techniques used to visualize the subsurface, the resulting subsurface model and implications for its geological history revealed by the more detailed seismic tools.The Kurdashi Permit is operated by AGIP AZERBAIJAN, a subsidiary of the Italian ENI Agip Division.The permit itself encompasses a faulted regional anticlinorium of Neogene series clastic rocks comprising three separate culminations.Seismic imaging in this area is challenged by widespread shallow or near-surface gas, steep dips, and mud volcanoes connected to irregularly shaped mud chambers and associated velocity anomalies.Targets are relatively deep measured in TWT due to both their actual depth and the relatively slow velocities of the sedimentary section.A 3D seismic survey covering about 900 sq km was acquired by Caspian Geophysical over the entire permit.The conventional time processing was executed by Veritas.Subsequently AGIP generated a 3D Pre-Stack Depth Migration and Continuity Cube and the relevant interpretations.

  2. Development and improvement of safety analysis code for geological disposal

    In order to confirm the long-term safety concerning geological disposal, probabilistic safety assessment code and other analysis codes, which can evaluate possibility of each event and influence on engineered barrier and natural barrier by the event, were introduced. We confirmed basic functions of those codes and studied the relation between those functions and FEP/PID which should be taken into consideration in safety assessment. We are planning to develop 'Nuclide Migration Assessment System' for the purpose of realizing improvement in efficiency of assessment work, human error prevention for analysis, and quality assurance of the analysis environment and analysis work for safety assessment by using it. As the first step, we defined the system requirements and decided the system composition and functions which should be mounted in them based on those requirements. (author)

  3. Presumption of the distribution of the geological structure based on the geological survey and the topographic data in and around the Horonobe area

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, a comprehensive research project investigating the deep underground environment in sedimentary rock, is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) at Horonobe-cho in Northern Hokkaido, Japan. One of the main goals of the URL project is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment. JAEA constructed the geologic map and the database of geological mapping in Horonobe-cho in 2005 based on the existing literatures and 1/200,000 geologic maps published by Geological Survey of Japan, and then updated the geologic map in 2007 based on the results of various investigations which were conducted around the URL as the surface based investigation phase of the URL project. On the other hand, there are many geological survey data which are derived from natural resources (petroleum, natural gas and coal, etc.) exploration in and around Horonobe-cho. In this report, we update the geologic map and the database of the geological mapping based on these geological survey and topographical analysis data in and around the Horonobe area, and construct a digital geologic map and a digital database of geological mapping as GIS. These data can be expected to improve the precision of modeling and analyzing of geological environment including its long-term evaluation. The digital data is attached on CD-ROM. (J.P.N.)

  4. Statistical magnetic anomalies from satellite measurements for geologic analysis

    Goyal, H. K.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The errors of numerically averaging satellite magnetic anomaly data for geologic analysis are investigated using orbital anomaly simulations of crustal magnetic sources by Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration. These simulations suggest that numerical averaging errors constitute small and relatively minor contributions to the total error-budget of higher orbital estimates (approx. 400 km), whereas for lower orbital estimates the error of averaging may increase substantially. Least-squares collocation is also investigated as an alternative to numerical averaging and found to produce substantially more accurate anomaly estimates as the elevation of prediction is decreased towards the crustal sources.

  5. Diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository

    The Swedish strategy to handle the spent fuel from the nuclear power plants is direct disposal in a geological repository. The safeguards regime covering all nuclear material in the state will be expanded to cover the new repository, which will require a novel safeguards approach due mainly to the inaccessibility of the fuel after disposal. The safeguards approach must be able to provide a high level of assurance that the fuel in the repository not diverted, but must also be resource efficient. An attractive approach with regards to use of resources is to monitor only the access points to the repository, i.e. the openings. The implementation of such an approach can only be allowed if it is shown to be sufficiently secure. With the purpose of determining the applicability of this 'black box' approach, a diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository has been carried out. The result from the analysis shows that all credible diversion paths could be covered by the black-box safeguards approach provided that the identified boundary conditions can be met

  6. Multivariate Analysis Of Ground Water Characteristics Of Geological Formations Of Enugu State Of Nigeria

    Orakwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The chemometric data mining techniques using principal factor analysis PFA and hierarchical cluster analysis CA was employed to evaluate and to examine the borehole characteristics of geological formations of Enugu State of Nigeria to determine the latent structure of the borehole characteristics and to classify 9 borehole parameters from 49 locations into borehole groups of similar characteristics. PFA extracted three factors which accounted for a large proportion of the variation in the data 77.305 of the variance. Out of nine parameters examined the first PFA had the highest number of variables loading on a single factor where four borehole parameters borehole depth borehole casing static water level and dynamic water level loaded on it with positive coefficient as the most significant parameters responsible for variation in borehole characteristics in the study. The CA employed in this study to identified three clusters. The first cluster delineated stations that characterise Awgu sandstone geological formation while the second cluster delineated Agbani sandstone geological formation. The third cluster delineated Ajali sandstone formation. The CA grouping of the borehole parameters showed similar trend with PFA hence validating the efficiency of chemometric data mining techniques in grouping of variations in the borehole characteristics in the geological zone of the study area.

  7. The Effect of Geologic Structures on the Control of Floods in the Middle Yangtze River Valley

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of geologic structures in the occurrence of floods and how to prevent flood in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and gives the author's suggestion that the Luoshan Qiakou be expanded and the land reclaimed from Dongting Lake be returned to the lake in compliance with the law of geology.

  8. Geological Interpretation of the Structure and Stratigraphy of the A/M Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    The geological interpretation of the structure and stratigraphy of the A/M Area was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of deeper Cretaceous aged geological strata and structure on shallower Tertiary horizons

  9. Imaging 3D geological structure of the Mygdonian basin (Northern Greece) with geological numerical modeling and geophysical methods.

    Cédric, Guyonnet-Benaize; Fabrice, Hollender; Maria, Manakou; Alexandros, Savvaidis; Elena, Zargli; Cécile, Cornou; Nikolaos, Veranis; Dimitrios, Raptakis; Artemios, Atzemoglou; Pierre-Yves, Bard; Nikolaos, Theodulidis; Kyriazis, Pitilakis; Emmanuelle, Chaljub

    2013-04-01

    The Mygdonian basin, located 30 km E-NE close to Thessaloniki, is a typical active tectonic basin, trending E-NW, filled by sediments 200 to 400 m thick. This basin has been chosen as a European experimental site since 1993 (European Commission research projects - EUROSEISTEST). It has been investigated for experimental and theoretical studies on site effects. The Mygdonian basin is currently covered by a permanent seismological network and has been mainly characterized in 2D and 3D with geophysical and geotechnical studies (Bastani et al, 2011; Cadet and Savvaidis, 2011; Gurk et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2010; Pitilakis et al, 1999; Raptakis et al, 2000; Raptakis et al, 2005). All these studies allowed understanding the influence of geological structures and local site conditions on seismic site response. For these reasons, this site has been chosen for a verification exercise for numerical simulations in the framework of an ongoing international collaborative research project (Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project - E2VP). The verification phase has been made using a first 3D geophysical and geotechnical model (Manakou, 2007) about 5 km wide and 15 km long, centered on the Euroseistest site. After this verification phase, it has been decided to update, optimize and extend this model in order to obtain a more detailed model of the 3D geometry of the entire basin, especially the bedrock 3D geometry which can affect drastically the results of numerical simulations for site effect studies. In our study, we build a 3D geological model of the present-day structure of the entire Mygdonian basin. This "precise" model is 12 km wide, 65 km long and is 400 m deep in average. It has been built using geophysical, geotechnical and geological data. The database is heterogeneous and composed of hydrogeological boreholes, seismic refraction surveys, array microtremor measurements, electrical and geotechnical surveys. We propose an integrated

  10. Structural geology of the Hawthorne and Tonopah quadrangles, Nevada

    Ferguson, H.G.; Muller, S.W.

    1949-01-01

    The area lies in west-central Nevada near the western border of the Basin and Range province. Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks the chief subject of this report occur in isolated mountain ranges separated by stretches of Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks, lacustrine deposits and alluvium. The report is concerned principally with the geology of the pre-Tertiary rocks and attempt is made to unravel the complex diastrophisni that occurred in the area during the Jurassic. 

  11. Geological Hazards analysis in Urban Tunneling by EPB Machine (Case study: Tehran subway line 7 tunnel

    Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in tunneling has led to modern and efficient tunneling methods in vast underground spaces even under inappropriate geological conditions. Identification and access to appropriate and sufficient geological hazard data are key elements to successful construction of underground structures. Choice of the method, excavation machine, and prediction of suitable solutions to overcome undesirable conditions depend on geological studies and hazard analysis. Identifying and investigating the ground hazards in excavating urban tunnels by an EPB machine could augment the strategy for improving soil conditions during excavation operations. In this paper, challenges such as geological hazards, abrasion of the machine cutting tools, clogging around these tools and inside the chamber, diverse work front, severe water level fluctuations, existence of water, and fine-grained particles in the route were recognized in a study of Tehran subway line 7, for which solutions such as low speed boring, regular cutter head checks, application of soil improving agents, and appropriate grouting were presented and discussed. Due to the presence of fine particles in the route, foam employment was suggested as the optimum strategy where no filler is needed.

  12. The advanced scenario analysis for performance assessment of geological disposal

    First of all, with regard to the FEP information data on the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) developed by JNC, description level and content of the FEPs have been examined from various angles on the basis of the latest research information. Each content of the FEP data has been classified and modified by means of integrating descriptive items, checking detail levels and correlations with other FEPs, collating with the H12 report, and adding technical information after H12 report. Secondly, scenario-modeling process has been studied. The study has been conducted by evaluating representation of the repository system, definition of FEP properties, and process interactions based on the concept of the interaction matrix (RES format) which represents influences between physicochemical characteristics of the repository, followed by an experimental development of the actual RES interaction matrix based on the H12 report as the examination to improve the transparency, traceability and comprehensibility of the scenario analysis process. Lastly, in relation to the geological disposal system, assessment techniques have been examined for more practical scenario analysis on particularly strong perturbations. Possible conceptual models have been proposed for each of these scenarios; seismic, faulting, and dike intrusion. As a result of these researches, a future direction for advanced scenario analysis on performance assessment has been indicated, as well as associated issues to be discussed have been clarified. (author)

  13. Analysis of integrated geologic data for uranium exploration in Egypt

    Geologic information system (GIS) related to Nuclear Raw Materials is in current development in the Scient. Inform. Dept. (NMC). Processing of data follows developed criteria in U-exploration. Landsat image interpretation, photo lineaments, field measured joints, faults, folds, foliation, lineation, and deformed pebbles when properly integrated and computerized have pointed out a comprehensive tectonic model related to the CED of Egypt. The area seemed to be subjected to three deformative stages, in the first two; rocks undergone plastic deformation, while in the third one, rocks failed in brittle mode where the Red Sea Transverse Tectonic Trend (ENE-WSW) was developed intersecting the older plastically developed linear elements (NW-SE). Further rejuvenations permit opening the mentioned fractures and occupied by siliceous materials and jasperoid veins and lastly by U-type mineralization, best depicted in the plutons of El Missikat, El Erediya, Um Had and Kab Amiri. The Oligocene Qatrani Formation, north of Lake Qarun, NWD of Egypt is a typical example of fluviatile deposits. The middle clayey member is enclosed between two porous sandy members. The carbonaceous shale related to the clayey member shows abnormal U-concentrations. Statistical analysis of the distribution of uranium and other trace elements in the carbonaceous shale shows that U, Y, Mn and Ca obey the lognormal law while Sr, Rb, Zr, Cr and Ti obey the normal law. A geologic factor is derived that normally distributed elements are stationary, indigenous probably of detrital origin. Meanwhile, other lognormally distributed elements are active and mobile. Subsurface mapping shows that uranium tends to concentrate in the troughs of the flexured carbonaceous shale suggesting an epigenetic origin. 14 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Structural geology and geological history of the Perrine and Nun Sulci Quadrangles (Jg-2 and Jg-5), Ganymede

    Mcgill, George E.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Grooves are the dominant structural features on Ganymede. While single grooves are found in many areas, it is somewhat more common to find them grouped together in groove sets (groupings of grooves with common structural trends). It is generally believed that the grooves are extensional features. Their underlying geologic nature cannot be determined from Voyager images, however. It appears likely that they are grabens, but the images are insufficient to rule out the possibility that they are modified extension fractures or some kind of ductile necking features. The oldest materials within the Nun Sulci and Perrine quadrangles occur within the cratered dark materials unit, as is generally the case for all of Ganymede. This is the most widespread of the dark units mapped in these two quadrangles. Crater densities within cratered dark materials are consistent with an age on the order of several billion years, and thus cratered dark terrain probably represents crust that has survived from the end of the primordial intense bombardment phase of solar system history. The brief geologic history is greatly oversimplified as a result of the poor resolution and unfavorable viewing geometry of the images covering the area.

  15. Geological characterization of Ia volcanic structure, Boyaca - Colombia

    Iza volcanic structure (5 grades 36 minutes 20 seconds N; 72 grades 59 minutes 33 seconds W) is the result of rising riodacitic to ryolithicmagmatic pulses, which didn't reach the surface, the first of them giving origin to intrusive breccias, interpreted as the result of indirect hot deep magma interaction with a sedimentary aquifer, leading to vapor overpressure and consequent fragmentation of the host rocks. The intrusive breccia form the southern part of the Iza edifice, it is massive beige to light red in color, locally with pseudo columnar joint; it is composed by angular to sub rounded sedimentary and minor igneous rock fragments in a porphyry rhyolitic matrix. This stage is followed by dome emplacement which a riodacitic to rhyolitic in composition. Petrographic analysis shows that they are similar to the matrix breccia; they have a porphiritic texture, phenocrist of sanidine, quartz and plagioclase and glassy matrix. Locally the domes are fractured presenting breccia facies (auto breccia and jig saw breccias, among others). Relationship with the host rock allow to interpreting the volcanic body as a cryptodomes, outcropping at surface by faulting and erosion.

  16. Application of Transient Rayleigh Wave Analysis Method to Surveying Geology Body Structure%瞬态瑞利波分析方法在探测地质体结构中的应用

    孟祥栋; 田振农

    2014-01-01

    介绍了探测地质体结构的一般方法,重点介绍了爆破地震波的特征及地震波的探测方法。又对最近发展起来的面波勘探技术做了分析,重点论述了瞬态瑞利波频散特性及其应用。在此基础上,实验了一种可以控制的爆破地震波震源,该震源利用水介质的均匀性及各向同性、不可压缩等特点,减少了爆炸冲击波对周围岩体介质的损坏,又保持了爆炸波功率大,能够提供尖锐的脉冲信号,频域范围大的特点,从而改变了爆破地震波震源不能重复和难以总结其规律的状况。利用瑞利波探测技术和可控爆源,对茅坪滑坡体进行了地质体结构探测,并对其地质体的分层特性做了详细分析,与钻孔勘探结果和挖竖井探测结果比较,二者有较好的一致性。说明结合瞬态瑞利波分析方法,该可控震源在地质体结构探测中有实际的应用价值。%The paper introduces general methods of surveying geological body structure,highlighting on char-acteristics of blasting seismic wave and the method of surveying seismic wave.In addition,it analyzes the technology of surveying by surface wave which has been developed recent years,highlighting on discussing the characteristics of transient Rayleigh wave and its application.On the bases,a blasting seismic source which can induce controllable seismic wave is tested.The blasting seismic source makes use of the homogeni-zation,isotropy,incompressibility of water;and it reduces the damage around rock induced by explosion wave;and it keeps the character of big power of blast wave,and can provide sharp pulsing signal and great frequency domain.So this blasting seismic source changes the characteristics which customary blasting seis-mic source can not be repeated and it is difficult to seek the rule of blasting seismic wave.The paper makes use of the technology of Reyleigh wave surveying to study the geological body structure

  17. Using Grand Challenges For Innovative Teaching in Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics

    McDaris, J. R.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wysession, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    An innovative approach to teaching involves using the "Big Ideas" or "Grand Challenges" of a field, as determined by the research community in that area, as the basis for classroom activities. There have been several recent efforts in the areas of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics to determine these Grand Challenges, including the areas of seismology ("Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems"), mineral physics ("Unlocking the Building Blocks of the Planet"), EarthScope-related science ("Unlocking the Secrets of the North American Continent: An EarthScope Science Plan for 2010-2020"), and structural geology and tectonics (at the Structural Geology and Tectonics Forum held at Williams College in June, 2012). These research community efforts produced frameworks of the essential information for their fields with the aim of guiding future research. An integral part of this, however, is training the next generation of scientists, and using these Big Ideas as the basis for course structures and activities is a powerful way to make this happen. When activities, labs, and homeworks are drawn from relevant and cutting-edge research topics, students can find the material more fascinating and engaging, and can develop a better sense of the dynamic process of scientific discovery. Many creative ideas for incorporating the Grand Challenges of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics in the classroom were developed at a Cutting Edge workshop on "Teaching Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics in the 21st Century" held at the University of Tennessee in July, 2012.

  18. Development of Structural Geology and Tectonics Data System with Field and Lab Interface

    Newman, J.; Tikoff, B.; Walker, J. D.; Good, J.; Michels, Z. D.; Ash, J.; Andrew, J.; Williams, R. T.; Richard, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a prototype Data System for Structural Geology and Tectonics (SG&T). The goal of this effort is to enable recording and sharing data within the geoscience community, to encourage interdisciplinary research, and to facilitate the investigation of scientific questions that cannot currently be addressed. The development of the Data System emphasizes community input in order to build a system that encompasses the needs of researchers, in terms of data and usability. SG&T data is complex for a variety of reasons, including the wide range of temporal and spatial scales (many orders of magnitude each), the complex three-dimensional geometry of some geological structures, inherent spatial nature of the data, and the difficulty of making temporal inferences from spatial observations. To successful implement the step of developing a SG&T data system, we must simultaneously solve three problems: 1) How to digitize SG&T data; 2) How to design a software system that is applicable; and 3) How to construct a very flexible user interface. To address the first problem, we introduce the "Spot" concept, which allows tracking of hierarchical and spatial relations between structures at all scales, and will link map scale, mesoscale, and laboratory scale data. A Spot, in this sense, is analogous to the beam size of analytical equipment used for in situ analysis of rocks; it is the size over which a measurement or quantity is applicable. A Spot can be a single measurement, an aggregation of individual measurements, or even establish relationships between numerous other Spots. We address the second problem through the use of a Graph database to better preserve the myriad of potentially complex relationships. In order to construct a flexible user interface that follows a natural workflow, and that serves the needs of the community, we have begun the process of engaging the SG&T community in order to utilize the expertise of a large group of scientists to ensure the

  19. Formation of secondary phases during deep geological final disposal of research reactor fuel elements. Structure and phase analysis; Bildung von sekundaeren Phasen bei tiefengeologischer Endlagerung von Forschungsreaktor-Brennelementen. Struktur- und Phasenanalyse

    Neumann, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    For the assessment of a confident und sustainable final disposal of high level radioactive waste - fuel elements of german research reactors also account for such waste - in suitable, deep geological facilities, processes of the alteration of the disposed of waste and therefore the formation of the corrosion products, i. e. secondary phases must be well understood considering an accident scenario of a potential water inflow. In order to obtain secondary phases non-irradiated research reactor fuel elements (FR-BE) consisting of UAl{sub x}-Al were subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine (brine 2, salt repository) and to clay pore solution, respectively and furthermore of the type U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al were solely subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine. Considering environmental aspects of final repositories the test conditions of the corrosion experiments were adjusted in a way that the temperature was kept constant at 90 C and a reducing anaerobic environment was ensured. As major objective of this research secondary phases, obtained from the autoclave experiments after appropriate processing and grain size separation have been identified and quantified. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and the application of Rietveld refinement methods allowed the identification of the corrosion products and a quantitative assessment of crystalline and amorphous contents. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were additionally applied as a complementary method for the characterisation of the secondary phases. The qualitative phase analysis of the preprocessed secondary phases of the systems UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al in brine 2 shows many similarities. Lesukite - an aluminium chloro hydrate - was observed for the first time considering the given experimental conditions. Further on different layered structures of the LDH type, iron oxyhydroxide and possibly iron chlorides, uncorroded residues of nuclear fuel and elementary iron were identified as well

  20. Structural geology of the North and Middle Caspian sea on the new geophysical data interpretation

    Full text:A structural and tectonic map of the North and Middle Caspian Sea is made on the basis of seismic and other geological and geophysical data analysis. According to the plotting results the total amplitude range of the heterogeneous basement depths are in the North Caspian Sea (Ukatnensky depression-over 12 km and Prorva depression-over 16 km). In the middle Caspian Sea the deppest basement point is supposed in Sulak basin (over 12 km). The least basement depths are marked in Karpinsky ridge,Buzachinky and Karabogazsky arches (1-3 km). On the whole the morphology and structure of the basement confirms the conclusion previously made by many researches that the Caspian Sea is a heterogeneous depression superimposed on the junction of regional tectonic elements of various ages.The ancient East-European platform represented by Pricaspiisky depression (Donetsko-Astrakhanskaya fault system limits the latter in the south) is situated on the North. The middle Caspian Sea is occupied with the offshore continuation of Terek-Caspian foredeep is represented by Sulak basin clearly limited in the south by a system of upthrusts and thrusts falling under North Caucasus foreland.Geological interpretation of the Yuzhmorgeologiya Center new geophysical data allows making an assumption about the biohermexistence within TriassicSea sediments on Kuma-Manychsky depression offshore continuation. Seismic exploration works show strike-slip faults and thrust structure development within the sedimentary cover on the offshore continuation of Karpinsky ridge.Some strike-slipped blocks are separated by left-side shifts of the northeast stretch.The pool location at the left-side (east) blocks of the shift areas is marked.

  1. Investigation of structural geology and coal mine subsidence potential in Colorado Springs area using remote sensing and GIS technology

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which remote structures which may affect the location and migration of subsidence over abandoned underground coal mines in the Colorado Springs area. Ultimately, these techniques could be useful for identifying such geologic structures at other abandoned mine land (AML) sites. Landsat satellite images and aerial photographs were used to interpret the geologic structure of the area. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to integrate the diverse data sets involved in the study and to allow reliable and reproducible spatial registration and analysis of the data. The specific study area used was the northern and northeastern Colorado Springs, Colorado, area where coal mining was active from the 1870s until 1957. The results of this study indicate that the subsidence hazard zones projected by Dames and Moore (1985) could be modified to take into account geologic structures as identified through remote sensing. Other AML sites should be investigated through remote sensing and lineament analysis to aid in fully evaluating subsidence potential of the sites. The GIS database also will provide a reasonably reliable source of spatial data for future land-use planning and tracking of subsidence hazards

  2. Seismic hazards: New trends in analysis using geologic data

    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in response to expansion of nuclear power plant siting and issuance of a code of federal regullations by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission referred to as Appendix A-10CFR100, the need to characterize the earthquake potential of individual faults for seismic design took on greater importance. Appendix A established deterministic procedures for assessing the seismic hazard at nuclear power plant sites. Bonilla and Buchanan, using data from historical suface-faulting earthquakes, developed a set of statistical correlations relating earthquake magnitude to surface rupture length and to surface displacement. These relationships have been refined and updated along with the relationship between fault area and magnitude and seismic moment and moment magnitude have served as the basis for selecting maximum earthquakes in a wide variety of design situations. In the paper presented, the authors discuss new trends in seismic hazard analysis using geologic data, with special emphasis on fault-zone segmentation and recurrence models and the way in which they provide a basis for evaluating long-term earthquake potential

  3. Hands-On Exercise in Environmental Structural Geology Using a Fracture Block Model.

    Gates, Alexander E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of a scale analog model of an actual fractured rock reservoir to replace paper copies of fracture maps in the structural geology curriculum. Discusses the merits of the model in enabling students to gain experience performing standard structural analyses. (DDR)

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Ranges

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP species range data show a coarse representation of the total areal extent of a species or the geographic limits within which a species can be found (Morrison...

  5. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment. PMID:24475066

  6. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  7. Integration of Geophysical Data into Structural Geological Modelling through Bayesian Networks

    de la Varga, Miguel; Wellmann, Florian; Murdie, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Structural geological models are widely used to represent the spatial distribution of relevant geological features. Several techniques exist to construct these models on the basis of different assumptions and different types of geological observations (e.g. Jessell et al., 2014). However, two problems are prevalent when constructing models: (i) observations and assumptions, and therefore also the constructed model, are subject to uncertainties, and (ii) additional information, such as geophysical data, is often available, but cannot be considered directly in the geological modelling step. In our work, we propose the integration of all available data into a Bayesian network including the generation of the implicit geological method by means of interpolation functions (Mallet, 1992; Lajaunie et al., 1997; Mallet, 2004; Carr et al., 2001; Hillier et al., 2014). As a result, we are able to increase the certainty of the resultant models as well as potentially learn features of our regional geology through data mining and information theory techniques. MCMC methods are used in order to optimize computational time and assure the validity of the results. Here, we apply the aforementioned concepts in a 3-D model of the Sandstone Greenstone Belt in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. The example given, defines the uncertainty in the thickness of greenstone as limited by Bouguer anomaly and the internal structure of the greenstone as limited by the magnetic signature of a banded iron formation. The incorporation of the additional data and specially the gravity provides an important reduction of the possible outcomes and therefore the overall uncertainty. References Carr, C. J., K. R. Beatson, B. J. Cherrie, J. T. Mitchell, R. W. Fright, C. B. McCallum, and R. T. Evans, 2001, Reconstruction and representation of 3D objects with radial basis functions: Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, 67-76. Jessell, M

  8. Regional evolution of geological structure in south China and U mineralization

    This paper states the development laws of regional geological structure of South China and its controlling effect on uranium deposit evolution, and the characteristics of rich uranium formation in different periods of geology-history are analysed. It also discusses the relationship between the distribution of time and space and tectonic structure and environmental vicissitudes. The rock-magma activities-the strong formation of the Diwa Era is of great significance to the formation of uranium deposits within the region, especially to the formation of a series of multi-genesis polygene uranium deposits which are a potential direction in which to look for minerals within the region

  9. Geological characteristics and analysis on ore-controlling factors of Shihongtan uranium deposit, Turpan-Hami basin

    On the basis of a brief introduction of regional geology of Turpan-Hami basin, geology and sand bodies characteristics for target stratum of Shihongtan uranium district, the author mainly expounds distributive law, zonation and relation between fronts and u-mineralization of interlayer oxidation zone for deposit district. The author states space arrangement, shape, size, material components of ores, exiting states of uranium as well as comparative study for north-ore belt and south-ore belt of Shihongtan uranium deposit. In final, the author points out ore-controlling factors are interlayer oxidation zone, nose uplift and faulted structure by systematic analysis

  10. The main goal of engineering geology for designing and construction complex structures in urban areas

    Drago Ocepek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work for designing complex structures in urban areas consists of geological-geotechnical investigations and analysis of the quality of rocks, soft rocks and hard soils in the construction area. Urban areas limited the space for designing cutting slopes in stable inclination without reinforcement. In this paper will be presented designing and excavation works with different reinforcement of two different areas in Slovenia built of heterogeneous mixed hard to soft rock masses (Triassic dolomite, limestone and Eocene flysch sediments.Before the start of excavations work and after establishing the retaining measures, the analysis results are checked by monitoring. This monitoring will continue in the phase of exploitation of the objects. Since the cost of these additional investigations and precise analysis with monitoring (SIST - EN 7 - 2004 and measurements is negligible – in comparison with the costs of the permanent reinforcement – if variable conditions are not to intensive, we were able to reduce effectively the investment value of the object.

  11. Geological Structures in the WaIls of Vestan Craters

    Mittlefehldt, David; Nathues, A.; Beck, A. W.; Hoffmann, M.; Schaefer, M.; Williams, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compelling case can be made that Vesta is the parent asteroid for the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites [1], although this interpretation has been questioned [2]. Generalized models for the structure of the crust of Vesta have been developed based on petrologic studies of basaltic eucrites, cumulate eucrites and diogenites. These models use inferred cooling rates for different types of HEDs and compositional variations within the clan to posit that the lower crust is dominantly diogenitic in character, cumulate eucrites occur deep in the upper crust, and basaltic eucrites dominate the higher levels of the upper crust [3-5]. These models lack fine-scale resolution and thus do not allow for detailed predictions of crustal structure. Geophysical models predict dike and sill intrusions ought to be present, but their widths may be quite small [6]. The northern hemisphere of Vesta is heavily cratered, and the southern hemisphere is dominated by two 400-500 km diameter basins that excavated deep into the crust [7-8]. Physical modeling of regolith formation on 300 km diameter asteroids predicts that debris layers would reach a few km in thickness, while on asteroids of Vesta's diameter regolith thicknesses would be less [9]. This agrees well with the estimated =1 km thickness of local debris excavated by a 45 km diameter vestan crater [10]. Large craters and basins may have punched through the regolith/megaregolith and exposed primary vestan crustal structures. We will use Dawn Framing Camera (FC) [11] images and color ratio maps from the High Altitude and Low Altitude Mapping Orbits (HAMO, 65 m/pixel; LAMO, 20 m/pixel) to evaluate structures exposed on the walls of craters: two examples are discussed here.

  12. Arrangement of coal formations in geological structures of the northeast USSR

    Tarakanov, A.S.; Migovich, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Types of geological structures of the northeast USSR and stages of their development, development of geostructures and their coal accumulation are examined. General laws governing the arrangement of coal formations are reduced to the following: Current arrangement of coals in the northeast USSR is due to geological development of this region in the Cenozoic and Mesozoic. Coal formations emerged naturally at definite stages of development of the folded systems proper and the geological structures adjoining them. Three epochs of coal accumulation are distinctly identified for this region. Metamorphism of coals is related to the intensity of heat flux, as well as local anomalies of heat field in zones of intensive vulcanism and deep faults. The age of the coals has definite value.

  13. Insights into the Structure and Surface Geology of Isla Socorro, Mexico, from Airborne Magnetic and Gamma-Ray Surveys

    Paoletti, V.; Gruber, S.; Varley, N.; D'Antonio, M.; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.

    2016-05-01

    The island of Socorro is located in the eastern Pacific Ocean, 650 km off the coast of Mexico. It is a rare example of an oceanic volcanic island whose above sea level volume is made up mostly of peralkaline trachytes and rhyolites, with subordinate mafic rocks. Subaerial volcanism started several hundred thousand years ago and continues until recent times. We present an investigation of surface and subsurface geology of the island, based on the first detailed extensive geophysical survey on the island. Acquired airborne magnetic and gamma-ray data were compared to existing geological information and supplemented with field investigations and satellite imagery. Magnetic data show a wide minimum in the central part of the island, possibly connected to a high-temperature zone in the deeper central portion of the volcano, likely to be due to a still hot magma body. The data also depict two parallel edges possibly suggesting the existence of a nested caldera. Analysis on upward continued magnetic data by recent imaging techniques highlighted two deep sources located around 5 km b.s.l., interpreted as feeding structures that are now filled with crystalline rocks. Gamma-ray data have been interpreted through integration with the geological survey results. Several previously known volcanic deposits have been identified based on radioelement distribution, and others have been redefined based on field evidence. A new succession of volcanic members is proposed, to be verified through more detailed geological mapping, geochemical analyses of rock samples and radiometric dating.

  14. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  15. Structural geology practice and learning, from the perspective of cognitive science

    Shipley, Thomas F.; Tikoff, Basil; Ormand, Carol; Manduca, Cathy

    2013-09-01

    Spatial ability is required by practitioners and students of structural geology and so, considering spatial skills in the context of cognitive science has the potential to improve structural geology teaching and practice. Spatial thinking skills may be organized using three dichotomies, which can be linked to structural geology practice. First, a distinction is made between separating (attending to part of a whole) and combining (linking together aspects of the whole). While everyone has a basic ability to separate and combine, experts attend to differences guided by experiences of rock properties in context. Second, a distinction is made between seeing the relations among multiple objects as separate items or the relations within a single object with multiple parts. Experts can flexibly consider relations among or between objects to optimally reason about different types of spatial problems. Third, a distinction is made between reasoning about stationary and moving objects. Experts recognize static configurations that encode a movement history, and create mental models of the processes that led to the static state. The observations and inferences made by a geologist leading a field trip are compared with the corresponding observations and inferences made by a cognitive psychologist interested in spatial learning. The presented framework provides a vocabulary for discussing spatial skills both within and between the fields of structural geology and cognitive psychology.

  16. Geologic structure mapping database Spent Fuel Test - Climax, Nevada Test Site

    Information on over 2500 discontinuities mapped at the SFT-C is contained in the geologic structure mapping database. Over 1800 of these features include complete descriptions of their orientations. This database is now available for use by other researchers. 6 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  17. Geological interpretation of Mount Ciremai geothermal system from remote sensing and magneto-teluric analysis

    Sumintadireja, Prihadi; Irawan, Dasapta E; Irawan, Diky; Fadillah, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of geothermal system at Mount Ciremai has been started since the early 1980s and has just been studied carefully since the early 2000s. Previous studies have detected the potential of geothermal system and also the groundwater mechanism feeding the system. This paper will discuss the geothermal exploration based on regional scale surface temperature analysis with Landsat image to have a more detail interpretation of the geological setting and magneto-telluric or MT survey at prospect zones, which identified by the previous method, to have a more exact and in depth local scale structural interpretation. Both methods are directed to pin point appropriate locations for geothermal pilot hole drilling and testing. We used four scenes of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper or ETM+ data to estimate the surface manifestation of a geothermal system. Temporal analysis of Land Surface Temperature or LST was applied and coupled with field temperature measurement at seven locations. By combining the TTM with ...

  18. Constructing a large-scale 3D Geologic Model for Analysis of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Wagoner, J; Myers, S

    2008-04-09

    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5{sup o} to -112.6{sup o} and latitude 34.5{sup o} to 39.8{sup o}; the depth ranges from the topographic surface to 150 km below sea level. The model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by both geologic and geophysical studies, while the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The mapped upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks of all ages, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 5 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas geologic maps for California and Utah were scanned and hand-digitized. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and thus estimate the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m lateral resolution DEM elsewhere. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a framework compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is a unique integer index value representing the geologic unit. For seismic studies, the geologic units are mapped to specific seismic velocities. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface

  19. Local sensitivity analysis for a deep geological repository

    The sensitivity analyses are of the 'what if' type where one single input parameter is varied over its whole possible range to study the behaviour of the system. Results are given as released nuclide quantities or as individual doses for each scenario as a function of the considered input parameter. The purpose of this work is to perform a local sensitivity analysis of a hypothetical disposal concept with a relatively complex structure of the repository vault. The work reported here is carried out with the EMOS5 code and is part of a larger collaboration with Braunschweig Institut (Germany). (authors)

  20. Comparison between radar data and geophysical, geological and hydrological borehole paramenters by multivariate analysis of data

    The object of the present work is to study the correlation between radar reflectors and geophysical, geological and hydraulical parameters from the boreholes. An additional objective is to show what information can be gained by the borehole radar with respect to waterflow and geological structures in crystalline rock. The tool for making the data modelling is Multivariate Data Analysis (SIMCA). For the data modelling there are two algorithms available in the SIMCA software. One for Principal Component analysis and one for Partial Least Squares regression analysis (PLS and PLS2). The PLS method gives the best result for the purpose of correlation between radar intensity and other variables. The result from the Principal Components, PLS, and PLS2 analysis shows that the strongest correlations results in a division between highly fractured rock and low fractured rock at all sites. Also, PLS and PLS2 analysis show that there is a good correlation between high radar intensity and highly fractured rock in the boreholes at all sites. The correlation between radar intensity and hydraulic condictivity is more ambiguous. Two of the investigated sites. Stripa and Finnsjoen, exhibit good correlation between radar intensity and hydraulic condictivity, while the correlation at Aevroe is lower and at Saltsjoetunnel it is poor. Hydraulic conductivity was not included in the analysis of the Klipperaas data. The best correlaiton in the data from Klipperaas was obtained between radar intensity and fractured lithological contracts. The degree of correlation between radar intensity and lithological contacts at the other four sites was lower than for Klipperaas. (24 figs., 37 tabs., 30 refs)

  1. Structure and tectonics of western continental margin of India: Implication for geologic hazards

    Chaubey, A.K.; Ajay, K.K.

    stream_size 13948 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name NHACPIC_2008_25.pdf.txt stream_source_info NHACPIC_2008_25.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Workshop on "Natural Hazard..., and Coastal Processes ofIndian. Coast" Structure and Tectonics ofWestern Continental Margin ofIndia: Implication for Geologic Hazards A.K. Chaubey and K.K. Ajay National Institute ojOceanography. DOM Paula, Goa-403 004 The geomorphological and geological...

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program- Land Cover Data v2.2

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset combines the work of several different projects to create a seamless data set for the contiguous United States. Data from four regional Gap Analysis...

  3. Analysis of reversibility study of France high level radioactive waste in geological repositories

    This report introduces the design of repositories and reversibility analysis of main types of high-level wastes in France, and draws out some important lessons that maybe helpful to our country's geological disposal of radioactive waste. (authors)

  4. An engineering geological appraisal of the Chamshir dam foundation using DMR classification and kinematic analysis, southwest of Iran

    Torabi Kaveh Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of engineering geological  investigations and rock mechanics studies carried out at the proposed Chamshir dam site. It is proposed that a 155 m high solid concrete gravity-arc dam be built across the Zuhreh River to the southeast of the city of Gachsaran in south-western Iran. The dam and its associated structures are mainly located on the Mishan formation. Analysis consisted of rock mass classification and a kinematic
    analysis of the dam foundation's rock masses. The studies were carried out in the field and the laboratory. The field studies included geological mapping, intensive discontinuity surveying, core drilling and sampling for laboratory testing. Rock mass classifications were made in line with RMR and DMR classification for the dam foundation. Dam foundation analysis regarding stability using DMR classification and kinematic analysis indicated that the left abutment's rock foundation (area 2 was unstable for planar, wedge and toppling failure modes.

  5. Identification of active faults in Abruzzo area (central Italy) through the analysis of geological, seismological and gravimetric data

    Luiso, Paola; Paoletti, Valeria; Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Identification of active faults in abruzzo area (central italy) through the analysis of geological, seismological and gravimetric data The aim of this study is to identify and constrain the geometry of the seismogenic structures (active, outcropping and buried fault systems) of the Abruzzo area (central Italy), through an integrated analysis of geo-structural, seismic and gravimetric data. We generated three thematic: "faults", "earthquakes" and "gravimetric" data: i) The fault dataset consists of data extracted from the available structural and geological maps (ITHACA catalogue; the "Neotectonic Map of Italy" 1:500.000; several geological sheets 1:50.000 from ISPRA CARG project; the Geological Map 1:100.000 Sheet 1), and many geological studies. ii) The earthquakes datasets was created by merging the data from historical and instrumental Catalogues (CPTI04 and CPTI11; ISIDE - INGV). iii) The gravimetric datasets consists in the Multiscale Derivative Analysis (MDA) of the Bouguer anomaly map of the area, whose maxima show the presence of density lineaments. The merge of these datasets in GIS environment, highlighted four possible scenarios of correlation between faults, earthquakes and MDA maxima: 1) the existence of active faults, revealed by a strong correlation between epicentral location of seismic clusters, fault positions and MDA maxima; 2) the existence of buried active faults, highlighted by a good correlation between MDA maxima and epicentral positions, without correspondence with faults known from geological data; 3) the existence of inactive or silent faults, detected by the presence of faults reported in the geological datasets and literature which are associated with MDA maxima, without correlation of earthquakes; 4) the existence of faults not correlated with MDA maxima; this could be due to faults putting in contact two lithologies with a similar density. A comparison between seismic hypocentral locations and the fault geometry retrieved by DEXP

  6. Commentary of Uruguay geological structure - Present status of its mining activity

    This work is about the geological structure of Uruguay and its mining activity. The Rio de la Plata socket basin and the Rivera crystalline island are the oldest geochronological structures in Uruguay. This unit represents the 60% of the crystalline field and belongs to the Uruguay orogenetic Precambrian cycle. In the north there are sedimentary rocks and granites of the Upper Precambrian period.The mining and processing of marble, granite, agate, amethyst and metallic minerals are declared of national interest

  7. The structural-geological map of the Emilia-Romagna Apennines (1:250.000)

    Cerrina Feroni, A.; Ottria, G.; Martinelli, P.; Martelli, L.; Catanzariti, R.

    2003-04-01

    The Structural-Geological Map of the Emilia-Romagna Apennines (1:250.000) faces problems regarding the polyphase structural evolution of the Emilia-Romagna sector of the Northern Apennines; in many cases the proposed solutions are unconventional and innovative. The Structural-Geological Map represents the result of a positive collaboration between the scientific community (Italian National Research Council and universities) and the Emilia-Romagna Region. The scientific results and the methodological planning have been presented on the Third Seminary on the Geological Cartography (Bologna, February 2002). In the Structural-Geological Map the deformative features (overthrusts, axial planes, fold axes, regional overturned limbs) belonging to the Alpine tectonic cycle (Mesoalpine Phase) have been separated from the deformations of the Apenninic tectonic cycle. The Mesoalpine tectonics has been split in two events (Late Paleocene-Early Eocene and Middle Eocene) and it has been connected to a geodynamic setting consistent with a eastward subduction and a westernward emplacement (i.e. toward the Europe continental margin) of the cover structural units (Ligurides) (Late Paleocene-Early Eocene early phase). At the end of the collisional process, the Middle Eocene phase (Ligurian Phase) controlled the development of an Adria-verging asymmetrical belt, antithetic to the Alpine belt of the Western Alps-Corsica sector. The exumation of the Mesoalpine stacking during the Early Oligocene, testified by the detritism in the episutural Oligocene basins (thrust top basins), marks the transition from the Alpine tectonic cycle to the Apenninic one. The polyphase evolution of the Northern Apennines is recorded in the siliciclastic successions of the Oligocene-Miocene foredeep (Macigno, Cervarola, Marnoso-Arenacea formations). The foredeep final structure represents a regional duplex structure (synorogenic duplex) outcropping in the tectonic halfwindow of the Romagna Apennines (Romagna

  8. CONTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE ALTIMETRY DATA IN GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE RESEARCH IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    T. D. Tran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area is bordered on the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, and the Australian-Indo plate in the Northeast, in the East and in the South, respectively. It is a large area with the diversely complicated conditions of geological structure. In spite of over the past many years of investigation, marine geological structure in many places have remained poorly understood because of a thick seawater layer as well as of the sensitive conflicts among the countries in the region. In recent years, the satellite altimeter technology allows of enhancement the marine investigation in any area. The ocean surface height is measured by a very accurate radar altimeter mounted on a satellite. Then, that surface can be converted into marine gravity anomaly or bathymetry by using the mathematical model. It is the only way to achieve the data with a uniform resolution in acceptable time and cost. The satellite altimetry data and its variants are essential for understanding marine geological structure. They provide a reliable opportunity to geologists and geophysicists for studying the geological features beneath the ocean floor. Also satellite altimeter data is perfect for planning the more detailed shipboard surveys. Especially, it is more meaningful in the remote or sparsely surveyed regions. In this paper, the authors have effectively used the satellite altimetry and shipboard data in combination. Many geological features, such as seafloor spreading ridges, fault systems, volcanic chains as well as distribution of sedimentary basins are revealed through the 2D, 3D model methods of interpretation of satellite-shipboard-derived data and the others. These results are improved by existing boreholes and seismic data in the study area.

  9. Contribution of Satellite Altimetry Data in Geological Structure Research in the South China Sea

    Dung Tran, Tuan; Ho, Thi Huong Mai

    2016-06-01

    The study area is bordered on the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, and the Australian-Indo plate in the Northeast, in the East and in the South, respectively. It is a large area with the diversely complicated conditions of geological structure. In spite of over the past many years of investigation, marine geological structure in many places have remained poorly understood because of a thick seawater layer as well as of the sensitive conflicts among the countries in the region. In recent years, the satellite altimeter technology allows of enhancement the marine investigation in any area. The ocean surface height is measured by a very accurate radar altimeter mounted on a satellite. Then, that surface can be converted into marine gravity anomaly or bathymetry by using the mathematical model. It is the only way to achieve the data with a uniform resolution in acceptable time and cost. The satellite altimetry data and its variants are essential for understanding marine geological structure. They provide a reliable opportunity to geologists and geophysicists for studying the geological features beneath the ocean floor. Also satellite altimeter data is perfect for planning the more detailed shipboard surveys. Especially, it is more meaningful in the remote or sparsely surveyed regions. In this paper, the authors have effectively used the satellite altimetry and shipboard data in combination. Many geological features, such as seafloor spreading ridges, fault systems, volcanic chains as well as distribution of sedimentary basins are revealed through the 2D, 3D model methods of interpretation of satellite-shipboard-derived data and the others. These results are improved by existing boreholes and seismic data in the study area.

  10. Neutronic analysis of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor

    Highlights: • We develop a detailed MCNP model of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor. • We present a simplified approach to considering burnup. • The model is validated against available reactor data. • We present evidence of inaccuracies in the ENDF B/VII zirconium libraries. - Abstract: The United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. In support of the GSTR’s relicensing efforts, this project developed and validated a Monte Carlo N-Particle Version 5 (MCNP5) model of the GSTR reactor. The model provided estimates of the excess reactivity, power distribution and the fuel temperature, water temperature, void, and power reactivity coefficients for the current and limiting core. The MCNP5 model predicts a limiting core excess reactivity of $6.48 with a peak rod power of 22.2 kW. The fuel and void reactivity coefficients for the limiting core are strongly negative, and the core water reactivity coefficient is slightly positive, consistent with other TRIGA analyses. The average fuel temperature reactivity coefficient of the full power limiting core is −0.0135 $/K while the average core void coefficient is −0.069 $/K from 0% to 20% void. The core water temperature reactivity coefficient is +0.012 $/K

  11. Structural analysis for Diagnosis

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...

  12. Structural analysis for diagnosis

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem of...

  13. Enhanced recovery of subsurface geological structures using compressed sensing and the Ensemble Kalman filter

    Sana, Furrukh

    2015-07-26

    Recovering information on subsurface geological features, such as flow channels, holds significant importance for optimizing the productivity of oil reservoirs. The flow channels exhibit high permeability in contrast to low permeability rock formations in their surroundings, enabling formulation of a sparse field recovery problem. The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation of subsurface parameters, such as permeability. However, the EnKF often fails to recover and preserve the channel structures during the estimation process. Compressed Sensing (CS) has shown to significantly improve the reconstruction quality when dealing with such problems. We propose a new scheme based on CS principles to enhance the reconstruction of subsurface geological features by transforming the EnKF estimation process to a sparse domain representing diverse geological structures. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed scheme provides an efficient mechanism to incorporate and preserve structural information in the estimation process and results in significant enhancement in the recovery of flow channel structures.

  14. Theory of Geological Anomaly in Remote Sensing

    2001-01-01

    Geological anomaly is geological body or complex body with obviously different compositions, structures or orders of genesis as compared with those in the surrounding areas. Geological anomaly, restrained by the geological factors closely associated with ore-forming process, is an important clue to ore deposits. The geological anomaly serves as a geological sign to locate ore deposits. Therefore, it is very important to study how to define the characteristics of geological anomaly and further to locate the changes in these characteristics. In this paper, the authors propose the geological anomaly based on the remote-sensing images and data, and expound systematically such image features as scale, size, boundary, morphology and genesis of geological anomalies. Then the authors introduce the categorization of the geological anomalies according to their geneses. The image characteristics of some types of geological anomalies, such as the underground geological anomaly, are also explained in detail. Based on the remote-sensing interpretation of these geological anomalies, the authors conclude that the forecasting and exploration of ore deposits should be focused on the following three aspects: (1) the analysis of geological setting and geological anomaly; (2) the analysis of circular geological anomaly, and (3) the comprehensive forecasting of ore deposits and the research into multi-source information.

  15. 3D stochastic inversion of potential field data using structural geologic constraints

    Shamsipour, Pejman; Schetselaar, Ernst; Bellefleur, Gilles; Marcotte, Denis

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a new method to include structural orientation constraints into potential field inversion using a stochastic framework. The method considers known geological interfaces and planar orientation data such as stratification estimated from seismic surveys or drill hole information. Integrating prior geological information into inversion methods can effectively reduce ambiguity and improve inversion results. The presented approach uses cokriging prediction with derivatives. The method is applied to two synthetic models to demonstrate its suitability for 3D inversion of potential field data. The method is also applied to the inversion of gravity data collected over the Lalor volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit at Snow Lake, Central Manitoba, Canada. The results show that using a structurally-constrained inversion leads to a better-resolved solution.

  16. Study of gamma ray analysis software's. Application to activation analysis of geological samples

    A comparative evaluation of the gamma-ray analysis software VISPECT, in relation to two commercial gamma-ray analysis software packages, OMNIGAM (EG and G Ortec) and SAMPO 90 (Canberra) was performed. For this evaluation, artificial gamma ray spectra were created, presenting peaks of different intensities and located at four different regions of the spectrum. Multiplet peaks with equal and different intensities, but with different channel separations, were also created. The results obtained showed a good performance of VISPECT in detecting and analysing single and multiplet peaks of different intensities in the gamma-ray spectrum. Neutron activation analysis of the geological reference material GS-N (IWG-GIT) and of the granite G-94, used in a Proficiency Testing Trial of Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories, was also performed , in order to evaluate the VISEPCT software in the analysis of real samples. The results obtained by using VISPECT were as good or better than the ones obtained using the other programs. (author)

  17. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in

  18. Self-Discovery of Structural Geology Concepts using Interactive 3D Visualization

    Billen, M. I.; Saunders, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mastering structural geology concepts that depend on understanding three-dimensional (3D) geometries and imagining relationships among unseen subsurface structures are fundamental skills for geologists. Traditionally these skills are developed first, through use of 2D drawings of 3D structures that can be difficult to decipher or 3D physical block models that show only a limited set of relationships on the surfaces of the blocks, followed by application and testing of concepts in field settings. We hypothesize that this learning process can be improved by providing repeated opportunities to evaluate and explore synthetic 3D structures using interactive 3D visualization software. We present laboratory modules designed for undergraduate structural geology curriculum using a self-discovery approach to teach concepts such as: the Rule of V’s, structure separation versus fault slip, and the more general dependence of structural exposure on surface topography. The laboratory modules are structured to allow students to discover and articulate each concept from observations of synthetic data both on traditional maps and using the volume visualization software 3DVisualizer. Modules lead students through exploration of data (e.g., a dipping layered structure exposed in ridge-valley topography or obliquely offset across a fault) by allowing them to interactively view (rotate, pan, zoom) the exposure of structures on topographic surfaces and to toggle on/off the full 3D structure as a transparent colored volume. This tool allows student to easily visually understand the relationships between, for example a dipping structure and its exposure on valley walls, as well as how the structure extends beneath the surface. Using this method gives students more opportunities to build a mental library of previously-seen relationships from which to draw-on when applying concepts in the field setting. These laboratory modules, the data and software are freely available from KeckCAVES.

  19. Diacritical Seismic Signatures for Complex Geological Structures: Case Studies from Shushan Basin (Egypt and Arkoma Basin (USA

    Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic reflection techniques show an imperative role in imaging complex geological structures and are becoming more acceptable as data interpreting tools in 2D/3D view. These subsurface geological structures provide complex seismic signature due to their geometrical behavior. Consequently, it is extremely difficult to interpret these seismic sections in terms of subsurface configuration. The main goal of this paper is to introduce seismic attributes as a powerful tool to interpret complex geological structures in different geological settings. In order to image these complex geological features, multiple seismic attributes such as coherence and curvature have been applied to the seismic data generated over the Shushan Basin (Egypt and Arkoma Basin (USA. Each type of geological structure event usually generates a unique seismic “signature” that we can recognize and identify by using these seismic attributes. In Shushan Basin (Egypt, they provide a framework and constraint during the interpretation and can help prevent mistakes during a 3D structural modeling. In Arkoma Basin (USA, the seismic attributes results provide useful information for broader analyses of the complex structural relations in the region where the Ouachita orogenic belt intersects with the southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Finally, complex geological structures provide dramatically diacritical seismic signatures that can be easily interpreted by collaborating conventional seismic interpretation techniques with multiple seismic attributes.

  20. Structural geology mapping using PALSAR data in the Bau gold mining district, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-08-01

    The application of optical remote sensing data for geological mapping is difficult in the tropical environment. The persistent cloud coverage, dominated vegetation in the landscape and limited bedrock exposures are constraints imposed by the tropical climate. Structural geology investigations that are searching for epithermal or polymetallic vein-type ore deposits can be developed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data in tropical/sub-tropical regions. The Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo has been selected for this study. The Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits, but gold mineralization at Bau is much more structurally controlled. Geological analyses coupled with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing data were used to detect structural elements associated with gold mineralization. The PALSAR data were used to perform lithological-structural mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Structural elements were detected along the SSW to NNE trend of the Tuban fault zone and Tai Parit fault that corresponds to the areas of occurrence of the gold mineralization in the Bau Limestone. Most of quartz-gold bearing veins occur in high-angle faults, fractures and joints within massive units of the Bau Limestone. The results show that four deformation events (D1-D4) in the structures of the Bau district and structurally controlled gold mineralization indicators, including faults, joints and fractures are detectable using PALSAR data at both regional and district scales. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide preliminary information for exploration potentially interesting areas of epithermal or polymetallic vein-type mineralization using the PALSAR data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions.

  1. Geologic and morphological structure of the Bell region (a photographic map of the surface of Venus, plate V-23)

    Four geologic and morphological units have been distinguished within the plate: (1) relics of complexes predating the plains; (2) banded plains; (3) smooth plains; and (4) volcanic and tectonic complexes. The Bell rise includes several individual large volcanic structures. Besides, faults of different directions and meteorite craters have been interpreted. The history of the region's geological development has been briefly examined

  2. Survey concerning geology and geological structure of sedimentary rock at Neogene in Horonobe-Cho, Hokkaido, Japan. Part 2

    Survey was conducted for the following purpose: obtaining data on the planar variation in depth of the oxidized zone, understanding of the transition from oxidized zone through the dissolution zone to the fresh rock zone, and depicting of weathering history at near-surface in the area where the Laboratory is planned to be built and also establishing of stratigraphy and geological structure of the Neogene strata in the area around the Omagari Fault. During the survey, drilling was done at 23 sites. The standard penetration test was conducted at one drilling site (H16-1-01). Data of hardness and color degree were obtained for the cored samples at the all sites. Vinyl chloride pipes (VP50) for observation were set up after the drilling. The survey results show thicknesses of the fill(Bk), clay zone (Ac), mudstone of the oxidized zone (Ms-1), mudstone of the dissolution zone (Ms-2), and mudstone of the fresh rock zone (Ms-3) are 0.7 m, 0.1-3.3 m, 0.4-32.2 m, 1.0-12.5 m, 0.5-14.0 m, respectively. N-values in average of the Ms-1, Ms-2, and Ms-3 were 14, 19, and >50, respectively. Underground water levels confirmed by the survey were 1.1-15.46 m in depth (H=79.9-59.4 m). Average RQD of Ms-2 and Ms-3 were 8% and 45%, respectively. Hardness and color degree of the samples of Ms-3 from the fresh rock zone are: Ld-values=408, L* (brightness) = 32.4, a* (positive: red, negative: green)=0.01, and b* (positive: yellow, negative: blue)=6.7. Levels (above sea level) of the top of the fresh rock zone is higher at the higher-elevation sites compared to those at the lower-elevation sites, suggesting that the level of the top of the fresh rock zone is not very different in this area regardless of topography. There is no significant correlation between the hardness, Ld-values, of the samples and top depth of the fresh rock zone. The color degree of a fresh rock doesn't depend on the point and indicate a similar value. This work was performed by Ueyama-shisui Co., Ltd. under contract

  3. Analysis of the Geomorphology and Environmental Geological Problems of Huzhou on the Yangtze River Delta

    JIANG Yuehua; WANG Jingdong; YUAN Xueyin; WANG Runhua

    2004-01-01

    Geomorphically, Huzhou, which is on the Yangtze River delta is characterized mainly by plains, with small hills. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the environmental geological hazards both natural and those incurred by human activities in different morphologic units. The authors point out that most of the regional environmental geological problems in the natural geologic-morphologic conditions, such as crustal stability, foundation of soft soil, soil waterlogging and soil erosion, have insignificant effects to the society, or related countermeasures of prevention and control have been adopted. But environmental geological problems incurred by human being's economic activities become more and more severe, for example, water and soil pollution and land subsidence in plain areas resulting from overexploitation of groundwater, and landslides, karst collapses and water and soil loss etc. caused by quarrying in hilly areas.

  4. Uncertainty analysis for 3D geological modeling using the Kriging variance

    Choi, Yosoon; Choi, Younjung; Park, Sebeom; Um, Jeong-Gi

    2014-05-01

    The credible estimation of geological properties is critical in many geosciences fields including the geotechnical engineering, environmental engineering, mining engineering and petroleum engineering. Many interpolation techniques have been developed to estimate the geological properties from limited sampling data such as borehole logs. The Kriging is an interpolation technique that gives the best linear unbiased prediction of the intermediate values. It also provides the Kriging variance which quantifies the uncertainty of the kriging estimates. This study provides a new method to analyze the uncertainty in 3D geological modeling using the Kriging variance. The cut-off values determined by the Kriging variance were used to effectively visualize the 3D geological models with different confidence levels. This presentation describes the method for uncertainty analysis and a case study which evaluates the amount of recoverable resources by considering the uncertainty.

  5. Bedrock geology of snyderville basin: Structural geology techniques applied to understanding the hydrogeology of a rapidly developing region, Summit County, Utah

    Keighley, K.E.; Yonkee, W.A.; Ashland, F.X.; Evans, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The availability of ground water is a problem for many communities throughout the west. As these communities continue to experience growth, the initial allocation of ground water supplies proves inadequate and may force restrictions on existing, and future, development plans. Much of this new growth relies on ground water supplies extracted from fractured bedrock aquifers. An example of a community faced with this problem is western Summit County, near Park City, Utah, This area has experienced significant water shortages coupled with a 50% growth rate in the past 10-15 years. Recent housing development rests directly on complexly deformed Triassic to Jurassic sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of the Mount Raymond-Absaroka thrust system. The primary fractured bedrock aquifers are the Nugget Sandstone, and limestones in the Thaynes and Twin Creek Formations. Ground water production and management strategies can be improved if the geometry of the structures and the flow properties of the fractured and folded bedrock can be established. We characterize the structures that may influence ground water flow at two sites: the Pinebrook and Summit Park subdivisions, which demonstrate abrupt changes (less than 1 mi/1.6 km) within the hydrogeologic systems. Geologic mapping at scales of 1:4500 (Pinebrook) and 1:9600 (Summit Park), scanline fracture mapping at the outcrop scale, geologic cross sections, water well data, and structural analysis, provides a clearer picture of the hydrogeologic setting of the aquifers in this region, and has been used to successfully site wells. In the Pinebrook area, the dominate map-scale structures of the area is the Twomile Canyon anticline, a faulted box-like to conical anticline. Widely variable bedding orientations suggest that the fold is segmented and is non-cylindrical and conical on the western limb with a fold axis that plunges to the northwest and also to the southeast, and forms a box-type fold between the middle and eastern

  6. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of radionuclide migration in porous geologic medium

    3H and 90Sr from a selected LILW (low and intermediate level radioactive wastes) repository base are taken as a sample. Uncertainty of mathematical model on radionuclide migration in porous geologic medium are analyzed by using Latin hypercube sampling techniques for seven uncertain parameters about hydrology and radionuclide absorption. In addition, parameter sensitivity analysis is performed by Spearman's partial rank correlation analysis

  7. Regional evolution of geological structure in south China and U mineralization

    This paper states the development laws of regional geological structure of South China and its controlling effect on uranium deposit evolution, and the characteristics of rich uranium formation in different periods of geo-history are analysed. It also discusses the relationship between the distribution of time and space and tectonic structure and environmental vicissitudes. The rock-magma activities-the strong formation of the Diwa Era is of great significance to the formation of uranium deposits within the region, especially to the formation of a series of multi-genesis polygene uranium deposits which are a potential direction in which to look for minerals within the region

  8. Geology, Soils and Basin-wide variations in Amazon Forest Structure and function

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Phillips, Oliver; Lopes-Gonzales, Gabriela; Lloyd, Jon; Rainfor Team

    2015-04-01

    Forest productivity, tree turnover time and above ground biomass vary across the Amazon Basin in an east-west gradient in a pattern which coincides with variations in soil nutrient availability and geology. Forest productivity rates are higher on the most nutrient rich soils close to the Andes while is lower in the ancient, highly weathered soils of central Amazonia. On the other hand above ground biomass is lower in the most productive forests and higher on the least, this being a consequence of higher tree turnover rates in the forests over less weathered and nutrient rich soils. Major geological events have influenced Amazonian soil characteristics profoundly and play an important role in explaining Basin-wide variations in forest biomass, growth and stem turnover rates. Here we show how geology and soil development combine to shape the functioning of Amazonian forests and its carbon stocks and fluxes. To assess the importance of edaphic properties in affect forest structure and dynamics, soil samples were collected in a total of 154 different forest plots across nine different Amazonian countries. Samples were analyzed for exchangeable cations, C, N, pH with various P fractions and soil physical properties also determined. Overall, forest structure and dynamics were found to be strongly and quantitatively related to edaphic conditions.

  9. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in hardrock regions of northern Tirunelveli district, southern India

    M Senthilkumar; R Arumugam; D Gnanasundar; D S C Thambi; E Sampath Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Geological and structural influences on groundwater flow and quality were evaluated in the present study in the hardrock regions of Tirunelveli District, southern India. Groundwater is a major source of freshwater in this region to cater to the requirements of domestic and agricultural activity, as there are no surface water resources. Geologically, the area is characterized by charnockites and garnetiferous biotite gneiss. Groundwater in this region is found to occur in the weathered portion under unconfined condition and in fractured/fissured portions under unconfined to semi-confined condition. Existence of deep-seated fractures are minimal. Lineaments/dykes play a major role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater in the region. Lineaments/dykes of the study area can be broadly divided into two types: north–south and west–east oriented structures. Analysis and field observations revealed that the north–south dykes act as a barrier of groundwater while the west–east oriented structures behave as a carrier of groundwater. Both quality and quantity of groundwater is different on the upstream and downstream sides of the dyke. Hence, it is conclusive that the west–east oriented dykes in this region are highly potential and act as a conduit for groundwater movement from recharge areas to the discharge area.

  10. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  11. The application of multivariate data analysis in the interpretation of engineering geological parameters

    Kovács József

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the evaluation of engineering geological laboratory test results of core drillings along the new metro line (line 4 in Budapest by using a multivariate data analysis. A data set of 30 core drillings with a total coring length of over 1500 meters was studied. Of the eleven engineering geological parameters considered in this study, only the five most reliable (void ratio, dry bulk density, angle of internal friction, cohesion and compressive strength representing 1260 data points were used for multivariate (cluster and discriminant analyses. To test the results of the cluster analysis discriminant analysis was used. The results suggest that the use of multivariate analyses allows the identification of different groups of sediments even when the data sets are overlapping and contain several uncertainties. The tests also prove that the use of these methods for seemingly very scattered parameters is crucial in obtaining reliable engineering geological data for design.

  12. The application of multivariate data analysis in the interpretation of engineering geological parameters

    Kovács, József; Bodnár, Nikolett; Török, Ákos

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the evaluation of engineering geological laboratory test results of core drillings along the new metro line (line 4) in Budapest by using a multivariate data analysis. A data set of 30 core drillings with a total coring length of over 1500 meters was studied. Of the eleven engineering geological parameters considered in this study, only the five most reliable (void ratio, dry bulk density, angle of internal friction, cohesion and compressive strength) representing 1260 data points were used for multivariate (cluster and discriminant) analyses. To test the results of the cluster analysis discriminant analysis was used. The results suggest that the use of multivariate analyses allows the identification of different groups of sediments even when the data sets are overlapping and contain several uncertainties. The tests also prove that the use of these methods for seemingly very scattered parameters is crucial in obtaining reliable engineering geological data for design.

  13. Method of magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. Experimental measurements for geologic structures determination

    The evaluation of the safety of a deep geologic repository for dangerous materials requires the knowledge of the interstitial system of the surrounding host rock. A method is proposed for the determination of geologic structures (in particular fractures) from the magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated using a SQUID magneto-gradient meter. A measurement tool using a new magnetic susceptibility captor and a testing bench have been developed. This tool allows the measurement of rocks with a magnetic susceptibility greater than 10-5 SI units and can generate magnetic susceptibility maps with 4 x 4 mm2 pixels. A magnetic visibility criterion has been defined which allows to foresee if a structure is visible or not. According to the measurements done, it is shown that any centimeter-scale structure with a sufficient magnetic contrast (20%) with respect to the matrix is visible. Therefore, the dip and the orientation of such structure can be determined with a 3 degree and a 5 degree precision, respectively. The position of the structure along the core axis is known with a 4 mm precision. On the other hand, about half of the magnetic contrasts observed do not correspond to the visual analyses and can be explained by very small variations of the mineralogic composition. This last point offers some interesting ways for future research using magnetic susceptibility mapping. (J.S.). 31 refs., 90 figs., 18 tabs., 2 photos., 6 appends

  14. Orthogonal Matching Pursuit for Enhanced Recovery of Sparse Geological Structures With the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Sana, Furrukh

    2016-02-23

    Estimating the locations and the structures of subsurface channels holds significant importance for forecasting the subsurface flow and reservoir productivity. These channels exhibit high permeability and are easily contrasted from the low-permeability rock formations in their surroundings. This enables formulating the flow channels estimation problem as a sparse field recovery problem. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation and calibration of subsurface reservoir model parameters, such as permeability. However, the conventional EnKF framework does not provide an efficient mechanism to incorporate prior information on the wide varieties of subsurface geological structures, and often fails to recover and preserve flow channel structures. Recent works in the area of compressed sensing (CS) have shown that estimating in a sparse domain, using algorithms such as the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), may significantly improve the estimation quality when dealing with such problems. We propose two new, and computationally efficient, algorithms combining OMP with the EnKF to improve the estimation and recovery of the subsurface geological channels. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed algorithms provide efficient mechanisms to incorporate and preserve structural information in the EnKF and result in significant improvements in recovering flow channel structures.

  15. Potential structures for CO2 geological storage in the Baltic Sea: case study offshore Latvia

    Kazbulat Shogenov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on two structures in the Baltic offshore region (E6 and E7 structures in Latvia prospective for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2. Their CO2 storage capacities were estimated recently with different levels of reliability. Petrophysical, geophysical, mineralogical and geochemical parameters of reservoir rocks represented by quartz sandstones of the Deimena Formation of Middle Cambrian in two wells and properties of Silurian and Ordovician cap rocks were additionally studied and interpretedin the present contribution. Extended methodology on rock measurements and estimation of conservative and optimistic storage capacity are presented. Uncertainties and risks of CO2 storage in the offshore structure E6 estimated as the most prospective for CO2geological storage in the Baltic Region, and the largest among all onshore and offshore structures studied in Latvia, were discussed. We re-estimated the previous optimistic capacity of the E6 structure (265–630 Mt to 251–602 Mt. Considering fault system within the E6 structure we estimated capacity of two compartments of the reservoirseparately (E6-A and E6-B. Estimated by the optimistic approach CO2storage capacity of the E6-A part was 243–582 Mt (mean 365 Mt and E6-B part 8–20 Mt (mean 12 Mt. Conservative capacity was 97–233 Mt (mean 146 Mt in the E6-A, and 4–10 Mt (mean 6 Mt in the E6-B. The conservative average capacity of the E6-B part was in the same range as this capacity in the E7 structure (6 and 7 Mt respectively. The total capacity of the two structures E6 and E7, estimated using the optimistic approach was on average 411 Mt, and using the conservative approach, 159 Mt.

  16. Diacritical Seismic Signatures for Complex Geological Structures: Case Studies from Shushan Basin (Egypt) and Arkoma Basin (USA)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Hamed A. Alrefaee

    2014-01-01

    Seismic reflection techniques show an imperative role in imaging complex geological structures and are becoming more acceptable as data interpreting tools in 2D/3D view. These subsurface geological structures provide complex seismic signature due to their geometrical behavior. Consequently, it is extremely difficult to interpret these seismic sections in terms of subsurface configuration. The main goal of this paper is to introduce seismic attributes as a powerful tool to interpret complex ge...

  17. TBR-2 structural analysis

    This paper presents the structural analysis developed during the TBR-2 tokamak project studies. Starting with electromagnetic interaction forces on each, toroidal and poloidal coils many structural calculations have been carried out using locally developed usual E.M. interaction codes and a finite element method stress code. Following the analysis it has been determined that there is radially inward force of 1235 kN and overturning torque of 243 kNm acting on toroidal coils. This stress and displacements due to in plane loads have been calculated using a finite element code which show that the maximum stress of 240 MPa and displacement of 0.21 mm can be present at the inner part of the toroidal field coil. (Author)

  18. Geology and structure of the Malpaso caldera and El Ocote ignimbrite, Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Nieto-Obregon, Jorge [Facultad de IngenierIa, UNAM, Coyoacan, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Aguirre-DIaz, Gerardo [Centro de Geociencias, UNAM, Campus Juriquilla, 76220, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)], E-mail: nieto@servidor.unam.mx, E-mail: ger@geociencias.unam.mx

    2008-10-01

    A new caldera, named Malpaso, is reported west of the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico. The Malpaso caldera is a volcano-tectonic depression, highly fractured and faulted, and was filled by voluminous pyroclastic products related to the caldera collapse. Due to these characteristics it as a graben caldera. It is truncated by younger normal faults of the Calvillo and Aguascalientes grabens. In this work we present a summary of the geologic and structural observations on this caldera, as well as a description of the main caldera product, the high-grade El Ocote ignimbrite.

  19. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (< 1 day) pumping tests, which facilitated the characterization of some of the fractures. The hydraulic properties were then used for other fractures that, according to geophysics and structural geology, belonged to the same families. Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  20. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology

    Fratesi, Sarah E.; Vacher, H. L.

    2008-01-01

    In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over…

  1. Comparing Geologic Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping: Desert Rats Data Analysis

    Feng, Wanda; Evans, Cynthia; Gruener, John; Eppler, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Geologic mapping involves interpreting relationships between identifiable units and landforms to understand the formative history of a region. Traditional field techniques are used to accomplish this on Earth. Mapping proves more challenging for other planets, which are studied primarily by orbital remote sensing and, less frequently, by robotic and human surface exploration. Systematic comparative assessments of geologic maps created by traditional mapping versus photogeology together with data from planned traverses are limited. The objective of this project is to produce a geologic map from data collected on the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 analog mission using Apollo-style traverses in conjunction with remote sensing data. This map is compared with a geologic map produced using standard field techniques.

  2. 3D gravity imaging of deep geological structure of Huangling Anticline in Three Gorges area, China

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, C.

    2010-12-01

    Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydraulic project in the world. Previous studies showed that Huangling Anticline is one of the main geological units in this area and has great influence on the safety of the dam, so it is important to investigate deep geological structure and evaluate stability of Huangling Anticline. Huangling Anticline locates in northern margin of Yangtze Block. It is surrounded by a few faults, and two of them are Xiannushan Fault and Yuan’an Fault, with NNW direction. There are also two main faults named Xinhua Fault and Yuyangguan-Tumen Fault with NNE and NE direction. These faults are regional faults with different sizes and cutting depth, and take charge of the development of geological structures in Three Gorges area with a long time. Two main arguments about the ability of inducing earthquakes of these faults were presented. One of the arguments suggested that these faults has weak or no enough activity to induce strong earthquakes, their key evidence is the thermoluminescence (TL) dating with some geological characteristics; the other was just opposite, in their opinion, Xiannushan Fault and Yuan’an Fault has deep cutting depth with great activity to induce strong earthquakes. However, they can not provide the evidences of deep geological structures and cutting depth of these faults. In our paper, 3D density structure of upper and middle crust beneath Three Gorges Dam and its adjacent regions is reconstructed by gravity imaging, using the Bouguer gravity anomaly and surface density constraints. Results of gravity imaging indicate that Huangling Anticline is a relatively high density zone. (1) Horizontally, Huangling Anticline is a huge U-shaped crystal rock controlled by Xiannushan Fault and Yuan’an Fault along NNW direction. In the southeast, Yuyangguan-Tumen Fault becomes the boundary of the anticline, and in the west, Xinhua Fault and Xiannushan Fault separate Huangling Anticline from Zigui basin; (2) From vertical profiles of

  3. Nasa's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program: Overview

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.

  4. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    Tiren, S.A. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-06-01

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB`s application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth. 46 refs, 30 figs, 18 tabs.

  5. Integration of geological information in a structured approach to development of a safety case

    The Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act, promulgated in June 2000, specifies that the siting process for a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in Japan shall consist of the following three stages: - In the first stage, a literature survey is conducted on a nation-wide scale. Preliminary investigation areas (PIAs) for potential candidate sites are then nominated, based on area-specific literature surveys focusing on the long-term stability of the geological environment; - Detailed investigation areas (DIAs) for candidate sites are then selected from PIAs following surface-based investigations (including boreholes) carried out to evaluate the key characteristics of the geological environment; - In the final third stage, detailed site characterisation, including studies in underground experimental facilities, leads to selection of the site for repository construction. Following discussions with relevant Government and nuclear industry organisations, the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) has decided to proceed with repository siting based entirely on an 'open solicitation procedure' (a call for volunteer host municipalities). NUMO promotes public involvement in decision making in the process of selecting sites, based on its basic policies, which consist of 'adopting of a stepwise approach', 'respecting voluntarism of municipalities' and 'ensuring transparency'. This volunteering process provides a unique challenge for ensuring transparency and traceability in development of conceptual site models which form a basis for repository concepts and associated safety cases in parallel with the step-wise siting process. A structured approach, therefore, is required to meet this target, which has been discussed partly in the light of development of Repository Concepts for given siting environments. The Siting Factors for selection of PIAs has also been developed. This paper illustrates a methodology for integrating geological information

  6. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB's application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth

  7. Determination of hafnium and zirconium in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    In this paper, neutron activation analysis was developed for determining hafnium and zirconium in geological materials. The USGS geological standard rocks GSP-1 (granodiorite) and W-1 (di abase). The Brazilian geological standards GB-1 (granite) and BB-1 (basalt) from Instituto de Geociencias da Universidade da Bahia and P-1 a uraniferous rock from Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil were analyzed. Hafnium present in these rocks was analyzed by purely instrumental method by irradiating with both thermal and epithermal neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the case of zirconium depending on the sample a radiochemical separation was required. 154 Eu and 152 Eu radioisotopes emit gamma rays with energies too close to those emitted by 95 Zr and they cause interferences. (author)

  8. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities

    Finley, P.D.; Krason, J.

    1988-10-01

    Geological factors controlling the formation, stability, and distribution of gas hydrates of the Beaufort Sea region were investigated by basin analysis. Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data from the region were assembled and evaluated to determine the relationships of geological environments and gas hydrates. The Beaufort Sea is the southern part of the Arctic Ocean offshore of the North Slope of Alaska and the Yukon and Mackenzie districts of Canada. The Beaufort Sea study region extends northward from the Arctic coasts of Alaska and Canada between Point Barrow on the west to Cape Beaufort on the east. The northern boundary of the Beaufort Sea study region is 72.5{degrees}N. The study region comprises broad continental shelves, slopes, rises, and the Arctic abyssal plain. 84 refs., 76 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Summarized analysis on potential of uranium resources in China and strategy for uranium geologic exploration

    Through the summarized analysis on the potential of uranium resources and the degree of uranium geologic work, the author proposes the strategy of uranium geologic exploration in China as follows: the Chinese government should make a long-term program for uranium geologic exploration and insist on the basic policy to be based on domestic resources, to meet the domestic demand, to increase of the storage (the increase of storage includes active utilization of uranium resources of foreign countries), and to do the uranium exploration properly in advance. Taking the ISL-amenable sandstone-hosted uranium deposit as the major prospecting target combined with actively exploring other types of economic uranium deposits should be taken as the basic exploration strategy. Guiding by new geologic-metallogenic theory system, using advanced exploration method and technique system, GIS prediction method system and digital geologic map series to do uranium exploration are regarded as basic technical idea to accelerate ascertaining potential uranium resources in China, and to provide powerful resources guarantee for the development of China's nuclear industry. (author)

  10. Investigation of the geologic and tectonic structures of Bafa Lake and Akbuk Gulf (terrestrial and marine areas) by means of gravity and magnetic methods

    Edremit, Şüheda; Özel, Erdeniz

    2016-04-01

    Geologic units of Bafa Lake and Akbuk Gulf, which have very importance in point of geologic and tectonic structure, are generally are classified by high-grade metamorphic units of the Menderes Core Complex, Cycladic Complex (schist, marble, eclogite), Afyon zone meta sedimentary and Pan-African basement rocks, Neogene volcanic-sedimentary rocks and alluvium. As for tectonic structures of study areas are; Izmir-Balikesir Transfer Zone also affected the Buyuk Menderes Graben, Bornova Flysch Zone, Menderes Massif and Lycian Nappes. Regional researches were studied to reveal using Turkey Bouguer Anomaly and Turkey Aeromagnetic regional map with gravity method used for geologic structures analysis and magnetic method used to explain main structure, tectonic conditions of underground. General geologic structure and tectonic lineaments of region were examined and interpretated compatibility with gravity and magnetic values. When the geologic and tectonic structures on the terrestrial areas are generally investigated, graben systems and linearities are clearly seen on the Bouguer Anomaly map. Positive values are seen in the Bornova Flysch Zone and Menderes Massif areas at the north of study areas arising from high-density ophiolitic and metamorphic units. Graben areas in the Menderes Massif are observed negative gravity values on the low-density young alluviums. Positive gravity values are increased up to 50-60 mgal on the metamorphic rocks that are named Cycladic Complex located southwest of study areas. At the aeromagnetic regional magnetic map, gamma values about -100 observed on the Menderes Massif region are indicated metagranite rocks that are Paleozoic crystalline structure. Gamma values, which are changed between -100 and +100 at the transition areas granite with schists, are obviously revealed this transition region. Located northwest of study areas Upper Miocene-Pliocene aged from sedimentary rocks on the terrestrial carbonates and nonsegregated terrestrial

  11. Thermal Performance Analysis of a Geologic Borehole Repository

    Reagin, Lauren [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-16

    The Brazilian Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) proposed a design for the disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) based on the IAEA Borehole Disposal of Sealed Radioactive Sources (BOSS) design that would allow the entirety of Brazil’s inventory of DSRS to be disposed in a single borehole. The proposed IPEN design allows for 170 waste packages (WPs) containing DSRS (such as Co-60 and Cs-137) to be stacked on top of each other inside the borehole. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the thermal performance of a conservative approach to the IPEN proposal with the equivalent of two WPs and two different inside configurations using Co-60 as the radioactive heat source. The current WP configuration (heterogeneous) for the IPEN proposal has 60% of the WP volume being occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source and the remaining 40% as vacant space. The second configuration (homogeneous) considered for this project was a homogeneous case where 100% of the WP volume was occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source. The computational models for the thermal analyses of the WP configurations with the Co-60 heat source considered three different cooling mechanisms (conduction, radiation, and convection) and the effect of mesh size on the results from the thermal analysis. The results of the analyses yielded maximum temperatures inside the WPs for both of the WP configurations and various mesh sizes. The heterogeneous WP considered the cooling mechanisms of conduction, convection, and radiation. The temperature results from the heterogeneous WP analysis suggest that the model is cooled predominantly by conduction with effect of radiation and natural convection on cooling being negligible. From the thermal analysis comparing the two WP configurations, the results suggest that either WP configuration could be used for the design. The mesh sensitivity results verify the meshes used and results obtained from the thermal analyses were close to being

  12. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological materials from Northern Palawan and Mariduque Island, Philippines

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological materials comprising of heavy mineral panned concentrates and surface soil samples taken from northern Palawan and Marinduque Island, Philippines was conducted. This work was carried out primarily to determine the distribution of uranium, thorium, rare earths and other trace elements in the Philippine environment in connection with the nationwide geochemical exploration program and the IAEA technical co-operation project on gamma ray spectrometric survey in the country. Moreover, the geochemical data obtained will form part of the national database for nuclear resource assessment, mineral exploration and environmental studies. The utilization of the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique in the multielemental determination of geological materials has been very useful in mineral exploration, environmental studies and other related researches. The sensitivity of this technique has been very effective not only in the determination of the major elements but for the trace elements as well. In this study, about 96 geological samples wee analyzed for 15 elements after the spectral analysis. In all, 810 elemental determinations were completed. In the northern Palawan district, the areas with high radioactivity were disclosed by the relatively high concentrations of thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium. Moreover, areas with possible potential for gold was delineated as well as for the rare earth metals. In Marinduque Island, the distribution of the elements are generally sporadic which indicate various lithological sources and a diverse geology. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

  13. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    K. Jourde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas – called acquisition kernels – and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernels approach allows to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to perform in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to construct. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon/gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless to constrain the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for La Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano.

  14. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernel approach allows one to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to be performed in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to be constructed. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon-gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless for constraining the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly, the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for the La Soufrière volcano of Guadeloupe.

  15. A project of classification of large geologic structures of the earth's crust according to the conditions of radioactive waste disposal

    A firm tendency outlined in recent years consists in using the lithosphere as a site of disposal of highly toxic and power rich radioactive wastes, which extends considerably the range of problems connected with the geologic reasons for these measures in every definite case. A traditional information on a geologic object, on physical-chemical, geotechnical and hydrogeologic processes occuring in undisturbed conditions and expected after the underground repository creation is not sufficient at present. Modern data on the earth's crust power, on the range and planetary centrifugal direction of the heatmass transfer processes are indicative of the necessity to take into consideration a possible relation of a geologic object to deepseated zones of enclosing large geologic structures; a density of heat flows and an intensity of mass transfer in a section: deep crustal zones → earth's surface (basement → earth's surface -- for sedimentary basins); the resulting effects of interactions of the natural thermal and geochemical fields with analogous artificial formations - products of radioactive element disintegration in the buried waste composition; seismic effects of decreasing the volume of sedimentary rock as a result of their catagenetic transformations in deep-seated zones of sedimentary basins. A project of general classification of geologic megastructures according to conditions of radioactive wastes burial was developed and is discussed. The project is based on a concept of power potential of large geologic structures involving their seismic activity and geologic-geochemical effects of deep heat and mass transfer in the earth's crust upper parts

  16. Structural analysis of DAEs

    Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    2002-01-01

    Differential algebraic equations (DAEs) constitute a fundamental model class for many modelling purposes in engineering and other sciences, especially for dynamical simulation of component based systems. This thesis describes a practical methodology and approach for analysing general DAE. The...... underlying ODE for finding consistent initial values and solve the initial value problem for the original DAE. As a methodology for integrating the augmented underlying ODE, the dummy derivative method is investigated. The methodology avoids the traditional stability and drift-of problems of using the...... structural index analysis of DAE is original in the sense that it is based on a new matrix representation of the structural information of a general DAE system instead of a graph oriented representation. Also the presentation of the theory is found to be more complete compared to other presentations, since...

  17. Using AutoCAD for descriptive geometry exercises. in undergraduate structural geology

    Jacobson, Carl E.

    2001-02-01

    The exercises in descriptive geometry typically utilized in undergraduate structural geology courses are quickly and easily solved using the computer drafting program AutoCAD. The key to efficient use of AutoCAD for descriptive geometry involves taking advantage of User Coordinate Systems, alternative angle conventions, relative coordinates, and other aspects of AutoCAD that may not be familiar to the beginning user. A summary of these features and an illustration of their application to the creation of structure contours for a planar dipping bed provides the background necessary to solve other problems in descriptive geometry with the computer. The ease of the computer constructions reduces frustration for the student and provides more time to think about the principles of the problems.

  18. Structural geology of the Fuegian Andes and Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt - Tierra del Fuego Island

    Menichetti, Marco; Lodolo, Emanuele; Tassone, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    A synthesis of the structural geology of the Tierra del Fuego Island, which integrates a new data set derived from field surveys and literature data of the last few years, is presented here. The main geological features of the region developed during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Andean orogenic cycle that started in the Middle to Late Jurassic with a back-arc extension, crustal stretching and widespread volcanism, related to the break-up of Gondwanaland. An extensional fault system deriving from the...

  19. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala); Estudios geologico-estructurales y geofisicos en Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R.; Marti, D.; Flecha, I. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume Almera. Barcelona (Spain); Escuder Viruete, J. [Universidad complutense de Madrid. Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  20. Separation of interfering elements in the neutron activation analysis of lanthanides in geological materials

    A chemical procedure has been developed for the separation of U, Th, Fe, Sc, Na,Ta, and Mo which interfere in the neutron activation analysis of the lanthanide elements in geological materials. This procedure is based on the solvent extraction of interferents using a solution of tetracycline in benzyl alcohol. The lanthanide elements remaining in the aqueous phase are coprecipitated on calcium oxalate or ferric hydroxide for irradiation and subsequent determination by gamma ray spectrometry. The chemical separation procedure was applied in the analysis of lanthanides in two international geological reference materials GSP-1 (USGS), GS-N (CRPG) and in the analysis of a volcanic rock from Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil. The sensitivities for all the lanthanides were determined. (author)

  1. VISPECT program evaluation in gamma-ray spectra analysis of neutron-activated geological samples

    A comparative evaluation of gamma-ray analysis software VISPECT in relation to two commercial gamma-ray analysis software packages OMNIGAM (EG and GORTEC) and SAMPO 90 (CANBERRA) was performed. For this evaluation, artificial gamma-ray spectra were created, presenting peaks of different intensities and located at different regions of the spectrum. Multiplet peaks with equal and different intensities, but with different channel separations were also created. Neutron activation analysis of the reference material GS-N (IWG-GIT) was also performed, aiming the evaluation of the program VISPECT in the analysis of a geological sample. (author)

  2. Crustal structural survey for the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, utilizing geophysical and geological information

    Gravity, Magnetic (airborne, Magnet and Magsat), heat flow and seismicity available data for the state of Minas Gerais and adjacent regions is here analyzed, discussed and integrated with geologic information. The Late Archean crustal structure is defined as blocks of granite-greenstone separated by belts of high-grade terrains. The belts in eastern and southern Minas Gerais represent the lower parts of the Vitoria, Sao Paulo and Parana Blocks, which were up thrusted over the Brasilia Block through low-angle ductile simple shear Zones. That regional structure is cut and somewhat displaced by NW, ENE, NE and Ns fault sets. These faults are mostly related to the Transamazonian Event, and their geological expression appears to be as high-angle ductile simple shear zones. The development of the Middle/upper proterozoic folded sequences, the incidence of the Brasiliano/Uruacuano thermo tectonic events and the geometry of the Sao Francisco Craton were highly influenced by the preexistent weakness zones. The high-grade terrains, the borders of the Brasilia Block and the Transamazonian lineaments have been preferentially affected. The tectono-magmatic manifestations of the Wealdenian Reactivation, related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, occurred mostly among the uplifted zones (Alto Paranaiba Uplift) that developed partially until the rift stage (Mantiqueira Uplift). These processes clearly reveal the influence of the old structures of the state of Minas Gerais. The Mantiqueira Uplift presents a more accentuated seismic activity and thermal flow regime than the neighboring regions, so corresponding to the present less stable area of Minas Gerais. (DJM)

  3. Isotopic geology

    Born from the application to geology of nuclear physics techniques, the isotopic geology has revolutionized the Earth's sciences. Beyond the dating of rocks, the tracer techniques have permitted to reconstruct the Earth's dynamics, to measure the temperatures of the past (giving birth to paleoclimatology) and to understand the history of chemical elements thanks to the analysis of meteorites. Today, all domains of Earth sciences appeal more or less to the methods of isotopic geology. In this book, the author explains the principles, methods and recent advances of this science: 1 - isotopes and radioactivity; 2 - principles of isotope dating; 3 - radio-chronological methods; 4 - cosmogenic isotope chronologies; 5 - uncertainties and radio-chronological results; 6 - geochemistry of radiogenic isotopes; 7 - geochemistry of stable isotopes; 8 - isotopic geology and dynamical analysis of reservoirs. (J.S.)

  4. Analysis of geological setting of uranium mineralization in Jiuquling area, Hunan

    The paper deals with the results of uranium region research in Jiuquling area. It is indicated that the uranium mineralization occurs in particular geological setting characterized by the superimposition of suitable structure framework, favourable lithology, thermal metamorphism zone, hydrothermal veins and related alteration. The main target for the exploration in the future is represented by the exocontact type uranium mineralization hosted in Cambrian carbonaceous and thermo-metamorphic rocks along the interlayered fractured and/or fissured zone. (authors)

  5. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102475 Chen Shiliang(No.4 Geological Party of Fujian Province,Ningde 352100,China)A Brief Analysis on Geothermy in the Nantai Isle of Fuzhou Municipality,Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,28(4),2009,p.310-314,1 illus.,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:geothermal exploration,Fujian ProvinceBased on the geochemistry and geophysical

  6. 3D Reconstruction of geological structures based on remote sensing data: example from Anaran anticline, Lurestan province, Zagros folds and thrust belt, Iran.

    Snidero, M.; Amilibia, A.; Gratacos, O.; Muñoz, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    This work presents a methodological workflow for the 3D reconstruction of geological surfaces at regional scale, based on remote sensing data and geological maps. This workflow has been tested on the reconstruction of the Anaran anticline, located in the Zagros Fold and Thrust belt mountain front. The used remote sensing data-set is a combination of Aster and Spot images as well as a high resolution digital elevation model. A consistent spatial positioning of the complete data-set in a 3D environment is necessary to obtain satisfactory results during the reconstruction. The Aster images have been processed by the Optimum Index Factor (OIF) technique, in order to facilitate the geological mapping. By pansharpening of the resulting Aster image with the SPOT panchromatic one we obtain the final high-resolution image used during the 3D mapping. Structural data (dip data) has been acquired through the analysis of the 3D mapped geological traces. Structural analysis of the resulting data-set allows us to divide the structure in different cylindrical domains. Related plunge lines orientation has been used to project data along the structure, covering areas with little or no information. Once a satisfactory dataset has been acquired, we reconstruct a selected horizon following the dip-domain concept. By manual editing, the obtained surfaces have been adjusted to the mapped geological limits as well as to the modeled faults. With the implementation of the Discrete Smooth Interpolation (DSI) algorithm, the final surfaces have been reconstructed along the anticline. Up to date the results demonstrate that the proposed methodology is a powerful tool for 3D reconstruction of geological surfaces when working with remote sensing data, in very inaccessible areas (eg. Iran, China, Africa). It is especially useful in semiarid regions where the structure strongly controls the topography. The reconstructed surfaces clearly show the geometry in the different sectors of the structure

  7. Determination of neodymium and gadolinium in geologic samples by neutron activation analysis

    The determination of Nd and Gd present in rocks by neutron activation analysis is aimed at. A separation procedure for the rare earth group of elements is presented. The method is based on the retention of 233Pa, 182Ta and 46Sc by hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) in a 6M HClO4 medium. Those radioisotopes are interferences in the gamma-ray spectrum of 153Gd and 147Nd. The reliability of the method was tested by means of the geological standards BCR-1 and G-2 from the U.S. Geological Survey. The limitations of the instrumental neutron activation analysis and the advantages of the chemical separation are discussed for the special case of the Nd and Gd determinations. (Author)

  8. Applications of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for geological samples in AMD for uranium exploration programme

    Full text: Non-destructive Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has been used over last three decades in AMD for analysis of geological samples for estimation of Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Zr, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Au, Th and U. The estimation has been done using various international standards. The irradiation of samples has been done in Cirus/Apsara Reactor in BARC, Mumbai. The measurement of desired gamma emission are carried out by Huge detector. The various geological samples from different parts of India are: 1. granites 2. charnokites 3. Basalts 4. Carbonatites 5. Xenotime 6. Monazite 7. Core samples 8. Black slabs. The efficiency modelling of HPGe detector was done using different sources and mathematical and statistical techniques. (author)

  9. The geology and structural controls of the Olkaria geothermal system, Kenya

    Omenda, Peter A. [Kenya Power Company, Naivasha (Kenya)

    1998-02-01

    Olkaria is a high-temperature geothermal system located within the central sector of the Kenya Rift Valley and associated with an area of late Quaternary rhyolitic volcanism. The geology is dominated by Pleistocene-Holocene comenditic rhyolite flows on the surface and basalts, trachytes and tuffs in the subsurface. The Olkaria field can be separated into east and west stratigraphic zones with the divide through the Olkaria Hill. The reservoir characteristics also follow this zonation. The geothermal reservoir in the east is hosted within Pleistocene Plateau Trachytes, while in the west it is within the Pliocene Mau Tuffs. Structural, geochemical, and hydrothermal alteration patterns indicate that the west field is at the margin of the larger Olkaria system. The anomalous bicarbonate enrichment in the west sector is due to additional adsorbed carbon dioxide from the mantle. (Author)

  10. First Paleomagnetic Map of the Easternmost Mediterranean Derived from Combined Geophysical-Geological Analysis

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2014-05-01

    he easternmost Mediterranean is a tectonically complex region evolving in the long term and located in the midst of the progressive Afro-Eurasian collision (e.g., Ben-Avraham, 1978; Khain, 1984). Both rift-oceanic systems and terrane belts are known to have been formed in this collision zone (Stampfli et al., 2013). Despite years of investigation, the geological-geophysical structure of the easternmost Mediterranean is not completely known. The formation of its modern complex structure is associated with the evolution of the Neotethys Ocean and its margins (e.g., Ben-Avraham and Ginzburg, 1990; Robertson et al., 1991; Ben-Avraham et al., 2002). The easternmost Mediterranean was formed during the initial phase of the Neotethys in the Early and Late Permian (Golonka and Ford, 2000; Stampfli et al., 2013). At present this block of the ocean crust situated in the northern part of the Sinai plate (Ben-Avraham, 1978; Eppelbaum et al., 2012, 2014) is object of our investigation. The easternmost Mediterranean region has attracted increasing attention in connection with the recent discoveries of significant hydrocarbon deposits in this region (e.g., Montadert et al., 2010; Schenk et al., 2010; Eppelbaum et al., 2012). For example, Schenk et al. (2010) consider that more than 4 trillion m3 of recoverable gas is available in the Levant Basin (which located in the central part of the easternmost Mediterranean). Currently seismic prospecting is the main tool used in hydrocarbon deposit discovery. However, even sophisticated seismic data analysis (e.g., Hall et al., 2005; Roberts and Peace, 2007; Gardosh et al., 2010; Marlow et al., 2011; Lazar et al., 2012), fails to identify the full complex structural-tectonic mosaic of this region, and more importantly, is unable to clarify its baffling complex tectonic evolution. This highlights the need for combined analysis of geophysical data associated with the paleomagnetic and paleobiogeographic conditions that can yield deep

  11. Geological storage of CO2: risks analysis, monitoring and measures. Final report

    To use the CO2 geological storage as a coherent solution in the greenhouse gases reduction it needs to answer to safety and monitoring conditions. In this framework the BRGM presents this study in six chapters: risks analysis, the monitoring methods (geochemistry, geophysics, aerial monitoring, biochemistry, hydrogeology), the metrology, the corrosion problems, the thermal, hydrodynamical, geochemical and mechanical simulation and the today and future regulations. (A.L.B.)

  12. Geologic datasets for weights of evidence analysis in Northeast Washington: 4. mineral industry activity in Washington, 1985-1997

    Boleneus, D.E.; Derkey, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    This report includes a table of 339 sites representing mineral activities for mining and mineral exploration in the State of Washington from 1985 through 1997. The table was primarily compiled from annual reports in Washington Geologic Newsletter and Washington Geology. The information was compiled for use in a weights-of-evidence analysis of mineral resources in northeastern Washington.

  13. Evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project and analysis of some technical problems in commercial negotiation

    A composite evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project was discussed, this new model consists of polity-economy-technique (PET) synthetic evaluation sub-model and geology-mining-metallurgy (GMM) technique evaluation sub-model. Besides, some key technical problems in commercial negotiation, such as information screening, quoted price and analysis of deadline, were briefly analyzed. (author)

  14. Dynamic simulations of geologic materials using combined FEM/DEM/SPH analysis

    Morris, J P; Johnson, S M

    2008-03-26

    An overview of the Lawrence Discrete Element Code (LDEC) is presented, and results from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geologic materials using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC) are detailed. LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses using large numbers of polyhedral blocks. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model this class of problems, LDEC now includes implementations of Cosserat point theory and cohesive elements. This approach directly simulates the transition from continuum to discontinuum behavior, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture within a combined finite element/discrete element framework. In addition, there are many application involving geologic materials where fluid-structure interaction is important. To facilitate solution of this class of problems a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) capability has been incorporated into LDEC to simulate fully coupled systems involving geologic materials and a saturating fluid. We will present results from a study of a broad range of geomechanical problems that exercise the various components of LDEC in isolation and in tandem.

  15. An evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis for determination of trace elements in some geological samples

    Compton suppressed neutron activation analysis has been used for a variety of applications, but never has a detailed discussion of its use in far more complex matrices, such as geological samples, been fully addressed. This investigation seeks to serve as a qualitative evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis (CSNAA) and to illustrate the benefits of using Compton suppression with thermal and epithermal neutrons for the analysis of several geological specimens.

  16. An evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis for determination of trace elements in some geological samples.

    Landsberger, S; Kapsimalis, R

    2009-12-01

    Compton suppressed neutron activation analysis has been used for a variety of applications, but never has a detailed discussion of its use in far more complex matrices, such as geological samples, been fully addressed. This investigation seeks to serve as a qualitative evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis (CSNAA) and to illustrate the benefits of using Compton suppression with thermal and epithermal neutrons for the analysis of several geological specimens. PMID:19577479

  17. Numerical Verification Of Geotechnical Structure In Unfavourable Geological Conditions – Case Study

    Drusa Marián

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modelling represents a powerful tool not only for special geotechnical calculations in cases of complicated and difficult structure design or their foundation conditions, but also for regular tasks of structure foundation. Finite element method is the most utilized method of numerical modelling. This method was used for calculations of the retaining wall monitored during 5 years after construction. Retaining wall of the parking lot with the facing from gabion blocks was chosen for numerical model. Besides the unfavourable geological conditions, a soft nature of the facing was also a difficult part of the modelling. This paper presents the results of the modelling when exact geometry, material characteristics and construction stages were simulated. The results capture the trend of displacements even though the basic material models were utilized. The modelling proved the ability of the finite element method to model the retaining structure with sufficient accuracy as well as reasonable demand on quality and quantity of input data. This method can then be used as a regular design tool during project preparation.

  18. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology

    H. L. Vacher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over all. Geological research has shifted emphasis over the study period, moving away from economic geology and petroleum geology, towards physics- and chemistry-based topics. The Apollo lunar landings had as much influence on the topics and practice of geological research as the much-cited plate-tectonics revolution. These results reflect the barely-tangible effects of the changes in vocabulary and habit of thought that have pervaded the substance of geology. Geological literature has increased in volume and specialization, resulting in a highly fragmentary literature. However, we infer that "big science," characterized by large amounts of funding, collaboration, and large logistical investments, makes use of this specialization and turns "twigging" into a phenomenon that enhances, rather than inhibits, the enterprise of research.

  19. Structural analysis system THANKS

    The analytical codes THANKS (Three Dimensional Analysis of NIPPON KOKAN Systems) V-1, THANKS V-2, and THANKS V-3 were developed to analyze the structures having complicated configuration, to simulate the actual phenomena including elastoplastic property, creep, large deformation and dynamic behavior, and to analyze thermal and hydraulic characteristics. These codes are supported with the development of pre-processor PRE-THANKS and post-processor POST-THANKS. The special features of this code system are as follows: 1) it is possible to analyze the strength of three dimensional structures having any complex configuration and to calculate the large scale problems with 160,000 freedom, 2) it is possible to treat the broad range of linear and nonlinear problems of both static and dynamic and thermal conduction, 3) the calculating time is shortened, 4) the program consists of modules, therefore the partial improvement is simple, and the addition of new functions is easy, 5) the graphic display utilizing cathode ray tubes (CRT) is available, and 6) the high efficiency and the reduction of labor are planned. The hardwares of THANKS system consist of a computer IBM S370/168, a card reader, magnetic discs, a printer, a graphic display and a plotter, and PRE-THANKS, THANKS V-1 THANKS V-2 THANKS V-3 and POST-THANKS are included in this computer system. PRE-THANKS has the functions such as the input of two and three dimensional mesh configurations, the production of mesh files, and the display with a CRT. POST-THANKS has the function displaying stress contours, stress distribution, change of stress in course of time and deformation on CRT or drawing them utilizing a plotter. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. Analysis of geological condition of uranium mineralization in the Xiangshan northern uranium orefield in central region of Jiangxi Province

    According to the basic conditions of 'source, guide, transportation, storage' for uranium mineralization in strata and different types of geological structure, departure from the condition, the coupling effect of stratigraphy, lithology and structure are studied in the process of uranium mineralization in northern Xiangshan volcanic basin. Studies show that the northern ore field are of good metallogenic geological conditions and the uranium rich ancient land mass and uranium rich magma generated by the melting of deep metamorphic rocks. The main geologic events are volcanic eruptions, accompanied by repeated subvolcanic magma intrusion and strong faults and nappe tectonics which result in volcanic collapse and volcanic ring structures. These ore-forming geological condition control the structural frame for the formation of main uranium deposit type-subvolcanic rocks in northern Xiangshan ore field. (authors)

  1. Systematization of survey and analysis of deep geological environment. Fiscal 2002

    The survey and analysis of geological environment for practical use is studied from the view point of techniques, evaluation and geological environment. On techniques, EDZ (Excavation Disturbed Zone) was evaluated by AE (Acoustic Emission) measurement. The dynamic grouting technique for the improvement of low-permeable rock masses was developed and the grout effect by dynamic injection method was evaluated. The injection mechanism of grout was decided. On evaluation, the radionuclide transport was estimated by the mean, the standard deviation and the skewness of permeability. On the geological environment, the distribution of fissure and generation of micro crack in the rock near fault showed a tendency to distance from the fault. Systematization of following five survey and analysis methods was studied: evaluation of permeability of discontinuous rock in the deep underground, 3-D characteristics of stream in the rock, development of hydraulic test method and its equipment, survey and modeling method of material transport in deep underground, effects of drift on porewater in the different sedimentary rocks and evaluation of outflow of groundwater in river water in Kikuchi platform. (S.Y.)

  2. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of trace lanthanoids in geological and cosmochemical samples

    In order to determine trace lanthanoids in geological and cosmochemical samples, an analytical procedure for radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was developed, where lanthanoids are radiochemically purified through precipitations of hydroxides and fluorides, and cation exchange using HBr as an eluent. Chemical yields are determined by reactivation. The procedure was applied to the Allende meteorite and geological standard rocks. Our data for Allende are in excellent agreement with literature values, and those values for standard rocks, JP-1 (peridotite) and JF-2 (feldspar), in which lanthanoids are depleted by orders of 1 to 2 compared with those in Allende, seem to be reasonable, although not properly evaluated because of large scatterings in their literature data. This suggests that the present RNAA procedure is highly effective in determining trace lanthanoids (less than 1 ng) in rock samples. (orig.)

  3. A fluid pressure and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-06-07

    We present a hydro-mechanical model and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process in greater detail. In order for analytical solutions, the simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the theory of linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. The model was derived through coupling the two parts using the standard linear poroelasticity theory. Analytical solutions for fluid pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario and the solutions for ground deformation were obtained using the method of Green’s function. Solutions predict the temporal and spatial variation of fluid pressure, the effect of permeability and elastic modulus on the fluid pressure, the ground surface uplift, and the radial deformation during the entire injection period.

  4. Determination of Iron and Nickel in Geological Samples by Activation Analysis with Reactor Fast Neutrons

    Threshold reactions induced by reactor fast neutrons are well recognized. The concentration of Fe and Ni were determined in nine geological samples by activation analysis with reactor fast neutrons using the threshold reactions 54Fe( n,p)54Mn and 58Ni ( n, p )'58Co respectively. The fast neutron flux was determined using the reactions 92Mo(n, 2n)92mNb and 95Mo(n,p)95Nb. The determined concentration of Fe and Ni in the samples were checked by determining them in the GSJ JB-1 reference material using the same , ( p, n) reactions. There are a good agreement between the measured and recommended values. The concentrations of Fe were also determined by the ) , ( n, γ) capture reactions in the geological samples and the JB-1 reference material using the Kθ- NAA method. There are good agreements between the determined concentrations from the ) , ( p, n) and the ( γ, n) reactions.

  5. Analysis of granite isotopic geological data and periods of magma-tectonic action in mesozoic in South China

    Based on the analysis of isotopic geological data after 230 Ma in south china, as a whole there is a young tendency from northwest to southeast and it is proved by one trend surface analysis. There is from east to west migration of magma action peak value both stages 165-137 Ma and 112-80 Ma. Which is based on subzone statistic of NE structure. In the stage of 140-110 Ma, magma action peak value is coincident with the rapid subduction of Cora plate-form and volcanic rocks chemical constitution change of southeast coastland, it changes un-clearly with the time. From above all, this area is divide into three ages by the characteristics of magma action

  6. Material Units, Structures/Landforms, and Stratigraphy for the Global Geologic Map of Ganymede (1:15M)

    Patterson, G. Wesley; Head, James W.; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Prockter, Louis M.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.

    2008-01-01

    In the coming year a global geological map of Ganymede will be completed that represents the most recent understanding of the satellite on the basis of Galileo mission results. This contribution builds on important previous accomplishments in the study of Ganymede utilizing Voyager data and incorporates the many new discoveries that were brought about by examination of Galileo data. Material units have been defined, structural landforms have been identified, and an approximate stratigraphy has been determined utilizing a global mosaic of the surface with a nominal resolution of 1 km/pixel assembled by the USGS. This mosaic incorporates the best available Voyager and Galileo regional coverage and high resolution imagery (100-200 m/pixel) of characteristic features and terrain types obtained by the Galileo spacecraft. This map has given us a more complete understanding of: 1) the major geological processes operating on Ganymede, 2) the characteristics of the geological units making up its surface, 3) the stratigraphic relationships of geological units and structures, and 4) the geological history inferred from these relationships. A summary of these efforts is provided here.

  7. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems.

    Smolyar, I; Bromage, T; Wikelski, M

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number". These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number", which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones. PMID:27441261

  8. Investigation on the geological structures obstructing the propagation of seismic waves - Based on physical modeling

    Kim, Jung Yul; Hyun, Hye ja; Kim, Yoo Sung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    In petroleum exploration seismic reflection method is by far the most widely used. The resulting seismogram or seismic trace consists of many wavelets with different strengths and arrival times, due to the wavefront that have traveled different source-to receiver paths. In this sense, the seismic trace may be represented as a convolution of a wavelet with an impulse response denoting the various wavelet amplitudes and arrival times present in the trace. However, the wavelet suffers different attenuations while traveling through the earth layers. For example, the weathered layer (near-surface structure : e.g. valley) affect the propagating seismic wave in ways that cannot be simply modeled, but rather described in terms of an overall time delay and significant distortion of the source wavelet as it travels downward. Of course, the weathered layer will also affect the upgoing wave. Thus, the reflection method does not always lead to a desirable resolution in reflection section, because some specific constraints on the illumination of the deeper reflectors can be often imposed by the near-surface effect. Among other things, the mechanism for attenuation in many types of rocks is not very well understood. The present work is then mostly focussed on studying problems of wave propagation especially dealing with the near-surface structure problem by using physical modeling. An attempt was made to compare the measured data in detail with those from numerical method (ray theory). Besides, various kinds of physical models were additionally built to simulate the complex geological structures comprising wavy layer, coal seam structure, absorbing inhomogeneities, gradient layer that are not simply amenable to theory. Hereby, an attention was given on the reflection and transmission responses. The results illustrated in this work will provide a basis for the future oil exploration in Korea and demonstrate the potential of physical modeling as well. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs., 62

  9. Deep structure study of the salt body of Jbel Rheouis (central tunisia) from geological and gravity data

    Bouzid, Wajih; Abbes, Chedly; Gabtni, Hakim; Hassine, Mouna

    2016-04-01

    Jbel Rheouis situated in south west of Sidi Bouzid, central Tunisia, is a complex structure located at a tectonic node between N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE corridors. It was considered as a diapir containing the most complete series of The Upper Triassic formation in Central Tunisia. The good quality of preserved fossils markers especially at the limestone levels made it possible for Burollet (1952) to propose a lithostratigraphic description of the Rheouis Formation. This stratigraphy was clarified by Soussi and Abbes (2004) basing on new paleontological, palynological and outcrops detailed mapping data. Thus, they assigned the base of this outcrops series to Carnian and its top to Rhaetian. Using these geological and lithostratigraphic data we suspects that the base of the Rheouis formation formed by black limestone can be correlated to the Rehach limestone in the South of Tunisia where this level is laying on a clayey sandstones level identified as the Lower Triassic outcrops. In this concept, this study intend to investigate the Rheouis structure and to identify it's nature basing on the intra salt structures identification and the nature of the Lower Triassic sediments buried beneath the Black limestones, using a combination of geological, lithostratigraphic and geophysical (gravity) data. The gravity data used in this work were obtained from the ONM with a mesh of 1Km /1Km. All the data were merged and reduced using the 1967 International gravity formula. Free air and Bouguer gravity correction were made using sea level as a datum and 2.4 g/cm³ as a reduction density. The Bouguer anomaly map shows a variation in anomaly values range from -12.5 mGal to -4.5 mGal with a contrasted anomaly distribution. This map present 5 gravity maxima and 4 gravity minima where the major direction of those maxima and minima are N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE. The presence of a relative positive anomaly concentrated J.Rheouis can be explained by a mass excess probably due to the uplift of the

  10. Yucca Mountain thermal response: An evaluation of the effects of modeled geologic structure and thermal property descriptions

    To assess the influence of mountain-scale thermal property model variations on predicted host-rock thermal response, a series of heat conduction calculations were run using a representative two-dimensional cross section of Yucca Mountain. The effects of modeled geologic structure were evaluated through comparisons of results from a single-material, homogeneous model with those from a uniformly layered model, a discontinuous sloping-layered model, and a geo-statistical realization of thermal properties. Comparisons indicate that assumed geologic structure can result in up to a 24 degrees C difference in predicted temperature response. Further, thermal simulations of the method used to analyze geostatistical realizations of thermal properties shows promise as an efficient means of capturing geologic structure without the complexities of intricate finite element meshing. The functional representation of two thermal property models were also investigated. The first examines the effect of using a weighting scheme to define properties for a single, homogenous material model. The second investigates the impact of thermal property temperature dependence on predicted response. As with the investigation of geologic structure, noticeable differences in predicted temperatures (up to 29 degrees C) were found to result

  11. How Students and Field Geologists Reason in Integrating Spatial Observations from Outcrops to Visualize a 3-D Geological Structure

    Kastens, Kim A.; Agrawal, Shruti; Liben, Lynn S.

    2009-01-01

    Geologists and undergraduate students observed eight artificial "rock outcrops" in a realistically scaled field area, and then tried to envision a geological structure that might plausibly be formed by the layered rocks in the set of outcrops. Students were videotaped as they selected which of fourteen 3-D models they thought best represented the…

  12. Google Earth Mapping Exercises for Structural Geology Students--A Promising Intervention for Improving Penetrative Visualization Ability

    Giorgis, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional thinking skills are extremely useful for geoscientists, and at the undergraduate level, these skills are often emphasized in structural geology courses. Google Earth is a powerful tool for visualizing the three-dimensional nature of data collected on the surface of Earth. The results of a 5 y pre- and posttest study of the…

  13. Analysis by neutronic activation of samples of a geologic formation of Cuba

    The analysis by neutronic activation (AAN) is an analytical non destructive technique of high accuracy and sensibility. These advantages are very utilized in the determination of geological multielemental samples. In the job 22 elements are determined in 9 geological samples pertaining to the complex of dams of acid composition that includes the graphitic micaceous schist and the quartzites of the Canada Formation, developed fundamentally in the fasteners of the anticlinal Victoria (Yac. of Wolframio Lela, Island of the Youth, Cuba) The results obtained are of great importance for the evaluation of the potentiality of these rocks as fountains or of uranium adjusting and for the geologic prognostic of the region in study. The irradiation of the samples was carried out during three campaigns, in two occasions (October 1992 and November 1994) in the reactor of investigations of the ININ of Mexico, with a flow of thermic neutrons of 10a the 13 n.s-1 cm-2 and in an occasion in the nuclear reactor of the CAB (september 1994), with a flow of thermic neutrons of 6x 10 to the 12 n.s-1. The results were processed with the program ACTAM in the CEADEN. (S. Grainger)

  14. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    2015-01-01

    20150599Chen Gang(Nanjing Center,China Geological Survey,Nanjing 210016,China);Yao Zhongyou Mineral Database Construction and Analysis of Oceania Region(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,33(2),2014,p.164-171,13illus.,6refs.)Key words:mineral localities,data bases Based on the database of the standards,construction process,data quality control measures and methods and processes,the authors constructed the databases of Fe,Mn,Cu,Al,Au,Ni,U and REE mineral resources for Oceanian region.Through a comprehensive analysis of the multi-source data information of geology and mineral resources,

  15. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141768 An Shaopeng(Institute of Rock and Soil Mechannics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Wuhan 430071,China);Wei Lide Experimental Study on Mechanical Behavior of Xigeda Formation Siltstone and Structure Interface(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,21(5),2013,p.702-708,9illus.,1 table,16 refs.)

  16. Thermo-mechanical sensitivity analysis of repository design parameters using Korean geological conditions

    Extensive sensitivity analysis had been carried out for the seven design parameters, which can influence on the thermal-mechanical coupling behavior because of the stress in deep underground as well as the heat from the high-level radioactive waste. In this study, the three-dimensional commercial code, FLAC3D, was used for analyzing the sensitivity of the design parameters, which are related to disposal tunnel and deposition hole, on the temperature, stress, and displacement. The geological data measured at the two drilling sites, Yusung and Kosung, were used in the modelings. From the modelings, it was possible to investigate the thermal-mechanical coupling behavior of the deep underground repository under Korean geological conditions. Fractional factorial design was utilized for effective experimental design for the sensitivity analysis. Different techniques of sensitivity analysis were applied for the modeling results. From the analysis, it was possible to conclude that the deposition hole spacing is the most important parameter on the thermal-mechanical coupling behavior

  17. Structural Geology and Tectonics in Marine Science:Perspectives in the Research of Deep Sea and Deep Interior

    LI Sanzhong; YU Shan; JIN Chong; SUO Yanhui; M.Santosh; DAI Liming; LIU Xin; MA Yun; WANG Xiaofei; ZHANG Bingkun

    2012-01-01

    The fields of structural geology and tectonics have witnessed great progress over the last decade and are poised for further expansion in the future.One of the significant breakthroughs is the establishment of the ‘Beyond Plate Tectonics Theory’where a combination of conceptual models and numerical modeling on plume tectonics and plate tectonics has enabled new insights into the structural and tectonic architecture and processes in the deep interior and deep sea.This paper Synthesizes developments of structural geology and tectonics from a macroscopic perspective in deep interior and deep sea.Four key techniques are also reviewed:satellite altimetry for surface structures in deep-sea multi-beam sea-floor mapping;tomography for tectonics of the deep interior;diverse modeling approaches and software for unfolding dynamic evolution;and techniques for HT/HP experiments on material rheology and in situ component measurements.

  18. INFLUENCE OF FEATURES OF ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES ON PROBLEMS OF RESEARCHES AT ARRANGEMENT OF OIL AND GAS FIELDS

    Luybimova T. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of development of oil-extracting branch of the Krasnodar region are connected with continuation of prospecting works and search drilling in a zone of transit of the Kuban River and water areas of the Black and Azov seas. In the existing normative documents about technical researches we didn't find reflection of the rule of works on platforms of capital construction of wells on the earth and in transitional conditions. The technique of studying of engineering-geological features of territories of oil and gas fields is offered. Regional and zone factors of engineering-geological conditions of oil and gas fields are established. Engineering-geological structures are allocated. Additional types of technical researches are defined

  19. Geological structure of the offshore Sumatra forearc region estimated from high-resolution MCS reflection survey

    Misawa, Ayanori; Hirata, Kenji; Seeber, Leonard; Arai, Kohsaku; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Rahardiawan, Riza; Udrekh; Fujiwara, Toshiya; Kinoshita, Masataka; Baba, Hisatoshi; Kameo, Katsura; Adachi, Keita; Sarukawa, Hiroshi; Tokuyama, Hidekazu; Permana, Haryadi; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S.; Ashi, Juichiro

    2014-01-01

    To investigate detailed fault distributions and shallow geological structure offshore northwestern Sumatra, we obtained high-resolution Multi-Channel Seismic (MCS) reflection data around the Sunda Trench, trench slope, and forearc high regions offshore northwestern Sumatra. In general, trench-parallel anticlinal ridges are distributed from trench slope region to forearc high region. Two kinds of different vergence systems are characterized in the Sumatra forearc region; landward vergence is dominant in the lower trench slope region, and seaward vergence is dominant in the forearc high region. Moreover, piggyback or slope basins are recognized between anticlinal ridges. Deformation in the uppermost part of these basins, that is referred to ‘recent’ deformation in this paper, can be identified not only along major thrusts but also between major thrusts and the lower trench slope, suggesting these are related to recently active faulting. Several but the largest number of such deformation are distributed along a major thrust located in the middle of the forearc high region, whereas few are done along other major thrusts.

  20. Nondestructive analysis of individual fluid inclusion based on SRXRF and its application in oil geology

    The experimental device and methods of nondestructive analysis on individual fluid inclusion by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microprobe are described. With the standard sample NIST612 as reference, the detection limits of some elements are calculated and the typical organic inclusion taken from the western basin of China which contain oil gas are analyzed nondestructively. The semi-quantitative detection results of K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ge, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Pb etc. are given, and the application of the results on oil geology is discussed

  1. Structures and their analysis

    Fuchs, Maurice Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Addressing structures, this book presents a classic discipline in a modern setting by combining illustrated examples with insights into the solutions. It is the fruit of the author’s many years of teaching the subject and of just as many years of research into the design of optimal structures. Although intended for an advanced level of instruction it has an undergraduate course at its core. Further, the book was written with the advantage of having massive computer power in the background, an aspect which changes the entire approach to many engineering disciplines and in particular to structures. This paradigm shift has dislodged the force (flexibility) method from its former prominence and paved the way for the displacement (stiffness) method, despite the multitude of linear equations it spawns. In this book, however, both methods are taught: the force method offers a perfect vehicle for understanding structural behavior, bearing in mind that it is the displacement method which does the heavy number crunch...

  2. Experimental performance evaluation of a compton suppression system by an analysis of geological reference materials

    Compton scattering is one of major sources inducing a high background when a gamma ray spectrum is acquired from a radioactive sample. The high background spectrum deteriorates the detection sensitivity for an analysis of the nuclide of interest. To improve the detection sensitivity by the reduction of the spectrum background, a Compton suppression system (CSS) applying an anti coincidence mode was developed and has been used for a neutron activation analysis. A Compton suppression system (CSS) was implemented for an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at an NAA laboratory of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 2009. The CSS consists of a high purity Ge (HPGe) detector and bismuth germinate (BGO) with electronic modules. An evaluation of the performance of the CSS was carried out based on the measurement of the gamma ray emitting source and the detectable nuclides created thorough neutron activation of biological reference materials. This study was executed to evaluate the performance of the CSS for geological standard reference materials (SRMs). Four geological SRMs produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA were selected and irradiated using an NAA 1 irradiation hole at HANARO. Gamma ray spectra with normal mode and anti coincidence mode were acquired at the same time, and advantage factors of CSS for each nuclide detected were calculated on the basis of the signal to noise ratio

  3. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  4. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091163 Jiang Huichao(Tongji University College of Ocean and Earth Science,Shanghai 200092,China);Xiao Yongjun Analysis of Cenozoic Subsurface Temperatures of the Jiyang Depression,Shandong Province(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11- 1167/P,35(2),2008,p.273-278,3 illus.,2 tables,15 refs.)

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082275 He Longqing(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Yichang 443003,China);Ji Wei Ore-Controlling Effect of Nappe Structure in the East Ore Zone of the Baiyangping Area,Lanping Basin,Yunnan Province(Journal of Geome- ehanics,ISSN1006—6616,CN11—3672/P, 13(2),2007,p.110—118,6 illus.,2 tables,28 refs.) Key words:nappes,structural controls, Yunnan Province

  6. Structural geology and sedimentology of the Sermat Quartzites, Strandja Massif, NW Turkey

    Yazıcı, Müge; Natal'in, Boris A.

    2015-04-01

    prevented the preservation of sedimentary structures such as flute casts and cross-beddings, which can be used to determine the sedimentary environments of the Şermat Basin. Nevertheless, all available relicts indicate the transportation of sediments from a source area in the south. If the Şermat Quartzites is Ordovician age, they can be correlated with the Ordovician rocks of the Istanbul Zone, which is interpreted as a south-facing passive continental margin. Sedimentological framework of the Şermat Quartzites contradicts this correlation. Further studies of the region are necessary in order to determine the connection between the Strandja Massif and the Istanbul Zone. Keywords: Hercynian orogeny, Cimmerides, Strandja Massif, İstanbul Zone, Sedimentary Basin, Turkey References Çağlayan, M. A. & Yurtsever, A., 1998, Geological map of Turkey at 1:100000 scale, no. 20, 21, 22, 23, Burgaz-A3, Edirne-B2 and -B3, Burgaz A4, and Kırklareli-B4-B5-B6 and -C6 sheets, Mineral Research and Exploration Institute (MTA) of Turkey publications (in Turkish with English abstract). Natal'in, B., Sunal, G., Zhiqing, Y. & Gün, E., 2012a, Late Paleozoic subduction-accretion orogeny in the eastern part of the Turkish Strandja Massif (Vize - Kıyıköy region), in Kocbay, A., Esat, K., and Hasancebi, N., eds., 65th Geological Congress of Turkey. Abstracts Book: Ankara, Chamber of Geological Engineers, p. 454-455 Natal'in, B., Sunal, G., Satır, M. & Toraman, E., 2012, Tectonics of the Strandja Massif, NW Turkey: History of a Long-Lived Arc at the Northern Margin of Palaeo-Tethys: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 21, p. 755-798.

  7. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140332 Jiang Lin(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing100871,China);Ji Jianqing Geologic Analysis on the Prospects of the Enhanced Geothermal System(EGS)in the Bohaiwan Basin(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,49(1),2013,p.167-178,5illus.,4tables,41refs.)Key words:geothermal systems,Bohaiwan Basin Great amounts of thermal energy is stored ubiquitously in rocks with high tempera-

  8. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122384 Ma Xiaohong ( Institute of Geo-Analysis of Anhui Province,Hefei 230001,China ) Geological Features of the Mingshan Intrusion in the Tongling Mining Camp and Ore-Prospecting Outlook ( Geology of Anhui,ISSN1005-6157,CN34-1111 / P,21 ( 4 ), 2011,p.247-251,4illus.,3tables,7refs. ) Key words:mineral prospecting and explora-tion,Anhui Province The Mingshan quartz monzodiorote in the Tongling mining camp is ore-prospecting " window " in Early Paleozoic

  9. Simulations of Fracture and Fragmentation of Geologic Materials using Combined FEM/DEM/SPH Analysis

    Morris, J P; Johnson, S M

    2007-04-05

    An overview of the Lawrence Discrete Element Code (LDEC) is presented, and results from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geologic materials using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC) are detailed. LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses using large numbers of polyhedral blocks. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model this class of problems, LDEC now includes implementations of Cosserat point theory and cohesive elements. This approach directly simulates the transition from continuum to discontinuum behavior, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture within a combined finite element/discrete element framework. In addition, a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) capability has been incorporated into LDEC, permitting the simulation of fluid-structure interaction. We will present results from a study of detonation-induced fracture and fragmentation of geologic media surrounding a tunnel using LDEC.

  10. Simulations of Fracture and Fragmentation of Geologic Materials using Combined FEM/DEM Analysis

    Morris, J P; Rubin, M B; Block, G I; Bonner, M P

    2005-05-26

    Results are presented from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geological media using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC). LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses with large numbers of intact polyhedral blocks. However, underground structures in jointed rock subjected to explosive loading can fail due to both rock motion along preexisting interfaces and fracture of the intact rock mass itself. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model these types of problems, we have implemented Cosserat point theory and cohesive element formulations into the current version of LDEC, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture and combined finite element/discrete element simulations. Results of a large-scale LLNL simulation of an explosive shock wave impacting an elaborate underground facility are also discussed. It is confirmed that persistent joints lead to an underestimation of the impact energy needed to fill the tunnel systems with rubble. Non-persistent joint patterns, which are typical of real geologies, inhibit shear within the surrounding rock mass and significantly increase the load required to collapse a tunnel.

  11. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical vol...

  12. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity m...

  13. Application of PALSAR-2 remote sensing data for structural geology and topographic mapping in Kelantan river basin, Malaysia

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2016-06-01

    Natural hazards of geological origin are one of major problem during heavy monsoons rainfall in Kelantan state, peninsular Malaysia. Several landslides occur in this region are obviously connected to geological and topographical features, every year. Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are particularly applicable for detection of geological structural and topographical features in tropical conditions. In this study, Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-2), remote sensing data were used to identify high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslide in the Kelantan river basin. Adaptive Local Sigma filter was selected and applied to accomplish speckle reduction and preserving both edges and features in PALSAR-2 fine mode observation images. Different polarization images were integrated to enhance geological structures. Additionally, directional filters were applied to the PALSAR-2 Local Sigma resultant image for edge enhancement and detailed identification of linear features. Several faults, drainage patterns and lithological contact layers were identified at regional scale. In order to assess the results, fieldwork and GPS survey were conducted in the landslide affected zones in the Kelantan river basin. Results demonstrate the most of the landslides were associated with N-S, NNW-SSE and NE-SW trending faults, angulate drainage pattern and metamorphic and Quaternary units. Consequently, geologic structural map were produced for Kelantan river basin using recent PALSAR-2 data, which could be broadly applicable for landslide hazard assessment and delineation of high potential risk and susceptible areas. Landslide mitigation programmes could be conducted in the landslide recurrence regions for reducing catastrophes leading to economic losses and death.

  14. Geology, structure and age of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area, North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Greco, Gerson A.; González, Pablo D.; González, Santiago N.; Sato, Ana M.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei; Varela, Ricardo; Llambías, Eduardo J.

    2015-10-01

    The low-grade Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area (40°50‧S-65°53‧W) shows ultramafic to felsic metaigneous rocks forming a sill swarm intercalated in the metasedimentary sequence and a polyphase deformation which permit an integrated study of the magmatic and tectonometamorphic evolution of this geological unit. In this paper we present a geological characterization of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area combining mapping, structural and metamorphic analysis with a SHRIMP U-Pb age and geochemical data from the metaigneous rocks. The metasedimentary sequence consists of alternating metagreywackes and phyllites, and minor metasandstones and granule metaconglomerates. The sills are pre-kinematic intrusions and yielded one SHRIMP U-Pb, zircon crystallization age of 513.6 ± 3.3 Ma. Their injection occurred after consolidation of the sedimentary sequence. A syn-sedimentary volcanic activity is interpreted by a metaandesite lava flow interlayered in the metasedimentary sequence. Sedimentary and igneous protoliths of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation would have been formed in a continental margin basin associated with active magmatic arc during the Cambrian Epoch 2. Two main low-grade tectonometamorphic events affected the Nahuel Niyeu Formation, one during the Cambrian Epoch 2-Early Ordovician and the other probably in the late Permian at ˜260 Ma. Local late folds could belong to the final stages of the late Permian deformation or be even younger. In a regional context, the Nahuel Niyeu and El Jagüelito formations and Mina Gonzalito Complex show a comparable Cambrian-Ordovician evolution related to the Terra Australis Orogen in the south Gondwana margin. This evolution is also coeval with the late and early stages of the Pampean and Famatinian orogenies of Central Argentina, respectively. The late Permian event recorded in the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in Aguada Cecilio area is identified by comparable structures affecting the Mina Gonzalito

  15. Destination: Geology?

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    to the Canary Islands and Japan. The Great Britain Sasakawa Foundation, provided additional funding to support the recent visit to Japan, which enabled visits to Mount Fuji as well as investigating structural geology in Kobe and Tokyo. "The opportunity to visit Japan really broadened my understanding of geology and sharing that experience with fellow students helped me to reinforce my knowledge of the subject." Jack, geology student, Age 18.

  16. Strategies for Mars remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of sulfur in geological samples

    The key to understanding the sulfur history on Mars is to identify and determine sulfate and sulfide compositions and then to draw from them geologic clues about their environments of formation. To lay a foundation for use of remote LIBS to sulfur analysis in planetary exploration, we have undertaken a focused study of sulfur LIBS in geological samples in a simulated Mars atmosphere, with experimental parameters replicating the ChemCam LIBS instrument. A suite of twelve samples was selected, including rocks rich in minerals representative of sulfates and sulfides that might be encountered on Mars. Univariate analysis of sulfur emission lines did not provide quantitative information. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was successful at modeling sulfur concentrations for a subset of samples with similar matrices. Sulfide minerals were identified on the basis of other siderophile or chalcophile peaks, such as those arising from Zn and Cu. Because the S lines are very weak compared to those of other elements, optimal PLS results were obtained by restricting the wavelength range to channels close to the most intense sulfur lines ∼ 540-570 nm. Principal components analysis was attempted on the dataset, but did not differentiate the samples into meaningful groups because the sulfur lines are not strong enough. However, areas of the relatively weak S, H, and O peaks may be used to correctly classify all samples. Based on these outcomes, a flowchart that outlines a possible decision tree for identification and quantification of sulfur in remote LIBS analysis was constructed. Results suggest that LIBS data acquired under Mars conditions can meet the science requirements for the ChemCam instrument.

  17. Strategies for Mars remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of sulfur in geological samples

    Dyar, M. Darby, E-mail: mdyar@mtholyoke.edu [Department of Astronomy, Mount Holyoke College, 50 College St., South Hadley, MA 01075 (United States); Tucker, Jonathan M., E-mail: jtucker@mtholyoke.edu [Department of Astronomy, Mount Holyoke College, 50 College St., South Hadley, MA 01075 (United States); Humphries, Seth, E-mail: sethdh@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Clegg, Samuel M., E-mail: sclegg@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wiens, Roger C., E-mail: rwiens@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lane, Melissa D., E-mail: lane@psi.edu [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Ft. Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The key to understanding the sulfur history on Mars is to identify and determine sulfate and sulfide compositions and then to draw from them geologic clues about their environments of formation. To lay a foundation for use of remote LIBS to sulfur analysis in planetary exploration, we have undertaken a focused study of sulfur LIBS in geological samples in a simulated Mars atmosphere, with experimental parameters replicating the ChemCam LIBS instrument. A suite of twelve samples was selected, including rocks rich in minerals representative of sulfates and sulfides that might be encountered on Mars. Univariate analysis of sulfur emission lines did not provide quantitative information. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was successful at modeling sulfur concentrations for a subset of samples with similar matrices. Sulfide minerals were identified on the basis of other siderophile or chalcophile peaks, such as those arising from Zn and Cu. Because the S lines are very weak compared to those of other elements, optimal PLS results were obtained by restricting the wavelength range to channels close to the most intense sulfur lines {approx} 540-570 nm. Principal components analysis was attempted on the dataset, but did not differentiate the samples into meaningful groups because the sulfur lines are not strong enough. However, areas of the relatively weak S, H, and O peaks may be used to correctly classify all samples. Based on these outcomes, a flowchart that outlines a possible decision tree for identification and quantification of sulfur in remote LIBS analysis was constructed. Results suggest that LIBS data acquired under Mars conditions can meet the science requirements for the ChemCam instrument.

  18. Release consequence analysis for a hypothetical geologic radioactive waste repository in salt

    One subtask conducted under the INFCE program is to evaluate and compare the health and safety impacts of different fuel cycles in which all radioactive wastes (except those from mining and milling) are placed in a geologic repository in salt. To achieve this objective, INFCE Working Group 7 examined the radiologic dose to humans from geologic repositories containing waste arisings as defined for seven reference fuel cycles. This report examines the release consequences for a generic waste repository in bedded salt. The top of the salt formation and the top of the repository are assumed to be 250 and 600 m, respectively, below the surface. The hydrogeologic structure above the salt consists of two aquifers and two aquitards. The aquifers connect to a river 6.2 km from the repository. The regional gradient to the river is 1 m/km in all aquifers. Hydrologic, transport, and dose models were used to model two release scenarios for each fuel cycle, one without a major disturbance and one in which a major geologic perturbation breached the repository immediately after it was sealed. The purpose of the modeling was to predict the rate of transport of radioactive contaminants from the repository through the geosphere to the biosphere, and to determine the potential dose to humans. Of the many radionuclides in the waste, only 129I and 226Ra arrived at the river in sufficient concentrations for a measurable dose calculation. Radionuclide concentrations in the ground water pose no threat to man because the ground water is a concentrated brine and it is diluted by a factor of 106 to 107 upon entering the river

  19. The geological structure and gas presence of the southeastern part of the Mrakovskiy depression

    Barykin, I.V.; Chistilin, G.M.; Kamaletdinov, R.A.; Shelenin, A.Sh.

    1983-01-01

    The tectonic structure of the gas promising territory of the Mrakovskiy depresion combined under the name of the Saratov Berkutovskiy gas bearing zone, which can be traced for a distance of up to 120 kilometers, is examined. Analysis of the materials shows the qualitative correspondence of the structural planes of the marking levels of the Carboniferous and the lower Permian inside the allochthonous and autochthonous complexes. The effect of barite on the productive levels, the basic types of collectors and the required complex of oil field and geophysical studies is examined.

  20. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Asakawa, S.; Ikuma, T.; Tanifuji, R. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. SG2PS (structural geology to postscript converter) - A graphical solution for brittle structural data evaluation and paleostress calculation

    Sasvári, Ágoston; Baharev, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to create an open source cross platform application to process brittle structural geological data with seven paleostress inversion algorithms published by different authors and formerly not available within a single desktop application. The tool facilitates separate processing and plotting of different localities, data types and user made groups, using the same single input file. Simplified data input is supported, requiring as small amount of data as possible. Data rotation to correct for bedding tilting, rotation with paleomagnetic declination and k-means clustering are available. RUP and ANG stress estimators calculation and visualization, resolved shear direction display and Mohr circle stress visualization are available. RGB-colored vector graphical outputs are automatically generated in Encapsulated PostScript and Portable Document Format. Stereographical displays on great circle or pole point plot, equal area or equal angle net and upper or lower hemisphere projections are implemented. Rose plots displaying dip direction or strike, with dip angle distribution of the input data set are available. This tool is ideal for preliminary data interpretation on the field (quick processing and visualization in seconds); the implemented methods can be regularly used in the daily academic and industrial work as well. The authors' goal was to create an open source and self-contained desktop application that does not require any additional third party framework (such as .NET) or the Java Virtual Machine. The software has a clear and highly modular structure enabling good code portability, easy maintainability, reusability and extensibility. A Windows installer is publicly available and the program is also fully functional on Linux. The Mac OS X port should be feasible with minimal effort. The install file with test and demo data sets, detailed manual, and links to the GitHub repositories are available on the regularly updated website www.sg2ps.eu.

  2. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: safety analysis of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: granite. Tome analyse de surete du stockage geologique

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the safety aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - safety approach: context and general goal, references, design approach by safety functions, safety approach during the construction-exploitation-observation-closure phase, safety analysis during the post-closure phase; 2 - general description: HLLL wastes, granitic environment, general structure of the architecture of a disposal facility; 3 - safety functions and disposal design: general context, safety functions of the long-term disposal, design dispositions retained to answer the functions; 4 - operational safety: people's protection, radiological risks during exploitation, risk analysis in accident situation; 5 - qualitative safety analysis: methodology, main results of the analysis of the features, events and processes (FEP) database; 6 - disposal efficiency evaluation during post-closure phase: calculation models, calculation tools used for the modeling of radionuclides transport, calculation results and main lessons. (J.S.)

  3. Neural network analysis for geological interpretation of tomographic images beneath the Japan Islands

    Kuwatani, T.; Toriumi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Recent advances in methodologies of geophysical observations, such as seismic tomography, seismic reflection method and geomagnetic method, provide us a large amount and a wide variety of data for physical properties of a crust and upper mantle (e.g. Matsubara et al. (2008)). However, it has still been difficult to specify a rock type and its physical conditions, mainly because (1) available data usually have a lot of error and uncertainty, and (2) physical properties of rocks are greatly affected by fluid and microstructures. The objective interpretation and quantitative evaluation for lithology and fluid-related structure require the statistical analyses of integrated geophysical and geological data. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) are unsupervised artificial neural networks that map the input space into clusters in a topological form whose organization is related to trends in the input data (Kohonen 2001). SOMs are powerful neural network techniques to classify and interpret multiattribute data sets. Results of SOM classifications can be represented as 2D images, called feature maps which illustrate the complexity and interrelationships among input data sets. Recently, some works have used SOM in order to interpret multidimensional, non-linear, and highly noised geophysical data for purposes of geological prediction (e.g. Klose 2006; Tselentis et al. 2007; Bauer et al. 2008). This paper describes the application of SOM to the 3D velocity structure beneath the whole Japan islands (e.g. Matsubara et al. 2008). From the obtained feature maps, we can specify the lithology and qualitatively evaluate the effect of fluid-related structures. Moreover, re-projection of feature maps onto the 3D velocity structures resulted in detailed images of the structures within the plates. The Pacific plate and the Philippine Sea plate subducting beneath the Eurasian plate can be imaged more clearly than the original P- and S-wave velocity structures. In order to understand more precise

  4. Coda-wave interferometry analysis of time-lapse VSP data for monitoring geological carbon sequestration

    Zhou, R.; Huang, L.; Rutledge, J.T.; Fehler, M.; Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.

    2009-11-01

    Injection and movement/saturation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a geological formation will cause changes in seismic velocities. We investigate the capability of coda-wave interferometry technique for estimating CO2-induced seismic velocity changes using time-lapse synthetic vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data and the field VSP datasets acquired for monitoring injected CO2 in a brine aquifer in Texas, USA. Synthetic VSP data are calculated using a finite-difference elastic-wave equation scheme and a layered model based on the elastic Marmousi model. A possible leakage scenario is simulated by introducing seismic velocity changes in a layer above the CO2 injection layer. We find that the leakage can be detected by the detection of a difference in seismograms recorded after the injection compared to those recorded before the injection at an earlier time in the seismogram than would be expected if there was no leakage. The absolute values of estimated mean velocity changes, from both synthetic and field VSP data, increase significantly for receiver positions approaching the top of a CO2 reservoir. Our results from field data suggest that the velocity changes caused by CO2 injection could be more than 10% and are consistent with results from a crosswell tomogram study. This study demonstrates that time-lapse VSP with coda-wave interferometry analysis can reliably and effectively monitor geological carbon sequestration.

  5. Crater Boguslawsky on the moon: Geological structure and an estimate of the degree of rockiness of the floor

    Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Karachevtseva, I. P.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Head, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The paper considers the results of a study of the geological structure of the floor of the crater Boguslawsky selected as a primary target for the Luna-Glob mission. The deplanate floor of the crater is covered by the material ejected from remote craters and the crater Boguslawsky-D on the eastern inner slope of the crater Boguslawsky. It is highly probable that the sampling of the crater Boguslawsky-D ejecta will provide the unique possibility to detect and analyze the material that predates the formation of the largest and most ancient currently known basin on the Moon—the South Pole-Aitken basin. The rockiness degree of the Boguslawsky crater floor has been estimated from the radar data and the manual boulder counts in the superresolution images (0.5 m/pixel obtained with the Narrow Angle Camera from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter). Comparison of the radar data to the results of the photo-geological analysis shows that the main contributor to the radar signal is the rock debris located in the subsurface layer sounded by radar (1-1.5 m), while there are practically no boulders on the surface. The two most rocky regions on the crater Boguslawsky floor are associated with the relatively fresh impact craters 300-400 m in diameter. The spatial density of boulders near the craters suggests that one of them is 30-50 Myr older than the other. For both of these craters, the spatial density of boulders drops with the distance from their rims. The rate of the decrease in the boulder spatial density is the same for both craters, which points to the constant-in-time intensity of the fragmentation of boulders. The size distribution of boulders versus the distance from a rim of the older crater is approximated by the curve with a slope of-0.02, while the curve slope for the younger crater is-0.05. The gentler curve slope for the older crater is obviously connected with the equalization of sizes of the rock debris with time. The size-frequency distribution of all rock

  6. Stereological analysis of spatial structures

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård

    The thesis deals with stereological analysis of spatial structures. One area of focus has been to improve the precision of well-known stereological estimators by including information that is available via automatic image analysis. Furthermore, the thesis presents a stochastic model for star...

  7. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    2015-01-01

    20151782 Ding Zhaoqin(Institute of Geophysical Exploration of Jilin Province,Changchun130012,China);Xu Zhihe The Possibility of Structure and Occurrence Geothermal Resources in Dunhua-Mishan Fault Zone(Huinan Section)(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,33(2),2014,p.98-102,5illus.,1table,4refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,fracture

  8. Analysis of geological condition and prospecting potential of uranium metallogenesis in Maling granite mass

    Based on the study of regional geological evolution of Maling granite mass, uranium content of granite mass and its peripheric strata, petrogeochemistry and the known spatial distribution pattern of uranium mineralization and ore-controlling structures, new recognition is 1) Maling composite mass is the 'S' type re-melted granite, 2) the accumulative area of regional uranium metallogenic substances forms uranium-rich re-melted strata, 3) magma evolution is the matter base for the uranium-rich hydrotherm, 4) NE-trending main faults are channels for metallogenesis and the lateral high-angle dipping faults, fractures and interlayer fractures in the peripheric strata are the spaces of mineralization. The ore intersected by drilling in Maling granite is acidic type. Prospecting potential of Maling granite mass is analyzed, and preferable prospecting space is delineated for further exploration. (authors)

  9. Geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic analysis with reference to selection of site for nuclear power plants: a review

    Geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic analysis play a major role in qualifying a proposed site for establishment of nuclear power plants. In an area, it is important to understand the aspects such as regional and local geology, geomorphology, tectonic settings, presence of active faults/capable faults, earthquake history and earthquake proneness, neotectonic activity, slope instability, subsidence, liquefaction, seismically induced flooding, tsunami and geohydrological conditions. Geological investigations comprise use of remote sensing and ground validation followed by geological mapping, identification of faults, near surface geological studies for foundation conditions, stratigraphic drilling, palaeoseismology, studies on engineering properties of rock and soil. Geophysical investigations provide insight into subsurface geology including concealed faults, elastic constants and hydrological conditions. Radon emanometry is a valuable tool in the initial stage to decipher subsurface active weak zones/fault lines. Seismotectonic analysis identifies the provinces of tectonic significance and their earthquake potential, thereby designating lineaments of consequence leading to their evaluation. This, in turn, determines the design basis earthquake parameter for the estimation of vibratory ground motion. This article provides certain measures to evaluate the suitability of the sites for the establishment of nuclear power plants in terms of geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic status. Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) had carried out seismotectonic analysis of the area around Kaiga, Narora, Kalpakkam, Kakrapar, Tarapur, Kudankulam and Rawatbhata Nuclear Power Projects, which were either in operation or under expansion and construction. Such analysis was extended to a number of proposed sites for establishing nuclear power plants in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh

  10. Overview of the structural geology and tectonics of the Central Basin Platform, Delaware Basin, and Midland Basin, West Texas and New Mexico

    Hoak, T. [Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The structural geology and tectonics of the Permian Basin were investigated using an integrated approach incorporating satellite imagery, aeromagnetics, gravity, seismic, regional subsurface mapping and published literature. The two primary emphases were on: (1) delineating the temporal and spatial evolution of the regional stress state; and (2) calculating the amount of regional shortening or contraction. Secondary objectives included delineation of basement and shallower fault zones, identification of structural style, characterization of fractured zones, analysis of surficial linear features on satellite imagery and their correlation to deeper structures. Gandu Unit, also known as Andector Field at the Ellenburger level and Goldsmith Field at Permian and younger reservoir horizons, is the primary area of interest and lies in the northern part of Ector county. The field trends northwest across the county line into Andrews County. The field(s) are located along an Ellenburger thrust anticline trap on the eastern margin of the Central Basin Platform.